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Sample records for epithelial origin ovarian

  1. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system , largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...ovarian cancer by defined multiple genetic changes in a mouse model system . Cancer Cell 1, 53-62. Quartuccio, S.M., Lantvit, D.D., Bosland, M.C., and

  2. Epithelialization of mouse ovarian tumor cells originating in the fallopian tube stroma

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Choi, Pui-Wah; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Ng, Allen C.; Kuo, Winston P.; Ng, Shu-Kay; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer and is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have suggested that fallopian tube fimbriae can be the origin of cells for high-grade serous subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). A mouse HGSOC model with conditional Dicer-Pten double knockout (Dicer-Pten DKO) developed primary tumors, intriguingly, from the fallopian tube stroma. We examined the growth and epithelial phenotypes of the Dicer-Pten DKO mouse tumor cells contributable by each gene knockout. Unlike human ovarian epithelial cancer cells that expressed full-length E-cadherin, the Dicer-Pten DKO stromal tumor cells expressed cleaved E-cadherin fragments and metalloproteinase 2, a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Although the Dicer-Pten DKO tumor cells lost the expression of mature microRNAs as expected, they showed high levels of tRNA fragment expression and enhanced AKT activation due to the loss of PTEN function. Introduction of a Dicer1-expressing construct into the DKO mouse tumor cells significantly reduced DNA synthesis and the cell growth rate, with concurrent diminished adhesion and ZO1 epithelial staining. Hence, it is likely that the loss of Dicer promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in fallopian tube stromal cells, and in conjunction with Pten loss, further promoted cell proliferation and epithelial-like tumorigenesis. PMID:27602775

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to an epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma: distinctive reactivity with xenografts of the original tumor and a cultured cell line.

    PubMed

    Baumal, R; Law, J; Buick, R N; Kahn, H; Yeger, H; Sheldon, K; Colgan, T; Marks, A

    1986-08-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (8C, 10B, M2A, and M2D) were produced against the human epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, HEY. The affinity constants of binding of the mAb to cultured HEY cells were 8 X 10(8) M-1 (M2D) and 10(9) M-1 (8C and 10B). mAb 8C reacted with a major glycoprotein of Mr 90,000 on the surface of HEY cells. The four mAb differed from previously reported mAb to epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas on the basis of their reactivity with cultured ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines using a cell-binding radioimmunoassay, and their staining of cryostat sections of various human normal and tumor tissues using an immunoperoxidase reaction. All four mAb reacted with s.c. tumors derived by injecting cultured HEY cells into thymectomized CBA/CJ mice. However, only two of the four mAb (8C and 10B) also reacted with s.c. tumors of the original HEY xenograft from which the cultured cell line was derived. In addition, mAb 8C and 10B reacted by immunoperoxidase staining with 2 and 4 different cases, respectively, of 11 epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas examined. Cultured HEY cells were adapted to grow i.p. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice and the i.p. tumors retained their reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. These tumor-bearing mice offer a useful model system for studying the potential of mAb, especially 8C and 10B, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peritoneal extension of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas.

  4. Molecular genetic evidence for unifocal origin of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and for minor clonal divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Abeln, E. C.; Kuipers-Dijkshoorn, N. J.; Berns, E. M.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Fleuren, G. J.; Cornelisse, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    Detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA flow cytometry (FCM) were used to trace the origin of bilateral ovarian cancer from 16 patients. From each tumour the DNA index (DI) and LOH patterns for chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 17, 18, 22 and X were determined with 36 microsatellite markers. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded as well as frozen specimens were used. Flow cytometric cell sorting was used to enrich tumour cells for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-driven LOH analysis. Analysis of the LOH data showed that in 12 of the 16 cases concordance was observed for all informative markers, namely retention of heterozygosity (ROH) or loss of identical alleles in both tumour samples. In four cases discordant LOH patterns were observed. In two cases the discordant LOH was found for one of the chromosomes tested while other LOH patterns clearly indicated a unifocal origin. This suggests limited clonal divergence. In the other two cases all LOH patterns were discordant, most likely indicating an independent origin. The number of chromosomes showing LOH ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison of DNA FCM and the LOH data showed that the latter technique has a higher sensitivity for the detection of a unifocal origin. In 14/16 cases evidence was found for a unifocal origin, while in two cases clonal divergence was found at LOH level and in two other cases clonal divergence at DNA ploidy level. In 12 cases the complete observed allelotype had developed before the formation of metastases, including the two cases showing a large DNA ploidy difference. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7577492

  5. [Frozen-section biopsy in ovarian neoplasm diagnosis: diagnostic correlation according to diameter and weight in tumors of epithelial origin].

    PubMed

    Cuello, M; Galleguillos, G; Zárate, C; Córdova, M; Brañes, J; Chuaqui, R; Wild, R

    1999-10-01

    Adequate management and treatment of ovarian carcinoma requires a complete surgical staging supported by frozen-section examination. To achieve this goal it is necessary a high level of accuracy. To evaluate the accuracy of frozen-sections in ovarian carcinoma considering the influence of tumor diameter and weight. Retrospective study of frozen-sections performed in patients with ovarian tumors who underwent surgery. Frozen- and permanent-sections were divided into three categories (benign, borderline and malignant) and stratified by diameter (< 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm, > 20 cm) and weight (< 700 g, 700 a 1400 g, > 1400 g). The diagnostic correlation, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of each frozen-section diagnosis were determined. Eight hundred forty two ovarian tumors that underwent frozen-sections between January 1988 and October 1998 were studied. Final diagnosis was 86.7% benign, 2.7% low malignant potential (LMP) and 10.6% malignant. The diagnosis correlation between frozen- and permanent-sections was 98.2%. Misdiagnosis was in epithelial ovarian tumors, particularly in LMP tumors. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values and accuracy of the four hundred eighty nine epithelial tumor were 92.6%, 99.2%, 96.7%, 98.2% and 97.9%, respectively. Diagnostic correlation was higher in epithelial ovarian tumors with diameter < 10 cm (98.2% v/s 93.8%) and weight < 700 g (96.9% v/s 88.9%). Diagnostic correlation with permanent-section examination, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of frozen-sections are high in ovarian tumors. Accurate diagnosis at frozen sections of epithelial ovarian tumors with diameter > 10 cm or weight > 700 g (particularly in LMP tumors) is difficult because of the extensive sampling required. Frozen-sections diagnoses are important to determine the type and extent of surgery performed at the initial operation.

  6. Aflibercept in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, John W; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. With improved understanding of angiogenic signaling in both the normal and malignant state, there have been a number of agents developed that target VEGF signaling. These targeted agents can affect downstream VEGF signal transduction via unique mechanisms at different cellular and extracellular locations. The aflibercept, or VEGF-Trap, molecule is the subject of this article. Its molecular structure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and preclinical and early clinical data in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is reviewed. For comparison, other anti-angiogenic agents that have been or are currently being studied in epithelial ovarian carcinoma are also summarized. Finally, the anticipated role of aflibercept in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is also discussed. PMID:19519199

  7. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  8. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  9. Aromatase expression in ovarian epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Cunat, S; Rabenoelina, F; Daurès, J-P; Katsaros, D; Sasano, H; Miller, W R; Maudelonde, T; Pujol, P

    2005-01-01

    Our study focused on aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) expression in ovarian epithelial normal and cancer cells and tissues. Aromatase mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR in ovarian epithelial cancer cell lines, in human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell primary cultures, and in ovarian tissue specimens (n=94), including normal ovaries, ovarian cysts and cancers. Aromatase mRNA was found to be expressed in HOSE cells, in BG1, PEO4 and PEO14, but not in SKOV3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Correlation analysis of aromatase expression was performed according to clinical, histological and biological parameters. Aromatase expression in ovarian tissue specimens was higher in normal ovaries and cysts than in cancers (P<0.0001). Using laser capture microdissection in normal postmenopausal ovaries, aromatase was found to be predominantly expressed in epithelial cells as compared to stromal component. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), aromatase was also detected in the epithelium component. There was an inverse correlation between aromatase and ERalpha expression in ovarian tissues (P<0.001, r=-0.34). In the cancer group, no significant differences in aromatase expression were observed according to tumor histotype, grade, stage and survival. Aromatase activity was evaluated in ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) cell lines by the tritiated water assay and the effects of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on aromatase activity and growth were studied. Letrozole and exemestane were able to completely inhibit aromatase activity in BG1 and PEO14 cell lines. Interestingly, both AI showed an antiproliferative effect on the estrogen responsive BG1 cell line co-expressing aromatase and ERalpha. Aromatase expression was found in ovarian epithelial normal tissues and in some ovarian epithelial cancer cells and tissues. This finding raises the possibility that some tumors may respond to estrogen and provides a basis for ascertaining an antimitogenic

  10. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  11. Ovarian mucinous epithelial neoplasm showing immunohistochemical pattern of lower gastrointestinal origin with stromal minor sex-cord elements: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Taeko; Nakagawa, Hitomi; Hachisuga, Toru

    2014-12-01

    •We report a case of an ovarian mucinous cystadenoma that exhibited extensive sex-cord differentiation.•The ovarian tumor coincided with a uterine endometrial carcinoma.•The immunohistochemical pattern of mucinous epithelium of the ovarian tumor was suggestive of lower gastrointestinal origin.

  12. Secreted ovarian stromal substance inhibits ovarian epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Karlan, B Y; Baldwin, R L; Cirisano, F D; Mamula, P W; Jones, J; Lagasse, L D

    1995-10-01

    Determine the effects of factors secreted by normal human ovarian stroma on the proliferation of benign and malignant ovarian epithelia, in vitro. Primary cultures of normal human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE), human ovarian stromal tissue (HOST), and epithelial ovarian carcinomas (CSOC) were established from surgical specimens and characterized immunohistochemically using anti-cytokeratin, vimentin, and Factor VIII antibodies. Stroma-conditioned media (SCM) were collected over 3 days from confluent HOST cultures. The SCM were dialyzed, lyophilized, resuspended, and added to HOSE, CSOC, SKOV-3, and Caov-3 ovarian cancer cell cultures and growth inhibitory effects were assayed by MTS and [3H]thymidine uptake. SCM inhibited the growth and DNA synthesis of normal HOSE cells and cancer cells by 79-99% in > 10-cell lines studied to date. The inhibitory effect was rapid in onset with 31-82% reduction in DNA synthesis at 1 hr and approximately 50% return of activity by 23 hr following a 1-hr SCM pulse treatment. The SCM inhibitory activity was not abolished by boiling or by absorption with heparin-agarose. Size exclusion filtration places the molecular weight of the inhibitory substance between 1 and 3 kDa. Neither trypsin nor proteinase K treatments altered the inhibitory activity of SCM, while a Bligh-Dyer organic extraction placed the activity in the aqueous phase. A heat-stable, non-heparin-binding, low-molecular-weight, water-soluble substance secreted by normal ovarian stroma significantly inhibits HOSE and ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Derangements in normal ovarian stroma-epithelial interactions may contribute to growth dysregulation of the surface epithelia and result in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  13. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrena Medel, Nicanor I.; Wright, Jason D.; Herzog, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains a major women's health problem due to its high lethality. Despite great efforts to develop effective prevention and early detection strategies, most patients are still diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This pattern of late presentation has resulted in significant challenges in terms of designing effective therapies to achieve long-term cure. One potential promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review examines three of the most provocative targeted therapies with current or future applicability in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:20111741

  14. Therapeutic strategies in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. It appears that the vast majority of what seem to be primary epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinomas is, in fact, secondary from the fimbria, the most distal part of the fallopian tube. Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer is based on the combination of cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy using taxane and platinum. Although clear cell type is categorized in indolent type, it is known to show relatively strong resistance to carboplatin and paclitaxel regimen and thus poor prognosis compared to serous adenocarcinoma, especially in advanced stages. Irinotecan plus cisplatin therapy may effective for the clear cell adenocarcinoma. The larger expectation for improved prognosis in ovarian carcinoma is related to the use of the new biological agents. One of the most investigated and promising molecular targeted drugs in ovarian cancer is bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against VEGF. PARP inhibitor is another one. A few recent studies demonstrated positive results of bevacizumab on progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients, however, investigation of molecular targeting drugs in patients with ovarian cancer are still underway. PMID:22330607

  15. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  16. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    PubMed

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Paclitaxel, Cisplatin, and Topotecan With or Without Filgrastim in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III or Stage IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  18. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  19. Oncogenic pathways implicated in ovarian epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong; Cheng, Jin Q; Coppola, Domenico; Kruk, Patricia A

    2003-08-01

    Characterization of intracellular signaling pathways should lead to a better understanding of ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis and provide an opportunity to interfere with signal transduction targets involved in ovarian tumor cell growth, survival, and progression. Challenges toward such an effort are significant because many of these signals are part of cascades within an intricate and likely redundant intracellular signaling network (Fig.1). For instance, a given signal may activate a dual intracellular pathway (ie, MEK1-MAPK and PI3K/Akt required for fibronectin-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9). A single pathway also may transduce more than one biologic or oncogenic signal (ie, PI3K signaling in epithelial and endothelial cell growth and sprouting of neovessels). Despite these challenges, evidence for therapeutic targeting of signal transduction pathways is accumulating in human cancer. For instance, the EGF-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD 1839 (Iressa) may have a beneficial therapeutic effect on ovarian epithelial cancer. Therapy of this cancer may include inhibitors of PI kinase (quercetin), ezrin and PIP kinase (genistein). The G protein-coupled family of receptors, including LPA, also is an attractive target to drugs, although their frequent pleiotropic functions may be at times toxic and lack specificity. Because of the lack of notable toxicity, PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors such as FTIs are a promising targeted therapy of ovarian epithelial cancer. Increasing insight into the oncogenic pathways involved in ovarian epithelial cancer also is helping clinicians to understand better the phenomenon of chemoresistance in this malignancy. Oncogenic activation of gamma-synuclein promotes cell survival and provides resistance to paclitaxel, but such a resistance is partially overcome by an MEK inhibitor that suppresses ERK activity. Ovarian epithelial cancer is a complex group of neoplasms with an overall poor prognosis. Comprehension of

  20. Cisplatin and Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-06

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  1. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Dietary factors and epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shu, X. O.; Gao, Y. T.; Yuan, J. M.; Ziegler, R. G.; Brinton, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary data from a population-based case-control study of 172 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 172 controls were analysed. A significant (P less than 0.01) dose-response relationship was found between intake of fat from animal sources and risk of ovarian cancer, but plant fat was not associated. Although the effect of animal fat was confounded by education, an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 persisted for those in the upper quartile compared to the lower quartile of consumption (P for trend = 0.03). After adjustment for animal fat intake, calorific and protein intake had minimal effects on risk. Total vegetables were found to be somewhat protective, but the mechanism of action was unclear. Weight, height and relative weight (weight/height2) were not related to risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:2757927

  3. Epithelial ovarian cancer: testing the 'androgens hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Green, Adèle C; Nagle, Christina M; Jordan, Susan J; Whiteman, David C; Bain, Christopher J; Webb, Penelope M

    2008-12-01

    In 1998, Risch proposed a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer relating to the role of androgens in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation. Although this hypothesis has been widely discussed, direct evidence to support it is scant. To address this issue, we have conducted a detailed analysis of factors possibly associated with high circulating levels of androgens, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hirsutism and acne (all clinically associated with hyperandrogenism) using the data collected in an Australia-wide, population-based case-control study. Cases aged 18-79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (n=1276) or borderline malignant tumour (n=315) were identified through a network of clinics and cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1508) were selected from the National Electoral Roll. Women self-reported a history of PCOS, acne, hirsutism and also use of testosterone supplements or the androgenic medication Danazol. We found no evidence that a history of PCOS, acne or hirsutism was associated with ovarian cancer overall, or with specific subtypes, with the exception of serous borderline tumours that were positively associated with a history of PCOS (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0-6.1). Women who had ever used testosterone supplements had an increased risk of ovarian cancer (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.0); however, use of the androgenic medication Danazol did not increase risk (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.4-2.9). Overall, our results do not support the hypothesis that androgen-related disorders increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

  4. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia after ovulation induction: time and dose effects.

    PubMed

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Le Bouëdec, G; Mishellany, F; Dauplat, M M; Jaffeux, P; Aublet-Cuvelier, B; Pouly, J L; Dechelotte, P; Dauplat, J

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was first described after prophylactic oophorectomies for genetic risk. Ovarian stimulation has been considered as a risk factor of ovarian cancer by Fathalla's incessant ovulation theory. In this study, we have investigated the risk of ovarian dysplasia after ovulation induction. We reviewed 99 oophorectomies or cystectomies between 1990 and 2005 divided them into two groups: previous in vitro fertilization (n = 37) and a panel of fertile controls (n = 62). Eleven epithelial cytological and architectural features were defined and an ovarian epithelial dysplasia score was calculated to quantify the degree of ovarian epithelial abnormalities. All the ovaries were macroscopically non-cancerous except in two patients (one endometrioid cancer and one borderline tumour). The mean ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in the ovulation induction group than in the control group (7.64 versus 3.62, P = 0.0002). We also found a relationship between the number of ovulation-inducted cycles and the severity of ovarian dysplasia ('dose-effect') and a relationship between time after the end of ovulation induction (over 7 years) and the severity of ovarian dysplasia ('time-effect'). There is probably a relationship between ovarian epithelial dysplasia and either ovulation inducing drugs or infertility. By Fathalla's incessant ovulation theory, 'the dose effect and the time effect' of ovarian stimulation may explain ovarian dysplasia formation.

  5. Targeted therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sameer; Odunsi, Kunle

    2005-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancies and overall survival for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poor. The majority of patients recur after initial treatment. A strategy for improving outcome is to minimise recurrence via targeted therapy in patients after front-line therapy, or more appropriately as consolidation therapy. EOC represents an attractive target because of the biology of the disease and that the bulk of disease occurs in the peritoneal cavity. To initiate targeted therapy, a candidate target must be identified. Innovative approaches via targeted therapy to control metastatic residual EOC are currently under investigation. The targets are molecules and pathways, on which cancer cells depend to proliferate, invade, metastasise and prevent apoptosis. Potential targeted therapies include: proapoptototic therapy, suicide gene therapy, signal transduction, antiangiogenesis, immunotherapy and cytokine therapy. The utilisation of these targets in the clinic demands carefully conducted, well-coordinated but discovery-oriented translational research in the form of clinical trials that can quickly assess alternative strategies or combination of strategies that could result in clinical benefit. Therefore, targeted therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, especially after complete response to standard regimens, represents a paradigm whose time has come to be nurtured.

  6. Management of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adan; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in women. The overall survival rate at five years is 50% and its treatment is still poor. We need new treatments for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who are incurable with current management. We review the effectiveness of new biological agents and morbidity and mortality of cytoreductive surgery. Since the hyperthermic increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy and the chance of survival, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been proven to be a promising option, however it still requires further study to be the standard treatment. PMID:25207212

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Epithelial Ovarian Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    histological subtype of ovarian cancer and is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The relationship between stage at presentation and survival in serous ...among and within stages of epithelial ovarian cancer , focusing on serous , mucinous and endometrioid subtypes (1-18 Months). a. Collections and...not serous or mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors. Cancer Res 58: 2095-2097, 1998. 7. Aikhionbare FO et al:.: Is cumulative frequency of mitochondrial

  8. Surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2017-05-01

    Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational. In recent years, there has been increasing use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery in patients with poor performance status, which is usually due to large volume ascites and/or large pleural effusions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the post-operative morbidity, but if the tumour responds well to the chemotherapy, the inflammatory response makes the surgery more difficult. Post-operative morbidity is generally tolerable, but increases in older patients, and in those having multiple, aggressive surgical procedures, such as bowel resection or diaphragmatic stripping. Primary cytoreductive surgery should be regarded as the gold standard for most patients until a test is developed which would allow the prediction of platinum resistance pre-operatively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  10. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  11. Epithelial ovarian cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    GAO, JIANYUAN; FANG, HAIYING; WANG, XIAOMING; WU, LIPING; ZHANG, RONGHUAI; HAN, YAJUN

    2014-01-01

    An 82-year-old female was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in May 2004. Following gynecological surgery, pathological evaluation showed stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. From June 2004 to January 2005, the patient received six cycles of conventional treatment combined with intravenous paclitaxel (Taxol®) and cisplatin. The patient developed abdominal distension and experienced a gradual deterioration in health during 2007, with admission to The First Affiliated Hospital in May 2007. The patient presented with severe abdominal distension and breathing difficulty on May 15 and appeared to be in critical condition. Ultrasound examination revealed massive ascites and left-side pleural effusion. Thoracentesis and abdominocentesis were performed, and 300 mg carboplatin was administered intraperitoneally on May 19, followed by a second abdominocentesis on May 21. However, these treatments did not alleviate the symptoms, and 200 mg bevacizumab was administered by intravenous infusion on May 27. The condition of the patient gradually improved and 400 mg bevacizumab was administered by intravenous infusion every two weeks from June 9. From December, the dosage of bevacizumab was reduced to 200 mg every two weeks. In addition, 300 mg carboplatin was administered intraperitoneally on November 4 and intraperitoneal carboplatin chemotherapy was repeated thereafter. The patient exhibited disease-free survival until July 2009, at which time disease progression was observed and the cancer recurred in August 2009. The patient died of multiple organ failure in September 2009. Bevacizumab rapidly eliminated the patient’s massive ascites and pleural effusion, and achieved an effect that was not possible with other treatments. Therefore, bevacizumab is an effective therapy for late-stage relapse and refractory ovarian cancer. PMID:25289055

  12. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-05

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line.

  13. Belinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer or Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  14. Expression and Function of CD44 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Joelle D.; Barbolina, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in women. Here, we review recent reports on the expression and function of CD44 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Further functional data for CD44 in peritoneal adhesion and metastatic progression and its association with stem cells is highlighted. Recent studies utilizing CD44 for therapeutic targeting are also discussed. PMID:26569327

  15. Expression and Function of CD44 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Joelle D; Barbolina, Maria V

    2015-11-11

    CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in women. Here, we review recent reports on the expression and function of CD44 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Further functional data for CD44 in peritoneal adhesion and metastatic progression and its association with stem cells is highlighted. Recent studies utilizing CD44 for therapeutic targeting are also discussed.

  16. Recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hui; Man, Ya-Nan; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicated that the diagnosis season affects the prognosis of some cancers, such as examples in the prostate, colon and breast This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether the diagnosis and recurrent season impacts the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. From January 2005 to August 2010, 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients were analyzed and followed up until August 2013. Kaplan- Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to make the survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent prognostic factors. The prognostic factors of overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients included age, clinical stage, pathological type, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. Moreover, clinical stage, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles also impacted the progression-free survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. The diagnosis season did not have a significantly relationship with the survival of operable epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Median overall survival of patients with recurrent month from April to November was 47 months, which was longer (P < 0.001) than that of patients with recurrence month from December to March (19 months). Median progression-free survival of patients with recurrence month from April to November and December to March was 20 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). The recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. However, the diagnosed season does not appear to exert a significant influence.

  17. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Hormonal aspects of epithelial ovarian cancer: review of epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Riman, T; Persson, I; Nilsson, S

    1998-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is fairly common with high rates in Scandinavia, intermediate rates in western Europe and North America and low rates in the developing countries and in Japan. The 5-year survival rate is less than 40%. Increasing parity consistently gives a strong protection against epithelial ovarian cancer. A lesser degree of protection is probably derived from incomplete pregnancies and lactation. Ages at menarche and menopause are most probably weak predictors of epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Ever users of oral contraceptives (OC) have 30% lower risk compared to never users. The protection increases with duration of OC use, being about 50% after 5 years. The reduced risk among past OC users persists for at least 10 years after cessation of use. Results concerning hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and epithelial ovarian cancer risk are conflicting, but most data point to a weak or no association, but as an increasing number of women use HRT it still seems important to resolve any potential effect. Infertility adds to epithelial ovarian cancer risk in nulliparous women, while temporary fertility problems in parous women do not appear to increase risk. A possible independent risk effect of fertility drug use has not been easy to assess and remains unresolved. It has been particularly difficult to separate the effects of fertility drugs from those of infertility. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy convey protection against epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a suppressed ovarian hormone production. The causes of epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood, but reproductive hormones are thought to be involved in the aetiology. For a long time the 'incessant' and 'gonadotrophin' hypotheses have been promoted in relation to carcinogenesis. Both hypotheses find support in ovarian cancer epidemiology, and recent progress in molecular biology adds to the understanding of possible aetiological mechanisms. Another hypothesis focuses on the retrograde

  20. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  1. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID

  2. Segregation analysis of epithelial ovarian cancer in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Auranen, A.; Iselius, L.

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is known to aggregate in families. The dominantly inherited ovarian cancer predisposing genes, BRCA1, BRCA2 and genes involved in the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome, have recently been identified. However, in the majority of families with more than one case of ovarian cancer, dominant inheritance cannot be recognized. We investigated familial clustering of epithelial ovarian cancer in a population-based sample of 663 Finnish ovarian cancer patients. A segregation analysis with the POINTER software was conducted on the 937 nuclear families from these 663 pedigrees. The major gene model was favoured, and the sporadic and multifactorial models were strongly rejected. In the studied population, the best fitting model was a recessive mode of inheritance, and 8% of ovarian cancer patients were estimated to be homozygous for the deleterious genotype. This evidence for recessively inherited ovarian cancer predisposition should be interpreted cautiously, as the analysis is subject to certain errors, which are discussed in the article. Results of this analysis, however, strongly emphasize the role of genetic factors in all familial aggregation of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:9652774

  3. [Ovarian epithelial dysplasia: Description of a dysplasia scoring scheme].

    PubMed

    Chene, Gautier; Dauplat, Jacques; Raoelfils, Ines; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Cayre, Anne; Jaffeux, Patricia; Aublet-Cuvelier, Bruno; Pomel, Christophe; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique

    2011-02-01

    Precancerous ovarian epithelial dysplasia was first described after prophylactic oophorectomy (OP) for genetic risk (BRCA mutation) or because of a strong family history of ovarian and/or breast cancer. The objective of this study was to describe histopathological features of ovarian dysplasia and to propose a dysplasia scoring sheme with a cut-off. One hundred and twenty-five bilateral oophorectomies (genetic predisposition: n=35 and control group: n=90) were reviewed by two pathologists blinded to clinical data. Eleven epithelial cytological and architectural features were studied and an ovarian dysplasia score was defined to compare the degree of ovarian epithelial abnormalities between the two groups. Mean ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in prophylactic oophorectomy group than in control group (9.0 versus 3.5, P<0.001). Dysplasia was more severe in OP with BRCA mutation than in OP without (11.6 in BRCA 1; 7.6 in BCRA 2; 7.1 in family history). The cut off for dysplasia was 8 with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 93.3%. The increased dysplasia score in OP and the gradation in dysplastic severity in OP with proven BRCA mutations may suggest that ovarian dysplasia could be a pre-malignant non invasive histopathological lesion. The 11 cytological and architectural features in the dysplasia scoring sheme could be a useful tool to study ovarian dysplasia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. EGEN-001 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-11

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  5. Development of a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most cases of ovarian cancer are epithelial in origin and diagnosed at advanced stage when the cancer is widely disseminated in the peritoneal cavity. The objective of this study was to establish an immunocompetent syngeneic mouse model of disseminated epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to facilitate laboratory-based studies of ovarian tumor biology and preclinical therapeutic strategies. Methods Individual lines of TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice were phenotypically characterized and backcrossed to inbred C57BL/6 mice. In addition to a previously described line of EOC-prone mice, two lines (TgMISIIR-TAg-Low) were isolated that express the oncogenic transgene, but have little or no susceptibility to tumor development. Independent murine ovarian carcinoma (MOVCAR) cell lines were established from the ascites of tumor-bearing C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice, characterized and tested for engraftment in the following recipient mice: 1) severe immunocompromised immunodeficient (SCID), 2) wild type C57BL/6, 3) oophorectomized tumor-prone C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and 4) non-tumor prone C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg-Low transgenic. Lastly, MOVCAR cells transduced with a luciferase reporter were implanted in TgMISIIR-TAg-Low mice and in vivo tumor growth monitored by non-invasive optical imaging. Results Engraftment of MOVCAR cells by i.p. injection resulted in the development of disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis in SCID, but not wild type C57BL/6 mice. Oophorectomized tumor-prone TgMISIIR-TAg mice developed peritoneal carcinomas with high frequency, rendering them unsuitable as allograft recipients. Orthotopic or pseudo-orthotopic implantation of MOVCAR cells in TgMISIIR-TAg-Low mice resulted in the development of disseminated peritoneal tumors, frequently accompanied by the production of malignant ascites. Tumors arising in the engrafted mice bore histopathological resemblance to human high-grade serous EOC and exhibited a similar pattern of peritoneal

  6. Identification of Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Genes Involved in Stromal-Epithelial Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    epithelial cross talk. We have now genotyped 2138 samples for 1536 tagging, ns and miRNA binding site SNPs in 174 genes. Following Quality Control...candidate genes highlighted by our analysis of cross talk between fibroblast and epithelial elements of ovarian tumors, as well as a set of tagging SNPs...candidate genes involved in cross talk The original application proposed genotyping of candidate genes based on a series of in vitro experiments

  7. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  9. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

    PubMed

    Chene, Gautier; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tardieu, Anne; Cayre, Anne; Lagarde, Nicole; Jaffeux, Patricia; Aublet-Cuvelier, Bruno; Dechelotte, Pierre; Felloni, Bertrand; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Dauplat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cystectomies according to three groups-an exposed group to ovulation induction (n = 30), an infertile group without stimulation (n = 35), and a spontaneously fertile control group (n = 62)-in order to design an eleven histopathological criteria scoring system. Results. The ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in exposed group whereas dysplasia score was low in infertile and control groups (resp., 8.21 in exposed group, 3.69 for infertile patients, and 3.62 for the controls). In the subgroup with refractory infertility there was a trend towards a more severe dysplasia score (8.53 in ovulation induction group and 5.1 in infertile group). Conclusion. These results raise questions as to the responsibility of drugs used to induce ovulation and/or infertility itself in the genesis of ovarian epithelial dysplasia.

  10. Complex Determinants of Epithelial: Mesenchymal Phenotypic Plasticity in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Yuliya; Kim, Oleg; Stack, M. Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Unlike most epithelial malignancies which metastasize hematogenously, metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) occurs primarily via transcoelomic dissemination, characterized by exfoliation of cells from the primary tumor, avoidance of detachment-induced cell death (anoikis), movement throughout the peritoneal cavity as individual cells and multi-cellular aggregates (MCAs), adhesion to and disruption of the mesothelial lining of the peritoneum, and submesothelial matrix anchoring and proliferation to generate widely disseminated metastases. This exceptional microenvironment is highly permissive for phenotypic plasticity, enabling mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transitions. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on EOC heterogeneity in an EMT context, outline major regulators of EMT in ovarian cancer, address controversies in EMT and EOC chemoresistance, and highlight computational modeling approaches toward understanding EMT/MET in EOC. PMID:28792442

  11. Autonomy of the epithelial phenotype in human ovarian surface epithelium: changes with neoplastic progression and with a family history of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dyck, H G; Hamilton, T C; Godwin, A K; Lynch, H T; Maines-Bandiera, S; Auersperg, N

    1996-12-20

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In culture, OSE undergoes epithelio-mesenchymal conversion, an event mimicking a wound response, while ovarian carcinomas retain complex epithelial characteristics. To define the onset of this increased epithelial autonomy in ovarian neoplastic progression, we examined mesenchymal conversion in OSE from 25 women with no family histories (NFH-OSE) and 13 women with family histories (FH-OSE) of breast/ovarian cancer (including 8 with mutated BRCA1 or 17q linkage) and in 8 ovarian cancer lines. After 3-6 passages in monolayer culture, most NFH-OSE exhibited reduced keratin expression and high collagen type III expression. In contrast, keratin remained high but collagen expression was lower in p. 3-6 FH-OSE. This difference was lost in SV40-transformed lines, which all resembled FH-OSE. Most carcinoma lines remained epithelial and did not undergo mesenchymal conversion. In 3-dimensional (3-D) sponge culture, NFH-OSE cells dispersed and secreted abundant extracellular matrix (ECM). FH-OSE remained epithelial and did not secrete ECM. ECM production was also reduced in SV40-transformed lines. Carcinoma lines in 3-D formed epithelial cysts, aggregates and papillae and lacked ECM. Sponge contraction (a mesenchymal characteristic) was greater in NFH-OSE than in FH-OSE both before and after SV40 transformation and was absent in the cancer lines. Our results suggest that increased autonomy of epithelial characteristics is an early indicator of ovarian neoplastic progression and that phenotypic changes indicative of such autonomy are found already in overtly normal OSE from women with histories of familial breast/ovarian cancer.

  12. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced an intermediate tetraploid cell stage, before evolving to aneuploid (mainly near-tetraploid) cells. Using long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrated that tetraploid cells originally arose from cytokinesis failure of bipolar mitosis in diploid cells, and gave rise to aneuploid cells through chromosome mis-segregation during both bipolar and multipolar mitoses. Injection of the late passage aneuploid MOSECs resulted in tumor formation in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we reveal a pathway for the evolution of diploid to aneuploid MOSECs and elucidate a mechanism for the development of near-tetraploid ovarian cancer cells.

  13. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  14. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Purdie, D M; Bain, C J; Siskind, V; Russell, P; Hacker, N F; Ward, B G; Quinn, M A; Green, A C

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case–control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% Cl 1.54–5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10507786

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Purdie, D M; Bain, C J; Siskind, V; Russell, P; Hacker, N F; Ward, B G; Quinn, M A; Green, A C

    1999-10-01

    It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case-control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours.

  16. Localisation and expression of aquaporin subtypes in epithelial ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Hua; Yu, Yu-Qun; Yan, Chun-xiao

    2011-09-01

    To characterise AQP subtype localisation and expression in epithelial ovarian tumours, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the localisation and expression of AQP1-9 in 30 benign tumour cases, 30 borderline tumour cases, 50 malignant tumour cases and 20 normal ovarian tissue cases. Multiple AQP subtypes were expressed in epithelial ovarian tumours, with each AQP subtype displaying a different pattern of localisation and expression. AQP1 was mainly expressed in the microvascular endothelium, and AQP 2-9 were mainly expressed in tumour cells. Most AQP subtypes co-localised in the basolateral membranes of the epithelia of benign tumours and plasma membranes of malignant tumour cells. The positive rates for AQP1, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were over 50%, but those for AQP2, 3 and 4 were only 10-40%. The expression of AQP1, 5 and 9 in malignant and borderline tumours was significantly higher than that in benign tumours (P<0.05) and normal ovarian tissue (P<0.05). However, AQP6 expression in ovarian malignant and borderline tumours was significantly lower than that in benign tumours (P<0.01) or normal ovarian tissue (P<0.01). AQP1 expression was increased in cases with ascites volumes greater than 1000 mL (P<0.05), AQP5 expression was greater in cases with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), and more AQP9 expression was observed in G3 cases versus G1 and G2 cases (P<0.01). These results suggest that changes in the distribution and expression of AQP subtypes may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. This study presents a novel avenue of research that could illuminate the mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis and treatment.

  17. Epithelial membrane protein 1 expression in ovarian serous tumors.

    PubMed

    Demirag, Guzin Gonullu; Kefeli, Mehmet; Kemal, Yasemin; Yucel, Idris

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the clinical significance of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) expression in ovarian serous tumors. A total of 84 cases of ovarian serous tumor (50 patients with malignant ovarian serous tumors and 34 patients with borderline and benign serous tumors) were retrospectively analyzed. Differences in the expression levels of EMP1 between the malignant and non-malignant tumor groups were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the association between EMP1 expression and prognostic factors in malignant ovarian serous tumors was investigated. The expression levels of EMP1 were significantly reduced in all the 50 malignant ovarian serous tumors, compared with the 34 non-malignant ovarian serous tumors (P<0.000). Reduced expression of EMP1 was correlated with high grade (P=0.009) and stage (P<0.000) of malignant tumors. EMP1 expression was not observed to be correlated with any other investigated parameters, including surgery, type of operation and chemotherapy response (P>0.005). These results indicated that EMP1 may have a significant role as a negative regulator in ovarian serous tumors, and reduced EMP1 expression in serous tumors may be associated with increased disease severity.

  18. Safety assessment of ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation in nude mice bearing human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gen-Hai; Wang, Sheng-Tan; Yang, Zhao-Xin; Cai, Jun-Hong; Chen, Chun-Ying; Yao, Mao-Zhong; Hong, Lan; He, Guo-Li; Yang, Shu-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Nude mice with orthotopic transplantation of human ovarian epithelial cancer were used to investigate screening criteria for paraneoplastic normal ovarian tissue and the security of the freezing and thawing for ovarian tissue transplantation. Expression of CK-7, CA125, P53, survivin, MMP-2/TIMP- 2 in paraneoplastic normal ovarian tissues were detected by RT-PCR as well as immunohistochemistry. The tissues of the groups with all negative indicators of RT-PCR, all negative indicators of immunohistochemistry, negative expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin, positive expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin, cancer tissues and normal ovarian tissues of nude mice were used for freezing and thawing transplantation, to analyze overt and occult carcinogenesis rates after transplantation. When all indicators or the main indicators, CK-7, CA125 and survivin, were negative, tumorigenesis did not occur after transplantation. In addition the occult carcinogenesis rate was lower than in the group with positive expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin (P<0.01). After subcutaneous and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissues, rates did not change (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance among rates after transplantation of ovarian tissues which were obtained under different severity conditions (P>0.05). Negative expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin can be treated as screening criteria for security of ovarian tissues for transplantation. Immunohistochemical methods can be used as the primary detection approach. Both subcutaneous and orthotopic transplantation are safe. The initial severity does not affect the carcinogenesis rate after tissue transplantation. Freezing and thawing ovarian tissue transplantation in nude mice with human epithelial ovarian carcinoma is feasible and safe.

  19. BRCA1 Regulates Follistatin Function in Ovarian Cancer and Human Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sneed, Rosie; Salamanca, Clara; Li, Xin; Xu, Jingwen; Kumar, Deepak; Rosen, Eliot M.; Saha, Tapas

    2012-01-01

    Follistatin (FST), a folliculogenesis regulating protein, is found in relatively high concentrations in female ovarian tissues. FST acts as an antagonist to Activin, which is often elevated in human ovarian carcinoma, and thus may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention against ovarian cancer. The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) is a known tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer; however its role in ovarian cancer is not well understood. We performed microarray analysis on human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3 that stably overexpress wild-type BRCA1 and compared with the corresponding empty vector-transfected clones. We found that stable expression of BRCA1 not only stimulates FST secretion but also simultaneously inhibits Activin expression. To determine the physiological importance of this phenomenon, we further investigated the effect of cellular BRCA1 on the FST secretion in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cells derived from either normal human ovaries or ovaries of an ovarian cancer patient carrying a mutation in BRCA1 gene. Knock-down of BRCA1 in normal IOSE cells demonstrates down-regulation of FST secretion along with the simultaneous up-regulation of Activin expression. Furthermore, knock-down of FST in IOSE cell lines as well as SKOV3 cell line showed significantly reduced cell proliferation and decreased cell migration when compared with the respective controls. Thus, these findings suggest a novel function for BRCA1 as a regulator of FST expression and function in human ovarian cells. PMID:22685544

  20. The detection, treatment, and biology of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is particularly insidious in nature. Its ability to go undetected until late stages coupled with its non-descript signs and symptoms make it the seventh leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Additionally, the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and resistance to widely accepted chemotherapy regimens make ovarian cancer devastating to patients and families and frustrating to medical practitioners and researchers. Here, we provide an in-depth review of the theories describing the origin of ovarian cancer, molecular factors that influence its growth and development, and standard methods for detection and treatment. Special emphasis is focused on interactions between ovarian tumors and the innate and adaptive immune system and attempts that are currently underway to devise novel immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of ovarian tumors. PMID:20350313

  1. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  2. Versican regulates metastasis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells and spheroids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a deadly disease characterized by overt peritoneal metastasis. Individual cells and multicellular aggregates, or spheroids, seed these metastases, both commonly found in ascites. Mechanisms that foster spheroid attachment to the peritoneal tissues preceding formation of secondary lesions are largely unknown. Methods Cell culture models of SKOV-3, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, Caov-3, IGROV-1, and A2780 were used. In this report the role of versican was examined in adhesion of EOC spheroids and cells to peritoneal mesothelial cell monolayers in vitro as well as in formation of peritoneal tumors using an in vivo xenograft mouse model. Results The data demonstrate that versican is instrumental in facilitating cell and spheroid adhesion to the mesothelial cell monolayers, as its reduction with specific shRNAs led to decreased adhesion. Furthermore, spheroids with reduced expression of versican failed to disaggregate to complete monolayers when seeded atop monolayers of peritoneal mesothelial cells. Failure of spheroids lacking versican to disaggregate as efficiently as controls could be attributed to a reduced cell migration that was observed in the absence of versican expression. Importantly, both spheroids and cells with reduced expression of versican demonstrated significantly impaired ability to generate peritoneal tumors when injected intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Conclusions Taken together these data suggest that versican regulates the development of peritoneal metastasis originating from cells and spheroids. PMID:24999371

  3. Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Mixed Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Robertson; Talhouk, Aline; Eshragh, Sima; Lau, Sherman; Cheung, Daphne; Chow, Christine; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda S; Wilkinson, Nafisa; McDermott, Jacqueline; Singh, Naveena; Kommoss, Friedrich; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Kommoss, Stefan; Gilks, C Blake; Anglesio, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer consists of 5 major histotypes: high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), endometrioid carcinoma (EC), clear cell carcinoma (CCC), mucinous carcinoma (MC) and low-grade serous (LGSC). Each can have a broad spectrum of morphological appearances, and one histotype can closely mimic histopathological features more typical of another. Historically, there has been a relatively high frequency of mixed, defined by 2 or more distinct histotypes present based on routine histopathological assessment, histotype carcinoma diagnoses (3–11%), however recent immunohistochemical studies identifying histotype specific markers and allowing more refined histotype diagnoses suggests a much lower incidence. We reviewed hematoxylin and eosin stained slides from 871 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer and found the frequency of mixed carcinomas to be 1.7% when modern diagnostic criteria are applied. Through international collaboration, we established a cohort totaling 22 mixed epithelial ovarian cancers, consisting of 9 EC/CCC, 4 EC/LGSC, 3 HGSC/CCC, 2 CCC/MC and 4 other combinations. We interrogated the molecular differences between the different components of each case using immunohistochemistry, gene expression and hotspot sequencing analyses. Immunohistochemical data alone suggested 9 of the 22 cases were not mixed tumors as they presented a uniform immuno-phenotype throughout, and these cases most probably represent morphological mimicry and variation within tumors of a single histotype. Synthesis of molecular data further reduces the incidence of mixed carcinomas. Based on these results, true mixed carcinomas with both morphological and molecular support for the presence of more than one histotype within a given tumor represent less than 1% of epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID:26099008

  4. Stomatin-like protein 2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and predicts poor patient survival.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Ding, Wen; He, Jie-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Ze-Biao; Li, Yan-Fang

    2015-10-20

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2, also known as STOML2) is a stomatin homologue of uncertain function. SLP-2 overexpression has been suggested to be associated with cancer progression, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes in patients. Our study aim to investigate SLP-2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and its correlation with patient survival. SLP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were analysed in five epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and normal ovarian epithelial cells using real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. SLP-2 expression was investigated in eight matched-pair samples of epithelial ovarian cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues from the same patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the protein expression of paraffin-embedded specimens from 140 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 20 cases with borderline ovarian tumours, 20 cases with benign ovarian tumours, and 20 cases with normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of SLP-2 expression. SLP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly up-regulated in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer tissues compared with normal ovarian epithelial cells and adjacent noncancerous ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the relative overexpression of SLP-2 was detected in 73.6 % (103/140) of the epithelial ovarian cancer specimens, 45.0 % (9/20) of the borderline ovarian specimens, 30.0 % (6/20) of the benign ovarian specimens and none of the normal ovarian specimens. SLP-2 protein expression in epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly correlated with the tumour stage (P < 0.001). Epithelial ovarian cancer patients with higher SLP-2 protein expression levels had shorter progress free survival and overall survival times compared to patients with lower SLP-2 protein expression levels. Multivariate analyses showed that SLP-2 expression levels were an independent

  5. The role of surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cameán, María; Delgado-Sánchez, Elsa; Piñera, Antonio; Diestro, Maria Dolores; De Santiago, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the standard management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is correct surgical staging and optimal tumour cytoreduction followed by platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy. Standard surgical staging consists of peritoneal washings, total hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, inspection of all abdominal organs and the peritoneal surface, biopsies of suspicious areas or randomised biopsies if they are not present, omentectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. After this complete surgical staging, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for ovarian cancer is applied to determine the management and prognosis of the patient. Complete tumour cytoreduction has shown an improvement in survival. There are some criteria to predict cytoreduction outcomes based on serum biomarkers levels, preoperative imaging techniques, and laparoscopic-based scores. Optimised patient selection for primary cytoreduction would determine patients who could benefit from an optimal cytoreduction and might benefit from interval surgery. The administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy after debulking surgery has shown an increase in progression-free survival and overall survival, especially in patients with no residual disease after surgery. It is considered that 3–17% of all epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) occur in young women that have not fulfilled their reproductive desires. In these patients, fertility-sparing surgery is a worthy option in early ovarian cancer. PMID:27594911

  6. Surgical staging of early invasive epithelial ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, E; Querleu, D; Narducci, F; Chauvet, M P; Chevalier, A; Lesoin, A; Vennin, P; Taieb, S

    2000-01-01

    Early stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma is defined pathologically as a tumor strictly limited to one or both ovaries without any extra-ovarian disease (i.e., Stage IA or B of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification). This diagnosis can be obtained only after an exhaustive surgical staging procedure, performed as soon as the diagnosis of epithelial invasive ovarian carcinoma is established. This staging surgery currently encompasses a peritoneal cytology, the thorough inspection of all the visceral and parietal peritoneal surfaces with biopsy of any abnormality, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH + BSO), random peritoneal biopsies, omentectomy, appendectomy and bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomies, up to the left renal vein. The results of this staging procedure and its indications are discussed. In all of the cases, the radical removal of the pathologic adnexa is indicated, along with the complete peritoneal and retroperitoneal staging. While fertility-sparing surgery (avoiding hysterectomy and contralateral adnexectomy, if possible) seems to be safe for young women, a TAH + BSO is the rule for the others. Adjuvant chemotherapy can be omitted in well-differentiated tumors with a negative staging operation, but currently it remains indicated in all other cases. Indeed, the ultimate goal in early stage ovarian carcinoma is to not impair by inadequate management the high chance of a cure. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Olaparib for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Jennifer; Banerjee, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer, overall survival rates remain poor, and there is a pressing need to develop novel therapeutic agents and maintenance strategies to improve outcomes for women with this disease. Olaparib, a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, has demonstrated antitumor activity in women with ovarian cancer, associated with homologous recombination deficiency. This review outlines the rationale for PARP inhibitor therapy in ovarian cancer and summarizes the efficacy and tolerability data for olaparib to date. Ongoing phase III clinical trials of olaparib in ovarian cancer will be discussed. There are a number of issues regarding the optimal use of olaparib in ovarian cancer, including the identification of a homologous recombination deficiency signature to predict treatment response, establishment of the optimal treatment setting (maintenance or relapsed disease), and evaluation of cost-effectiveness. Finally, the long term consequences of PARP inhibitors, including the risk of myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia need to be quantified in ongoing large phase III clinical trials.

  8. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells for chemoresistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junli; Wang, Li; Chen, Hongmin; Hao, Jingli; Ni, Jie; Chang, Lei; Duan, Wei; Graham, Peter; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main challenge for the recurrent ovarian cancer therapy and responsible for treatment failure and unfavorable clinical outcome. Understanding mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer would help to predict disease progression, develop new therapies and personalize systemic therapy. In the last decade, accumulating evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells play important roles in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and metastasis. Treatment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells holds promise for improving current ovarian cancer therapies and prolonging the survival of recurrent ovarian cancer patients in the future. In this review, we focus on the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and explore the therapeutic implications for developing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells associated therapies for future ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27304054

  9. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  11. Role of human epididymis protein 4 in chemoresistance and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungho; Choi, Seowon; Lee, Yookyung; Chung, Donghae; Hong, Suntaek; Park, Nohhyun

    2017-01-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the role of HE4 in chemo-response against anti-cancer drugs and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. HE4-depleted cells and HE4-overexpressing cells were generated. The effect of HE4 gene silencing and overexpression was examined using a cell viability assay after exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and the signaling pathway. We studied the expression of HE4 in ovarian cancer tissue and the prognostic significance. Cytoplasmic staining was graded for intensity and percentage of positive cells. The grades were multiplied to determine an H-score. Knockdown of HE4 in OVCAR-3 cells resulted in reduction in cell growth and increased sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin compared to control cells. This effect originated from the decreased activation of cell-growth-related signaling, such as AKT and Erk mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), while overexpression of HE4 resulted in enhanced cell growth and suppressed the anti-tumorigenic activity of paclitaxel. Activation of AKT and Erk pathways was enhanced in HE4-overexpressing cells compared to control cells. Based on the results of multivariate analysis, the risk of death was significantly higher in patients with an H-score > 4. HE4 induces chemoresistance against anti-cancer drugs and activates the AKT and Erk pathways to enhance tumor survival. HE4 expression in ovarian cancer tissue is associated with a worse prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Breast-feeding and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S J; Cushing-Haugen, K L; Wicklund, K G; Doherty, J A; Rossing, M A

    2012-06-01

    Evidence suggests that breast-feeding may decrease the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer but it is not clear whether there is a relationship with duration of breast-feeding, patterns of breast-feeding, or particular histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. We sought to investigate these issues in detail. Data from participants in a population-based study of ovarian cancer in western Washington State, USA (2002-2007) who had had at least one birth (881 cases and 1,345 controls) were used to assess relations between patterns of breast-feeding and ovarian cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women who ever breast-fed had a 22 % reduction in risk of ovarian cancer compared with those who never breast-fed (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96) and risk reduction appeared greater with longer durations of feeding per child breast-fed (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.98 for 18 months average duration breast-feeding versus none). Introduction of supplementary feeds did not substantially alter these effects. The overall risk reduction appeared greatest for the endometrioid and clear cell subtypes (OR per month of average breast-feeding per child breast-fed = 0.944, 95% CI 0.903-0.987). Among women who have had the opportunity to breast-feed, ever breast-feeding and increasing durations of episodes of breast-feeding for each breast-fed child are associated with a decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer independent of numbers of births, which may be strongest for the endometrioid subtype.

  13. Breast feeding and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, SJ; Cushing-Haugen, KL; Wicklund, KG; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Evidence suggests that breast feeding may decrease the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer but it is not clear whether there is a relationship with duration of breast feeding, patterns of breast feeding, or particular histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. We sought to investigate these issues in detail. Methods Data from participants in a population-based study of ovarian cancer in western Washington State, USA (2002–2007) who had had at least one birth (881 cases and 1,345 controls) were used to assess relations between patterns of breast feeding and ovarian cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Women who ever breast fed had a 22% reduction in risk of ovarian cancer compared with those who never breast fed (OR=0.78, 95%CI 0.64–0.96) and risk reduction appeared greater with longer durations of feeding per child breast fed (OR=0.56, 95%CI 0.32–0.98 for 18 months average duration breast feeding versus none). Introduction of supplementary feeds did not substantially alter these effects. The overall risk reduction appeared greatest for the endometrioid and clear cell subtypes (OR per month of average breast feeding per child breast fed=0.944, 95%CI 0.903–0.987). Conclusions Amongst women who have had the opportunity to breast feed, ever breast feeding and increasing durations of episodes of breast feeding for each breast-fed child are associated with a decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer independent of numbers of births, which may be strongest for the endometrioid subtype. PMID:22527170

  14. Coffee, tea, colas, and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoon Ju; Kristal, Alan R; Wicklund, Kristine G; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2008-03-01

    Associations of coffee, tea, and other caffeinated beverages with ovarian cancer risk remain uncertain. In a population-based study in Washington State, 781 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in 2002 to 2005 and 1,263 controls completed self-administered questionnaires detailing consumption of caffeinated and noncaffeinated coffee, teas, and colas and in-person interviews regarding reproductive and hormonal exposures. We assessed risk associated with coffee, tea, and cola drinking and with total caffeine consumption using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated coffees were associated with ovarian cancer risk; also, we observed no association of total caffeine with risk using a combined index that summed intake from coffee, tea, and carbonated soft drinks. Among teas, neither herbal/decaffeinated nor black teas were associated with risk; however, women who reported drinking >or=1 cup/d of green tea had a 54% reduction in risk (P trend = 0.01). Associations of green tea with risk were similar when invasive and borderline cases were considered separately and when Asian women were excluded from analysis. Green tea, which is commonly consumed in countries with low ovarian cancer incidence, should be further investigated for its cancer prevention properties.

  15. Epithelial ovarian cancer in pregnancy: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J; Vatish, M; Tidy, J

    2009-03-01

    Maternal epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is rare, and consequently, management strategies remain unclear due to the low incidence and paucity of reported data. Management depends on gestation, disease stage, future fertility desires, and the mother's wishes to continue pregnancy. Forty-one cases of maternal EOC were identified in the literature. Reporting of clinicopathological variables, treatment regimens, and follow up varied markedly. There are currently no definitive guidelines regarding the management of maternal EOC. Case reporting should contain detailed information on clinicopathological variables, treatment regimens, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Data centralisation may be beneficial in identifying optimal management strategies in these rare tumours.

  16. YY1 modulates taxane response in epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Noriomi; Huang, Zhiqing; Baba, Tsukasa; Lee, Paula S.; Barnett, Jason C.; Mori, Seiichi; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gusberg, Alison H.; Whitaker, Regina S.; Gray, JoeW.; Fujii, Shingo; Berchuck, Andrew; Murphy, Susan K.

    2008-10-10

    The results of this study show that a high YY1 gene signature (characterized by coordinate elevated expression of transcription factor YY1 and putative YY1 target genes) within serous epithelial ovarian cancers is associated with enhanced response to taxane-based chemotherapy and improved survival. If confirmed in a prospective study, these results have important implications for the potential future use of individualized therapy in treating patients with ovarian cancer. Identification of the YY1 gene signature profile within a tumor prior to initiation of chemotherapy may provide valuable information about the anticipated response of these tumors to taxane-based drugs, leading to better informed decisions regarding chemotherapeutic choice. Survival of ovarian cancer patients is largely dictated by their response to chemotherapy, which depends on underlying molecular features of the malignancy. We previously identified YIN YANG 1 (YY1) as a gene whose expression is positively correlated with ovarian cancer survival. Herein we investigated the mechanistic basis of this association. Epigenetic and genetic characteristics of YY1 in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) were analyzed along with YY1 mRNA and protein. Patterns of gene expression in primary SEOC and in the NCI60 database were investigated using computational methods. YY1 function and modulation of chemotherapeutic response in vitro was studied using siRNA knockdown. Microarray analysis showed strong positive correlation between expression of YY1 and genes with YY1 and transcription factor E2F binding motifs in SEOC and in the NCI60 cancer cell lines. Clustering of microarray data for these genes revealed that high YY1/E2F3 activity positively correlates with survival of patients treated with the microtubule stabilizing drug paclitaxel. Increased sensitivity to taxanes, but not to DNA crosslinking platinum agents, was also characteristic of NCI60 cancer cell lines with a high YY1/E2F signature. YY1

  17. Genital powder exposure and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Karin A.; Weiss, Noel S.; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Rossing, Mary Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based, case–control study to examine the association between the use of genital powder and ovarian cancer risk, including measures of extent and timing of exposure. We also assessed the relationship of powder use with risk of disease subtypes according to histology and degree of malignancy. Methods Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002 to 2005 and 1,313 controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Overall, the perineal use of powder after bathing was associated with a slightly increased ovarian cancer risk (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.97–1.66), which was most evident among women with borderline tumors (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02–2.37). We noted no clear pattern of risk increase on the basis of the extent of use, assessed as years in which powder was used, or as lifetime number of applications for invasive or borderline tumors, or their histologic subtypes. There was no alteration in the risk of ovarian cancer associated with other types of powder exposure (e.g., on sanitary napkins or diaphragms). Conclusions The International Agency for Research on Cancer has designated perineal exposure to talc (via the application of genital powders) as a possible carcinogen in women. A modest association of ovarian cancer with this exposure was seen in our study and in some previous ones, but that association generally has not been consistent within or among studies. Therefore, no stronger adjective than “possible” appears warranted at this time. PMID:21516319

  18. Ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance, a surrogate for cell of origin

    PubMed Central

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rosner, Bernard; Murphy, Megan A.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; Crum, Christopher P.; Missmer, Stacey; Cramer, Daniel W.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating ovarian tumors based on developmental pathway may further our understanding of the disease. Traditionally, ovarian cancers were thought to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium; however, recent evidence suggests some tumors originate in the fallopian tube. We classified cases in a population-based case-control study (NECC) and two cohort studies (NHS/NHSII) by tumor dominance, a proxy for tissue of origin. Dominant tumors (likely ovarian origin) are restricted to one ovary or are at least twice as large on one ovary compared to the other. Ovarian cancer risk factors were evaluated in relation to dominant and non-dominant tumors (likely tubal origin) using polytomous logistic regression (NECC) or competing risks Cox models (NHS/NHSII). Results were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. Among 1,771 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases, we observed 1,089 tumors with a dominant mass and 682 with no dominant mass. Dominant tumors were more likely to be mucinous, endometrioid, or clear cell, whereas non-dominant tumors were more likely to be serous. Tubal ligation, two or more births, endometriosis, and age were more strongly associated with dominant (RRs = 0.60, 0.83, 1.58, 1.37, respectively) than non-dominant tumors (RRs = 1.03, 0.93, 0.84, 1.14 p-difference = 0.0001, 0.01, 0.0003, 0.01, respectively). These data suggest that risk factors for tumors putatively arising from ovarian versus fallopian tube sites may differ; in particular, reproductive factors may be more important for ovarian-derived tumors. As this is the first study to evaluate ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance, these results need to be validated by other studies. PMID:23364849

  19. The Association between Endometriosis, Tubal Ligation, Hysterectomy and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunpeng; Liang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between endometriosis, tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer. Relevant published literatures were searched in PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science and Medline databases during 1995–2016. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 statistic. Publication bias was tested by funnel plot and Egger’s test. Odds ratio and 95% CI were used to assess the association strength. The statistical analyses in this study were accomplished by STATA software package. A total of 40,609 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer and 368,452 controls in 38 publications were included. The result suggested that endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.28–1.57), tubal ligation was associated with a decreased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.60–0.81), while hysterectomy show no relationship with epithelial ovarian cancer (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.81–1.14). A stratified analysis showed there were associations between endometriosis and the increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer for studies conducted in USA and Europe. Meanwhile, there were associations between tubal ligation and the decreased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer for studies conducted in USA, Asia, Europe and Australia. The result indicated that endometriosis was a risk factor of epithelial ovarian cancer whereas tubal ligation was a protective risk factor of epithelial ovarian cancer, hysterectomy may have no relationship with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:27854255

  20. The role of the fallopian tube in the origin of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Britt K.; Conner, Michael G.; Landen, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced cases of epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, and primary tubal malignancies have a relatively poor prognosis and collectively remain the most deadly of all gynecologic malignancies. Although traditionally thought of as one disease process, ongoing research suggests that there is not 1 single site or cell type from which these cancers arise. A majority of the serous tumors appear to originate from dysplastic lesions in the distal fallopian tube. Therefore, what we have traditionally considered “ovarian” cancer may in fact be tubal in origin. In this article, we will review epithelial ovarian cancer classification and genetics, theories regarding cells of origin with a focus on tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, and implications for prevention and screening. PMID:23583217

  1. Epidemiology and treatment patterns of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jessmon, Philip; Boulanger, Talia; Zhou, Wei; Patwardhan, Pallavi

    2017-05-01

    While ovarian cancer (OC) is relatively rare, it remains one of the most fatal cancers. Lack of robust screening methods for eOC lead to detection of most cases at advanced stages, and most patients relapse following initial treatment. Areas covered: This review summarizes epidemiology and treatment patterns of epithelial ovarian cancer (eOC). MEDLINE, EMBASE, conference proceedings, and the Cochrane Library were searched using key terms and Medical Subject Headings for ovarian cancer, treatment patterns, and epidemiology to identify articles published from 2005-2015. Expert commentary: To improve early detection, future studies should focus on the identification of biomarkers that can detect asymptomatic disease. Following diagnosis and eventual relapse, response to first-line platinum appears to guide physicians' choice of subsequent therapies, but we do not understand what patients ultimately receive or its relationship to categories of response to first-line platinum. Improved understanding of later-line treatment patterns, by initial response to platinum, could correlate with overall outcomes among relapsed patients and promote development of more effective treatment guidelines. Novel treatment approaches, such as immunotherapies, would fulfill a need for an effective strategy against advanced stages of OC that results in fewer toxic side effects.

  2. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate epithelial ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, J.; Pelegati, V. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Bottcher-Luiz, F.; Andrade, L. A. L. A.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-07-01

    We used human specimens of epithelial ovarian cancer (serous type) to test the feasibility of nonlinear imaging as complementary tools for ovarian cancer diagnosis. Classical hematoxylin-and-eosin stained sections were applied to combining two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second (SHG), and third (THG) harmonic microscopy within the same imaging platform. We show that strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals can be obtained in fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) stored for a very long time and that H&E staining enhanced the THG signal. We demonstrate using anisotropy and morphological measurements, that SHG and THG of stained optical sections allow reproducible identification of neoplastic features such as architectural alterations of collagen fibrils at different stages of the neoplastic transformation and cellular atypia. Taken together, these results suggest that, with our viable imaging system, we can qualitatively and quantitatively assess endogenous optical biomarkers of the ovarian tissue with SHG and THG microscopy. This imaging capability may prove to be highly valuable in aiding to determine structural changes at the cellular and tissue levels, which may contribute to the development of new diagnostic techniques.

  3. The ascites N-glycome of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Biskup, Karina; Braicu, Elena I; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2017-03-22

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is worldwide the sixth most lethal form of cancer occurring in women. More than one third of ovarian patients have ascites at the time of diagnosis and almost all of them have it when recurrence occurs. Although its effect on tumor cell microenvironment remains poorly understood, its presence is correlated with bad diagnosis. In previous studies, we proposed a novel glycan-based biomarker for the diagnosis of EOC, which showed an improved sensitivity and specificity at any stage of the disease and an improved discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. In this work, we report for the first time the N-glycome profiles of ascitic fluid from primary serous EOC patients and compare them with the serum N-glycomes of the same patients as well as of healthy controls. N-Glycans were digested from equivalent amount of ascites and serum from 18 EOC patients and from serum of 20 age-matched controls and measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. Ascites N-glycome showed increased antennarity, branching, sialylation and Lewis(X) motives compared to healthy serum. In addition, a correlation was established between ascites volume and degree of sialylation.

  4. Kindlin-2 inhibits serous epithelial ovarian cancer peritoneal dissemination and predicts patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Caixia; Du, Juan; Xi, Chenguang; Yu, Yu; Hu, Ajin; Zhan, Jun; Guo, Hongyan; Fang, Weigang; Liu, Congrong; Zhang, Hongquan

    2014-03-28

    Kindlin-2 has been known to promote most cancer progression through regulation of multiple signaling pathways. However, a novel tumor suppressive role of Kindlin-2 was identified in serous epithelial ovarian cancer progression, which sharply contrasts to the tumor promoting roles for Kindlin-2 in most other cancers. While we demonstrated that Kindlin-2 was highly expressed in control tissues, a drastic low expression of Kindlin-2 was found in the tumor tissues of serous epithelial ovarian cancer, especially in the high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Importantly, Kindlin-2 inhibited serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell peritoneal dissemination in a mouse model. For clinical relevance, low Kindlin-2 expression correlated with higher tumor grade and older patients. Intriguingly, decreased Kindlin-2 expression predicts poor overall and progression-free survivals in serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Mechanistically, Kindlin-2 induced a mesenchymal to epithelial transition in serous epithelial ovarian cancer cells, at least in part, by up-regulation of estrogen receptor α which was recruited to the promoter of E-cadherin and thereby enhanced the transcription of E-cadherin. Collectively, we concluded that inadequate Kindlin-2 is an independent risk factor for serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

  5. The role of human epididymis protein 4 in the diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, L-T; Zhang, Y-C; Li, J; Tian, Y; Li, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal female genital tract cancers. Early diagnosis of EOC would benefit the patients a lot. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has been regarded as a new powerful biomarker in diagnosis of EOC; we hope to obtain system knowledge of HE4 and understand the role of HE4 in diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We searched Pubmed, Embase, Medline, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for articles that included HE4's origin, characteristics, detection methods, clinical efficacy alone or combined with CA125, the risk of malignancy index, and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm. The diagnostic performance for the EOC and the role in the recurrence and procession in EOC were also discussed. We got 83 most related articles and found that there were significantly difference existing among the studies, such as the clinical characteristics of patients, the methodology for measuring HE4, the different cut-offs for HE4 and so on. HE4 is a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of EOC. However, each lab should establish its own reference internal of HE4.

  6. Dysregulated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Leads to Ovarian Epithelial Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Pawar, Sandeep; Haschek, Wanda M.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of ovarian epithelial cancer is poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate experimental model for studying the onset and progression of this disease. We have created a mutant mouse model in which aberrant estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. In these mice, termed ERαd/d, the ERα gene was conditionally deleted in the anterior pituitary, but remained intact in the hypothalamus and the ovary. The loss of negative-feedback regulation by estrogen (E) at the level of the pituitary led to increased production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by this tissue. Hyperstimulation of the ovarian cells by LH resulted in elevated steroidogenesis, producing high circulating levels of steroid hormones, including E. The ERαd/d mice exhibited formation of palpable ovarian epithelial tumors starting at 5 months of age with 100% penetrance. By 15 months of age, 80% of ERαd/d mice die. Besides proliferating epithelial cells, these tumors also contained an expanded population of luteinized stromal cells, which acquire the ability to express P450 aromatase and synthesize E locally. In response to the elevated levels of E, the ERα signaling was accentuated in the ovarian epithelial cells of ERαd/d mice, triggering increased ERα-dependent gene expression, abnormal cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Consistent with these findings, treatment of ERαd/d mice with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly reduced circulating E and ovarian tumor volume. We have, therefore, developed a unique animal model, which serves as a useful tool for exploring the involvement of E-dependent signaling pathways in ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:24603706

  7. Nerve growth factor induces the expression of chaperone protein calreticulin in human epithelial ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Vera, C; Tapia, V; Kohan, K; Gabler, F; Ferreira, A; Selman, A; Vega, M; Romero, C

    2012-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is highly angiogenic and high expression of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), a proangiogenic protein. Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein with anti-angiogenic properties and its translocation to the tumor cell membrane promotes recognition and engulfment by dendritic cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate calreticulin expression in human normal ovaries, benign and borderline tumors, and epithelial ovarian cancer samples and to evaluate whether NGF regulates calreticulin expression in human ovarian surface epithelium and in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. Calreticulin mRNA and protein levels were analyzed using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in 67 human ovarian samples obtained from our Institution. Calreticulin expression induced by NGF stimulation in cell lines was evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. We found a significant increase of calreticulin mRNA levels in epithelial ovarian cancer samples as compared to normal ovaries, benign tumors, and borderline tumors. Calreticulin protein levels, evaluated by Western blot, were also increased in epithelial ovarian cancer with respect to benign and borderline tumors. When HOSE and A2780 cell lines were stimulated with Nerve Growth Factor, we found an increase in calreticulin protein levels compared to controls. This effect was reverted by GW441756, a TRKA specific inhibitor. These results suggest that NGF regulates calreticulin protein levels in epithelial ovarian cells through TRKA receptor activation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The immunomodulating roles of glycoproteins in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Manish S.; Gubbels, Jennifer A.A.; Felder, Mildred; Connor, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the immune system demands an intricate defense mechanism by tumors. Ovarian and other tumors employ specific glycoproteins and the associated glycan sequences to modulate immune responses. Glycoproteins enable tumor cells that express or secrete these molecules to evade immune cell attack and induce the immune system to promote tumor growth. This review focuses first on the immune environment in ovarian cancer, and the mechanisms of activation and inhibition that immune cells undergo in order to either attack or ignore a target cell. Next we illustrate the immunomodulatory roles of ovarian cancer-associated glycans and glycoproteins in 1. preventing immune synapse formation, 2. serving as ligands of immune cell receptors, 3. scavenging cytokines and chemokines, and 4. participating in the formation of autoantibodies against the tumor. The importance of these immunomodulating strategies from the view points of understanding the tumor immunology of ovarian tumors, potential origin of such mechanisms, and specific strategies to circumvent the glycoconjugate-mediated suppression of immune responses is discussed in this review. PMID:22201900

  9. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug☆

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Methods The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Results Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Conclusions Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. PMID:25172764

  10. Inhibition of epithelial ovarian cancer by Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Colleen; Geller, Melissa; Schnettler, Erica; Saluja, Manju; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Saluja, Ashok; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2014-11-01

    Minnelide is a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide, a natural product. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Minnelide on ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Minnelide on ovarian cancer cell proliferation was determined by real time electrical impedance measurements. Multiple mouse models with C200 and A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines were used to assess the efficacy of Minnelide in inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. Minnelide decreased cell viability of both platinum sensitive and resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Minnelide with carboplatin showed additive effects in vitro. Minnelide monotherapy increased the survival of mice bearing established ovarian tumors. Minnelide, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, improved overall survival of mice. Minnelide is a promising pro-drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer, especially when combined with standard chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass spectrometric profiling reveals association of N-glycan patterns with epithelial ovarian cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huanhuan; Deng, Zaian; Huang, Chuncui; Wu, Hongmei; Zhao, Xia; Li, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant changes of N-glycan modifications on proteins have been linked to various diseases including different cancers, suggesting possible avenue for exploring their etiologies based on N-glycomic analysis. Changes in N-glycan patterns during epithelial ovarian cancer development have so far been investigated mainly using serum, plasma, ascites, and cell lines. However, changes in patterns of N-glycans in tumor tissues during epithelial ovarian cancer progression have remained largely undefined. To investigate whether changes in N-glycan patterns correlate with oncogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, we profiled N-glycans from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue slides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively compared among different pathological grades of epithelial ovarian cancer and healthy controls. Our results show that among the 80 compositions of N-glycan detected, expression levels of high-mannose type were higher in epithelial ovarian cancer samples than that observed in healthy controls, accompanied by reduced levels of hybrid-type glycans. By applying receiver operating characteristic analysis, we show that a combined panel composed of four high-mannose and three fucosylated neutral complex N-glycans allows for good discrimination of epithelial ovarian cancer from healthy controls. Furthermore, using a statistical analysis of variance assay, we found that different N-glycan patterns, including 2 high-mannose-type, 2 fucosylated and sialylated complex structures, and 10 fucosylated neutral complex N-glycans, exhibited specific changes in N-glycan abundance across epithelial ovarian cancer grades. Together, our results provide strong evidence that N-glycomic changes are a strong indicator for epithelial ovarian cancer pathological grades and should provide avenues to identify novel biomarkers for epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis and monitoring.

  12. Fertility sparing surgery in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Haeusler, Edward; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Fertility sparing surgery (FSS) is a strategy often considered in young patients with early epithelial ovarian cancer. We investigated the role and the outcomes of FSS in eEOC patients who underwent comprehensive surgery. From January 2003 to January 2011, 24 patients underwent fertility sparing surgery. Eighteen were one-to-one matched and balanced for stage, histologic type and grading with a group of patients who underwent radical comprehensive staging (n=18). Demographics, surgical procedures, morbidities, pathologic findings, recurrence-rate, pregnancy-rate and correlations with disease-free survival were assessed. A total of 36 patients had a complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy and were therefore analyzed. Seven patients experienced a recurrence: four (22%) in the fertility sparing surgery group and three (16%) in the control group (p=not significant). Sites of recurrence were: residual ovary (two), abdominal wall and peritoneal carcinomatosis in the fertility sparing surgery group; pelvic (two) and abdominal wall in the control group. Recurrences in the fertility sparing surgery group appeared earlier (mean, 10.3 months) than in radical comprehensive staging group (mean, 53.3 months) p<0.001. Disease-free survival were comparable between the two groups (p=0.422). No deaths were reported. All the patients in fertility sparing surgery group recovered a regular period. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) attempted to have a pregnancy. Five (38%) achieved a spontaneous pregnancy with a full term delivery. Fertility sparing surgery in early epithelial ovarian cancer submitted to a comprehensive surgical staging could be considered safe with oncological results comparable to radical surgery group.

  13. Treatment planning of epithelial ovarian cancers using helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swamidas, V Jamema; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Vineeta, Goel; Engineer, Reena; Deshpande, Deepak D; Sarin, Rajiv; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2009-10-07

    Whole Abdomen Radiotherapy (WAR) for epithelial ovarian cancer though effective has been used sparingly due to inadequate target coverage and poor sparing of Organ At Risk (OAR) leading to significantly higher toxicities. Newer radiation techniques have shown potential for significant improvement in the therapeutic ratio. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Helical Tomotherapy(HT) for WAR. The objective parameters were to obtain uniform and adequate target coverage with maximum OAR sparing. HT plans were generated for five patients with field-width of 5.0/2.5 cm, modulation factor of 3.5/3.0, and a pitch of 0.3. A dose of 25 Gy in 25 fractions was prescribed to the abdomen with a simultaneous boost of 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the pelvis. Dose-volume parameters and various indices were analyzed and compared. Mean volume (standard-deviation) of abdominal and pelvic PTV (planning target volume) was 6630 +/-450 cm3 and 1235 +/-98 cm3 respectively. Mean length of PTV in cranio-caudal direction was 41+/-4 cm. Volume receiving 95% and 107% of the prescription dose, (V95% and V107%) was 95.6+/-2.7% and 2.6+/-0.5% for abdominal-PTV, and 95.7+/-2.4% and 0% for pelvic-PTV respectively. Homogeneity and Conformity indices were 17.5+/-1.7, 1.2+/-0.03 for abdominal PTV, and 5.2+/-0.7, 1.1+/-0.02 for pelvic-PTV respectively. Median dose received by the kidneys, liver and bone marrow were 9.6+/-1.2 Gy, 17+/-2.7 Gy and 22+/-1.4 Gy respectively. HT achieves an excellent coverage of WAR target with simultaneous pelvic boost and better organ (kidneys and liver) sparing. HT for WAR has the potential as consolidative therapy which is being evaluated further in a phase II cohort study in epithelial ovarian cancers.

  14. Hypodontia phenotype in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fekonja, Anita; Cretnik, Andrej; Zerdoner, Danijel; Takac, Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage and the present clinical and diagnostic molecular markers for early OC screening are insufficient. The aim of this study was to identify potential relationship between the hypodontia and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted on 120 patients with EOC treated at the Department of Gynaecologic and Breast Oncology at the University Clinical Centre and 120 gynaecological healthy women (control group) of the same mean age. Women in both groups were reviewed for the presence of hypodontia and the patients with EOC also for clinicopathological characteristics of EOC according to hypodontia phenotype. Results Hypodontia was diagnosed in 23 (19.2%) of patients with EOC and 8 (6.7%) controls (p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 3.32; confidence interval [CI], 1.42–7.76). There was no statistically significant difference in patients with EOC with or without hypodontia regarding histological subtype (p = 0.220); they differed in regard to FIGO stage (p = 0.014; OR =3.26; CI, 1.23–8.64) and tumour differentiation grade (p = 0.042; OR = 3.1; CI, 1.01–9.53). Also, bilateral occurrence of EOC was more common than unilateral occurrence in women with hypodontia (p = 0.021; OR = 2.9; CI, 1.15–7.36). We also found statistically significant difference between the ovarian cancer group and control group in presence of other malignant tumours in subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results of the study suggest a statistical association between EOC and hypodontia phenotype. Hypodontia might serve as a risk factor for EOC detection. PMID:25810703

  15. Metabolic risk factors and mechanisms of disease in epithelial ovarian cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Craig, Eric R; Londoño, Angelina I; Norian, Lyse A; Arend, Rebecca C

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to be the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Patients with both diabetes mellitus and obesity have poorer outcomes, yet research correlating metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic syndrome, to ovarian cancer risk and outcomes is lacking. This article reviews the literature regarding metabolic derangements and their relationship to epithelial ovarian cancer, with a focus on potential mechanisms behind these associations. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles in the English language regarding epithelial ovarian cancer, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, with a focus on studies conducted since 1990. Obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome have been associated with poor outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer. More studies investigating the relationship between metabolic syndrome and epithelial ovarian cancer are needed. A variety of pathologic factors may contribute to cancer risk in patients with metabolic derangements, including altered adipokine and cytokine expression, altered immune responses to tumor cells, and changes in pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways. More research is needed to examine the effects of metabolic syndrome on epithelial ovarian cancer risk and mortality, as well as the underlying pathophysiologies in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome that may be targeted for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of HPIP in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Meng, Fanling; Liu, Yunduo; Chen, Xiuwei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hematopoietic pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor (PBX)-interacting protein (HPIP) plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of HPIP in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients and methods Immunohistochemical method was performed using 42 normal ovarian specimens and 145 specimens with EOC. The correlations of HPIP expression with the clinicopathological factors and prognosis of EOC patients were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, multivariate Cox proportional hazard, and Kaplan–Meier method. Results HPIP expression in EOC was higher than that in normal tissues (P<0.001). HPIP expression was significantly associated with histological grade, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, and lymphatic metastasis of EOC (P<0.05). Patients with high HPIP expression had poorer overall survival and disease-free survival (P<0.001) compared with patients with low HPIP expression. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that HPIP was an independent factor for overall survival and disease-free survival (P<0.05). Conclusion HPIP may be a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis of EOC patients and may serve as a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:28053543

  17. Epithelial borderline ovarian tumor: Diagnosis and treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kimio; Kawano, Kouichiro; Tsuda, Naotake; Nishio, Shin; Terada, Atsumu; Kato, Hiroyuki; Tasaki, Kazuto; Matsukuma, Ken

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) are distinctive from benign tumors and carcinoma. They occur in younger women more often than carcinoma, and there is some difficulty making correct diagnosis of BOT. Two subtypes of BOT, serous and mucinous borderline tumor have different characteristics and very different clinical behavior. Serous borderline tumor (SBT) with micropapillary pattern shows more incidence of extra ovarian disease and often coexists with invasive implant. SBT with micropapillary pattern in advanced stage has showed a worse prognosis than typical SBT. Huge mucinous borderline tumors have histologic heterogeneity, and the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis is relatively low. Extensive sampling is required to reach a correct pathological diagnosis. Mucinous adenoma (intestinal type) also runs the risk of recurrence after cystectomy, or intraoperative rupture of cyst. Laparoscopic procedure for BOT has not increased the risk of recurrence. Fertility preserving procedures are generally accepted, except in advanced stage SBT with invasive implants. Only cystectomy shows a significant risk of recurrence. Re-staging surgery and full staging surgery is not necessary for all BOT. We should not attempt to treat them uniformly, by the single diagnosis of "borderline tumor". It depends on histologic type. Close communication with the pathologist is necessary to gain more detail and ask more pathological samples in order to make the optimal treatment strategy for each individual patients.

  18. Peritoneal inflammation – A microenvironment for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Ralph S; Deavers, Michael; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Ena

    2004-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a significant cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality in women. Preferential involvement of peritoneal structures contributes to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients. Advances in biotechnology, such as cDNA microarray, are a product of the Human Genome Project and are beginning to provide fresh opportunities to understand the biology of EOC. In particular, it is now possible to examine in depth, at the molecular level, the complex relationship between the tumor itself and its surrounding microenvironment. This review focuses on the anatomy, physiology, and current immunobiologic research of peritoneal structures, and addresses certain potentially useful animal models. Changes in both the inflammatory and non-inflammatory cell compartments, as well as alterations to the extracellular matrix, appear to be signal events that contribute to the remodeling effects of the peritoneal stroma and surface epithelial cells on tumor growth and spread. These alterations may involve a number of proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, either membrane or non-membrane bound, and integrins. Interactions between these molecules and molecular structures within the extracellular matrix, such as collagens and the proteoglycans, may contribute to a peritoneal mesothelial surface and stromal environment that is conducive to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. These alterations need to be examined and defined as possible prosnosticators and as therapeutic or diagnostic targets. PMID:15219235

  19. NANOG regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance through activation of the STAT3 pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suqing; Sun, Jing; Cai, Bin; Xi, Xiaowei; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Sun, Yunyan

    2016-07-01

    NANOG is a key transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an important role in various cancers. Its overexpression is associated with highly tumorigenic, drug-resistant, and poor prognosis. However, the underlying mechanism of action of NANOG in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical process in cancer invasion and metastasis, is also associated with drug resistance. We determined whether NANOG is associated with EMT and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. NANOG expression was increased in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (HEY and SKOV3) compared with normal epithelial ovarian cells (Moody). Low expression of NANOG increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expression of vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Furthermore, the cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. The multidrug resistance genes MDR-1 and GST-π were also downregulated when NANOG was lowly expressed. The cells that were transfected with the si-NANOG plasmid were more sensitive to cisplatin compared with the cells that were transfected with empty vector. The data demonstrated that Stat3 was correlated with NANOG-mediated EMT and drug resistance. The silencing of Stat3 expression abrogated NANOG-mediated EMT changes and increased the sensitivity of the cells to chemotherapy. These results suggest that NANOG mediates EMT and drug resistance through activation of the Stat3 pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  20. S1P differentially regulates migration of human ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhenwen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Yang, Gong; Mok, Samuel C.; Liu, Jinsong; Bigsby, Robert M.; Xu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the epithelial layer covering the surface of ovaries and intra-peritoneal metastasis is commonly observed at diagnosis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid signaling molecule, is potentially involved in EOC tumorigenesis. We have found that S1P is elevated in human EOC ascites. We show that physiologically relevant concentrations of S1P stimulate migration and invasion of EOC cells, but inhibit migration of human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. In addition, S1P inhibits lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration in HOSE, but not in EOC cells. We have provided the first line of evidence that the expression levels of S1P receptor subtypes are not the only determinants for how cells respond to S1P. Even though S1P1 is expressed and functional in HOSE cells, the inhibitory effect mediated by S1P2 is dominant in those cells. The cellular pre-existing stress fibers are also important determinants for the migratory response to S1P. Differential S1P-induced morphology changes are noted in EOC and HOSE cells. Pre-existing stress fibers in HOSE cells are further enhanced by S1P treatment, resulting in the negative migratory response to S1P. By contrast, EOC cells lost stress fibers and S1P treatment induces filopodium-like structures at cell edges, which correlates with increased cell motility. In addition, inhibition of the protein kinase C pathway is likely to be involved in the inhibitory effect of S1P on LPA-induced cell migration in HOSE cells. These findings are important for the development of new therapeutics targeting S1P and LPA in EOC. PMID:18645009

  1. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H.; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Stampfer, Meir; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kopperud, Reidun K.; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K. H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H.; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S.; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Gilks, C. Blake; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Kluz, Tomasz; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; McLaughlin, John R.; Narod, Steven A.; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Wu, Anna H.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Winham, Stacey J.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Morgan, Terry K.; Goode, Ellen L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Risch, Harvey A.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recent studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium genotyped in the iCOGS array (211,155 SNPs). We estimate the array heritability (attributable to variants tagged on arrays) of each subtype and their genetic correlations. We also look for genetic overlaps with factors such as obesity, smoking behaviors, diabetes, age at menarche and height. We estimated the array heritabilities of high-grade serous disease ( hg2=8.8±1.1%), endometrioid ( hg2=3.2±1.6%), clear cell ( hg2=6.7±3.3%) and all EOC ( hg2=5.6±0.6%). Known associated loci contributed approximately 40 % of the total array heritability for each subtype. The contribution of each chromosome to the total heritability was not proportional to chromosome size. Through bivariate and cross-trait LD score regression, we found evidence of shared genetic backgrounds between the three high-grade subtypes: serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated. Finally, we found significant genetic correlations of all EOC with diabetes and obesity using a polygenic prediction approach. PMID:27075448

  2. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Stampfer, Meir; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Blake Gilks, C; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Kluz, Tomasz; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Bandera, Elisa V; Poole, Elizabeth M; Morgan, Terry K; Goode, Ellen L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Webb, Penelope M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Risch, Harvey A; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recent studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium genotyped in the iCOGS array (211,155 SNPs). We estimate the array heritability (attributable to variants tagged on arrays) of each subtype and their genetic correlations. We also look for genetic overlaps with factors such as obesity, smoking behaviors, diabetes, age at menarche and height. We estimated the array heritabilities of high-grade serous disease ([Formula: see text] = 8.8 ± 1.1 %), endometrioid ([Formula: see text] = 3.2 ± 1.6 %), clear cell ([Formula: see text] = 6.7 ± 3.3 %) and all EOC ([Formula: see text] = 5.6 ± 0.6 %). Known associated loci contributed approximately 40 % of the total array heritability for each subtype. The contribution of each chromosome to the total heritability was not proportional to chromosome size. Through bivariate and cross-trait LD score regression, we found evidence of shared genetic backgrounds between the three high-grade subtypes: serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated. Finally, we found significant genetic correlations of all EOC with diabetes and obesity using a polygenic prediction approach.

  3. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-21

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. LncRNAs expression profiling in normal ovary, benign ovarian cyst and malignant epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Fu, Ziyi; Dai, Chencheng; Cao, Jian; Liu, Xiaoguang; Xu, Juan; Lv, Mingming; Gu, Yun; Zhang, Jingmin; Hua, Xiangdong; Jia, Genmei; Xu, Sujuan; Jia, Xuemei; Xu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been recognized as a regulator of gene expression, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in the progression of many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To explore the potential roles of lncRNAs in EOC, we performed lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiling in malignant EOC, benign ovarian cyst and healthy control tissues. In this study, 663 transcripts of lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant EOC compared with benign and normal control tissues. We also selected 18 altered lncRNAs to confirm the validity of the microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, especially the cell cycle. Furthermore, Series Test of Cluster (STC) and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of lncRNAs. We also determined that two antisense lncRNAs (RP11-597D13.9 and ADAMTS9-AS1) were associated with their nearby coding genes (FAM198B, ADAMTS9), which participated in cancer progression. This study offers helpful information to understand the initiation and development mechanisms of EOC. PMID:27941916

  5. The Serum Glycome to Discriminate between Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Benign Ovarian Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Braicu, Elena Iona; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD), and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation. PMID:25183900

  6. [Can new molecular profiles in epithelial ovarian cancer modify therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Lavoué, V; Rousselin, A; Delplanque, S; Pinsard, M; Henno, S; Foucher, F; Levêque, J; de la Motte Rouge, T

    2017-02-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) affects 4500 women a year in France, with a survival of 30% at 5 years. Treatment is based on extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Around 15% of EOCs are due to genetic mutation predisposition essentially with mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Four histological subtypes are described (serous, endometrioid, and mucinous cells to clear), corresponding to different carcinogenesis and distinct molecular mutations. High-grade serous EOCs have a mutation of the BRCA genes in 20-30% of cases. This mutation causes a deficit of repair by homologous recombination of DNA in case of double strand break, allowing greater sensitivity to platinum salts and the use of PARP inhibitors, a protein involved in the repair of single-strand breaks of DNA. PARP inhibitors have shown efficacy in patients mutated BRCA but this effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in patients without congenital mutation, but with acquired BRCAness profile EOC. The BRCAness profile is defined by a tumor having a defect in DNA repair counterpart (not limited to BRCA mutation). Molecular definition of BRCAness is still not consensual but is necessary for the use of PARP inhibitors. Gene expression analyses have identified four subgroups of high-grade serous CEO: mesenchymal, proliferative, differentiated and immunoreactive. These four subtypes, not mutually exclusive, although correlated with prognosis, are not yet used in clinical routine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. LIN28B polymorphisms influence susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Kim, Donghwa; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Y. Ann; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Zhihua; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dagne, Getachew; Ebbert-Syfrett, Judith; Fenstermacher, David; Fridley, Brooke L.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gayther, Simon A.; Ge, William; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Goode, Ellen L.; Iversen, Edwin; Jim, Heather; Kong, William; McLaughlin, John; Menon, Usha; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Qu, Xiaotao; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Song, Honglin; Stockwell, Heather; Sutphen, Rebecca; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lancaster, Johnathan M.; Cheng, Jin Q.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Defective miRNA biogenesis contributes to the development and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study, we examined the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA biogenesis genes may influence EOC risk. In an initial investigation, 318 SNPs in 18 genes were evaluated among 1,815 EOC cases and 1,900 controls, followed up by a replicative joint meta-analysis of data from an additional 2,172 cases and 3,052 controls. Of 23 SNPs from 9 genes associated with risk (empirical P<0.05) in the initial investigation, the meta-analysis replicated 6 SNPs from the DROSHA, FMR1, LIN28, and LIN28B genes, including rs12194974 (G>A), a SNP in a putative transcription factor binding site in the LIN28B promoter region (summary OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.98; P=0.015) which has been recently implicated in age of menarche and other phenotypes. Consistent with reports that LIN28B over-expression in EOC contributes to tumorigenesis by repressing tumor suppressor let-7 expression, we provide data from luciferase reporter assays and quantitative RT-PCR to suggest that the inverse association among rs12194974 A allele carriers may be due to reduced LIN28B expression. Our findings suggest that variants in LIN28B and possibly other miRNA biogenesis genes may influence EOC susceptibility. PMID:21482675

  8. Hypodontia prevalence and pattern in women with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fekonja, Anita; Čretnik, Andrej; Takač, Iztok

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the possible association between hypodontia and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), with the special interest in hypodontia pattern. One hundred twenty women with EOC treated at the Department of Gynecologic and Breast Oncology at the University Clinical Centre and 120 gynecologically healthy women of the same average age were reviewed for the presence and pattern of hypodontia. Collected data were analyzed for frequency, tooth type, location per jaw and side, number of missing teeth per person, and family history of hypodontia. The results of the study showed prevalence of hypodontia in 19.2% of women with EOC and in 6.7% of women in the control group (P  =  .004). The most frequently missing teeth for women with EOC and women in the control group were maxillary second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors, respectively. Unilateral occurrence of hypodontia was more common than bilateral occurrence in women with EOC (P  =  .034). Of women with EOC and hypodontia, 21.7% reported a positive family history of hypodontia compared with no report in the control group of women with hypodontia (P  =  .150). The results statistically support possible association between EOC and hypodontia. Because hypdontia can be recognized early in life, this finding could possibly help in earlier detection of EOC, resulting in better prognosis and treatment in earlier stages of the disease. Earlier EOC diagnosis and treatment could save many lives.

  9. The Origin of Epithelial Neoplasms of the Ovary: An Alternative View.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elvio G

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin of epithelial neoplasms of the ovary. However, most of them did not receive serious consideration until recently when it has been proposed that most ovarian neoplasms arise from the fallopian tube. In this review, we mention the different theories, we discuss in detail the fallopian tube theory, and the reasons why this theory is probably inaccurate. We are also proposing a new theory, the fere ex nihilo, based on the observation of numerous cases, old and new concept, and experimental works with animals. We believe that, most probably, ovarian epithelial neoplasms are related to hormones and the identification of these hormones will allow us not only to diagnose and treat these lethal neoplasms, but also to prevent them.

  10. Upregulated CTHRC1 promotes human epithelial ovarian cancer invasion through activating EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Chen, Wei; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Jin-Hui; Fei, He; Zhang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ya-Hui; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the major cause of deaths from gynecologic malignancies, and metastasis is the main cause of cancer related death. Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein that has the ability to inhibit collagen matrix synthesis. In this study, we found that high CTHRC1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of EOC. In vitro experiments showed that CTHRC1 promoted migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. CTHRC1 had no effect on ovarian cancer cells viability. Additionally, EGFR inhibitors reduced the promotion effects of CTHRC1 on EOC cell invasion. After silencing of CTHRC1, downregulated expression of phosphorylation of EGFR/ERK1/2/AKT was observed in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest a role for CTHRC1 in the progression of ovarian cancer and identified CTHRC1 as a potentially important predictor for human ovarian cancer prognosis.

  11. Mushroom intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Pasalich, Maria; Su, Dada; Tang, Li; Tran, Van Dinh; Binns, Colin W

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between mushroom consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, from 2006 to 2008. Participants were 500 incident patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and 500 controls, with a mean (SD) age of 59 (6) years. Information on habitual mushroom consumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between mushroom intake and the ovarian cancer risk. The patients with ovarian cancer consumed less mushrooms (mean [SD], 28.48 [37.45] g/d) than did controls (mean [SD], 30.75 [41.85] g/d). Apparent reductions in cancer risk were found at high levels of intake, especially for the common white button mushroom with adjusted odds ratios 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.89) for women consuming more than 2 g per day relative to those who consume less than that (P = 0.005). Decreases in risk at high levels of intake were also observed for serous and mucinous subtypes of epithelial ovarian tumors. Intake of mushrooms, particularly white button mushroom, seemed to be inversely associated with the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women.

  12. Effect of estradiol on the expression of angiogenic factors in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Macarena; Plaza-Parrochia, Francisca; Lépez, Macarena; López, Daniela; Gabler, Fernando; Gayan, Patricio; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    Ovarian cancer presents a high angiogenesis (formation of new blood vessels) regulated by pro-angiogenic factors, mainly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). An association between endogenous levels of estrogen and increased risk of developing ovarian cancer has been reported. Estrogen action is mediated by the binding to its specific receptors (ERα and ERβ), altered ERα/ERβ ratio may constitute a marker of ovarian carcinogenesis progression. To determine the effect of estradiol through ERα on the expression of NGF and VEGF in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Levels of phosphorylated estrogen receptor alpha (pERα) were evaluated in well, moderate and poorly differentiated EOC samples (EOC-I, EOC-II, EOC-III). Additionally, ovarian cancer explants were stimulated with NGF (0, 10 and 100 ng/ml) and ERα, ERβ and pERα levels were detected. Finally, human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) and epithelial ovarian cancer (A2780) cell lines were stimulated with estradiol, where NGF and VEGF protein levels were evaluated. In tissues, ERs were detected being pERα levels significantly increased in EOC-III samples compared with EOC-I (p<0.05). Additionally, ovarian explants treated with NGF increased pERα levels meanwhile total ERα and ERβ levels did not change. Cell lines stimulated with estradiol revealed an increase of NGF and VEGF protein levels (p<0.05). Estradiol has a positive effect on pro-angiogenic factors such as NGF and VEGF expression in EOC, probably through the activation of ERα; generating a positive loop induced by NGF increasing pERα levels in epithelial ovarian cells.

  13. Reproductive risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to histologic type and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Modugno, F; Ness, R B; Wheeler, J E

    2001-11-01

    Differences in histology among the subtypes of epithelial ovarian tumors suggest possible differences in their etiologies. We examined reproductive risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to histologic subtype and tumor invasiveness. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of associations between reproductive risk factors and epithelial ovarian cancer in the Delaware Valley from 1994 to 1998. Cases age 20 to 69 years with a recent diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 767) were compared to community controls (n = 1367) frequency matched by age. With few exceptions, we found significant risk reduction for each histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer by using oral contraceptive, bearing children, and having a tubal ligation; for each subtype, there was significant increased risk associated with a family history of the disease. There were no significant differences among histologic subtypes in the magnitude of the odds ratios for OC use, parity, breastfeeding, tubal ligation, hysterectomy, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, use of noncontraceptive estrogens, age at menarche, and age at menopause. There were also few differences between invasive and borderline tumors, except that women with borderline tumors were significantly younger than women with invasive disease (44.7 years vs. 52.0 years, p < 0.001). Among serous tumors only, women with borderline tumors were more likely to use oral contraceptives than women with invasive tumors (OR = 2.28 95% CI 1.20-4.35). The results of this study suggest that reproductive risk factors do not differ among histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancers.

  14. Ovarian tumour growth is characterized by mevalonate pathway gene signature in an orthotopic, syngeneic model of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greenaway, James B.; Virtanen, Carl; Osz, Kata; Revay, Tamas; Hardy, Daniel; Shepherd, Trevor; DiMattia, Gabriel; Petrik, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer and often is not detected until late stages when cancer cells transcoelomically metastasize to the abdomen and typically become resistant to therapy resulting in very low survival rates. We utilize an orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model to study late stage disease and have discovered that the tumor cells within the abdominal ascites are irreversibly re-programmed, with an increased tumorigenicity and resistance to apoptosis. The goal of this study was to characterize the reprogramming that occurred in the aggressive ascites-derived cells (28-2 cells) compared to the original cell line used for tumor induction (ID8 cells). Microarray experiments showed that the majority of genes upregulated in the 28-2 cells belonged to the mevalonate pathway, which is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation, and activation of small GTPases. Upregulation of mevalonate appeared to be associated with the acquisition of a p53 mutation in the ascites-derived cells. Treatment with simvastatin to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme of this pathway, induced apoptosis in the 28-2 cell line. Rescue experiments revealed that mevalonate, but not cholesterol, could inhibit the simvastatin-mediated effects. In vivo, daily intraperitoneal simvastatin treatment significantly regressed advanced stage disease and induced death of metastatic tumor cells. These data suggest that ovarian cancer cells become reprogrammed, with genetic mutations, and upregulation of the mevalonate pathway, which facilitates the development of advanced stage disease. The use of statins to inhibit HMGCR may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of advanced stage EOC. PMID:27329838

  15. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  16. Effect of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on epithelial mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    As the primary female sex steroid hormones, estrogens and progesterone play important roles to regulate growth, differentiation, and function of a broad range of target tissues in the human body and maintain the function of female reproductive tissues. Ovarian cancer is the most cause of cancer death in gynecological malignancy. Despite enormous outcomes in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathology, this disease has resulted in poor survival rates since most patients are asymptomatic until the disease has been metastasized. The exact molecular events leading to metastasis of ovarian tumor cells have not yet been well elucidated, although it is recognized that the acquisition of capacity for migration and invasiveness would be a necessary prerequisite. During metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process, in which epithelial cells lose their intracellular adhesion and cell polarity and acquire increased motility and invasive properties to become mesenchymal like cells. The process of cancer cells to undergo EMT is regulated through the up- and down- regulation of a multiple cellular markers and signaling proteins. In this review, we focused the roles of women sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in ovarian cancer, especially the ovarian cancer undergoing EMT and metastatic process. All things considered, we may suggest that progesterone is a potent hormone which inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells and development to metastasis whereas estrogen may act as a risk factor of ovarian cancer progression and that progesterone therapy may be an alternative clinically effective tool for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  17. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  18. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC.

  19. Notch activation augments nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase signaling in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El-Sehemy, Ahmed; Chang, Alex C; Azad, Abul Kalam; Gupta, Nidhi; Xu, Zhihua; Steed, Helen; Karsan, Aly; Fu, YangXin

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by tumor, stromal and endothelial cells and plays a multifaceted role in tumor biology. Many physiological functions of NO are mediated by soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and NO/sGC signaling has been shown to promote proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells. However, how NO/sGC signaling is modulated in ovarian cancer cells has not been studied. The evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling pathway plays an oncogenic role in ovarian cancer. Here, we report that all three ovarian cancer cell lines we examined express a higher level of GUCY1B3 (the β subunit of sGC) compared to non-cancerous immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cell lines. Interestingly, the highest expression of GUCY1B3 in ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells is concurrent with the expression of Notch3. In IOSE cells, forced activation of Notch3 increases the expression of GUCY1B3, NO-induced cGMP production, and the expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), thereby enhancing NO- and cGMP-induced phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP, a direct PKG substrate protein). In contrast, inhibition of Notch by DAPT reduces GUCY1B3 expression and NO-induced cGMP production and VASP phosphorylation in OVCAR3 cells. Finally, we confirmed that inhibition of sGC by ODQ decreases growth of ovarian cancer cells. Together, our work demonstrates that Notch is a positive regulator of NO/sGC signaling in IOSE and ovarian cancer cells, providing the first evidence that Notch and NO signaling pathways interact in IOSE and ovarian cancer cells. © 2013.

  20. Chemotherapy versus surgery for initial treatment in advanced ovarian epithelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jo; Haldar, Krishnayan; Kehoe, Sean; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in the majority of women. These women require surgery and chemotherapy for optimal treatment. Conventional treatment is to perform surgery first and then give chemotherapy. However, it is not yet clear whether there are any advantages to using chemotherapy before surgery. Objectives To assess whether there is an advantage to treating women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with chemotherapy before cytoreductive surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT)) compared with conventional treatment where chemotherapy follows maximal cytoreductive surgery. Search methods For the original review we searched, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (Silver Platter, from 1966 to 1 Sept 2006), EMBASE via Ovid (from 1980 to 1 Sept 2006), CANCERLIT (from 1966 to 1 Sept 2006), PDQ (search for open and closed trials) and MetaRegister (most current search Sept 2006). For this update randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3, 2011) and the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialised Register (2011), MEDLINE (August week 1, 2011), EMBASE (to week 31, 2011), PDQ (search for open and closed trials) and MetaRegister (August 2011). Selection criteria RCTs of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (Federation of International Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage III/IV) who were randomly allocated to treatment groups that compared platinum-based chemotherapy before cytoreductive surgery with platinum-based chemotherapy following cytoreductive surgery. Data collection and analysis Data were extracted by two review authors independently, and the quality of included trials was assessed by two review authors independently. Main results One high-quality RCT met the inclusion criteria. This multicentre trial randomised 718 women with stage IIIc/IV ovarian cancer to NACT

  1. Expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 transcript variants and CXCR7 in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaszczynska-Nowinka, Karolina; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Markowska, Anna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2014-05-01

    Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, have been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. However, limited data are available on the expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 variants and CXCR7 in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the expression pattern and levels of SDF-1, CXCR4 and CXCR7 in normal human ovaries and epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 transcript variants and CXCR7 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasma SDF-1α levels were determined by commercially available EIA kits and cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels were quantified by automated microparticle enzyme immunosorbent assay. High expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variant 1 were identified in ovarian cancer and control ovaries. By contrast, in both groups the expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variants 3 and 4 were extremely low. Furthermore, SDF-1 variant 1 levels were notably higher in epithelial ovarian cancer than in control ovaries, while data for the remaining transcripts were similar in both groups. CXCR4 transcript variant 2 and CXCR7 expression levels in normal and neoplastic ovaries were similar. In both groups, CXCR4 transcript variant 2 was not detected. Plasma SDF-1α levels were notably higher in females with epithelial ovarian cancer than in the control ovaries. Elevated levels of blood SDF-1α were found prior to surgery, 6 days after surgery and following completion of the first chemotherapy course. These increases were independent of the type of epithelial ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that the expression of SDF-1 and the genes controlling alternative splicing are elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer, leading to an increased formation of SDF-1 variant 1. Elevated plasma SDF-1α levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients are not associated with the presence of tumors and/or metastases, however reflect a

  2. EF5 in Finding Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Cervical, Endometrial, or Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  3. Epigenetic Therapies as a Promising Strategy for Overcoming Chemoresistance in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decades, prognosis of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer remains very poor, despite the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as molecular targeted agents. Late presentation and frequent chemoresistance account for the poor prognosis. Emerging studies have shown that many genetic changes, especially p53 mutation, are associated with the chemoresistance. However, recent failure of the clinical trials using p53 gene-therapy makes researchers discuss the possible reasons for the failure. Epigenetic changes are considered one of the substantial reasons. Successful restoration of the aberrant epigenetic changes may be a promising strategy for overcoming chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer. Herein, we will summarize the rationale for epigenetic therapy of cancer and current status of epigenetic studies in relation to chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:25337550

  4. PDCD6 is an independent predictor of progression free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6) beside its known proapoptotic functions may be a player in survival pathways in cancer. The purpose of this study is to further explore the roles of PDCD6 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Lentiviral vector with shRNA for PDCD6 was used to investigate the effects of PDCD6 knockdown on cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and motility in ovarian cancer cells. Two hundred twelve epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of PDCD6 using RT-PCR. Associations of its expression with clinical pathological factors, progression free and overall survival were evaluated. Results PDCD6 is highly expressed in metastatic ovarian cancer cells and positively regulates cell migration and invasion. Significantly, the level of PDCD6 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer correlates with clinical progression. Patients with medium or high levels of PDCD6 mRNA were at higher risk for disease progression, compared to those with low levels (HR, 1.29; P = 0.024 for medium levels; and HR, 1.57; P = 0.045 for high levels) after adjusting for age, disease stage, tumor grade, histologic type and residual tumor size. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated similar results. However, no association was found between PDCD6 expression and overall survival. Conclusions PDCD6 seems to play an important role in ovarian cancer progression and it may be an independent predictor of progression free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PDCD6 involve in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:22369209

  5. Korean epithelial ovarian cancer study (Ko-EVE): protocols and interim report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2012-01-01

    There have been few studies of Asian ovarian cancer and benign tumors. The primary aim of this paper was to report the protocol of the Ko-EVE study to examine epidemiological and molecular factors for ovarian cancer and benign neoplasms and to ascertain the major risk factors for ovarian cancer control in Korea. This case-control study covers incident epithelial ovarian cancers and benign neoplasms, four major centers participating in enrolling incident cases and 3 hospitals enrolling healthy controls among health examinees. Standardized questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, including sections on socio-demographics characteristics, past medical history, medication usage, family history, lifetime consumption of alcohol and tobacco, diet, physical activity, and reproductive factors for women. Various biological specimens were collected in the biorepository according to the standardized protocol. Annual follow-up for cancer cases and follow-up at the 1st year for benign tumor cases are performing to evaluate treatment effect and progression. Passive follow to see long-term survival will be conducting using record linkage with national data. The total number recruited in 2010-2011 was 246 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 362 benign epithelial tumors and 345 controls. We are planning to collect subjects for at least 1,500 sets of ovarian cancer, 2,000 benign tumors and 1,500 controls till 2018. The Ko-EVE will provide unique and important data to probe the etiology and natural history of Korean epithelial ovarian cancer. It will be continued by genomic and proteomic epidemiological analyses and future intervention studies for the prevention of ovarian cancer among Koreans.

  6. Loss of E-cadherin disrupts ovarian epithelial inclusion cyst formation and collective cell movement in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Pui-Wah; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Feltmate, Colleen; Muto, Michael G.; Hasselblatt, Kathleen; Lafferty-Whyte, Kyle; JeBailey, Lellean; MacConaill, Laura; Welch, William R.; Fong, Wing-Ping; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Increased inclusion cyst formation in the ovary is associated with ovarian cancer development. We employed in vitro three-dimensional (3D) organotypic models formed by normal human ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells and ovarian cancer cells to study the morphologies of normal and cancerous ovarian cortical inclusion cysts and the molecular changes during their transitions into stromal microenvironment. When compared with normal cysts that expressed tenascin, the cancerous cysts expressed high levels of laminin V and demonstrated polarized structures in Matrigel; and the cancer cells migrated collectively when the cyst structures were positioned in a stromal-like collagen I matrix. The molecular markers identified in the in vitro 3D models were verified in clinical samples. Network analysis of gene expression of the 3D structures indicates concurrent downregulation of transforming growth factor beta pathway genes and high levels of E-cadherin and microRNA200 (miR200) expression in the cancerous cysts and the migrating cancer cells. Transient silencing of E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer cells disrupted cyst structures and inhibited collective cell migration. Taken together, our studies employing 3D models have shown that E-cadherin is crucial for ovarian inclusion cyst formation and collective cancer cell migration. PMID:26684027

  7. Expression of AQP6 and AQP8 in epithelial ovarian tumor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiong; Zhou, Chunxia; Yang, Jianhua; Ding, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yunshan; Chen, Xuejun

    2016-04-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), the rapid transition pores for water molecules, play an important role in maintenance of intracellular water balance. Studies showed that AQPs were also involved in occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of tumors. In this study, we aimed to explore the distribution and expression differences of aquaporin 6 (AQP6) and aquaporin 8 (AQP8) in epithelial ovarian tumors. The expression of AQP6 and AQP8 in 47 cases of epithelial ovarian tumors were measured by immunochemical technique and Western blotting. AQP6 was strongly expressed in benign ovarian tumors, but weak signal was shown in malignant tumors. The difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Compared with serous adenoma and normal tissues, AQP6 expression in serous carcinoma was obviously decreased (P < 0.05). AQP8 expressions were both identified in benign and malignant tumors, but there was no significantly statistical difference (P > 0.05). For patients with large volume of malignant ascites (>1000 ml), AQP8 expression was increased (P < 0.05). AQP8 expression in malignant tumors was not related to different clinical stages, presence of lymphatic metastasis, and differentiation degrees (P > 0.05). These data showed that AQP6 and AQP8 had different expression degrees in epithelial ovarian tissues, which suggests that AQP6 and AQP8 may play certain roles in epithelial ovarian tumors.

  8. Microarray proteomic analysis discriminates tumorigenic mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells of divergent aggressive potential.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Ulises; Best, Lionel; Munroe, David J

    2010-12-01

    Cancer is an intrinsically heterogeneous disease. Tumors classified under the same etiology and histological type may display divergent growth and invasion properties, resulting in different progression rates and clinical outcomes. Here, we approached this subject in a syngeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Antibody microarrays were applied to obtain the proteomic profiles of IF5 and IG10, two spontaneously transformed mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cell lines of cognate clonal origin but different tumorigenic behavior in vivo. Repeated dye-swap allowed filter out about 40% of inconsistent signals from a total of 224 arrayed antibodies. Two-class comparison tests resulted in 31 differentially expressed proteins (adjusted p < 0.05). Proteins of the ErbB and focal adhesion signaling pathways showed higher levels in IG10, the most aggressive cell. In contrast, the less aggressive IF5 cell was enriched in proteins related to nuclear chromatin organization and cell-cycle. Additionally, comparison between protein levels and mRNA levels of MOSE cells resulted in a positive rank correlation for 50-60% of protein-mRNA pairs (p < 1.7 × 10(-5)). Importantly, the protein profile of IG10 is linked to invasion and chemotherapy response in human ovarian tumors while the IF5 profile is associated to growth control. The minimal IG10 network contained the proteins Jun, Smad4, Myc, Atf2, and Pak1 as major nodes while Chek2, Mdm2 and Ccna2 were the predominant nodes of the IF5 network. The molecular basis accounting for a high aggressive potential not necessarily related to an increased tumor growth capacity is discussed on a pathway-network basis.

  9. Spy1 participates in the proliferation and apoptosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shumin; Liu, Rong; Su, Min; Wei, Yingze; Yang, Shuyun; He, Song; Wang, Xia; Qiang, Fulin; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Shuyang; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Pan; Mao, Guoxin

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on determining the role of Spy1 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Speedy is a novel cell cycle protein capable of promoting cell proliferation. In this study, western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses were performed to detect the expression of Spy1 in ovarian cancer. Spy1 protein levels increased with ovarian cancer grade, and Kaplan-Meier curve showed that overexpression of Spy1 was significantly correlated with reduced patient survival. In vitro, Spy1 depletion in ovarian cell lines led to reduced proliferation according to CCK8 and plate colony assays. The expression of Spy1 was positively related to pThr187-p27. Flow cytometry revealed that the reduced expression of Spy1 induced the apoptosis of the EOC cells. In summary, our findings suggested that Spy1 may be a novel independent prognostic predictor of survival for ovarian patients.

  10. The Extracellular Matrix in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer – A Piece of a Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Angela; Howell, Viive M.; Colvin, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women and the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an integral component of both the normal and tumor microenvironment. ECM composition varies between tissues and is crucial for maintaining normal function and homeostasis. Dysregulation and aberrant deposition or loss of ECM components is implicated in ovarian cancer progression. The mechanisms by which tumor cells induce ECM remodeling to promote a malignant phenotype are yet to be elucidated. A thorough understanding of the role of the ECM in ovarian cancer is needed for the development of effective biomarkers and new therapies. PMID:26579497

  11. DNA methylation changes in epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Cunningham, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer has not improved, and despite histological differences, treatment is similar for all cases. Understanding the molecular basis for ovarian cancer risk and prognosis is fundamental, and to this end much has been gleaned about genetic changes contributing to risk, and to a lesser extent, survival. There’s considerable evidence for genetic differences between the four pathologically defined histological subtypes; however, the contribution of epigenetics is less well documented. In this report, we review alterations in DNA methylation in ovarian cancer, focusing on histological subtypes, and studies examining the roles of methylation in determining therapy response. As epigenetics is making its way into clinical care, we review the application of cell free DNA methylation to ovarian cancer diagnosis and care. Finally, we comment on recurrent limitations in the DNA methylation literature for ovarian cancer, which can and should be addressed to mature this field. PMID:26363302

  12. The essential roles of CCR7 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by hypoxia in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Han, Lin; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Jianfang; Yang, Xiangshan

    2014-12-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19/21 mediate the tumor mobility, invasion, and metastasis (Wu et al. Curr Pharm Des. 15:742-57, 2009). Hypoxia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to facilitate the tumor biology. Here, we addressed the roles of CCR7 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and hypoxia-induced serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) EMT. The expression level of CCR7 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of hypoxia-induced CCR7, HIF-1α, and EMT markers (N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-9). In addition, wound healing and Transwell assay were introduced to observe the capacity of migration and invasiveness. Our data showed CCR7 expression was observed in 22 cases of tissues and closely associated with lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage (III + IV). At 6, 12, 24, and 36 h following hypoxia, CCR7 and HIF-1α proteins were both obviously upregulated in a time-dependent method, compared with normal oxygen. In vitro, SKOV-3 expressed N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 once either CCL21 stimulation or hypoxia induction, while hypoxia accompanied with CCL21 induction exhibited strongest upregulation of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides, wound healing and Transwell assay further identified that hypoxia with CCL21 stimulation can remarkably promote cell migration and invasiveness. Taken together, CCR7 can constitutively express in epithelial ovarian carcinomas and be induced rapidly in response to hypoxia, which indeed participates in EMT development and prompts the cell migration and invasion. Thus, this study suggested that the epithelial ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis can be inhibited by antagonizing CCR7.

  13. Origin and molecular pathogenesis of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurman, R J

    2013-12-01

    A new paradigm for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer has recently been proposed which helps to explain persistent problems in describing the development and diverse morphology of these neoplasms. The paradigm incorporates recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of epithelial 'ovarian' cancer with new insights into the origin of these tumors. Correlated clinicopathologic and molecular genetic studies led to the development of a dualistic model that divides all the various histologic types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas into two broad categories designated 'type I' and 'type II'. The prototypic type I tumor is low-grade serous carcinoma and the prototypic type II tumor is high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). As the serous tumors comprise ∼70% of all epithelial ovarian tumors and account for the majority of deaths, the serous tumors will be the subject of this review. There are marked differences between the low-grade and high-grade serous tumors. Briefly, the former are indolent, present in stage I (tumor confined to the ovary) and develop from well-established precursors, so-called 'atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors,' which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF and ERBB2; they are relatively genetically stable. In contrast, HGSCs are aggressive, present in the advanced stage, and develop from intraepithelial carcinomas in the fallopian tube. They harbor TP53 mutations in over 95% of cases, but rarely harbor the mutations detected in the low-grade serous tumors. At the time of diagnosis they demonstrate marked chromosomal aberrations but over the course of the disease these changes remain relatively stable. Along with the recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, studies have demonstrated that the long sought for precursor of ovarian HGSC appears to develop from an occult intraepithelial carcinoma in the fimbrial region of the fallopian tube designated 'serous tubal

  14. [Polycystic ovary syndrome of extra-ovarian origin. Review].

    PubMed

    Terán Dávila, J; Teppa-Garrán, A D

    2001-03-01

    An established fact in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is an abnormal ovarian steroidogenesis. Though this suggest an intrinsic ovarian defect, the syndrome could also be influenced by factors outside the ovaries. Although of unknown etiology, the POS is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the gynecologic practice. The disorder is characterized by ultrasound findings of enlarged polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, obesity and including the appearance of infertility. There are a series of mechanisms involved in the extraovarian androgen increase in patients with POS. Among these mechanisms are implicated those of central and peripheral origin, genetic factors and adrenocortical dysfunction. In the same way, the alterations produced could imply genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, physiological and endocrinological factors. Sometimes all these factors could interact at the same time. The high serum androgen level could stop the pituitary gonadotropin production, either as a direct mechanism or as a result of its peripheral conversion. The increased androgens also explain the manifestations of clinical acne, hirsutism, and the detention in follicular ovarian maturation. All these manifestations are related with the menstrual disorders, anovulation, and infertility that these patients develop. The characteristics of the extraovarian POS include the 17-hydroxyprogesterone elevation in response to the ACTH test and the dexamethasone suppression of adrenal androgens. It is possible to improve the ovarian function in some patients with POS. This could be achieved with clomiphene citrate associated with glucocorticoids to induce ovulation.

  15. hMSH2 and GTBP expression in advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, A; Ferrandina, G; Raspaglio, G; Marone, M; Maggiano, N; Mastro, P Del; Panici, P Benedetti; Mancuso, S; Scambia, G

    1999-01-01

    Defects in DNA mismatch repair have been associated with both hereditary and sporadic forms of human cancer. Most of the attention has been focused on the incidence and genetics of mismatch repair defects, while little is known about the expression levels of the mismatch repair proteins and their significance in cancer cell biology. In this study, both the expression levels of hMSH2 and GTBP proteins were investigated by Western blotting in 20 untreated epithelial ovarian cancers. For these analyses, a commercial anti-hMSH2 monoclonal antibody and a newly generated mouse monoclonal anti-GTBP antibody were used. hMSH2 and GTBP proteins were detected by Western blotting in 19 out of 20 (95%) samples analysed and were found to be directly correlated (r = +0.51, P = 0.025). hMSH2 expression was significantly higher in ovarian cancer cells originating from solid tumours than from ascites (H = 4.5, P = 0.033), whereas GTBP content did not significantly differ according to the origin of cancer cells. No statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of hMSH2 and GTBP levels according to the age of the patients, grade of differentiation, histotype and extent of surgical debulking. The amount of hMSH2 protein was demonstrated to be significantly lower in stage IV than in stage III patients (H = 7.35, P = 0.007). Moreover, significantly lower hMSH2 levels were observed in non-responding patients compared to patients who achieved complete or partial response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy (H = 4.88, P = 0.027). Conversely, GTBP levels were not distributed differently according to stage of disease and chemotherapy response. Our study suggests a possible involvement of hMSH2 in ovarian cancer cell biology and susceptibility to chemotherapy. The possible biological and/or clinical role of GTBP expression in ovarian cancer patients remains to be elucidated. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408416

  16. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery∗

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study. A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  17. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-19

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  18. Cytokeratin 5 positive cells represent a therapy resistant subpopulation in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Bradley R.; Finlay-Schultz, Jessica; Rosen, Rachel B.; Qamar, Lubna; Post, Miriam D.; Behbakht, Kian; Spillman, Monique A.; Sartorius, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cytokeratin 5 (CK5) is an epithelial cell marker implicated in stem and progenitor cell activity in glandular reproductive tissues and endocrine and chemotherapy resistance in estrogen receptor (ER)+ breast cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of CK5 expression in ovarian cancer and the response of CK5+ cell populations to cisplatin therapy. Materials and Methods CK5 expression was evaluated in two ovarian tissue microarrays, representing 137 neoplasms, and six ovarian cancer cell lines. Cell lines were treated with IC50 cisplatin and the prevalence of CK5+ cells pre- and post-treatment determined. Proliferation of CK5+ vs. CK5− cell populations was determined using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Chemotherapy induced apoptosis in CK5+ vs. CK5− cells was measured using immunohistochemical staining for cleaved caspase-3. Results CK5 was expressed in 39.3% (42/107) of epithelial ovarian cancers with a range of 1-80% positive cells. Serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes had the highest percentage of CK5+ specimens. CK5 expression correlated with ER positivity (38/42 CK5+ tumors were also ER+). CK5 was expressed in 5/6 overall and 4/4 ER+ epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines ranging from 2.4-52.7% positive cells. CK5+ compared to CK5− cells were slower proliferating. The prevalence of CK5+ cells increased following 48 hour cisplatin treatment in 4/5 cell lines tested. CK5+ compared to CK5− ovarian cancer cells were more resistant to cisplatin induced apoptosis. Conclusions CK5 is expressed in a significant proportion of epithelial ovarian cancers and represents a slower proliferating, chemoresistant subpopulation that may warrant co-targeting in combination therapy. PMID:26495758

  19. Role of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on TGF-β1 signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kohan-Ivani, Karla; Gabler, Fernando; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    One of the hypotheses regarding the genesis of epithelial ovarian cancer involves the action of androgens on the proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells, as well as inclusion cysts. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether DHT causes changes in the TGF-β1 pathway that might modify the anti-proliferative effect of the latter. The levels of TGF-β1 protein, of its receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), of Smad2/3 (canonical signaling pathway protein) and of p21 (cell cycle protein) were assessed in ovarian tissues, epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780) and control cell lines (HOSE) through the use of immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cell lines were treated with 100 nmol/L DHT, 10 ng/mL of TGF-β1 and DHT + TGF-β1 during 72 h in the presence and absence of a siRNA against androgen receptor. After treatment, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 levels were detected through Western blotting and p21 was assessed through immunocytochemistry. Epithelial ovarian cancer tissues showed a decrease in TGF-β1 I receptor (p < 0.05) and a change in Smad2/3 protein levels. Additionally, after treatment of cell lines with DHT, protein levels of TGF-β1 receptors (TGFBR1-TGFBR2) showed a decrease (p < 0.05) that might cause a potential disorder in TGF-β1 response, represented by the significant decrease in p21 protein levels in the presence of DHT (p < 0.001). Overall, our results indicate a defect in the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer caused by androgen action, thus suggesting eventual changes in such tissue proliferation rates.

  20. Risk factors of epithelial ovarian carcinomas among women with endometriosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Line H; Schnack, Tine H; Buchardi, Kristina; Hummelshoj, Lone; Missmer, Stacey A; Forman, Axel; Blaakaer, Jan

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the published literature on epidemiologic risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among women with a diagnosis of endometriosis. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Studies comparing epidemiologic risk factors of epithelial ovarian cancer among women with endometriosis were included. A quality assessment was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Eight of 794 articles met the inclusion criteria. A lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was observed in women with documented complete surgical excision of endometriotic tissue and suggested among women with unilateral oophorectomy. The use of oral contraceptives (≥10 years) may be associated with a lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer among women with endometriosis, whereas older age at endometriosis diagnosis (≥45 years, pre- or postmenopausal), nulliparity, hyperestrogenism (endogenous or exogenous), premenopausal status at endometriosis diagnosis, solid compartments as well as larger size of endometrioma (≥9 cm in diameter at endometriosis diagnosis) were all associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. A subgroup of women with endometriosis characterized by endometriosis observed through surgery or imaging after the age of 45 years, nulliparity, postmenopausal status at endometriosis diagnosis, larger size of endometrioma (>9 cm) at endometriosis diagnosis, hyperestrogenism (endogenous or exogenous) and/or cysts with solid compartments may have an elevated risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, due to the limited number and size of studies in this area we cannot draw definitive conclusions. Further research into a risk factor profile among women with endometriosis is needed before clear recommendations can be made. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Long-term mortality among women with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dinkelspiel, Helen E; Champer, Miriam; Hou, June; Tergas, Ana; Burke, William M; Huang, Yongmei; Neugut, Alfred I; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2015-08-01

    Patients with solid tumors are at greatest risk for dying from their cancers in the five years following diagnosis. For most malignancies, deaths from other chronic diseases begin to exceed those from cancer at some point. As little is known about the causes of death among long-term survivors of ovarian cancer, we examined causes of death by years from diagnosis. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 1988 and 2012. We compared causes of death by stage, age, and interval time after diagnosis. A total of 67,385 women were identified. For stage I neoplasms, 13.6% (CI, 13.0-14.2%) died from ovarian cancer, 4.2% (CI, 3.8-4.5%) from cardiovascular disease, 3.6% (CI, 3.3-3.9%) from other causes and 2.6% (CI, 2.4-2.9%) from other tumors; ovarian cancer was the leading cause of death until 7 years after diagnosis after which time deaths are more frequently due to other causes. For those with stage III-IV tumors, 67.8% (CI, 67.3-68.2%) died from ovarian cancer, 2.8% (CI, 2.6-2.9%) from other causes, 2.3% (CI, 2.2-2.4%) from cardiovascular disease and 1.9% (CI, 1.7-2.0%) from other cancers; ovarian cancer was the most frequent cause of death in years 1-15 after which time deaths were more commonly due to other causes. The probability of dying from ovarian cancer decreases with time. Ovarian cancer remains the most common cause of death for 15 years after diagnosis in women with stage III-IV tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Veronica; Hirshfield, Kim M; Ganesan, Shridar; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2016-12-15

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple histological subtypes. Molecular diversity has been shown to occur within specific histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, between different tumors of an individual patient, as well as within individual tumors. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer tumors have provided the basis for a simplified classification scheme in which these cancers are classified as either type I or type II tumors, and these two categories have implications regarding disease pathogenesis and prognosis. Molecular analyses, primarily based on next-generation sequencing, otherwise known as high-throughput sequencing, are allowing for further refinement of ovarian cancer classification, facilitating the elucidation of the site(s) of precursor lesions of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and providing insight into the processes of clonal selection and evolution that may be associated with development of chemoresistance. Potential therapeutic targets have been identified from recent molecular profiling studies of these tumors, and the effectiveness and safety of a number of specific targeted therapies have been evaluated or are currently being studied for the treatment of women with this disease.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Veronica; Hirshfield, Kim M.; Ganesan, Shridar; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple histological subtypes. Molecular diversity has been shown to occur within specific histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, between different tumors of an individual patient, as well as within individual tumors. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer tumors have provided the basis for a simplified classification scheme in which these cancers are classified as either type I or type II tumors, and these two categories have implications regarding disease pathogenesis and prognosis. Molecular analyses, primarily based on next-generation sequencing, otherwise known as high-throughput sequencing, are allowing for further refinement of ovarian cancer classification, facilitating the elucidation of the site(s) of precursor lesions of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and providing insight into the processes of clonal selection and evolution that may be associated with development of chemoresistance. Potential therapeutic targets have been identified from recent molecular profiling studies of these tumors, and the effectiveness and safety of a number of specific targeted therapies have been evaluated or are currently being studied for the treatment of women with this disease. PMID:27983698

  4. Integrated analysis reveals tubal and ovarian originated serous ovarian cancer and predicts differential therapeutic responses.

    PubMed

    Hao, Dapeng; Li, Jingjing; Jia, Shanshan; Meng, Yuan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Chao; Di, Li-Jun

    2017-09-22

    The relative importance of fallopian tube (FT) compared to ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) in the genesis of serous type of ovarian cancer (SOC) is still unsettled. Here, we followed an integrated approach to study the tissue origin of SOC, as well as its association with clinical outcome and response to therapeutic drugs. A collection of transcriptome data of 80 FTs, 89 OSEs and 2,668 SOCs was systematically analyzed to determine the characteristic of FT-like and OSE-like tumors. A molecular signature was developed for identifying tissue origin of SOC and then was used to re-evaluate the prognostic genes and therapeutic biomarkers of SOC of different tissue origins. IHC staining of tissue array and functional experiments on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines were used to further validate the key findings. The expression patterns of tissue specific genes, prognostic genes and molecular markers all support a dualistic tissue origin of SOC, from either FT or OSE. A molecular signature was established to identify the tissue identity of SOCs. Surprisingly, the signature showed a strong association with overall survival [OSE-like versus FT-like, HR = 4.16, 95%CI, 2.67-6.48, p<10-9]. The phamacogenomic approach revealed AXL to be a therapeutic target of the aggressive OSE-derived SOC. SOC has two subtypes originated from either FT or OSE, which show different clinical and pathological features. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Identification and validation of differentially expressed proteins in epithelial ovarian cancers using quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangming; Liu, Chongdong; Xu, Jiatong; Deng, Haiteng; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignant tumor because of its high recurrence rate. In the present work, in order to find new therapeutic targets, we identified 8480 proteins in thirteen pairs of ovarian cancer tissues and normal ovary tissues through quantitative proteomics. 498 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ovarian cancer, which involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, response to stimulus and biosynthetic process. The expression levels of chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) and lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in normal ovary tissues as confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The knockdown of CLIC1 in A2780 cell line downregulated expression of CTPS1, leading to the decrease of CTP and an arrest of cell cycle G1 phase, which results into a slower proliferation. CLIC1-knockdown can also slow down the tumor growth in vivo. Besides, CLIC1-knockdown cells showed an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and cisplatin, suggesting that CLIC1 was involved in regulation of redox and drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells. These results indicate CLIC1 promotes tumorgenesis, and is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27825122

  6. Age at natural menopause and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Schildkraut, J M; Cooper, G S; Halabi, S; Calingaert, B; Hartge, P; Whittemore, A S

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between age at natural menopause and risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer. Using data from six population-based, case-control studies conducted in the United States, age at natural menopause among 1411 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 6380 control subjects were analyzed using survival analysis methods, including Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazards models. Subjects ranged from 20 to 81 years of age. The median age at natural menopause was 50 years among cases compared with 51 years among controls, a difference of borderline statistical significance (P =.06). The hazard ratio for the relationship between case-control status and age at natural menopause was 1.09 (95% confidence interval 0.99, 1.20). Controlling for potential confounders including parity, oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, smoking, and body mass index did not appreciably change this association. There was little evidence of an association between early age at natural menopause and early onset ovarian cancer (diagnosis age under 48 years). We observed a weak association between ovarian cancer risk and age at natural menopause and, among women with early onset disease, there was little evidence to suggest that early menopause is related to ovarian cancer. Thus, there seems little need for increased surveillance or screening for ovarian cancer among women with early natural menopause.

  7. CSIOVDB: a microarray gene expression database of epithelial ovarian cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Yang, He; Ye, Jieru; Low, Jeffrey; Choolani, Mahesh; Tan, David Shao Peng; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju

    2015-12-22

    Databases pertaining to various diseases provide valuable resources on particular genes of interest but lack the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status. CSIOVDB is a transcriptomic microarray database of 3,431 human ovarian cancers, including carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum, and metastasis to the ovary. The database also comprises stroma and ovarian surface epithelium from normal ovary tissue, as well as over 400 early-stage ovarian cancers. This unique database presents the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status for each ovarian cancer sample, with major ovarian cancer histologies (clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, low-grade serous, serous) represented. Clinico-pathological parameters available include tumor grade, surgical debulking status, clinical response and age. The database has 1,868 and 1,516 samples with information pertaining to overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively. The database also provides integration with the copy number, DNA methylation and mutation data from TCGA. CSIOVDB seeks to provide a resource for biomarker and therapeutic target exploration for ovarian cancer research.

  8. Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K.; Kunte, Dhananja; Hurteau, Jean A.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Krosnjar, Nela; Shah, Maitri; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late-stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at-risk women as they preferentially target low-grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that can quantify the nanoscale macromolecular density fluctuations within biological cells via a biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). Using the concept of field carcinogenesis, we propose a method of detecting ovarian cancer by PWS assessment of endometrial and endocervical columnar cells. The study includes 26 patients (controls = 15, cancer = 11) for endometrium and 23 (controls = 13, cancer = 10) for endocervix. Our results highlight a significant increase in Ld (% fold-increase > 50%, P-value < 0.05) for columnar epithelial cells obtained from cancer patients compared to controls for both endocervix and endometrium. Overall, the quantification of field carcinogenic events in the endometrium and the novel observation of its extension to the cervix are unique findings in the understanding of ovarian field carcinogenesis. We further show independent validation of the presence of cervical field carcinogenesis with mico-RNA expression data. PMID:23436651

  9. Vaccine Therapy and IDO1 Inhibitor INCB024360 in Treating Patients With Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Who Are in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-17

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  10. Cytokines and Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jammal, Millena Prata; Martins-Filho, Agrimaldo; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and delayed diagnosis. Inflammation is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and the inflammatory response is involved in almost all stages of tumor development. Immunohistochemical staining in stroma and epithelium of a panel of cytokines in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasm was evaluated. In addition, immunostaining was related to prognostic factors in malignant tumors. METHOD The study group comprised 28 ovarian benign neoplasias and 28 ovarian malignant neoplasms. A panel of cytokines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Th1: IL-2 and IL-8; Th2: IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10; and TNFR1). Chi-square test with Yates’ correction was used, which was considered significant if less than 0.05. RESULTS TNFR1, IL-5, and IL-10 had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 in benign neoplasms compared with malignant tumors. Malignant tumors had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 for IL-2 in relation to benign tumors. The immunostaining 0/1 of IL 8 was more frequent in the stroma of benign neoplasms compared with malignant neoplasms. Evaluation of the ovarian cancer stroma showed that histological grade 3 was significantly correlated with staining 2/3 for IL-2 (P = 0.004). Women whose disease-free survival was less than 2.5 years had TNFR1 stromal staining 2/3 (P = 0.03) more frequently. CONCLUSION IL-2 and TNFR1 stromal immunostaining are related prognostic factors in ovarian cancer and can be the target of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27512342

  11. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Epigenetic Therapies for Chemoresensitization of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matei, Daniela E.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic drugs have been shown to enhance gene expression and drug sensitivity in ovarian cancer cell lines and animal models. Based on promising pre-clinical studies, DNA methylation inhibitors in combination with existing chemotherapeutic agents have the potential for overcoming acquired drug resistance, laying the foundation for this specific class of epigenetic drug in ovarian cancer clinical trials. The recent completion of phase I trials of decitabine have yielded important information on dosing schedules and biological endpoints for evaluating patient responses. In addition, epigenetic drug effects on pharmacodyamic targets are beginning to emerge, and predictive epigenetic biomarkers and next generation epigenome therapeutics are being developed for application in clinical settings for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:19854495

  13. The Genetic Epidemiology of Early-Onset Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, John F.; Thompson, Deborah; Bobrow, Lynda; Dalal, Neha; Gore, Martin; Bishop, D. T.; Scott, Ian; Evans, Gareth; Daly, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Summary We conducted a population-based study to determine the contribution of germline mutations in known candidate genes to ovarian cancer diagnosed at age <30 years. Women with epithelial ovarian cancer were identified through cancer registries. DNA samples were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1, the “ovarian cancer–cluster region” (nucleotides 3139–7069) of BRCA2, and the mismatch-repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1. Probable germline mutations in hMLH1 were identified in 2 (2%; 95% confidence interval 1%–8%) of 101 women with invasive ovarian cancer diagnosed at age <30 years. No germline mutations were identified in any of the other genes analyzed. There were no striking pedigrees suggestive of families with either breast/ovarian cancer or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). There was a significantly increased incidence of all cancers in first-degree relatives of women with invasive disease (relative risk [RR] = 1.6, P=.01) but not in second-degree relatives or in relatives of women with borderline cases. First-degree relatives of women with invasive disease had increased risks of ovarian cancer (RR = 4.8, P=.03), myeloma (RR = 10, P=.01), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 7, P=.004). Germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, msh2, and mlh1 contribute to only a minority of cases of early-onset epithelial ovarian cancer. Our data suggest that early-onset ovarian cancer is not associated with a greatly increased risk of cancer in close relatives. PMID:10577927

  14. [Expression Level of Membrane-associated Proteins Numb in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma and Its Relationship with Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Markers CD117, CD133, ALDH1.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Ya-Li; Bai, Li-Ping; Zheng, Ai

    2016-11-01

    To explore the expression level of membrane-associated protein Numb in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and its relationship with ovarian cancer stem cell markers CD117,CD133,acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1(ALDH1). A total of 136 patients who had ovarian tumors and 22 patients who had not ovarian tumors in Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics,West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University were chosen as the study subjects.According to the histopathologic examination results,they were divided into epithelial ovarian carcinoma group (n=92),ovarian borderline tumor group (n=23),ovarian benign tumor group (n=21) and normal ovary group (n=22).Expression levels of Numb protein,CD117,CD133 and ALDH1 in ovarian tissue were detected by immunohistochemical SP method and these several kinds of protein expression differences and correlation statistical analysis were performend. 1 The positive expression rate of Numb protein in epithelial ovarian carcinoma group was higher than that in benign tumor or normal ovary group,also Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian borderline tumor group was higher than that in normal ovary group,and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).2 Numb protein positive expression rate in ovarian tissue in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma FIGO stage1-2 was lower than that in stage 3-4,also the same in no lymph nodes metastasis compared with lymph nodes invasion,and the differences of positive expression rate were statistically significant (P<0.05).While there were no significant differences among different age,histopathological types,pathological grades and residual tumor size (P>0.05).3 There was no correlation between Numb protein and CD117 and CD133 positive expression rate in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissue [correlation coefficient (r)=0.116,P=0.261; r=0.083,P=0.425].However,the positive expression rate of Numb protein and ALDH1 was positively correlated (r=0.296,P=0.261). The expression of Numb protein

  15. Dealing with microscopic peritoneal metastases of epithelial ovarian cancer. A surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Azaïs, Henri; Estevez, Juan Pablo; Foucher, Périne; Kerbage, Yohan; Mordon, Serge; Collinet, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Understanding biology and progression mechanisms of peritoneal metastases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a cornerstone in the knowledge and the comprehensive management of the disease. Despite clinical remission after the association of complete cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, peritoneal recurrence still occurs in 60% of patients. Eligible studies, published from 1980 to June 2016, were retrieved through ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDLINE, Cochrane databases and bibliography searches. We reviewed all publications that deals with microscopic peritoneal metastases of EOC in French and English. To discuss expected benefits of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, fluorescence-guided surgery or IP photodynamic therapy, we reviewed most recent and relevant studies. The final reference list was generated on the basis of originality and relevance to the broad scope of this review. Published data concerning early-stage ovarian cancer suggest that occult peritoneal or epiploic metastases are present in 1.2%-15.1% of cases. In the frequent case of advanced-stage disease, residual microscopic lesions are ignored by conventional surgery. We are convinced that microscopic peritoneal metastases are a relevant surgical therapeutic target. This article discusses existing data on microscopic peritoneal metastases, the treatment indications, the diagnostic and therapeutic surgical approaches to be developed and their expected benefits. A local therapeutic strategy to target microscopic lesions is needed in addition to complete macroscopic cytoreductive surgery to decrease the rate of peritoneal recurrence. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and targeted photodynamic therapy could play a role in this new paradigm. The roles of these different options must be defined by future researches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PARP-1 may be involved in angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Yan; Lv, Shuqing; Zhang, Cancan; Tian, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is involved in DNA repair and has been implicated in chemoresistance. The present study investigated whether PARP-1 promotes angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. PARP-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression and CD34+ microvascular density (MVD) were assessed using immunohistochemistry in 60 human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. PARP-1 was stably knocked-down in SKOV3 cells using a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA); angiogenic capacity was assessed using the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tubule formation assay; and PARP-1 and VEGF-A expression were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA. PARP-1 was found to be expressed in 73.3% (44/60) of the human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens and was significantly associated with VEGF-A, MVD, tumor size, histological grade and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.05). Compared with cells transfected with a negative control siRNA, knockdown of PARP-1 significantly suppressed the ability of SKOV3 cell-conditioned media to promote HUVEC tubule formation on Matrigel in vitro. Knockdown of PARP-1 in SKOV3 cells also significantly reduced VEGF-A mRNA and protein expression and secretion. In summary, PARP-1 is overexpressed and may enhance angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer by upregulating VEGF-A. PMID:28101214

  17. Evidence for differential viral oncolytic efficacy in an in vitro model of epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jessica G; Valdes, Yudith Ramos; Barrett, John W; Bell, John C; Stojdl, David; McFadden, Grant; McCart, J Andrea; DiMattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is unique among most carcinomas in that metastasis occurs by direct dissemination of malignant cells traversing throughout the intraperitoneal fluid. Accordingly, we test new therapeutic strategies using an in vitro three-dimensional spheroid suspension culture model that mimics key steps of this metastatic process. In the present study, we sought to uncover the differential oncolytic efficacy among three different viruses—Myxoma virus, double-deleted vaccinia virus, and Maraba virus—using three ovarian cancer cell lines in our metastasis model system. Herein, we demonstrate that Maraba virus effectively infects, replicates, and kills epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in proliferating adherent cells and with slightly slower kinetics in tumor spheroids. Myxoma virus and vaccinia viruses infect and kill adherent cells to a much lesser extent than Maraba virus, and their oncolytic potential is almost completely attenuated in spheroids. Myxoma virus and vaccinia are able to infect and spread throughout spheroids, but are blocked in the final stages of the lytic cycle, and oncolytic-mediated cell killing is reactivated upon spheroid reattachment. Alternatively, Maraba virus has a remarkably reduced ability to initially enter spheroid cells, yet rapidly infects and spreads throughout spheroids generating significant cell killing effects. We show that low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in ovarian cancer spheroids is reduced and this controls efficient Maraba virus binding and entry into infected cells. Taken together, these results are the first to implicate the potential impact of differential viral oncolytic properties at key steps of ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:27119108

  18. Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12 US case-control studies. II. Invasive epithelial ovarian cancers in white women. Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, A S; Harris, R; Itnyre, J

    1992-11-15

    Data collected from 2,197 white ovarian cancer patients and 8,893 white controls in 12 US case-control studies conducted in the period 1956-1986 were used to evaluate the relation of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer to reproductive and menstrual characteristics, exogenous estrogen use, and prior pelvic surgeries. Clear trends of decreasing risk were evident with increasing number of pregnancies (regardless of outcome) and increasing duration of breast feeding and oral contraceptive use. Ovarian dysfunction leading to both infertility and malignancy is an unlikely explanation for these trends for several reasons: 1) The trends were evident even among the highly parous; 2) risk among nulliparous women did not vary by marital status or gravidity; and 3) risk among ever-married women showed little relation to length of longest pregnancy attempt or history of clinically diagnosed infertility. Risk was increased among women who had used fertility drugs and among women with long total duration of premenopausal sexual activity without birth control; these associations were particularly strong among the nulligravid. No consistent trends in risk were seen with age at menarche, age at menopause, or duration of estrogen replacement therapy. A history of tubal ligation or of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation was associated with reduced ovarian cancer risk. These observations suggest that pregnancy, breast feeding, and oral contraceptive use induce biological changes that protect against ovarian malignancy, that, at most, a small fraction of the excess ovarian cancer risk among nulliparous women is due to infertility, and that any increased risk associated with infertility may be due to the use of fertility drugs.

  19. Pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Awolude, Olutosin Alaba; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC)  refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu).  The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu antigens was used to determine carcinomas that are among the TNEOC. We also compared the clinicopathological parameters (age, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, grade and histological subtype) in patients with TNEOC and non- TNEOC . Results: Thirty-eight (42.2%) of the 90 tumours diagnosed as EOC were negative for ER, PR and HER2/neu expression. There was no significant association between TNEOC with other parameters such as age, FIGO stage and histological grade. Sixteen (66.7%) of the 24 mucinous carcinomas were triple negative, while only 21 (33.3%) of the 63 serous carcinomas were triple-negative and one (50%) of the two endometrioid carcinomas was triple negative. There was a significant association between triple-negative tumours and histological subtypes of EOC (p = 0.034). Conclusions: A subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that is negative for ER, PR and HER-2/neu has been discovered in indigenous African women. TNEOC expression is high and is comparable to the triple negative breast cancer subtype seen in people of African ancestry. Future study of TNEOC in a large sample size should be considered. PMID:27853516

  20. Pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Awolude, Olutosin Alaba; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC)  refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu).  The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu antigens was used to determine carcinomas that are among the TNEOC. We also compared the clinicopathological parameters (age, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, grade and histological subtype) in patients with TNEOC and non- TNEOC . Results: Thirty-eight (42.2%) of the 90 tumours diagnosed as EOC were negative for ER, PR and HER2/neu expression. There was no significant association between TNEOC with other parameters such as age, FIGO stage and histological grade. Sixteen (66.7%) of the 24 mucinous carcinomas were triple negative, while only 21 (33.3%) of the 63 serous carcinomas were triple-negative and one (50%) of the two endometrioid carcinomas was triple negative. There was a significant association between triple-negative tumours and histological subtypes of EOC (p = 0.034). Conclusions: A subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that is negative for ER, PR and HER-2/neu has been discovered in indigenous African women. TNEOC expression is high and is comparable to the triple negative breast cancer subtype seen in people of African ancestry. Future study of TNEOC in a large sample size should be considered.

  1. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Ovarian Cancer: The Fallopian Tube as the Site of Origin and Opportunities for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    George, Sophia H. L.; Garcia, Ruslan; Slomovitz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option of risk-reducing surgery that involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Growing evidence now supports the fallopian tube epithelia as an etiological site for the development of HGSC and consequently, salpingectomy alone is emerging as a prophylactic option. This review discusses the site of origin of EOC, the rationale for risk-reducing salpingectomy in the high-risk population, and opportunities for salpingectomy in the low-risk population. PMID:27200296

  3. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. Isolation and characterization of stromal progenitor cells from ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At least one-third of epithelial ovarian cancers are associated with the development of ascites containing heterogeneous cell populations, including tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and stromal elements. The components of ascites and their effects on the tumor cell microenvironment remain poorly understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize stromal progenitor cells from the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma (EOA). Methods Seventeen ascitic fluid samples and 7 fresh tissue samples were collected from 16 patients with EOA. The ascites samples were then cultured in vitro in varying conditions. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to isolate and characterize 2 cell populations with different morphologies (epithelial type and mesenchymal type) deriving from the ascites samples. The in vitro cell culture model was established using conditional culture medium. Results The doubling times of the epithelial type and mesenchymal type cells were 36 h and 48 h, respectively, indicating faster growth of the epithelial type cells compared to the mesenchymal type cells. Cultured in vitro, these ascitic cells displayed the potential for self-renewal and long-term proliferation, and expressed the typical cancer stem/progenitor cell markers CD44high, CD24low, and AC133+. These cells also demonstrated high BMP-2, BMP4, TGF-β, Rex-1, and AC133 early gene expression, and expressed EGFR, integrin α2β1, CD146, and Flt-4, which are highly associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. The epithelial type cells demonstrated higher cytokeratin 18 and E-cadherin expression than the mesenchymal type cells. The mesenchymal type cells, in contrast, demonstrated higher AC133, CD73, CD105, CD117, EGFR, integrin α2β1, and CD146 surface marker expression than the epithelial type cells. Conclusion The established culture system provides an in vitro model for the selection of drugs that target cancer-associated stromal progenitor cells

  5. Ovarian mucinous tumors arising from mature cystic teratomas--a molecular genetic approach for understanding the cellular origin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kaho; Yamashita, Yoriko; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Takahashi, Koji; Hashimoto, Katsunori; Miyata, Tomoko; Kawai, Kumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagasaka, Tetsuro

    2014-04-01

    Mucinous tumors of the ovary are frequently associated with mature cystic teratomas, and it has been speculated that the mucinous tumors arise from teratoma components. The cellular origins of mature cystic teratomas are believed to be post-meiotic ovarian germ cells, and the analysis of microsatellite markers such as short tandem repeats is suitable for determining the cellular origin of tumors. In this study, we analyzed 3 ovarian mature cystic teratomas, all of which were associated with simultaneous ovarian mucinous tumors within the same ovary. Two of the 3 mucinous tumors were intestinal-type and the other was endocervical type. A laser capture microdissection technique was used to separate the epithelial component of the mucinous tumor, the components of the mature cystic teratoma, and control ovarian somatic tissue. Using short tandem repeat analysis based on 6 markers (D20S480, D6S2439, D6S1056, D9S1118, D4S2639, and D17S1290), we could distinguish the germ cell (homozygous) or somatic (heterozygous) origin of a given component in each sample. The epithelial components of the intestinal-type mucinous tumors in cases 1 and 2 were homozygous, and the epithelial component in case 3 (endocervical type) was heterozygous. All teratomatous components were homozygous, and the control components were heterozygous. In addition, we analyzed 3 mature cystic teratomas without mucinous tumors, and all 3 were homozygous in the tumor component. Our data suggest that the origin of mucinous tumors in the ovary may differ among histological subtypes, and intestinal-type mucinous tumors may arise from mature cystic teratomas, although endocervical-type mucinous tumors may not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity of epithelial ovarian cancer and the clinical implications for molecular targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Huimin; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Li, Menghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Keng

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy, and tumoural heterogeneity (TH) has been blamed for treatment failure. The genomic and epigenomic atlas of EOC varies significantly with tumour histotype, grade, stage, sensitivity to chemotherapy and prognosis. Rapidly accumulating knowledge about the genetic and epigenetic events that control TH in EOC has facilitated the development of molecular-targeted therapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, designed to target homologous recombination, are poised to change how breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA)-related ovarian cancer is treated. Epigenetic treatment regimens being tested in clinical or preclinical studies could provide promising novel treatment approaches and hope for improving patient survival.

  7. Clinicopathology of EpCAM and EGFR in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingying; Zhao, Lijing; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shuhua; Cui, Manhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to explore the expression of EpCAM and EGFR in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and their correlation with clinicopathological parameters. The protein expression levels of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from 30 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 15 normal ovary tissues. Clinicopathological characteristics were gathered by retrospective review of the patients’ files. The correlation between EpCAM and EGFR expression, as well as their association with clinical pathological parameters were investigated. The SPSS 17.0 package was used to perform statistical analyses. The positive expression rates of EpCAM and EGFR were significantly elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues than in normal ovary tissues. The positive expressions of EpCAM and EGFR in EOC were associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between EpCAM and EGFR expression in EOC. The co-expression of EpCAM and EGFR may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of EOC and might provide a promising molecular therapeutic target. PMID:28401199

  8. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Ramus, Susan J.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Narod, Steven A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68–0.90, p = 5.59 × 10−4]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1, may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways. PMID:26807442

  9. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC).

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja Kh; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Kelemen, Linda E; Ramus, Susan J; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Goode, Ellen L; Narod, Steven A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68-0.90, p = 5.59 × 10(-4)]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1, may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways.

  10. Analysis of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Markers in Ovarian Cancer Reveals Phenotypic Heterogeneity and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Robert; Li, Zong-Yi; Liu, Ying; Beyer, Ines; Persson, Jonas; Sova, Pavel; Möller, Thomas; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli; Hamerlik, Petra; Drescher, Charles; Urban, Nicole; Bartek, Jiri; Lieber, André

    2011-01-01

    In our studies of ovarian cancer cells we have identified subpopulations of cells that are in a transitory E/M hybrid stage, i.e. cells that simultaneously express epithelial and mesenchymal markers. E/M cells are not homogenous but, in vitro and in vivo, contain subsets that can be distinguished based on a number of phenotypic features, including the subcellular localization of E-cadherin, and the expression levels of Tie2, CD133, and CD44. A cellular subset (E/M-MP) (membrane E-cadherinlow/cytoplasmic E-cadherinhigh/CD133high, CD44high, Tie2low) is highly enriched for tumor-forming cells and displays features which are generally associated with cancer stem cells. Our data suggest that E/M-MP cells are able to differentiate into different lineages under certain conditions, and have the capacity for self-renewal, i.e. to maintain a subset of undifferentiated E/M-MP cells during differentiation. Trans-differentiation of E/M-MP cells into mesenchymal or epithelial cells is associated with a loss of stem cell markers and tumorigenicity. In vivo xenograft tumor growth is driven by E/M-MP cells, which give rise to epithelial ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, in vitro, we found that E/M-MP cells differentiate into mesenchymal cells, in a process that involves pathways associated with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We also detected phenotypic plasticity that was dependent on external factors such as stress created by starvation or contact with either epithelial or mesenchymal cells in co-cultures. Our study provides a better understanding of the phenotypic complexity of ovarian cancer and has implications for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:21264259

  11. "Ovarian vascular pedicle" sign revealing organ of origin of a pelvic mass lesion on helical CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Jeong, Yoong Ki; Park, Ji Kang; Hwang, Jae Choel

    2003-07-01

    We evaluated the "ovarian vascular pedicle" sign as a way of differentiating ovarian from subserosal uterine lesions on single-detector helical CT. We prospectively evaluated 131 patients who had a pelvic mass suspected of originating in the ovary or subserosal zone of the uterus and had undergone helical CT before surgery. A total of 108 ovarian lesions and 23 subserosal uterine myomas were confirmed. CT images were analyzed prospectively by consensus of two radiologists who thoroughly evaluated the retrograde tracing of the gonadal veins to the ovary or pelvic mass. To assess the value of analyzing the ovarian vascular pedicle sign in identifying the organ of origin of a pelvic mass, we compared statistical proportions for the frequencies of the sign in ovarian tumors and subserosal uterine myomas by performing the chi-square test. The probabilities for the presence of the ovarian vascular pedicle sign as a positive finding for a pelvic mass of ovarian origin were calculated. The presence of the ovarian vascular pedicle sign was identified in 92% (99/108) of ovarian masses and in 13% (3/23) of subserosal uterine myomas. The sign was statistically significant (p < 0.01) for differentiating a mass of ovarian origin from a mass of subserosal uterine origin. When the ovarian vascular pedicle sign on helical CT confirmed the ovarian origin, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 92% (99/108), 87% (20/23), 97% (99/102), 69% (20/29), and 91% (119/131), respectively. The presence of the ovarian vascular pedicle sign on helical CT is valuable for confirming the ovarian origin of a pelvic tumor and for differentiating an ovarian tumor from subserosal uterine myoma.

  12. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma diagnosis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dória, Maria Luisa; McKenzie, James S.; Mroz, Anna; Phelps, David L.; Speller, Abigail; Rosini, Francesca; Strittmatter, Nicole; Golf, Ottmar; Veselkov, Kirill; Brown, Robert; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Takats, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent among European women, and is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death. Current histopathological diagnoses of tumour severity are based on interpretation of, for example, immunohistochemical staining. Desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) generates spatially resolved metabolic profiles of tissues and supports an objective investigation of tumour biology. In this study, various ovarian tissue types were analysed by DESI-MSI and co-registered with their corresponding haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images. The mass spectral data reveal tissue type-dependent lipid profiles which are consistent across the n = 110 samples (n = 107 patients) used in this study. Multivariate statistical methods were used to classify samples and identify molecular features discriminating between tissue types. Three main groups of samples (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, borderline ovarian tumours, normal ovarian stroma) were compared as were the carcinoma histotypes (serous, endometrioid, clear cell). Classification rates >84% were achieved for all analyses, and variables differing statistically between groups were determined and putatively identified. The changes noted in various lipid types help to provide a context in terms of tumour biochemistry. The classification of unseen samples demonstrates the capability of DESI-MSI to characterise ovarian samples and to overcome existing limitations in classical histopathology. PMID:27976698

  13. Oncogenic Fli-1 is a potential prognostic marker for the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Hu, Lingyun; Li, Wei; Wang, Guanjun; Li, Yan; Yan, Lei; Li, Ailing; Cui, Jiuwei

    2014-06-12

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, but its etiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of Fli-1 in ovarian carcinogenesis and disease survival. Fli-1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 104 primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with known follow-up data and 20 controls. Correlation between Fli-1 expression and clinical characteristics was evaluated with the logistic regression. Kaplan Meier analysis was used to assess the impact of Fli-1 expression on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Cell proliferation and migration assay were used to explore the function of Fli-1 in ovarian cancer cells. Fli-1 was expressed in 74% cases and up-regulated in EOC tissues compared with normal control tissues (p< 0.05). The high expression of Fli-1 was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage, positive lymph nodal involvement, and poor OS and DFS (p< 0.05). Further analysis showed Fli-1 is an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS. Down-regulation of Fli-1 inhibited cell proliferation but did not affect cell migration in SKOV3 cells. This study revealed that Fli-1 played an essential role in the development and progression of ovarian cancers. Its overexpression is intimately related to malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome, suggesting that Fli-1 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic molecular target in ovarian cancer.

  14. The inherent cellular radiosensitivity of epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rotmensch, J.; Schwartz, J.L.; Atcher, R.W.; Grdina, D.J.; Toohill, M.; Weichselbaum, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Ovarian carcinomas of similar histology have variable responses to radiation therapy. It has been suggested that inherent cellular resistance to radiation may in part underlie radiotherapy failure. To determine in vitro radiobiological parameters of papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary, we investigated the cellular responses of 16 early-passage ovarian carcinoma cell lines to radiation. The radiosensitivity, as measured by D0, ranged from 1.05 to 2.40 Gy (mean 1.70 Gy), and, as measured by D, ranged from 1.65 to 3.54 Gy (mean 2.38 Gy). The extrapolation number -n ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 (mean 1.5). The cells had a 1.3- to 5.4-fold (mean 2.8) ability to recover from potential lethal damage (PLDR) 24 hr after irradiation and subculture from plateau-phase cultures. Their inherent radioresistance may be one factor in the failure of some ovarian cancers to be sterilized by radiation.

  15. Guidance of Signaling Activations by Cadherins and Integrins in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roggiani, Francesca; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Rea, Katia; Tomassetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest tumor among gynecological cancer in the industrialized countries. The EOC incidence and mortality have remained unchanged over the last 30 years, despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment. In order to develop novel and more effective therapeutic approaches, the molecular mechanisms involved in EOC progression have been thoroughly investigated in the last few decades. At the late stage, peritoneal metastases originate from the attachment of small clusters of cancer cells that shed from the primary site and carried by the ascites adhere to the abdominal peritoneum or omentum. This behavior suggests that cell–cell or cell–matrix adhesion mechanisms regulate EOC growth and dissemination. Complex downstream signalings, which might be influenced by functional cross-talk between adhesion molecules and co-expressed and activated signaling proteins, can affect the proliferation/survival and the migration/invasion of EOC cells. This review aimed to define the impact of the mechanisms of cell–cell, through cadherins, and cell–extracellular matrix adhesion, through integrins, on the signaling cascades induced by membrane receptors and cytoplasmic proteins known to have a role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of EOC cells. Finally, some novel approaches using peptidomimetic ligands to cadherin and integrins are summarized. PMID:27563880

  16. Guidance of Signaling Activations by Cadherins and Integrins in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Roggiani, Francesca; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Rea, Katia; Tomassetti, Antonella

    2016-08-23

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest tumor among gynecological cancer in the industrialized countries. The EOC incidence and mortality have remained unchanged over the last 30 years, despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment. In order to develop novel and more effective therapeutic approaches, the molecular mechanisms involved in EOC progression have been thoroughly investigated in the last few decades. At the late stage, peritoneal metastases originate from the attachment of small clusters of cancer cells that shed from the primary site and carried by the ascites adhere to the abdominal peritoneum or omentum. This behavior suggests that cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion mechanisms regulate EOC growth and dissemination. Complex downstream signalings, which might be influenced by functional cross-talk between adhesion molecules and co-expressed and activated signaling proteins, can affect the proliferation/survival and the migration/invasion of EOC cells. This review aimed to define the impact of the mechanisms of cell-cell, through cadherins, and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, through integrins, on the signaling cascades induced by membrane receptors and cytoplasmic proteins known to have a role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of EOC cells. Finally, some novel approaches using peptidomimetic ligands to cadherin and integrins are summarized.

  17. SATB2 Expression Distinguishes Ovarian Metastases of Colorectal and Appendiceal Origin From Primary Ovarian Tumors of Mucinous or Endometrioid Type.

    PubMed

    Moh, Michelle; Krings, Gregor; Ates, Deniz; Aysal, Anil; Kim, Grace E; Rabban, Joseph T

    2016-03-01

    The primary origin of some ovarian mucinous tumors may be challenging to determine, because some metastases of extraovarian origin may exhibit gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical features that are shared by some primary ovarian mucinous tumors. Metastases of primary colorectal, appendiceal, gastric, pancreatic, and endocervical adenocarcinomas may simulate primary ovarian mucinous cystadenoma, mucinous borderline tumor, or mucinous adenocarcinoma. Recently, immunohistochemical expression of SATB2, a transcriptional regulator involved in osteoblastic and neuronal differentiation, has been shown to be a highly sensitive marker of normal colorectal epithelium and of colorectal adenocarcinoma. SATB2 expression has not been reported in normal epithelium of the female reproductive tract. Therefore, we hypothesized that SATB2 may be of value in distinguishing ovarian metastases of colorectal adenocarcinoma from primary ovarian mucinous tumors and from primary ovarian endometrioid tumors. Among primary ovarian tumors, SATB2 staining was observed in 0/22 mucinous cystadenomas that lacked a component of mature teratoma, 4/12 mucinous cystadenomas with mature teratoma, 1/60 mucinous borderline tumors, 0/17 mucinous adenocarcinomas, 0/3 endometrioid borderline tumors, and 0/72 endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Among ovarian metastases, SATB2 staining was observed in 24/32 (75%) colorectal adenocarcinomas; 8/10 (80%) low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms; and 4/4 (100%) high-grade appendiceal adenocarcinomas. No SATB2 staining was observed in any ovarian metastasis of pancreatic, gastric, gallbladder, or endocervical origin. Evaluation of primary extraovarian tumors showed the highest incidences of SATB2 staining among primary colorectal adenocarcinomas (71%), primary appendiceal low-grade mucinous neoplasms (100%), and primary appendiceal high-grade adenocarcinomas (100%). Similar to their metastatic counterparts, none of the primary pancreatic or gastric

  18. Dual targeting of angiotensin receptors (AGTR1 and AGTR2) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Ae; Choi, Chel Hun; Do, In-Gu; Song, Sang Yong; Lee, Jae Kwan; Cho, Young Jae; Choi, Jung-Joo; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Ryu, Ji Yoon; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2014-10-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences cardiovascular homeostasis, and Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) is the main effector of RAS, and AGTR2 antagonizes AGTR1. Accumulating evidence supports the role of RAS in the paracrine regulation of tumorigenesis in several cancer types. Although treatment with AGTR1 antagonist (losartan) or AGTR2 agonist (CGP42112A) inhibits tumor progression in several cancer cells, their combined treatment has not been reported. In this study, we estimated the expression of AGTR1 and AGTR2 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and tissues. Then, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects of combined treatment with losartan and/or CGP42112A in ovarian cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). AGTR1 protein was detected in 86% of ovarian cancer tissues, while AGTR2 was not detected in immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression of AGTR1 obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) dataset showed that AGTR1 overexpression was correlated with poor survival. Treatment with either losartan or CGP42112A reduced the angiotensin II (Ang II)-mediated cell survival in both ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC. Combined treatment with losartan and CGP42112A synergistically decreased cell survival. As a downstream pathway, phosphorylation of phospholipase C β3 (PLC β3) and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) decreased synergistically in combined treatment. The results suggest that dual regulation of AGTR1 and AGTR2 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for epithelial ovarian carcinoma through inhibition of cancer cell survival as well as anti-angiogenesis. This study investigated the expressions of AGTR1 and AGTR2 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and the therapeutic potential of AGTR modulation with specific antagonist and/or agonist in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of AGTR1 antagonist, losartan and/or AGTR2 agonist, CGP42112A synergistically mediated anti-cancer effects including the decrease of cell

  19. Microvessel density and p53 mutations in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Niyati J; Geest, Koen De; Neff, Traci; Young, Barry De; Bender, David P; Ahmed, Amina; Smith, Brian J; Button, Anna; Goodheart, Michael J

    2013-04-30

    We planned to determine the relationship between angiogenesis and p53 mutational status in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Using 190 tumor samples from patients with stage III and IV ovarian cancer we performed p53 sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and CD31 microvessel density (MVD) determination. MVD was elevated in tumors with p53 null mutations compared to p53 missense mutation or no mutation. Disease recurrence was increased with higher MVD in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In adjusted analysis, p53 null mutation was associated with increased recurrence and worse overall survival. Worse overall survival and increased recurrence risk were also associated with the combination of CD31 MVD values >25 vessels/HPF and any p53 mutation. P53 mutation status and MVD may have prognostic significance in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Tumors with p53 null mutations are likely to be more vascular, contributing to decreased survival and increased recurrence probability.

  20. Diurnal cortisol and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael J; Bender, David; Slavich, George M; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M; Cole, Steven W; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all p<.041). A one standard deviation increase in night cortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r>36, all p<.017). Abnormal cortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Centralisation of epithelial ovarian cancer surgery: results on survival from a peripheral teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Marleen M L; Schreuder, Henk W R; Pasker-de Jong, Pieternel C M; Duk, M Jitze

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this retrospective descriptive study was to assess overall survival and disease free survival of patients treated for epithelial ovarian cancer by a gynaecologic-oncologist in a single Dutch peripheral teaching hospital and to identify independent prognostic factors. A retrospective series of 242 patients treated for epithelial ovarian cancer between 1999 and 2011 at Meander Medical Centre was reviewed. Data on patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected. Outcomes were overall survival and progression free survival. Data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Median follow-up was 35 months (range 1-203). Staging procedures were performed in 81 patients of which 63% were complete. 61% of patients had advanced stage disease. In 46%, debulking surgery was complete. Five-year overall survival and progression free survival for all patients was 52% and 47%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified performance status [HR=1.89 and 1.92 for performance status 2, HR=7.01 and 2.69 for performance status 3], FIGO stage [HR=3.59 for stage II, HR=5.43 and 5.64 for stage III, HR=12.17 and 10.21 for stage IV] and residual disease after debulking surgery [HR=2.01 and 1.72 for incomplete debulking] as independent prognostic factors for overall survival and progression free survival respectively. Survival after surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer in this cohort is comparable to survival in centralised clinics presented in literature. Partial concentration of cancer care by recruitment of specialised gynaecologic-oncologists in teaching hospitals might be an alternative to complete centralisation of epithelial ovarian cancer treatment in larger cancer centres. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in treating epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, T L; Fan, K F; Liu, C L

    2017-09-07

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most crucial and difficult target for available therapeutic treatments among gynecological malignancies, and great efforts are required to find an effective solution. Molecular studies showed that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also known as CXCL12) and its receptor, CXCR4, are key determinants of tumor initiation, progression and metastasis in ovarian carcinomas. Hence, it is generally believed that blocking the CXCR4/CXCL12 pathway could serve as a potential therapy for patients with ovarian cancer. Herein, we investigated the role of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in regulating ovarian cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, a real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we showed that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 protein and mRNA were overexpressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, and these were closely correlated with poor outcomes. Moreover, silencing CXCR4 by small hairpin RNA in HTB75 cells reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion and significantly reduced RhoA and Rac-1/Cdc42 expressions, whereas overexpression of CXCR4 in SKOV3 cells significantly increased cell migration and markedly increased RhoA, Rac-1/Cdc42 levels. Silencing CXCR4 also led to decreased in vitro cytotoxicity of AMD3100, a specific antagonist of CXCR4, which exerts its effect upon CXCR4 expression. Remarkably, knockdown of CXCR4 in HTB75 cells led to a significantly decreased capability to form tumors in vivo, and the Ki67 proliferation index of xenograft tumors showed a dramatic reduction. Our results revealed that the CXCR4/CXCL12 pathway represents a promising therapeutic target for epithelial ovarian carcinoma.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 7 September 2017; doi:10.1038/gt.2017.69.

  3. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1μg/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  4. Effect of reproductive hormones on ovarian epithelial tumors: II. Effect on angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Petitclerc, Eric; Zhou, Hong; Brooks, Peter C; Sun, Tong; Yu, Mimi C; Zheng, Wenxin; Dubeau, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Menstrual cycle activity predisposes to ovarian epithelial tumors based on numerous epidemiological studies. We showed that the hormones involved in menstrual cycle regulation modulate cell cycle activity in these tumors in an accompanying paper. We investigated whether such hormones could also influence angiogenesis, an important determinant of tumor progression, in the same tumors. Treatment with progesterone (P4) stimulated VEGF protein secretion in 4 of 5 ovarian carcinoma cell lines examined. Northern blot analyses performed in MCV50 cells showed that this effect was accompanied by increased VEGF mRNA levels. P4 also stimulated VEGF promoter activity in these cells. Estradiol (E2) showed a similar, but substantially smaller effect on VEGF secretion which was additive to that of P4. Conditioned medium from P4-treated cells strongly stimulated angiogenesis on chicken chorio-allantoic membranes. Incubating the conditioned medium with a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody, but not with non-specific immunoglobulins abolished this effect. Angiogenic activity was not altered by treatment of the membranes with P4 directly. We conclude that P4 can stimulate angiogenic activity via induction of VEGF secretion in some ovarian epithelial tumors. Therapeutic use of progestins may be most effective when administered in combination with an anti-angiogenic agent, at least against a subset of ovarian carcinomas.

  5. Targeted agents in epithelial ovarian cancer: review on emerging therapies and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Lokadasan, Rajitha; James, Francis V; Narayanan, Geetha; Prabhakaran, Pranab K

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a clinical challenge and there is a need to optimise the currently available treatment and to urgently develop new therapeutic strategies. Recently, there has been improved understanding of the molecular characteristics and tumour microenvironment of ovarian cancers. This has facilitated the development of various targeted agents used concurrently with chemotherapy or as maintenance. Most of the studies have explored the tumour angiogenesis pathways. In phase-III trials, bevacizumab showed a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival, although there was no improvement in overall survival in selected high-risk cases. Although several multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors were found to be useful, the toxicity and survival benefit has to be weighed. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been another marvellous molecule found to be effective in breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA)-positive ovarian cancers. Several newer molecules targeting Her 2, Wee tyrsine kinases, PIP3/AKT/mTR-signalling pathways, folate receptors are under development and may provide additional opportunities in the future. This article focuses on the targeted agents that have successfully paved the way in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer and the newer molecules that may offer therapeutic opportunities in the future. PMID:27110282

  6. Circulating Haptoglobin Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in the Sera of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changqing; Annamalai, Loganath; Guo, Changfa; Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Zhang, Huoming; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05). A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026). Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively). Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001). Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17325738

  7. Current drug treatment guidelines for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lorigan, P C; Crosby, T; Coleman, R E

    1996-04-01

    The management of ovarian cancer is developing rapidly with the improvements in specialist multidisciplinary care. Most patients present with advanced disease and require careful surgical debulking followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. The recent introduction of paclitaxel appears to have improved the prognosis of advanced ovarian cancer by an increment that is similar in size to that seen after the introduction of cisplatin in the 1970s. Further clinical trials are required to define the optimum combination and dose of the platinum and taxane analogues, and to establish the role of the many new agents currently undergoing clinical testing. Useful chemotherapy for second-line treatment in platinum-refractory patients is now available, which, combined with more aggressive surgical management, is leading to modest improvements in survival. Improvements in supportive care have enabled increasingly intensive chemotherapy to be given safely. Bone marrow support and inhibitors of specific organ toxicities are likely to be incorporated into treatment protocols over the next decade. The impact of these treatments on patients' quality of life and the economic consequences of a more active approach to management will require careful evaluation.

  8. VAV1 represses E-cadherin expression through the transactivation of Snail and Slug: a potential mechanism for aberrant epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakahashi, Senn; Sudo, Tamotsu; Oka, Noriko; Ueno, Sayaka; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Nishimura, Ryuichiro

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the western world. Although patients with early-stage ovarian cancer generally have a good prognosis, approximately 20%-30% of patients will die of the disease, and 5-year recurrence rates are 25%-45%, highlighting the need for improved detection and treatment. We investigated the role of VAV1, a protein with guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, which is associated with survival in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (International of Obstetrics and Gynecology [FIGO] stages I and II). We analyzed 88 samples from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer, which were divided into FIGO stages I and II (n = 46), and III and IV (n = 42). Prognostic analysis revealed that upregulated VAV1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (P ≤ 0.05), but not with other clinicopathologic features. Stable overexpression of VAV1 in human high-grade serous ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells induced morphologic changes indicative of loss of intercellular adhesions and organized actin stress fibers. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that these cells had downregulated E-cadherin protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively. This downregulation is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasive cancer. Furthermore, VAV1 overexpression in both SKOV3 and human ovarian surface epithelial cells demonstrated that its upregulation of an E-cadherin transcriptional repressor, Snail and Slug, was not confined to ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of VAV1 by RNA interference reduced Snail and Slug. Our findings suggest that VAV1 may play a role in the EMT of ovarian cancer, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  9. Cancer-testis antigen expression is shared between epithelial ovarian cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Soto, Arlene E; Schreiber, Taylor; Strbo, Natasa; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Miao, Feng; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Simpkins, Fiona; Nieves-Neira, Wilberto; Lucci, Joseph; Podack, Eckhard R

    2017-06-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens have been proposed as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of a panel of CT antigens in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tumor specimens, and to determine if antigen sharing occurs between tumors. RNA was isolated from EOC tumor specimens, EOC cell lines and benign ovarian tissue specimens. Real time-PCR analysis was performed to determine the expression level of 20 CT antigens. A total of 62 EOC specimens, 8 ovarian cancer cell lines and 3 benign ovarian tissues were evaluated for CT antigen expression. The majority of the specimens were: high grade (62%), serous (68%) and advanced stage (74%). 58 (95%) of the EOC tumors analyzed expressed at least one of the CT antigens evaluated. The mean number of CT antigen expressed was 4.5 (0-17). The most frequently expressed CT antigen was MAGE A4 (65%). Antigen sharing analysis showed the following: 9 tumors shared only one antigen with 62% of the evaluated specimens, while 37 tumors shared 4 or more antigens with 82%. 5 tumors expressed over 10 CT antigens, which were shared with 90% of the tumor panel. CT antigens are expressed in 95% of EOC tumor specimens. However, not a single antigen was universally expressed across all samples. The degree of antigen sharing between tumors increased with the total number of antigens expressed. These data suggest a multi-epitope approach for development of immunotherapy for ovarian cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role and prognostic significance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor ZEB2 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prislei, Silvia; Martinelli, Enrica; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Petrillo, Marco; Filippetti, Flavia; Mariani, Marisa; Mozzetti, Simona; Raspaglio, Giuseppina; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferlini, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    ZEB2 is a key factor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a program controlling cell migration in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. We demonstrated a role of ZEB2 in migration and anchorage-independent cell growth in ovarian cancer, as shown by ZEB2 silencing. We found that the RNA-binding protein HuR bound the 3′UTR of ZEB2 mRNA, acting as a positive regulator of ZEB2 protein expression. In Hey ovarian cell line, HuR silencing decreased ZEB2 and ZEB1 nuclear expression and impaired migration. In hypoglycemic conditions ZEB2 expression decreased, along with ZEB1, vimentin and cytoplasmic HuR, and a reduced cellular migration ability was observed. Analysis of ZEB2 and HuR expression in ovarian cancers revealed that nuclear ZEB2 is localized in tumor leading edge and co-localizes with cytoplasmic HuR. In a series of 143 ovarian cancer patients high expression of ZEB2 mRNA significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in term of both overall survival and progression- free survival. Moreover, at immunohistochemical evaluation, we found that prognostic significance of ZEB2 protein relies on its nuclear expression and co-localization with cytoplasmic HuR. In conclusion our findings indicated that nuclear ZEB2 may enhance progression of EMT transition and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer. PMID:26136338

  11. Targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Siwak, Doris R.; Carey, Mark; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Nguyen, Catherine T.; McGahren Murray, Mollianne J.; Nolden, Laura; Mills, Gordon B.

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed in up to 60% of ovarian epithelial malignancies. EGFR regulates complex cellular events due to the large number of ligands, dimerization partners, and diverse signaling pathways engaged. In ovarian cancer, EGFR activation is associated with increased malignant tumor phenotype and poorer patient outcome. However, unlike some other EGFR-positive solid tumors, treatment of ovarian tumors with anti-EGFR agents has induced minimal response. While the amount of information regarding EGFR-mediated signaling is considerable, current data provides little insight for the lack of efficacy of anti-EGFR agents in ovarian cancer. More comprehensive, systematic, and well-defined approaches are needed to dissect the roles that EGFR plays in the complex signaling processes in ovarian cancer as well as to identify biomarkers that can accurately predict sensitivity toward EGFR-targeted therapeutic agents. This new knowledge could facilitate the development of rational combinatorial therapies to sensitize tumor cells toward EGFR-targeted therapies. PMID:20037743

  12. Stonin 2 Overexpression is Correlated with Unfavorable Prognosis and Tumor Invasion in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Ou, Yulan; Song, Libing

    2017-01-01

    Stonin 2 (STON2), which functions in adjusting endocytotic complexes, is probably involved in the monitoring of the internalization of dopamine D2 receptors which have an inhibitory action of dopamine on tumor progression. However, its clinical significance in tumor progression and prognosis remains unclear. We explored the association between STON2 and the clinicopathological characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The STON2 levels in ovarian cancer and normal cell lines and tissues were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. STON2 protein expression was also detected by an immunohistochemical analysis. The clinical significance of STON2 expression in ovarian cancer was statistically analyzed. STON2 significantly increased in the ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues compared to the normal ones. In the 89 EOC samples tested, STON2 expression was significantly correlated with intraperitoneal metastasis, intestinal metastasis, intraperitoneal recurrence, ascites containing tumor cells, and CA153 level. Moreover, patients with STON2 protein overexpression were more likely to exhibit platinum resistance and to have undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with high STON2 protein expression had a tendency to have a shorter overall survival and a poor prognosis. A multivariate analysis showed that STON2 was an independent prognostic predictor for EOC patients. In conclusion, STON2 plays an important role in the progression and prognosis of ovarian carcinoma, especially in platinum resistance, intraperitoneal metastasis, and recurrence. STON2 can be a novel antitumor drug target and biomarker which predicts an unfavorable prognosis for EOC patients. PMID:28758939

  13. Erlotinib Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  14. Targeting the ROR1 and ROR2 receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer inhibits cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Henry, Claire; Llamosas, Estelle; Knipprath-Meszaros, Alexandra; Schoetzau, Andreas; Obermann, Ellen; Fuenfschilling, Maya; Caduff, Rosemarie; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville; Ward, Robyn; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Ford, Caroline

    2015-11-24

    In recent years, the Wnt signalling pathway has been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer and its members have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Here we investigated the role of two Wnt receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), ROR1 and ROR2, and their putative ligand, Wnt5a, in ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemistry for ROR2 was performed in a large patient cohort, including benign controls, borderline tumours and epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, siRNA was used to silence ROR1, ROR2 and Wnt5a individually, and together, in two ovarian cancer cell lines, and the effects on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion were measured. ROR2 expression is significantly increased in ovarian cancer patients compared to patients with benign disease. In vitro assays showed that silencing either receptor inhibits ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, and concurrently silencing both receptors has an even stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion. ROR2 expression is increased in epithelial ovarian cancer, and silencing ROR2 and its sister receptor ROR1 has a strong inhibitory effect on the ability of ovarian cancer cells to proliferate, migrate and invade through an extracellular matrix.

  15. Targeting the ROR1 and ROR2 receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer inhibits cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Claire; Llamosas, Estelle; Knipprath-Mészáros, Alexandra; Schoetzau, Andreas; Obermann, Ellen; Fuenfschilling, Maya; Caduff, Rosemarie; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville; Ward, Robyn; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Ford, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    AIM In recent years, the Wnt signalling pathway has been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer and its members have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Here we investigated the role of two Wnt receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), ROR1 and ROR2, and their putative ligand, Wnt5a, in ovarian cancer. METHODS Immunohistochemistry for ROR2 was performed in a large patient cohort, including benign controls, borderline tumours and epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, siRNA was used to silence ROR1, ROR2 and Wnt5a individually, and together, in two ovarian cancer cell lines, and the effects on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion were measured. RESULTS ROR2 expression is significantly increased in ovarian cancer patients compared to patients with benign disease. In vitro assays showed that silencing either receptor inhibits ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, and concurrently silencing both receptors has an even stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion. CONCLUSIONS ROR2 expression is increased in epithelial ovarian cancer, and silencing ROR2 and its sister receptor ROR1 has a strong inhibitory effect on the ability of ovarian cancer cells to proliferate, migrate and invade through an extracellular matrix. PMID:26515598

  16. FT-IR Microspectrometry Reveals the Variation of Membrane Polarizability due to Epigenomic Effect on Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Morris M. H.; Huang, Pei-Yu; Lee, Yao-Chang; Fang, Yuang-Chuen; Chan, Michael W. Y.; Lee, Cheng-I

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer, as well as other cancers, is primarily caused by methylation at cytosines in CpG islands, but the current marker for ovarian cancer is low in sensitivity and failed in early-stage detection. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is powerful in analysis of functional groups within molecules, and infrared microscopy illustrates the location of specific groups within single cells. In this study, we applied HPLC and FT-IR microspectrometry to study normal epithelial ovarian cell line immortalized ovarian surface epithelium (IOSE), two epithelial ovarian cell lines (A2780 and CP70) with distinct properties, and the effect of a cancer drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza) without labeling. Our results reveal that inhibition of methylation on cytosine with 5-aza initiates the protein expression. Furthermore, paraffin-adsorption kinetic study allows us to distinguish hypermethylated and hypomethyated cells, and this assay can be a potential diagnosis method for cancer screening. PMID:25299694

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid Initiates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Induces β-Catenin-mediated Transcription in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Rebecca J.; Westfall, Suzanne D.; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which influences metastatic success. Mutation-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in gain of mesenchymal phenotype and loss of differentiation in several solid tumors; however, similar mutations are rare in most EOC histotypes. Nevertheless, evidence for activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in EOC has been reported, and immunohistochemical analysis of human EOC tumors demonstrates nuclear staining in all histotypes. This study addresses the hypothesis that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), prevalent in the EOC microenvironment, functions to regulate EMT in EOC. Our results demonstrate that LPA induces loss of junctional β-catenin, stimulates clustering of β1 integrins, and enhances the conformationally active population of surface β1 integrins. Furthermore, LPA treatment initiates nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes resulting in gain of mesenchymal marker expression. Together these data suggest that LPA initiates EMT in ovarian tumors through β1-integrin-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, providing a novel mechanism for mutation-independent activation of this pathway in EOC progression. PMID:26175151

  18. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. Stromal–Epithelial Crosstalk Provides a Suitable Microenvironment for the Progression of Ovarian Cancer Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shilong; Dong, Lihua; Sun, Wei; Xu, Yi; Gao, Li; Miao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. This study focused on carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and stromal–epithelial interaction between CAFs and epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cells. We isolated and established primary cultures of CAFs and co-cultured CAFs and EOC cells in vitro. The co-culture conditioned medium (CC-CM) was harvested and its influence on EOC cells was examined. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels were screened using a biotin label-based human antibody array system. We found that the stromal–epithelial crosstalk provided a suitable microenvironment for the progression of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:24147897

  20. Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Kunte, Dhananja; Hurteau, Jean A; Subramanian, Hariharan; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Krosnjar, Nela; Shah, Maitri; Backman, Vadim

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late-stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at-risk women as they preferentially target low-grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that can quantify the nanoscale macromolecular density fluctuations within biological cells via a biomarker, disorder strength (Ld ). Using the concept of field carcinogenesis, we propose a method of detecting ovarian cancer by PWS assessment of endometrial and endocervical columnar cells. The study includes 26 patients (controls = 15, cancer = 11) for endometrium and 23 (controls = 13, cancer = 10) for endocervix. Our results highlight a significant increase in Ld (% fold-increase > 50%, p-value < 0.05) for columnar epithelial cells obtained from cancer patients compared to controls for both endocervix and endometrium. Overall, the quantification of field carcinogenic events in the endometrium and the novel observation of its extension to the cervix are unique findings in the understanding of ovarian field carcinogenesis. We further show independent validation of the presence of cervical field carcinogenesis with micro-RNA expression data. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  1. Ovarian cancer survival by tumor dominance, a surrogate for site of origin

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Anna; Loo, Anneli; Tworoger, Shelley; Crum, Christopher P.; Fan, Isabel; McLaughlin, John R.; Rosen, Barry; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies suggest that a proportion of ovarian tumors may actually originate in the distal fallopian tube. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dominance (a surrogate for site of origin) and survival following a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods We classified 1,386 tumors as dominant (putatively originating in the ovary and non-dominant (putatively originating in the fallopian tube), using parameters obtained from pathology reports. Dominant tumors were restricted to one ovary or one involved ovary that exceeded the other in dimension by at least two-fold, while non-dominant tumors were identified as having a greater likelihood of a tubal origin if the disease was equally distributed across the ovaries. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with dominance. Results Non-dominant tumors were more likely to be serous, stage III/IV, and be associated with a BRCA1/2 mutation, increasing parity and use of estrogen hormone replacement therapy (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, 46% and 26% of the dominant tumors were serous and endometrioid, respectively, with a more even distribution of stage (P < 0.0001). Women with a non-dominant tumor had an increased risk of death compared to women with a dominant tumor (multivariate HR = 1.28; 95%CI 1.02–1.60). Findings were similar in our analysis restricted to serous only subtypes (HR = 1.28; 95%CI 1.01–1.63). Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest significantly worse survival among women diagnosed with a tumor putatively arising from fallopian tube. PMID:25771796

  2. Prolactin receptor-mediated internalization of imaging agents detects epithelial ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Karthik M.

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignant tumors. Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) presents two main challenges. The first challenge is detecting low volume (< 1 g) and early stage (≤ stage II) masses to prevent rapid progression to late stages and ultimately death. The second challenge is differentiating malignant from benign tissue to avoid costly and invasive surgeries (19.5 surgeries are required to find 1 cancer even with multiple screenings). First-line diagnostic tests such as ultrasound and serum marker tests (e.g. CA-125) aid in diagnosis but they lack the sensitivity and specificity required to overcome both challenges. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a second-line diagnostic aided by gadolinium based contrast agents (CAs), offers higher resolution pictures for classifying indeterminate ovarian masses. But as currently practiced, MRI still lacks the sensitivity and specificity required to alter patient outcomes. In this work we develop a new paradigm for EOC diagnosis that targets the prolactin receptor (PRLR) - a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is over-expressed in moderate to high levels on > 98% of epithelial ovarian cancers. Upon binding of native ligands to PRLR, the ligand:PRLR complex is internalized by cells. By conjugating gadolinium-chelates, molecules normally used as contrast agents diagnostically, to human placental lactogen (hPL), a native ligand of PRLR, we show that MRI becomes highly sensitive and specific for detecting PRLR (+) tumors in a nude mouse model of EOC. We further establish the adaptability of this approach for fluorescence-based imaging techniques using an hPL conjugated Cy5.5 dye. We conclude that molecular imaging of PRLR with hPL-conjugated imaging agents can address the current challenges that limit EOC diagnosis.

  3. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced (stage IIIC) epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Škof, Erik; Merlo, Sebastjan; Pilko, Gasper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005–2007. The differences in the rates of R0 resections, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and in five-year and eight-year survival rates between patients treated with NACT and patients who had primary surgery were compared. Results Overall 160 patients had stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. Eighty patients had NACT and eighty patients had primary surgery. Patients in NACT group had higher rates of R0 resection (42% vs. 20%; p = 0.011) than patients after primary surgery. PFS was 14.1 months in NACT group and 17.7 months after primary surgery (p = 0.213). OS was 24.8 months in NACT group and 31.6 months after primary surgery (p = 0.012). In patients with R0 resections five-year and eight-year survival rates were 20.6% and 17.6% in NACT group compared to 62.5% and 62.5% after primary surgery (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Despite higher rates of R0 resections achieved by NACT, survival of patients treated with NACT was inferior to survival of patients who underwent primary surgery. NACT should only be offered to patients with advanced epithelial cancer who are not candidates for primary surgery. PMID:27679552

  4. Neutrophil Granulocytes in Ovarian Cancer - Induction of Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal-Transition and Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Meyer, Anne-Sophie; Hübner, Katrin; Rom, Joachim; Sohn, Christof; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Hänsch, G. Maria; Gaida, Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is a highly aggressive malignoma with a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is frequently seen, raising the question of their impact on tumor development. In that context, effects of PMN on human ovarian cancer cells were assessed. Methods: Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells were incubated with human PMN, lysate of PMN, or neutrophil elastase. Morphological alterations were observed by time-lapse video-microscopy, and the underlying molecular mechanism was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Functional alternations were assessed by an in vitro wound healing assay. In parallel, a large cohort of n=334 primary OvCa tissue samples of various histological subtypes was histologically evaluated. Results: Co-cultivation of cancer cells with either PMN or PMN lysate causes a change of the polygonal epithelial phenotype of the cells towards a spindle shaped morphology, causing a cribriform cell growth. The PMN-induced alteration could be attributed to elastase, a major protease of PMN. Elastase-induced shape change was most likely due to the degradation of membranous E-cadherin, which results in loss of cell contacts and polarity. Moreover, in response to elastase, epithelial cytokeratins were downmodulated, in parallel with a nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These PMN-elastase induced alterations of cells are compatible with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. Following EMT, the cells displayed a more migratory phenotype. In human biopsies, neutrophil infiltration was seen in 72% of the cases. PMN infiltrates were detected preferentially in areas with low E-cadherin expression. Conclusion: PMN in the microenvironment of OvCa can alter tumor cells towards a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype. PMID:27053953

  5. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  6. Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study of α-SMA, Collagen, and PCNA in Epithelial Ovarian Neoplasm

    PubMed

    Anggorowati, Nungki; Ratna Kurniasari, Chatarina; Damayanti, Karina; Cahyanti, Titik; Widodo, Irianiwati; Ghozali, Ahmad; Romi, Muhammad Mansyur; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Arfian, Nur

    2017-03-01

    Background: Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is an isoform of actin, positive in myofibroblasts and is an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker. EMT is a process by which tumor cells develop to be more hostile and able to metastasize. Progression of tumor cells is always followed by cell composition and extracellular matrix component alteration. Increased α-SMA expression and collagen alteration may predict the progressivity of ovarian neoplasms. Objective: The aim of this research was to analyse the characteristic of α-SMA and collagen in tumor cells and stroma of ovarian neoplasms. In this study, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression was also investigated. Methods: Thirty samples were collected including serous, mucinous, endometrioid, and clear cell subtypes. The expression of α-SMA and PCNA were calculated in cells and stroma of ovarian tumors. Collagen was detected using Sirius Red staining and presented as area fraction. Results: The overexpressions of α-SMA in tumor cells were only detected in serous and clear cell ovarian carcinoma. The histoscore of α-SMA was higher in malignant than in benign or borderline ovarian epithelial neoplasms (105.3±129.9 vs. 17.3±17.1, P=0.011; mean±SD). Oppositely, stromal α-SMA and collagen area fractions were higher in benign than in malignant tumors (27.2±6.6 vs 20.5±8.4, P=0.028; 31.0±5.6 vs. 23.7±6.4, P=0.04). The percentages of epithelial and stromal PCNA expressions were not significantly different between benign and malignant tumors. Conclusion: Tumor cells of serous and clear cell ovarian carcinoma exhibit mesenchymal characteristic as shown by α-SMA positive expression. This expression might indicate that these subtypes were more aggressive. This research showed that collagen and α-SMA area fractions in stroma were higher in benign than in malignant neoplasms. 10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.3.667

  7. Epidemiologic factors that predict long-term survival following a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shana J; Rosen, Barry; Fan, Isabel; Ivanova, Anna; McLaughlin, John R; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2017-03-28

    Various epidemiologic factors have been shown to influence the risk of ovarian cancer development. Given the high fatality associated with this disease, it is of interest to evaluate the association of prediagnostic hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle exposures with ovarian cancer-specific survival. We included 1421 patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in Ontario, Canada. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and prediagnostic exposure information was collected by telephone interview. Survival status was determined by linkage to the Ontario Cancer Registry. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ovarian cancer-specific mortality associated with each exposure. Analyses were stratified by histologic subtype to further investigate the associations of risk factors on ovarian cancer-specific mortality. After a mean follow-up of 9.48 years (range 0.59-20.32 years), 655 (46%) women had died of ovarian cancer. Parity (ever) was associated with a significant 29% decreased mortality risk compared with nulliparity (HR=0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.93; P=0.01). There was a borderline significant association between ever use of oestrogen-containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and mortality (HR=0.79; 95% CI 0.62-1.01; P=0.06). A history of cigarette smoking was associated with a significant 25% increased risk of death compared with never smoking (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.01-1.54; P=0.04). Women with a greater cumulative number of ovulatory cycles had a significantly decreased risk of ovarian cancer-specific death (HR=0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.94; P=0.02). Increasing BMI (kg m(-2)) 5 years before diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of death (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.07-1.28; P=0.0007). Other hormonal or lifestyle factors were not significantly associated with ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Parity, ovulatory cycles, smoking, and BMI may affect survival following the

  8. Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer risk by histologic type: a multiethnic case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tung, Ko-Hui; Goodman, Marc T; Wu, Anna H; McDuffie, Katharine; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Terada, Keith Y; Carney, Michael E; Sobin, Leslie H

    2003-10-01

    Associations of reproductive factors with ovarian cancer may differ by histologic type. Data from a multiethnic, population-based, case-control study, conducted in Hawaii and Los Angeles, California, between 1993 and 1999, were used to assess this hypothesis. A structured questionnaire was administered to 558 histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 607 population controls. Factors suppressing ovulation, including pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, were inversely associated with the risk of all histologic types. Nonmucinous but not mucinous tumors were significantly associated with menstruation years (odds ratio = 1.5 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile) and lifetime ovulatory cycles (odds ratio = 2.8 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). Duration of breastfeeding (odds ratio = 0.4 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile) was significantly and inversely related to nonmucinous tumors but not to mucinous tumors. Among all tumor types, endometrioid tumors were the most strongly related to pregnancy and tubal ligation, while clear cell tumors were the only type that was associated with noncontraceptive hormone use. The risk factors were similar for borderline and invasive tumors, except for age at diagnosis. Mucinous tumors, both borderline and invasive, were more common in Asian women than in Caucasian and other women. Our data suggest that histologic types of epithelial ovarian cancer are etiologically distinct.

  9. Proteome profiling of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Gagné, Pierre; Hunter, Joanna M; Bonicalzi, Marie-Eve; Lemay, Jean-François; Kelly, Isabelle; Le Page, Cécile; Provencher, Diane; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Droit, Amaud; Bourgais, David; Poirier, Guy G

    2005-07-01

    A proteome profiling of the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D was initiated as a protein expression reference in the study of ovarian cancer. Two complementary proteomic approaches were used in order to maximise protein identification: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) protein separation coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE) coupled to liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). One hundred and seventy-two proteins have been identified among 288 spots selected on two-dimensional gels and a total of 579 proteins were identified with the 1DE LC MS/MS approach. This proteome profiling covers a wide range of protein expression and identifies several proteins known for their oncogenic properties. Bioinformatics tools were used to mine databases in order to determine whether the identified proteins have previously been implicated in pathways associated with carcinogenesis or cell proliferation. Indeed, several of the proteins have been reported to be specific ovarian cancer markers while others are common to many tumorigenic tissues or proliferating cells. The diversity of proteins found and their association with known oncogenic pathways validate this proteomic approach. The proteome 2D map of the TOV-112D cell line will provide a valuable resource in studies on differential protein expression of human ovarian carcinomas while the 1DE LC MS/MS approach gives a picture of the actual protein profile of the TOV-112D cell line. This work represents one of the most complete ovarian protein expression analysis reports to date and the first comparative study of gene expression profiling and proteomic patterns in ovarian cancer.

  10. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing Wang, Zehua

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  11. Sam68 is Overexpressed in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Promotes Tumor Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lijuan; Che, Hailuo; Li, Mingmei; Li, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecological malignancy, and evidence is accumulating on how molecular markers may be associated with the origin and process of EOC. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis, of 68 kD), is a K homology domain RNA-binding protein that has been investigated as a risk factor in multiple types of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the Sam68 gene in the pathogenesis of EOC. Material/Methods Western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR methods were performed to examine Sam68 expression in EOC tissue specimens. The association of Sam68 expression with clinic-pathologic variables of EOC was evaluated. Then gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to examine the regulation of Sam68 on the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells using CCK-8 and colony forming assays. Results Sam68 was overexpressed in both mRNA and protein levels in EOC tumor tissue (n=152) in an association with malignant factors of EOC such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumor size (cm), histological grade, and lymph node metastasis. In vitro results demonstrated that Sam68 overexpression was upregulated while Sam68 knockdown downregulated the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells via regulation of cell growth and colony formation. Conclusions Sam68 was overexpressed in EOC tissue in association with such cancer malignant factors of FIGO stage, histological grade, and lymph node metastasis, and also positively regulated the proliferation of EOC cells. Our research suggests that Sam68 might accelerate cell cycle progression, and present as a prognostic marker for EOC. PMID:27623016

  12. Epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Eugenia Maria Chaves De Moraes

    Data from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study, a multicenter, population-based, case-control study were used to identify risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior, histologic types, as well as p53 expression. Cases were women between 20 to 54 years old diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer from 1980 to 1982. Controls were women selected by random digit dialing. Tumor samples were analyzed for p53 overexpression using immunohistochemistry. Case-case and case-control conditional logistic regression models matched on age and diagnosing centers were used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's) for borderline, malignant, mucinous, and nonmucinous tumors, and p53 positive and p53 negative cases. The OR's for high number of lifetime ovulatory cycles (376-533 compared with less than 234) were 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-6.1) for malignant and 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.7) for borderline cases. The high number of ovulatory cycles was also a strong risk factor among nonmucinous cases. OR's for current and recent ex-smokers compared with never smokers were 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.8) for mucinous and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) for nonmucinous types. Infertility showed a positive association with borderline ovarian cancer. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer was positively associated with malignant and nonmucinous cases. Parity had an inverse association with malignant ovarian cancer cases. When cases were subdivided by p53 results, the OR for tobacco smoking and p53 positive ovarian cancer was elevated for mucinous (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 0.8-18) at localized stage. Alcohol use showed a positive association with p53 positive malignant cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) and with p53 positive nonmucinous cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). A positive association between high number of ovulatory cycles and p53 positive malignant cases was observed in cases with localized stage (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.0-45) and advanced

  13. Lewis(y) antigen promotes the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer by stimulating MUC1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Jiang, Luo; Liu, Dawo; Lin, Bei; Hu, Zhenhua; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Danye; Zhang, Shulan; Iwamori, Masao

    2017-08-01

    MUC1 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and is overexpressed in various epithelial tumor tissues. Some researchers have demonstrated that the glycosylation status of MUC1 can affect MUC1-mediated tumor growth and cell differentiation. In our previous study, we proved that the abilities of cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion and metastasis, and drug resistance were enhanced in ovarian cancer cells stably expressing Lewis(y). Therefore, we hypothesized that Lewis(y) antigen may play a central role in regulating MUC1 expression, and MUC1-mediated cell growth and differentiation may be closely associated with Lewis(y) antigen. This study aimed to examine the correlation between MUC1 expression and Lewis(y) antigen levels in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissue samples. A series of techniques, including RT-qPCR, western blot anlaysis, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence were applied to detect the expression of Lewis(y) and MUC1. In malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, the positive expression rates of Lewis(y) antigen and MUC1 were 88.33 and 86.67%, respectively, which were markedly higher than those in borderline (60.00 and 53.33%, P<0.05), benign (33.33 and 30%, P<0.01) and normal (0 and 25%, P<0.01) ovarian samples. There was no correlation between the positive expression rates of Lewis(y) or MUC1 and clinicopathological parameters in ovarian cancers (P>0.05). The expression levels of Lewis(y) and MUC1 correlated with the clinical FIGO stage (P<0.05). Both MUC1 and Lewis(y) were highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues, and their expression levels were positively correlated (P<0.01). In α1,2-fucosyltransferase (α1,2-FT)-transfected cells, the gene and protein expression levels of MUC1 were significantly upregulated compared with the cells that did not overexpress α1,2-FT (P<0.05). The ratio of Lewis(y) immunoprecipitated with MUC1 to total MUC1 increased 1.55-fold in α1,2-FT-overexpressing cells

  14. Tyrosine kinase A receptor (trkA): a potential marker in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Verónica; Gabler, Fernando; Muñoz, Marcela; Yazigi, Roberto; Paredes, Alfonso; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the role of trkA receptor as a potential tumor marker in serous epithelial ovarian cancer and its relationship with the angiogenic factors expression as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Additionally, to examine whether NGF and VEGF secreted by epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) explants and from epithelial ovarian cancer cell line (A2780) are involved in the process of angiogenesis, such as cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation of the human endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). The mRNA levels of VEGF, NGF and trkA receptors were measured using PCR in 60 ovarian samples. Cellular localization and semi-quantitative estimation of VEGF, NGF, total trkA and p-trkA was performed using IHC in epithelial cells. NGF, total trkA and p-trkA protein were also evaluated in endothelial cells from the same tissues. Human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 was cultured with conditioned media obtained from both EOC explants and from the A2780 cell line, with or without NGF stimulus. Significantly higher levels of NGF, total trkA and p-trkA protein expressions were observed in epithelial and endothelial cells in poorly differentiated EOC versus normal ovary. Interestingly, the p-trkA receptor expression level showed the most significant difference and its presence was only found in borderline tumor and EOC samples indicating the importance of trkA receptor in EOC as a potential tumor marker. A significant increase in proliferation, migration and differentiation of EA.hy926 cells was observed with NGF, and this effect was significantly reverted when NGF was immuno-blocked and when a trkA inhibitor was used, showing that NGF is an important angiogenic factor in EOC by activating its trkA receptor. These results indicate that p-trkA may be considered as a new potential tumor marker in EOC, and that NGF may also act as a direct angiogenic factor in EOC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High expression of S100P is associated with unfavorable prognosis and tumor progression in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Zhao, Meng; Lou, Yanhui; Qian, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that S100P is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple cancers. In the current study, we evaluated the expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer and assessed its relevance to clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, we investigated the biological effects of S100P using A2780 and SKOV3 cells. S100P expression was significantly increased in epithelial ovarian cancer specimens compared with fallopian tube tissues and normal ovary tissues. And high expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer samples was significantly associated with tumor stage (P<0.001), serum CA125 level (P=0.026), residual tumor (P<0.001), ascites (P<0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that S100P expression was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) (P=0.017 and 0.031, respectively). Functional assays showed that overexpression of S100P promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression but did not affect cell migration and invasion in A2780 and SKOV3 cells. These data suggest that S100P may contribute to tumor development in epithelial ovarian cancer and could be a useful marker for the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26396916

  16. High expression of S100P is associated with unfavorable prognosis and tumor progression in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyu; Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Zhao, Meng; Lou, Yanhui; Qian, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that S100P is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple cancers. In the current study, we evaluated the expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer and assessed its relevance to clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, we investigated the biological effects of S100P using A2780 and SKOV3 cells. S100P expression was significantly increased in epithelial ovarian cancer specimens compared with fallopian tube tissues and normal ovary tissues. And high expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer samples was significantly associated with tumor stage (P<0.001), serum CA125 level (P=0.026), residual tumor (P<0.001), ascites (P<0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that S100P expression was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) (P=0.017 and 0.031, respectively). Functional assays showed that overexpression of S100P promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression but did not affect cell migration and invasion in A2780 and SKOV3 cells. These data suggest that S100P may contribute to tumor development in epithelial ovarian cancer and could be a useful marker for the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

  17. Profiling of cytokines in human epithelial ovarian cancer ascites

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Isabelle; Lane, Denis; Laplante, Claude; Rancourt, Claudine; Piché, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background The behavior of tumor cells is influenced by the composition of the surrounding tumor environment. The importance of ascites in ovarian cancer (OC) progression is being increasingly recognized. The characterization of soluble factors in ascites is essential to understand how this environment affects OC progression. The development of cytokine arrays now allows simultaneous measurement of multiple cytokines per ascites using a single array. Methods We applied a multiplex cytokine array technology that simultaneously measures the level of 120 cytokines in ascites from 10 OC patients. The ascites concentration of a subset (n = 5) of cytokines that was elevated based on the multiplex array was validated by commercially available ELISA. The ascites level of these 5 cytokines was further evaluated by ELISA in a cohort of 38 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the association of cytokine expression with progression-free survival (PFS) in this cohort. Results We observed a wide variability of expression between different cytokines and levels of specific cytokines also varied in the 10 malignant ascites tested. Fifty-three (44%) cytokines were not detected in any of the 10 ascites. The level of several factors including, among others, angiogenin, angiopoietin-2, GRO, ICAM-1, IL-6, IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10, leptin, MCP-1, MIF NAP-2, osteprotegerin (OPG), RANTES, TIMP-2 and UPAR were elevated in most malignant ascites. Higher levels of OPG, IL-10 and leptin in OC ascites were associated with shorter PFS. IL-10 was shown to promote the anti-apoptotic activity of malignant ascites whereas OPG did not. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that there is a complex network of cytokine expression in OC ascites. Characterization of cytokine profiles in malignant ascites may provide information from which to prioritize key functional cytokines and understand the mechanism by which they alter tumor cells behavior. A better understanding of the cytokine network is

  18. PFTK1 regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Rong; Tang, Chunhui; Xi, Qinghua; Lu, Shumin; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhu, Lianxin; Cheng, Jialin; Chen, Yannan; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Jianxin; Deng, Yan

    2016-04-01

    PFTK1, also named Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 14 (CDK14), is a member of the cell division cycle 2 (CDC2)-related protein kinase family. It is a serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the role of PFTK1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development. The expression of PFTK1 was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining, both of which demonstrated that PFTK1 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cells. Statistical analysis showed the expression of PFTK1 was associated with multiple clinicopathological factors, including tumor grade, FIGO stage, lymph node metastatis, Ki-67 expression and predicted a poor prognosis of EOC patients. With in vitro studies we found that PFTK1 expression was decreased in serum-starved ovarian cancer cells, and progressively increased after serum-re-feeding. Knocking PFTK1 down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Taken together, our study suggested that PFTK1 played an important role in ovarian cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatic resection during cytoreductive surgery for primary or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Grandi, Giovanni; Bolla, Daniele; Gloor, Beat; Imboden, Sara; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti; Mueller, Michael D; Papadia, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Surgical cytoreduction remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with advanced and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Parenchymal liver metastases determine stage VI disease and are commonly considered a major limit in the achievement of an optimal cytoreduction. The purpose of this manuscript was to discuss the rationale of liver resection and the morbidity related to this procedure in advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer. A search of the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE/PubMed database until March 2015 was performed using the keywords: "ovarian cancer," "hepatic," "liver," and "metastases." In patients with liver metastases, hepatic resection is associated with a similar prognosis as stage IIIC patients. The length of the disease-free interval between primary diagnosis and occurrence of liver metastases, as well as residual disease after resection, is the most important prognostic factors. In addition, the number of liver lesions, resection margins, and the gynecologic oncology group performance status seem to play also an important role in determining outcome. In properly selected patients, liver resections at the time of cytoreduction increase rates of optimal cytoreduction and improve survival in advanced-stage and recurrent ovarian cancer patients.

  20. Aurora kinase A mediates epithelial ovarian cancer cell migration and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Do, T-V; Xiao, F; Bickel, L E; Klein-Szanto, A J; Pathak, H B; Hua, X; Howe, C; O'Brien, S W; Maglaty, M; Ecsedy, J A; Litwin, S; Golemis, E A; Schilder, R J; Godwin, A K; Connolly, D C

    2014-01-30

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA) localizes to centrosomes and mitotic spindles where it mediates mitotic progression and chromosomal stability. Overexpression of AURKA is common in cancer, resulting in acquisition of alternate non-mitotic functions. In the current study, we identified a novel role for AURKA in regulating ovarian cancer cell dissemination and evaluated the efficacy of an AURKA-selective small molecule inhibitor, alisertib (MLN8237), as a single agent and combined with paclitaxel using an orthotopic xenograft model of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effects of AURKA inhibition and overexpression on migration and adhesion. Pharmacological or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of AURKA significantly reduced ovarian carcinoma cell migration and adhesion and the activation-associated phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal regulatory protein SRC at tyrosine 416 (pSRC(Y416)). Conversely, enforced expression of AURKA resulted in increased migration, adhesion and activation of SRC in cultured cells. In vivo tumor growth and dissemination were inhibited by alisertib treatment as a single agent. Moreover, combination of alisertib with paclitaxel, an agent commonly used in treatment of EOC, resulted in more potent inhibition of tumor growth and dissemination compared with either drug alone. Taken together, these findings support a role for AURKA in EOC dissemination by regulating migration and adhesion. They also point to the potential utility of combining AURKA inhibitors with taxanes as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of EOC patients.

  1. High dose intensity combination chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetenham, J. W.; McKendrick, J. J.; Jones, D. H.; Whitehouse, J. M.; Williams, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrospective studies have recently demonstrated a significant correlation between dose intensity of chemotherapy and response rates and survival in various diseases including epithelial ovarian carcinoma. As part of a proposed randomised trial to assess the effect of dose intensity on outcome in ovarian carcinoma, a pilot study has been undertaken to determine the toxicity and efficacy of the high intensity therapy. Nineteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma received initial treatment with cisplatin 120 mg m-2 i.v. day 1, and cyclophosphamide 1,000 mg-2 i.v. day 1, given at 21-day intervals for six cycles. The average relative dose intensity of this therapy is 1.14 when compared with the CHAP regimen. Severe toxicity was experienced by most patients. The median received average relative dose intensity was 0.90, with only one patient receiving treatment to the proposed intensity. Randomised studies of the effect of dose intensity in ovarian carcinoma are essential, but an initial step must be to assess whether the proposed high dose treatment can be delivered. PMID:2155645

  2. Pathway-Specific Engineered Mouse Allograft Models Functionally Recapitulate Human Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabova, Ludmila; Bupp, Sujata; Kamal, Muhaymin; Householder, Deborah B.; Hernandez, Lidia; Schlomer, Jerome J.; Baran, Maureen L.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M.; Annunziata, Christina M.; Martin, Philip L.; Van Dyke, Terry A.

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate from ovarian cancers can be attributed to late-stage diagnosis and lack of effective treatment. Despite enormous effort to develop better targeted therapies, platinum-based chemotherapy still remains the standard of care for ovarian cancer patients, and resistance occurs at a high rate. One of the rate limiting factors for translation of new drug discoveries into clinical treatments has been the lack of suitable preclinical cancer models with high predictive value. We previously generated genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models based on perturbation of Tp53 and Rb with or without Brca1 or Brca2 that develop serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) closely resembling the human disease on histologic and molecular levels. Here, we describe an adaptation of these GEM models to orthotopic allografts that uniformly develop tumors with short latency and are ideally suited for routine preclinical studies. Ovarian tumors deficient in Brca1 respond to treatment with cisplatin and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, whereas Brca1-wild type tumors are non-responsive to treatment, recapitulating the relative sensitivities observed in patients. These mouse models provide the opportunity for evaluation of effective therapeutics, including prediction of differential responses in Brca1-wild type and Brca1–deficient tumors and development of relevant biomarkers. PMID:24748377

  3. Seeding of recipient-originated epithelial cells attenuates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in rat tracheal allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xun; Yan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    The specific role and mechanism of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allotransplantation remain poorly understood. In this study, we used rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation to investigate the mechanism of epithelial cell seeding during the process of OAD. Prospective, basic science. Research laboratory. In total, 120 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and 90 Wistar rats were used. Tracheas from SD rats were implanted into SD rats (syngeneic, n = 30) or Wistar rats (allogeneic, n = 30), and SD rat tracheas (seeded with Wistar rat-derived epithelial cells 6 days after transplantation) were transplanted into Wistar rats (seeded allogeneic, n = 30). Grafts were harvested at 7, 14, or 30 days after transplantation for histologic, quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analyses. Syngrafts retained normal histologic structures, while the corresponding allografts demonstrated less ciliated epithelia and more lumenal occlusion. Seeding of epithelial cells ameliorated the histologic changes, reduced the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcriptional factors and mesenchymal markers, and dampened the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylation of smad3. Seeding of recipient epithelial cells inhibits the progression of OAD by attenuating EMT via TGF-β-Smad signaling in rat heterotopic tracheal allografts. Clinically, the injection of recipient-originated epithelial cells might provide new insights into the treatment for OAD after tracheal allotransplantation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. CCL18 from tumor-cells promotes epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis via mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Tang, Yong; Yu, Hongjing; Yin, Qiaoyun; Li, Mengdi; Shi, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Danrong; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    CCL18 is a chemotactic cytokine involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various disorders, including cancer. Previously, our results showed high levels of CCL18 in the serum of epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients suggesting its potential as a circulating biomarker. In this study, we determined that CCL18 expression was up-regulated in ovarian carcinoma compared with adjacent tissue and was expressed in carcinoma cells in the tumor and not in normal ovarian epithelial cells by laser capture microdissection coupled with real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that the CCL18 level was positively correlated with the metastasis of patients with ovarian cancer. Survival analysis also revealed that an increased level of CCL18 was associated with worse survival time in ovarian cancer patients. Over-expression of CCL18 led to enhanced migration and invasion of the Skov3 ovarian cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Finally, proteomics analysis demonstrated that CCL18-mediated ovarian cancer invasiveness was strongly correlated with the mTORC2 pathway. These findings suggest that the CCL18 chemokine has an important role in chemokine-mediated tumor metastasis, and may serve as a potential predictor for poor survival outcomes for ovarian cancer. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Adjuvant Hormone Therapy May Improve Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results of the AHT Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Eeles, Rosalind A; Morden, James P; Gore, Martin; Mansi, Janine; Glees, John; Wenczl, Miklos; Williams, Christopher; Kitchener, Henry; Osborne, Richard; Guthrie, David; Harper, Peter; Bliss, Judith M

    2015-12-10

    To assess the effects of adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) on survival and disease outcome in women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Participants were premenopausal and postmenopausal women who had been diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (any International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage) 9 or fewer months previously. Ineligible patients included those with deliberately preserved ovarian function, with a history of a hormone-dependent malignancy, or with any contraindications to hormone-replacement therapy. Patients were centrally randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either AHT for 5 years after random assignment or no AHT (control). Main outcome measures were overall survival (OS), defined as time from random assignment to death (any cause), and relapse-free survival, defined as time from random assignment to relapse or death (any cause). Patients who continued, alive and relapse free, were censored at their last known follow-up. A total of 150 patients (n = 75, AHT; n = 75, control) were randomly assigned from 1990 to 1995 from 19 centers in the United Kingdom, Spain, and Hungary; all patients were included in intention-to-treat analyses. The median follow-up in alive patients is currently 19.1 years. Of the 75 patients with AHT, 53 (71%) have died compared with 68 (91%) of 75 patients in the control group. OS was significantly improved in patients who were receiving AHT (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.90; P = .011). A similar effect was seen for relapse-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.97; P = .032). Effects remained after adjustment for known prognostic factors. These results show that women who have severe menopausal symptoms after ovarian cancer treatment can safely take hormone-replacement therapy, and this may, in fact, infer benefits in terms of OS in addition to known advantages in terms of quality of life. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lahmann, Petra H; Cust, Anne E; Friedenreich, Christine M; Schulz, Mandy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lundin, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Overvad, Kim; Fournier, Agnès; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Redondo, María-Luisa; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Tormo, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Spencer, Elizabeth; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Chajes, Véronique; Michaud, Dominique; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-05-15

    We examined the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity and height, with ovarian cancer risk. We also investigated these associations by menopausal status and for specific histological subtypes. Among 226,798 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, there were 611 incident cases of primary, malignant, epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during a mean 8.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. Compared to women with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was associated with excess ovarian cancer risk for all women combined (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05-1.68; p(trend) = 0.02) and postmenopausal women (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10; p(trend) = 0.001), but the association was weaker for premenopausal women (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.65-2.06; p(trend) = 0.65). Neither height or weight gain, nor BMI-adjusted measures of fat distribution assessed by waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) or hip circumference were associated with overall risk. WHR was related to increased risk of mucinous tumors (BMI-adjusted HR per 0.05 unit increment = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00-1.38). For all women combined, no other significant associations with risk were observed for specific histological subtypes. This large, prospective study provides evidence that obesity is an important modifiable risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women.

  7. Identifying post-menopausal women at elevated risk for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Nicole; Hawley, Sarah; Janes, Holly; Karlan, Beth Y.; Berg, Christine D.; Drescher, Charles W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Palomares, Melanie R.; Daly, Mary B.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Thorpe, Jason; Robinson, Randal D.; Lane, Dorothy; Li, Christopher I.; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We developed and validated a hybrid risk classifier combining serum markers and epidemiologic risk factors to identify post-menopausal women at elevated risk for invasive fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, and ovarian epithelial carcinoma. METHODS To select epidemiologic risk factors for use in the classifier, Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted using 74,786 Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS) participants. To construct a combination classifier, 210 WHI OS cases and 536 matched controls with serum marker measurements were analyzed; validation employed 143 cases and 725 matched controls from the WHI Clinical Trial (CT) with similar data. RESULTS Analyses identified a combination risk classifier composed of two elevated-risk groups: 1) women with CA125 or HE4 exceeding a 98% specificity threshold; and 2) women with intact fallopian tubes, prior use of menopausal hormone therapy for at least two years, and either a first degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer or a personal history of breast cancer. In the WHI OS population, it classified 13% of women as elevated risk, identifying 30% of ovarian cancers diagnosed up to 7.8 years post-enrollment (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.6, p<0.001). In the WHI CT validation population, it classified 8% of women as elevated risk, identifying 31% of cancers diagnosed within 7 years of enrollment (HR=4.6, p<0.001). CONCLUSION CA125 and HE4 contributed significantly to a risk prediction classifier combining serum markers with epidemiologic risk factors. The hybrid risk classifier may be useful to identify post-menopausal women who would benefit from timely surgical intervention to prevent epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:26343159

  8. Survival outcomes and toxicity of intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Koo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Tae-Jin; Lim, Kyung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of single-dose cisplatin intraperitoneally administered during cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Data from patients who underwent surgical management followed by intravenous (IV) chemotherapy for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were divided into intraperitoneal (IP) and no-intraperitoneal (NIP) groups according to the administration of IP cisplatin 100 mg during the staging surgery. Clinical results such as survival outcomes and chemotherapeutic toxicity were compared between the two groups. Results Thirty-seven patients in the IP group and 26 in the NIP group were identified. There were no significant differences between the two groups in basic characteristics such as age, histology, and surgical procedures. After the surgery with or without IP chemotherapy, there was no difference in the rate of either hematologic or gastrointestinal toxicity or in the rate of incompletion of following IV chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence occurred in 67.6% (25 patients) of IP group and 57.7% (15 patients) of NIP group (P=0.423) during the mean follow-up period of 37 months. The 3-year disease free-survival rate was 39.9% in the IP group and 35.8% in the NIP group, and the relative risk of recurrence was 0.864 (95% confidence interval, 0.447-1.673; P=0.665) in the IP group as compared with the NIP group. Conclusion IP chemotherapy with single-dose cisplatin during cytoreductive surgery is safe and feasible with little chemotherapeutic toxicity in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but no distinct improvement in survival could be demonstrated in the present study. PMID:25469337

  9. Ubiquitin E3 ligase CRL4(CDT2/DCAF2) as a potential chemotherapeutic target for ovarian surface epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Jian-Jie; Yu, Chao; Xu, Ying; Guo, Lian-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Yi; Zhou, Dawang; Song, Fang-Zhou; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2013-10-11

    Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are the largest family of E3 ligases and require cullin neddylation for their activation. The NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 reportedly blocked cullin neddylation and inactivated CRLs, which resulted in apoptosis induction and tumor suppression. However, CRL roles in ovarian cancer cell survival and the ovarian tumor repressing effects of MLN4924 are unknown. We show here that CRL4 components are highly expressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues. MLN4924-induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, MLN4924 sensitized ovarian cancer cells to other chemotherapeutic drug treatments. Depletion of CRL4 components Roc1/2, Cul4a, and DDB1 had inhibitory effects on ovarian cancer cells similar to MLN4924 treatment, which suggested that CRL4 inhibition contributed to the chemotherapeutic effect of MLN4924 in ovarian cancers. We also investigated for key CRL4 substrate adaptors required for ovarian cancer cells. Depleting Vprbp/Dcaf1 did not significantly affect ovarian cancer cell growth, even though it was expressed by ovarian cancer tissues. However, depleting Cdt2/Dcaf2 mimicked the pharmacological effects of MLN4924 and caused the accumulation of its substrate, CDT1, both in vitro and in vivo. MLN4924-induced DNA damage and apoptosis were partially rescued by Cdt1 depletion, suggesting that CRL4(CDT2) repression and CDT1 accumulation were key biochemical events contributing to the genotoxic effects of MLN4924 in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CRL4(CDT2) is a potential drug target in ovarian cancers and that MLN4924 may be an effective anticancer agent for targeted ovarian cancer therapy.

  10. Laparoscopic staging for apparent stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Alexander; Keating, Nancy L; Clemmer, Joel T; Bregar, Amy J; Wright, Jason D; Boruta, David M; Schorge, John O; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Whereas advances in minimally invasive surgery have made laparoscopic staging technically feasible in stage I epithelial ovarian cancer, the practice remains controversial because of an absence of randomized trials and lack of high-quality observational studies demonstrating equivalent outcomes. This study seeks to evaluate the association of laparoscopic staging with survival among women with clinical stage I epithelial ovarian cancer. We used the National Cancer Data Base to identify all women who underwent surgical staging for clinical stage I epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 2010 through 2012. The exposure of interest was planned surgical approach (laparoscopy vs laparotomy), and the primary outcome was overall survival. The primary analysis was based on an intention to treat: all women whose procedures were initiated laparoscopically were categorized as having had a planned laparoscopic procedure, regardless of subsequent conversion to laparotomy. We used propensity methods to match patients who underwent planned laparoscopic staging with similar patients who underwent planned laparotomy based on observed characteristics. We compared survival among the matched cohorts using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. We compared the extent of lymphadenectomy using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Among 4798 eligible patients, 1112 (23.2%) underwent procedures that were initiated laparoscopically, of which 190 (17%) were converted to laparotomy. Women who underwent planned laparoscopy were more frequently white, privately insured, from wealthier ZIP codes, received care in community cancer centers, and had smaller tumors that were more frequently of serous and less often of mucinous histology than those who underwent staging via planned laparotomy. After propensity score matching, time to death did not differ between patients undergoing planned laparoscopic vs open staging (hazard ratio, 0.77, 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.09; P = .13). Planned

  11. Lack of acute toxicity associated with a multimodality treatment of stage III ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Belch, R.Z.; Coughlin, C.T.; Cooney, L.C.; Forcier, R.J.; Maurer, L.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Eleven patients with advanced stage III ovarian epithelial carcinoma were treated primarily according to an aggressive multimodality plan utilizing cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy (high-dose cisplatin and Cytoxan), and consolidative radiation therapy (abdominopelvic bath plus pelvic boost). The treatment was tolerated remarkably well. There was no evidence of progressive disease during treatment, and all patients showed a positive response. There was a notable lack of significant acute morbidity, with the exception of a severe symptomatic peripheral neuropathy associated with cisplatin doses of 200 mg/m2. This was not evident with doses of cisplatin up to 150 mg/m2.

  12. Availability of healthcare resources and epithelial ovarian cancer stage of diagnosis and mortality among Blacks and Whites.

    PubMed

    Sakhuja, Swati; Yun, Huifeng; Pisu, Maria; Akinyemiju, Tomi

    2017-08-22

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether racial disparities in epithelial ovarian cancer stage at diagnosis and survival may be explained by geographic availability of healthcare resources among Blacks and Whites. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify White and Black women ages 40 years and above diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2010. Data on county-level availability of healthcare resources was obtained from the Area Resource File. Multi-level regression models, overall and stratified by race and age, were used to examine the associations of health care access (HCA) and socioeconomic status (SES) with stage at diagnosis while Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association with survival. Among 46,423 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer, Blacks were more likely to reside in counties with fewer average number of oncology hospitals (p < 0.05) and hospitals with ultrasound (p < 0.001), but higher number of medical doctors (p < 0.0001) and Ob/Gyn (p < 0.001). Black patients had higher odds of late stage diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.25) and higher risk of epithelial ovarian cancer mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.19-1.32) compared with White patients after accounting for differential availability of healthcare resources. Among Black patients, residing in counties with fewer medical doctors was associated with increased odds of late stage diagnosis (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10-3.13), and the racial disparity in late stage diagnosis and mortality was larger among patients ages <65 years compared with older patients. Racial disparities in availability and utilization of healthcare resources likely contributes to adverse epithelial ovarian cancer outcomes among Black women in the US.

  13. Diffusion-weighted MRI of epithelial ovarian cancers: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient values with histologic grade and surgical stage.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji-Won; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Park, Michael Yong; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ahwon

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of epithelial ovarian cancers with histologic grade and surgical stage. We enrolled 43 patients with pathologically proven epithelial ovarian cancers for this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted images with b value of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 at 3.0-T unit. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of the tumor were measured and compared among different histologic grades and surgical stages. The mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers differed significantly between grade 1 (well-differentiated) and grade 2 (moderately-differentiated) (P=0.013) as well as between grade 1 and grade 3 (poorly-differentiated) (P=0.01); however, no statistically significant difference existed between grade 2 and grade 3 (P=0.737). The receiver-operating characteristic analysis indicated that a cutoff ADC value of less than or equal to 1.09×10(-3)mm2/s was associated with 94.4% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity in distinguishing grade 1 and grade 2/3 cancer. The difference in mean ADC values was statistically significant for early stage (FIGO stage I) and advanced stage (FIGO stage II-IV) cancer (P=0.011). The interobserver agreement for the mean ADC values of epithelial ovarian cancers was excellent. The mean ADC values of the solid portion of epithelial ovarian cancers negatively correlated to histologic grade and surgical stage. The mean ADC values may be useful imaging biomarkers for assessment of tumor grade of epithelial ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Contributor to Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bo R. Rueda, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0192 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...to that of primary human ovarian cancer . We have also successfully introduced in human oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in

  15. miR-222 is upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation by downregulating P27(kip1.)

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaoyang; Li, Na; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Zongyuan; Ding, Dong; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of female reproductive system cancer mortality in females. The majority of cases of ovarian carcinomas are not identified until a late stage. Identifying the molecular changes that occur during the development and progression of ovarian cancer is an urgent requirement. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as gene expression regulators that induce mRNA degradation or translation blockade through pairing to the 3' untranslated region (3-'UTR) of the target mRNAs. In the present study, miR-222 was observed to be frequently upregulated in ovarian cancer. miR-222 upregulation induced an enhancement of ovarian cancer cell proliferation potential, possibly by downregulating its target, P27(Kip1). A bioinformatic analysis showed that the 3'-UTR of the P27(Kip1) mRNA contained a highly-conserved putative miR-222 binding site. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that P27(Kip1) was a direct target of miR-222. Consistently, there was an inverse correlation between the P27(Kip1) and miR-222 expression levels in the ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues. Overall, the present results suggest that miR-222 upregulation in human ovarian cancer may promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation during ovarian carcinogenesis.

  16. GOLPH3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Ru; Liu, Suqing; Gan, Xupei; Xi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Sun, Yunyan

    2017-03-23

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), a newly recognized oncogene, is associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, its biological role and underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain poorly understood. Here, we found that GOLPH3 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cell lines. This overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of EOC cells. Moreover, GOLPH3 upregulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as N-cadherin and Snail, and the Wnt/β-catenin-related genes cyclin-D1 and c-Myc, which were restored via silencing of GOLPH3 expression. Furthermore, the inhibitor and activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, XAV939 and LiCl, enhanced or decreased, respectively, the effect of GOLPH3 on EMT, which further confirmed that GOLPH3 promoted EMT progression via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, we found that EDD, the human hyperplastic discs gene, was consistent with GOLPH3 expression and also promoted the EMT process and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings demonstrate that EDD might be a downstream factor of GOLPH3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the existence of a GOLPH3-Wnt/β-catenin-EMT axis in EOC and provide a new therapeutic target to treat EOC.

  17. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  18. The granulin-epithelin precursor/PC-cell-derived growth factor is a growth factor for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Monica Brown; Michener, Chad M; Blanchette, James O; Kuznetsov, Vladimir A; Raffeld, Mark; Serrero, Ginette; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Krizman, David B; Liotta, Lance A; Kohn, Elise C

    2003-01-01

    The role of growth factors in ovarian cancer development and progression is complex and multifactorial. We hypothesized that new growth factors may be identified through the molecular analysis of ovarian tumors as they exist in their native environment. RNA extracted from microdissected serous low malignant potential (LMP) and invasive ovarian tumors was used to construct cDNA libraries. A total of 7300 transcripts were randomly chosen for sequencing, and those transcripts were statistically evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to validate the findings in tumor tissue samples. Ovarian cancer cell lines were used to test gene effects on monolayer growth, proliferative capacity, and density-independent growth. Analysis of the pooled library transcripts revealed 26 genes differentially expressed between LMP and invasive ovarian cancers. The granulin-epithelin precursor [GEP/PC-cell derived growth factor (PCDGF)] was expressed only in the invasive ovarian cancer libraries (P < 0.028) and was absent in the LMP libraries (0 of 2872 clones). All of the invasive tumor epithelia, 20% of the LMP tumor epithelia, and all of the stroma from both subsets expressed GEP by reverse transcription-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining for GEP was diffuse and cytosolic in invasive ovarian cancer tumor cells compared with occasional, punctate, and apical staining in LMP tumor epithelia. Antisense transfection of GEP into ovarian cancer cell lines resulted in down-regulation of GEP production, reduction in cell growth (P < 0.002), decrease in the S-phase fraction (P < 0.04), and loss of density-independent growth potential (P < 0.01). cDNA library preparation from microdissected tumor epithelium provided a selective advantage for the identification of growth factors for epithelial ovarian cancer. Differential granulin expression in tumor samples and the antiproliferative effects of its antisense down-regulation suggest that GEP may be a new autocrine

  19. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  20. Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells: underlying complexity of a simple paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garson, Kenneth; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2015-02-01

    The lack of significant progress in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) underscores the need to gain a better understanding of the processes that lead to chemoresistance and recurrence. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis offers an attractive explanation of how a subpopulation of cells within a patient's tumour might remain refractory to treatment and subsequently form the basis of recurrent chemoresistant disease. This review examines the literature defining somatic stem cells of the ovary and fallopian tube, two tissues that give rise to EOC. In addition, considerable research has been reviewed, that has identified subpopulations of EOC cells, based on marker expression (CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, LY6A, ALDH1 and side population (SP)), which are enriched for tumour initiating cells (TICs). While many studies identified either CD133 or CD44 as markers useful for enriching for TICs, there is little consensus. This suggests that EOC cells may have a phenotypic plasticity that may preclude the identification of universal markers defining a CSC. The assay that forms the basis of quantifying TICs is the xenograft assay. Considerable controversy surrounds the xenograft assay and it is essential that some of the potential limitations be examined in this review. Highlighting such limitations or weaknesses is required to properly evaluate data and broaden our interpretation of potential mechanisms that might be contributing to the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.

  1. [Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for peritoneal metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Limits and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Azaïs, H; Mordon, S; Collinet, P

    2017-04-01

    High peritoneal recurrence rate in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after complete macroscopic cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, raises the issue of peritoneal microscopic disease management and requires the development of additional locoregional treatment strategies. Photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment already applied in other medical and surgical indications. After administration of a photosensitizer which accumulates in cancer cells, illumination with a light of adequate wavelength may induce photochemical reaction between photosensitizer and tissue oxygen which lead to reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxic phenomenon. Photodynamic therapy's ability to treat superficial lesions disseminated on large area makes it an excellent candidate to insure destruction of microscopic peritoneal metastases in addition to macroscopic cytoreductive surgery in order to decrease peritoneal recurrence rate. Development of intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy has been limited by its poor tolerance related to the lack of specificity of photosensitizers and the location of the metastases in proximity to adjacent intraperitoneal organs. Our aim is to review clinical data concerning intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer to identify the limits of this strategy and to provide solutions which may be applied to solve these barriers and enable safe and effective treatment. Targeted photosensitizers and innovative illumination solutions are mandatory to continue research in this field and to consider the feasibility of clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of body weight changes on survival in patients undergoing chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mardas, M; Stelmach-Mardas, M; Zalewski, K; Grabowski, J P; Czapka-Matyasik, M; Steffen, A; Boeing, H; Mądry, R

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly fatal gynecologic malignancy with a poor prognosis. Therefore, identification of new modifiable prognostic factors is important. Due to the fact that the effect of body weight changes during chemotherapy for EOC is still not very well known we aimed to describe, considering evidence, role of body weight changes in relation to survival. Between October 2014 and August 2015 we systematically searched the following databases: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and EMBASE to identify the studies describing the influence of body weight changes on survival in patients undergoing chemotherapy for EOC. We identified 601 potentially relevant publications, however finally only one article was included for data extraction and analysis. The overall survival in the selected paper was significantly associated with body weight changes during the first-line chemotherapy. Nevertheless, no influence on progression free survival was found. The analyzed data provides initial evidence, showing poorer overall survival  associated with body weight loss and improved overall survival associated with body weight gain during primary chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. Prospective and retrospective trials are an urgent calling to confirm this conclusion.

  3. Prognostic significance of cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) polymorphism in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhar, K. K.; Branigan, K.; Howells, R. E. J.; Musgrove, C.; Jones, P. W.; Strange, R. C.; Fryer, A. A.; Redman, C. W. E.; Hoban, P. R.

    1999-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of CCND1 genotype on clinical outcome in 138 women with epithelial ovarian cancer. CCND1 genotypes were identified from peripheral blood DNA by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Patient CCND1 genotypes were compared with clinical details including FIGO tumor stage, residual tumor volume, tumor histology and differentiation, response to chemotherapy, progression free interval, and survival. We observed no association between patient CCND1 genotypes and tumor characteristics or response to chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression free interval (PFI) among women with different CCND1 genotypes. However, analysis of data from patients who responded to postoperative chemotherapy revealed that women with CCND1 AA genotype were associated with early disease progression (P = 0.020, HR 4.58, 95% CI 1.27-16.48) and reduced survival (P = 0.026, HR 4.48, 95% CI 1.19-16.79) compared with those with CCND1 AG and GG genotypes. These data show that CCND1 genotype does not influence overall prognosis in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients, however, it is associated with disease progression in a subgroup of patients following initial response to chemotherapy.

  4. Image compression impact on quantitative angiogenesis analysis of ovarian epithelial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Jacqueline S; Yoshida, Adriana O; Sarian, Luís O Z; Silva, Cleide A M; Andrade, Liliana A L A; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, José; Schenka, André Almeida

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of digital image compression on manual and semiautomatic quantification of angiogenesis in ovarian epithelial neoplasms (including benign, borderline, and malignant specimens). We examined 405 digital images (obtained from a previously validated computer-assisted analysis system), which were equally divided into 5 groups: images captured in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), low and high compression Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) formats, and low and high compression JPEG images converted from the TIFF files. Microvessel density counts and CD34 endothelial areas manually and semiautomatically determined from TIFF images were compared with those from the other 4 groups. Mostly, the correlations between TIFF and JPEG images were very high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.8), especially for low compression JPEG images obtained by capture, regardless of the variable considered. The only exception consisted in the use of high compression JPEG files for semiautomatic microvessel density counts, which resulted in intraclass correlation coefficients of <0.7. Nonetheless, even then, interconversion between TIFF and JPEG values could be successfully achieved using prediction models established by linear regression. Image compression does not seem to significantly compromise the accuracy of angiogenesis quantitation in the ovarian epithelial tumors, although low compression JPEG images should always be preferred over high compression ones.

  5. Rac1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: effect on cell EMT and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ruobing; Liao, Gang; Wang, Haixia; Kuang, Jun; Tang, Liangdan

    2015-02-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rac1) has been implicated in tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, limited information is available regarding the role of rac1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of rac1 expression with EMT and EOC prognosis. Rac1 protein levels of 150 EOC specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Survival analysis was performed to determine the correlation between rac1 expression and survival. Cellular and molecular changes were also examined after rac1 in ovarian cancer cells was silenced in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of rac1 on EMT was investigated by Western blot analysis. Rac1 was highly expressed in EOC. Rac1 overexpression was closely associated with advanced stage based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, poor grade, serum Ca-125, and residual tumor size. Survival analyses demonstrated that patients with high rac1 expression levels were more susceptible to early tumor recurrence with very poor prognosis. This study revealed that rac1 downregulation decreased cell EMT and proliferation capability in vitro and in vivo. Rac1 expression possibly altered cell EMT by interacting with p21-activated kinase 1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The present study showed that rac1 overexpression is associated with cell EMT and poor EOC prognosis. Rac1 possibly plays an important role in predicting EOC metastasis.

  6. Apatinib treatment combined with chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Linghui; Wang, Yue; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Qian; Wu, Jie; Jin, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Apatinib is a novel oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which has been proved by clinical trials to be effective and safe for patients with chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer. To date, there is no study or case report on apatinib treatment for patients with ovarian cancer. Here, we present the case of a 50-year-old Chinese woman with advanced ovarian cancer, who received apatinib at a daily dose of 500 mg for 28 days per cycle after failure of fourth-line chemotherapy. Favorable oncologic outcome was achieved in this case after treatment with apatinib. The patient’s progression-free survival is now 11.3 months, and she is taking apatinib and capecitabine as maintenance treatment. The common side effect of apatinib was fatigue; however, the toxicity of apatinib was controllable and tolerable. Thus, apatinib may be an option for chemotherapy-refractory advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but this still warrants further investigation. PMID:28352185

  7. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B.; C. Roberts, Paul; Schmelz, Eva M.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation technique that has addressed some of the challenges of conventional dielectrophoretic methods. To evaluate our microfluidic device performance, we computationally studied the effects of altering various geometrical parameters, such as the size and arrangement of insulating structures, on dielectrophoretic and drag forces. We found that the trapping voltage of MOSE cells increases as the cells progress from a non-tumorigenic, benign cell to a tumorigenic, malignant phenotype. Additionally, all MOSE cells display unique behavior compared to fibroblasts and macrophages, representing normal and inflammatory cells found in the peritoneal fluid. Based on these findings, we predict that cDEP can be utilized for isolation of ovarian cancer cells from peritoneal fluid as an early cancer detection tool. PMID:22536308

  8. Predictive and Prognostic Value of sPRR in Patients with Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Annika; Richter, Rolf; Dragun, Duska; Heidecke, Harald; Dechend, Ralf; Muller, Dominik N.; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the predictive and prognostic role of soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) as a biomarker for clinicopathological outcome in patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). As part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) whose activity is known to increase in ovarian cancer patients, the relation of sPRR and ovarian cancer should be further investigated. Patients and Methods. In this study 197 patients with primary EOC in our institution from 2000 to 2011 were included. sPRR was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in preoperative taken blood sera. Associations with clinicopathological outcome were analyzed and serum levels of sPRR in patients have been compared to those in healthy specimen. Kaplan-Meier and logistic/Cox regression assessed the impact of the markers on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results. There have been no correlations proved of sPRR levels with neither clinicopathological factors nor prognostic data. Also the distribution of sPRR in patients and controls was normal. Conclusion. sPRR seems to have no predictive, prognostic, or diagnostic value in EOC. As several factors of the RAS which might indicate cancer events have been shown, sPRR seems not to be affected. PMID:27660742

  9. Epithelial ovarian cancer in older women: defining the best management approach.

    PubMed

    Duska, Linda R; Tew, William P; Moore, Kathleen N

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a cancer of older women. In fact, almost half of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will be older than age 64, and 25% will be older than age 74. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the available data in older populations to optimize the therapeutic approach without negatively affecting the quality of life permanently. Unfortunately, little prospective data are available in this under-represented population of women. Although ovarian cancer traditionally has been approached with aggressive cytoreductive surgery, older patients may benefit from a less aggressive surgical approach and, in some cases, may be candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by an interval cytoreduction. Modalities do exist for assessing an older woman's ability to tolerate surgery and chemotherapy, and these tools should be familiar to clinicians who are caring for this population of women in making treatment decisions. Ongoing planned trials to evaluate pretreatment assessment for older patients will provide objective, feasible, clinical tools for applying our treatment-based knowledge. Future trials of both surgery and chemotherapy, including a focus on the sequence of these two treatment modalities, are crucial to guide decision making in this vulnerable population and to improve outcomes for all.

  10. Development of Olaparib for BRCA-Deficient Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Krishnansu S; Eskander, Ramez N; Monk, Bradley J

    2015-09-01

    The FDA approval of the PARP inhibitor olaparib for fourth-line therapy of germline BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian cancer represents the first registered indication for this class of drugs in any disease. PARP is a family of proteins involved in the repair of single-strand DNA breaks. High-grade serous ovarian carcinomas with BRCA deficiencies may be particularly vulnerable to both direct and indirect effects of PARP inhibition. This phenotype frequently arises as a consequence of defects in the repair of damaged DNA, rendering cancer cells susceptible to DNA-damaging platinum compounds and targeted therapies affecting homologous recombination repair (HRR). When cells already deficient in HRR are exposed to PARP inhibitors, apoptosis occurs by way of synthetic lethality. In this review, we trace the clinical development of olaparib for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma harboring germline BRCA mutations, a biomarker for HRR deficiency present in 15% to 20% of cases. Clinical trials highlighted include not only those pivotal studies that have led to regulatory approval in the United States and in Europe, but also those in which olaparib was studied in novel combinations, including chemotherapy and antiangiogenesis agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. The effect of body mass index on survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyo Sook; Hong, Jin Hwa; Ki, Kyoung-Do; Song, Jae Yun; Shin, Jin Woo; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo; Lee, Chan; Lee, Kyu Wan; Kim, Yong Min

    2014-06-01

    Controversy remains regarding the effect of obesity on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer in Asia. This study examined the impact of obesity on the survival outcomes in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) using Asian body mass index (BMI) criteria. The medical records of patients undergoing surgery for advanced (stage III and IV) EOC were reviewed. Statistical analyses included ANOVA, chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis. Among all 236 patients, there were no differences in overall survival according to BMI except in underweight patients. In a multivariate Cox analysis, surgical optimality and underweight status were independent and significant prognostic factors for survival (HR, 2.302; 95% CI, 1.326-3.995; P=0.003 and HR, 8.622; 95% CI, 1.871-39.737; P = 0.006, respectively). In the subgroup of serous histology and optimal surgery, overweight and obese I patients showed better survival than normal weight patients (P = 0.012). We found that underweight BMI and surgical optimality are independent risk factors for the survival of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. High BMI groups (overweight, obese I and II) are not associated with the survival of advanced EOC patient. However, in the subgroup of EOC patients with serous histology and after optimal operation, overweight and obese I group patients show better survival than the normal weight group patients.

  12. p14 expression differences in ovarian benign, borderline and malignant epithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Vinicius Duarte; Cerski, Marcelle Reesink; Sa Brito, Ivana Trindade; Kliemann, Lucia Maria

    2016-10-22

    Abnormalities in tumor suppressors p14, p16 and p53 are reported in several human cancers. In ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis, p16 and p53 show higher immunohistochemical staining frequencies in malignant tumors and are associated with poor prognoses. p14 was only analyzed in carcinomas, with conflicting results. There are no reports on its expression in benign and borderline tumors. This study aims to determine p14, p16 and p53 expression frequencies in ovarian benign, borderline and malignant tumors and their associations with clinical parameters. A cross-sectional study utilizing immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial tumor samples. Clinical data were collected from medical records. Fisher's exact test and the Bonferroni correction were performed for frequency associations. Survival comparisons utilized Kaplan-Meier and log rank testing. Associations were considered significant when p < 0.05. p14 absent expression was associated with malignant tumors (60 % positive) (p = 0.000), while 93 % and 94 % of benign and borderline tumors, respectively, were positive. p16 was positive in 94.6 % of carcinomas, 75 % of borderline and 45.7 % of benign tumors (p = 0.000). p53 negative staining was associated with benign tumors (2.9 % positive) (p = 0.016) but no difference was observed between borderline (16.7 %) and malignant tumors (29.7 %) (p = 0.560). No associations were found between expression rates, disease-free survival times or clinical variables. Carcinoma subtypes showed no difference in expression. This is the first description of p14 expression in benign and borderline tumors. It remains stable in benign and borderline tumors, while carcinomas show a significant absence of staining. This may indicate that p14 abnormalities occur later in carcinogenesis. p16 and p53 frequencies increase from benign to borderline and malignant tumors, similarly to previous reports, possibly reflecting the

  13. All-Cause Mortality After Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Alexander; Rizzo, Anthony E; Nitecki, Roni; Gockley, Allison A; Bregar, Amy J; Schorge, John O; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    To compare all-cause mortality between women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery with those who underwent conventional surgery for stage I ovarian cancer. In a cohort study using the National Cancer Database, we identified women younger than 40 years diagnosed with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer between 2004 and 2012. Fertility-sparing surgery was defined as conservation of one ovary and the uterus. The primary outcome was time from diagnosis to death. We used propensity score methods to assemble a cohort of women who underwent fertility-sparing or conventional surgery but were otherwise similar on observed covariates and conducted survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 1,726 women with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer of whom 825 (47.8%) underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Fertility-sparing surgery was associated with younger age, residence in the northeastern and western United States, and serous or mucinous histology (P<.05 for all). Propensity score matching yielded a cohort of 904 women who were balanced on observed covariates. We observed 30 deaths among women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery and 37 deaths among propensity-matched women who underwent conventional surgery after a median follow-up of 63 months. Fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with hazard of death (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.29, P=.36). The probability of survival 10 years after diagnosis was 88.5% (95% CI 82.4-92.6) in the fertility-sparing group and 88.9% (95% CI 84.9-92.0) in the conventional surgery group. In patients with high-risk features such as clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC, 10-year survival was 80.5% (95% CI 68.5-88.3) among women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery and 83.4% (95% 76.0-88.7) among those who had conventional surgery (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.49-1.53, P=.61). Compared with conventional surgery

  14. Overexpression of piRNA pathway genes in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Shu Ly; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K; Tan, Izza M D De Arao; Russell, Darryl; Grützner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway for germ cell maintenance, genome integrity, DNA methylation and retrotransposon control raises possible roles of this pathway in cancer. Indeed aberrant expression of human PIWI orthologs and Maelstrom has been observed in various cancers. In this study we explored the expression and function of piRNA pathway genes in human ovarian cancer, based on our recent work, which showed widespread expression of piRNA pathway genes in the mammalian. Our work shows that PIWIL1 and MAEL expression is significantly increased in malignant EOC (n = 25) compared to benign tumor tissues (n = 19) and normal ovarian tissue (n = 8). The expression of PIWIL3 is lower in malignant and benign tissues when compared to normal ovary. Sequencing of PIWIL1 transcript revealed that in many tumors deletion of exon 17 leads to the introduction of a premature stop codon in the PIWI domain, likely due to a splicing error. In situ hybridization on tumor sections revealed that L1, PIWIL1, 2 and MAEL are specifically expressed in epithelial cells (cancerous cells) of EOC. Furthermore, PIWIL2 and MAEL are co-expressed in the stromal cells adjacent to tumor cells. Since PIWIL1 and MAEL are up regulated in malignant EOC and expressed in the epithelial cells, we investigated if these two genes affect invasiveness of ovarian cancer cell lines that do not normally express these genes. PIWIL1 and MAEL were transiently over expressed in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, followed by real-time measurements of cell invasiveness. Surprisingly both PIWIL1 and MAEL over expression decreased the invasiveness of SKOV3 cells. Our findings support a growing body of evidence that shows that genes in this pathway are upregulated in cancer. In ovarian cancer we show for the first time that Piwil1 transcript may often be abnormal result in non functional product. In contrast to what has been observed in other cell types, we found that PIWIL1 and MAEL have a

  15. Overexpression of piRNA Pathway Genes in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shu Ly; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K.; De Arao Tan, Izza M. D.; Russell, Darryl; Grützner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway for germ cell maintenance, genome integrity, DNA methylation and retrotransposon control raises possible roles of this pathway in cancer. Indeed aberrant expression of human PIWI orthologs and Maelstrom has been observed in various cancers. In this study we explored the expression and function of piRNA pathway genes in human ovarian cancer, based on our recent work, which showed widespread expression of piRNA pathway genes in the mammalian. Our work shows that PIWIL1 and MAEL expression is significantly increased in malignant EOC (n = 25) compared to benign tumor tissues (n = 19) and normal ovarian tissue (n = 8). The expression of PIWIL3 is lower in malignant and benign tissues when compared to normal ovary. Sequencing of PIWIL1 transcript revealed that in many tumors deletion of exon 17 leads to the introduction of a premature stop codon in the PIWI domain, likely due to a splicing error. In situ hybridization on tumor sections revealed that L1, PIWIL1, 2 and MAEL are specifically expressed in epithelial cells (cancerous cells) of EOC. Furthermore, PIWIL2 and MAEL are co-expressed in the stromal cells adjacent to tumor cells. Since PIWIL1 and MAEL are up regulated in malignant EOC and expressed in the epithelial cells, we investigated if these two genes affect invasiveness of ovarian cancer cell lines that do not normally express these genes. PIWIL1 and MAEL were transiently over expressed in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, followed by real-time measurements of cell invasiveness. Surprisingly both PIWIL1 and MAEL over expression decreased the invasiveness of SKOV3 cells. Our findings support a growing body of evidence that shows that genes in this pathway are upregulated in cancer. In ovarian cancer we show for the first time that Piwil1 transcript may often be abnormal result in non functional product. In contrast to what has been observed in other cell types, we found that PIWIL1 and

  16. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Japan - results from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sandin, Sven; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for invasive primary epithelial ovarian cancer among Japanese women. In 1990-1994, 45,748 women aged 40-69 years were enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort. Only 86 epithelial ovarian cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up through 2008, reflecting the low ovarian cancer incidence rates in Japan. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to the exposure of interest. The median age at epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis was 59 years, with a median follow-up before diagnosis of 7.6 years. There were no statistically significant associations for age at menarche or first birth, breastfeeding, use of exogenous hormones, menopausal status at cohort enrollment, height, body mass index, smoking status, second-hand smoke, alcohol consumption, physical activity and family history of cancer in a first-degree relative. The linear decrease in HR associated with each additional birth was 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-0.99). Among women who usually slept >7 h per day, an HR of 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.9) emerged compared to those who slept <6 h. This study did not confirm risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among Japanese women that have been reported in studies carried out elsewhere. Usual sleep duration of >7 h per day was inversely associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk, which is a novel finding that needs to be confirmed in other studies.

  17. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  18. Meta-analysis demonstrates no association between p16 (ink4a) promoter methylation and epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Yan, Fangrong; Liang, Li; Wan, Yicong; Liu, Jinsong; Cheng, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    p16 (INK4A) (p16) functions as a tumor suppressor gene in various malignancies. Aberrant p16 methylation has been proposed to be essential in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it is unclear whether p16 can be used as a diagnostic marker owing to the small sample sizes in previous studies. To determine whether p16 promoter methylation is associated with epithelial ovarian cancer and can thus be used as a diagnostic marker, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. The following databases were searched using a systematic search method: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. We used a random-effects model to analyze the relative risk (RR); we also evaluated between-study heterogeneity, subgroup heterogeneity, and publication bias. Our meta-analysis included eight eligible studies, with 428 ovarian cancers and 278 normal tissue samples and benign neoplasms. p16 promoter methylation was identified in 5.4 to 43.2% (median 27.86%) of ovarian cancers and 0 to 37.5% (median 15.8%) of normal tissue and benign neoplasms indicating that no significant association exists between p16 promoter methylation and epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the pooled results also showed that the RR was 1.52 (95% CI 0.80-2.87) in the ovarian cancer cases versus the corresponding normal and benign cases under the random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was determined through a sensitivity analysis; the I (2) value did not change when one study was excluded. Our study showed that p16 promoter methylation cannot be used to differentiate benign from malignant epithelial ovarian tumors. Therefore, p16 promoter methylation cannot be used as a marker for diagnosing the early stage of ovarian cancer.

  19. Expression of transcription factor AP-2α predicts survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, M A; Kellokoski, J K; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Saarikoski, S; Syrjänen, K; Kosma, V-M

    2000-01-01

    The 52-kDa activator protein (AP)-2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor which has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects in cancer cell lines and in human tumours. In this study the expression of AP-2α was analysed in 303 epithelial ovarian carcinomas by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a polyclonal AP-2α antibody and its mRNA status was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The immunohistochemical expression of AP-2α was correlated with clinicopathological variables, p21/WAF1 protein expression and survival. In normal ovaries, epithelial cells expressed AP-2α protein only in the cytoplasm. In carcinomas nuclear AP-2α expression was observed in 28% of the cases although cytoplasmic expression was more common (51%). The expression of AP-2α varied according to the histological subtype and differentiation. AP-2α and p21/WAF1 expressions did not correlate with each other. Both in univariate (P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (relative risks (RR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.18, P = 0.007) the high cytoplasmic AP-2α expression favoured the overall survival. In contrast, the nuclear AP-2α expression combined with low cytoplasmic expression increased the risk of dying of ovarian cancer (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.13–3.83, P = 0.018). The shift in the expression pattern of AP-2α (nuclear vs cytoplasmic) in carcinomas points out to the possibility that this transcription factor may be used by oncogenes in certain histological subtypes. Based on the mRNA analyses, the incomplete expression and translation of AP-2α in ovarian cancer may be due to post-transcriptional regulation. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864206

  20. miR-100 resensitizes resistant epithelial ovarian cancer to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Xiong, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Sainan; Peng, Dongxian

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the malignant tumors that seriously affects women's health and chemotherapy resistance is an important reason for the poor prognosis. The present study was conducted to investigate whether microRNA-100 (miR-100) can be used to modulate the tolerance to cisplatin in EOC. Expression of miR-100 was compared between ovarian cancer cells tolerant and not tolerant to cisplatin. Mimic and antisense were used to study the roles and related mechanisms of miR-100 in cisplatin sensitivity in EOC. The alternation in the cisplatin sensitivity was investigated using grafted tumors derived from SKOV3/DDP cells with upregulated or downregulated miR-100 expression. miR-100 was lower in cisplatin resistant cell line SKOV3/DDP than in cisplatin sensitive cell line SKOV3. miR-100 might increase cisplatin sensitivity by inhibiting cell proliferation and conversion from G1 to S phase and increasing apoptosis. We showed that mTOR and PLK1 are targets of miR-100 and the cells were resensitized probably due to targeted downregulation of mTOR and PLK1 by miR-100. In vivo study with nude mice showed that tumors derived from miR-100 mimic-transfected cells were more sensitive to cisplatin and had reduced expression of mTOR and PLK1. miR-100 resensitizes resistant epithelial ovarian cancer to cisplatin probably by inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle and by targeted downregulation of mTOR and PLK1 expression.

  1. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models to Improve Targeted Therapy in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Clare L.; Becker, Marc A.; Haluska, Paul; Samimi, Goli

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that precision therapy targeted to the molecular drivers of a cancer has the potential to improve clinical outcomes, high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) patients are currently treated without consideration of molecular phenotype, and predictive biomarkers that could better inform treatment remain unknown. Delivery of precision therapy requires improved integration of laboratory-based models and cutting-edge clinical research, with pre-clinical models predicting patient subsets that will benefit from a particular targeted therapeutic. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are renewable tumor models engrafted in mice, generated from fresh human tumors without prior in vitro exposure. PDX models allow an invaluable assessment of tumor evolution and adaptive response to therapy. PDX models have been applied to pre-clinical drug testing and biomarker identification in a number of cancers including ovarian, pancreatic, breast, and prostate cancers. These models have been shown to be biologically stable and accurately reflect the patient tumor with regards to histopathology, gene expression, genetic mutations, and therapeutic response. However, pre-clinical analyses of molecularly annotated PDX models derived from high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) remain limited. In vivo response to conventional and/or targeted therapeutics has only been described for very small numbers of individual HG-SOC PDX in conjunction with sparse molecular annotation and patient outcome data. Recently, two consecutive panels of epithelial OC PDX correlate in vivo platinum response with molecular aberrations and source patient clinical outcomes. These studies underpin the value of PDX models to better direct chemotherapy and predict response to targeted therapy. Tumor heterogeneity, before and following treatment, as well as the importance of multiple molecular aberrations per individual tumor underscore some of the important issues addressed in PDX models

  2. Potent organo-osmium compound shifts metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Munro, Alison F; Fu, Ying; Pizarro, Ana M; Garnett, Mathew J; McDermott, Ultan; Carragher, Neil O; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    The organometallic "half-sandwich" compound [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF6 is 49× more potent than the clinical drug cisplatin in the 809 cancer cell lines that we screened and is a candidate drug for cancer therapy. We investigate the mechanism of action of compound 1 in A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Whole-transcriptome sequencing identified three missense mutations in the mitochondrial genome of this cell line, coding for ND5, a subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) in the electron transport chain. ND5 is a proton pump, helping to maintain the coupling gradient in mitochondria. The identified mutations correspond to known protein variants (p.I257V, p.N447S, and p.L517P), not reported previously in epithelial ovarian cancer. Time-series RNA sequencing suggested that osmium-exposed A2780 cells undergo a metabolic shunt from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, where defective machinery, associated with mutations in complex I, could enhance activity. Downstream events, measured by time-series reverse-phase protein microarrays, high-content imaging, and flow cytometry, showed a dramatic increase in mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage with up-regulation of ATM, p53, and p21 proteins. In contrast to platinum drugs, exposure to this organo-osmium compound does not cause significant apoptosis within a 72-h period, highlighting a different mechanism of action. Superoxide production in ovarian, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells exposed to three other structurally related organo-Os(II) compounds correlated with their antiproliferative activity. DNA damage caused indirectly, through selective ROS generation, may provide a more targeted approach to cancer therapy and a concept for next-generation metal-based anticancer drugs that combat platinum resistance.

  3. Tea, coffee, and caffeinated beverage consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Leung, Andy C Y; Cook, Linda S; Swenerton, Kenneth; Gilks, Blake; Gallagher, Richard P; Magliocco, Anthony; Steed, Helen; Köbel, Martin; Nation, Jill; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Le, Nhu D

    2016-12-01

    The risk for epithelial ovarian cancer associated with the consumption of caffeinated beverages (tea, coffee, and soft drinks) and green tea is inconclusive. However, few studies have investigated the type of caffeinated beverage or the type of tea. We assessed consumption of tea (black/caffeinated tea and green tea separately), coffee, and caffeinated soft drinks, as well as level of consumption, and the risk for epithelial ovarian cancer and its histotypes. This study was conducted within a population-based case-control study in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from 2001 to 2012. After restricting to cases of epithelial invasive cancers and controls aged 40-79 years who completed an interview that included coffee, soft drink, and tea consumption (ascertained starting in 2005 in British Columbia and 2008 in Alberta), there were a total of 524 cases and 1587 controls. Those that did not meet the threshold for beverage consumption (at least once per month for 6 months or more) were classified as non-drinkers. Adult lifetime cumulative consumption (cup-years=cups/day*years) was calculated. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe the association between the relevant drink consumption and risk. No excess risk was seen for coffee or caffeinated soft drinks. Similarly, any tea consumption was not associated with risk, but when stratified by the type of tea, there was an increase in risk in black tea only drinkers (aOR=1.56; 95% CI:1.07-2.28 for >40 cup-years), but no excess risk for the exclusive green tea drinkers. Similar findings were observed for post-menopausal women. The association for black tea only consumption was mainly seen in the endometrioid histotype (aOR=3.19; 95% CI: 1.32-7.69). Black tea consumption may be associated with an increased risk epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The excess risk is seen only in the endometrioid histotype but not in serous or clear cell

  4. Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Schock, Helena; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopolou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; de Mesquita, H.Bas Bueno; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Sánchez, Soledad; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Sànchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merrit, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n=1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations. Results CRP and IL-6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 vs. CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk (OR=1.67 [1.03 - 2.70]). We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference: (e.g., IL-6: waist ≤80: ORlog2=0.97 [0.81 - 1.16]; waist >88: ORlog2=1.78 [1.28 - 2.48], pheterogeneity ≤0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL-6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity. Impact Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:25855626

  5. A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Palmer, J R; Zauber, A G; Warshauer, M E; Lewis, J L; Strom, B L; Harlap, S; Shapiro, S

    1994-04-01

    The relation of oral contraceptive use to the risk of ovarian cancer was assessed with data collected during 1977-1991 from patients under 65 years of age in hospitals in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. We compared 441 women with recently diagnosed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer to 2,065 control women. Logistic regression was used to control risk factors for ovarian cancer. The multivariate relative risk estimate decreased with the increasing duration of oral contraceptive use (p < 0.05): the estimate was close to 1.0 for duration categories of less than 3 years; it was reduced for the categories of 3-4 years of use and greater, but it did not decline further as the duration of use increased. For > or = 3 years of use, the estimate was 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.4-0.8). The inverse association of risk with > or = 3 years of use was consistently present across categories of age, parity, interview year, and geographic area. It was apparent for as long as 15-19 years after cessation. Many different specific oral contraceptive formulations appeared related to a decreased risk; however, data were sparse for the newer types, particularly phasic preparations, and the ability to assess specific preparations in the context of use of multiple preparations was limited. The present data confirm previous reports of an inverse association of ovarian cancer risk with oral contraceptive use of several years in duration. They also suggest that the association may persist for as long as two decades and that it is not confined to any particular type of oral contraceptive formulation.

  6. Specific point mutations in key redox enzymes are associated with chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Nicole M; Belotte, Jimmy; Saed, Mohammed G; Memaj, Ira; Diamond, Michael P; Morris, Robert T; Saed, Ghassan M

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. Resistance to chemotherapy presents a significant challenge for ovarian cancer treatment. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key redox enzymes have been associated with ovarian cancer survival and progression. The objective of this study was to determine whether chemotherapy induces point mutations in key redox enzymes that lead to the acquisition of chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Human EOC cell lines and their chemoresistant counterpart were utilized for this study. Specific SNPs in key redox enzymes were analyzed by TaqMan SNP Genotyping. Activities and levels of key redox enzymes were determined by real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and a greiss assay. Point mutations in key redox enzymes were introduced into sensitive EOC cells via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Cell viability and IC50 for cisplatin were determined by the MTT Cell Proliferation Assay. Data was analyzed with SPSS using Student's two-tailed t-tests and One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's or Tukey's post hoc tests, p<0.05. Here, we demonstrate that chemoresistant EOC cells are characterized by a further enhancement in oxidative stress as compared to sensitive counterparts. Additionally, chemoresistant EOC cells manifested specific point mutations, which are associated with altered enzymatic activity, in key redox enzymes that are not detected in sensitive counterparts. Supplementation of an antioxidant was able to successfully sensitize EOC cells to chemotherapeutics. Causality was established by the induction of these point mutations in sensitive EOC cells, which resulted in a significant increase in the level of chemoresistance. These findings indicate that chemotherapy induces specific point mutations in key redox enzymes that contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance in EOC cells, highlighting a potential novel mechanism. Identification of targets for chemoresistance with either

  7. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Glycosylation Genes with Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Thomas A.; Huang, Yifan; Cunningham, Julie; Goode, Ellen L.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Vierkant, Robert A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Liebow, Mark; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Myer, Jeff; Iversen, Edwin S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that underglycosylation of the cell membrane mucin MUC1 may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer. We identified 26 genes involved in glycosylation and examined 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a minor allele frequency of ≥0.05 in relation to incident ovarian cancer. Cases were ascertained at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (n = 396) or a 48-county region in North Carolina (Duke University; n = 534). Ovarian cancer- free controls (n = 1,037) were frequency matched to the cases on age, race, and residence. Subjects were interviewed to obtain data on risk factors and a sample of blood for DNA and genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate assay. We excluded subjects and individual SNPs with genotype call rates of <90%. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, with adjustment for age and residence. We fitted dominant, log additive, and recessive genetic models. Among Caucasians, nine SNPs in eight genes were associated with risk at P < 0.05 under at least one genetic model before adjusting for multiple testing. A SNP in GALNT1 (rs17647532) was the only one that remained statistically significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing but was not statistically significant in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium among controls. Haplo-type analyses revealed a global association of GALNT1 with risk (P = 0.038, under a recessive genetic model), which largely reflected a decreased risk of one haplotype (0.10 frequency; odds ratio, 0.07; P = 0.01) compared with the most common haplotype (0.39 frequency). These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the glycoslyation process may be novel risk factors for ovarian cancer. PMID:18268124

  8. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option. PMID:26125441

  9. Critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in driving epithelial ovarian cancer platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Belur; Joseph, Peronne; Kovalenko, Olga; Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Redline, Raymond; Resnick, Kimberly; Zanotti, Kristine; Waggoner, Steven; DiFeo, Analisa

    2015-09-15

    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating epithelial ovarian cancer. To improve patient outcomes, it is critical to identify the underlying mechanisms that promote platinum resistance. Emerging evidence supports the concept that platinum-based therapies are able to eliminate the bulk of differentiated cancer cells, but are unable to eliminate cancer initiating cells (CIC). To date, the relevant pathways that regulate ovarian CICs remain elusive. Several correlative studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is associated with poor outcomes in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). However, the functional relevance of these findings remain to be delineated. We have uncovered that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation is a critical driver of HGSOC chemotherapy resistance, and targeted inhibition of this pathway, which eliminates CICs, represents a novel and effective treatment for chemoresistant HGSOC. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in ovarian CICs, and targeted inhibition of β-catenin potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased CIC tumor sphere formation. Furthermore, the Wnt/β-catenin specific inhibitor iCG-001 potently sensitized cells to cisplatin and decreased stem-cell frequency in platinum resistant cells. Taken together, our data is the first report providing evidence that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway maintains stem-like properties and drug resistance of primary HGSOC PDX derived platinum resistant models, and therapeutic targeting of this pathway with iCG-001/PRI-724, which has been shown to be well tolerated in Phase I trials, may be an effective treatment option.

  10. Polymorphisms in Stromal Genes and Susceptibility to Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Wang, Qinggang; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dale, Laura C.; Lambrechts, Diether; Amant, Frederic; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Paul, James; Bützow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana M.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vermeulen, Sita H. H. M.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Cook, Linda S.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vachon, Celine M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Kelemen, Linda E.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among Caucasians were estimated with odds ratios (OR) among 397 cases and 920 controls in two U.S.-based studies (discovery set), 436 cases and 1,098 controls in Australia (replication set 1) and a consortium of 15 studies comprising 1,668 cases and 4,249 controls (replication set 2). The discovery set and replication set 1 (833 cases and 2,013 controls) showed statistically homogeneous (Pheterogeneity≥0.48) decreased risks of sEOC at four variants: DCN rs3138165, rs13312816 and rs516115, and LUM rs17018765 (OR = 0.6 to 0.9; Ptrend = 0.001 to 0.03). Results from replication set 2 were statistically homogeneous (Pheterogeneity≥0.13) and associated with increased risks at DCN rs3138165 and rs13312816, and LUM rs17018765: all ORs = 1.2; Ptrend≤0.02. The ORs at the four variants were statistically heterogeneous across all 18 studies (Pheterogeneity≤0.03), which precluded combining. In post-hoc analyses, interactions were observed between each variant and recruitment period (Pinteraction≤0.003), age at diagnosis (Pinteraction = 0.04), and year of diagnosis (Pinteraction = 0.05) in the five studies with available information (1,044 cases, 2,469 controls). We conclude that variants in DCN and LUM are not directly associated with sEOC, and that confirmation of possible effect modification of the variants by non-genetic factors is required. PMID:21637745

  11. The role of KRAS rs61764370 in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for clinical testing

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gayther, Simon A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Beattie, Mary S.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bolton, Kelly L.; Brewster, Wendy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Campbell, Ian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cook, Linda S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; de Fazio, Anna; Fenstermacher, David A.; Flanagan, James M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Friedman, Eitan; Gao, Bo; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Gross, Jenny; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Harnett, Paul; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Hein, Rebecca; Høgdall, Claus; Høgdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kauff, Noah D.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Lambrechts, Diether; LaPolla, James P.; Lázaro, Conxi; Le, Nhu D.; Leminen, Arto; Leunen, Karin; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Yi; Lundvall, Lene; Macgregor, Stuart; Marees, Tamara; Massuger, Leon F.; McLaughlin, John R.; Menon, Usha; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Osorio, Ana; Paul, Jim; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Radice, Paolo; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Singer, Christian F.; Song, Honglin; Stram, Daniel O.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; van Altena, Anne M.; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Walsh, Christine; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wu, Anna H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Berchuck, Andrew; Risch, Harvey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose An assay for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs61764370 has recently been commercially marketed as a clinical test to aid ovarian cancer risk evaluation in women with family histories of the disease. rs67164370 is in a 3′UTR miRNA binding site of the KRAS oncogene, and is a candidate for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility. However, only one published paper, analyzing fewer than 1,000 subjects in total, has examined this association. Experimental Design Risk association was evaluated in 8,669 cases of invasive EOC and 10,012 controls from nineteen studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, and in 683 cases and 2,044 controls carrying BRCA1 mutations from studies in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Prognosis association was also examined in a subset of five studies with progression-free survival data and eighteen studies with all-cause mortality data. Results No evidence of association was observed between genotype and risk of unselected EOC (odds ratio (OR)=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.95-1.10), serous EOC (OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.98-1.18), familial EOC (OR=1.09, 95%CI=0.78-1.54), or among women carrying deleterious mutations in BRCA1 (OR=1.09, 95%CI=0.88-1.36). There was little evidence for association with survival time among unselected cases (hazard ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI=0.99-1.22), among serous cases (HR=1.12, 95%CI=0.99-1.28), or with progression-free survival in 540 cases treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel (HR=1.18, 95%CI=0.93-1.52). Conclusions These data exclude the possibility of an association between rs61764370 and a clinically significant risk of ovarian cancer or of familial ovarian cancer. Use of this SNP for ovarian cancer clinical risk prediction therefore appears unwarranted. PMID:21385923

  12. Cancer stem cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and drug resistance in high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Wenjun; Liu, Jinsong

    2013-11-01

    Although epithelial ovarian cancer cells are eliminated by debulking surgery and chemotherapy during initial treatment, it is believed that only a subset of cancer cells, that is, cancer stem cells, may be an important source of tumor recurrence and drug resistance. This review highlights our current understanding of high-grade serous carcinoma, ovarian cancer stem cells, common methods for enrichment of ovarian cancer stem cells, mechanisms involved in drug resistance, and potential strategies for overcoming drug resistance, with associated potential controversies and pitfalls. We also review the potential relationship between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells and how we can induce cancer cells to differentiate into benign stromal fibroblasts in response to certain chemotherapy drugs.

  13. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) gene variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y. Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E.; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to EOC risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. Methods We screened 1254 SNPs in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (p<0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A p-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 was considered statistically significant. Results In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.07–1.25, p=0.0003, FDR=0.19), while F8 rs7053448 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.69–0.90, p=0.0005, FDR=0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. Conclusion These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  14. Drugs with potential chemopreventive properties in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer--a nationwide case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baandrup, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because the disease in the majority of patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage as a result of nonspecific symptoms and lack of efficient screening methods. Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the challenge of early detection of the disease, identification of protective factors is important. It has been suggested that some commonly used drugs may have a protective effect against cancer, including ovarian cancer; however, the literature on chemopreventive measures for ovarian cancer is sparse and the results are inconclusive. Most previous studies have substantial methodological constraints, including limited study size and self-reporting of drug use, which introduces potential recall bias and misclassification. This PhD thesis includes a nationwide case-control study to evaluate associations between use of drugs with potential chemopreventive properties and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study is nested in the entire Danish female population using data from the following nationwide registries: the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Prescription Registry, the Danish National Patient Register, and registries in Statistics Denmark on fertility, education, and income. Information from the included registries is linked by use of the unique personal identification number assigned to all Danish citizens. The cases were all women in Denmark with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during 2000-2009 (Paper 1) and 2000-2011 (Papers 2 and 3), identified in the Cancer Registry. Age-matched female population controls were randomly selected from the Civil Registration System by risk-set sampling. We required that cases and controls have no history of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) and that controls not previously have undergone bilateral oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. The total study population comprised 3741 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 50,576 controls in

  15. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Our studies to date have determined that human oogonial stem cells , while far less stable than their murine counterparts, can be successfully expanded...DNA signature of the oogonial stem cell -derived tumors to that of primary human ovarian cancer. We have also successfully introduced in human...oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in ovarian cancer. We are now generating tumors from these altered oogonial stem cells and will

  16. Prognostic impact of tumour-associated B cells and plasma cells in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Sebastian; Berntsson, Jonna; Nodin, Björn; Micke, Patrick; Jirström, Karin

    2016-04-06

    The critical role of the immune system in controlling cancer progression has become evident and immune modulatory therapy is now approved for clinical use. However, while the majority of studies on the inflammatory tumour microenvironment have focused on the cellular immune response, in particular the prognostic and predictive role of various T cell infiltrates, the role of the humoral immune response in this context has long been overlooked. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological correlates and prognostic impact of B cell and plasma cell infiltration in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Immunohistochemical expression of immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC), CD20 and CD138 was analysed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 154 incident cases of EOC from two pooled prospective population-based cohorts. Subsets of corresponding benign-appearing fallopian tubes (n = 38) and omental metastases (n = 33) were also analysed. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to determine the impact of immune-cell specific IGKC, CD20 and CD138 expression on overall survival and ovarian cancer-specific survival. High IGKC expression correlated significantly with expression of CD20 (p = 0.001) and CD138 (p = 0.035). Expression of IGKC as well as CD138 was significantly higher in primary tumours than in fallopian tubes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively). High CD20 and CD138 expression correlated significantly with high tumour grade (p = 0.032 and p = 0.030, respectively). CD20 and IGKC expression was not prognostic but univariable Cox regression analysis revealed high CD138 expression to correlate with a significantly reduced overall survival (HR = 2.20; 95 % CI 1.34-3.55; p-0.001) as well as ovarian cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.95; 95 % CI 1.28-2.98; p = 0.002). The prognostic impact was independent of established clinical parameters (age, grade, clinical stage) as shown in multivariable analysis (HR = 2.28; 95 % CI 1.39-3.75; p = 0.001). In

  17. Potential application of curcumin and its analogues in the treatment strategy of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Terlikowska, Katarzyna M; Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Malgorzata E; Dobrzycka, Bozena; Terlikowski, Slawomir J

    2014-11-25

    Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid to curcumin-A broad-spectrum anticancer polyphenolic derivative extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. According to ClinicalTrials.gov at present there are no running pilot studies, which could assess possible therapeutic benefits from curcumin supplementation to patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, the goal of this review was to evaluate potential preclinical properties of curcumin and its new analogues on the basis of in vivo and in vitro ovarian cancer studies. Curcumin and its different formulations have been shown to display multifunctional mechanisms of anticancer activity, not only in platinum-resistant primary epithelial ovarian cancer, but also in multidrug resistant cancer cells/xenografts models. Curcumin administered together with platinum-taxane chemotherapeutics have been reported to demonstrate synergistic effects, sensitize resistant cells to drugs, and decrease their biologically effective doses. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that curcumin, due to its long-term safety and an excellent profile of side effects should be considered as a beneficial support in ovarian cancer treatment strategies, especially in patients with platinum-resistant primary epithelial recurrent ovarian cancer or multidrug resistant disease. Although the prospect of curcumin and its formulations as anticancer agents in ovarian cancer treatment strategy appears to be challenging, and at the same time promising, there is a further need to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical studies.

  18. Potential Application of Curcumin and Its Analogues in the Treatment Strategy of Patients with Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Terlikowska, Katarzyna M.; Witkowska, Anna M.; Zujko, Malgorzata E.; Dobrzycka, Bozena; Terlikowski, Slawomir J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid to curcumin—A broad-spectrum anticancer polyphenolic derivative extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. According to ClinicalTrials.gov at present there are no running pilot studies, which could assess possible therapeutic benefits from curcumin supplementation to patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, the goal of this review was to evaluate potential preclinical properties of curcumin and its new analogues on the basis of in vivo and in vitro ovarian cancer studies. Curcumin and its different formulations have been shown to display multifunctional mechanisms of anticancer activity, not only in platinum-resistant primary epithelial ovarian cancer, but also in multidrug resistant cancer cells/xenografts models. Curcumin administered together with platinum-taxane chemotherapeutics have been reported to demonstrate synergistic effects, sensitize resistant cells to drugs, and decrease their biologically effective doses. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that curcumin, due to its long-term safety and an excellent profile of side effects should be considered as a beneficial support in ovarian cancer treatment strategies, especially in patients with platinum-resistant primary epithelial recurrent ovarian cancer or multidrug resistant disease. Although the prospect of curcumin and its formulations as anticancer agents in ovarian cancer treatment strategy appears to be challenging, and at the same time promising, there is a further need to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical studies. PMID:25429431

  19. ABCA Transporter Gene Expression and Poor Outcome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hedditch, Ellen L.; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J.; Lu, Yi; Emmanuel, Catherine; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Harnett, Paul; George, Joshy; Williams, Rebekka T.; Flemming, Claudia; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susan K.; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel P.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen; Bowtell, David D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Norris, Murray D.; MacGregor, Stuart; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. Methods The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA–mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the “A” subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e−6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. Conclusions Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor

  20. ABCA transporter gene expression and poor outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedditch, Ellen L; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J; Lu, Yi; Emmanuel, Catherine; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E; Chen, Xiaoqing; Harnett, Paul; George, Joshy; Williams, Rebekka T; Flemming, Claudia; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susan K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel P; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen; Bowtell, David D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Norris, Murray D; MacGregor, Stuart; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J

    2014-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA-mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the "A" subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e-6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor outcome in serous ovarian cancer, implicating lipid

  1. Regulatory T lymphocytes and transforming growth factor beta in epithelial ovarian tumors-prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Izabela; Wilczynska, Barbara; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Gogacz, Marek; Adamiak, Aneta; Postawski, Krzysztof; Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Rechberger, Tomasz; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-06-17

    Regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) are characterized by the presence of CD4+ surface antigen. Today the transcription factor FOXP3 is considered to be the most specific marker of Treg cells. The aim of the study was to estimate the percentage of Treg in peripheral blood and the tissue of the epithelial ovarian tumor and blood serum TGF-beta concentrations and relationships between them. Moreover, the aim of the study was to answer the question whether the percentage of Treg lymphocytes affects the time of survival in patients with ovarian cancer. The patients were divided into four groups, depending on the histopathological examination result: I--a group without any pathology within the ovaries (C; n = 20), II--a group with benign tumors (B; n = 25), III - with borderline tumors (BR; n = 11), IV--a group with cancer of the ovary (M; n = 24). The percentage of Treg lymphocytes in peripheral blood and the tissue was assessed using the flow cytometry method. TGF-beta cytokine concentration was estimated with the ELISA immunoenzymatic test. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using the computer program Statistica 10.0PL (StatSoft, Inc). No significant differences were found in percentages of Treg lymphocytes in peripheral blood between individual groups of patients (p = 0.11). However, we observed marked differences in the tissue of malignant and non-malignant tumors between individual groups of patients (p = 0.003). The analysis with the post hoc test revealed significantly higher TGF-beta concentration in the group of women with malignant tumors. Moreover, no relationship was found between TGF-beta concentration and the percentage of Treg cells in peripheral blood and tumors of the ovary. No correlation was found between the percentage of Treg lymphocytes in peripheral blood (p = 0.4) and the tissue of ovarian tumors (p = 0.3) and the time of survival of patients with ovarian cancer. The recruitment of Treg lymphocytes

  2. Distinct Patterns of Stromal and Tumor Expression of ROR1 and ROR2 in Histological Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Henry, C E; Emmanuel, C; Lambie, N; Loo, C; Kan, B; Kennedy, C J; de Fazio, A; Hacker, N F; Ford, C E

    2017-06-01

    The ROR1 and ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinases have both been implicated in ovarian cancer progression and have been shown to drive migration and invasion. There is an increasing importance of the role of stroma in ovarian cancer metastasis; however, neither ROR1 nor ROR2 expression in tumor or stromal cells has been analyzed in the same clinical cohort. To determine ROR1 and ROR2 expression in ovarian cancer and surrounding microenvironment and examine associations with clinicopathological characteristics. Immunohistochemistry for ROR1 and ROR2 was used to assess receptor expression in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients (n=178). Results were analyzed in relation to clinical and histopathological characteristics and survival. Matched patient sample case studies of normal, primary, and metastatic lesions were used to examine ROR expression in relation to ovarian cancer progression. ROR1 and ROR2 are abnormally expressed in malignant ovarian epithelium and stroma. Higher ROR2 tumor expression was found in early-stage, low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ROR2 stromal expression was highest in the serous subtype. In matched patient case studies, metastatic samples had higher expression of ROR2 in the stroma, and a recurrent sample had the highest expression of ROR2 in both tumor and stroma. ROR1 and ROR2 are expressed in tumor-associated stroma in all histological subtypes of ovarian cancer and hold potential as therapeutic targets which may disrupt tumor and stroma interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least three months after completion of treatment were included. The decision on whether primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced ovarian cancer was based on age, performance status, clinical and imaging findings. Results A total of 178 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were operated on during this four year period. Among them 28 patients were recurrent cases, 22 had early stages of ovarian cancer, and the rest 128 had stage III and IV ovarian cancer. In these 128 patients, 50(39.1%) underwent primary surgery and 78(60.9%) had NACT followed by surgery. In the primary surgery group 36(72.0%) patients had optimal debulking while in the NACT group 59(75.6%) patient had optimal debulking. With a median follow-up of 34 months, the median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) was 53 and 49 months respectively. Patients who underwent primary surgery had better median PFS than patients who had NACT (56 months versus 39 months, p = 0.002). In stage III C the difference median PFS was significant for those treated with primary surgery when compared with NACT (55 months versus 39 months, p = 0.012). In patients who had optimal debulking to no residual disease (n = 90), primary surgery gave a significant improved PFS (59 months versus 38 months, p = 0.001) when compared with NACT. In univariate analysis, NACT was associated with increased risk of death (HR: 0.350; CI: 0.177–0.693). Conclusion In advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, primary surgery

  4. 4.1N suppresses hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Letian; Hu, Ajin; Li, Mengrui; Zhang, Hongquan; Ren, Caixia; An, Xiuli; Liu, Congrong

    2016-01-01

    Protein 4.1N (4.1N) is a member of the protein 4.1 family and is essential for the regulation of cell adhesion, motility and signaling. Previous studies have suggested that 4.1N may serve a tumor suppressor role. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, the role of 4.1N in the downregulation of hypoxia‑induced factor 1α (HIF‑1α) under hypoxic conditions and therefore the suppression of hypoxia induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) was investigated. The data were obtained from overexpressed and knockdown 4.1N epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. It was identified that 4.1N was capable of regulating the sub‑cellular localization and expression levels of HIF‑1α, by which 4.1N served a dominant role in the suppression of hypoxia‑induced EMT and associated genes. Collectively, the data of the current study identified 4.1N as an inhibitor of hypoxia‑induced tumor progression in EOC cells and highlighted its potential role in EOC therapy.

  5. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis of Second-Harmonic Generation Images: A Semiautomatic Collagen Fibers Quantification Protocol.

    PubMed

    Zeitoune, Angel A; Luna, Johana Sj; Salas, Kynthia Sanchez; Erbes, Luciana; Cesar, Carlos L; Andrade, Liliana Ala; Carvahlo, Hernades F; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Casco, Victor H; Adur, Javier

    2017-01-01

    A vast number of human pathologic conditions are directly or indirectly related to tissular collagen structure remodeling. The nonlinear optical microscopy second-harmonic generation has become a powerful tool for imaging biological tissues with anisotropic hyperpolarized structures, such as collagen. During the past years, several quantification methods to analyze and evaluate these images have been developed. However, automated or semiautomated solutions are necessary to ensure objectivity and reproducibility of such analysis. This work describes automation and improvement methods for calculating the anisotropy (using fast Fourier transform analysis and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix). These were applied to analyze biopsy samples of human ovarian epithelial cancer at different stages of malignancy (mucinous, serous, mixed, and endometrial subtypes). The semiautomation procedure enabled us to design a diagnostic protocol that recognizes between healthy and pathologic tissues, as well as between different tumor types.

  6. Fertility-Sparing Surgery in Early Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Viable Option?

    PubMed Central

    Fotopoulou, Christina; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) continues to represent one of the most lethal conditions in women in the western countries. With the shifting of childbearing towards higher age, EOC increasingly affects women with active childbearing wish, resulting in major impacts on treatment management. Next to the optimal therapeutic treatment strategies, gynecologic oncologists are being asked to incorporate into their decision-making processes the patients' wish for fertility preserving alternatives ideally without compromising oncologic safety. Nowadays, fertility-sparing surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional radical cytoreduction in younger women with early stages of the disease. As such, this paper considers indications for fertility sparing surgery in EOC, reflects on outcomes from the oncologic and reproductive data of the largest and most relevant series outcomes data, reporting on fertility sparing techniques in EOC, reviews medicamentous efforts to prevent chemotherapy induced gonadotoxicity, and discusses future aspects in the gynecologic cancer management. PMID:22529854

  7. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis of Second-Harmonic Generation Images: A Semiautomatic Collagen Fibers Quantification Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zeitoune, Angel A; Luna, Johana SJ; Sanchez Salas, Kynthia; Erbes, Luciana; Cesar, Carlos L; Andrade, Liliana ALA; Carvahlo, Hernades F; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Casco, Victor H; Adur, Javier

    2017-01-01

    A vast number of human pathologic conditions are directly or indirectly related to tissular collagen structure remodeling. The nonlinear optical microscopy second-harmonic generation has become a powerful tool for imaging biological tissues with anisotropic hyperpolarized structures, such as collagen. During the past years, several quantification methods to analyze and evaluate these images have been developed. However, automated or semiautomated solutions are necessary to ensure objectivity and reproducibility of such analysis. This work describes automation and improvement methods for calculating the anisotropy (using fast Fourier transform analysis and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix). These were applied to analyze biopsy samples of human ovarian epithelial cancer at different stages of malignancy (mucinous, serous, mixed, and endometrial subtypes). The semiautomation procedure enabled us to design a diagnostic protocol that recognizes between healthy and pathologic tissues, as well as between different tumor types. PMID:28469386

  8. Overexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) predicts poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanbyoul; Lee, You Sun; Kim, Julie; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Illumina microarray was used to identify differentially expressed genes in three epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. To validate the microarray data, mRNA and protein level of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was examined. GLUT-1 had an EOC/normal cells ratio of 5.51 based on microarray. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GLUT-1 expression was significantly increased in EOC (p = .029 and p < .001, respectively). On survival analysis, GLUT-1 overexpression (HR = 4.80, p = .027) and lymph node metastases (HR = 8.35, p = .016) conferred a significantly worse overall survival. In conclusion, GLUT-1 expression is remarkably upregulated in EOC and predicts a poor overall survival.

  9. The effect of symptom duration in epithelial ovarian cancer on prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Menczer, Joseph; Chetrit, Angela; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2009-06-01

    To assess the association between duration of symptoms and main prognostic factors of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The data of all histologically confirmed EOC patients diagnosed in Israel during the period 1994-1999 (n = 1,005) were retrieved from discharge summaries and admission records. Of the 371 (36.9%) patients with known presenting symptoms, the durations of 187 (50.4%) were recorded. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65.2%). The percentage of patients with three or more symptoms increased significantly with stage (P = 0.001). No statistically significant association between duration of symptoms and prognostic factors was found. Our findings did not show an association between duration of symptoms and prognostic factors in EOC patients and may indicate that prognosis is not a function of delay in diagnosis.

  10. Value of glutathion-S transferase pi as a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saip, P; Tuzlali, S; Demir, K; Sakar, B; Yavuz, E; Berkman, S; Bengisu, E; Topuz, E

    2005-01-01

    The association between glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) and other clinicopathological parameters, response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome were investigated in chemotherapy naive epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Paraffin-embedded material from 55 patients were used for immunohistochemical analysis. All patients had received six cycles of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy and 41 of them were revalued by laparotomy. Pre- and post-chemotherapy GSTpi staining were detected in the cancer tissues of 18/55 (32.7%) and 5/14 (35.7%) patients, respectively. GSTpi expression was not associated with other clinicopathologic parameters. Of 17 patients with postoperative measurable residual disease clinical response was observed in 4/7 of GSTpi positive and in 9/10 GSTpi negative patients (p = 0.25). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was achieved in 5/8 of GSTpi positive and 11/22 of GSTpi negative cases (p = 0.69). There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) according to initial GSTpi status. However the PFS of the five patients (median 22 +/- 5.9 months) who had postchemotherapy positive GSTpi was significantly shorter than the nine patients (10.0 +/- 2.19 months) who had negative GSTpi (p = 0.006). This difference was not observed in overall survival. These results suggest that initial immunohistochemical staining of GSTpi does not aid in the prediction of pCR and clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Nonetheless investigation of GSTpi expression after chemotherapy needs further evaluation.

  11. Prognostic implications of microRNA-100 and its functional roles in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dong-Xian; Luo, Min; Qiu, Li-Wen; He, Yuan-Li; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2012-04-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found to be associated with a variety of diseases, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Recently, miR-100 was reported to be downregulated in human ovarian carcinoma, however, the clinical significance and functional roles of miR-100 expression in human EOC are unclear. TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay was performed to detect the expression of miR-100 in 98 EOC tissues and 15 adjacent normal epithelial tissues. The relationship between miR-100 expression and clinicopathological factors in 98 EOC patients was statistically analyzed. The effect of miR-100 expression on patient survival was determined. Finally, the role of miR-100 in EOC cell growth and its possible mechanisms were analyzed with miR-100 precursor or inhibitor-transfected cells. We showed that the level of miR-100 was significantly lower in EOC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Low miR-100 expression was found to be closely correlated with advanced FIGO stage, higher serum CA125 expression level and lymph node involvement. Also, low miR-100 expression was correlated with shorter overall survival of EOC patients, and multivariate analysis showed that the status of miR-100 expression was an independent predictor of overall survival in EOC. Additionally, miR-100 could affect the growth of EOC cells by post-transcriptionally regulating polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) expression. Together, these results suggest that low miR-100 expression may be an independent poor prognostic factor and miR-100 can function as a tumor suppressor by targeting PLK1 in human EOCs.

  12. Survival outcomes of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: experience from a Thailand northern tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Jansaka, Natpat; Suprasert, Prapaporn

    2014-01-01

    To assess survival outcomes in a retrospective study, recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer patients were divided into three groups according to the platinum free interval as follows: platinum refractory that included the patients with tumor progression during treatment; platinum resistant and platinum sensitive that included the patients with tumor progression less than or more than six months, respectively. Clinical data for tumor progression in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January, 2006 and December, 2010 were reviewed. Thirty-nine patients were in the platinum refractory group while 27 were in the platinum resistant group and 75 in the platinum sensitive group. The mean age, the parity, the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the serous type did not significantly different across groups while the mean total number of chemotherapy regimens, the early stage patients, the patients with complete surgery and the surviving patients were significant more frequent in the platinum sensitive group. Regarding subsequent treatment after tumor recurrence, 87.2% underwent chemotherapy. With the median follow up time at 29 months, the median overall survival rates were 20 months, 14 months and 42 months in platinum refractory, platinum resistant and platinum sensitive groups, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, when the platinum sensitive patients developed the next episode of tumor progression, the median progression free interval time was only three to four months. In conclusion, the outcomes for platinum refractory the and platinum resistant groups was poorer than the platinum sensitive group. However, subsequent progression in the platinum sensitive group was also associated with a poor outcome.

  13. Spatial and temporal epithelial ovarian cancer cell heterogeneity impacts Maraba virus oncolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jessica G; Valdes, Yudith Ramos; Sivapragasam, Milani; Barrett, John W; Bell, John C; Stojdl, David; DiMattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G

    2017-08-30

    Epithelial ovarian cancer exhibits extensive interpatient and intratumoral heterogeneity, which can hinder successful treatment strategies. Herein, we investigated the efficacy of an emerging oncolytic, Maraba virus (MRBV), in an in vitro model of ovarian tumour heterogeneity. Four ovarian high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) cell lines were isolated and established from a single patient at four points during disease progression. Limiting-dilution subcloning generated seven additional subclone lines to assess intratumoral heterogeneity. MRBV entry and oncolytic efficacy were assessed among all 11 cell lines. Low-density receptor (LDLR) expression, conditioned media treatments and co-cultures were performed to determine factors impacting MRBV oncolysis. Temporal and intratumoral heterogeneity identified two subpopulations of cells: one that was highly sensitive to MRBV, and another set which exhibited 1000-fold reduced susceptibility to MRBV-mediated oncolysis. We explored both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms influencing sensitivity to MRBV and identified that LDLR can partially mediate MRBV infection. LDLR expression, however, was not the singular determinant of sensitivity to MRBV among the HGSC cell lines and subclones. We verified that there were no apparent extracellular factors, such as type I interferon responses, contributing to MRBV resistance. However, direct cell-cell contact by co-culture of MRBV-resistant subclones with sensitive cells restored virus infection and oncolytic killing of mixed population. Our data is the first to demonstrate differential efficacy of an oncolytic virus in the context of both spatial and temporal heterogeneity of HGSC cells and to evaluate whether it will constitute a barrier to effective viral oncolytic therapy.

  14. Deregulation of let-7e in epithelial ovarian cancer promotes the development of resistance to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, J; Yang, C; Yang, Q; Ding, H; Jia, J; Guo, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment in ovarian cancer patients, and the evidence of microRNAs involvement in drug resistance has been emerging recently. In this report, we investigated the role of let-7e in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. On the cellular level, let-7e expression was significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780/CP compared with parental A2780 cell and decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in A2780, SKOV3 and ES2 cells treated with cisplatin. Overexpression of let-7e by transfection of agomir could resensitize A2780/CP and reduce the expression of cisplatin-resistant-related proteins enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), whereas let-7e inhibitors increased resistance to cisplatin in parental A2780 cells. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis showed hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to let-7e in A2780/CP cells, and demethylation treatment with 5-aza-CdR or transfection of pYr-let-7e-shRNA plasmid containing unmethylated let-7e DNA sequence could restore let-7e expression and partly reduce the chemoresistance. In addition, cisplatin combined with let-7e agomirs inhibited the growth of A2780/CP xenograft more effectively than cisplatin alone. Diminished expression of EZH2 and CCND1 and higher cisplatin concentrations in tumor tissue of mice subjected to administration of let-7e agomirs in addition to cisplatin were revealed by immunohistochemistry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that let-7e may act as a promising therapeutic target for improvement of the sensibility to cisplatin in EOC. PMID:24100610

  15. MK-2206 sensitizes BRCA-deficient epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma to cisplatin and olaparib.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Margaret E; Lin, Z Ping; Hanna, Ruth; Sartorelli, Alan C; Ratner, Elena S

    2016-07-27

    Platinum resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Activation of the AKT pathway promotes platinum resistance while inhibition of AKT sensitizes chemoresistant cells. Patients with BRCA mutant EOC, and thus a defect in the homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway, demonstrate greater clinical response to platinum and olaparib therapy than patients with BRCA wild-type EOC. MK-2206, an allosteric inhibitor of AKT phosphorylation, sensitizes a variety of cell types to various anticancer agents and is currently undergoing phase II trials as monotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. This study examines the differential effects of AKT inhibition with cisplatin and olaparib therapy in BRCA1/2-deficient versus wild-type EOC. PEO1, a chemosensitive BRCA2-mutant serous ovarian adenocarcinoma, and PEO4, a reverted BRCA2-proficient line from the same patient after the development of chemotherapeutic resistance, were primarily used for the study. In PEO1, MK-2206 demonstrated moderate to strong synergism with cisplatin and olaparib at all doses, while demonstrating antagonism at all doses in PEO4. Baseline phospho-AKT activity in untreated cells was upregulated in both BRCA1- and 2-deficient cell lines. MK-2206 prevented cisplatin- and olaparib-induced AKT activation in the BRCA2-deficient PEO1 cells. We propose that BRCA-deficient EOC cells upregulate baseline AKT activity to enhance survival in the absence of HR. Higher AKT activity is also required to withstand cytotoxic agent-induced DNA damage, leading to strong synergism between MK-2206 and cisplatin or olaparib therapy in BRCA-deficient cells. MK-2206 shows promise as a chemosensitization agent in BRCA-deficient EOC and merits clinical investigation in this patient population.

  16. Ten-year survival after epithelial ovarian cancer is not associated with BRCA mutation status.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Rosen, Barry; Fan, Isabel; Moody, Joel; McLaughlin, John R; Risch, Harvey; May, Taymaa; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    After a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, positive BRCA mutation status confers a transient mortality benefit that diminishes with time. The majority of women who survive for 10-12 years are effectively cured of their disease. Thus, it is important to estimate the probability of long-term survival by BRCA mutation status and treatment-related factors. We included unselected epithelial ovarian cancers diagnosed in Ontario, Canada from 1995 to 1999 and from 2002 to 2004. Clinical information was obtained from medical records. Survival status was determined by linkage to the Ontario Cancer Registry. We estimated the annual mortality for these patients. We compared women who did and did not survive 10 years for a range of factors including BRCA mutation status and extent of residual disease post-surgery. Of the 1421 patients, 109 (7.7%) had BRCA1 mutations and 68 (4.8%) had BRCA2 mutations. A status of no residual disease was achieved by 39% of non-carriers and 19% of mutation carriers (P<0.0001). By 10-years of follow-up, 43% of non-carriers, 57% of BRCA1 mutation carriers and 69% of BRCA2 mutation carriers had died from ovarian cancer. Among women with stage III/IV serous cancers and no residual disease, the 10-year actuarial survival was 42% for non-carriers and 29% for mutation carriers (P=0.40). The initial survival advantage among women with BRCA mutations may reflect a higher initial sensitivity of BRCA carriers to chemotherapy, but this response does not predict long-term survival. The strongest predictor of long-term survival is status of no residual disease at resection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. CAP1 is overexpressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Minhui; Yan, Sujuan; Deng, Yan; Xi, Qinghua; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shuyun; Liu, Jian; Tang, Chunhui; Wang, Yingying; Zhong, Jianxin

    2015-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) regulates both actin filaments and the Ras/cAMP pathway in yeast, and has been found play a role in cell motility and in the development of certain types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated CAP1 gene expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed using EOC tissue samples and the results revealed that CAP1 expression increased with the increasing grade of EOC. In the normal ovarian tissue samples however, CAP1 expression was barely detected. Using Pearson's χ2 test, it was demonstrated that CAP1 expression was associated with the histological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a higher CAP1 expression in patients with EOC was associated with a poorer prognosis. In in vitro experiments using HO-8910 EOC cells, the expression of CAP1 was knocked down using siRNA. The proliferation of the HO-8910 cells was then determined by cell cycle analysis and cell proliferation assay using the cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry. The results revealed that the loss of CAP1 expression inhibited cell cycle progression. These findings suggest that a high expression of CAP1 is involved in the pathogenesis of EOC, and that the downregulation of CAP1 in tumor cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with EOC.

  18. Role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and miRNAs in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Oróstica, Lorena; Vera, Carolina; Cuevas, Paula; Hernández, Andrea; Hurtado, Iván; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer in women worldwide, and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents 90% of cases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A receptor (TRKA) have been associated with the development of several types of cancer, including EOC; both NGF and TRKA levels are elevated in this pathology. EOC presents high angiogenesis and several molecules have been reported to induce this process. NGF increases angiogenesis through its TRKA receptor on endothelial cells, and by indirectly inducing vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Other molecules controlled by NGF include ciclooxigenase-2, disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) and calreticulin (CRT), proteins involved in crucial processes needed for EOC progression. These molecules could be modified through microRNA regulation, which could be regulated by NGF. MicroRNAs are the widest family of non-coding RNAs; they bind to 3′-UTR of mRNAs to inhibit their translation, to deadenilate or to degraded them. In EOC, a deregulation in microRNA expression has been described, including alterations of miR-200 family, cluster-17-92, and miR-23b, among others. Since the NGF-microRNA relationship in pathologies has not been studied, this review proposes that some microRNAs could be associated with NGF/TRKA activation, modifying protein levels needed for EOC progression. PMID:28245631

  19. Role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and miRNAs in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Oróstica, Lorena; Vera, Carolina; Cuevas, Paula; Hernández, Andrea; Hurtado, Iván; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2017-02-26

    Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer in women worldwide, and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents 90% of cases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A receptor (TRKA) have been associated with the development of several types of cancer, including EOC; both NGF and TRKA levels are elevated in this pathology. EOC presents high angiogenesis and several molecules have been reported to induce this process. NGF increases angiogenesis through its TRKA receptor on endothelial cells, and by indirectly inducing vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Other molecules controlled by NGF include ciclooxigenase-2, disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) and calreticulin (CRT), proteins involved in crucial processes needed for EOC progression. These molecules could be modified through microRNA regulation, which could be regulated by NGF. MicroRNAs are the widest family of non-coding RNAs; they bind to 3'-UTR of mRNAs to inhibit their translation, to deadenilate or to degraded them. In EOC, a deregulation in microRNA expression has been described, including alterations of miR-200 family, cluster-17-92, and miR-23b, among others. Since the NGF-microRNA relationship in pathologies has not been studied, this review proposes that some microRNAs could be associated with NGF/TRKA activation, modifying protein levels needed for EOC progression.

  20. High prevalence of atypical hyperplasia in the endometrium of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mingels, Marjanka J J M; Masadah, Rina; Geels, Yvette P; Otte-Höller, Irene; de Kievit, Ineke M; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of endometrial premalignancies in women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Endometrial and ovarian specimens of 186 patients with EOC were retrospectively selected using the nationwide pathology network and registry, and sections were comprehensively reviewed: 136 (73%) serous, 19 (10%) endometrioid, 15 (8%) mucinous, seven (4%) clear cell, and nine (5%) undifferentiated. Immunohistochemical phenotypes were compared for patients with serous EOC with concurrent endometrial pathology. In 31%, endometrial (pre)malignancy was found: carcinoma in 3%, endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) in 4%, and atypical hyperplasia in 24%. Atypical hyperplasia was found in 47% of endometrioid EOCs but in 7% to 33% of other subtypes. Body mass index was higher concurrent to atypical hyperplasia (P=.001). Serous EOC and EIC immunophenotypes were comparable, whereas atypical hyperplasia was expressed differently. Apart from synchronous endometrial carcinoma, endometrial premalignancies should be taken into account when determining optimal treatment for women diagnosed with EOC. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  1. Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Catherine M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Kar, Siddhartha P; Lawrenson, Kate; Winham, Stacey J; Dennis, Joe; Pirie, Ailith; Riggan, Marjorie J; Chornokur, Ganna; Earp, Madalene A; Lyra, Paulo C; Lee, Janet M; Coetzee, Simon; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Soucy, Penny; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lecarpentier, Julie; Leslie, Goska; Aalfs, Cora M; Aben, Katja K H; Adams, Marcia; Adlard, Julian; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Azzollini, Jacopo; Balmaña, Judith; Banerjee, Susana N; Barjhoux, Laure; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernardini, Marcus Q; Birrer, Michael J; Bjorge, Line; Black, Amanda; Blankstein, Kenneth; Blok, Marinus J; Bodelon, Clara; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borg, Åke; Bradbury, Angela R; Brenton, James D; Brewer, Carole; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buecher, Bruno; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Cannioto, Rikki; Carney, Michael E; Cescon, Terence; Chan, Salina B; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Xiao Qing; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Conner, Thomas; Cook, Linda S; Cook, Jackie; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Damirovna, Sakaeva Dina; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dao, Fanny; Davidson, Rosemarie; DeFazio, Anna; Delnatte, Capucine; Doheny, Kimberly F; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dossus, Laure; Duran, Mercedes; Dürst, Matthias; Dworniczak, Bernd; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Todd; Eeles, Ros; Eilber, Ursula; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ekici, Arif B; Ellis, Steve; Elvira, Mingajeva; Eng, Kevin H; Engel, Christoph; Evans, D Gareth; Fasching, Peter A; Ferguson, Sarah; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Flanagan, James M; Fogarty, Zachary C; Fortner, Renée T; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fountzilas, George; Fridley, Brooke L; Friebel, Tara M; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; García, María J; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gehrig, Andrea; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Goranova, Teodora; Gore, Martin; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Gruber, Stephen; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Harrington, Patricia A; Harris, Holly R; Hauke, Jan; Hein, Alexander; Henderson, Alex; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hodgson, Shirley; Høgdall, Claus K; Høgdall, Estrid; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Holland, Helene; Hooning, Maartje J; Hosking, Karen; Huang, Ruea-Yea; Hulick, Peter J; Hung, Jillian; Hunter, David J; Huntsman, David G; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Iversen, Edwin S; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jernetz, Mats; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Johnatty, Sharon; Jones, Michael E; Kannisto, Päivi; Karlan, Beth Y; Karnezis, Anthony; Kast, Karin; Kennedy, Catherine J; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Kjaer, Susanne K; Köbel, Martin; Kopperud, Reidun K; Kruse, Torben A; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Larrañaga, Nerea; Larson, Melissa C; Lazaro, Conxi; Le, Nhu D; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Jong Won; Lele, Shashikant B; Leminen, Arto; Leroux, Dominique; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Liebrich, Clemens; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lipworth, Loren; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen H; Lubinński, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lundvall, Lene; Mai, Phuong L; Mendoza-Fandiño, Gustavo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Massuger, Leon F A G; May, Taymaa; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McAlpine, Jessica N; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Merritt, Melissa A; Milne, Roger L; Mitchell, Gillian; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moffitt, Melissa; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Musinsky, Jacob; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Nussbaum, Robert L; Odunsi, Kunle; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David M; Ong, Kai-Ren; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Orr, Nicholas; Orsulic, Sandra; Osorio, Ana; Palli, Domenico; Papi, Laura; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Peeters, Petra H M; Peissel, Bernard; Peixoto, Ana; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth, Jennifer B; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pezzani, Lidia; Pfeiler, Georg; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Piedmonte, Marion; Pike, Malcolm C; Piskorz, Anna M; Poblete, Samantha R; Pocza, Timea; Poole, Elizabeth M; Poppe, Bruce; Porteous, Mary E; Prieur, Fabienne; Prokofyeva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Pujol, Pascal; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Rhiem, Kerstin; Rice, Patricia; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Romm, Jane; Rookus, Matti A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Salvesen, Helga B; Sandler, Dale P; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Senter, Leigha; Setiawan, V Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Sharma, Priyanka; Shelford, Tameka; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Side, Lucy E; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F; Sobol, Hagay; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stadler, Zsofia; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutphen, Rebecca; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Szabo, Csilla I; Szafron, Lukasz; Tan, Yen Y; Taylor, Jack A; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Thull, Darcy L; Tihomirova, Laima; Tinker, Anna V; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tone, Alicia; Trabert, Britton; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Den Berg, David; van der Hout, Annemarie H; van der Luijt, Rob B; Van Heetvelde, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vega, Ana; Edwards, Digna Velez; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Vijai, Joseph; Vratimos, Athanassios; Walker, Lisa; Walsh, Christine; Wand, Dorothea; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Webb, Penelope M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wijnen, Juul T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Woo, Michelle; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zorn, Kristin K; Narod, Steven A; Easton, Douglas F; Amos, Christopher I; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Ottini, Laura; Goodman, Marc T; Park, Sue K; Kelemen, Linda E; Risch, Harvey A; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Simard, Jacques; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Hazelett, Dennis; Monteiro, Alvaro N; Couch, Fergus J; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Goode, Ellen L; Sellers, Thomas A; Gayther, Simon A; Antoniou, Antonis C; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2017-05-01

    To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.

  2. MicroRNA-215 targets NOB1 and inhibits growth and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Jin, Yang; Xu, Tianmin; Zhou, Shunqing; Cui, Manhua

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA-215 (miR-215) has been showed to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in many types of cancer. However, its biological function and underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains greatly unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate biological role and underlying mechanism of miR-215 in EOC. Here, we found that miR-215 expression was significantly decreased in EOC tissues or cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissues or normal ovarian cell line. Decreased miR-215 expression was significantly associated with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and lymph node metastasis. Function analysis revealed that overexpression of miR-215 using miR-215 mimic significantly inhibit EOC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro. as well as suppress tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we identified ribosome assembly factor NIN/RPN12 binding protein (NOB1) as a direct targets for miR-215 binding, resulting in suppression it expression, which in turn activated the MAPK signaling pathway. In clinical EOC specimens, NOB1 expression was upregulated, and inversely correlated with miR-215 expression (r = -0.675, P<0.001). Overexpression of NOB1 effectively rescued inhibition effect on EOC cells by induced miR-215 overexpression. Taken together, our findings suggested that miR-215 suppressed EOC growth and invasion by targeting NOB1. PMID:28337275

  3. Patterns of First Recurrence in African American Patients with High Grade Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sareena; Armstrong, Amy; Pettigrew, Gaetan; Resnick, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of anatomic sites of first recurrence in African American (AA) patients with ovarian carcinoma compared to Caucasians. Patients diagnosed with high-grade epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal carcinoma from 2007 to 2013 were identified. Patterns of recurrence were compared for AA and Caucasian patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared. A total of 238 patients were included - 210 Caucasians and 28 AAs. At a follow-up time of 28 months, AAs were more likely to have multiple anatomic sites of recurrence rather than a single site when compared to Caucasians (63.6 vs. 35.5%, p = 0.01). Time to first recurrence was shorter for AA patients (12 vs. 18 months, p < 0.01). PFS and OS did not differ. AA patients with multiple sites of first recurrence had a significantly shorter OS than Caucasian patients with multiple sites of first recurrence (24 vs. 30 months, p = 0.022). Patterns of first recurrence differ between AAs and Caucasians. AAs have shorter times to first recurrence and are more likely to have multiple anatomic sites involved. AA patients with multiple sites of recurrence have a shorter OS than Caucasian patients with multiple sites. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Stemness and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells under shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Carman K. M.; Li, Shan-Shan; Tang, Matthew Y. H.; Sy, Samuel K. H.; Ren, Yong; Shum, Ho Cheung; Wong, Alice S. T.

    2016-01-01

    One of greatest challenges to the successful treatment of cancer is drug resistance. An exciting approach is the eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, little is known about key signals regulating the formation and expansion of CSCs. Moreover, lack of a reliable predictive preclinical model has been a major obstacle to discover new cancer drugs and predict their clinical activity. Here, in ovarian cancer, a highly chemoresistant tumor that is rapidly fatal, we provide the first evidence demonstrating the causal involvement of mechanical stimulus in the CSC phenotype using a customizable microfluidic platform and three-dimensional spheroids, which most closely mimic tumor behavior. We found that ovarian cancer cells significantly acquired the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and CSC markers and a remarkable chemoresistance to clinically relevant doses of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel when grown under fluid shear stress, which corroborates with the physiological attainable levels in the malignant ascites, but not under static condition. Furthermore, we uncovered a new link of microRNA-199a-3p, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and multidrug transporter activation in shear stress-induced CSC enrichment. Our findings shed new light on the significance of hydrodynamics in cancer progression, emphasizing the need of a flow-informed framework in the development of therapeutics. PMID:27245437

  5. Expression of Adiponectin Receptor-1 and Prognosis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiahui; Yu, Zhe; Fang, Liping; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Kui

    2017-01-01

    Background Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) has been reported to be associated with the risk of obesity-associated malignancies, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The aim of this study was to determine if AdipoR1 could serve as a prognosis indicator for patients with EOC. Material/Methods In this study, expression of AdipoR1 in 73 EOC patients consecutively admitted to our hospital was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between AdipoR1 expression level and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates in patients. Results A relatively lower expression of AdipoR1 in the cancerous tissues was detected compared to normal ovarian tissues, but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). AdipoR1 expression level in EOC patients was negatively correlated with advanced FIGO stages in patients and tumor differentiation, but had no correlation with pathological types, presenting of ascites, shorter platinum-free interval (PFI), diabetes, preoperative and postoperative body mass index (BMI), or platelet counts (p>0.05). Moreover, patients with AdipoR1 expression had a significantly longer PFS and OS compared to the negative expression group (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that AdipoR1 expression level in cancerous tissues might serve as an independent prognostic indicator in EOC patients and is associated with longer PFS and OS. PMID:28356549

  6. Potential Target Antigens for a Universal Vaccine in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Renee; Daemen, Toos; de Bock, Geertruida H.; de Graeff, Pauline; Leffers, Ninke; Lambeck, Annechien; ten Hoor, Klaske A.; Hollema, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Nijman, Hans W.

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the primary cause of death from gynaecological malignancies, has only modestly improved over the last decades. Immunotherapeutic treatment using a cocktail of antigens has been proposed as a “universal” vaccine strategy. We determined the expression of tumor antigens in the context of MHC class I expression in 270 primary tumor samples using tissue microarray. Expression of tumor antigens p53, SP17, survivin, WT1, and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 120 (48.0%), 173 (68.9%), 208 (90.0%), 129 (56.3%), and 27 (11.0%) of 270 tumor specimens, respectively. In 93.2% of EOC, at least one of the investigated tumor antigens was (over)expressed. Expression of MHC class I was observed in 78.1% of EOC. In 3 out 4 primary tumors, (over)expression of a tumor antigen combined with MHC class I was observed. These results indicate that a multiepitope vaccine, comprising these antigens, could serve as a universal therapeutic vaccine for the vast majority of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:20885926

  7. Paclitaxel is necessary for improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancers with homologous recombination gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Stephanie; Li, Jiaqi; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; Maxwell, Kara N.; Fishbein, Lauren; McLane, Michael W.; Benedetto, Chiara; Canuto, Emilie Marion; Mitra, Nandita; Zhang, Lin; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Tanyi, Janos L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the impact of somatic mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes on the chemotherapeutic response and survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We performed targeted massively parallel sequencing of tumor DNA from 158 patients with EOC. We associated adjuvant chemotherapy and clinical outcome with mutations in selected genes, focusing on those encoding HR proteins. RESULTS HR mutations were found in 47 (30%) tumors. We did not detect an overall survival (OS) difference in advanced stage patients whose tumors had HR mutations compared to those without (median OS of 49.6 months (95% CI 29.9-57.7) vs. 43.3 months (95% CI 31.9-75.47), p = 0.87). However, when stratified by chemotherapy regimen, patients whose tumors had TP53 and HR mutations demonstrated a marked survival advantage when treated with platinum and paclitaxel vs. platinum +/− cyclophosphamide (median OS of 90 months (95% CI 50-NA) vs. 29.5 months (95% CI 17.7-50.5), p = 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS Previous studies demonstrating a survival advantage for EOC patients with somatic HR mutations have been conducted with almost universal use of both platinum and paclitaxel. Our study is the first to our knowledge to compare cohorts with somatic HR gene mutations treated with and without paclitaxel containing platinum regimens. The survival benefit attributed to the platinum sensitivity of HR deficient ovarian cancers may depend upon the combined use of paclitaxel. PMID:27191893

  8. Identification of six new susceptibility loci for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Ramus, Susan J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Lee, Andrew; Shen, Howard C; Beesley, Jonathan; Lawrenson, Kate; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Janet M; Spindler, Tassja J; Lin, Yvonne G; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Li, Qiyuan; Coetzee, Simon; Hazelett, Dennis; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Benitez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Garcia, Maria Jose; Komenaka, Ian; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Ganschow, Pamela; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Viel, Alessandra; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Frost, Debra; Perkins, Jo; Platte, Radka; Ellis, Steve; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Meindl, Alfons; Engel, Christoph; Sutter, Christian; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Kirk, Judy; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Piedmonte, Marion; O'Malley, David M; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Collée, J Margriet; Rookus, Matti A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Hamann, Ute; Isaccs, Claudine; Tischkowitz, Marc; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian G; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Brunet, Joan; Lazaro, Conxi; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Plante, Marie; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pankratz, Vernon S; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Szabo, Csilla I; Kauff, Noah; Vijai, Joseph; Aghajanian, Carol A; Pfeiler, Georg; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Phelan, Catherine M; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads; Bojesen, Anders; Zidan, Jamal; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Soller, Maria; Liljegren, Annelie; Arver, Brita; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Lu, Karen H; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Lele, Shashi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Goodman, Marc T; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Pelttari, Liisa M; Butzow, Ralf; Modugno, Francesmary; Kelley, Joseph L; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Orsulic, Sandra; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Woo, Yin-Ling; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Vierkant, Robert A; Bruinsma, Fiona; Giles, Graham G; Liang, Dong; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Wu, Xifeng; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Concannon, Patrick; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bandera, Elisa V; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H; Krakstad, Camilla; Salvesen, Helga B; Tangen, Ingvild L; Bjorge, Line; van Altena, Anne M; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Kellar, Melissa; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Cybulski, Cezary; Yang, Hannah; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Baker, Helen; Song, Honglin; Eccles, Diana; McNeish, Ian; Paul, James; Carty, Karen; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Whittemore, Alice S; Rothstein, Joseph H; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Ji, Bu-Tian; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rosen, Barry; Risch, Harvey A; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Monteiro, Alvaro N; Chen, Ann; Lin, Hui-Yi; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Sellers, Thomas A; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chen, Zhihua; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Harrington, Patricia; Lee, Alice W; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Coetzee, Gerry; Pike, Malcolm C; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Timorek, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Freedman, Matt; Noushmehr, Houtan; Easton, Douglas F; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Gayther, Simon; Pharoah, Paul P; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2015-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  9. Sox2 gene amplification significantly impacts overall survival in serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Belotte, Jimmy; Fletcher, Nicole M; Alexis, Mitchell; Morris, Robert T; Munkarah, Adnan R; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Recently, the existence of ovarian cancer stem cells has been reported. Sox2, Nanog and Oct4 are key markers of "stemness". The objective of this study was to determine whether Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 are associated with EOC and poor outcome. The expression of these markers was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and real-time RT-PCR in human EOC cell lines MDAH-2774 and SKOV-3, while the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) dataset was analyzed for associations with survival. Sox2, Nanog and Oct4 (POU5F1) were all detected by immunofluorescence staining and these results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. The TCGA dataset revealed a 26%, 9%, and 6% amplification of Sox2, Nanog and POU5F1, respectively. Additionally, K-M survival analyses showed a significant median overall survival difference (41 versus 48.3 months, P = .01) for Sox2 amplification, but not for Nanog (44.1 versus 36.2 months, P > .05) and POU5F1 (43.5 versus 45.0 months, P > .05). Our results suggest that Sox2 gene amplification significantly influences overall survival. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Latest research and clinical treatment of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robert L.; Monk, Bradley J.; Sood, Anil K.; Herzog, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural history of ovarian cancer continues to be characterized by late-stage presentation, metastatic bulky disease burden and stagnant mortality statistics despite prolific drug development. Robust clinical investigation, particularly with modifications to primary treatment surgical goals and adjuvant therapy are increasing median progression-free and overall survival, although the cure rates have only modestly been affected. Maintenance therapy holds promise, but studies have yet to identify an agent and/or strategy that can affect survival. Recurrent disease is largely an incurable state; however, current intervention with selected surgery, combination and targeted therapy and investigational protocols are impacting progression-free survival. Ovarian cancer is a diverse and genomically complex disease, which commands global attention. Rational investigation must balance the high rate of discovery with lagging clinical investigation and limited patient resources. Nevertheless, armamentarium growth offers unprecedented opportunities for patients suffering with this disease. This Review presents and reviews the contemporary management of the disease spectrum termed epithelial ‘ovarian’ cancer and introduces the direction and early results of clinical investigation. PMID:23381004

  11. Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF predicts response to platinum based chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, G K; Maclean, A B; Elmasry, K; Wong te Fong, A; Morris, R W; Rashid, M; Begent, R H J; Boxer, G M

    2011-05-01

    For patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cytoreduction, with a combination of taxane and platinum, is the standard of care. Despite this, approximately 50% of patients with advanced disease will relapse and moreover 15-20% of cases of EOC are resistant to platinum based chemotherapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, is associated with poor prognosis. This study was undertaken to examine whether there is an association between VEGF-A expression in the tumour of EOC patients and their response to platinum based chemotherapy. The study cohort consisted of 66 patients with advanced stage EOC (FIGO III-IV). Ovarian cancer tissue was analysed for VEGF-A expression immunohistochemically. Protein expression was measured and correlated, with platinum sensitivity and overall patient survival. Median age of patients was 53 years, 45 patients had platinum sensitive disease (68%), the remaining patients being platinum resistant (32%). Of the platinum resistant group, 18 (86%) patients had high VEGF score compared to only 1 (2%) with high VEGF score in the platinum sensitive group. Median survival was 11 months in the patient group with high VEGF score versus 32 months in that cohort with low VEGF score. VEGF expression was significantly inversely correlated with overall survival (P < 0.0001). We demonstrated that tumours of patients with platinum resistant EOC exhibit higher levels of VEGF expression compared to the platinum sensitive group. VEGF in EOC, may be of clinical and therapeutic relevance and suggests a role for first line anti-angiogenic therapy.

  12. Human steroidogenic factor-1 (hSF-1) regulates progesterone biosynthesis and growth of ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramayya, M S; Sheng, M; Moroz, K; Hill, S M; Rowan, B G

    2010-03-01

    The majority of cancers derived from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells are lethal. Estrogens promote proliferation of OSE cells, whereas progesterone inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of OSE cells. Human steroidogenic factor-1 (hSF-1) induction of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene, and the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 is central to progesterone biosynthesis. Whereas hSF-1 and StAR are expressed in human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells, hSF-1 and StAR protein were not expressed in a panel of malignant ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, BG-1, and Caov-3), and in human OSE cells immortalized by SV40 large T antigen (IOSE-121). Transient expression of hSF-1 in SKOV-3 cells activated the expression of StAR, p450scc and 3betaHSD-II mRNAs, and induced progesterone biosynthesis. Additionally, hSF-1 suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells and suppressed SKOV-3 cell growth induced by ERalpha and estradiol. These findings suggest that hSF-1 is central to progesterone biosynthesis in OSE cells. Human SF-1 may decrease OSE cancer cell numbers directly by apoptosis, and indirectly by opposing estradiol-induced proliferation. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis, that down-regulation of hSF-1 contributes to progression of ovarian epithelial cancers.

  13. Data on the association of CMPK1 with clinicopathological features and biological effect in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Daibing; Zhang, Lingyun; Lin, Qunbo; Ren, Weimin; Xu, Guoxiong

    2017-08-01

    Human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological disease. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates ovarian tumor progression markers remain unclear. The present data show cytidine monophosphate kinase (CMPK) as an EOC biomarker and are related to the article entitled "Cytidine monophosphate kinase is inhibited by the TGF-β signalling pathway through the upregulation of miR-130b-3p in human epithelial ovarian cancer" [1]. CMPK, as well as cystatin B [2] and β-2-microglobulin [3], is overexpressed in human epithelial-type ovarian tumors. CMPK is an enzyme required for nucleic acid biosynthesis [4] and is regulated by the TGF-β signaling pathway in EOC cells [1]. Furthermore, the data show the effect of CMPK-shRNA on EOC cell apoptosis and TGF-β-induced Smad2 phosphorylation. CMPK expression in two EOC cell lines OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 is regulated by multiple miRNAs and some of these miRNAs may affect EOC chemoresistance [5].

  14. Conditioned media from human ovarian cancer endothelial progenitor cells induces ovarian cancer cell migration by activating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Teng, L; Peng, S; Guo, H; Liang, H; Xu, Z; Su, Y; Gao, L

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) migrate to and engraft at ovarian cancer sites. Understanding the interactions between ovarian cancer cells and EPCs is fundamental for determining whether to harness EPC-tumor interactions for delivery of therapeutic agents or target them for intervention. Ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3) were cultured alone or in EPC-conditioned media (EPC-CM). Migration of ovarian cancer cells was detected by transwell chamber. N-cadherin and E-cadherin expression were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot. EPC-CM can increase transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) secretion in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. EPC-CM induced loss of ovarian cancer cell-cell junctions, downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of N-cadherin and acquisition of a fibroblastic phenotype, consistent with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The specific TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 abolished the SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell migration induced by EPC-CM. In SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, EPC-CM downregulated E-cadherin and concurrently upregulated N-cadherin. EPC-CM upregulated the expression of transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, Snail and Twist. Treatment with SB431542 abolished the effects of EPC-CM on the relative expression levels of cadherin, Snail and Twist. This study demonstrates that TGF-β has a role in EPC-CM-induced ovarian cancer migration by activating EMT.

  15. Aspirin, Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug, and Acetaminophen Use and Risk of Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Pooled Analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. Epidemiologic studies analyzing aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and acetaminophen use and ovarian cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods We analyzed pooled data from 12 population-based case–control studies of ovarian cancer, including 7776 case patients and 11843 control subjects accrued between 1992 and 2007. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations of medication use with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated in individual studies using logistic regression and combined using random effects meta-analysis. Associations between frequency, dose, and duration of analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer were also assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 0.99). Results were similar but not statistically significant for nonaspirin NSAIDs, and there was no association with acetaminophen. In seven studies with frequency data, the reduced risk was strongest among daily aspirin users (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.96). In three studies with dose information, the reduced risk was strongest among users of low dose (<100mg) aspirin (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.83), whereas for nonaspirin NSAIDs, the reduced risk was strongest for high dose (≥500mg) usage (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.91). Conclusions Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, especially among daily users of low-dose aspirin. These findings suggest that the same aspirin regimen proven to protect against cardiovascular events and several cancers could reduce the risk of ovarian cancer 20% to 34% depending on frequency and dose of use. PMID:24503200

  16. BubR1 as a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y-K; Choi, E; Kim, M A; Park, P-G; Park, N-H; Lee, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies, and has a high recurrence rate. Thus, prognostic markers for recurrence are crucial for the care of ovarian cancer. As ovarian cancers frequently exhibit chromosome instability, we aimed at assessing the prognostic significance of two key mitotic kinases, BubR1 and Aurora A. Methods: We analysed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 160 ovarian cancer patients whose clinical outcomes had been tracked after first-line treatment. Results: The median recurrence-free survival in patients with a positive and negative expression of BubR1 was 27 and 83 months, respectively (P<0.001). A positive BubR1 expression was also associated with advanced stage, serous histology and high grade. In contrast, Aurora A immunostaining did not correlate with any of the clinical parameters analysed. Conclusion: BubR1, but not Aurora A, is a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID:19603021

  17. Crk-like adapter protein regulates CCL19/CCR7-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ERK signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Xiangshan

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by CCL19/CCR7 play an important role in ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CrkL on the CCL19/CCR7 signaling pathways in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) are not well characterized. Here, CCR7 and CrkL proteins were tested in 30 EOC tissues and cell lines. In vitro, the roles of CrkL in CCL19-stimulated SKOV-3 cell invasion and migration were investigated. In this work, CCR7 and CrkL over-expressed in EOC tissues and cell lines and correlated with FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, CCR7 and CrkL serve as an independent prognostic factor. In SKOV-3 cells, CrkL knockdown markedly suppressed the CCL19-stimulated expression of p-ERK and EMT biomarkers (N-cadherin, Snail and MMP9), compared with control. In contrast, p-AKT expression level did not change. On the other hand, functional analysis revealed CrkL knockdown could significantly decrease SKOV-3 cell invasion number of transwell invasion assay, and wound closure area of wound healing assay, compared to control. In conclusion, CrkL regulates CCL19/CCR7-induced EMT via ERK signaling pathway in EOC patients, which further suggested CrkL could be suggested as an efficient target in ovarian cancer treatment.

  18. Long non-coding RNA CCAT1 promotes metastasis and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Shi, Huirong; Ren, Fang; Jia, Yanyan; Zhang, Ruitao

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we reported that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) CCAT1 was upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues, and was associated with FIGO stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of EOC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CCAT1 was an independent prognostic indicator. While CCAT1 downregulation inhibited EOC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion, CCAT1 upregulation promoted EOC cell EMT, migration and invasion. We further identified and confirmed that miR-152 and miR-130b were the targets of CCAT1, and CCAT1 functioned by targeting miR-152 and miR-130b. Subsequently, ADAM17 and WNT1, and STAT3 and ZEB1 were confirmed to be the targets of miR-152 and miR-130b, respectively, and could be regulated by CCAT1 in EOC cells. Knockdown of anyone of these four proteins inhibited EOC cell EMT, migration and invasion. Taken together, our study first revealed a critical role of CCAT1-miR-152/miR-130b-ADAM17/WNT1/STAT3/ZEB1 regulatory network in EOC cell metastasis. These findings provide great insights into EOC initiation and progression, and novel potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis for EOC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Notch and TGFβ form a positive regulatory loop and regulate EMT in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiesi; Jain, Saket; Azad, Abul K; Xu, Xia; Yu, Hai Chuan; Xu, Zhihua; Godbout, Roseline; Fu, YangXin

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the mechanisms that regulate EMT in EOC are not fully understood. Here, we report that activation of Notch1 induces EMT in EOC cells as evidenced by downregulation of E-cadherin and cytokeratins, upregulation of Slug and Snail, as well as morphological changes. Interestingly, activation of Notch1 increases TGFβ/Smad signaling by upregulating the expression of TGFβ and TGFβ type 1 receptor. Time course experiments demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) decreases TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads at late, but not at early, timepoints. These results suggest that Notch activation plays a role in sustaining TGFβ/Smad signaling in EOC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch by DAPT decreases TGFβ induction of Slug and repression of E-cadherin and knockdown of Notch1 decreases TGFβ-induced repression of E-cadherin, indicating that Notch is required, at least in part, for TGFβ-induced EMT in EOC cells. On the other hand, TGFβ treatment increases the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 and Notch target gene HES1 in EOC cells. Functionally, the combination of Notch1 activation and TGFβ treatment is more potent in promoting motility and migration of EOC cells than either stimulation alone. Taken together, our results indicate that Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop and cooperatively regulate EMT and promote EOC cell motility and migration.

  20. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-10

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. The clonal origin and clonal evolution of epithelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sergio Britto; Novelli, Marco; Wright, Nicholas A

    2000-01-01

    While the origin of tumours, whether from one cell or many, has been a source of fascination for experimental oncologists for some time, in recent years there has been a veritable explosion of information about the clonal architecture of tumours and their antecedents, stimulated, in the main, by the ready accessibility of new molecular techniques. While most of these new results have apparently confirmed the monoclonal origin of human epithelial (and other) tumours, there are a significant number of studies in which this conclusion just cannot be made. Moreover, analysis of many articles show that the potential impact of such considerations as patch size and clonal evolution on determinations of clonality have largely been ignored, with the result that a number of these studies are confounded. However, the clonal architecture of preneoplastic lesions provide some interesting insights — many lesions which might have been hitherto regarded as hyperplasias are apparently clonal in derivation. If this is indeed true, it calls into some question our hopeful corollary that a monoclonal origin presages a neoplastic habitus. Finally, it is clear, for many reasons, that methods of analysis which involve the disaggregation of tissues, albeit microdissected, are far from ideal and we should be putting more effort into techniques where the clonal architecture of normal tissues, preneoplastic and preinvasive lesions and their derivative tumours can be directly visualized in situ. PMID:10762440

  2. Accumulation of cytoplasmic Cdk1 is associated with cancer growth and survival rate in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ha-Yeon; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kang, Eun Suk; Lee, Eun-ju; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) have previously reported correlation with cancer growth and a key regulator for cell cycle. Mostly, Cdk1′s function of nucleus for cell cycle is well known to be associated with cancer, but cytoplasmic Cdk1′s traits are not clearly identified, yet. We revealed that tissue microarray blocks of epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 249) showed increased level of cytoplasmic Cdk1 (p < 0.001), but not in nucleus (p = 0.192) of histologic cell type independently. On survival analysis, Cdk1 overexpression conferred a significantly worse prognosis in 5-year overall survival (Log-rank p = 0.028, Hazard ratio = 2.016, 95% CI = 1.097 to 4.635). Also, the expression of Cdk1 was increased in ovarian cancer cell lines and Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. When the expression and activity of Cdk1 were inhibited by si-Cdk1 or RO-3306 which is a potent Cdk1 inhibitor, the growth of ovarian cancer was diminished. Moreover, combined treatment with RO-3306 and cisplatin in ovarian cancer significantly elevated anti-cancer effects than single-agent treatment. In conclusion, cytoplasmic Cdk1 expression which was elevated in ovarian cancer predicts a poor overall survival. The inhibition of Cdk1 expression and activity reduced ovarian cancer growth. PMID:27385216

  3. Loss of estrogen receptor beta isoform expression and its correlation with aberrant DNA methylation of the 5'-untranslated region in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Fumihiko; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Ikumi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Sasano, Hironobu; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-12-01

    Evidence exists that sex steroids such as estrogens affect epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ER) and ERbeta in particular have not been fully described. Therefore, in our present study, we examined the methylation status of the promoters 0K and 0N, and the expression of ERbeta isoforms in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We then correlated methylation status with ER expression status. Twelve ovarian carcinoma cell lines, six primary cultures of ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE), and 64 cases of ovarian carcinoma tissues were examined. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate methylation status and expression of ERbeta isoforms. The relative abundance of exon 0N, ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta4 mRNA was significantly lower in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues than in their corresponding normal counterparts. However, ERbeta5 mRNA level was relatively higher in the cancers, in clear cell adenocarcinoma in particular, than in the normal ovary. Bisulfite sequencing analysis demonstrated that the two promoters of the ERbeta gene exhibited distinct methylation patterns. Promoter 0N was unmethylated in OSE, rarely methylated in normal ovarian tissues, and extensively methylated in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues (11/15 cell lines and 18/32 cancer tissues were extensively methylated). The promoter 0K was, however, unmethylated in both normal and malignant ovarian cells and tissues. A significant correlation between promoter 0N hypermethylation and the loss of exon 0N, ERbeta1, ERbeta2, and ERbeta4 mRNA expression was detected in ovarian carcinoma cells and tissues. Treatment of ovarian carcinoma cells with 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine resulted in reexpression of the ERbeta gene. The results of our present study suggest that ERbeta is inactivated mainly through aberrant DNA methylation. This process may play an important role in the pathogenesis of

  4. Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanli; Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam; Choi, Pui-Wah; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Junzheng; Singh, Margit; Ng, Shu-Kay; Welch, William R.; Muto, Michael G.; Tsui, Stephen KW; Sugrue, Stephen P.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26871283

  5. The developmental origins of the mammalian ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Grive, Kathryn J.; Freiman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The adult mammalian ovary is devoid of definitive germline stem cells. As such, female reproductive senescence largely results from the depletion of a finite ovarian follicle pool that is produced during embryonic development. Remarkably, the crucial nature and regulation of follicle assembly and survival during embryogenesis is just coming into focus. This developmental pathway involves the coordination of meiotic progression and the breakdown of germ cell cysts into individual oocytes housed within primordial follicles. Recent evidence also indicates that genetic and environmental factors can specifically perturb primordial follicle assembly. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the mammalian ovarian reserve is established, highlighting the presence of a crucial checkpoint that allows survival of only the highest-quality oocytes. PMID:26243868

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well.

  7. miR-200c Regulation of Metastases in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Role in Epithelial and Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most fatal due to its high mortality rate. Most of the identified cases are epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with five distinct subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Lack of an early diagnostic approach, high incidence of tumor relapse and the heterogenous characteristics between each EOC subtypes contribute to the difficulties in developing precise intervention and therapy for the patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that have been shown to function as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. The miR-200 family, especially miR-200c, has been shown to be implicated in the metastasis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma due to its functional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This mini review is aimed to summarize the recent findings of the miR-200c functional role as well as its validated targets in the metastasis cascade of ovarian cancer, with a focus on EMT regulation. The potential of this miRNA in early diagnosis and its dual expression status are also discussed. PMID:27601996

  8. Expression of USP7 and MARCH7 Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Hua; Tian, Lin; Li, Haixia

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the worst malignancies in females with poor overall survival due to the rapid metastasis and the absence of ideal biomarkers. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7), an important deubiquitinating enzyme, was reported to be upregulated in several cancers, including liver, prostate and colon cancers. Membrane associated RING-CH protein 7 (MARCH7) belongs to the member of the E3 ubiquitin ligases. In addition, MARCH7 regulates T cell proliferation and the neuronal development and participates in the membrane trafficking and protein degradation. Importantly, MARCH7 itself is ubiquitinated and acts as a potential substrate of USP7. However, the roles of USP7 and MARCH7 in EOC remain to be investigated. We collected 121 EOC patients and analyzed the expression levels of USP7 and MARCH7 in tumor tissues with immunohistochemical staining. We found that the high expression of the two proteins was correlated with lymph node metastasis in EOC patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the patients with high expression of the two proteins showed poorer prognosis compared with other patients. Subsequently, using SKOV3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells, we showed that either USP7 or MARCH7 enhanced the proliferation and invasion abilities. Moreover, USP7 could regulate the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin through the MARCH7 signaling pathway. Our findings indicate that USP7 and MARCH7 are involved in the progression of EOC. In conclusion, analyzing the expression of USP7 and MARCH7 has high prognostic value in predicting EOC prognosis.

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid Promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Repressing SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Ray, Upasana; Roy, Sib Sankar; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an essential role in the transition from early to invasive phenotype, however the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Herein, we propose a mechanism through which the class-III deacetylase SIRT1 regulates EMT in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. Expression analysis was performed using Q-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence and fluorescence-IHC study. Matrigel invasion assay was used for the invasion study. Morphological alterations were observed by phalloidin-staining. Co-immunoprecipitation study was performed to analyze protein-protein interaction. Overexpression of SIRT1-WT as well as Resveratrol-mediated SIRT1 activation antagonized the invasion of OC cells by suppressing EMT. SIRT1 deacetylates HIF1α, to inactivate its transcriptional activity. To further validate HIF1α inactivation, its target gene, i.e. ZEB1, an EMT-inducing factor was found to attenuate upon SIRT1 activation. To uncover the regulatory factor governing SIRT1 expression, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a highly enriched oncolipid in ascites/serum of OC patients, was found to down-regulate SIRT1 expression. Importantly, LPA was found to induce the mesenchymal switch in OC cells through suppression of SIRT1. Decreased level of SIRT1 was further validated in ovarian tissue samples of OC patients. We have identified a mechanism that relates SIRT1 down-regulation to LPA-induced EMT in OC cells and may open new arenas on developing novel anti-cancer therapeutics. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Gamma-knife radiosurgery as an optimal treatment modality for brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Noh-Hyun; Kim, Jae Weon; Song, Yong-Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom; Lee, Hyo-Pyo

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze the clinical feature and overall survival rate of patients with brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to compare the treatment outcomes of gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKS) and whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with brain metastases from EOC in a single institution between 1983 and 2005 was performed. Of 1413 patients with EOC, 18 (1.3%) developed brain metastases. Fifteen patients who were treated with GKS or WBRT were enrolled for this study. Seven patients were treated with GKS, and the remaining patients were treated with WBRT as a primary treatment modality. The median age at the time of diagnosis of the primary cancer and brain metastases was 55 and 56 years, respectively. The median interval between the diagnosis of the primary cancer and brain metastases was 28 months. It was significantly associated with the overall survival rate after the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (p=0.017). There were 5 patients (33.3%) with extracranial metastases. Five patients (33.3%) had a solitary brain lesion. The median survival time after the diagnosis of brain metastases was 14 months (range, 1-59 months). Patients who were treated with GKS after brain metastasis had a longer survival time (median, 29 months) than those treated with WBRT (median, 6 months) (p=0.0061). For the control of brain metastases, GKS seems to be an effective modality. GKS improves the overall survival of the patients with brain metastases from EOC.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors enhance the effects of cytotoxic agents in chemoresistant epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Eun; Cho, Young Jae; Ryu, Ji Yoon; Choi, Jung-Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Gun; Kim, Woo Young; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether proton pump inhibitors (PPI, V-ATPase blocker) could increase the effect of cytotoxic agents in chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Expression of V-ATPase protein was evaluated in patients with EOC using immunohistochemistry, and patient survival was compared based on expression of V-ATPase mRNA from a TCGA data set. In vitro, EOC cell lines were treated with chemotherapeutic agents with or without V-ATPase siRNA or PPI (omeprazole) pretreatment. Cell survival and apoptosis was assessed using MTT assay and ELISA, respectively. In vivo experiments were performed to confirm the synergistic effect with omeprazole and paclitaxel on tumor growth in orthotopic and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. Expression of V-ATPase protein in ovarian cancer tissues was observed in 44 patients (44/59, 74.6%). Higher expression of V-ATPase mRNA was associated with poorer overall survival in TCGA data. Inhibition of V-ATPase by siRNA or omeprazole significantly increased cytotoxicity or apoptosis to paclitaxel in chemoresistant (HeyA8-MDR, SKOV3-TR) and clear cell carcinoma cells (ES-2, RMG-1), but not in chemosensitive cells (HeyA8, SKOV3ip1). Moreover, the combination of omeprazole and paclitaxel significantly decreased the total tumor weight compared with paclitaxel alone in a chemoresistant EOC animal model and a PDX model of clear cell carcinoma. However, this finding was not observed in chemosensitive EOC animal models. These results show that omeprazole pretreatment can increase the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in chemoresistant EOC and clear cell carcinoma via reduction of the acidic tumor microenvironment. PMID:26418900

  12. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  13. Inherited Variants in Mitochondrial Biogenesis Genes May Influence Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Chen, Y. Ann; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chen, Zhihua; Qu, Xiaotao; Lancaster, Johnathan M.; Stockwell, Heather; Dagne, Getachew; Iversen, Edwin; Risch, Harvey; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Sutphen, Rebecca; McLaughlin, John; Narod, Steven A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Fenstermacher, David; Phelan, Catherine M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondria contribute to oxidative stress, a phenomenon implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that inherited variants in mitochondrial-related genes influence epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility. Methods Through a multi-center study of 1,815 Caucasian EOC cases and 1,900 controls, we investigated associations between EOC risk and 128 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 22 genes/regions within the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and 2,839 nuclear-encoded SNPs localized to 138 genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (BIO, n=35), steroid hormone metabolism (HOR, n=13), and oxidative phosphorylation (OXP, n=90) pathways. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between genotype and case status. Overall significance of each gene and pathway was evaluated using Fisher’s method to combine SNP-level evidence. At the SNP-level, we investigated whether lifetime ovulation, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and cigarette smoking were confounders or modifiers of associations. Results Inter-individual variation involving BIO was most strongly associated with EOC risk (empirical P=0.050), especially for NRF1, MTERF, PPARGC1A, ESRRA, and CAMK2D. Several SNP-level associations strengthened after adjustment for non-genetic factors, particularly for MTERF. Statistical interactions with cigarette smoking and HRT use were observed with MTERF and CAMK2D SNPs, respectively. Overall variation within mtDNA, HOR, and OXP was not statistically significant (empirical P >0.10). Conclusion We provide novel evidence to suggest that variants in mitochondrial biogenesis genes may influence EOC susceptibility. Impact A deeper understanding of the complex mechanisms implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative stress may aid in developing strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from EOC. PMID:21447778

  14. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  15. Clinical features and outcomes of neck lymphatic metastasis in ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck lymph node metastasis (NLNM) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is rare and treated as advanced stage cancer. However, ovarian cancer with lymphatic metastasis may manifest a different clinical course from peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods The authors retrospectively assessed 20 patients with EOC and pathologically diagnosed as NLNM between January 2001 and December 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the time of NLNM identification. Statistical methods included Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, and Cox regression analysis. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with NLNM at the same time of surgical exploration of EOC (Group A) and nine patients at cancer recurrence 43.3 months after initial surgery (Group B). In Group A, patients with tumors confined to the pelvic cavity had no recurrence or had isolated lymph node recurrence (ILNR), and survived longer than patients with abdominal tumor spreading (P = 0.0007). In Group B, 2 patients showed ILNR. The median survival time after NLNM was 42 months in Group A and 6 months in Group B (P = 0.01). Cox model demonstrated that non-serous histology, brain metastasis, and NLNM identified at cancer recurrence were major predictors for poor overall survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 18.67, 6.93, and 4.52; P = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Conclusions A subgroup of EOC patients with NLNM who presented limited pelvic cancer had much better overall survival than patients who had cancer spreading beyond the pelvic cavity or were diagnosed with NLNM at cancer recurrence. PMID:24088247

  16. Molecular Signature for Lymphatic Invasion Associated with Survival of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, E Sun; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Choi, Chel Hun

    2017-05-22

    We aimed to develop molecular classifier that can predict lymphatic invasion and their clinical significance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. We analyzed gene expression (mRNA, methylated DNA) in data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. To identify molecular signatures for lymphatic invasion, we found differentially expressed genes. The performance of classifier was validated by receiver operating characteristics analysis, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and support vector machine (SVM). We assessed prognostic role of classifier using random survival forest (RSF) model and pathway deregulation score (PDS). For external validation, we analyzed microarray data from 26 EOC samples of Samsung Medical Center and curatedOvarianData database. We identified 21 mRNAs, and 7 methylated DNAs from primary EOC tissues that predicted lymphatic invasion, and created prognostic models. The classifier predicted lymphatic invasion well, which was validated by logistic regression, LDA, and SVM algorithm (C-index of 0.90, 0.71, and 0.74 for mRNA and C-index of 0.64, 0.68, and 0.69 for DNA methylation). Using RSF model, incorporating molecular data with clinical variables improved prediction of progression-free survival compared with using only clinical variables (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008). Similarly, PDS enabled us to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk group, which resulted in survival difference in mRNA profiles (Log rank P value = 0.011). In external validation, gene signature was well correlated with prediction of lymphatic invasion and patients' survival. Molecular signature model predicting lymphatic invasion was well performed, and also associated with survival of EOC patients.

  17. Coexistence of borderline ovarian epithelial tumor, primary pelvic hydatid cyst, and lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Tayfun; Altinkaya, Sunduz Ozlem; Sirvan, Levent; Lafuente, Roberto Alvarez; Ceylaner, Serdar

    2011-06-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) represent a heterogeneous group of ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Despite a favorable prognosis, 10-20% of BOTs exhibit progressively worsening clinic. Primary involvement of pelvic organs with echinococcus is very rare. Lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the stomach. A 58-year-old woman referred with abdominal swelling and gastric complaints. Imaging studies revealed a huge cystic mass with multiple septations and solid component, another cystic mass with an appearance of cyst hydatid in the pelvis, and thickening of the small curvature of stomach. Gastroscopy revealed an ulcer with a suspicious malignant appearance, and histology of the endoscopic specimen showed severe chronic inflammation and lymphocytic infiltration. No other involvement of hydatid cyst was detected. In the exploration, there was a 25cm cystic lesion with solid components arising from right ovary, another 6cm cyst over the former, 7cm cystic lesion arising from left ovary, and 10cm mass near the small curvature of the stomach. Excision of the masses; total gastrectomy with esophagojejunal anastomosis; total abdominal hysterectomy; bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; omentectomy; appendectomy; splenectomy; and pelvic, paraaortic, and coeliac lympadenectomy were performed. Final pathology revealed lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, bilateral serous BOT, and hydatid cyst. Hydatid cyst should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominopelvic masses in endemic regions of the world. Preoperative diagnosis of primary pelvic hydatid disease is difficult and awareness of its possibility is very important especially in patients residing in or coming from endemic areas. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5'-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

  19. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5′-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer

  20. Ovarian Mouse Models with Targeted Fallopian Tubal Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    serous subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer may also arise from the fallopian epithelium. This shift in cell-of-origin for ovarian cancer has...hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancer may arise from fallopian tubal epithelium are lacking. Therefore, in this proposal we generated a mouse...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To test the idea that ovarian cancer arises from oviductal

  1. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) is a novel prognostic indicator in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiayu; Wang, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Lu, Yue; Tang, Hailin

    2016-11-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score systems composed of C-reactive protein and albumin, has been reported to be predictive of survival in several types of malignancies. The prognostic significance of GPS in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. We conducted this study to assess the prognostic value of GPS in a cohort of patients with advanced EOC receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by debulking surgery. Six hundred and seventy-two patients newly diagnosed with advanced EOC were retrospectively analyzed. High GPS was significantly related to Eastern Cooperative Group performance status, histological type, histological grade and the size of residual tumor after the debulking surgery. In addition, patients with higher GPS at diagnosis achieved lower complete remission rates after NAC (P < 0.05) and had shorter progression-free survival (PFS; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed high GPS was independent adverse predictors of PFS and OS. Our data demonstrated that GPS at diagnosis is a powerful independent prognostic factor for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. However, further studies are needed to prospectively validate this prognostic model and investigate the mechanisms underlying the correlation between high GPS and poor prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  2. Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells exhibit intrinsic anti-tumor properties on human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Shixia; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qiuwan; Sun, Junyan; He, Biwei; Xiang, Charlie; Liu, Zhiwei; Lai, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal tumor of all gynecologic tumors. There is no curative therapy for EOC thus far. The tumor-homing ability of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide the promising potential to use them as vehicles to transport therapeutic agents to the site of tumor. Meanwhile, studies have showed the intrinsic anti-tumor properties of MSCs against various kinds of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood are a novel source for adult MSCs and exert restorative function in some diseases. Whether EnSCs endow innate anti-tumor properties on EOC cells has never been reported. By using tumor-bearing animal model and ex vivo experiments, we found that EnSCs attenuated tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest, promoting apoptosis, disturbing mitochondria membrane potential and decreasing pro-angiogenic ability in EOC cells in vitro and/or in vivo. Furthermore, EnSCs decreased AKT phosphorylation and promoted nuclear translocation of Forkhead box O-3a (FoxO3a) in EOC cells. Collectively, our findings elucidated the potential intrinsic anti-tumor properties of EnSCs on EOC cells in vivo and in vitro. This research provides a potential strategy for EnSC-based anti-cancer therapy against epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:27845405

  3. Risk Factors and Indications for 30-Day Readmission After Primary Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam; Langstraat, Carrie; Tran, Christine; Martin, Janice; Weaver, Amy; McGree, Michaela; Mariani, Andrea; Cliby, William; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify patients at risk for postoperative morbidities, we evaluated indications and factors associated with 30-day readmission after epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with 30-day readmission. A parsimonious multivariable model was identified using backward and stepwise variable selection. Results In total, 324 (60.2%) patients were stage III and 91 (16.9%) were stage IV. Of all 538 eligible patients, 104 (19.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cytoreduction to no residual disease was achieved in 300 (55.8%) patients, and 167 (31.0%) had measurable disease (≤1 cm residual disease). The most common indications for readmission were surgical site infection (SSI; 21.2%), pleural effusion/ascites management (14.4%), and thromboembolic events (12.5%). Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–2.89; P = 0.007), ascites [1.76 (1.11–2.81); P = 0.02], and postoperative complications during initial admission [grade 3–5 vs none, 2.47 (1.19–5.16); grade 1 vs none, 2.19 (0.98–4.85); grade 2 vs none, 1.28 (0.74–2.21); P = 0.048] to be independently associated with 30-day readmission (c-index = 0.625). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the sole predictor of readmission for SSI (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.33; P = 0.04). Conclusions Clinically significant risk factors for 30-day readmission include American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher, ascites and postoperative complications at initial admission. The SSI and pleural effusions/ascites are common indications for readmission. Systems can be developed to predict patients needing outpatient management, improve care, and reduce

  4. EZH2 inhibition promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Zhao, Janice; Vieth, Edyta; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2016-12-20

    Cancer cells acquire essential characteristics for metastatic dissemination through the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by gene expression and chromatin remodeling changes. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) to repress gene transcription. Here we report the functional roles of EZH2-catalyzed H3K27me3 during EMT in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. TGF-β-induced EMT in SKOV3 OC cells was associated with decreased levels of EZH2 and H3K27me3 (P<0.05). These effects were delayed (~72 h relative to EMT initiation) and coincided with increased (>15-fold) expression of EMT-associated transcription factors ZEB2 and SNAI2. EZH2 knockdown (using siRNA) or enzymatic inhibition (by GSK126) induced EMT-like changes in OC cells. The EMT regulator ZEB2 was upregulated in cells treated with either approach. Furthermore, TGF-β enhanced expression of ZEB2 in EZH2 siRNA- or GSK126-treated cells (P<0.01), suggesting that H3K27me3 plays a role in TGF-β-stimulated ZEB2 induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that TGF-β treatment decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 to the ZEB2 promoter (P<0.05). In all, these results demonstrate that EZH2, by repressing ZEB2, is required for the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype in OC cells.

  5. Prognostic analysis of invasive circulating tumor cells (iCTCs) in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, Michael L.; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Jie; Dong, Huan; Tulley, Shaun; Zhang, Qiao1; Golightly, Marc; Zucker, Stanley; Chen, Wen-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Goals: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been introduced as a biomarker in detecting advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). The goals are to examine the prevalence of the invasive subpopulation of CTCs (iCTCs) in patients at high risk of EOC and to compare this biomarker to serum CA125. Methods: We used a unique Cell Adhesion Matrix (CAM)-based, functional cell enrichment and identification platform to isolate iCTCs from 129 preoperative patients. We confirmed the identity of iCTCs using positive epithelial (Epi+) markers and negative hematopoietic lineage (HL-) markers. Sensitivity and specificity of the assays were examined and iCTCs / CA125 were correlated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and clinical parameters. Results: We found a 41.2% sensitivity, 95.1% specificity and 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV) of the iCTC assay in detecting patients with stage I and II EOC malignancy, and a 83% sensitivity and 97.3% PPV in detecting all stages of EOC malignancy. However, a positive CA125 test provided weak evidence to detect stage I and II malignancy (61.6% PPV) and all EOC (92.1% PPV), because of its 76.2% specificity. A significantly stronger concordance in OS and PFS of clinical factors (tumor stage, debulking and platinum sensitivity) was noted for elevated iCTCs than for serum CA125. Conclusion: The CAM-initiated CTC enrichment / identification method enabled the detection of early stage EOC. iCTCs were better correlated with worse OS and PFS, more specific and better PPV than CA125 in detecting EOC malignancy in patients at high risk of EOC. PMID:24972191

  6. Redefining the origin and evolution of ovarian cancer: a hormonal connection.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Carlos; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yun, Bo Seong; Mor, Gil

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all female reproductive cancers. Late diagnosis, tumour heterogeneity and the development of chemoresistance contribute to this statistic and work against patient survival. Current studies have revealed novel concepts that impact our view on how ovarian cancer develops. The greatest impact is on our understanding that, as a disease, ovarian cancer has multiple cellular origins and that these malignant precursors are mostly derived from outside of the ovaries. In this review, we propose a new concept of a step-wise developmental process that may underwrite ovarian tumorigenesis and progression: (1) migration/recruitment to the ovaries; (2) seeding and establishment in the ovaries; (3) induction of a dormant cancer stage; and (4) expansion and tumor progression. We will discuss the relationship of each step with the changing ovarian function and milieu during the reproductive age and the subsequent occurrence of menopause. The realization that ovarian cancer development and progression occurs in distinct steps is critical for the search of adequate markers for early detection that will offer personalized strategies for prevention and therapy.

  7. Epigenetic alteration of p16 and retinoic acid receptor beta genes in the development of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Rahul; Kumar, Sandeep Sriram; Vaderhobli, Shilpa; Premalata, Chennagiri S; Pallavi, Venkateshaiah Reddihalli; Ramesh, Gawari; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2014-09-01

    Silencing of tumor suppressor and tumor-related genes by promoter hypermethylation is one of the major events in ovarian carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed aberrant promoter methylation of p16 and RAR-β genes in 134 epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs), 23 low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, 26 benign cystadenomas, and 15 normal ovarian tissues. Methylation was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and the results were confirmed by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Relative gene expression of p16 and RAR-β was done using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) on 51 EOC cases, 9 LMP tumors, and 7 benign cystadenomas with 5 normal ovarian tissues. Aberrant methylation for p16 and RAR-β was present in 43 % (58/134) and 31 % (41/134) in carcinoma cases, 22 % (05/23) and 52 % (12/23) in LMP tumors, and 42 % (11/26) and 69 % (18/26) in benign cystadenomas. No methylation was observed in any of the normal ovarian tissues. The mRNA expression level of p16 and RAR-β was significantly downregulated in EOC and LMP tumors than the corresponding normal tissues whereas the expression level was normal in benign cystadenomas for p16 and slightly reduced for RAR-β. A significant correlation of p16 promoter methylation was observed with reduced gene expression in EOC. For RAR-β, no significant correlation was observed between promoter methylation and gene expression. Our results suggest that epigenetic alterations of p16 and RAR-β have an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis and that mechanism along with methylation plays a significant role in downregulation of RAR-β gene in ovarian cancer.

  8. Establishment of Primary Cell Culture From Ascitic Fluid and Solid Tumor Obtained From Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajarshi; Chawla, Diwesh; Gupta, Bindiya; Mehndiratta, Mohit; Wadhwa, Neelam; Agarwal, Rachna

    2017-08-16

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high rate of relapse and resistance following chemotherapy. In the present study, we describe simple and cost-effective method to establish primary culture from ascitic fluid and solid tumor obtained from epithelial ovarian carcinoma patient, which may provide a better tool for in vitro testing of drug sensitivity and designing individualized treatment protocol. Complete Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) was prepared by supplementing DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B). Establishment of primary culture of ovarian cancer cells from ascites fluid and solid tumor was done by using complete DMEM media. Primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells were established from ascitic fluid and solid tumor tissue. Of the 7 ascitic fluid samples, we were able to establish 5 primary cultures of ovarian cancer cells. All the 7 samples were diagnosed as serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Some fibroblasts were also attached to culture flask on day 4; they were removed by exposing them to trypsin for a brief period. On day 7, grape-like clusters were visualized under inverted microscope. The cells became confluent on the 10th and 11th day and showed cobblestone appearance, which is a hallmark of ovarian cancer cells. Senescent irregularly shaped cells that have ceased dividing were seen after 8 to 10 passages. This study highlights the fact that establishing primary cultures from ascitic fluid or solid tumor tissue may help us to understand the molecular profile of the cancer cells, which allow us to select the best chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer patients and thus take a step toward patient-tailored therapy so that patients are not exposed to drugs to which they are not likely to respond.

  9. Loss of ITM2A, a novel tumor suppressor of ovarian cancer through G2/M cell cycle arrest, is a poor prognostic factor of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi My Hien; Shin, In-Whoan; Lee, Tae Jin; Park, Junsoo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Park, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Integral membrane protein 2A (ITM2A) is a type 2 transmembrane protein of unknown function. The aim of this study was to investigate its expression pattern, clinical significance, and biological function in epithelial ovarian cancer. ITM2A expression in 35 normal, 20 adenoma, 11 borderline and 90 cancerous ovarian tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathological parameters were obtained from medical records. Survival data was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and multivariate analysis using the Cox-regression method. Anti-tumor activities of ITM2A were explored by cell proliferation and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, Western blots and animal studies using ovarian cancer cell lines. Chemoresponsiveness was evaluated by measuring IC50 and confirmed by animal studies using an intraperitoneal orthotropic model. ITM2A was significantly downregulated in invasive carcinomas compared to normal, adenoma and borderline tumor tissues. ITM2A loss occurred in 45.6% (41 of 90) of invasive carcinomas and was significantly associated with FIGO stage, type II tumors, suboptimal debulking operation, recurrence and chemoresistance. ITM2A loss and higher FIGO stage were independent factors for poor prognosis. Expression of ITM2A inhibited growth and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by attenuating cdc2, cyclin B1, cdc25c and p-cdc2 (Thr 161). In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that ITM2A expression significantly reduced the paclitaxel and carboplatin IC50 and tumor mass after paclitaxel treatment. ITM2A is a new biomarker of poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. It is a novel tumor suppressor that induces cell cycle arrest, acts as a chemosensitizer, and has therapeutic potential for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nerve growth factor stimulates cellular proliferation of human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Urzua, U; Tapia, V; Geraldo, M P; Selman, A; Vega, M; Romero, C

    2012-09-01

    Due to its ability to induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression and proliferation, migration, and vasculogenesis of endothelial cells, nerve growth factor (NGF) has been considered as an angiogenic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this work, we evaluated the angiogenic and proliferative mRNA expression profiles of EOC and addressed the responsiveness of EOC explants to NGF stimulation. Twenty EOC samples were obtained from Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Chile's Clinical Hospital. Global gene expression profiles of selected poorly differentiated serous EOC samples were obtained with DNA oligonucleotide microarrays. In addition, EOC explants were subjected to NGF stimulation and levels of p-AKT, BAX, BCL2, Ki-67, c-MYC, and FOXL2 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that mRNAs coding for specific transcriptional regulators and antiapoptotic components of the NGF signaling pathway were upregulated in EOC cells. At the protein level, key members of the NGF pathway including p-AKT, BCL2/BAX, Ki-67, and c-MYC were found increased, while FOXL2 was decreased in response to NGF stimulation. These findings strongly suggest that NGF stimulates cellular proliferation of human EOC. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. AEG-1 as a predictor of sensitivity to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Jin, Xin; Song, Hongtao; Meng, Fanling

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a critical role in tumor progression and chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of AEG-1 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who underwent debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Materials and methods The protein expression of AEG-1 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 162 patients with EOC. The relationship between AEG-1 expression and chemotherapy resistance was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with covariate adjustments. Results High AEG-1 expression was significantly associated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, age, serum cancer antigen-125 concentration, histological grade, the presence of residual tumor after the interval debulking surgery, and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, AEG-1 expression was significantly higher in NAC-resistant disease than in NAC-sensitive disease (P<0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated AEG-1 expression predicted poor survival. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AEG-1 may be a potential new biomarker for predicting chemoresistance and poor prognoses in patients with EOC. PMID:27143933

  12. Targeting myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment enhances vaccine efficacy in murine epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anm Nazmul H; Kolomeyevskaya, Nonna; Singel, Kelly L; Grimm, Melissa J; Moysich, Kirsten B; Daudi, Sayeema; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Lele, Sashikant; Ylagan, Lourdes; Webster, Gill A; Abrams, Scott I; Odunsi, Kunle; Segal, Brahm H

    2015-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is typically diagnosed at advanced stages, and is associated with a high relapse rate. Patients in remission are ideal candidates for immunotherapy aimed at cure or prolonging disease-free periods. However, immunosuppressive pathways in the tumor microenvironment are obstacles to durable anti-tumor immunity. In a metastatic syngeneic mouse model of EOC, immunosuppressive macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the local tumor environment. In addition, resident peritoneal macrophages from non-tumor-bearing mice were highly immunosuppressive, abrogating stimulated T cell proliferation in a cell contact-dependent manner. Immunization with microparticles containing TLR9 and NOD-2 ligands (MIS416) significantly prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. The strategy of MIS416 immunization followed by anti-CD11b administration further delayed tumor progression, thereby establishing the proof of principle that myeloid depletion can enhance vaccine efficacy. In patients with advanced EOC, ascites analysis showed substantial heterogeneity in the relative proportions of myeloid subsets and their immunosuppressive properties. Together, these findings point to immunosuppressive myeloid cells in the EOC microenvironment as targets to enhance vaccination. Further studies of myeloid cell accumulation and functional phenotypes in the EOC microenvironment may identify patients who are likely to benefit from vaccination combined with approaches that deplete tumor-associated myeloid cells.

  13. MiR-143 targets CTGF and exerts tumor-suppressing functions in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lufei; He, Jin; Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Longjie; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    A series of recent studies suggested that miR-143 might involve in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of various cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-143 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the miR-143 expression and its clinical diagnosis significance in patients suffering EOC and to analyze its role and underlying molecular mechanism in EOC. Our result showed that the expression levels of miR-143 were downregulated in EOC tissues and cell lines, was associated with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, pathological grade and lymph node metastasis (all P < 0.01) . Overexpression of miR-143 significantly inhibited EOC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, computational algorithm combined with luciferase reporter assays identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as the direct target of miR-143 in EOC cells. The expression level of CTGF was significantly increased in EOC tissues, was inversely correlated with miR-143 expression in clinical EOC tissues. Knockdown of CTGF mimicked the suppression effect induced by miR-143 overexpression. Restoration of CTGF expression partially reversed the suppression effect induced by miR-143 overexpression. These results suggested that miR-143 inhibited EOC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, at least in part, via suppressing CTGF expression. PMID:27398154

  14. Resistance to glucose starvation as metabolic trait of platinum-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pastò, Anna; Pagotto, Anna; Pilotto, Giorgia; De Paoli, Angela; De Salvo, Gian Luca; Baldoni, Alessandra; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Ricci, Francesca; Damia, Giovanna; Bellio, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated glucose metabolism is observed in cancer but whether this metabolic trait influences response to or is modulated by cytotoxic drugs is unknown. We show here that tumor cells from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients can be categorized, according to their in vitro viability under glucose starvation, into glucose deprivation-sensitive (glucose-addicted, GA) and glucose deprivation-resistant (glucose non-addicted, GNA). When EOC cells were cultured in the absence of glucose, all samples from platinum (PLT)-sensitive patients felt into the GA group; they disclosed higher expression of glucose metabolism enzymes, higher proliferation rates and in vitro sensitivity to PLT. Moreover, GA patients showed reduced multi-drug resistance pump expression and autophagy, compared to GNA samples. The close association between PLT sensitivity and glucose metabolic profile was confirmed in a xenograft model, where a stringent parallelism between PLT sensitivity/resistance and glucose metabolism was identified. Finally, in a cohort of naïve EOC patients categorized as GA or GNA at diagnosis, Kaplan Meier curves showed that the GA phenotype was associated with significantly better progression-free survival, compared to GNA patients. PMID:28031535

  15. Prognostic Significance of the Tumor-Stroma Ratio in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Xiangyu

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has recently been identified as a promising prognostic parameter for several solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of TSR in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and 838 EOC patients were enrolled in this study. TSR was estimated on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained tissue sections from the most invasive part of the primary tumor. Patients were classified as stroma-rich or stroma-poor according to the proportion of stroma ≥50% or <50%. Chi-square test analysis revealed that TSR were significantly associated with FIGO stage, LN status, and recurrence or not (all of them P < 0.001). The higher stroma-rich proportions were found in EOC patients with advanced stage (36.13% versus 19.75%), LN metastasis (51.93% versus 27.25%), and recurrence (34.27% versus 6.82%). Stroma-rich EOC patients had obvious shorter median time of progression-free survival (29 versus 39 months) and overall survival (50 versus 58 months), respectively. TSR was an independent prognostic factor for the evaluation of PFS in EOC. Stroma-rich tumors had worse prognosis and higher risk of relapse compared with those in stroma-poor tumors in EOC patients. Considered easy to determine for routine pathological examination, TSR may serve as a new prognostic histological parameter in EOC. PMID:26609529

  16. Bevacizumab toxicity in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jovana Y; Urban, Renata R; Liao, John B; Goff, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    Bevacizumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in recurrent platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) when no more than two prior cytotoxic regimens have been used; due to concerns for gastrointestinal perforation. We sought to determine bevacizumab-related toxicities in heavily pretreated recurrent EOC. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent EOC, FTC, and PPC from 2001 to 2011. Patients who received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens before bevacizumab were included. Medical records were reviewed for bevacizumab associated toxicities. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. At the start of bevacizumab treatment, the median age was 60 years and the median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m². More than 50% of patients received bevacizumab after three prior cytotoxic regimens. Grade 3 or higher bevacizumab associated toxicity events occurred in four patients, including one patient who developed a rectovaginal fistula. The median overall survival from the start of bevacizumab treatment was 21.05 months (95% CI, 18.23 to 32.67; range, 1.9 to 110 months). The number of cytotoxic regimens prior to bevacizumab treatment did not differ in those that experienced a toxicity versus those that did not (p=0.66). The use of bevacizumab in heavily pretreated EOC, FTC, or PPC is worth consideration.

  17. Hypodontia as a risk marker for epithelial ovarian cancer: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chalothorn, Leigh A; Beeman, Cynthia S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Kluemper, G Thomas; Hicks, E Preston; Kryscio, Richard J; DeSimone, Christopher P; Modesitt, Susan C

    2008-02-01

    Genetic mutations that result in hypodontia also may be associated with abnormalities in other parts of the body. The authors conducted a study to establish the prevalence rates of hypodontia among subjects with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and control subjects to explore possible genetic associations between these two phenotypes. The authors recruited 50 subjects with EOC and 100 control subjects who did not have EOC. The authors performed a dental examination on each subject to detect hypodontia, and they reviewed pertinent radiographs and dental histories. They also recorded any family history of cancer and hypodontia. The prevalence of hypodontia was 20 percent for EOC subjects and 3 percent for control subjects. The difference between these two hypodontia rates was significant. This difference implied that women with EOC are 8.1 times more likely to have hypodontia than are women without EOC. The severity of hypodontia was similar between the two groups, with one to two teeth being affected. Maxillary lateral incisors followed by second premolars were the most frequently affected teeth. The preliminary data suggest a statistical association between hypodontia of the permanent dentition and EOC. Genetic analysis of the genes of interest is necessary to explore similarities between hypodontia and EOC further. An association could allow hypodontia to serve as a potential risk marker for EOC.

  18. Personal and environmental characteristics related to epithelial ovarian cancer. II. Exposures to talcum powder, tobacco, alcohol, and coffee.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, A S; Wu, M L; Paffenbarger, R S; Sarles, D L; Kampert, J B; Grosser, S; Jung, D L; Ballon, S; Hendrickson, M

    1988-12-01

    Vaginal exposures to talc and other particulates may play an etiologic role in epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical sterilization may protect against ovarian cancer by blocking entry of such particulates into the peritoneal cavity. The authors assessed histories of talcum powder use, tubal sterilization, and hysterectomy with ovarian conservation in 188 women in the San Francisco Bay Area with epithelial ovarian cancers diagnosed in 1983-1985 and in 539 control women. To investigate the roles of blood-borne environmental exposures on ovarian cancer risk, they assessed lifetime consumption of coffee, tobacco, and alcohol in these women. Of the 539 controls, 280 were hospitalized women without overt cancer, and 259 were chosen from the general population by random digit telephone dialing. Ninety-seven (52%) of the cancer patients habitually used talcum powder on the perineum, compared with 247 (46%) of the controls. Adjusted for parity, the relative risk (RR) = 1.40, p = 0.06. There were no statistically significant trends with increasing frequency or duration of talc use, and patients did not differ from controls in use of talc on sanitary pads and/or contraceptive diaphragms. Fewer ovarian cancer patients (7%) than controls (13%) reported prior fallopian tube ligation (RR, adjusted for parity, = 0.56, p = 0.06), and fewer patients (20%) than controls (28%) reported prior hysterectomy (RR = 0.66, p = 0.05). The protective effect of hysterectomy was confined to those who underwent this surgery 10 or more years prior to interview and to those who had not undergone prior tubal sterilization. Consumption of cigarettes and alcohol did not differ between cases and controls. By contrast, 11 (6%) cases never regularly consumed coffee, compared with 31 (11%) hospital controls and 26 (10%) population controls (RR, adjusted for smoking, = 2.2, p = 0.03, for the comparison using all controls). Overall, ovarian cancer risk among women who had drunk coffee for more than 40 years

  19. Digoxin therapy is not associated with improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancer: A SEER-Medicare database analysis.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tilley Jenkins; Jeon, Christie; Karlan, Beth; Walsh, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Both in vitro and clinical trial data suggest that cardiac glycosides demonstrate a synergistic anti-tumor effect when administered with platinum chemotherapy. Epidemiologic studies have also demonstrated improved cancer survival in colorectal, breast, head and neck and hepatocellular carcinoma patients on digoxin therapy at the time of cancer treatment. We sought to determine whether digoxin improves survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) tumor registries program data on ovarian cancer patients diagnosed in 2007-2009 were linked to Medicare claims data to capture platinum administration, digoxin use and cardiac comorbidities. We analyzed 762 patients who underwent cancer-directed surgery and received platinum chemotherapy. Patients were considered digoxin users during platinum administration if a prescription was filled within 6months of cancer diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the impact of digoxin use on overall survival (OS). Among 762 epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with surgery and platinum chemotherapy, 53 (7%) used digoxin ever and 38 (5%) used digoxin specifically during platinum administration. Adjusting for age, heart disease and Charlson comorbidity score, digoxin use was not associated with OS (HR=1.29, 95% CI 0.81, 2.06). In this SEER-Medicare database analysis, digoxin use during chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer treated with surgery and platinum chemotherapy. These conclusions are limited, however, by a small sample size and bias intrinsic to claims-based data and should be further evaluated in a larger cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Statin treatment is associated with survival in a nationally representative population of elderly women with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Tilley Jenkins; Goodman, Marc T; Li, Andrew J; Jeon, Christie Y

    2017-08-01

    Observational studies suggest that statin therapy for cardio-protection is associated with improved survival in cancer patients. We sought to evaluate the impact of statin treatment on ovarian cancer survival in a nationally representative elderly population. The linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries and Medicare claims data on patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in 2007-2009 were used to extract data on statin prescription fills, population characteristics, primary treatment, comorbidity and survival. Cox regression models were used to examine the association between statin treatment and overall survival. Among the 1431 ovarian cancer patients who underwent surgical resection, 609 (42.6%) filled prescriptions for statin. The majority of statin-users (89%) were prescribed a lipophilic formulation. Mean overall survival among statin-users was 32.3months compared to 28.8months for non-users (p<0.0001). A 34% reduction in death was associated with statin therapy, independent of age, race, neighborhood median household income, stage, platinum therapy and comorbid conditions (HR=0.66, 95% CI 0.55-0.81). Improved overall survival with statin use was observed for both serous (HR=0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.87) and non-serous (HR=0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) histologies. When statin treatment was categorized by lipophilicity and intensity, a significant survival benefit was limited to lipophilic statin users and those who took statins of moderate intensity. This SEER-Medicare analysis demonstrates improvement in overall survival with lipophilic statin use after surgery in elderly patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. A clinical trial to evaluate the impact of statin treatment in ovarian cancer survival is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Sustained by Rac1 through Simultaneous Activation of MEK1/2 and Src Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Chen, Huijun; Zhu, Jessica Y; Wang, Wei; Teng, Yong; Ding, Han-Fei; Jing, Qing; Su, Shi-Bing; Huang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as a crucial contributing factor to cancer progression. Diverse factors have been identified as potent EMT inducers in ovarian cancer. However, molecular mechanism sustaining EMT of ovarian cancer cells remains elusive. Here, we show that the presence of SOS1/EPS8/ABI1 complex is critical for sustained EMT traits of ovarian cancer cells. Consistent with the role of SOS1/EPS8/ABI1 complex as a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, depleting Rac1 results in the loss of most of mesenchymal traits in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells while expressing constitutively active Rac1 leads to EMT in epithelial-like ovarian cancer cells. With the aid of clinically tested inhibitors targeting various EMT-associated signaling pathways, we show that only combined treatment of MEK1/2 and Src inhibitors can abolish constitutively active Rac1-led EMT and mesenchymal traits displayed by mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells. Further experiments also reveal that EMT can be induced in epithelial-like ovarian cancer cells by co-expressing constitutively active MEK1 and Src rather than either alone. As the activities of Erk and Src are higher in ovarian cancer cells with constitutively active Rac1, we conclude that Rac1 sustains ovarian cancer cell EMT through simultaneous activation of MEK1/2 and Src signaling pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that combined use of MEK1/2 and Src inhibitors effectively suppresses development of intraperitoneal xenografts and prolongs the survival of ovarian cancer-bearing mice. This study suggests that cocktail of MEK1/2 and Src inhibitors represents an effective therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer progression. PMID:27617576

  2. Role of nerve growth factor and its TRKA receptor in normal ovarian and epithelial ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina; Tapia, Verónica; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2014-08-10

    In normal ovarian function a controlled angiogenesis is essential. Several growth factors are involved in this process, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The angiogenesis process in the normal ovary is a tightly controlled process that occurs in each ovarian cycle. Also, angiogenesis is critical for ovarian cancer development and it is responsible for tumor spread, metastasis and its peritoneal dissemination. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women and it is distinguished as the most lethal gynecologic cancer. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Several molecules have been reported to promote angiogenesis, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, the angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Primarily, VEGF has been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis. The above-mentioned molecules are candidate drug targets. Used in combination with other treatments, anti-angiogenic therapies have managed to reduce disease progression. The present review is focused in NGF and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A (TRKA). The expression of VEGF, proliferation and the angiogenesis process in ovarian cancer is importantly induced by NGF, among other molecules.

  3. The effect of NFATc1 on vascular generation and the possible underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Yu, Jihui; Duan, Zhaoning; Dang, Hong-Xing

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effect of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) on the growth and vascular generation of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell-transplanted tumors in nude mice and explored the possible underlying mechanism. NFATc1 siRNA was transfected into the SKOV3 cells, which were then subjected to immunofluorescence tests and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the transfection-induced inhibition rate. The tumor volumes in the nude mice in all groups were measured to determine the in vivo antitumor effect of NFATc1 siRNA. Immunohistochemical (IHC) methods were employed to detect NFATc1 expression in tumor tissue, combined with cytokeratin (CK) staining to label the epithelial origin of the tumor tissue. CD34 and podoplanin were used as markers for labeling microvessels and microlymphatic vessels, respectively. The densities of microvessels and microlymphatic vessels in each group were calculated and statistically analyzed. RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect the protein and mRNA expression levels of NFATc1, the ELR+ CXC chemokine interleukin (IL)-8, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF BB) in xenografted tumor tissue in all groups. NFATc1 was highly expressed in tumor tissue in the control groups. The intervention group exhibited a tumor growth inhibition rate of 57.08% and presented a lower tumor weight and volume compared with the two control groups. In the control groups, the microvessel densities were 12.00 ± 1.65 and 11.47 ± 0.32, respectively, and the microlymphatic vessel densities were 10.03 ± 0.96 and 9.95 ± 1.12; these values were significantly higher than in the intervention group. RT-PCR and western blot shows that NFATc1 siRNA could markedly suppress the expression of IL-8, FGF-2 and PDGF BB at the mRNA and the protein level. In conclusion, it was shown that NFATc1 siRNA significantly suppresses the growth and vascular generation

  4. Higher Numbers of T-Bet+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Associate with Better Survival in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Chen, Lujun; Xu, Bin; Xiong, Yuqi; Yang, Min; Rui, Xiaohui; Shi, Liangrong; Wu, Changping; Jiang, Jingting; Lu, Binfeng

    2017-01-01

    T-bet, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is a key marker of type I immune response within the tumor microenvironment, and has been previously reported by us to serve as an important prognostic indicator for human gastric cancer patients and a potential biomarker for immunotherapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the clinical significance and prognostic value of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the infiltration density of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis was used to further analyze the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups in cancer tissues. Our immunohistochemistry analysis showed increased number of T-bet+ lymphoid cells in the human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues, and the flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated the presence of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes subgroups including CD4+ , CD8+ T cells and NK cells. In addition, we also observed a significant association of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes density in the tumor nest of cancer with not only serum CA125 levels but also with distant metastasis. However no association was observed with other characteristics like patients' age, pathological type, FIGO stage, tumor site and tumor size. Furthermore, the survival analysis showed that higher density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes both in tumor nest and tumor stroma of cancer tissues was significantly associated with better patient survival. In addition, the density of T-bet+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor nest appeared to be an independent risk factor for predicting patients' postoperative prognoses. Our data indicated that the key transcription factor T-bet might play an important role in the type I immune cells mediated antitumor response, and the density of T-bet+ lymphocytes in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues

  5. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Their Putative Role in Potentiating the Initiation and Development of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G; Sood, Anil K; Mok, Samuel; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    The progression of ovarian cancer, from cell transformation through invasion of normal tissue, relies on communication between tumor cells and their adjacent stromal microenvironment. Through a natural selection process, an autocrine-paracrine communication loop establishes reciprocal reinforcement of growth and migration signals. Thus, the cancer-activated stromal response is similar to an off-switch-defective form of the normal, universal response needed to survive insult or injury. It is becoming clearer within the cancer literature base that tumor stroma plays a bimodal role in cancer development: it impedes neoplastic growth in normal tissue while encouraging migration and tumor growth in a co-opted desmoplastic response during tumor progression. In this review, we discuss this reciprocal influence that ovarian cancer epithelial cells may have on ovarian stromal cell-reactive phenotype, stromal cell behavior, disrupted signaling networks, and tumor suppressor status in the stroma, within the context of cancer fibroblast studies from alternate cancer tissue settings. We focus on the exchange of secreted factors, in particular interleukin 1β and SDF-1α, between activated fibroblasts and cancer cells as a key area for future investigation and therapeutic development. A better understanding of the bidirectional reliance of early epithelial cancer cells on activated stromal cells could lead to the identification of novel diagnostic stromal markers and targets for therapy. PMID:21532880

  6. Oral etoposide for platinum-resistant and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: a study by the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Kucukoner, Mehmet; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman; Yaman, Sebnem; Gumusay, Ozge; Unal, Olcun; Ulas, Arife; Elkiran, Emir T; Kaplan, Muhammed A; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Inal, Ali; Urakci, Zuhat; Buyukberber, Suleyman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of long-term, low-dose oral etoposide as an advanced treatment option in patients with platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer. For the purposes of this study, 51 patients with histologically-confirmed, recurrent or metastatic platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treated at six different centers between January 2006 and January 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were treated with oral etoposide (50 mg/day for a cycle of 14 days, repeated every 21 days). Among the 51 platinum-resistant patients, 17.6% demonstrated a partial response and 25.5% a stable response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.1-5.7), while the median overall survival was 16.4 months (11.8-20.9). No significant relationship was observed between the pre-treatment CA 125 levels, post-treatment CA-125 levels and the treatment response rates (p=0.21). Among the 51 patients who were evaluated in terms of toxicity, grade 1 or 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 19 (37.3%); and grade 1-4 gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 15 patients (29.4%). Chronic low-dose oral etoposide treatment is generally effective and well-tolerated in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients.

  7. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S. L.; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Mellissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. Methods In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). Conclusion These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations

  8. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    PubMed

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S L; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Mellissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hasmad, Hanis N; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular transport

  9. Exome genotyping arrays to identify rare and low frequency variants associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Permuth, Jennifer B; Pirie, Ailith; Ann Chen, Y; Lin, Hui-Yi; Reid, Brett M; Chen, Zhihua; Monteiro, Alvaro; Dennis, Joe; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Anne Doherty, Jennifer; Earp, Madalene; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Hogdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y; Kelemen, Linda E; Kjaer, Suzanne K; Kraft, Peter; Le, Nhu D; Levine, Douglas A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Matsuo, Keitaro; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Rosemary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Nakanishi, Toru; Ness, Roberta B; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Anne Rossing, Mary; Sandler, Dale P; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Song, Honglin; Taylor, Jack A; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Winham, Stacey; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A

    2016-08-15

    Rare and low frequency variants are not well covered in most germline genotyping arrays and are understudied in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. To address this gap, we used genotyping arrays targeting rarer protein-coding variation in 8,165 EOC cases and 11,619 controls from the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Pooled association analyses were conducted at the variant and gene level for 98,543 variants directly genotyped through two exome genotyping projects. Only common variants that represent or are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with previously-identified signals at established loci reached traditional thresholds for exome-wide significance (P < 5.0 × 10 (-)  (7)). One of the most significant signals (Pall histologies = 1.01 × 10 (-)  (13);Pserous = 3.54 × 10 (-)  (14)) occurred at 3q25.31 for rs62273959, a missense variant mapping to the LEKR1 gene that is in LD (r(2 )=( )0.90) with a previously identified 'best hit' (rs7651446) mapping to an intron of TIPARP. Suggestive associations (5.0 × 10 (-)  (5 )>( )P≥5.0 ×10 (-)  (7)) were detected for rare and low-frequency variants at 16 novel loci. Four rare missense variants were identified (ACTBL2 rs73757391 (5q11.2), BTD rs200337373 (3p25.1), KRT13 rs150321809 (17q21.2) and MC2R rs104894658 (18p11.21)), but only MC2R rs104894668 had a large effect size (OR = 9.66). Genes most strongly associated with EOC risk included ACTBL2 (PAML = 3.23 × 10 (-)  (5); PSKAT-o = 9.23 × 10 (-)  (4)) and KRT13 (PAML = 1.67 × 10 (-)  (4); PSKAT-o = 1.07 × 10 (-)  (5)), reaffirming variant-level analysis. In summary, this large study identified several rare and low-frequency variants and genes that may contribute to EOC susceptibility, albeit with possible small effects. Future studies that integrate epidemiology, sequencing, and functional assays are needed to further

  10. Exome genotyping arrays to identify rare and low frequency variants associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Permuth, Jennifer B.; Pirie, Ailith; Ann Chen, Y.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Reid, Brett M.; Chen, Zhihua; Monteiro, Alvaro; Dennis, Joe; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Anne Doherty, Jennifer; Earp, Madalene; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Hogdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kjaer, Suzanne K.; Kraft, Peter; Le, Nhu D.; Levine, Douglas A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Matsuo, Keitaro; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Rosemary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Ness, Roberta B.; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Anne Rossing, Mary; Sandler, Dale P.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Song, Honglin; Taylor, Jack A.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Winham, Stacey; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and low frequency variants are not well covered in most germline genotyping arrays and are understudied in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. To address this gap, we used genotyping arrays targeting rarer protein-coding variation in 8,165 EOC cases and 11,619 controls from the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Pooled association analyses were conducted at the variant and gene level for 98,543 variants directly genotyped through two exome genotyping projects. Only common variants that represent or are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with previously-identified signals at established loci reached traditional thresholds for exome-wide significance (P < 5.0 × 10 − 7). One of the most significant signals (Pall histologies = 1.01 × 10 − 13;Pserous = 3.54 × 10 − 14) occurred at 3q25.31 for rs62273959, a missense variant mapping to the LEKR1 gene that is in LD (r2 = 0.90) with a previously identified ‘best hit’ (rs7651446) mapping to an intron of TIPARP. Suggestive associations (5.0 × 10 − 5 > P≥5.0 ×10 − 7) were detected for rare and low-frequency variants at 16 novel loci. Four rare missense variants were identified (ACTBL2 rs73757391 (5q11.2), BTD rs200337373 (3p25.1), KRT13 rs150321809 (17q21.2) and MC2R rs104894658 (18p11.21)), but only MC2R rs104894668 had a large effect size (OR = 9.66). Genes most strongly associated with EOC risk included ACTBL2 (PAML = 3.23 × 10 − 5; PSKAT-o = 9.23 × 10 − 4) and KRT13 (PAML = 1.67 × 10 − 4; PSKAT-o = 1.07 × 10 − 5), reaffirming variant-level analysis. In summary, this large study identified several rare and low-frequency variants and genes that may contribute to EOC susceptibility, albeit with possible small effects. Future studies that integrate epidemiology, sequencing, and functional assays are needed to further unravel the unexplained

  11. Variation in NF-κB Signaling Pathways and Survival in Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Block, Matthew S.; Charbonneau, Bridget; Vierkant, Robert A.; Fogarty, Zachary; Bamlet, William R.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cramer, Daniel; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Schildkraut, Joellen; Menon, Usha; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Levine, Douglas A.; Gronwald, Jacek; Culver, Hoda Anton; Whittemore, Alice S.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V.; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Campbell, Ian; Goodman, Marc T.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T.; Hays, Laura E.; Lurie, Galina; Eccles, Diana; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M.; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Claus K.; Lundvall, Lene; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela; Brinton, Louise A.; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Lester, Jenny; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Menkiszak, Janusz; Jensen, Allan; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Berchuck, Andrew; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Terry, Kathryn L.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Ramirez, Starr M.; Rider, David N.; Knutson, Keith L.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Johnatty, Sharon E.; deFazio, Anna; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that impact prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-κB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance—p < 2.5×10−5). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with CARD11 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41–2.35, p=4.13×10−6) and TNFRSF13B (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56–0.82, p=2.33×10−5). Other associations of note included TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77–0.92, p=6.49×10−5) and PLCG1 (phospholipase C, gamma 1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26–0.73, p=4.56×10−4). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies. PMID:24740199

  12. Variation in NF-κB signaling pathways and survival in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Block, Matthew S; Charbonneau, Bridget; Vierkant, Robert A; Fogarty, Zachary; Bamlet, William R; Pharoah, Paul D P; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cramer, Daniel; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Schildkraut, Joellen; Menon, Usha; Kjaer, Susanne K; Levine, Douglas A; Gronwald, Jacek; Culver, Hoda Anton; Whittemore, Alice S; Karlan, Beth Y; Lambrechts, Diether; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B; Fasching, Peter A; Campbell, Ian; Goodman, Marc T; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T; Hays, Laura E; Lurie, Galina; Eccles, Diana; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Claus K; Lundvall, Lene; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Paddock, Lisa E; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela; Brinton, Louise A; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Lester, Jenny; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Menkiszak, Janusz; Jensen, Allan; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Berchuck, Andrew; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Ramirez, Starr M; Rider, David N; Knutson, Keith L; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Johnatty, Sharon E; deFazio, Anna; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kalli, Kimberly R; Fridley, Brooke L; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L

    2014-07-01

    Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that affect prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-κB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high-grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance, P < 2.5 × 10(-5)). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC [HR, 1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-2.35; P = 4.13 × 10(-6)] and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B (TNFRSF13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.82; P = 2.33 × 10(-5)). Other associations of note included TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.92; P = 6.49 × 10(-5)) and phospholipase C, gamma 1 (PLCG1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.73; P = 4.56 × 10(-4)). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. The androgen receptor cytosine-adenine-guanine repeat length contributes to the development of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangrui; Lu, Peng; Chu, Zhi; Fan, Qingxia

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the main cause of death among women with gynecological malignancies. Androgen and its receptors play an important role in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Here, We aim to evaluate the relationship between AR CAG and GGN repeat length polymorphisms and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk in a two-stage, case-control study among Chinese women. The repeat length was analyzed as a categorical variable for CAG_A and GGN_A (average allele), CAG-S and GGN_S (shorter allele), CAG-L and GGN_L (longer allele), respectively. The median value of the repeat length among the controls was used as the cutoff point. Women with longer AR CAG repeats had a decreased risk of developing EOC. The results was replicated in an independent samples. Compared to those with shorter (<22) CAG_A repeat length, women with longer (≥22) CAG_A repeats length had a 31% decreased EOC risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.62–0.77, P = 5.06 × 10−11). For CAG_S and CAG_L, the results remain consistent. However, we didn't detected any significant associations for GGN_A, GGN_S, and GGN_L. This should be the first study to examine the association between AR repeat length polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk in a relatively large group of Asian women. PMID:26556855

  14. Serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) as new diagnostic and prognostic tools for epithelial ovarian cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Elisabetta; Romani, Chiara; Specchia, Claudia; Zanotti, Laura; Galli, Claudio; Ruggeri, Giuseppina; Tognon, Germana; Bignotti, Eliana; Tassi, Renata A.; Odicino, Franco; Caimi, Luigi; Sartori, Enrico; Santin, Alessandro D.; Pecorelli, Sergio; Ravaggi, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this work was to analyze the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS Preoperative serum samples of 419 women (140 healthy controls, 131 ovarian benign cysts, 34 endometriosis, 114 EOC) were tested for CA125 and HE4 using fully automated methods (Abbott ARCHITECT) and validated cut-off values. RESULTS For the discrimination of benign masses from EOC, in pre-menopausal women the sensitivity and specificity were 92.3% and 59.4% for CA125, 84.6% and 94.2% for HE4, and 84.6% and 81.2% for ROMA while in post-menopausal women the sensitivity and specificity were 94.3% and 82.3% for CA125, 78.2% and 99.0% for HE4, 93.1% and 84.4% for ROMA. In patients with EOC, elevated CA125, HE4 and ROMA levels were associated with advanced FIGO stage, sub-optimally debulking, ascites, positive cytology, lymph node involvement and advanced age (all p≤0.05). Elevated HE4 and ROMA (both p≤0.01), but not CA125 (p=0.0579), were associated with undifferentiated tumours. In multivariable analysis, elevated HE4 and ROMA (all p≤0.05) were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall survival, disease free survival and progression free survival. CONCLUSIONS and IMPACT This study underlines the high specificity of HE4 in discriminating endometriosis and ovarian benign cysts from EOC and the high sensitivity of CA125 in detecting EOC. We demonstrated HE4 and ROMA as independent prognostic factors. Multicenter studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about the applicability of HE4 and ROMA in clinical practice. PMID:22028406

  15. Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by epithelial ovarian cancer: a systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Blake, Erin A; Kodama, Michiko; Yunokawa, Mayu; Ross, Malcolm S; Ueda, Yutaka; Grubbs, Brendan H; Matsuo, Koji

    2015-03-01

    Although cancer diagnosed during pregnancy is rare, epithelial cell type ovarian cancers (EOCs) comprise approximately one quarter to one half of cases of ovarian malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. The behavior of EOC during pregnancy and its implications for maternal and fetal outcomes is not well understood. In order to better define these outcomes, a systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE using entry keywords "pregnancy" and "ovarian cancer" for the period from 1955 to 2013. The literature search identified 105 cases eligible for analysis. Clinical characteristics, pregnancy outcome, tumor characteristics, clinical management, and survival outcomes were all evaluated. Serious adverse events were defined as complications related to EOC that resulted in severe morbidity or mortality for the mother and/or fetus. The mean age of cases was 31.6 years. The most common histology was serous (47.6%), followed by mucinous (27.6%) and endometrioid types (10.5%). The most common presenting symptom was abdominal or pelvic pain (26.7%) while incidentally detected tumors accounted for one third of cases. The majority of cases were stage I at diagnosis (63.8%) followed by stage III disease (24.8%), and the median tumor size was 12cm. Live births occurred in 81.3% of cases, and of the remainder 72.2% were due to elective termination. Intrapartum surgery primarily took place in the second trimester (43%) with fetal conservation in 61.9% of operations. Over half of cases received chemotherapy (55.2%), approximately one third of which received it during the pregnancy (36.2%). Among the 21 cases treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy, there was no association with small for gestational age or fetal malformations. Serious adverse events occurred in 21.9% of cases, of which the most common was tumor rupture during pregnancy (10.5%). Three (2.9%) maternal death following surgery during pregnancy and five (6.4%) neonatal deaths were reported. Gestational

  16. The Potential Role of the Proteases Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L in the Progression and Metastasis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pranjol, Md Zahidul Islam; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hannemann, Michael; Whatmore, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to relatively unspecific early symptoms, and thus often advanced stage, metastasized cancer at presentation. Metastasis of EOC occurs primarily through the transcoelomic route whereby exfoliated tumor cells disseminate within the abdominal cavity, particularly to the omentum. Primary and metastatic tumor growth requires a pool of proangiogenic factors in the microenvironment which propagate new vasculature in the growing cancer. Recent evidence suggests that proangiogenic factors other than the widely known, potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor may mediate growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this review we examine the role of some of these alternative factors, specifically cathepsin D and cathepsin L. PMID:26610586

  17. Tumor-specific p53 sequences in blood and peritoneal fluid of women with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Swisher, Elizabeth M; Wollan, Melissa; Mahtani, Sarita M; Willner, Julia B; Garcia, Rochelle; Goff, Barbara A; King, Mary-Claire

    2005-09-01

    Free tumor DNA in body fluids may be an important biomarker. We tested whether tumor-specific mutated p53 DNA can be detected in blood and peritoneal fluid from women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Sequencing of tumor DNA identified somatic p53 mutations. Free DNA from matched blood or peritoneal fluid was evaluated for the tumor-specific p53 mutation using a ligase detection reaction. Sixty-nine of 137 tumors (50%) had p53 mutations. Plasma or serum from 21 (30%) of the 69 informative cases contained the tumor-specific p53 mutation. Circulating tumor was an independent predictor of decreased survival in multivariate analysis (P=.02). We detected tumor DNA in peritoneal fluid in 28 of 30 (93%) cases, including all 6 cases with negative cytology. One third of women with ovarian cancer have circulating tumor DNA and an associated reduced survival. Free tumor DNA can be detected in the majority of peritoneal fluid samples.

  18. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Iversen, Edwin S.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Concannon, Patrick; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Li, Qiyuan; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Berchuck, Andrew; Lee, Janet M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Cannioto, Rikki; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Budzilowska, Agnieszka; Sellers, Thomas A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Nieuwenhuysen, Els Van; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association was for CHEK2 SNP rs17507066 with serous EOC (P = 4.74 x 10–7). Additional genotyping and imputation of genotypes from the 1000 genomes project identified a slightly more significant association for CHEK2 SNP rs6005807 (r 2 with rs17507066 = 0.84, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.11–1.24, P = 1.1×10−7). We identified 293 variants in the region with likelihood ratios of less than 1:100 for representing the causal variant. Functional annotation identified 25 candidate SNPs that alter transcription factor binding sites within regulatory elements active in EOC precursor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10−8). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r 2 = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10-8). These data suggest that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene. PMID:26424751

  19. HER2 amplification and overexpression are significantly correlated in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wan-Ru; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Long; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lin, Jau-Chen; Koo, Chiew-Loon; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Han, Chih-Ping

    2014-04-01

    HER2 gene amplification and protein over-expression are important factors in predicting clinical sensitivity to anti-HER2 therapies in breast, gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between HER2 gene copy numbers and HER2 protein expressions in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Of the 49 tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC, we applied 2010 ToGA trial (Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer) surgical specimen scoring criteria to analyze the HER2 protein expression by an immunohistochemistry (IHC) test with Dako (Carpenteria, CA), c-erb-B2 antibody, and the HER2 gene amplification by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test with Abbott/Vysis PathVysion HER2 DNA Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IA). We achieved a high overall concordance of 97.56% between nonequivocal HER2 results by IHC and FISH tests. In addition, HER2 gene copies before chromosome-17 correction increased significantly in a stepwise order through the negative, equivocal and positive IHC result categories (P<.001), as did the HER2 gene copies after chromosome-17 correction (P<.001). On the other hand, HER2 IHC results correlated significantly with both chromosome-17-uncorrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ=0.630, P<.001) and chromosome-17 corrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ=0.558, P<.001). We concluded that both chromosome-17 corrected and uncorrected HER2 gene copies correlated significantly with HER2 IHC results. Tests for the HER2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction of chromosome-17 can be applied as a potentially valuable tool to analyze the HER2 status in mucinous EOC.

  20. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Expression in Surface Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Shruthi Mysore; Vimala, Manjunath Gubbanna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Surface Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (SEOC) at the moment of diagnosis, the disease is extended beyond the structures of the pelvis. Ki-67 is one of the prognostic marker which determines the growth fraction of a tumour and its over expression is associated with malignancy, tumour aggression, reserved prognosis and metastasis. Aim To evaluate the proliferative activity using Ki-67 immuno-staining in SEOC and to correlate with histological subtype, grade, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, CA125 levels for diagnostic and prognostic purpose. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS University, Mysuru. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 40 cases of SEOC over a period of two years. The proliferation expression related to Ki-67 antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemical monoclonal MIB-1 antibody. In each case, the Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) was articulated as percentage of positively stained cells using high power objective of the microscope (x400). Results Among the 40 carcinomas, 26 were serous, five mucinous, four each of clear cell and undifferentiated and one transitional cell carcinoma. A total of 75% were high grade tumours. High Ki-67 LI was associated with high grade tumours (69.9%), high grade serous tumours (65.34%) and advanced FIGO staging (70.6%) with the p-value of <0.001. CA 125 levels did not have a significant correlation with Ki-67 LI. Conclusion Ki-67 is an exceptionally a cost effective marker to determine the growth fraction of a tumour cell population. In SEOC histological grade and FIGO stage when combined with Ki-67 LI in histopathology report would help in diagnostic differentiation of subtypes, prognostication, deciding the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and in predicting survival analysis. PMID:28384868

  1. Outcomes of surgical management of bowel obstruction in relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

    PubMed

    Kolomainen, D F; Daponte, A; Barton, D P J; Pennert, K; Ind, T E J; Bridges, J E; Shepherd, J H; Gore, M E; Kaye, S B; Riley, J

    2012-04-01

    To describe the outcomes of surgical management of bowel obstruction in relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) so as to define the criteria for patient selection for palliative surgery. 90 women with relapsed EOC underwent palliative surgery for bowel obstruction between 1992 and 2008. Median age at time of surgery for bowel obstruction was 57 years (range, 26 to 85 years). All patients had received at least one line of platinum-based chemotherapy. Median time from diagnosis of primary disease to documented bowel obstruction requiring surgery was 19.5 months (range, 29 days-14 years). Median interval from date of completed course of chemotherapy preceding surgery for bowel obstruction was 3.8 months (range, 5 days-14 years). Ascites was present in 38/90(42%). 49/90(54%) underwent emergency surgery for bowel obstruction. The operative mortality and morbidity rates were 18% and 27%, respectively. Successful palliation, defined as adequate oral intake at least 60 days postoperative, was achieved in 59/90(66%). Only the absence of ascites was identified as a predictor for successful palliation (p=0.049). The median overall survival (OS) was 90.5 days (range, <1 day-6 years). Optimal debulking, treatment-free interval (TFI) and elective versus emergency surgery did not predict survival or successful palliation from surgery for bowel obstruction (p>0.05). Surgery for bowel obstruction in relapsed EOC is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate especially in emergency cases when compared to other gynaecological oncological procedures. Palliation can be achieved in almost two thirds of cases, is equally likely in elective and emergency cases but is less likely in those with ascites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression, anxiety and body image after treatment for invasive stage one epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bisseling, Karin C H M; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Janda, Monika; Obermair, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in young women has major implications including those to their reproductive potential. We evaluated depression, anxiety and body image in patients with stage I EOC treated with fertility sparing surgery (FSS) or radical surgery (RS). We also investigated fertility outcomes after FSS. A retrospective study was undertaken in which 62 patients completed questionnaires related to anxiety, depression, body image and fertility outcomes. Additional information on adjuvant therapy after FSS and RS and demographic details were abstracted from medical records. Both bi- and multivariate regression models were used to assess the relationship between demographic, clinical and pathological results and scores for anxiety, depression and body image. Thirty-nine patients underwent RS and the rest, FSS. The percentage of patients reporting elevated anxiety and depression (subscores > or = 11) were 27% and 5% respectively. The median (interquartile range) score for Body Image Scale (BIS) was 6 (3-15). None of the demographic or clinical factors examined showed significant association with anxiety and BIS with the exception of 'time since diagnosis'. For depression, post-menopausal status was the only independent predictor. Among those 23 patients treated by FSS, 14 patients tried to conceive (seven successful), resulting in seven live births, one termination of pregnancy and one miscarriage. This study shows that psychological issues are common in women treated for stage I EOC. Reproduction after FSS is feasible and led to the birth of healthy babies in about half of patients who wished to have another child. Further prospective studies with standardised instruments are required.

  3. Bevacizumab toxicity in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bevacizumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in recurrent platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) when no more than two prior cytotoxic regimens have been used; due to concerns for gastrointestinal perforation. We sought to determine bevacizumab-related toxicities in heavily pretreated recurrent EOC. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent EOC, FTC, and PPC from 2001 to 2011. Patients who received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens before bevacizumab were included. Medical records were reviewed for bevacizumab associated toxicities. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. At the start of bevacizumab treatment, the median age was 60 years and the median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m2. More than 50% of patients received bevacizumab after three prior cytotoxic regimens. Grade 3 or higher bevacizumab associated toxicity events occurred in four patients, including one patient who developed a rectovaginal fistula. The median overall survival from the start of bevacizumab treatment was 21.05 months (95% CI, 18.23 to 32.67; range, 1.9 to 110 months). The number of cytotoxic regimens prior to bevacizumab treatment did not differ in those that experienced a toxicity versus those that did not (p=0.66). Conclusion The use of bevacizumab in heavily pretreated EOC, FTC, or PPC is worth consideration. PMID:27329195

  4. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Expression in Surface Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahadevappa, Asha; Krishna, Shruthi Mysore; Vimala, Manjunath Gubbanna

    2017-02-01

    The Surface Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (SEOC) at the moment of diagnosis, the disease is extended beyond the structures of the pelvis. Ki-67 is one of the prognostic marker which determines the growth fraction of a tumour and its over expression is associated with malignancy, tumour aggression, reserved prognosis and metastasis. To evaluate the proliferative activity using Ki-67 immuno-staining in SEOC and to correlate with histological subtype, grade, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, CA125 levels for diagnostic and prognostic purpose. The study was conducted in JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS University, Mysuru. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 40 cases of SEOC over a period of two years. The proliferation expression related to Ki-67 antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemical monoclonal MIB-1 antibody. In each case, the Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) was articulated as percentage of positively stained cells using high power objective of the microscope (x400). Among the 40 carcinomas, 26 were serous, five mucinous, four each of clear cell and undifferentiated and one transitional cell carcinoma. A total of 75% were high grade tumours. High Ki-67 LI was associated with high grade tumours (69.9%), high grade serous tumours (65.34%) and advanced FIGO staging (70.6%) with the p-value of <0.001. CA 125 levels did not have a significant correlation with Ki-67 LI. Ki-67 is an exceptionally a cost effective marker to determine the growth fraction of a tumour cell population. In SEOC histological grade and FIGO stage when combined with Ki-67 LI in histopathology report would help in diagnostic differentiation of subtypes, prognostication, deciding the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and in predicting survival analysis.

  5. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on platinum resistance in stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanlin; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee Seung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains controversial whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) induces chemoresistance in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) compared with primary debulking surgery (PDS). The aim of this study was to compare platinum-resistant recurrence following treatment with NACT-IDS or PDS in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 341 patients who underwent PDS or NACT-IDS for Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIC or IV EOC between March 1990 and December 2010. Risk factors of platinum resistance, including NACT, postoperative residual tumor size, and various clinicopathological factors, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure overall survival (OS). Of 341 patients, 58 (17.0%) underwent NACT-IDS and 283 (83.0%) were treated with PDS. Twenty-nine (50.0%) patients developed platinum-resistant disease at first relapse after NACT-IDS and 99 (35.0%) patients recurred after PDS (P = 0.033). In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, NACT-IDS and postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm were risk factors for platinum-resistant recurrence (adjusted odds ratios 2.950 and 2.915; 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.572–5.537 and 1.780–4.771, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Postoperative residual tumor mass >1 cm and platinum-resistant disease were significantly correlated with shorter OS (adjusted hazard ratios 1.579 and 4.078; 95% CI 1.193–2.089 and 3.074–5.412, P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), whereas NACT-IDS did not extend OS. NACT-IDS increases the risk of platinum-resistant recurrence in patients with stage IIIC and IV EOC. PMID:27603388

  6. Immunomodulatory action of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-110 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pragya; Paluch, Benjamin E; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R; Collamat-Lai, Golda; Taverna, Pietro; Karpf, Adam R; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of SGI-110 on methylation and expression of the cancer testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo and to establish the impact of SGI-110 on expression of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on EOC cells, and on recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. We also tested the impact of combined SGI-110 and NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells on tumor growth and/or murine survival in a xenograft setting. EOC cells were treated with SGI-110 in vitro at various concentrations and as tumor xenografts with 3 distinct dose schedules. Effects on global methylation (using LINE-1), NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A methylation, mRNA, and protein expression were determined and compared to controls. SGI-110 treated EOC cells were evaluated for expression of immune-modulatory genes using flow cytometry, and were co-cultured with NY-ESO-1 specific T-cell clones to determine immune recognition. In vivo administration of SGI-110 and CD8+ T-cells was performed to determine anti-tumor effects on EOC xenografts. SGI-110 treatment induced hypomethylation and CTA gene expression in a dose dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo, at levels generally superior to azacitidine or decitabine. SGI-110 enhanced the expression of MHC I and ICAM-1, and enhanced recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. Sequential SGI-110 and antigen-specific CD8+ cell treatment restricted EOC tumor growth and enhanced survival in a xenograft setting. SGI-110 is an effective hypomethylating agent and immune modulator and, thus, an attractive candidate for combination with CTA-directed vaccines in EOC.

  7. Immunomodulatory action of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-110 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pragya; Paluch, Benjamin E; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R; Collamat-Lai, Golda; Taverna, Pietro; Karpf, Adam R; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of SGI-110 on methylation and expression of the cancer testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo and to establish the impact of SGI-110 on expression of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on EOC cells, and on recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. We also tested the impact of combined SGI-110 and NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells on tumor growth and/or murine survival in a xenograft setting. EOC cells were treated with SGI-110 in vitro at various concentrations and as tumor xenografts with 3 distinct dose schedules. Effects on global methylation (using LINE-1), NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A methylation, mRNA, and protein expression were determined and compared to controls. SGI-110 treated EOC cells were evaluated for expression of immune-modulatory genes using flow cytometry, and were co-cultured with NY-ESO-1 specific T-cell clones to determine immune recognition. In vivo administration of SGI-110 and CD8+ T-cells was performed to determine anti-tumor effects on EOC xenografts. SGI-110 treatment induced hypomethylation and CTA gene expression in a dose dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo, at levels generally superior to azacitidine or decitabine. SGI-110 enhanced the expression of MHC I and ICAM-1, and enhanced recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. Sequential SGI-110 and antigen-specific CD8+ cell treatment restricted EOC tumor growth and enhanced survival in a xenograft setting. SGI-110 is an effective hypomethylating agent and immune modulator and, thus, an attractive candidate for combination with CTA-directed vaccines in EOC. PMID:25793777

  8. Wine drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Shouten, Leo J.; Larsson, Susanna C.; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Yong Beom; Ju, Woong; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2010-01-01

    Objective Wine has been the focus in the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development because resveratrol abundant in wine has anti-carcinogenic properties. However, epidemiologic results have been heterogenous in the chemopreventive effect of wine on the development of EOC. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis for comparing EOC risk between wine and never drinkers using previous related studies. Methods After extensive search of the literature between January 1986 and December 2008, we analyzed 10 studies (3 cohort and 7 case control studies) with 135,871 women, who included 65,578 of wine and 70,293 of never drinkers. Results In all studies, there was no significant difference in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.38; random effects). When we performed re-analysis according to the study design, 3 cohort and 7 case control studies showed that there were also no significant differences in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers, respectively (OR, 1.44 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74 and 2.82 and 0.88 to 1.22; random effects). In sub-analyses using 2 case-control studies, EOC risk was not different between former and never drinkers (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.44; fixed effect), and between current and former drinkers (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.34; random effects). Conclusion Although resveratrol, abundantly found in wine, is a promising naturally occurring compound with chemopreventive properties on EOC in preclinical studies, this meta-analysis suggests the epidemiologic evidence shows no association between wine drinking and EOC risk. PMID:20613902

  9. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95–1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77–1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95–1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88–1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93–1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84–1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81–1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98–1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  10. Gene expression profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer reveals key genes and pathways associated with chemotherapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Luo, S C

    2016-01-22

    The aim of this study is to analyze gene expression data to identify key genes and pathways associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to improve clinical treatment strategies. The gene expression data set was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and included 12 chemotherapy-resistant EOC samples and 16 chemotherapy-sensitive EOC samples. A differential analysis was performed to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional enrichment analysis was conducted for the DEGs using the database for annotation, visualization, and integration discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with information from the human protein reference database. Pathway-pathway interactions were determined with a test based on the hypergeometric distribution. A total of 1564 DEGs were identified in chemotherapy-sensitive EOC, including 654 upregulated genes and 910 downregulated genes. The top three upregulated genes were HIST1H3G, AKT3, and RTN3, while the top three downregulated genes were NBLA00301, TRIM62, and EPHA5. A Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that cell adhesion, biological adhesion, and intracellular signaling cascades were significantly enriched in the DEGs. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and B cell receptor signaling pathways were significantly over-represented in the DEGs. A PPI network containing 101 interactions was acquired. The top three hub genes were RAC1, CAV1, and BCL2. Five modules were identified from the PPI network. Taken together, these findings could advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intrinsic chemotherapy resistance in EOC.

  11. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Kate; Iversen, Edwin S; Tyrer, Jonathan; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Concannon, Patrick; Hazelett, Dennis J; Li, Qiyuan; Marks, Jeffrey R; Berchuck, Andrew; Lee, Janet M; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T; Edwards, Robert P; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Cannioto, Rikki; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Budzilowska, Agnieszka; Sellers, Thomas A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Freedman, Matthew L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Pharoah, Paul D; Gayther, Simon A; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association was for CHEK2 SNP rs17507066 with serous EOC (P = 4.74 x 10(-7)). Additional genotyping and imputation of genotypes from the 1000 genomes project identified a slightly more significant association for CHEK2 SNP rs6005807 (r (2) with rs17507066 = 0.84, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.24, P = 1.1×10(-7)). We identified 293 variants in the region with likelihood ratios of less than 1:100 for representing the causal variant. Functional annotation identified 25 candidate SNPs that alter transcription factor binding sites within regulatory elements active in EOC precursor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10(-8)). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r (2) = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10(-8)). These data suggest that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene.

  12. Perioperative fluid status and surgical outcomes in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Desale, M G; Tanner, E J; Sinno, A K; Angarita, A Africano; Fader, A N; Stone, R L; Levinson, K L; Bristow, R E; Roche, K Long

    2016-10-28

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of fluid status on perioperative outcomes of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients undergoing CRS for stage III or IV EOC at a comprehensive cancer center from 12/2010 to 05/2015 were identified. Those who underwent upper abdominal procedures or colon resections were included. Demographic, perioperative, and 30-day complication data were collected. Perioperative weight change was utilized as a surrogate for fluid status. The time to diuresis (tD) was defined as the postoperative day the patient's weight began to downtrend. One hundred ten patients were included. Median age was 62years and median BMI 25.8kg/m(2). The majority (74.5%) were stage IIIC. At least 1 bowel resection was performed in 60 cases (54.5%). A median of 5381mL of crystalloid (range 1000-17,550mL) and 500mL of colloids (range 0-2783mL) was given intraoperatively. The median perioperative weight change was +7.3kg (range-0.9kg to +35.7kg). The median tD was 3days (range 1-17days). On univariate analysis, net positive fluid status was associated with unscheduled reoperation, anastomotic leak, surgical site infections (SSI), and length of stay >5days. On multivariate analysis, fluid status was independently associated with SSI (p=0.01). Perioperative fluid excess is common in patients undergoing CRS for EOC and is independently associated with SSI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Helena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited prior studies have evaluated circulating androgens and risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one prior study. Further, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histologic subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations with the histologic subtypes of EOC. We identified 1,052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2,694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI]. Associations between hormones and EOC differed by tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors, however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with ~40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% risk increase for mucinous tumors. Risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher estradiol concentrations (OR: 1.89 [1.20-2.98]). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries. PMID:25270324

  14. Clinical governance network for clinical audit to improve quality in epithelial ovarian cancer management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Several hospitals throughout the region provide primary treatment for these patients and it is well know that treatment quality is correlated to the hospital that delivers. The aim of this study was to investigate the management and treatment of EOC in a Region of the North Italy (Emilia-Romagna, Italy). Methods A multidisciplinary group made up of 11 physicians and 3 biostatisticians was formed in 2009 to perform clinical audits in order to identify quality indicators and to develop Region-wide workup in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The rationale was that, by setting up an oncogynecology network so as to achieve the best clinical practice, critical points would decrease or even be eliminated. Analysis of cases was based on the review of the medical records. Results 614 EOC patients treated between 2007 and 2008 were identified. We found only 2 high-volume hospitals (≥ 21 patients/year), 3 medium-volume hospitals (11–20 operated patients/year), and 7 low-volume hospitals (≤ 10 operated patients /year). Only 222 patients (76.3%) had a histological diagnosis, FIGO surgical staging was reported only in 206 patients (70.9%) but not all standard surgical procedures were always performed, residual disease were not reported in all patients. No standard number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles was observed. Conclusions The differences in terms of treatments provided led the multidisciplinary group to identify reference centers, to promote centralization, to ensure uniform and adequate treatment to patients treated in regional centers and to promote a new audit involving all regional hospitals to a complete review of the all the EOC patients. PMID:23547941

  15. Incidence and Predictors of Venous Thromboembolism After Debulking Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mokri, Bahareh; Mariani, Andrea; Heit, John A.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Martin, Janice R.; Lemens, Maureen A.; Cliby, William A.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 30 days after primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods In a historical cohort study, we estimated the postoperative 30-day cumulative incidence of VTE among consecutive Mayo Clinic patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for EOC between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008. We tested perioperative patient characteristics and process-of-care variables (defined by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, >130 variables) as potential predictors of postoperative VTE using the Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Among 569 cases of primary EOC cytoreduction and/or staging and no recent VTE, 35 developed symptomatic VTE within 30 days after surgery (cumulative incidence = 6.5%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%–8.6%). Within the cohort, 95 (16.7%) received graduated compression stockings (GCSs), 367 (64.5%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs, and 69 (12.1%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs + postoperative heparin, with VTE rates of 1.1%, 7.4%, and 5.8%, respectively (P = 0.07, χ2 test). The remaining 38 (6.7%) received various other chemical and mechanical prophylaxis regimens. In the multivariate analysis, current or past tobacco smoking, longer hospital stay, and a remote history of VTE significantly increased the risk for postoperative VTE. Conclusions Venous thromboembolism is a substantial postoperative complication among women with EOC, and the high cumulative rate of VTE within 30 days after primary surgery suggests that a more aggressive strategy is needed for VTE prevention. In addition, because longer hospital stay is independently associated with a higher risk for VTE, methods to decrease length of stay and minimize factors that contribute to prolonged hospitalization are warranted. PMID:24172104

  16. BORIS/CTCFL mRNA isoform expression and epigenetic regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Link, Petra A; Zhang, Wa; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2013-01-01

    Cancer germline (CG) genes are normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers; their immunogenicity has led to the widespread development of cancer vaccines targeting these antigens. BORIS/CTCFL is an autosomal CG antigen and promising cancer vaccine target. BORIS is the only known paralog of CTCF, a gene intimately involved in genomic imprinting, chromatin insulation, and nuclear regulation. We have previously shown that BORIS is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and that its expression coincides with promoter and global DNA hypomethylation. Recently, 23 different BORIS mRNA variants have been described, and have been functionally grouped into six BORIS isoform families (sf1-sf6). In the present study, we have characterized the expression of BORIS isoform families in normal ovary (NO) and EOC, the latter of which were selected to include two groups with widely varying global DNA methylation status. We find selective expression of BORIS isoform families in NO, which becomes altered in EOC, primarily by the activation of BORIS sf1 in EOC. When comparing EOC samples based on methylation status, we find that BORIS sf1 and sf2 isoform families are selectively activated in globally hypomethylated tumors. In contrast, CTCF is downregulated in EOC, and the ratio of BORIS sf1, sf2, and sf6 isoform families as a function of CTCF is elevated in hypomethylated tumors. Finally, the expression of all BORIS isoform families was induced to varying extents by epigenetic modulatory drugs in EOC cell lines, particularly when DNMT and HDAC inhibitors were used in combination.

  17. Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer survival in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bešević, Jelena; Gunter, Marc J; Fortner, Renée T; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N; Dossus, Laure; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, Petra H; Jareid, Mie; Ramón Quirós, J; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, María-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dias, Joana A; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Merritt, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which included 521 330 total participants (approximately 370 000 women) aged 25–70 years at recruitment from 1992 to 2000. Methods: Information on reproductive characteristics was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and multivariable models were adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumour stage, smoking status and stratified by study centre. Results: After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (±3.2 s.d.) following EOC diagnosis, 511 (49.9%) of the 1025 women died from EOC. We observed a suggestive survival advantage in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users (ever vs never use, HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.62–1.03) and a significant survival benefit in long-term MHT users (⩾5 years use vs never use, HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.50–0.99, Ptrend=0.04). We observed similar results for MHT use when restricting to serous cases. Other reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use and age at menarche or menopause, were not associated with EOC-specific mortality risk. Conclusions: Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible improvement in EOC survival in MHT users. PMID:26554655

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Long-Jia; Xiang, Chun-Lin; Gong, Yi-Zhen; Kuang, Yan; Lu, Fang-Fang; Yi, Su-Yi; Zhang, Yue; Liao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The value of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has not yet been fully defined. We aimed to systematically evaluate the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on survival and complete cytoreduction after debulking surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC) patients. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing NAC and primary debulking surgery (PDS) in AEOC patients. The last search date is February 25, 2016. Cochrane systematic evaluation was used to evaluate bias risk of included studies. RevMan 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. A total of 4 RCTs involving 1922 patients were included. Compared with PDS, NAC may contribute to the completeness of debulking removal [no residual disease (RR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.94–2.91; P<0.00001), residual disease ≤1 cm (RR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.57; P = 0.02), optimal cytoreduction rate (RR: 1.76; 95%CI: 1.57–1.98; P<0.00001)], but there were no significant differences in both groups with regard to overall survival (HR: 0.94; 95%Cl: 0.81–1.08; P = 0.38) and progression-free survival (HR: 0.89; 95%Cl: 0.77–1.03; P = 0.12). This meta-analysis indicates that the higher rate of optimal debulking made NAC more favorable as a treatment option for AEOC patients with non-inferior survival compared with PDS. PMID:27804983

  19. Dietary inflammatory index and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women.

    PubMed

    Peres, Lauren C; Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Guertin, Kristin A; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Abbott, Sarah E; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Moorman, Patricia G; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul D; Camacho, Fabian; Wang, Frances; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC); yet the contribution of inflammatory foods and nutrients to EOC risk has been understudied. We investigated the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a novel literature-derived tool to assess the inflammatory potential of one's diet, and EOC risk in African American (AA) women in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, the largest population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women to date. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed per 1,000 kilocalories from dietary intake data collected through a food frequency questionnaire, which measured usual dietary intake in the year prior to diagnosis for cases or interview for controls. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression for the association between the E-DII and EOC risk. 493 cases and 662 controls were included in the analyses. We observed a 10% increase in EOC risk per a one-unit change in the E-DII (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). Similarly, women consuming the