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Sample records for epithelial origin ovarian

  1. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only

  2. Epithelialization of mouse ovarian tumor cells originating in the fallopian tube stroma

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Choi, Pui-Wah; Trachtenberg, Alexander J.; Ng, Allen C.; Kuo, Winston P.; Ng, Shu-Kay; Dinulescu, Daniela M.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma accounts for 90% of all ovarian cancer and is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. Recent studies have suggested that fallopian tube fimbriae can be the origin of cells for high-grade serous subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). A mouse HGSOC model with conditional Dicer-Pten double knockout (Dicer-Pten DKO) developed primary tumors, intriguingly, from the fallopian tube stroma. We examined the growth and epithelial phenotypes of the Dicer-Pten DKO mouse tumor cells contributable by each gene knockout. Unlike human ovarian epithelial cancer cells that expressed full-length E-cadherin, the Dicer-Pten DKO stromal tumor cells expressed cleaved E-cadherin fragments and metalloproteinase 2, a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Although the Dicer-Pten DKO tumor cells lost the expression of mature microRNAs as expected, they showed high levels of tRNA fragment expression and enhanced AKT activation due to the loss of PTEN function. Introduction of a Dicer1-expressing construct into the DKO mouse tumor cells significantly reduced DNA synthesis and the cell growth rate, with concurrent diminished adhesion and ZO1 epithelial staining. Hence, it is likely that the loss of Dicer promoted mesenchymal-epithelial transition in fallopian tube stromal cells, and in conjunction with Pten loss, further promoted cell proliferation and epithelial-like tumorigenesis. PMID:27602775

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to an epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma: distinctive reactivity with xenografts of the original tumor and a cultured cell line.

    PubMed

    Baumal, R; Law, J; Buick, R N; Kahn, H; Yeger, H; Sheldon, K; Colgan, T; Marks, A

    1986-08-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (8C, 10B, M2A, and M2D) were produced against the human epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line, HEY. The affinity constants of binding of the mAb to cultured HEY cells were 8 X 10(8) M-1 (M2D) and 10(9) M-1 (8C and 10B). mAb 8C reacted with a major glycoprotein of Mr 90,000 on the surface of HEY cells. The four mAb differed from previously reported mAb to epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas on the basis of their reactivity with cultured ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines using a cell-binding radioimmunoassay, and their staining of cryostat sections of various human normal and tumor tissues using an immunoperoxidase reaction. All four mAb reacted with s.c. tumors derived by injecting cultured HEY cells into thymectomized CBA/CJ mice. However, only two of the four mAb (8C and 10B) also reacted with s.c. tumors of the original HEY xenograft from which the cultured cell line was derived. In addition, mAb 8C and 10B reacted by immunoperoxidase staining with 2 and 4 different cases, respectively, of 11 epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas examined. Cultured HEY cells were adapted to grow i.p. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice and the i.p. tumors retained their reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. These tumor-bearing mice offer a useful model system for studying the potential of mAb, especially 8C and 10B, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with peritoneal extension of epithelial ovarian adenocarcinomas.

  4. Molecular genetic evidence for unifocal origin of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and for minor clonal divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Abeln, E. C.; Kuipers-Dijkshoorn, N. J.; Berns, E. M.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Fleuren, G. J.; Cornelisse, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    Detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA flow cytometry (FCM) were used to trace the origin of bilateral ovarian cancer from 16 patients. From each tumour the DNA index (DI) and LOH patterns for chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 17, 18, 22 and X were determined with 36 microsatellite markers. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded as well as frozen specimens were used. Flow cytometric cell sorting was used to enrich tumour cells for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-driven LOH analysis. Analysis of the LOH data showed that in 12 of the 16 cases concordance was observed for all informative markers, namely retention of heterozygosity (ROH) or loss of identical alleles in both tumour samples. In four cases discordant LOH patterns were observed. In two cases the discordant LOH was found for one of the chromosomes tested while other LOH patterns clearly indicated a unifocal origin. This suggests limited clonal divergence. In the other two cases all LOH patterns were discordant, most likely indicating an independent origin. The number of chromosomes showing LOH ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison of DNA FCM and the LOH data showed that the latter technique has a higher sensitivity for the detection of a unifocal origin. In 14/16 cases evidence was found for a unifocal origin, while in two cases clonal divergence was found at LOH level and in two other cases clonal divergence at DNA ploidy level. In 12 cases the complete observed allelotype had developed before the formation of metastases, including the two cases showing a large DNA ploidy difference. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7577492

  5. Denileukin Diftitox Used in Treating Patients With Advanced Refractory Ovarian Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, or Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  6. Polyglutamate Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Ovarian mucinous epithelial neoplasm showing immunohistochemical pattern of lower gastrointestinal origin with stromal minor sex-cord elements: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Taeko; Nakagawa, Hitomi; Hachisuga, Toru

    2014-12-01

    •We report a case of an ovarian mucinous cystadenoma that exhibited extensive sex-cord differentiation.•The ovarian tumor coincided with a uterine endometrial carcinoma.•The immunohistochemical pattern of mucinous epithelium of the ovarian tumor was suggestive of lower gastrointestinal origin.

  8. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  9. Paclitaxel, Cisplatin, and Topotecan With or Without Filgrastim in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III or Stage IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  10. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  11. Cisplatin and Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-06

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  12. A6 in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-27

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  13. Dietary factors and epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shu, X. O.; Gao, Y. T.; Yuan, J. M.; Ziegler, R. G.; Brinton, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary data from a population-based case-control study of 172 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 172 controls were analysed. A significant (P less than 0.01) dose-response relationship was found between intake of fat from animal sources and risk of ovarian cancer, but plant fat was not associated. Although the effect of animal fat was confounded by education, an adjusted odds ratio of 1.8 persisted for those in the upper quartile compared to the lower quartile of consumption (P for trend = 0.03). After adjustment for animal fat intake, calorific and protein intake had minimal effects on risk. Total vegetables were found to be somewhat protective, but the mechanism of action was unclear. Weight, height and relative weight (weight/height2) were not related to risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:2757927

  14. Epithelial ovarian cancer: testing the 'androgens hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Catherine M; Green, Adèle C; Nagle, Christina M; Jordan, Susan J; Whiteman, David C; Bain, Christopher J; Webb, Penelope M

    2008-12-01

    In 1998, Risch proposed a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer relating to the role of androgens in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation. Although this hypothesis has been widely discussed, direct evidence to support it is scant. To address this issue, we have conducted a detailed analysis of factors possibly associated with high circulating levels of androgens, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hirsutism and acne (all clinically associated with hyperandrogenism) using the data collected in an Australia-wide, population-based case-control study. Cases aged 18-79 years with a new diagnosis of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (n=1276) or borderline malignant tumour (n=315) were identified through a network of clinics and cancer registries throughout Australia. Controls (n=1508) were selected from the National Electoral Roll. Women self-reported a history of PCOS, acne, hirsutism and also use of testosterone supplements or the androgenic medication Danazol. We found no evidence that a history of PCOS, acne or hirsutism was associated with ovarian cancer overall, or with specific subtypes, with the exception of serous borderline tumours that were positively associated with a history of PCOS (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0-6.1). Women who had ever used testosterone supplements had an increased risk of ovarian cancer (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.0); however, use of the androgenic medication Danazol did not increase risk (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.4-2.9). Overall, our results do not support the hypothesis that androgen-related disorders increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

  15. Targeted therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sameer; Odunsi, Kunle

    2005-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancies and overall survival for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poor. The majority of patients recur after initial treatment. A strategy for improving outcome is to minimise recurrence via targeted therapy in patients after front-line therapy, or more appropriately as consolidation therapy. EOC represents an attractive target because of the biology of the disease and that the bulk of disease occurs in the peritoneal cavity. To initiate targeted therapy, a candidate target must be identified. Innovative approaches via targeted therapy to control metastatic residual EOC are currently under investigation. The targets are molecules and pathways, on which cancer cells depend to proliferate, invade, metastasise and prevent apoptosis. Potential targeted therapies include: proapoptototic therapy, suicide gene therapy, signal transduction, antiangiogenesis, immunotherapy and cytokine therapy. The utilisation of these targets in the clinic demands carefully conducted, well-coordinated but discovery-oriented translational research in the form of clinical trials that can quickly assess alternative strategies or combination of strategies that could result in clinical benefit. Therefore, targeted therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, especially after complete response to standard regimens, represents a paradigm whose time has come to be nurtured.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Epithelial Ovarian Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    histological subtype of ovarian cancer and is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. The relationship between stage at presentation and survival in serous ...among and within stages of epithelial ovarian cancer , focusing on serous , mucinous and endometrioid subtypes (1-18 Months). a. Collections and...not serous or mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors. Cancer Res 58: 2095-2097, 1998. 7. Aikhionbare FO et al:.: Is cumulative frequency of mitochondrial

  17. Surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2016-10-20

    Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational. In recent years, there has been increasing use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery in patients with poor performance status, which is usually due to large volume ascites and/or large pleural effusions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the post-operative morbidity, but if the tumour responds well to the chemotherapy, the inflammatory response makes the surgery more difficult. Post-operative morbidity is generally tolerable, but increases in older patients, and in those having multiple, aggressive surgical procedures, such as bowel resection or diaphragmatic stripping. Primary cytoreductive surgery should be regarded as the gold standard for most patients until a test is developed which would allow the prediction of platinum resistance pre-operatively.

  18. Belinostat and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Carboplatin or Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  19. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-15

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  20. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-05

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line.

  1. Expression and Function of CD44 in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Joelle D.; Barbolina, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein, has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in women. Here, we review recent reports on the expression and function of CD44 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Further functional data for CD44 in peritoneal adhesion and metastatic progression and its association with stem cells is highlighted. Recent studies utilizing CD44 for therapeutic targeting are also discussed. PMID:26569327

  2. Elesclomol Sodium and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  3. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride or Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  5. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma. PMID

  6. EGEN-001 and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-11

    Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  7. Segregation analysis of epithelial ovarian cancer in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Auranen, A.; Iselius, L.

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is known to aggregate in families. The dominantly inherited ovarian cancer predisposing genes, BRCA1, BRCA2 and genes involved in the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome, have recently been identified. However, in the majority of families with more than one case of ovarian cancer, dominant inheritance cannot be recognized. We investigated familial clustering of epithelial ovarian cancer in a population-based sample of 663 Finnish ovarian cancer patients. A segregation analysis with the POINTER software was conducted on the 937 nuclear families from these 663 pedigrees. The major gene model was favoured, and the sporadic and multifactorial models were strongly rejected. In the studied population, the best fitting model was a recessive mode of inheritance, and 8% of ovarian cancer patients were estimated to be homozygous for the deleterious genotype. This evidence for recessively inherited ovarian cancer predisposition should be interpreted cautiously, as the analysis is subject to certain errors, which are discussed in the article. Results of this analysis, however, strongly emphasize the role of genetic factors in all familial aggregation of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:9652774

  8. Development of a syngeneic mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most cases of ovarian cancer are epithelial in origin and diagnosed at advanced stage when the cancer is widely disseminated in the peritoneal cavity. The objective of this study was to establish an immunocompetent syngeneic mouse model of disseminated epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) to facilitate laboratory-based studies of ovarian tumor biology and preclinical therapeutic strategies. Methods Individual lines of TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice were phenotypically characterized and backcrossed to inbred C57BL/6 mice. In addition to a previously described line of EOC-prone mice, two lines (TgMISIIR-TAg-Low) were isolated that express the oncogenic transgene, but have little or no susceptibility to tumor development. Independent murine ovarian carcinoma (MOVCAR) cell lines were established from the ascites of tumor-bearing C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice, characterized and tested for engraftment in the following recipient mice: 1) severe immunocompromised immunodeficient (SCID), 2) wild type C57BL/6, 3) oophorectomized tumor-prone C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and 4) non-tumor prone C57BL/6 TgMISIIR-TAg-Low transgenic. Lastly, MOVCAR cells transduced with a luciferase reporter were implanted in TgMISIIR-TAg-Low mice and in vivo tumor growth monitored by non-invasive optical imaging. Results Engraftment of MOVCAR cells by i.p. injection resulted in the development of disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis in SCID, but not wild type C57BL/6 mice. Oophorectomized tumor-prone TgMISIIR-TAg mice developed peritoneal carcinomas with high frequency, rendering them unsuitable as allograft recipients. Orthotopic or pseudo-orthotopic implantation of MOVCAR cells in TgMISIIR-TAg-Low mice resulted in the development of disseminated peritoneal tumors, frequently accompanied by the production of malignant ascites. Tumors arising in the engrafted mice bore histopathological resemblance to human high-grade serous EOC and exhibited a similar pattern of peritoneal

  9. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  10. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Autonomy of the epithelial phenotype in human ovarian surface epithelium: changes with neoplastic progression and with a family history of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dyck, H G; Hamilton, T C; Godwin, A K; Lynch, H T; Maines-Bandiera, S; Auersperg, N

    1996-12-20

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). In culture, OSE undergoes epithelio-mesenchymal conversion, an event mimicking a wound response, while ovarian carcinomas retain complex epithelial characteristics. To define the onset of this increased epithelial autonomy in ovarian neoplastic progression, we examined mesenchymal conversion in OSE from 25 women with no family histories (NFH-OSE) and 13 women with family histories (FH-OSE) of breast/ovarian cancer (including 8 with mutated BRCA1 or 17q linkage) and in 8 ovarian cancer lines. After 3-6 passages in monolayer culture, most NFH-OSE exhibited reduced keratin expression and high collagen type III expression. In contrast, keratin remained high but collagen expression was lower in p. 3-6 FH-OSE. This difference was lost in SV40-transformed lines, which all resembled FH-OSE. Most carcinoma lines remained epithelial and did not undergo mesenchymal conversion. In 3-dimensional (3-D) sponge culture, NFH-OSE cells dispersed and secreted abundant extracellular matrix (ECM). FH-OSE remained epithelial and did not secrete ECM. ECM production was also reduced in SV40-transformed lines. Carcinoma lines in 3-D formed epithelial cysts, aggregates and papillae and lacked ECM. Sponge contraction (a mesenchymal characteristic) was greater in NFH-OSE than in FH-OSE both before and after SV40 transformation and was absent in the cancer lines. Our results suggest that increased autonomy of epithelial characteristics is an early indicator of ovarian neoplastic progression and that phenotypic changes indicative of such autonomy are found already in overtly normal OSE from women with histories of familial breast/ovarian cancer.

  12. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab Compared to Docetaxel, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Carcinoma (Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  13. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced an intermediate tetraploid cell stage, before evolving to aneuploid (mainly near-tetraploid) cells. Using long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrated that tetraploid cells originally arose from cytokinesis failure of bipolar mitosis in diploid cells, and gave rise to aneuploid cells through chromosome mis-segregation during both bipolar and multipolar mitoses. Injection of the late passage aneuploid MOSECs resulted in tumor formation in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we reveal a pathway for the evolution of diploid to aneuploid MOSECs and elucidate a mechanism for the development of near-tetraploid ovarian cancer cells.

  14. Epithelial membrane protein 1 expression in ovarian serous tumors.

    PubMed

    Demirag, Guzin Gonullu; Kefeli, Mehmet; Kemal, Yasemin; Yucel, Idris

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the clinical significance of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) expression in ovarian serous tumors. A total of 84 cases of ovarian serous tumor (50 patients with malignant ovarian serous tumors and 34 patients with borderline and benign serous tumors) were retrospectively analyzed. Differences in the expression levels of EMP1 between the malignant and non-malignant tumor groups were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, the association between EMP1 expression and prognostic factors in malignant ovarian serous tumors was investigated. The expression levels of EMP1 were significantly reduced in all the 50 malignant ovarian serous tumors, compared with the 34 non-malignant ovarian serous tumors (P<0.000). Reduced expression of EMP1 was correlated with high grade (P=0.009) and stage (P<0.000) of malignant tumors. EMP1 expression was not observed to be correlated with any other investigated parameters, including surgery, type of operation and chemotherapy response (P>0.005). These results indicated that EMP1 may have a significant role as a negative regulator in ovarian serous tumors, and reduced EMP1 expression in serous tumors may be associated with increased disease severity.

  15. Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab And Adjuvant Intraperitoneal Carboplatin in Treating Patients Who Had Initial Debulking Surgery for Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-18

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  16. The detection, treatment, and biology of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is particularly insidious in nature. Its ability to go undetected until late stages coupled with its non-descript signs and symptoms make it the seventh leading cause of cancer related deaths in women. Additionally, the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and resistance to widely accepted chemotherapy regimens make ovarian cancer devastating to patients and families and frustrating to medical practitioners and researchers. Here, we provide an in-depth review of the theories describing the origin of ovarian cancer, molecular factors that influence its growth and development, and standard methods for detection and treatment. Special emphasis is focused on interactions between ovarian tumors and the innate and adaptive immune system and attempts that are currently underway to devise novel immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of ovarian tumors. PMID:20350313

  17. Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Mixed Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Robertson; Talhouk, Aline; Eshragh, Sima; Lau, Sherman; Cheung, Daphne; Chow, Christine; Le, Nhu; Cook, Linda S; Wilkinson, Nafisa; McDermott, Jacqueline; Singh, Naveena; Kommoss, Friedrich; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Kommoss, Stefan; Gilks, C Blake; Anglesio, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer consists of 5 major histotypes: high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), endometrioid carcinoma (EC), clear cell carcinoma (CCC), mucinous carcinoma (MC) and low-grade serous (LGSC). Each can have a broad spectrum of morphological appearances, and one histotype can closely mimic histopathological features more typical of another. Historically, there has been a relatively high frequency of mixed, defined by 2 or more distinct histotypes present based on routine histopathological assessment, histotype carcinoma diagnoses (3–11%), however recent immunohistochemical studies identifying histotype specific markers and allowing more refined histotype diagnoses suggests a much lower incidence. We reviewed hematoxylin and eosin stained slides from 871 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer and found the frequency of mixed carcinomas to be 1.7% when modern diagnostic criteria are applied. Through international collaboration, we established a cohort totaling 22 mixed epithelial ovarian cancers, consisting of 9 EC/CCC, 4 EC/LGSC, 3 HGSC/CCC, 2 CCC/MC and 4 other combinations. We interrogated the molecular differences between the different components of each case using immunohistochemistry, gene expression and hotspot sequencing analyses. Immunohistochemical data alone suggested 9 of the 22 cases were not mixed tumors as they presented a uniform immuno-phenotype throughout, and these cases most probably represent morphological mimicry and variation within tumors of a single histotype. Synthesis of molecular data further reduces the incidence of mixed carcinomas. Based on these results, true mixed carcinomas with both morphological and molecular support for the presence of more than one histotype within a given tumor represent less than 1% of epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID:26099008

  18. The role of surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cameán, María; Delgado-Sánchez, Elsa; Piñera, Antonio; Diestro, Maria Dolores; De Santiago, Javier; Zapardiel, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the standard management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is correct surgical staging and optimal tumour cytoreduction followed by platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy. Standard surgical staging consists of peritoneal washings, total hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, inspection of all abdominal organs and the peritoneal surface, biopsies of suspicious areas or randomised biopsies if they are not present, omentectomy and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. After this complete surgical staging, the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for ovarian cancer is applied to determine the management and prognosis of the patient. Complete tumour cytoreduction has shown an improvement in survival. There are some criteria to predict cytoreduction outcomes based on serum biomarkers levels, preoperative imaging techniques, and laparoscopic-based scores. Optimised patient selection for primary cytoreduction would determine patients who could benefit from an optimal cytoreduction and might benefit from interval surgery. The administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy after debulking surgery has shown an increase in progression-free survival and overall survival, especially in patients with no residual disease after surgery. It is considered that 3–17% of all epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) occur in young women that have not fulfilled their reproductive desires. In these patients, fertility-sparing surgery is a worthy option in early ovarian cancer. PMID:27594911

  19. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells for chemoresistant ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junli; Wang, Li; Chen, Hongmin; Hao, Jingli; Ni, Jie; Chang, Lei; Duan, Wei; Graham, Peter; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chemoresistance is the main challenge for the recurrent ovarian cancer therapy and responsible for treatment failure and unfavorable clinical outcome. Understanding mechanisms of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer would help to predict disease progression, develop new therapies and personalize systemic therapy. In the last decade, accumulating evidence demonstrates that epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells play important roles in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and metastasis. Treatment of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells holds promise for improving current ovarian cancer therapies and prolonging the survival of recurrent ovarian cancer patients in the future. In this review, we focus on the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer chemoresistance and explore the therapeutic implications for developing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells associated therapies for future ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27304054

  20. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  1. Characteristics of Long-Term Survivors of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Rosemary D.; Chen, Yingjia S.; Morris, Cyllene R.; Petersen, Megan; Leiserowitz, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristics associated with long-term survival forepithelial ovarian cancer patients using the California Cancer Registry. Methods A descriptive analysis of survival of all California residents diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1994 and 2001 was conducted using patients identified through the cancer registry with follow up through 2011. Characteristics of the patients who survived more than 10 years (long-term survivors) were compared to three other cohorts: patients who survived less than 2 years, those who survived at least 2 but no more than 5 years, and those who survived at least 5 but no more than 10 years. Results A total of 3,582 out of 11,541 (31% CI=30.2%, 31.8%) of the patients survived more than 10 years. Younger age, early stage, low-grade, and non-serous histology were significant predictors of long-term survival, but long-term survivors also included women with high-risk cancer. Conclusion Long-term survival is not unusual in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, even in those with high-risk disease. Many of the prognostic factors are well known, but it remains to be determined why some patients with advanced stage high-grade cancers survive longer than others with the same histology. These findings are important for patient counseling. PMID:26244529

  2. YY1 modulates taxane response in epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Noriomi; Huang, Zhiqing; Baba, Tsukasa; Lee, Paula S.; Barnett, Jason C.; Mori, Seiichi; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Gusberg, Alison H.; Whitaker, Regina S.; Gray, JoeW.; Fujii, Shingo; Berchuck, Andrew; Murphy, Susan K.

    2008-10-10

    The results of this study show that a high YY1 gene signature (characterized by coordinate elevated expression of transcription factor YY1 and putative YY1 target genes) within serous epithelial ovarian cancers is associated with enhanced response to taxane-based chemotherapy and improved survival. If confirmed in a prospective study, these results have important implications for the potential future use of individualized therapy in treating patients with ovarian cancer. Identification of the YY1 gene signature profile within a tumor prior to initiation of chemotherapy may provide valuable information about the anticipated response of these tumors to taxane-based drugs, leading to better informed decisions regarding chemotherapeutic choice. Survival of ovarian cancer patients is largely dictated by their response to chemotherapy, which depends on underlying molecular features of the malignancy. We previously identified YIN YANG 1 (YY1) as a gene whose expression is positively correlated with ovarian cancer survival. Herein we investigated the mechanistic basis of this association. Epigenetic and genetic characteristics of YY1 in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) were analyzed along with YY1 mRNA and protein. Patterns of gene expression in primary SEOC and in the NCI60 database were investigated using computational methods. YY1 function and modulation of chemotherapeutic response in vitro was studied using siRNA knockdown. Microarray analysis showed strong positive correlation between expression of YY1 and genes with YY1 and transcription factor E2F binding motifs in SEOC and in the NCI60 cancer cell lines. Clustering of microarray data for these genes revealed that high YY1/E2F3 activity positively correlates with survival of patients treated with the microtubule stabilizing drug paclitaxel. Increased sensitivity to taxanes, but not to DNA crosslinking platinum agents, was also characteristic of NCI60 cancer cell lines with a high YY1/E2F signature. YY1

  3. Epithelial ovarian cancer in pregnancy: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J; Vatish, M; Tidy, J

    2009-03-01

    Maternal epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is rare, and consequently, management strategies remain unclear due to the low incidence and paucity of reported data. Management depends on gestation, disease stage, future fertility desires, and the mother's wishes to continue pregnancy. Forty-one cases of maternal EOC were identified in the literature. Reporting of clinicopathological variables, treatment regimens, and follow up varied markedly. There are currently no definitive guidelines regarding the management of maternal EOC. Case reporting should contain detailed information on clinicopathological variables, treatment regimens, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Data centralisation may be beneficial in identifying optimal management strategies in these rare tumours.

  4. The Association between Endometriosis, Tubal Ligation, Hysterectomy and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunpeng; Liang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between endometriosis, tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer. Relevant published literatures were searched in PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science and Medline databases during 1995–2016. Heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 statistic. Publication bias was tested by funnel plot and Egger’s test. Odds ratio and 95% CI were used to assess the association strength. The statistical analyses in this study were accomplished by STATA software package. A total of 40,609 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer and 368,452 controls in 38 publications were included. The result suggested that endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.28–1.57), tubal ligation was associated with a decreased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.60–0.81), while hysterectomy show no relationship with epithelial ovarian cancer (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.81–1.14). A stratified analysis showed there were associations between endometriosis and the increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer for studies conducted in USA and Europe. Meanwhile, there were associations between tubal ligation and the decreased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer for studies conducted in USA, Asia, Europe and Australia. The result indicated that endometriosis was a risk factor of epithelial ovarian cancer whereas tubal ligation was a protective risk factor of epithelial ovarian cancer, hysterectomy may have no relationship with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:27854255

  5. The ascites N-glycome of epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Biskup, Karina; Braicu, Elena I; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2017-03-22

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is worldwide the sixth most lethal form of cancer occurring in women. More than one third of ovarian patients have ascites at the time of diagnosis and almost all of them have it when recurrence occurs. Although its effect on tumor cell microenvironment remains poorly understood, its presence is correlated with bad diagnosis. In previous studies, we proposed a novel glycan-based biomarker for the diagnosis of EOC, which showed an improved sensitivity and specificity at any stage of the disease and an improved discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. In this work, we report for the first time the N-glycome profiles of ascitic fluid from primary serous EOC patients and compare them with the serum N-glycomes of the same patients as well as of healthy controls. N-Glycans were digested from equivalent amount of ascites and serum from 18 EOC patients and from serum of 20 age-matched controls and measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. Ascites N-glycome showed increased antennarity, branching, sialylation and Lewis(X) motives compared to healthy serum. In addition, a correlation was established between ascites volume and degree of sialylation.

  6. Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy used to discriminate epithelial ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, J.; Pelegati, V. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Almeida, D. B.; Bottcher-Luiz, F.; Andrade, L. A. L. A.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-07-01

    We used human specimens of epithelial ovarian cancer (serous type) to test the feasibility of nonlinear imaging as complementary tools for ovarian cancer diagnosis. Classical hematoxylin-and-eosin stained sections were applied to combining two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), second (SHG), and third (THG) harmonic microscopy within the same imaging platform. We show that strong TPEF + SHG + THG signals can be obtained in fixed samples stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) stored for a very long time and that H&E staining enhanced the THG signal. We demonstrate using anisotropy and morphological measurements, that SHG and THG of stained optical sections allow reproducible identification of neoplastic features such as architectural alterations of collagen fibrils at different stages of the neoplastic transformation and cellular atypia. Taken together, these results suggest that, with our viable imaging system, we can qualitatively and quantitatively assess endogenous optical biomarkers of the ovarian tissue with SHG and THG microscopy. This imaging capability may prove to be highly valuable in aiding to determine structural changes at the cellular and tissue levels, which may contribute to the development of new diagnostic techniques.

  7. Kindlin-2 inhibits serous epithelial ovarian cancer peritoneal dissemination and predicts patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Caixia; Du, Juan; Xi, Chenguang; Yu, Yu; Hu, Ajin; Zhan, Jun; Guo, Hongyan; Fang, Weigang; Liu, Congrong; Zhang, Hongquan

    2014-03-28

    Kindlin-2 has been known to promote most cancer progression through regulation of multiple signaling pathways. However, a novel tumor suppressive role of Kindlin-2 was identified in serous epithelial ovarian cancer progression, which sharply contrasts to the tumor promoting roles for Kindlin-2 in most other cancers. While we demonstrated that Kindlin-2 was highly expressed in control tissues, a drastic low expression of Kindlin-2 was found in the tumor tissues of serous epithelial ovarian cancer, especially in the high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Importantly, Kindlin-2 inhibited serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell peritoneal dissemination in a mouse model. For clinical relevance, low Kindlin-2 expression correlated with higher tumor grade and older patients. Intriguingly, decreased Kindlin-2 expression predicts poor overall and progression-free survivals in serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Mechanistically, Kindlin-2 induced a mesenchymal to epithelial transition in serous epithelial ovarian cancer cells, at least in part, by up-regulation of estrogen receptor α which was recruited to the promoter of E-cadherin and thereby enhanced the transcription of E-cadherin. Collectively, we concluded that inadequate Kindlin-2 is an independent risk factor for serous epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

  8. The immunomodulating roles of glycoproteins in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Manish S.; Gubbels, Jennifer A.A.; Felder, Mildred; Connor, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the immune system demands an intricate defense mechanism by tumors. Ovarian and other tumors employ specific glycoproteins and the associated glycan sequences to modulate immune responses. Glycoproteins enable tumor cells that express or secrete these molecules to evade immune cell attack and induce the immune system to promote tumor growth. This review focuses first on the immune environment in ovarian cancer, and the mechanisms of activation and inhibition that immune cells undergo in order to either attack or ignore a target cell. Next we illustrate the immunomodulatory roles of ovarian cancer-associated glycans and glycoproteins in 1. preventing immune synapse formation, 2. serving as ligands of immune cell receptors, 3. scavenging cytokines and chemokines, and 4. participating in the formation of autoantibodies against the tumor. The importance of these immunomodulating strategies from the view points of understanding the tumor immunology of ovarian tumors, potential origin of such mechanisms, and specific strategies to circumvent the glycoconjugate-mediated suppression of immune responses is discussed in this review. PMID:22201900

  9. Hypodontia phenotype in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fekonja, Anita; Cretnik, Andrej; Zerdoner, Danijel; Takac, Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage and the present clinical and diagnostic molecular markers for early OC screening are insufficient. The aim of this study was to identify potential relationship between the hypodontia and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted on 120 patients with EOC treated at the Department of Gynaecologic and Breast Oncology at the University Clinical Centre and 120 gynaecological healthy women (control group) of the same mean age. Women in both groups were reviewed for the presence of hypodontia and the patients with EOC also for clinicopathological characteristics of EOC according to hypodontia phenotype. Results Hypodontia was diagnosed in 23 (19.2%) of patients with EOC and 8 (6.7%) controls (p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 3.32; confidence interval [CI], 1.42–7.76). There was no statistically significant difference in patients with EOC with or without hypodontia regarding histological subtype (p = 0.220); they differed in regard to FIGO stage (p = 0.014; OR =3.26; CI, 1.23–8.64) and tumour differentiation grade (p = 0.042; OR = 3.1; CI, 1.01–9.53). Also, bilateral occurrence of EOC was more common than unilateral occurrence in women with hypodontia (p = 0.021; OR = 2.9; CI, 1.15–7.36). We also found statistically significant difference between the ovarian cancer group and control group in presence of other malignant tumours in subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results of the study suggest a statistical association between EOC and hypodontia phenotype. Hypodontia might serve as a risk factor for EOC detection. PMID:25810703

  10. Expression of HPIP in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuping; Meng, Fanling; Liu, Yunduo; Chen, Xiuwei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hematopoietic pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor (PBX)-interacting protein (HPIP) plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of HPIP in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Patients and methods Immunohistochemical method was performed using 42 normal ovarian specimens and 145 specimens with EOC. The correlations of HPIP expression with the clinicopathological factors and prognosis of EOC patients were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, multivariate Cox proportional hazard, and Kaplan–Meier method. Results HPIP expression in EOC was higher than that in normal tissues (P<0.001). HPIP expression was significantly associated with histological grade, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, and lymphatic metastasis of EOC (P<0.05). Patients with high HPIP expression had poorer overall survival and disease-free survival (P<0.001) compared with patients with low HPIP expression. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that HPIP was an independent factor for overall survival and disease-free survival (P<0.05). Conclusion HPIP may be a valuable biomarker for predicting the prognosis of EOC patients and may serve as a potential target for cancer therapy. PMID:28053543

  11. Peritoneal inflammation – A microenvironment for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Ralph S; Deavers, Michael; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Ena

    2004-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a significant cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality in women. Preferential involvement of peritoneal structures contributes to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients. Advances in biotechnology, such as cDNA microarray, are a product of the Human Genome Project and are beginning to provide fresh opportunities to understand the biology of EOC. In particular, it is now possible to examine in depth, at the molecular level, the complex relationship between the tumor itself and its surrounding microenvironment. This review focuses on the anatomy, physiology, and current immunobiologic research of peritoneal structures, and addresses certain potentially useful animal models. Changes in both the inflammatory and non-inflammatory cell compartments, as well as alterations to the extracellular matrix, appear to be signal events that contribute to the remodeling effects of the peritoneal stroma and surface epithelial cells on tumor growth and spread. These alterations may involve a number of proteins, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, either membrane or non-membrane bound, and integrins. Interactions between these molecules and molecular structures within the extracellular matrix, such as collagens and the proteoglycans, may contribute to a peritoneal mesothelial surface and stromal environment that is conducive to tumor cell proliferation and invasion. These alterations need to be examined and defined as possible prosnosticators and as therapeutic or diagnostic targets. PMID:15219235

  12. S1P differentially regulates migration of human ovarian cancer and human ovarian surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhenwen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Yang, Gong; Mok, Samuel C.; Liu, Jinsong; Bigsby, Robert M.; Xu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the epithelial layer covering the surface of ovaries and intra-peritoneal metastasis is commonly observed at diagnosis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid signaling molecule, is potentially involved in EOC tumorigenesis. We have found that S1P is elevated in human EOC ascites. We show that physiologically relevant concentrations of S1P stimulate migration and invasion of EOC cells, but inhibit migration of human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. In addition, S1P inhibits lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration in HOSE, but not in EOC cells. We have provided the first line of evidence that the expression levels of S1P receptor subtypes are not the only determinants for how cells respond to S1P. Even though S1P1 is expressed and functional in HOSE cells, the inhibitory effect mediated by S1P2 is dominant in those cells. The cellular pre-existing stress fibers are also important determinants for the migratory response to S1P. Differential S1P-induced morphology changes are noted in EOC and HOSE cells. Pre-existing stress fibers in HOSE cells are further enhanced by S1P treatment, resulting in the negative migratory response to S1P. By contrast, EOC cells lost stress fibers and S1P treatment induces filopodium-like structures at cell edges, which correlates with increased cell motility. In addition, inhibition of the protein kinase C pathway is likely to be involved in the inhibitory effect of S1P on LPA-induced cell migration in HOSE cells. These findings are important for the development of new therapeutics targeting S1P and LPA in EOC. PMID:18645009

  13. NANOG regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance through activation of the STAT3 pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suqing; Sun, Jing; Cai, Bin; Xi, Xiaowei; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Sun, Yunyan

    2016-07-01

    NANOG is a key transcription factor that is overexpressed and plays an important role in various cancers. Its overexpression is associated with highly tumorigenic, drug-resistant, and poor prognosis. However, the underlying mechanism of action of NANOG in ovarian cancer remains unclear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical process in cancer invasion and metastasis, is also associated with drug resistance. We determined whether NANOG is associated with EMT and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. NANOG expression was increased in epithelial ovarian cancer cells (HEY and SKOV3) compared with normal epithelial ovarian cells (Moody). Low expression of NANOG increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expression of vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Furthermore, the cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. The multidrug resistance genes MDR-1 and GST-π were also downregulated when NANOG was lowly expressed. The cells that were transfected with the si-NANOG plasmid were more sensitive to cisplatin compared with the cells that were transfected with empty vector. The data demonstrated that Stat3 was correlated with NANOG-mediated EMT and drug resistance. The silencing of Stat3 expression abrogated NANOG-mediated EMT changes and increased the sensitivity of the cells to chemotherapy. These results suggest that NANOG mediates EMT and drug resistance through activation of the Stat3 pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. Bevacizumab and Intravenous or Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-21

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Burghaus, Stefanie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Antonenkova, Natalia; Butzow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Edwards, Robert P; Kelley, Joseph L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Cannioto, Rikki; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Jensen, Allan; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Dong; Lu, Karen H; Wu, Xifeng; Bisogna, Maria; Dao, Fanny; Levine, Douglas A; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Stampfer, Meir; Missmer, Stacey; Bjorge, Line; Salvesen, Helga B; Kopperud, Reidun K; Bischof, Katharina; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Olson, Sara H; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Blake Gilks, C; Gronwald, Jacek; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan; Kluz, Tomasz; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise; Trabert, Britton; Lissowska, Jolanta; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Timorek, Agnieszka; Szafron, Lukasz; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Bandera, Elisa V; Poole, Elizabeth M; Morgan, Terry K; Goode, Ellen L; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D P; Webb, Penelope M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Risch, Harvey A; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recent studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium genotyped in the iCOGS array (211,155 SNPs). We estimate the array heritability (attributable to variants tagged on arrays) of each subtype and their genetic correlations. We also look for genetic overlaps with factors such as obesity, smoking behaviors, diabetes, age at menarche and height. We estimated the array heritabilities of high-grade serous disease ([Formula: see text] = 8.8 ± 1.1 %), endometrioid ([Formula: see text] = 3.2 ± 1.6 %), clear cell ([Formula: see text] = 6.7 ± 3.3 %) and all EOC ([Formula: see text] = 5.6 ± 0.6 %). Known associated loci contributed approximately 40 % of the total array heritability for each subtype. The contribution of each chromosome to the total heritability was not proportional to chromosome size. Through bivariate and cross-trait LD score regression, we found evidence of shared genetic backgrounds between the three high-grade subtypes: serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated. Finally, we found significant genetic correlations of all EOC with diabetes and obesity using a polygenic prediction approach.

  16. LncRNAs expression profiling in normal ovary, benign ovarian cyst and malignant epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Fu, Ziyi; Dai, Chencheng; Cao, Jian; Liu, Xiaoguang; Xu, Juan; Lv, Mingming; Gu, Yun; Zhang, Jingmin; Hua, Xiangdong; Jia, Genmei; Xu, Sujuan; Jia, Xuemei; Xu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) has been recognized as a regulator of gene expression, and the dysregulation of lncRNAs is involved in the progression of many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To explore the potential roles of lncRNAs in EOC, we performed lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiling in malignant EOC, benign ovarian cyst and healthy control tissues. In this study, 663 transcripts of lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in malignant EOC compared with benign and normal control tissues. We also selected 18 altered lncRNAs to confirm the validity of the microarray analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses demonstrated that these altered transcripts were involved in multiple biological processes, especially the cell cycle. Furthermore, Series Test of Cluster (STC) and lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network analyses were conducted to predict lncRNA expression trends and the potential target genes of lncRNAs. We also determined that two antisense lncRNAs (RP11-597D13.9 and ADAMTS9-AS1) were associated with their nearby coding genes (FAM198B, ADAMTS9), which participated in cancer progression. This study offers helpful information to understand the initiation and development mechanisms of EOC. PMID:27941916

  17. The Serum Glycome to Discriminate between Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Benign Ovarian Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Braicu, Elena Iona; Sehouli, Jalid; Tauber, Rudolf; Blanchard, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the sixth most common cause of cancer deaths in women because the diagnosis occurs mostly when the disease is in its late-stage. Current diagnostic methods of EOC show only a moderate sensitivity, especially at an early-stage of the disease; hence, novel biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnosis. We recently reported that serum glycome modifications observed in late-stage EOC patients by MALDI-TOF-MS could be combined as a glycan score named GLYCOV that was calculated from the relative areas of the 11 N-glycan structures that were significantly modulated. Here, we evaluated the ability of GLYCOV to recognize early-stage EOC in a cohort of 73 individuals comprised of 20 early-stage primary serous EOC, 20 benign ovarian diseases (BOD), and 33 age-matched healthy controls. GLYCOV was able to recognize stage I EOC whereas CA125 values were statistically significant only for stage II EOC patients. In addition, GLYCOV was more sensitive and specific compared to CA125 in distinguishing early-stage EOC from BOD patients, which is of high relevance to clinicians as it is difficult for them to diagnose malignancy prior to operation. PMID:25183900

  18. Upregulated CTHRC1 promotes human epithelial ovarian cancer invasion through activating EGFR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Chen, Wei; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Jin-Hui; Fei, He; Zhang, Li-Wen; Wang, Ya-Hui; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the major cause of deaths from gynecologic malignancies, and metastasis is the main cause of cancer related death. Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein that has the ability to inhibit collagen matrix synthesis. In this study, we found that high CTHRC1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of EOC. In vitro experiments showed that CTHRC1 promoted migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. CTHRC1 had no effect on ovarian cancer cells viability. Additionally, EGFR inhibitors reduced the promotion effects of CTHRC1 on EOC cell invasion. After silencing of CTHRC1, downregulated expression of phosphorylation of EGFR/ERK1/2/AKT was observed in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest a role for CTHRC1 in the progression of ovarian cancer and identified CTHRC1 as a potentially important predictor for human ovarian cancer prognosis.

  19. The Origin of Epithelial Neoplasms of the Ovary: An Alternative View.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elvio G

    2016-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin of epithelial neoplasms of the ovary. However, most of them did not receive serious consideration until recently when it has been proposed that most ovarian neoplasms arise from the fallopian tube. In this review, we mention the different theories, we discuss in detail the fallopian tube theory, and the reasons why this theory is probably inaccurate. We are also proposing a new theory, the fere ex nihilo, based on the observation of numerous cases, old and new concept, and experimental works with animals. We believe that, most probably, ovarian epithelial neoplasms are related to hormones and the identification of these hormones will allow us not only to diagnose and treat these lethal neoplasms, but also to prevent them.

  20. Ovarian tumour growth is characterized by mevalonate pathway gene signature in an orthotopic, syngeneic model of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greenaway, James B.; Virtanen, Carl; Osz, Kata; Revay, Tamas; Hardy, Daniel; Shepherd, Trevor; DiMattia, Gabriel; Petrik, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer and often is not detected until late stages when cancer cells transcoelomically metastasize to the abdomen and typically become resistant to therapy resulting in very low survival rates. We utilize an orthotopic, syngeneic mouse model to study late stage disease and have discovered that the tumor cells within the abdominal ascites are irreversibly re-programmed, with an increased tumorigenicity and resistance to apoptosis. The goal of this study was to characterize the reprogramming that occurred in the aggressive ascites-derived cells (28-2 cells) compared to the original cell line used for tumor induction (ID8 cells). Microarray experiments showed that the majority of genes upregulated in the 28-2 cells belonged to the mevalonate pathway, which is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation, and activation of small GTPases. Upregulation of mevalonate appeared to be associated with the acquisition of a p53 mutation in the ascites-derived cells. Treatment with simvastatin to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme of this pathway, induced apoptosis in the 28-2 cell line. Rescue experiments revealed that mevalonate, but not cholesterol, could inhibit the simvastatin-mediated effects. In vivo, daily intraperitoneal simvastatin treatment significantly regressed advanced stage disease and induced death of metastatic tumor cells. These data suggest that ovarian cancer cells become reprogrammed, with genetic mutations, and upregulation of the mevalonate pathway, which facilitates the development of advanced stage disease. The use of statins to inhibit HMGCR may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of advanced stage EOC. PMID:27329838

  1. Sirolimus and Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  2. Effect of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on epithelial mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    As the primary female sex steroid hormones, estrogens and progesterone play important roles to regulate growth, differentiation, and function of a broad range of target tissues in the human body and maintain the function of female reproductive tissues. Ovarian cancer is the most cause of cancer death in gynecological malignancy. Despite enormous outcomes in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathology, this disease has resulted in poor survival rates since most patients are asymptomatic until the disease has been metastasized. The exact molecular events leading to metastasis of ovarian tumor cells have not yet been well elucidated, although it is recognized that the acquisition of capacity for migration and invasiveness would be a necessary prerequisite. During metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process, in which epithelial cells lose their intracellular adhesion and cell polarity and acquire increased motility and invasive properties to become mesenchymal like cells. The process of cancer cells to undergo EMT is regulated through the up- and down- regulation of a multiple cellular markers and signaling proteins. In this review, we focused the roles of women sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in ovarian cancer, especially the ovarian cancer undergoing EMT and metastatic process. All things considered, we may suggest that progesterone is a potent hormone which inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells and development to metastasis whereas estrogen may act as a risk factor of ovarian cancer progression and that progesterone therapy may be an alternative clinically effective tool for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  3. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC.

  4. Expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 transcript variants and CXCR7 in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaszczynska-Nowinka, Karolina; Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Markowska, Anna; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2014-05-01

    Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, have been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. However, limited data are available on the expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 variants and CXCR7 in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the expression pattern and levels of SDF-1, CXCR4 and CXCR7 in normal human ovaries and epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 transcript variants and CXCR7 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasma SDF-1α levels were determined by commercially available EIA kits and cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels were quantified by automated microparticle enzyme immunosorbent assay. High expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variant 1 were identified in ovarian cancer and control ovaries. By contrast, in both groups the expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variants 3 and 4 were extremely low. Furthermore, SDF-1 variant 1 levels were notably higher in epithelial ovarian cancer than in control ovaries, while data for the remaining transcripts were similar in both groups. CXCR4 transcript variant 2 and CXCR7 expression levels in normal and neoplastic ovaries were similar. In both groups, CXCR4 transcript variant 2 was not detected. Plasma SDF-1α levels were notably higher in females with epithelial ovarian cancer than in the control ovaries. Elevated levels of blood SDF-1α were found prior to surgery, 6 days after surgery and following completion of the first chemotherapy course. These increases were independent of the type of epithelial ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that the expression of SDF-1 and the genes controlling alternative splicing are elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer, leading to an increased formation of SDF-1 variant 1. Elevated plasma SDF-1α levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients are not associated with the presence of tumors and/or metastases, however reflect a

  5. PDCD6 is an independent predictor of progression free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6) beside its known proapoptotic functions may be a player in survival pathways in cancer. The purpose of this study is to further explore the roles of PDCD6 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Lentiviral vector with shRNA for PDCD6 was used to investigate the effects of PDCD6 knockdown on cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and motility in ovarian cancer cells. Two hundred twelve epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of PDCD6 using RT-PCR. Associations of its expression with clinical pathological factors, progression free and overall survival were evaluated. Results PDCD6 is highly expressed in metastatic ovarian cancer cells and positively regulates cell migration and invasion. Significantly, the level of PDCD6 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer correlates with clinical progression. Patients with medium or high levels of PDCD6 mRNA were at higher risk for disease progression, compared to those with low levels (HR, 1.29; P = 0.024 for medium levels; and HR, 1.57; P = 0.045 for high levels) after adjusting for age, disease stage, tumor grade, histologic type and residual tumor size. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated similar results. However, no association was found between PDCD6 expression and overall survival. Conclusions PDCD6 seems to play an important role in ovarian cancer progression and it may be an independent predictor of progression free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PDCD6 involve in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:22369209

  6. Loss of E-cadherin disrupts ovarian epithelial inclusion cyst formation and collective cell movement in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Pui-Wah; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Feltmate, Colleen; Muto, Michael G.; Hasselblatt, Kathleen; Lafferty-Whyte, Kyle; JeBailey, Lellean; MacConaill, Laura; Welch, William R.; Fong, Wing-Ping; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Increased inclusion cyst formation in the ovary is associated with ovarian cancer development. We employed in vitro three-dimensional (3D) organotypic models formed by normal human ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells and ovarian cancer cells to study the morphologies of normal and cancerous ovarian cortical inclusion cysts and the molecular changes during their transitions into stromal microenvironment. When compared with normal cysts that expressed tenascin, the cancerous cysts expressed high levels of laminin V and demonstrated polarized structures in Matrigel; and the cancer cells migrated collectively when the cyst structures were positioned in a stromal-like collagen I matrix. The molecular markers identified in the in vitro 3D models were verified in clinical samples. Network analysis of gene expression of the 3D structures indicates concurrent downregulation of transforming growth factor beta pathway genes and high levels of E-cadherin and microRNA200 (miR200) expression in the cancerous cysts and the migrating cancer cells. Transient silencing of E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer cells disrupted cyst structures and inhibited collective cell migration. Taken together, our studies employing 3D models have shown that E-cadherin is crucial for ovarian inclusion cyst formation and collective cancer cell migration. PMID:26684027

  7. Spy1 participates in the proliferation and apoptosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shumin; Liu, Rong; Su, Min; Wei, Yingze; Yang, Shuyun; He, Song; Wang, Xia; Qiang, Fulin; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Shuyang; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Pan; Mao, Guoxin

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on determining the role of Spy1 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Speedy is a novel cell cycle protein capable of promoting cell proliferation. In this study, western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses were performed to detect the expression of Spy1 in ovarian cancer. Spy1 protein levels increased with ovarian cancer grade, and Kaplan-Meier curve showed that overexpression of Spy1 was significantly correlated with reduced patient survival. In vitro, Spy1 depletion in ovarian cell lines led to reduced proliferation according to CCK8 and plate colony assays. The expression of Spy1 was positively related to pThr187-p27. Flow cytometry revealed that the reduced expression of Spy1 induced the apoptosis of the EOC cells. In summary, our findings suggested that Spy1 may be a novel independent prognostic predictor of survival for ovarian patients.

  8. The Extracellular Matrix in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer – A Piece of a Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Angela; Howell, Viive M.; Colvin, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women and the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an integral component of both the normal and tumor microenvironment. ECM composition varies between tissues and is crucial for maintaining normal function and homeostasis. Dysregulation and aberrant deposition or loss of ECM components is implicated in ovarian cancer progression. The mechanisms by which tumor cells induce ECM remodeling to promote a malignant phenotype are yet to be elucidated. A thorough understanding of the role of the ECM in ovarian cancer is needed for the development of effective biomarkers and new therapies. PMID:26579497

  9. DNA methylation changes in epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Cunningham, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    Survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer has not improved, and despite histological differences, treatment is similar for all cases. Understanding the molecular basis for ovarian cancer risk and prognosis is fundamental, and to this end much has been gleaned about genetic changes contributing to risk, and to a lesser extent, survival. There’s considerable evidence for genetic differences between the four pathologically defined histological subtypes; however, the contribution of epigenetics is less well documented. In this report, we review alterations in DNA methylation in ovarian cancer, focusing on histological subtypes, and studies examining the roles of methylation in determining therapy response. As epigenetics is making its way into clinical care, we review the application of cell free DNA methylation to ovarian cancer diagnosis and care. Finally, we comment on recurrent limitations in the DNA methylation literature for ovarian cancer, which can and should be addressed to mature this field. PMID:26363302

  10. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-19

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  11. The essential roles of CCR7 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by hypoxia in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Han, Lin; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Jianfang; Yang, Xiangshan

    2014-12-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19/21 mediate the tumor mobility, invasion, and metastasis (Wu et al. Curr Pharm Des. 15:742-57, 2009). Hypoxia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to facilitate the tumor biology. Here, we addressed the roles of CCR7 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and hypoxia-induced serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) EMT. The expression level of CCR7 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of hypoxia-induced CCR7, HIF-1α, and EMT markers (N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-9). In addition, wound healing and Transwell assay were introduced to observe the capacity of migration and invasiveness. Our data showed CCR7 expression was observed in 22 cases of tissues and closely associated with lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage (III + IV). At 6, 12, 24, and 36 h following hypoxia, CCR7 and HIF-1α proteins were both obviously upregulated in a time-dependent method, compared with normal oxygen. In vitro, SKOV-3 expressed N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 once either CCL21 stimulation or hypoxia induction, while hypoxia accompanied with CCL21 induction exhibited strongest upregulation of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides, wound healing and Transwell assay further identified that hypoxia with CCL21 stimulation can remarkably promote cell migration and invasiveness. Taken together, CCR7 can constitutively express in epithelial ovarian carcinomas and be induced rapidly in response to hypoxia, which indeed participates in EMT development and prompts the cell migration and invasion. Thus, this study suggested that the epithelial ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis can be inhibited by antagonizing CCR7.

  12. Hemodynamic Consequences of Malignant Ascites in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Surgery∗

    PubMed Central

    Hunsicker, Oliver; Fotopoulou, Christina; Pietzner, Klaus; Koch, Mandy; Krannich, Alexander; Sehouli, Jalid; Spies, Claudia; Feldheiser, Aarne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant ascites (MA) is most commonly observed in patients scheduled for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery and is supposed as a major risk factor promoting perioperative hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to assess the hemodynamic consequences of MA on systemic circulation in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. This study is a predefined post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled pilot trial comparing intravenous solutions within a goal-directed algorithm to optimize hemodynamic therapy in patients undergoing cytoreductive EOC surgery. Ascites was used to stratify the EOC patients prior to randomization in the main study. We analyzed 2 groups according to the amount of ascites (NLAS: none or low ascites [<500 mL] vs HAS: high ascites group [>500 mL]). Differences in hemodynamic variables with respect to time were analyzed using nonparametric analysis for longitudinal data and multivariate generalized estimating equation adjusting the analysis for the randomized study groups of the main study. A total of 31 patients in the NLAS and 16 patients in the HAS group were analyzed. Although cardiac output was not different between groups suggesting a similar circulatory blood flow, the HAS group revealed higher heart rates and lower stroke volumes during surgery. There were no differences in pressure-based hemodynamic variables. In the HAS group, fluid demands, reflected by the time to reindication of a fluid challenge after preload optimization, increased steadily, whereas stroke volume could not be maintained at baseline resulting in hemodynamic instability after 1.5 h of surgery. In contrast, in the NLAS group fluid demands were stable and stroke volume could be maintained during surgery. Clinically relevant associations of the type of fluid replacement with hemodynamic consequences were particularly observed in the HAS group, in which transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was associated to an improved circulatory flow and reduced

  13. Origin and molecular pathogenesis of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurman, R J

    2013-12-01

    A new paradigm for the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer has recently been proposed which helps to explain persistent problems in describing the development and diverse morphology of these neoplasms. The paradigm incorporates recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of epithelial 'ovarian' cancer with new insights into the origin of these tumors. Correlated clinicopathologic and molecular genetic studies led to the development of a dualistic model that divides all the various histologic types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas into two broad categories designated 'type I' and 'type II'. The prototypic type I tumor is low-grade serous carcinoma and the prototypic type II tumor is high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). As the serous tumors comprise ∼70% of all epithelial ovarian tumors and account for the majority of deaths, the serous tumors will be the subject of this review. There are marked differences between the low-grade and high-grade serous tumors. Briefly, the former are indolent, present in stage I (tumor confined to the ovary) and develop from well-established precursors, so-called 'atypical proliferative (borderline) tumors,' which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF and ERBB2; they are relatively genetically stable. In contrast, HGSCs are aggressive, present in the advanced stage, and develop from intraepithelial carcinomas in the fallopian tube. They harbor TP53 mutations in over 95% of cases, but rarely harbor the mutations detected in the low-grade serous tumors. At the time of diagnosis they demonstrate marked chromosomal aberrations but over the course of the disease these changes remain relatively stable. Along with the recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, studies have demonstrated that the long sought for precursor of ovarian HGSC appears to develop from an occult intraepithelial carcinoma in the fimbrial region of the fallopian tube designated 'serous tubal

  14. [Polycystic ovary syndrome of extra-ovarian origin. Review].

    PubMed

    Terán Dávila, J; Teppa-Garrán, A D

    2001-03-01

    An established fact in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS) is an abnormal ovarian steroidogenesis. Though this suggest an intrinsic ovarian defect, the syndrome could also be influenced by factors outside the ovaries. Although of unknown etiology, the POS is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders in the gynecologic practice. The disorder is characterized by ultrasound findings of enlarged polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders, obesity and including the appearance of infertility. There are a series of mechanisms involved in the extraovarian androgen increase in patients with POS. Among these mechanisms are implicated those of central and peripheral origin, genetic factors and adrenocortical dysfunction. In the same way, the alterations produced could imply genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, physiological and endocrinological factors. Sometimes all these factors could interact at the same time. The high serum androgen level could stop the pituitary gonadotropin production, either as a direct mechanism or as a result of its peripheral conversion. The increased androgens also explain the manifestations of clinical acne, hirsutism, and the detention in follicular ovarian maturation. All these manifestations are related with the menstrual disorders, anovulation, and infertility that these patients develop. The characteristics of the extraovarian POS include the 17-hydroxyprogesterone elevation in response to the ACTH test and the dexamethasone suppression of adrenal androgens. It is possible to improve the ovarian function in some patients with POS. This could be achieved with clomiphene citrate associated with glucocorticoids to induce ovulation.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Veronica; Hirshfield, Kim M.; Ganesan, Shridar; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple histological subtypes. Molecular diversity has been shown to occur within specific histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, between different tumors of an individual patient, as well as within individual tumors. Recent advances in the molecular characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer tumors have provided the basis for a simplified classification scheme in which these cancers are classified as either type I or type II tumors, and these two categories have implications regarding disease pathogenesis and prognosis. Molecular analyses, primarily based on next-generation sequencing, otherwise known as high-throughput sequencing, are allowing for further refinement of ovarian cancer classification, facilitating the elucidation of the site(s) of precursor lesions of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and providing insight into the processes of clonal selection and evolution that may be associated with development of chemoresistance. Potential therapeutic targets have been identified from recent molecular profiling studies of these tumors, and the effectiveness and safety of a number of specific targeted therapies have been evaluated or are currently being studied for the treatment of women with this disease. PMID:27983698

  16. CSIOVDB: a microarray gene expression database of epithelial ovarian cancer subtype.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Yang, He; Ye, Jieru; Low, Jeffrey; Choolani, Mahesh; Tan, David Shao Peng; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju

    2015-12-22

    Databases pertaining to various diseases provide valuable resources on particular genes of interest but lack the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status. CSIOVDB is a transcriptomic microarray database of 3,431 human ovarian cancers, including carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum, and metastasis to the ovary. The database also comprises stroma and ovarian surface epithelium from normal ovary tissue, as well as over 400 early-stage ovarian cancers. This unique database presents the molecular subtype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition status for each ovarian cancer sample, with major ovarian cancer histologies (clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, low-grade serous, serous) represented. Clinico-pathological parameters available include tumor grade, surgical debulking status, clinical response and age. The database has 1,868 and 1,516 samples with information pertaining to overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively. The database also provides integration with the copy number, DNA methylation and mutation data from TCGA. CSIOVDB seeks to provide a resource for biomarker and therapeutic target exploration for ovarian cancer research.

  17. Identification and validation of differentially expressed proteins in epithelial ovarian cancers using quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guangming; Liu, Chongdong; Xu, Jiatong; Deng, Haiteng; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignant tumor because of its high recurrence rate. In the present work, in order to find new therapeutic targets, we identified 8480 proteins in thirteen pairs of ovarian cancer tissues and normal ovary tissues through quantitative proteomics. 498 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in ovarian cancer, which involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, response to stimulus and biosynthetic process. The expression levels of chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) and lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP) in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in normal ovary tissues as confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The knockdown of CLIC1 in A2780 cell line downregulated expression of CTPS1, leading to the decrease of CTP and an arrest of cell cycle G1 phase, which results into a slower proliferation. CLIC1-knockdown can also slow down the tumor growth in vivo. Besides, CLIC1-knockdown cells showed an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and cisplatin, suggesting that CLIC1 was involved in regulation of redox and drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells. These results indicate CLIC1 promotes tumorgenesis, and is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27825122

  18. Vaccine Therapy and IDO1 Inhibitor INCB024360 in Treating Patients With Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer Who Are in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-17

    Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  19. Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K.; Kunte, Dhananja; Hurteau, Jean A.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Krosnjar, Nela; Shah, Maitri; Backman, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late-stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at-risk women as they preferentially target low-grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that can quantify the nanoscale macromolecular density fluctuations within biological cells via a biomarker, disorder strength (Ld). Using the concept of field carcinogenesis, we propose a method of detecting ovarian cancer by PWS assessment of endometrial and endocervical columnar cells. The study includes 26 patients (controls = 15, cancer = 11) for endometrium and 23 (controls = 13, cancer = 10) for endocervix. Our results highlight a significant increase in Ld (% fold-increase > 50%, P-value < 0.05) for columnar epithelial cells obtained from cancer patients compared to controls for both endocervix and endometrium. Overall, the quantification of field carcinogenic events in the endometrium and the novel observation of its extension to the cervix are unique findings in the understanding of ovarian field carcinogenesis. We further show independent validation of the presence of cervical field carcinogenesis with mico-RNA expression data. PMID:23436651

  20. Cytokines and Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jammal, Millena Prata; Martins-Filho, Agrimaldo; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and delayed diagnosis. Inflammation is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, and the inflammatory response is involved in almost all stages of tumor development. Immunohistochemical staining in stroma and epithelium of a panel of cytokines in benign and malignant ovarian neoplasm was evaluated. In addition, immunostaining was related to prognostic factors in malignant tumors. METHOD The study group comprised 28 ovarian benign neoplasias and 28 ovarian malignant neoplasms. A panel of cytokines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Th1: IL-2 and IL-8; Th2: IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10; and TNFR1). Chi-square test with Yates’ correction was used, which was considered significant if less than 0.05. RESULTS TNFR1, IL-5, and IL-10 had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 in benign neoplasms compared with malignant tumors. Malignant tumors had more frequent immunostaining 2/3 for IL-2 in relation to benign tumors. The immunostaining 0/1 of IL 8 was more frequent in the stroma of benign neoplasms compared with malignant neoplasms. Evaluation of the ovarian cancer stroma showed that histological grade 3 was significantly correlated with staining 2/3 for IL-2 (P = 0.004). Women whose disease-free survival was less than 2.5 years had TNFR1 stromal staining 2/3 (P = 0.03) more frequently. CONCLUSION IL-2 and TNFR1 stromal immunostaining are related prognostic factors in ovarian cancer and can be the target of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27512342

  1. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. Epigenetic Therapies for Chemoresensitization of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matei, Daniela E.; Nephew, Kenneth P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic drugs have been shown to enhance gene expression and drug sensitivity in ovarian cancer cell lines and animal models. Based on promising pre-clinical studies, DNA methylation inhibitors in combination with existing chemotherapeutic agents have the potential for overcoming acquired drug resistance, laying the foundation for this specific class of epigenetic drug in ovarian cancer clinical trials. The recent completion of phase I trials of decitabine have yielded important information on dosing schedules and biological endpoints for evaluating patient responses. In addition, epigenetic drug effects on pharmacodyamic targets are beginning to emerge, and predictive epigenetic biomarkers and next generation epigenome therapeutics are being developed for application in clinical settings for ovarian cancer patients. PMID:19854495

  3. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  4. PARP-1 may be involved in angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Yan; Lv, Shuqing; Zhang, Cancan; Tian, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is involved in DNA repair and has been implicated in chemoresistance. The present study investigated whether PARP-1 promotes angiogenesis in ovarian cancer. PARP-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression and CD34+ microvascular density (MVD) were assessed using immunohistochemistry in 60 human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. PARP-1 was stably knocked-down in SKOV3 cells using a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA); angiogenic capacity was assessed using the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tubule formation assay; and PARP-1 and VEGF-A expression were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA. PARP-1 was found to be expressed in 73.3% (44/60) of the human epithelial ovarian cancer specimens and was significantly associated with VEGF-A, MVD, tumor size, histological grade and lymphatic metastasis (P<0.05). Compared with cells transfected with a negative control siRNA, knockdown of PARP-1 significantly suppressed the ability of SKOV3 cell-conditioned media to promote HUVEC tubule formation on Matrigel in vitro. Knockdown of PARP-1 in SKOV3 cells also significantly reduced VEGF-A mRNA and protein expression and secretion. In summary, PARP-1 is overexpressed and may enhance angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer by upregulating VEGF-A. PMID:28101214

  5. Evidence for differential viral oncolytic efficacy in an in vitro model of epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Jessica G; Valdes, Yudith Ramos; Barrett, John W; Bell, John C; Stojdl, David; McFadden, Grant; McCart, J Andrea; DiMattia, Gabriel E; Shepherd, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is unique among most carcinomas in that metastasis occurs by direct dissemination of malignant cells traversing throughout the intraperitoneal fluid. Accordingly, we test new therapeutic strategies using an in vitro three-dimensional spheroid suspension culture model that mimics key steps of this metastatic process. In the present study, we sought to uncover the differential oncolytic efficacy among three different viruses—Myxoma virus, double-deleted vaccinia virus, and Maraba virus—using three ovarian cancer cell lines in our metastasis model system. Herein, we demonstrate that Maraba virus effectively infects, replicates, and kills epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in proliferating adherent cells and with slightly slower kinetics in tumor spheroids. Myxoma virus and vaccinia viruses infect and kill adherent cells to a much lesser extent than Maraba virus, and their oncolytic potential is almost completely attenuated in spheroids. Myxoma virus and vaccinia are able to infect and spread throughout spheroids, but are blocked in the final stages of the lytic cycle, and oncolytic-mediated cell killing is reactivated upon spheroid reattachment. Alternatively, Maraba virus has a remarkably reduced ability to initially enter spheroid cells, yet rapidly infects and spreads throughout spheroids generating significant cell killing effects. We show that low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in ovarian cancer spheroids is reduced and this controls efficient Maraba virus binding and entry into infected cells. Taken together, these results are the first to implicate the potential impact of differential viral oncolytic properties at key steps of ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:27119108

  6. YKL-40 in Serum Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-19

    Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Neoplasm; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Transitional Cell Tumor; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Awolude, Olutosin Alaba; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC)  refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu).  The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu antigens was used to determine carcinomas that are among the TNEOC. We also compared the clinicopathological parameters (age, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, grade and histological subtype) in patients with TNEOC and non- TNEOC . Results: Thirty-eight (42.2%) of the 90 tumours diagnosed as EOC were negative for ER, PR and HER2/neu expression. There was no significant association between TNEOC with other parameters such as age, FIGO stage and histological grade. Sixteen (66.7%) of the 24 mucinous carcinomas were triple negative, while only 21 (33.3%) of the 63 serous carcinomas were triple-negative and one (50%) of the two endometrioid carcinomas was triple negative. There was a significant association between triple-negative tumours and histological subtypes of EOC (p = 0.034). Conclusions: A subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that is negative for ER, PR and HER-2/neu has been discovered in indigenous African women. TNEOC expression is high and is comparable to the triple negative breast cancer subtype seen in people of African ancestry. Future study of TNEOC in a large sample size should be considered.

  8. Pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Salami, Ayodeji Akeem; Awolude, Olutosin Alaba; Oluwasola, Abideen Olayiwola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC)  refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu).  The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. Lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2/neu antigens was used to determine carcinomas that are among the TNEOC. We also compared the clinicopathological parameters (age, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, grade and histological subtype) in patients with TNEOC and non- TNEOC . Results: Thirty-eight (42.2%) of the 90 tumours diagnosed as EOC were negative for ER, PR and HER2/neu expression. There was no significant association between TNEOC with other parameters such as age, FIGO stage and histological grade. Sixteen (66.7%) of the 24 mucinous carcinomas were triple negative, while only 21 (33.3%) of the 63 serous carcinomas were triple-negative and one (50%) of the two endometrioid carcinomas was triple negative. There was a significant association between triple-negative tumours and histological subtypes of EOC (p = 0.034). Conclusions: A subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer that is negative for ER, PR and HER-2/neu has been discovered in indigenous African women. TNEOC expression is high and is comparable to the triple negative breast cancer subtype seen in people of African ancestry. Future study of TNEOC in a large sample size should be considered. PMID:27853516

  9. Genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity of epithelial ovarian cancer and the clinical implications for molecular targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Huimin; Cao, Dongyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Li, Menghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Keng

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy, and tumoural heterogeneity (TH) has been blamed for treatment failure. The genomic and epigenomic atlas of EOC varies significantly with tumour histotype, grade, stage, sensitivity to chemotherapy and prognosis. Rapidly accumulating knowledge about the genetic and epigenetic events that control TH in EOC has facilitated the development of molecular-targeted therapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, designed to target homologous recombination, are poised to change how breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA)-related ovarian cancer is treated. Epigenetic treatment regimens being tested in clinical or preclinical studies could provide promising novel treatment approaches and hope for improving patient survival.

  10. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Ramus, Susan J.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Goode, Ellen L.; Narod, Steven A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68–0.90, p = 5.59 × 10−4]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1, may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways. PMID:26807442

  11. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC).

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja Kh; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Kelemen, Linda E; Ramus, Susan J; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Goode, Ellen L; Narod, Steven A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68-0.90, p = 5.59 × 10(-4)]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1, may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways.

  12. Clinicopathology of EpCAM and EGFR in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingying; Zhao, Lijing; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shuhua; Cui, Manhua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to explore the expression of EpCAM and EGFR in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and their correlation with clinicopathological parameters. The protein expression levels of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from 30 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 15 normal ovary tissues. Clinicopathological characteristics were gathered by retrospective review of the patients’ files. The correlation between EpCAM and EGFR expression, as well as their association with clinical pathological parameters were investigated. The SPSS 17.0 package was used to perform statistical analyses. The positive expression rates of EpCAM and EGFR were significantly elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues than in normal ovary tissues. The positive expressions of EpCAM and EGFR in EOC were associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between EpCAM and EGFR expression in EOC. The co-expression of EpCAM and EGFR may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of EOC and might provide a promising molecular therapeutic target.

  13. Ovarian Cancer: The Fallopian Tube as the Site of Origin and Opportunities for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    George, Sophia H. L.; Garcia, Ruslan; Slomovitz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option of risk-reducing surgery that involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy). Growing evidence now supports the fallopian tube epithelia as an etiological site for the development of HGSC and consequently, salpingectomy alone is emerging as a prophylactic option. This review discusses the site of origin of EOC, the rationale for risk-reducing salpingectomy in the high-risk population, and opportunities for salpingectomy in the low-risk population. PMID:27200296

  14. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma diagnosis by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dória, Maria Luisa; McKenzie, James S.; Mroz, Anna; Phelps, David L.; Speller, Abigail; Rosini, Francesca; Strittmatter, Nicole; Golf, Ottmar; Veselkov, Kirill; Brown, Robert; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Takats, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is highly prevalent among European women, and is the leading cause of gynaecological cancer death. Current histopathological diagnoses of tumour severity are based on interpretation of, for example, immunohistochemical staining. Desorption electrospray mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) generates spatially resolved metabolic profiles of tissues and supports an objective investigation of tumour biology. In this study, various ovarian tissue types were analysed by DESI-MSI and co-registered with their corresponding haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images. The mass spectral data reveal tissue type-dependent lipid profiles which are consistent across the n = 110 samples (n = 107 patients) used in this study. Multivariate statistical methods were used to classify samples and identify molecular features discriminating between tissue types. Three main groups of samples (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, borderline ovarian tumours, normal ovarian stroma) were compared as were the carcinoma histotypes (serous, endometrioid, clear cell). Classification rates >84% were achieved for all analyses, and variables differing statistically between groups were determined and putatively identified. The changes noted in various lipid types help to provide a context in terms of tumour biochemistry. The classification of unseen samples demonstrates the capability of DESI-MSI to characterise ovarian samples and to overcome existing limitations in classical histopathology. PMID:27976698

  15. The inherent cellular radiosensitivity of epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rotmensch, J.; Schwartz, J.L.; Atcher, R.W.; Grdina, D.J.; Toohill, M.; Weichselbaum, R.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Ovarian carcinomas of similar histology have variable responses to radiation therapy. It has been suggested that inherent cellular resistance to radiation may in part underlie radiotherapy failure. To determine in vitro radiobiological parameters of papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary, we investigated the cellular responses of 16 early-passage ovarian carcinoma cell lines to radiation. The radiosensitivity, as measured by D0, ranged from 1.05 to 2.40 Gy (mean 1.70 Gy), and, as measured by D, ranged from 1.65 to 3.54 Gy (mean 2.38 Gy). The extrapolation number -n ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 (mean 1.5). The cells had a 1.3- to 5.4-fold (mean 2.8) ability to recover from potential lethal damage (PLDR) 24 hr after irradiation and subculture from plateau-phase cultures. Their inherent radioresistance may be one factor in the failure of some ovarian cancers to be sterilized by radiation.

  16. Guidance of Signaling Activations by Cadherins and Integrins in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roggiani, Francesca; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Rea, Katia; Tomassetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest tumor among gynecological cancer in the industrialized countries. The EOC incidence and mortality have remained unchanged over the last 30 years, despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment. In order to develop novel and more effective therapeutic approaches, the molecular mechanisms involved in EOC progression have been thoroughly investigated in the last few decades. At the late stage, peritoneal metastases originate from the attachment of small clusters of cancer cells that shed from the primary site and carried by the ascites adhere to the abdominal peritoneum or omentum. This behavior suggests that cell–cell or cell–matrix adhesion mechanisms regulate EOC growth and dissemination. Complex downstream signalings, which might be influenced by functional cross-talk between adhesion molecules and co-expressed and activated signaling proteins, can affect the proliferation/survival and the migration/invasion of EOC cells. This review aimed to define the impact of the mechanisms of cell–cell, through cadherins, and cell–extracellular matrix adhesion, through integrins, on the signaling cascades induced by membrane receptors and cytoplasmic proteins known to have a role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of EOC cells. Finally, some novel approaches using peptidomimetic ligands to cadherin and integrins are summarized. PMID:27563880

  17. Microvessel density and p53 mutations in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Niyati J; Geest, Koen De; Neff, Traci; Young, Barry De; Bender, David P; Ahmed, Amina; Smith, Brian J; Button, Anna; Goodheart, Michael J

    2013-04-30

    We planned to determine the relationship between angiogenesis and p53 mutational status in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Using 190 tumor samples from patients with stage III and IV ovarian cancer we performed p53 sequencing, immunohistochemistry, and CD31 microvessel density (MVD) determination. MVD was elevated in tumors with p53 null mutations compared to p53 missense mutation or no mutation. Disease recurrence was increased with higher MVD in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In adjusted analysis, p53 null mutation was associated with increased recurrence and worse overall survival. Worse overall survival and increased recurrence risk were also associated with the combination of CD31 MVD values >25 vessels/HPF and any p53 mutation. P53 mutation status and MVD may have prognostic significance in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Tumors with p53 null mutations are likely to be more vascular, contributing to decreased survival and increased recurrence probability.

  18. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1μg/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  19. Circulating Haptoglobin Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in the Sera of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changqing; Annamalai, Loganath; Guo, Changfa; Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Zhang, Huoming; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05). A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026). Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively). Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001). Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17325738

  20. Erlotinib Plus Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Ovarian Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  1. VAV1 represses E-cadherin expression through the transactivation of Snail and Slug: a potential mechanism for aberrant epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wakahashi, Senn; Sudo, Tamotsu; Oka, Noriko; Ueno, Sayaka; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Nishimura, Ryuichiro

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the western world. Although patients with early-stage ovarian cancer generally have a good prognosis, approximately 20%-30% of patients will die of the disease, and 5-year recurrence rates are 25%-45%, highlighting the need for improved detection and treatment. We investigated the role of VAV1, a protein with guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, which is associated with survival in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (International of Obstetrics and Gynecology [FIGO] stages I and II). We analyzed 88 samples from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer, which were divided into FIGO stages I and II (n = 46), and III and IV (n = 42). Prognostic analysis revealed that upregulated VAV1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (P ≤ 0.05), but not with other clinicopathologic features. Stable overexpression of VAV1 in human high-grade serous ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells induced morphologic changes indicative of loss of intercellular adhesions and organized actin stress fibers. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that these cells had downregulated E-cadherin protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively. This downregulation is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasive cancer. Furthermore, VAV1 overexpression in both SKOV3 and human ovarian surface epithelial cells demonstrated that its upregulation of an E-cadherin transcriptional repressor, Snail and Slug, was not confined to ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, knockdown of VAV1 by RNA interference reduced Snail and Slug. Our findings suggest that VAV1 may play a role in the EMT of ovarian cancer, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

  2. Anthropometric measures and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the nurses' health study.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Baer, Heather J; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiologic evaluations of the relationship between anthropometry and ovarian cancer risk have not been conclusive. Using data collected from two large cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII, we prospectively evaluated the association between waist and hip circumference, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and BMI with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Women completed biennial questionnaires assessing ovarian cancer risk factors beginning in 1976 (NHS) and 1989 (NHSII). For the WHR and BMI analyses, 333 and 862 confirmed cases were identified, respectively, through 1 June 2006 (NHS) and 1 June 2005 (NHSII). WHR and waist circumference were not associated with risk (P-trend = 0.63 and 0.65, respectively). There was evidence for a decreased risk with increasing hip circumference among postmenopausal women (P-trend = 0.03), but a suggestive positive association among premenopausal women (P-trend = 0.04) (P-interaction = 0.01). The hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of hip circumference among pre- and postmenopausal women were 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.45-5.23) and 0.66 (95%CI = 0.37-1.16), respectively. BMI was not clearly associated with risk in pre- or postmenopausal women. Results from this large prospective study suggest that hip circumference could be a possible risk factor for premenopausal ovarian cancer, but may reduce risk of postmenopausal ovarian cancer. The differential effect of hip circumference based on menopausal status requires further confirmation.

  3. Targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Siwak, Doris R.; Carey, Mark; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Nguyen, Catherine T.; McGahren Murray, Mollianne J.; Nolden, Laura; Mills, Gordon B.

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed in up to 60% of ovarian epithelial malignancies. EGFR regulates complex cellular events due to the large number of ligands, dimerization partners, and diverse signaling pathways engaged. In ovarian cancer, EGFR activation is associated with increased malignant tumor phenotype and poorer patient outcome. However, unlike some other EGFR-positive solid tumors, treatment of ovarian tumors with anti-EGFR agents has induced minimal response. While the amount of information regarding EGFR-mediated signaling is considerable, current data provides little insight for the lack of efficacy of anti-EGFR agents in ovarian cancer. More comprehensive, systematic, and well-defined approaches are needed to dissect the roles that EGFR plays in the complex signaling processes in ovarian cancer as well as to identify biomarkers that can accurately predict sensitivity toward EGFR-targeted therapeutic agents. This new knowledge could facilitate the development of rational combinatorial therapies to sensitize tumor cells toward EGFR-targeted therapies. PMID:20037743

  4. Role and prognostic significance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor ZEB2 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prislei, Silvia; Martinelli, Enrica; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Petrillo, Marco; Filippetti, Flavia; Mariani, Marisa; Mozzetti, Simona; Raspaglio, Giuseppina; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferlini, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    ZEB2 is a key factor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a program controlling cell migration in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. We demonstrated a role of ZEB2 in migration and anchorage-independent cell growth in ovarian cancer, as shown by ZEB2 silencing. We found that the RNA-binding protein HuR bound the 3′UTR of ZEB2 mRNA, acting as a positive regulator of ZEB2 protein expression. In Hey ovarian cell line, HuR silencing decreased ZEB2 and ZEB1 nuclear expression and impaired migration. In hypoglycemic conditions ZEB2 expression decreased, along with ZEB1, vimentin and cytoplasmic HuR, and a reduced cellular migration ability was observed. Analysis of ZEB2 and HuR expression in ovarian cancers revealed that nuclear ZEB2 is localized in tumor leading edge and co-localizes with cytoplasmic HuR. In a series of 143 ovarian cancer patients high expression of ZEB2 mRNA significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in term of both overall survival and progression- free survival. Moreover, at immunohistochemical evaluation, we found that prognostic significance of ZEB2 protein relies on its nuclear expression and co-localization with cytoplasmic HuR. In conclusion our findings indicated that nuclear ZEB2 may enhance progression of EMT transition and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer. PMID:26136338

  5. Targeting the ROR1 and ROR2 receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer inhibits cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Claire; Llamosas, Estelle; Knipprath-Mészáros, Alexandra; Schoetzau, Andreas; Obermann, Ellen; Fuenfschilling, Maya; Caduff, Rosemarie; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville; Ward, Robyn; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Ford, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    AIM In recent years, the Wnt signalling pathway has been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer and its members have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Here we investigated the role of two Wnt receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), ROR1 and ROR2, and their putative ligand, Wnt5a, in ovarian cancer. METHODS Immunohistochemistry for ROR2 was performed in a large patient cohort, including benign controls, borderline tumours and epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition, siRNA was used to silence ROR1, ROR2 and Wnt5a individually, and together, in two ovarian cancer cell lines, and the effects on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion were measured. RESULTS ROR2 expression is significantly increased in ovarian cancer patients compared to patients with benign disease. In vitro assays showed that silencing either receptor inhibits ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, and concurrently silencing both receptors has an even stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion. CONCLUSIONS ROR2 expression is increased in epithelial ovarian cancer, and silencing ROR2 and its sister receptor ROR1 has a strong inhibitory effect on the ability of ovarian cancer cells to proliferate, migrate and invade through an extracellular matrix. PMID:26515598

  6. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Paclitaxel, Polyglutamate Paclitaxel, or Observation in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Immunohistological insight into the correlation between neuropilin-1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Adham, Sirin A I; Al Harrasi, Ibtisam; Al Haddabi, Ibrahim; Al Rashdi, Afrah; Al Sinawi, Shadia; Al Maniri, Abdullah; Ba-Omar, Taher; Coomber, Brenda L

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism by which neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) induces malignancy in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is still unknown. This study is the first to demonstrate the relationship between NRP-1 expression and EMT markers vimentin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin and Slug. We used tissue microarrays containing the three main subtypes of EOC tumors: serous, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and endometrioid adenocarcinoma and representative cases retrieved from our pathology archives. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression levels and location of NRP-1 and the aforementioned EMT proteins. NRP-1 was mainly expressed on cancer cells but not in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The Immunoreactive Scoring (IRS) values revealed that the expression of NRP-1, Slug and E-cadherin in the malignant subtypes of ovarian tissues was significantly higher (5.18 ± 0.64, 4.84 ± 0.7, 4.98 ± 0.68, respectively) than their expression in the normal and benign tissues (1.04 ± 0.29, 0.84 ± 0.68, 1.71 ± 0.66, respectively), with no significant differences among the studied subtypes. Vimentin was expressed in the cancer cell component of 43% of tumors and it was exclusively localized in the stroma of all mucinous tumors. The Spearman's rho value indicated that NRP-1 is positively related to the EMT markers E-cadherin and Slug. This notion might indicate that NRP-1 is a partner in the EMT process in EOC tumors.

  9. Stromal–Epithelial Crosstalk Provides a Suitable Microenvironment for the Progression of Ovarian Cancer Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shilong; Dong, Lihua; Sun, Wei; Xu, Yi; Gao, Li; Miao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. This study focused on carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and stromal–epithelial interaction between CAFs and epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cells. We isolated and established primary cultures of CAFs and co-cultured CAFs and EOC cells in vitro. The co-culture conditioned medium (CC-CM) was harvested and its influence on EOC cells was examined. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels were screened using a biotin label-based human antibody array system. We found that the stromal–epithelial crosstalk provided a suitable microenvironment for the progression of ovarian cancer cells in vitro. PMID:24147897

  10. Insights into the field carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer based on the nanocytology of endocervical and endometrial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Damania, Dhwanil; Roy, Hemant K; Kunte, Dhananja; Hurteau, Jean A; Subramanian, Hariharan; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Krosnjar, Nela; Shah, Maitri; Backman, Vadim

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer fatalities among American women. Although curable at early stages with surgery, most women are diagnosed with symptoms of late-stage metastatic disease. Moreover, none of the current diagnostic techniques are clinically recommended for at-risk women as they preferentially target low-grade tumors (which do not affect longevity) and fail to capture early signatures of more lethal serous tumors which originate in the fimbrae region of the fallopian tubes. Hence, the early detection of ovarian cancer is challenging given the current strategy. Recently, our group has developed a novel optical imaging technique, partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, that can quantify the nanoscale macromolecular density fluctuations within biological cells via a biomarker, disorder strength (Ld ). Using the concept of field carcinogenesis, we propose a method of detecting ovarian cancer by PWS assessment of endometrial and endocervical columnar cells. The study includes 26 patients (controls = 15, cancer = 11) for endometrium and 23 (controls = 13, cancer = 10) for endocervix. Our results highlight a significant increase in Ld (% fold-increase > 50%, p-value < 0.05) for columnar epithelial cells obtained from cancer patients compared to controls for both endocervix and endometrium. Overall, the quantification of field carcinogenic events in the endometrium and the novel observation of its extension to the cervix are unique findings in the understanding of ovarian field carcinogenesis. We further show independent validation of the presence of cervical field carcinogenesis with micro-RNA expression data.

  11. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  12. Ovarian cancer survival by tumor dominance, a surrogate for site of origin

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Anna; Loo, Anneli; Tworoger, Shelley; Crum, Christopher P.; Fan, Isabel; McLaughlin, John R.; Rosen, Barry; Risch, Harvey; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies suggest that a proportion of ovarian tumors may actually originate in the distal fallopian tube. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dominance (a surrogate for site of origin) and survival following a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods We classified 1,386 tumors as dominant (putatively originating in the ovary and non-dominant (putatively originating in the fallopian tube), using parameters obtained from pathology reports. Dominant tumors were restricted to one ovary or one involved ovary that exceeded the other in dimension by at least two-fold, while non-dominant tumors were identified as having a greater likelihood of a tubal origin if the disease was equally distributed across the ovaries. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with dominance. Results Non-dominant tumors were more likely to be serous, stage III/IV, and be associated with a BRCA1/2 mutation, increasing parity and use of estrogen hormone replacement therapy (P ≤ 0.01). In contrast, 46% and 26% of the dominant tumors were serous and endometrioid, respectively, with a more even distribution of stage (P < 0.0001). Women with a non-dominant tumor had an increased risk of death compared to women with a dominant tumor (multivariate HR = 1.28; 95%CI 1.02–1.60). Findings were similar in our analysis restricted to serous only subtypes (HR = 1.28; 95%CI 1.01–1.63). Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest significantly worse survival among women diagnosed with a tumor putatively arising from fallopian tube. PMID:25771796

  13. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced (stage IIIC) epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Škof, Erik; Merlo, Sebastjan; Pilko, Gasper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary treatment of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer consists of chemotherapy either before (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NACT) or after primary surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). The goal of primary treatment is no residual disease after surgery (R0 resection) what is associated with an improvement in survival of patients. There is, however, no evidence of survival benefits in patients with R0 resections after prior NACT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who were treated with diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer at Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in the years 2005–2007. The differences in the rates of R0 resections, progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and in five-year and eight-year survival rates between patients treated with NACT and patients who had primary surgery were compared. Results Overall 160 patients had stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. Eighty patients had NACT and eighty patients had primary surgery. Patients in NACT group had higher rates of R0 resection (42% vs. 20%; p = 0.011) than patients after primary surgery. PFS was 14.1 months in NACT group and 17.7 months after primary surgery (p = 0.213). OS was 24.8 months in NACT group and 31.6 months after primary surgery (p = 0.012). In patients with R0 resections five-year and eight-year survival rates were 20.6% and 17.6% in NACT group compared to 62.5% and 62.5% after primary surgery (p < 0.0001), respectively. Conclusions Despite higher rates of R0 resections achieved by NACT, survival of patients treated with NACT was inferior to survival of patients who underwent primary surgery. NACT should only be offered to patients with advanced epithelial cancer who are not candidates for primary surgery. PMID:27679552

  14. Neutrophil Granulocytes in Ovarian Cancer - Induction of Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal-Transition and Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Meyer, Anne-Sophie; Hübner, Katrin; Rom, Joachim; Sohn, Christof; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Hänsch, G. Maria; Gaida, Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is a highly aggressive malignoma with a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is frequently seen, raising the question of their impact on tumor development. In that context, effects of PMN on human ovarian cancer cells were assessed. Methods: Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells were incubated with human PMN, lysate of PMN, or neutrophil elastase. Morphological alterations were observed by time-lapse video-microscopy, and the underlying molecular mechanism was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Functional alternations were assessed by an in vitro wound healing assay. In parallel, a large cohort of n=334 primary OvCa tissue samples of various histological subtypes was histologically evaluated. Results: Co-cultivation of cancer cells with either PMN or PMN lysate causes a change of the polygonal epithelial phenotype of the cells towards a spindle shaped morphology, causing a cribriform cell growth. The PMN-induced alteration could be attributed to elastase, a major protease of PMN. Elastase-induced shape change was most likely due to the degradation of membranous E-cadherin, which results in loss of cell contacts and polarity. Moreover, in response to elastase, epithelial cytokeratins were downmodulated, in parallel with a nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These PMN-elastase induced alterations of cells are compatible with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. Following EMT, the cells displayed a more migratory phenotype. In human biopsies, neutrophil infiltration was seen in 72% of the cases. PMN infiltrates were detected preferentially in areas with low E-cadherin expression. Conclusion: PMN in the microenvironment of OvCa can alter tumor cells towards a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype. PMID:27053953

  15. Proteome profiling of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Gagné, Pierre; Hunter, Joanna M; Bonicalzi, Marie-Eve; Lemay, Jean-François; Kelly, Isabelle; Le Page, Cécile; Provencher, Diane; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Droit, Amaud; Bourgais, David; Poirier, Guy G

    2005-07-01

    A proteome profiling of the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line TOV-112D was initiated as a protein expression reference in the study of ovarian cancer. Two complementary proteomic approaches were used in order to maximise protein identification: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) protein separation coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE) coupled to liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS). One hundred and seventy-two proteins have been identified among 288 spots selected on two-dimensional gels and a total of 579 proteins were identified with the 1DE LC MS/MS approach. This proteome profiling covers a wide range of protein expression and identifies several proteins known for their oncogenic properties. Bioinformatics tools were used to mine databases in order to determine whether the identified proteins have previously been implicated in pathways associated with carcinogenesis or cell proliferation. Indeed, several of the proteins have been reported to be specific ovarian cancer markers while others are common to many tumorigenic tissues or proliferating cells. The diversity of proteins found and their association with known oncogenic pathways validate this proteomic approach. The proteome 2D map of the TOV-112D cell line will provide a valuable resource in studies on differential protein expression of human ovarian carcinomas while the 1DE LC MS/MS approach gives a picture of the actual protein profile of the TOV-112D cell line. This work represents one of the most complete ovarian protein expression analysis reports to date and the first comparative study of gene expression profiling and proteomic patterns in ovarian cancer.

  16. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing Wang, Zehua

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  17. Epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Eugenia Maria Chaves De Moraes

    Data from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study, a multicenter, population-based, case-control study were used to identify risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior, histologic types, as well as p53 expression. Cases were women between 20 to 54 years old diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer from 1980 to 1982. Controls were women selected by random digit dialing. Tumor samples were analyzed for p53 overexpression using immunohistochemistry. Case-case and case-control conditional logistic regression models matched on age and diagnosing centers were used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's) for borderline, malignant, mucinous, and nonmucinous tumors, and p53 positive and p53 negative cases. The OR's for high number of lifetime ovulatory cycles (376-533 compared with less than 234) were 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-6.1) for malignant and 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.7) for borderline cases. The high number of ovulatory cycles was also a strong risk factor among nonmucinous cases. OR's for current and recent ex-smokers compared with never smokers were 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.8) for mucinous and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) for nonmucinous types. Infertility showed a positive association with borderline ovarian cancer. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer was positively associated with malignant and nonmucinous cases. Parity had an inverse association with malignant ovarian cancer cases. When cases were subdivided by p53 results, the OR for tobacco smoking and p53 positive ovarian cancer was elevated for mucinous (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 0.8-18) at localized stage. Alcohol use showed a positive association with p53 positive malignant cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) and with p53 positive nonmucinous cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). A positive association between high number of ovulatory cycles and p53 positive malignant cases was observed in cases with localized stage (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.0-45) and advanced

  18. High expression of S100P is associated with unfavorable prognosis and tumor progression in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Zhao, Meng; Lou, Yanhui; Qian, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that S100P is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple cancers. In the current study, we evaluated the expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer and assessed its relevance to clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, we investigated the biological effects of S100P using A2780 and SKOV3 cells. S100P expression was significantly increased in epithelial ovarian cancer specimens compared with fallopian tube tissues and normal ovary tissues. And high expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer samples was significantly associated with tumor stage (P<0.001), serum CA125 level (P=0.026), residual tumor (P<0.001), ascites (P<0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that S100P expression was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) (P=0.017 and 0.031, respectively). Functional assays showed that overexpression of S100P promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression but did not affect cell migration and invasion in A2780 and SKOV3 cells. These data suggest that S100P may contribute to tumor development in epithelial ovarian cancer and could be a useful marker for the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26396916

  19. Sam68 is Overexpressed in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and Promotes Tumor Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lijuan; Che, Hailuo; Li, Mingmei; Li, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest gynecological malignancy, and evidence is accumulating on how molecular markers may be associated with the origin and process of EOC. Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis, of 68 kD), is a K homology domain RNA-binding protein that has been investigated as a risk factor in multiple types of tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the Sam68 gene in the pathogenesis of EOC. Material/Methods Western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR methods were performed to examine Sam68 expression in EOC tissue specimens. The association of Sam68 expression with clinic-pathologic variables of EOC was evaluated. Then gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies were adopted to examine the regulation of Sam68 on the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells using CCK-8 and colony forming assays. Results Sam68 was overexpressed in both mRNA and protein levels in EOC tumor tissue (n=152) in an association with malignant factors of EOC such as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, residual tumor size (cm), histological grade, and lymph node metastasis. In vitro results demonstrated that Sam68 overexpression was upregulated while Sam68 knockdown downregulated the proliferation of EOC OVCAR-3 cells via regulation of cell growth and colony formation. Conclusions Sam68 was overexpressed in EOC tissue in association with such cancer malignant factors of FIGO stage, histological grade, and lymph node metastasis, and also positively regulated the proliferation of EOC cells. Our research suggests that Sam68 might accelerate cell cycle progression, and present as a prognostic marker for EOC. PMID:27623016

  20. Aurora kinase A mediates epithelial ovarian cancer cell migration and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Do, T-V; Xiao, F; Bickel, L E; Klein-Szanto, A J; Pathak, H B; Hua, X; Howe, C; O'Brien, S W; Maglaty, M; Ecsedy, J A; Litwin, S; Golemis, E A; Schilder, R J; Godwin, A K; Connolly, D C

    2014-01-30

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA) localizes to centrosomes and mitotic spindles where it mediates mitotic progression and chromosomal stability. Overexpression of AURKA is common in cancer, resulting in acquisition of alternate non-mitotic functions. In the current study, we identified a novel role for AURKA in regulating ovarian cancer cell dissemination and evaluated the efficacy of an AURKA-selective small molecule inhibitor, alisertib (MLN8237), as a single agent and combined with paclitaxel using an orthotopic xenograft model of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effects of AURKA inhibition and overexpression on migration and adhesion. Pharmacological or RNA interference-mediated inhibition of AURKA significantly reduced ovarian carcinoma cell migration and adhesion and the activation-associated phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal regulatory protein SRC at tyrosine 416 (pSRC(Y416)). Conversely, enforced expression of AURKA resulted in increased migration, adhesion and activation of SRC in cultured cells. In vivo tumor growth and dissemination were inhibited by alisertib treatment as a single agent. Moreover, combination of alisertib with paclitaxel, an agent commonly used in treatment of EOC, resulted in more potent inhibition of tumor growth and dissemination compared with either drug alone. Taken together, these findings support a role for AURKA in EOC dissemination by regulating migration and adhesion. They also point to the potential utility of combining AURKA inhibitors with taxanes as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of EOC patients.

  1. High dose intensity combination chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetenham, J. W.; McKendrick, J. J.; Jones, D. H.; Whitehouse, J. M.; Williams, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrospective studies have recently demonstrated a significant correlation between dose intensity of chemotherapy and response rates and survival in various diseases including epithelial ovarian carcinoma. As part of a proposed randomised trial to assess the effect of dose intensity on outcome in ovarian carcinoma, a pilot study has been undertaken to determine the toxicity and efficacy of the high intensity therapy. Nineteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma received initial treatment with cisplatin 120 mg m-2 i.v. day 1, and cyclophosphamide 1,000 mg-2 i.v. day 1, given at 21-day intervals for six cycles. The average relative dose intensity of this therapy is 1.14 when compared with the CHAP regimen. Severe toxicity was experienced by most patients. The median received average relative dose intensity was 0.90, with only one patient receiving treatment to the proposed intensity. Randomised studies of the effect of dose intensity in ovarian carcinoma are essential, but an initial step must be to assess whether the proposed high dose treatment can be delivered. PMID:2155645

  2. PFTK1 regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Rong; Tang, Chunhui; Xi, Qinghua; Lu, Shumin; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhu, Lianxin; Cheng, Jialin; Chen, Yannan; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Jianxin; Deng, Yan

    2016-04-01

    PFTK1, also named Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 14 (CDK14), is a member of the cell division cycle 2 (CDC2)-related protein kinase family. It is a serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the role of PFTK1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development. The expression of PFTK1 was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining, both of which demonstrated that PFTK1 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cells. Statistical analysis showed the expression of PFTK1 was associated with multiple clinicopathological factors, including tumor grade, FIGO stage, lymph node metastatis, Ki-67 expression and predicted a poor prognosis of EOC patients. With in vitro studies we found that PFTK1 expression was decreased in serum-starved ovarian cancer cells, and progressively increased after serum-re-feeding. Knocking PFTK1 down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Taken together, our study suggested that PFTK1 played an important role in ovarian cancer development.

  3. Pathway-Specific Engineered Mouse Allograft Models Functionally Recapitulate Human Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szabova, Ludmila; Bupp, Sujata; Kamal, Muhaymin; Householder, Deborah B.; Hernandez, Lidia; Schlomer, Jerome J.; Baran, Maureen L.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert M.; Annunziata, Christina M.; Martin, Philip L.; Van Dyke, Terry A.

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate from ovarian cancers can be attributed to late-stage diagnosis and lack of effective treatment. Despite enormous effort to develop better targeted therapies, platinum-based chemotherapy still remains the standard of care for ovarian cancer patients, and resistance occurs at a high rate. One of the rate limiting factors for translation of new drug discoveries into clinical treatments has been the lack of suitable preclinical cancer models with high predictive value. We previously generated genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models based on perturbation of Tp53 and Rb with or without Brca1 or Brca2 that develop serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) closely resembling the human disease on histologic and molecular levels. Here, we describe an adaptation of these GEM models to orthotopic allografts that uniformly develop tumors with short latency and are ideally suited for routine preclinical studies. Ovarian tumors deficient in Brca1 respond to treatment with cisplatin and olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, whereas Brca1-wild type tumors are non-responsive to treatment, recapitulating the relative sensitivities observed in patients. These mouse models provide the opportunity for evaluation of effective therapeutics, including prediction of differential responses in Brca1-wild type and Brca1–deficient tumors and development of relevant biomarkers. PMID:24748377

  4. Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Lahmann, Petra H; Cust, Anne E; Friedenreich, Christine M; Schulz, Mandy; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lundin, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Overvad, Kim; Fournier, Agnès; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Redondo, María-Luisa; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María-José; Tormo, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Manjer, Jonas; Jirström, Karin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; May, Anne M; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Spencer, Elizabeth; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Chajes, Véronique; Michaud, Dominique; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio

    2010-05-15

    We examined the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity and height, with ovarian cancer risk. We also investigated these associations by menopausal status and for specific histological subtypes. Among 226,798 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, there were 611 incident cases of primary, malignant, epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during a mean 8.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. Compared to women with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was associated with excess ovarian cancer risk for all women combined (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05-1.68; p(trend) = 0.02) and postmenopausal women (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10; p(trend) = 0.001), but the association was weaker for premenopausal women (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.65-2.06; p(trend) = 0.65). Neither height or weight gain, nor BMI-adjusted measures of fat distribution assessed by waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) or hip circumference were associated with overall risk. WHR was related to increased risk of mucinous tumors (BMI-adjusted HR per 0.05 unit increment = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00-1.38). For all women combined, no other significant associations with risk were observed for specific histological subtypes. This large, prospective study provides evidence that obesity is an important modifiable risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women.

  5. Identifying post-menopausal women at elevated risk for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Nicole; Hawley, Sarah; Janes, Holly; Karlan, Beth Y.; Berg, Christine D.; Drescher, Charles W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Palomares, Melanie R.; Daly, Mary B.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Thorpe, Jason; Robinson, Randal D.; Lane, Dorothy; Li, Christopher I.; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We developed and validated a hybrid risk classifier combining serum markers and epidemiologic risk factors to identify post-menopausal women at elevated risk for invasive fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, and ovarian epithelial carcinoma. METHODS To select epidemiologic risk factors for use in the classifier, Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted using 74,786 Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS) participants. To construct a combination classifier, 210 WHI OS cases and 536 matched controls with serum marker measurements were analyzed; validation employed 143 cases and 725 matched controls from the WHI Clinical Trial (CT) with similar data. RESULTS Analyses identified a combination risk classifier composed of two elevated-risk groups: 1) women with CA125 or HE4 exceeding a 98% specificity threshold; and 2) women with intact fallopian tubes, prior use of menopausal hormone therapy for at least two years, and either a first degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer or a personal history of breast cancer. In the WHI OS population, it classified 13% of women as elevated risk, identifying 30% of ovarian cancers diagnosed up to 7.8 years post-enrollment (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.6, p<0.001). In the WHI CT validation population, it classified 8% of women as elevated risk, identifying 31% of cancers diagnosed within 7 years of enrollment (HR=4.6, p<0.001). CONCLUSION CA125 and HE4 contributed significantly to a risk prediction classifier combining serum markers with epidemiologic risk factors. The hybrid risk classifier may be useful to identify post-menopausal women who would benefit from timely surgical intervention to prevent epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:26343159

  6. Survival outcomes and toxicity of intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Koo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Tae-Jin; Lim, Kyung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of single-dose cisplatin intraperitoneally administered during cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Data from patients who underwent surgical management followed by intravenous (IV) chemotherapy for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were divided into intraperitoneal (IP) and no-intraperitoneal (NIP) groups according to the administration of IP cisplatin 100 mg during the staging surgery. Clinical results such as survival outcomes and chemotherapeutic toxicity were compared between the two groups. Results Thirty-seven patients in the IP group and 26 in the NIP group were identified. There were no significant differences between the two groups in basic characteristics such as age, histology, and surgical procedures. After the surgery with or without IP chemotherapy, there was no difference in the rate of either hematologic or gastrointestinal toxicity or in the rate of incompletion of following IV chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence occurred in 67.6% (25 patients) of IP group and 57.7% (15 patients) of NIP group (P=0.423) during the mean follow-up period of 37 months. The 3-year disease free-survival rate was 39.9% in the IP group and 35.8% in the NIP group, and the relative risk of recurrence was 0.864 (95% confidence interval, 0.447-1.673; P=0.665) in the IP group as compared with the NIP group. Conclusion IP chemotherapy with single-dose cisplatin during cytoreductive surgery is safe and feasible with little chemotherapeutic toxicity in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but no distinct improvement in survival could be demonstrated in the present study. PMID:25469337

  7. Ubiquitin E3 ligase CRL4(CDT2/DCAF2) as a potential chemotherapeutic target for ovarian surface epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Jian-Jie; Yu, Chao; Xu, Ying; Guo, Lian-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Yi; Zhou, Dawang; Song, Fang-Zhou; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2013-10-11

    Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are the largest family of E3 ligases and require cullin neddylation for their activation. The NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 reportedly blocked cullin neddylation and inactivated CRLs, which resulted in apoptosis induction and tumor suppression. However, CRL roles in ovarian cancer cell survival and the ovarian tumor repressing effects of MLN4924 are unknown. We show here that CRL4 components are highly expressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer tissues. MLN4924-induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, MLN4924 sensitized ovarian cancer cells to other chemotherapeutic drug treatments. Depletion of CRL4 components Roc1/2, Cul4a, and DDB1 had inhibitory effects on ovarian cancer cells similar to MLN4924 treatment, which suggested that CRL4 inhibition contributed to the chemotherapeutic effect of MLN4924 in ovarian cancers. We also investigated for key CRL4 substrate adaptors required for ovarian cancer cells. Depleting Vprbp/Dcaf1 did not significantly affect ovarian cancer cell growth, even though it was expressed by ovarian cancer tissues. However, depleting Cdt2/Dcaf2 mimicked the pharmacological effects of MLN4924 and caused the accumulation of its substrate, CDT1, both in vitro and in vivo. MLN4924-induced DNA damage and apoptosis were partially rescued by Cdt1 depletion, suggesting that CRL4(CDT2) repression and CDT1 accumulation were key biochemical events contributing to the genotoxic effects of MLN4924 in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CRL4(CDT2) is a potential drug target in ovarian cancers and that MLN4924 may be an effective anticancer agent for targeted ovarian cancer therapy.

  8. Lack of acute toxicity associated with a multimodality treatment of stage III ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Belch, R.Z.; Coughlin, C.T.; Cooney, L.C.; Forcier, R.J.; Maurer, L.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Eleven patients with advanced stage III ovarian epithelial carcinoma were treated primarily according to an aggressive multimodality plan utilizing cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy (high-dose cisplatin and Cytoxan), and consolidative radiation therapy (abdominopelvic bath plus pelvic boost). The treatment was tolerated remarkably well. There was no evidence of progressive disease during treatment, and all patients showed a positive response. There was a notable lack of significant acute morbidity, with the exception of a severe symptomatic peripheral neuropathy associated with cisplatin doses of 200 mg/m2. This was not evident with doses of cisplatin up to 150 mg/m2.

  9. miR-222 is upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation by downregulating P27(kip1.)

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaoyang; Li, Na; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Zongyuan; Ding, Dong; Weng, Danhui; Meng, Li; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of female reproductive system cancer mortality in females. The majority of cases of ovarian carcinomas are not identified until a late stage. Identifying the molecular changes that occur during the development and progression of ovarian cancer is an urgent requirement. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as gene expression regulators that induce mRNA degradation or translation blockade through pairing to the 3' untranslated region (3-'UTR) of the target mRNAs. In the present study, miR-222 was observed to be frequently upregulated in ovarian cancer. miR-222 upregulation induced an enhancement of ovarian cancer cell proliferation potential, possibly by downregulating its target, P27(Kip1). A bioinformatic analysis showed that the 3'-UTR of the P27(Kip1) mRNA contained a highly-conserved putative miR-222 binding site. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that P27(Kip1) was a direct target of miR-222. Consistently, there was an inverse correlation between the P27(Kip1) and miR-222 expression levels in the ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues. Overall, the present results suggest that miR-222 upregulation in human ovarian cancer may promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation during ovarian carcinogenesis.

  10. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  11. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Contributor to Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bo R. Rueda, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0192 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...to that of primary human ovarian cancer . We have also successfully introduced in human oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in

  12. GOLPH3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Ru; Liu, Suqing; Gan, Xupei; Xi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Sun, Yunyan

    2017-03-23

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), a newly recognized oncogene, is associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, its biological role and underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain poorly understood. Here, we found that GOLPH3 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cell lines. This overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of EOC cells. Moreover, GOLPH3 upregulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as N-cadherin and Snail, and the Wnt/β-catenin-related genes cyclin-D1 and c-Myc, which were restored via silencing of GOLPH3 expression. Furthermore, the inhibitor and activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, XAV939 and LiCl, enhanced or decreased, respectively, the effect of GOLPH3 on EMT, which further confirmed that GOLPH3 promoted EMT progression via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, we found that EDD, the human hyperplastic discs gene, was consistent with GOLPH3 expression and also promoted the EMT process and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings demonstrate that EDD might be a downstream factor of GOLPH3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the existence of a GOLPH3-Wnt/β-catenin-EMT axis in EOC and provide a new therapeutic target to treat EOC.

  13. Dielectrophoretic differentiation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts using contactless dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Kittur, Harsha; Sano, Michael B.; C. Roberts, Paul; Schmelz, Eva M.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies in women. The primary challenge is the detection of the cancer at an early stage, since this drastically increases the survival rate. In this study we investigated the dielectrophoretic responses of progressive stages of mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, as well as mouse fibroblast and macrophage cell lines, utilizing contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP). cDEP is a relatively new cell manipulation technique that has addressed some of the challenges of conventional dielectrophoretic methods. To evaluate our microfluidic device performance, we computationally studied the effects of altering various geometrical parameters, such as the size and arrangement of insulating structures, on dielectrophoretic and drag forces. We found that the trapping voltage of MOSE cells increases as the cells progress from a non-tumorigenic, benign cell to a tumorigenic, malignant phenotype. Additionally, all MOSE cells display unique behavior compared to fibroblasts and macrophages, representing normal and inflammatory cells found in the peritoneal fluid. Based on these findings, we predict that cDEP can be utilized for isolation of ovarian cancer cells from peritoneal fluid as an early cancer detection tool. PMID:22536308

  14. Predictive and Prognostic Value of sPRR in Patients with Primary Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Annika; Richter, Rolf; Dragun, Duska; Heidecke, Harald; Dechend, Ralf; Muller, Dominik N.; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the predictive and prognostic role of soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) as a biomarker for clinicopathological outcome in patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). As part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) whose activity is known to increase in ovarian cancer patients, the relation of sPRR and ovarian cancer should be further investigated. Patients and Methods. In this study 197 patients with primary EOC in our institution from 2000 to 2011 were included. sPRR was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in preoperative taken blood sera. Associations with clinicopathological outcome were analyzed and serum levels of sPRR in patients have been compared to those in healthy specimen. Kaplan-Meier and logistic/Cox regression assessed the impact of the markers on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results. There have been no correlations proved of sPRR levels with neither clinicopathological factors nor prognostic data. Also the distribution of sPRR in patients and controls was normal. Conclusion. sPRR seems to have no predictive, prognostic, or diagnostic value in EOC. As several factors of the RAS which might indicate cancer events have been shown, sPRR seems not to be affected. PMID:27660742

  15. Apatinib treatment combined with chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Linghui; Wang, Yue; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Qian; Wu, Jie; Jin, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Apatinib is a novel oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which has been proved by clinical trials to be effective and safe for patients with chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer. To date, there is no study or case report on apatinib treatment for patients with ovarian cancer. Here, we present the case of a 50-year-old Chinese woman with advanced ovarian cancer, who received apatinib at a daily dose of 500 mg for 28 days per cycle after failure of fourth-line chemotherapy. Favorable oncologic outcome was achieved in this case after treatment with apatinib. The patient’s progression-free survival is now 11.3 months, and she is taking apatinib and capecitabine as maintenance treatment. The common side effect of apatinib was fatigue; however, the toxicity of apatinib was controllable and tolerable. Thus, apatinib may be an option for chemotherapy-refractory advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but this still warrants further investigation. PMID:28352185

  16. Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells: underlying complexity of a simple paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garson, Kenneth; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2015-02-01

    The lack of significant progress in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) underscores the need to gain a better understanding of the processes that lead to chemoresistance and recurrence. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis offers an attractive explanation of how a subpopulation of cells within a patient's tumour might remain refractory to treatment and subsequently form the basis of recurrent chemoresistant disease. This review examines the literature defining somatic stem cells of the ovary and fallopian tube, two tissues that give rise to EOC. In addition, considerable research has been reviewed, that has identified subpopulations of EOC cells, based on marker expression (CD133, CD44, CD117, CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, LY6A, ALDH1 and side population (SP)), which are enriched for tumour initiating cells (TICs). While many studies identified either CD133 or CD44 as markers useful for enriching for TICs, there is little consensus. This suggests that EOC cells may have a phenotypic plasticity that may preclude the identification of universal markers defining a CSC. The assay that forms the basis of quantifying TICs is the xenograft assay. Considerable controversy surrounds the xenograft assay and it is essential that some of the potential limitations be examined in this review. Highlighting such limitations or weaknesses is required to properly evaluate data and broaden our interpretation of potential mechanisms that might be contributing to the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer.

  17. Rac1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: effect on cell EMT and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ruobing; Liao, Gang; Wang, Haixia; Kuang, Jun; Tang, Liangdan

    2015-02-01

    Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rac1) has been implicated in tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); however, limited information is available regarding the role of rac1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of rac1 expression with EMT and EOC prognosis. Rac1 protein levels of 150 EOC specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Survival analysis was performed to determine the correlation between rac1 expression and survival. Cellular and molecular changes were also examined after rac1 in ovarian cancer cells was silenced in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of rac1 on EMT was investigated by Western blot analysis. Rac1 was highly expressed in EOC. Rac1 overexpression was closely associated with advanced stage based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, poor grade, serum Ca-125, and residual tumor size. Survival analyses demonstrated that patients with high rac1 expression levels were more susceptible to early tumor recurrence with very poor prognosis. This study revealed that rac1 downregulation decreased cell EMT and proliferation capability in vitro and in vivo. Rac1 expression possibly altered cell EMT by interacting with p21-activated kinase 1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The present study showed that rac1 overexpression is associated with cell EMT and poor EOC prognosis. Rac1 possibly plays an important role in predicting EOC metastasis.

  18. Prognostic significance of cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) polymorphism in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhar, K. K.; Branigan, K.; Howells, R. E. J.; Musgrove, C.; Jones, P. W.; Strange, R. C.; Fryer, A. A.; Redman, C. W. E.; Hoban, P. R.

    1999-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of CCND1 genotype on clinical outcome in 138 women with epithelial ovarian cancer. CCND1 genotypes were identified from peripheral blood DNA by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Patient CCND1 genotypes were compared with clinical details including FIGO tumor stage, residual tumor volume, tumor histology and differentiation, response to chemotherapy, progression free interval, and survival. We observed no association between patient CCND1 genotypes and tumor characteristics or response to chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression free interval (PFI) among women with different CCND1 genotypes. However, analysis of data from patients who responded to postoperative chemotherapy revealed that women with CCND1 AA genotype were associated with early disease progression (P = 0.020, HR 4.58, 95% CI 1.27-16.48) and reduced survival (P = 0.026, HR 4.48, 95% CI 1.19-16.79) compared with those with CCND1 AG and GG genotypes. These data show that CCND1 genotype does not influence overall prognosis in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients, however, it is associated with disease progression in a subgroup of patients following initial response to chemotherapy.

  19. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  20. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in Japan - results from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sandin, Sven; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for invasive primary epithelial ovarian cancer among Japanese women. In 1990-1994, 45,748 women aged 40-69 years were enrolled in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort. Only 86 epithelial ovarian cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up through 2008, reflecting the low ovarian cancer incidence rates in Japan. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to the exposure of interest. The median age at epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis was 59 years, with a median follow-up before diagnosis of 7.6 years. There were no statistically significant associations for age at menarche or first birth, breastfeeding, use of exogenous hormones, menopausal status at cohort enrollment, height, body mass index, smoking status, second-hand smoke, alcohol consumption, physical activity and family history of cancer in a first-degree relative. The linear decrease in HR associated with each additional birth was 0.75 (95% CI 0.56-0.99). Among women who usually slept >7 h per day, an HR of 0.4 (95% CI 0.2-0.9) emerged compared to those who slept <6 h. This study did not confirm risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among Japanese women that have been reported in studies carried out elsewhere. Usual sleep duration of >7 h per day was inversely associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk, which is a novel finding that needs to be confirmed in other studies.

  1. Expression of transcription factor AP-2α predicts survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, M A; Kellokoski, J K; Moisio, K I; Mitchell, P J; Saarikoski, S; Syrjänen, K; Kosma, V-M

    2000-01-01

    The 52-kDa activator protein (AP)-2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor which has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects in cancer cell lines and in human tumours. In this study the expression of AP-2α was analysed in 303 epithelial ovarian carcinomas by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a polyclonal AP-2α antibody and its mRNA status was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The immunohistochemical expression of AP-2α was correlated with clinicopathological variables, p21/WAF1 protein expression and survival. In normal ovaries, epithelial cells expressed AP-2α protein only in the cytoplasm. In carcinomas nuclear AP-2α expression was observed in 28% of the cases although cytoplasmic expression was more common (51%). The expression of AP-2α varied according to the histological subtype and differentiation. AP-2α and p21/WAF1 expressions did not correlate with each other. Both in univariate (P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (relative risks (RR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13–2.18, P = 0.007) the high cytoplasmic AP-2α expression favoured the overall survival. In contrast, the nuclear AP-2α expression combined with low cytoplasmic expression increased the risk of dying of ovarian cancer (RR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.13–3.83, P = 0.018). The shift in the expression pattern of AP-2α (nuclear vs cytoplasmic) in carcinomas points out to the possibility that this transcription factor may be used by oncogenes in certain histological subtypes. Based on the mRNA analyses, the incomplete expression and translation of AP-2α in ovarian cancer may be due to post-transcriptional regulation. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10864206

  2. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models to Improve Targeted Therapy in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Clare L.; Becker, Marc A.; Haluska, Paul; Samimi, Goli

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that precision therapy targeted to the molecular drivers of a cancer has the potential to improve clinical outcomes, high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) patients are currently treated without consideration of molecular phenotype, and predictive biomarkers that could better inform treatment remain unknown. Delivery of precision therapy requires improved integration of laboratory-based models and cutting-edge clinical research, with pre-clinical models predicting patient subsets that will benefit from a particular targeted therapeutic. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are renewable tumor models engrafted in mice, generated from fresh human tumors without prior in vitro exposure. PDX models allow an invaluable assessment of tumor evolution and adaptive response to therapy. PDX models have been applied to pre-clinical drug testing and biomarker identification in a number of cancers including ovarian, pancreatic, breast, and prostate cancers. These models have been shown to be biologically stable and accurately reflect the patient tumor with regards to histopathology, gene expression, genetic mutations, and therapeutic response. However, pre-clinical analyses of molecularly annotated PDX models derived from high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) remain limited. In vivo response to conventional and/or targeted therapeutics has only been described for very small numbers of individual HG-SOC PDX in conjunction with sparse molecular annotation and patient outcome data. Recently, two consecutive panels of epithelial OC PDX correlate in vivo platinum response with molecular aberrations and source patient clinical outcomes. These studies underpin the value of PDX models to better direct chemotherapy and predict response to targeted therapy. Tumor heterogeneity, before and following treatment, as well as the importance of multiple molecular aberrations per individual tumor underscore some of the important issues addressed in PDX models

  3. miR-100 resensitizes resistant epithelial ovarian cancer to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Xiong, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Sainan; Peng, Dongxian

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the malignant tumors that seriously affects women's health and chemotherapy resistance is an important reason for the poor prognosis. The present study was conducted to investigate whether microRNA-100 (miR-100) can be used to modulate the tolerance to cisplatin in EOC. Expression of miR-100 was compared between ovarian cancer cells tolerant and not tolerant to cisplatin. Mimic and antisense were used to study the roles and related mechanisms of miR-100 in cisplatin sensitivity in EOC. The alternation in the cisplatin sensitivity was investigated using grafted tumors derived from SKOV3/DDP cells with upregulated or downregulated miR-100 expression. miR-100 was lower in cisplatin resistant cell line SKOV3/DDP than in cisplatin sensitive cell line SKOV3. miR-100 might increase cisplatin sensitivity by inhibiting cell proliferation and conversion from G1 to S phase and increasing apoptosis. We showed that mTOR and PLK1 are targets of miR-100 and the cells were resensitized probably due to targeted downregulation of mTOR and PLK1 by miR-100. In vivo study with nude mice showed that tumors derived from miR-100 mimic-transfected cells were more sensitive to cisplatin and had reduced expression of mTOR and PLK1. miR-100 resensitizes resistant epithelial ovarian cancer to cisplatin probably by inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle and by targeted downregulation of mTOR and PLK1 expression.

  4. Potent organo-osmium compound shifts metabolism in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Jessica M; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Munro, Alison F; Fu, Ying; Pizarro, Ana M; Garnett, Mathew J; McDermott, Ultan; Carragher, Neil O; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-07-21

    The organometallic "half-sandwich" compound [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(4-(2-pyridylazo)-N,N-dimethylaniline)I]PF6 is 49× more potent than the clinical drug cisplatin in the 809 cancer cell lines that we screened and is a candidate drug for cancer therapy. We investigate the mechanism of action of compound 1 in A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Whole-transcriptome sequencing identified three missense mutations in the mitochondrial genome of this cell line, coding for ND5, a subunit of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) in the electron transport chain. ND5 is a proton pump, helping to maintain the coupling gradient in mitochondria. The identified mutations correspond to known protein variants (p.I257V, p.N447S, and p.L517P), not reported previously in epithelial ovarian cancer. Time-series RNA sequencing suggested that osmium-exposed A2780 cells undergo a metabolic shunt from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, where defective machinery, associated with mutations in complex I, could enhance activity. Downstream events, measured by time-series reverse-phase protein microarrays, high-content imaging, and flow cytometry, showed a dramatic increase in mitochondrially produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent DNA damage with up-regulation of ATM, p53, and p21 proteins. In contrast to platinum drugs, exposure to this organo-osmium compound does not cause significant apoptosis within a 72-h period, highlighting a different mechanism of action. Superoxide production in ovarian, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancer cells exposed to three other structurally related organo-Os(II) compounds correlated with their antiproliferative activity. DNA damage caused indirectly, through selective ROS generation, may provide a more targeted approach to cancer therapy and a concept for next-generation metal-based anticancer drugs that combat platinum resistance.

  5. A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Palmer, J R; Zauber, A G; Warshauer, M E; Lewis, J L; Strom, B L; Harlap, S; Shapiro, S

    1994-04-01

    The relation of oral contraceptive use to the risk of ovarian cancer was assessed with data collected during 1977-1991 from patients under 65 years of age in hospitals in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. We compared 441 women with recently diagnosed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer to 2,065 control women. Logistic regression was used to control risk factors for ovarian cancer. The multivariate relative risk estimate decreased with the increasing duration of oral contraceptive use (p < 0.05): the estimate was close to 1.0 for duration categories of less than 3 years; it was reduced for the categories of 3-4 years of use and greater, but it did not decline further as the duration of use increased. For > or = 3 years of use, the estimate was 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.4-0.8). The inverse association of risk with > or = 3 years of use was consistently present across categories of age, parity, interview year, and geographic area. It was apparent for as long as 15-19 years after cessation. Many different specific oral contraceptive formulations appeared related to a decreased risk; however, data were sparse for the newer types, particularly phasic preparations, and the ability to assess specific preparations in the context of use of multiple preparations was limited. The present data confirm previous reports of an inverse association of ovarian cancer risk with oral contraceptive use of several years in duration. They also suggest that the association may persist for as long as two decades and that it is not confined to any particular type of oral contraceptive formulation.

  6. Specific point mutations in key redox enzymes are associated with chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Nicole M; Belotte, Jimmy; Saed, Mohammed G; Memaj, Ira; Diamond, Michael P; Morris, Robert T; Saed, Ghassan M

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. Resistance to chemotherapy presents a significant challenge for ovarian cancer treatment. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key redox enzymes have been associated with ovarian cancer survival and progression. The objective of this study was to determine whether chemotherapy induces point mutations in key redox enzymes that lead to the acquisition of chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Human EOC cell lines and their chemoresistant counterpart were utilized for this study. Specific SNPs in key redox enzymes were analyzed by TaqMan SNP Genotyping. Activities and levels of key redox enzymes were determined by real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and a greiss assay. Point mutations in key redox enzymes were introduced into sensitive EOC cells via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Cell viability and IC50 for cisplatin were determined by the MTT Cell Proliferation Assay. Data was analyzed with SPSS using Student's two-tailed t-tests and One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's or Tukey's post hoc tests, p<0.05. Here, we demonstrate that chemoresistant EOC cells are characterized by a further enhancement in oxidative stress as compared to sensitive counterparts. Additionally, chemoresistant EOC cells manifested specific point mutations, which are associated with altered enzymatic activity, in key redox enzymes that are not detected in sensitive counterparts. Supplementation of an antioxidant was able to successfully sensitize EOC cells to chemotherapeutics. Causality was established by the induction of these point mutations in sensitive EOC cells, which resulted in a significant increase in the level of chemoresistance. These findings indicate that chemotherapy induces specific point mutations in key redox enzymes that contribute to the acquisition of chemoresistance in EOC cells, highlighting a potential novel mechanism. Identification of targets for chemoresistance with either

  7. Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Schock, Helena; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopolou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; de Mesquita, H.Bas Bueno; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Sánchez, Soledad; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Sànchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merrit, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n=1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations. Results CRP and IL-6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 vs. CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk (OR=1.67 [1.03 - 2.70]). We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference: (e.g., IL-6: waist ≤80: ORlog2=0.97 [0.81 - 1.16]; waist >88: ORlog2=1.78 [1.28 - 2.48], pheterogeneity ≤0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL-6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity. Impact Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:25855626

  8. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Glycosylation Genes with Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Thomas A.; Huang, Yifan; Cunningham, Julie; Goode, Ellen L.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Vierkant, Robert A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Liebow, Mark; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Myer, Jeff; Iversen, Edwin S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Phelan, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that underglycosylation of the cell membrane mucin MUC1 may be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer. We identified 26 genes involved in glycosylation and examined 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a minor allele frequency of ≥0.05 in relation to incident ovarian cancer. Cases were ascertained at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (n = 396) or a 48-county region in North Carolina (Duke University; n = 534). Ovarian cancer- free controls (n = 1,037) were frequency matched to the cases on age, race, and residence. Subjects were interviewed to obtain data on risk factors and a sample of blood for DNA and genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate assay. We excluded subjects and individual SNPs with genotype call rates of <90%. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, with adjustment for age and residence. We fitted dominant, log additive, and recessive genetic models. Among Caucasians, nine SNPs in eight genes were associated with risk at P < 0.05 under at least one genetic model before adjusting for multiple testing. A SNP in GALNT1 (rs17647532) was the only one that remained statistically significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing but was not statistically significant in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium among controls. Haplo-type analyses revealed a global association of GALNT1 with risk (P = 0.038, under a recessive genetic model), which largely reflected a decreased risk of one haplotype (0.10 frequency; odds ratio, 0.07; P = 0.01) compared with the most common haplotype (0.39 frequency). These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the glycoslyation process may be novel risk factors for ovarian cancer. PMID:18268124

  9. Polymorphisms in Stromal Genes and Susceptibility to Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Wang, Qinggang; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dale, Laura C.; Lambrechts, Diether; Amant, Frederic; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Paul, James; Bützow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana M.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Song, Honglin; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vermeulen, Sita H. H. M.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Cook, Linda S.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vachon, Celine M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Kelemen, Linda E.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among Caucasians were estimated with odds ratios (OR) among 397 cases and 920 controls in two U.S.-based studies (discovery set), 436 cases and 1,098 controls in Australia (replication set 1) and a consortium of 15 studies comprising 1,668 cases and 4,249 controls (replication set 2). The discovery set and replication set 1 (833 cases and 2,013 controls) showed statistically homogeneous (Pheterogeneity≥0.48) decreased risks of sEOC at four variants: DCN rs3138165, rs13312816 and rs516115, and LUM rs17018765 (OR = 0.6 to 0.9; Ptrend = 0.001 to 0.03). Results from replication set 2 were statistically homogeneous (Pheterogeneity≥0.13) and associated with increased risks at DCN rs3138165 and rs13312816, and LUM rs17018765: all ORs = 1.2; Ptrend≤0.02. The ORs at the four variants were statistically heterogeneous across all 18 studies (Pheterogeneity≤0.03), which precluded combining. In post-hoc analyses, interactions were observed between each variant and recruitment period (Pinteraction≤0.003), age at diagnosis (Pinteraction = 0.04), and year of diagnosis (Pinteraction = 0.05) in the five studies with available information (1,044 cases, 2,469 controls). We conclude that variants in DCN and LUM are not directly associated with sEOC, and that confirmation of possible effect modification of the variants by non-genetic factors is required. PMID:21637745

  10. The role of KRAS rs61764370 in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for clinical testing

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gayther, Simon A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Beattie, Mary S.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bolton, Kelly L.; Brewster, Wendy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Campbell, Ian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cook, Linda S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; de Fazio, Anna; Fenstermacher, David A.; Flanagan, James M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Friedman, Eitan; Gao, Bo; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Gross, Jenny; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Harnett, Paul; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Hein, Rebecca; Høgdall, Claus; Høgdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kauff, Noah D.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Lambrechts, Diether; LaPolla, James P.; Lázaro, Conxi; Le, Nhu D.; Leminen, Arto; Leunen, Karin; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Yi; Lundvall, Lene; Macgregor, Stuart; Marees, Tamara; Massuger, Leon F.; McLaughlin, John R.; Menon, Usha; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Osorio, Ana; Paul, Jim; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Radice, Paolo; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Singer, Christian F.; Song, Honglin; Stram, Daniel O.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; van Altena, Anne M.; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Walsh, Christine; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wu, Anna H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Berchuck, Andrew; Risch, Harvey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose An assay for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs61764370 has recently been commercially marketed as a clinical test to aid ovarian cancer risk evaluation in women with family histories of the disease. rs67164370 is in a 3′UTR miRNA binding site of the KRAS oncogene, and is a candidate for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility. However, only one published paper, analyzing fewer than 1,000 subjects in total, has examined this association. Experimental Design Risk association was evaluated in 8,669 cases of invasive EOC and 10,012 controls from nineteen studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, and in 683 cases and 2,044 controls carrying BRCA1 mutations from studies in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. Prognosis association was also examined in a subset of five studies with progression-free survival data and eighteen studies with all-cause mortality data. Results No evidence of association was observed between genotype and risk of unselected EOC (odds ratio (OR)=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.95-1.10), serous EOC (OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.98-1.18), familial EOC (OR=1.09, 95%CI=0.78-1.54), or among women carrying deleterious mutations in BRCA1 (OR=1.09, 95%CI=0.88-1.36). There was little evidence for association with survival time among unselected cases (hazard ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI=0.99-1.22), among serous cases (HR=1.12, 95%CI=0.99-1.28), or with progression-free survival in 540 cases treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel (HR=1.18, 95%CI=0.93-1.52). Conclusions These data exclude the possibility of an association between rs61764370 and a clinically significant risk of ovarian cancer or of familial ovarian cancer. Use of this SNP for ovarian cancer clinical risk prediction therefore appears unwarranted. PMID:21385923

  11. Cancer stem cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and drug resistance in high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Wenjun; Liu, Jinsong

    2013-11-01

    Although epithelial ovarian cancer cells are eliminated by debulking surgery and chemotherapy during initial treatment, it is believed that only a subset of cancer cells, that is, cancer stem cells, may be an important source of tumor recurrence and drug resistance. This review highlights our current understanding of high-grade serous carcinoma, ovarian cancer stem cells, common methods for enrichment of ovarian cancer stem cells, mechanisms involved in drug resistance, and potential strategies for overcoming drug resistance, with associated potential controversies and pitfalls. We also review the potential relationship between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells and how we can induce cancer cells to differentiate into benign stromal fibroblasts in response to certain chemotherapy drugs.

  12. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    PubMed

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  13. Drugs with potential chemopreventive properties in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer--a nationwide case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baandrup, Louise

    2015-07-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis because the disease in the majority of patients is diagnosed at an advanced stage as a result of nonspecific symptoms and lack of efficient screening methods. Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and the challenge of early detection of the disease, identification of protective factors is important. It has been suggested that some commonly used drugs may have a protective effect against cancer, including ovarian cancer; however, the literature on chemopreventive measures for ovarian cancer is sparse and the results are inconclusive. Most previous studies have substantial methodological constraints, including limited study size and self-reporting of drug use, which introduces potential recall bias and misclassification. This PhD thesis includes a nationwide case-control study to evaluate associations between use of drugs with potential chemopreventive properties and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The study is nested in the entire Danish female population using data from the following nationwide registries: the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Prescription Registry, the Danish National Patient Register, and registries in Statistics Denmark on fertility, education, and income. Information from the included registries is linked by use of the unique personal identification number assigned to all Danish citizens. The cases were all women in Denmark with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during 2000-2009 (Paper 1) and 2000-2011 (Papers 2 and 3), identified in the Cancer Registry. Age-matched female population controls were randomly selected from the Civil Registration System by risk-set sampling. We required that cases and controls have no history of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) and that controls not previously have undergone bilateral oophorectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy. The total study population comprised 3741 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 50,576 controls in

  14. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) gene variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y. Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E.; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to EOC risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. Methods We screened 1254 SNPs in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (p<0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A p-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 was considered statistically significant. Results In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.07–1.25, p=0.0003, FDR=0.19), while F8 rs7053448 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.69–0.90, p=0.0005, FDR=0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. Conclusion These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  15. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Our studies to date have determined that human oogonial stem cells , while far less stable than their murine counterparts, can be successfully expanded...DNA signature of the oogonial stem cell -derived tumors to that of primary human ovarian cancer. We have also successfully introduced in human...oogonial stem cells genetic alterations commonly detected in ovarian cancer. We are now generating tumors from these altered oogonial stem cells and will

  16. ABCA Transporter Gene Expression and Poor Outcome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hedditch, Ellen L.; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J.; Lu, Yi; Emmanuel, Catherine; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Harnett, Paul; George, Joshy; Williams, Rebekka T.; Flemming, Claudia; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susan K.; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel P.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen; Bowtell, David D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Norris, Murray D.; MacGregor, Stuart; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. Methods The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA–mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the “A” subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e−6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. Conclusions Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor

  17. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least three months after completion of treatment were included. The decision on whether primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced ovarian cancer was based on age, performance status, clinical and imaging findings. Results A total of 178 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were operated on during this four year period. Among them 28 patients were recurrent cases, 22 had early stages of ovarian cancer, and the rest 128 had stage III and IV ovarian cancer. In these 128 patients, 50(39.1%) underwent primary surgery and 78(60.9%) had NACT followed by surgery. In the primary surgery group 36(72.0%) patients had optimal debulking while in the NACT group 59(75.6%) patient had optimal debulking. With a median follow-up of 34 months, the median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) was 53 and 49 months respectively. Patients who underwent primary surgery had better median PFS than patients who had NACT (56 months versus 39 months, p = 0.002). In stage III C the difference median PFS was significant for those treated with primary surgery when compared with NACT (55 months versus 39 months, p = 0.012). In patients who had optimal debulking to no residual disease (n = 90), primary surgery gave a significant improved PFS (59 months versus 38 months, p = 0.001) when compared with NACT. In univariate analysis, NACT was associated with increased risk of death (HR: 0.350; CI: 0.177–0.693). Conclusion In advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, primary surgery

  18. Fertility-Sparing Surgery in Early Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Viable Option?

    PubMed Central

    Fotopoulou, Christina; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) continues to represent one of the most lethal conditions in women in the western countries. With the shifting of childbearing towards higher age, EOC increasingly affects women with active childbearing wish, resulting in major impacts on treatment management. Next to the optimal therapeutic treatment strategies, gynecologic oncologists are being asked to incorporate into their decision-making processes the patients' wish for fertility preserving alternatives ideally without compromising oncologic safety. Nowadays, fertility-sparing surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional radical cytoreduction in younger women with early stages of the disease. As such, this paper considers indications for fertility sparing surgery in EOC, reflects on outcomes from the oncologic and reproductive data of the largest and most relevant series outcomes data, reporting on fertility sparing techniques in EOC, reviews medicamentous efforts to prevent chemotherapy induced gonadotoxicity, and discusses future aspects in the gynecologic cancer management. PMID:22529854

  19. Overexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) predicts poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanbyoul; Lee, You Sun; Kim, Julie; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Illumina microarray was used to identify differentially expressed genes in three epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. To validate the microarray data, mRNA and protein level of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was examined. GLUT-1 had an EOC/normal cells ratio of 5.51 based on microarray. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GLUT-1 expression was significantly increased in EOC (p = .029 and p < .001, respectively). On survival analysis, GLUT-1 overexpression (HR = 4.80, p = .027) and lymph node metastases (HR = 8.35, p = .016) conferred a significantly worse overall survival. In conclusion, GLUT-1 expression is remarkably upregulated in EOC and predicts a poor overall survival.

  20. Deregulation of let-7e in epithelial ovarian cancer promotes the development of resistance to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, J; Yang, C; Yang, Q; Ding, H; Jia, J; Guo, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment in ovarian cancer patients, and the evidence of microRNAs involvement in drug resistance has been emerging recently. In this report, we investigated the role of let-7e in the development of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. On the cellular level, let-7e expression was significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line A2780/CP compared with parental A2780 cell and decreased in a concentration-dependent manner in A2780, SKOV3 and ES2 cells treated with cisplatin. Overexpression of let-7e by transfection of agomir could resensitize A2780/CP and reduce the expression of cisplatin-resistant-related proteins enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), whereas let-7e inhibitors increased resistance to cisplatin in parental A2780 cells. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR analysis showed hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to let-7e in A2780/CP cells, and demethylation treatment with 5-aza-CdR or transfection of pYr-let-7e-shRNA plasmid containing unmethylated let-7e DNA sequence could restore let-7e expression and partly reduce the chemoresistance. In addition, cisplatin combined with let-7e agomirs inhibited the growth of A2780/CP xenograft more effectively than cisplatin alone. Diminished expression of EZH2 and CCND1 and higher cisplatin concentrations in tumor tissue of mice subjected to administration of let-7e agomirs in addition to cisplatin were revealed by immunohistochemistry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that let-7e may act as a promising therapeutic target for improvement of the sensibility to cisplatin in EOC. PMID:24100610

  1. Value of glutathion-S transferase pi as a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saip, P; Tuzlali, S; Demir, K; Sakar, B; Yavuz, E; Berkman, S; Bengisu, E; Topuz, E

    2005-01-01

    The association between glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) and other clinicopathological parameters, response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome were investigated in chemotherapy naive epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Paraffin-embedded material from 55 patients were used for immunohistochemical analysis. All patients had received six cycles of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy and 41 of them were revalued by laparotomy. Pre- and post-chemotherapy GSTpi staining were detected in the cancer tissues of 18/55 (32.7%) and 5/14 (35.7%) patients, respectively. GSTpi expression was not associated with other clinicopathologic parameters. Of 17 patients with postoperative measurable residual disease clinical response was observed in 4/7 of GSTpi positive and in 9/10 GSTpi negative patients (p = 0.25). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was achieved in 5/8 of GSTpi positive and 11/22 of GSTpi negative cases (p = 0.69). There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) according to initial GSTpi status. However the PFS of the five patients (median 22 +/- 5.9 months) who had postchemotherapy positive GSTpi was significantly shorter than the nine patients (10.0 +/- 2.19 months) who had negative GSTpi (p = 0.006). This difference was not observed in overall survival. These results suggest that initial immunohistochemical staining of GSTpi does not aid in the prediction of pCR and clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Nonetheless investigation of GSTpi expression after chemotherapy needs further evaluation.

  2. Role of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and miRNAs in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Retamales-Ortega, Rocío; Oróstica, Lorena; Vera, Carolina; Cuevas, Paula; Hernández, Andrea; Hurtado, Iván; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer in women worldwide, and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents 90% of cases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A receptor (TRKA) have been associated with the development of several types of cancer, including EOC; both NGF and TRKA levels are elevated in this pathology. EOC presents high angiogenesis and several molecules have been reported to induce this process. NGF increases angiogenesis through its TRKA receptor on endothelial cells, and by indirectly inducing vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Other molecules controlled by NGF include ciclooxigenase-2, disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17) and calreticulin (CRT), proteins involved in crucial processes needed for EOC progression. These molecules could be modified through microRNA regulation, which could be regulated by NGF. MicroRNAs are the widest family of non-coding RNAs; they bind to 3′-UTR of mRNAs to inhibit their translation, to deadenilate or to degraded them. In EOC, a deregulation in microRNA expression has been described, including alterations of miR-200 family, cluster-17-92, and miR-23b, among others. Since the NGF-microRNA relationship in pathologies has not been studied, this review proposes that some microRNAs could be associated with NGF/TRKA activation, modifying protein levels needed for EOC progression. PMID:28245631

  3. Stemness and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells under shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Carman K. M.; Li, Shan-Shan; Tang, Matthew Y. H.; Sy, Samuel K. H.; Ren, Yong; Shum, Ho Cheung; Wong, Alice S. T.

    2016-01-01

    One of greatest challenges to the successful treatment of cancer is drug resistance. An exciting approach is the eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, little is known about key signals regulating the formation and expansion of CSCs. Moreover, lack of a reliable predictive preclinical model has been a major obstacle to discover new cancer drugs and predict their clinical activity. Here, in ovarian cancer, a highly chemoresistant tumor that is rapidly fatal, we provide the first evidence demonstrating the causal involvement of mechanical stimulus in the CSC phenotype using a customizable microfluidic platform and three-dimensional spheroids, which most closely mimic tumor behavior. We found that ovarian cancer cells significantly acquired the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and CSC markers and a remarkable chemoresistance to clinically relevant doses of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel when grown under fluid shear stress, which corroborates with the physiological attainable levels in the malignant ascites, but not under static condition. Furthermore, we uncovered a new link of microRNA-199a-3p, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and multidrug transporter activation in shear stress-induced CSC enrichment. Our findings shed new light on the significance of hydrodynamics in cancer progression, emphasizing the need of a flow-informed framework in the development of therapeutics. PMID:27245437

  4. Identification of 12 new susceptibility loci for different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Catherine M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Kar, Siddhartha P; Lawrenson, Kate; Winham, Stacey J; Dennis, Joe; Pirie, Ailith; Riggan, Marjorie J; Chornokur, Ganna; Earp, Madalene A; Lyra, Paulo C; Lee, Janet M; Coetzee, Simon; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Soucy, Penny; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lecarpentier, Julie; Leslie, Goska; Aalfs, Cora M; Aben, Katja K H; Adams, Marcia; Adlard, Julian; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Azzollini, Jacopo; Balmaña, Judith; Banerjee, Susana N; Barjhoux, Laure; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernardini, Marcus Q; Birrer, Michael J; Bjorge, Line; Black, Amanda; Blankstein, Kenneth; Blok, Marinus J; Bodelon, Clara; Bogdanova, Natalia; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borg, Åke; Bradbury, Angela R; Brenton, James D; Brewer, Carole; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Brunet, Joan; Buecher, Bruno; Butzow, Ralf; Buys, Saundra S; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Cannioto, Rikki; Carney, Michael E; Cescon, Terence; Chan, Salina B; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Xiao Qing; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Conner, Thomas; Cook, Linda S; Cook, Jackie; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Damirovna, Sakaeva Dina; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dao, Fanny; Davidson, Rosemarie; DeFazio, Anna; Delnatte, Capucine; Doheny, Kimberly F; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dossus, Laure; Duran, Mercedes; Dürst, Matthias; Dworniczak, Bernd; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Todd; Eeles, Ros; Eilber, Ursula; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ekici, Arif B; Ellis, Steve; Elvira, Mingajeva; Eng, Kevin H; Engel, Christoph; Evans, D Gareth; Fasching, Peter A; Ferguson, Sarah; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Flanagan, James M; Fogarty, Zachary C; Fortner, Renée T; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fountzilas, George; Fridley, Brooke L; Friebel, Tara M; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; García, María J; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gehrig, Andrea; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Goranova, Teodora; Gore, Martin; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Gruber, Stephen; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Harrington, Patricia A; Harris, Holly R; Hauke, Jan; Hein, Alexander; Henderson, Alex; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hodgson, Shirley; Høgdall, Claus K; Høgdall, Estrid; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Holland, Helene; Hooning, Maartje J; Hosking, Karen; Huang, Ruea-Yea; Hulick, Peter J; Hung, Jillian; Hunter, David J; Huntsman, David G; Huzarski, Tomasz; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Iversen, Edwin S; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jernetz, Mats; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Johnatty, Sharon; Jones, Michael E; Kannisto, Päivi; Karlan, Beth Y; Karnezis, Anthony; Kast, Karin; Kennedy, Catherine J; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Kjaer, Susanne K; Köbel, Martin; Kopperud, Reidun K; Kruse, Torben A; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Larrañaga, Nerea; Larson, Melissa C; Lazaro, Conxi; Le, Nhu D; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Jong Won; Lele, Shashikant B; Leminen, Arto; Leroux, Dominique; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Liebrich, Clemens; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lipworth, Loren; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen H; Lubinński, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lundvall, Lene; Mai, Phuong L; Mendoza-Fandiño, Gustavo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Massuger, Leon F A G; May, Taymaa; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McAlpine, Jessica N; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menon, Usha; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Merritt, Melissa A; Milne, Roger L; Mitchell, Gillian; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moffitt, Melissa; Montagna, Marco; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Musinsky, Jacob; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Nussbaum, Robert L; Odunsi, Kunle; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; O'Malley, David M; Ong, Kai-Ren; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Orr, Nicholas; Orsulic, Sandra; Osorio, Ana; Palli, Domenico; Papi, Laura; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Peeters, Petra H M; Peissel, Bernard; Peixoto, Ana; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth, Jennifer B; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pezzani, Lidia; Pfeiler, Georg; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Piedmonte, Marion; Pike, Malcolm C; Piskorz, Anna M; Poblete, Samantha R; Pocza, Timea; Poole, Elizabeth M; Poppe, Bruce; Porteous, Mary E; Prieur, Fabienne; Prokofyeva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Pujol, Pascal; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Rhiem, Kerstin; Rice, Patricia; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Romm, Jane; Rookus, Matti A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Salvesen, Helga B; Sandler, Dale P; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Senter, Leigha; Setiawan, V Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Sharma, Priyanka; Shelford, Tameka; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Side, Lucy E; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F; Sobol, Hagay; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stadler, Zsofia; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutphen, Rebecca; Sutter, Christian; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Szabo, Csilla I; Szafron, Lukasz; Tan, Yen Y; Taylor, Jack A; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Thull, Darcy L; Tihomirova, Laima; Tinker, Anna V; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tone, Alicia; Trabert, Britton; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Den Berg, David; van der Hout, Annemarie H; van der Luijt, Rob B; Van Heetvelde, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vega, Ana; Edwards, Digna Velez; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Vijai, Joseph; Vratimos, Athanassios; Walker, Lisa; Walsh, Christine; Wand, Dorothea; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Webb, Penelope M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wijnen, Juul T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Woo, Michelle; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zorn, Kristin K; Narod, Steven A; Easton, Douglas F; Amos, Christopher I; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Ottini, Laura; Goodman, Marc T; Park, Sue K; Kelemen, Linda E; Risch, Harvey A; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Simard, Jacques; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Hazelett, Dennis; Monteiro, Alvaro N; Couch, Fergus J; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Goode, Ellen L; Sellers, Thomas A; Gayther, Simon A; Antoniou, Antonis C; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2017-03-27

    To identify common alleles associated with different histotypes of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we pooled data from multiple genome-wide genotyping projects totaling 25,509 EOC cases and 40,941 controls. We identified nine new susceptibility loci for different EOC histotypes: six for serous EOC histotypes (3q28, 4q32.3, 8q21.11, 10q24.33, 18q11.2 and 22q12.1), two for mucinous EOC (3q22.3 and 9q31.1) and one for endometrioid EOC (5q12.3). We then performed meta-analysis on the results for high-grade serous ovarian cancer with the results from analysis of 31,448 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 3,887 mutation carriers with EOC. This identified three additional susceptibility loci at 2q13, 8q24.1 and 12q24.31. Integrated analyses of genes and regulatory biofeatures at each locus predicted candidate susceptibility genes, including OBFC1, a new candidate susceptibility gene for low-grade and borderline serous EOC.

  5. CAP1 is overexpressed in human epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hua, Minhui; Yan, Sujuan; Deng, Yan; Xi, Qinghua; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shuyun; Liu, Jian; Tang, Chunhui; Wang, Yingying; Zhong, Jianxin

    2015-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) regulates both actin filaments and the Ras/cAMP pathway in yeast, and has been found play a role in cell motility and in the development of certain types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated CAP1 gene expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed using EOC tissue samples and the results revealed that CAP1 expression increased with the increasing grade of EOC. In the normal ovarian tissue samples however, CAP1 expression was barely detected. Using Pearson's χ2 test, it was demonstrated that CAP1 expression was associated with the histological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a higher CAP1 expression in patients with EOC was associated with a poorer prognosis. In in vitro experiments using HO-8910 EOC cells, the expression of CAP1 was knocked down using siRNA. The proliferation of the HO-8910 cells was then determined by cell cycle analysis and cell proliferation assay using the cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry. The results revealed that the loss of CAP1 expression inhibited cell cycle progression. These findings suggest that a high expression of CAP1 is involved in the pathogenesis of EOC, and that the downregulation of CAP1 in tumor cells may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with EOC.

  6. Identification of six new susceptibility loci for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Ramus, Susan J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Lee, Andrew; Shen, Howard C; Beesley, Jonathan; Lawrenson, Kate; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Janet M; Spindler, Tassja J; Lin, Yvonne G; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Li, Qiyuan; Coetzee, Simon; Hazelett, Dennis; Miron, Alexander; Southey, Melissa; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Benitez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Garcia, Maria Jose; Komenaka, Ian; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Ganschow, Pamela; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Viel, Alessandra; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Frost, Debra; Perkins, Jo; Platte, Radka; Ellis, Steve; Godwin, Andrew K; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Meindl, Alfons; Engel, Christoph; Sutter, Christian; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Kirk, Judy; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Piedmonte, Marion; O'Malley, David M; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Collée, J Margriet; Rookus, Matti A; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Hamann, Ute; Isaccs, Claudine; Tischkowitz, Marc; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian G; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Brunet, Joan; Lazaro, Conxi; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Plante, Marie; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pankratz, Vernon S; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Szabo, Csilla I; Kauff, Noah; Vijai, Joseph; Aghajanian, Carol A; Pfeiler, Georg; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Phelan, Catherine M; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads; Bojesen, Anders; Zidan, Jamal; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Soller, Maria; Liljegren, Annelie; Arver, Brita; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Lu, Karen H; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine G; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Lele, Shashi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Goodman, Marc T; Thompson, Pamela J; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Pelttari, Liisa M; Butzow, Ralf; Modugno, Francesmary; Kelley, Joseph L; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Orsulic, Sandra; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Woo, Yin-Ling; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Vierkant, Robert A; Bruinsma, Fiona; Giles, Graham G; Liang, Dong; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Wu, Xifeng; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Concannon, Patrick; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bandera, Elisa V; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H; Krakstad, Camilla; Salvesen, Helga B; Tangen, Ingvild L; Bjorge, Line; van Altena, Anne M; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Kellar, Melissa; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Cybulski, Cezary; Yang, Hannah; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Nedergaard, Lotte; Baker, Helen; Song, Honglin; Eccles, Diana; McNeish, Ian; Paul, James; Carty, Karen; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Whittemore, Alice S; Rothstein, Joseph H; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Ji, Bu-Tian; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rosen, Barry; Risch, Harvey A; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Monteiro, Alvaro N; Chen, Ann; Lin, Hui-Yi; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Sellers, Thomas A; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chen, Zhihua; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Harrington, Patricia; Lee, Alice W; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Coetzee, Gerry; Pike, Malcolm C; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Timorek, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Freedman, Matt; Noushmehr, Houtan; Easton, Douglas F; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Gayther, Simon; Pharoah, Paul P; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2015-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  7. MicroRNA-215 targets NOB1 and inhibits growth and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Jin, Yang; Xu, Tianmin; Zhou, Shunqing; Cui, Manhua

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA-215 (miR-215) has been showed to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in many types of cancer. However, its biological function and underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains greatly unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate biological role and underlying mechanism of miR-215 in EOC. Here, we found that miR-215 expression was significantly decreased in EOC tissues or cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissues or normal ovarian cell line. Decreased miR-215 expression was significantly associated with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and lymph node metastasis. Function analysis revealed that overexpression of miR-215 using miR-215 mimic significantly inhibit EOC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro. as well as suppress tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we identified ribosome assembly factor NIN/RPN12 binding protein (NOB1) as a direct targets for miR-215 binding, resulting in suppression it expression, which in turn activated the MAPK signaling pathway. In clinical EOC specimens, NOB1 expression was upregulated, and inversely correlated with miR-215 expression (r = -0.675, P<0.001). Overexpression of NOB1 effectively rescued inhibition effect on EOC cells by induced miR-215 overexpression. Taken together, our findings suggested that miR-215 suppressed EOC growth and invasion by targeting NOB1. PMID:28337275

  8. Expression of Adiponectin Receptor-1 and Prognosis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiahui; Yu, Zhe; Fang, Liping; Liu, Fang; Jiang, Kui

    2017-01-01

    Background Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) has been reported to be associated with the risk of obesity-associated malignancies, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The aim of this study was to determine if AdipoR1 could serve as a prognosis indicator for patients with EOC. Material/Methods In this study, expression of AdipoR1 in 73 EOC patients consecutively admitted to our hospital was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationship between AdipoR1 expression level and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates in patients. Results A relatively lower expression of AdipoR1 in the cancerous tissues was detected compared to normal ovarian tissues, but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). AdipoR1 expression level in EOC patients was negatively correlated with advanced FIGO stages in patients and tumor differentiation, but had no correlation with pathological types, presenting of ascites, shorter platinum-free interval (PFI), diabetes, preoperative and postoperative body mass index (BMI), or platelet counts (p>0.05). Moreover, patients with AdipoR1 expression had a significantly longer PFS and OS compared to the negative expression group (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that AdipoR1 expression level in cancerous tissues might serve as an independent prognostic indicator in EOC patients and is associated with longer PFS and OS. PMID:28356549

  9. Paclitaxel is necessary for improved survival in epithelial ovarian cancers with homologous recombination gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Stephanie; Li, Jiaqi; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; Maxwell, Kara N.; Fishbein, Lauren; McLane, Michael W.; Benedetto, Chiara; Canuto, Emilie Marion; Mitra, Nandita; Zhang, Lin; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Tanyi, Janos L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the impact of somatic mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes on the chemotherapeutic response and survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We performed targeted massively parallel sequencing of tumor DNA from 158 patients with EOC. We associated adjuvant chemotherapy and clinical outcome with mutations in selected genes, focusing on those encoding HR proteins. RESULTS HR mutations were found in 47 (30%) tumors. We did not detect an overall survival (OS) difference in advanced stage patients whose tumors had HR mutations compared to those without (median OS of 49.6 months (95% CI 29.9-57.7) vs. 43.3 months (95% CI 31.9-75.47), p = 0.87). However, when stratified by chemotherapy regimen, patients whose tumors had TP53 and HR mutations demonstrated a marked survival advantage when treated with platinum and paclitaxel vs. platinum +/− cyclophosphamide (median OS of 90 months (95% CI 50-NA) vs. 29.5 months (95% CI 17.7-50.5), p = 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS Previous studies demonstrating a survival advantage for EOC patients with somatic HR mutations have been conducted with almost universal use of both platinum and paclitaxel. Our study is the first to our knowledge to compare cohorts with somatic HR gene mutations treated with and without paclitaxel containing platinum regimens. The survival benefit attributed to the platinum sensitivity of HR deficient ovarian cancers may depend upon the combined use of paclitaxel. PMID:27191893

  10. Potential Target Antigens for a Universal Vaccine in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Renee; Daemen, Toos; de Bock, Geertruida H.; de Graeff, Pauline; Leffers, Ninke; Lambeck, Annechien; ten Hoor, Klaske A.; Hollema, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Nijman, Hans W.

    2010-01-01

    The prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the primary cause of death from gynaecological malignancies, has only modestly improved over the last decades. Immunotherapeutic treatment using a cocktail of antigens has been proposed as a “universal” vaccine strategy. We determined the expression of tumor antigens in the context of MHC class I expression in 270 primary tumor samples using tissue microarray. Expression of tumor antigens p53, SP17, survivin, WT1, and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 120 (48.0%), 173 (68.9%), 208 (90.0%), 129 (56.3%), and 27 (11.0%) of 270 tumor specimens, respectively. In 93.2% of EOC, at least one of the investigated tumor antigens was (over)expressed. Expression of MHC class I was observed in 78.1% of EOC. In 3 out 4 primary tumors, (over)expression of a tumor antigen combined with MHC class I was observed. These results indicate that a multiepitope vaccine, comprising these antigens, could serve as a universal therapeutic vaccine for the vast majority of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:20885926

  11. Aspirin, Nonaspirin Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug, and Acetaminophen Use and Risk of Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Pooled Analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several malignancies. Epidemiologic studies analyzing aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and acetaminophen use and ovarian cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods We analyzed pooled data from 12 population-based case–control studies of ovarian cancer, including 7776 case patients and 11843 control subjects accrued between 1992 and 2007. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations of medication use with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated in individual studies using logistic regression and combined using random effects meta-analysis. Associations between frequency, dose, and duration of analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer were also assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84 to 0.99). Results were similar but not statistically significant for nonaspirin NSAIDs, and there was no association with acetaminophen. In seven studies with frequency data, the reduced risk was strongest among daily aspirin users (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.96). In three studies with dose information, the reduced risk was strongest among users of low dose (<100mg) aspirin (OR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.83), whereas for nonaspirin NSAIDs, the reduced risk was strongest for high dose (≥500mg) usage (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.91). Conclusions Aspirin use was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, especially among daily users of low-dose aspirin. These findings suggest that the same aspirin regimen proven to protect against cardiovascular events and several cancers could reduce the risk of ovarian cancer 20% to 34% depending on frequency and dose of use. PMID:24503200

  12. Conditioned media from human ovarian cancer endothelial progenitor cells induces ovarian cancer cell migration by activating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Teng, L; Peng, S; Guo, H; Liang, H; Xu, Z; Su, Y; Gao, L

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) migrate to and engraft at ovarian cancer sites. Understanding the interactions between ovarian cancer cells and EPCs is fundamental for determining whether to harness EPC-tumor interactions for delivery of therapeutic agents or target them for intervention. Ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3) were cultured alone or in EPC-conditioned media (EPC-CM). Migration of ovarian cancer cells was detected by transwell chamber. N-cadherin and E-cadherin expression were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot. EPC-CM can increase transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) secretion in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. EPC-CM induced loss of ovarian cancer cell-cell junctions, downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of N-cadherin and acquisition of a fibroblastic phenotype, consistent with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The specific TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 abolished the SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell migration induced by EPC-CM. In SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, EPC-CM downregulated E-cadherin and concurrently upregulated N-cadherin. EPC-CM upregulated the expression of transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, Snail and Twist. Treatment with SB431542 abolished the effects of EPC-CM on the relative expression levels of cadherin, Snail and Twist. This study demonstrates that TGF-β has a role in EPC-CM-induced ovarian cancer migration by activating EMT.

  13. Human steroidogenic factor-1 (hSF-1) regulates progesterone biosynthesis and growth of ovarian surface epithelial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ramayya, M S; Sheng, M; Moroz, K; Hill, S M; Rowan, B G

    2010-03-01

    The majority of cancers derived from ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells are lethal. Estrogens promote proliferation of OSE cells, whereas progesterone inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of OSE cells. Human steroidogenic factor-1 (hSF-1) induction of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene, and the steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 is central to progesterone biosynthesis. Whereas hSF-1 and StAR are expressed in human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells, hSF-1 and StAR protein were not expressed in a panel of malignant ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, BG-1, and Caov-3), and in human OSE cells immortalized by SV40 large T antigen (IOSE-121). Transient expression of hSF-1 in SKOV-3 cells activated the expression of StAR, p450scc and 3betaHSD-II mRNAs, and induced progesterone biosynthesis. Additionally, hSF-1 suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells and suppressed SKOV-3 cell growth induced by ERalpha and estradiol. These findings suggest that hSF-1 is central to progesterone biosynthesis in OSE cells. Human SF-1 may decrease OSE cancer cell numbers directly by apoptosis, and indirectly by opposing estradiol-induced proliferation. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis, that down-regulation of hSF-1 contributes to progression of ovarian epithelial cancers.

  14. BubR1 as a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y-K; Choi, E; Kim, M A; Park, P-G; Park, N-H; Lee, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies, and has a high recurrence rate. Thus, prognostic markers for recurrence are crucial for the care of ovarian cancer. As ovarian cancers frequently exhibit chromosome instability, we aimed at assessing the prognostic significance of two key mitotic kinases, BubR1 and Aurora A. Methods: We analysed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 160 ovarian cancer patients whose clinical outcomes had been tracked after first-line treatment. Results: The median recurrence-free survival in patients with a positive and negative expression of BubR1 was 27 and 83 months, respectively (P<0.001). A positive BubR1 expression was also associated with advanced stage, serous histology and high grade. In contrast, Aurora A immunostaining did not correlate with any of the clinical parameters analysed. Conclusion: BubR1, but not Aurora A, is a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID:19603021

  15. Crk-like adapter protein regulates CCL19/CCR7-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ERK signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Xiangshan

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by CCL19/CCR7 play an important role in ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CrkL on the CCL19/CCR7 signaling pathways in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) are not well characterized. Here, CCR7 and CrkL proteins were tested in 30 EOC tissues and cell lines. In vitro, the roles of CrkL in CCL19-stimulated SKOV-3 cell invasion and migration were investigated. In this work, CCR7 and CrkL over-expressed in EOC tissues and cell lines and correlated with FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, CCR7 and CrkL serve as an independent prognostic factor. In SKOV-3 cells, CrkL knockdown markedly suppressed the CCL19-stimulated expression of p-ERK and EMT biomarkers (N-cadherin, Snail and MMP9), compared with control. In contrast, p-AKT expression level did not change. On the other hand, functional analysis revealed CrkL knockdown could significantly decrease SKOV-3 cell invasion number of transwell invasion assay, and wound closure area of wound healing assay, compared to control. In conclusion, CrkL regulates CCL19/CCR7-induced EMT via ERK signaling pathway in EOC patients, which further suggested CrkL could be suggested as an efficient target in ovarian cancer treatment.

  16. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Notch and TGFβ form a positive regulatory loop and regulate EMT in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiesi; Jain, Saket; Azad, Abul K; Xu, Xia; Yu, Hai Chuan; Xu, Zhihua; Godbout, Roseline; Fu, YangXin

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the mechanisms that regulate EMT in EOC are not fully understood. Here, we report that activation of Notch1 induces EMT in EOC cells as evidenced by downregulation of E-cadherin and cytokeratins, upregulation of Slug and Snail, as well as morphological changes. Interestingly, activation of Notch1 increases TGFβ/Smad signaling by upregulating the expression of TGFβ and TGFβ type 1 receptor. Time course experiments demonstrate that inhibition of Notch by DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) decreases TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads at late, but not at early, timepoints. These results suggest that Notch activation plays a role in sustaining TGFβ/Smad signaling in EOC cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch by DAPT decreases TGFβ induction of Slug and repression of E-cadherin and knockdown of Notch1 decreases TGFβ-induced repression of E-cadherin, indicating that Notch is required, at least in part, for TGFβ-induced EMT in EOC cells. On the other hand, TGFβ treatment increases the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 and Notch target gene HES1 in EOC cells. Functionally, the combination of Notch1 activation and TGFβ treatment is more potent in promoting motility and migration of EOC cells than either stimulation alone. Taken together, our results indicate that Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop and cooperatively regulate EMT and promote EOC cell motility and migration.

  18. Accumulation of cytoplasmic Cdk1 is associated with cancer growth and survival rate in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ha-Yeon; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kang, Eun Suk; Lee, Eun-ju; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) have previously reported correlation with cancer growth and a key regulator for cell cycle. Mostly, Cdk1′s function of nucleus for cell cycle is well known to be associated with cancer, but cytoplasmic Cdk1′s traits are not clearly identified, yet. We revealed that tissue microarray blocks of epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 249) showed increased level of cytoplasmic Cdk1 (p < 0.001), but not in nucleus (p = 0.192) of histologic cell type independently. On survival analysis, Cdk1 overexpression conferred a significantly worse prognosis in 5-year overall survival (Log-rank p = 0.028, Hazard ratio = 2.016, 95% CI = 1.097 to 4.635). Also, the expression of Cdk1 was increased in ovarian cancer cell lines and Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. When the expression and activity of Cdk1 were inhibited by si-Cdk1 or RO-3306 which is a potent Cdk1 inhibitor, the growth of ovarian cancer was diminished. Moreover, combined treatment with RO-3306 and cisplatin in ovarian cancer significantly elevated anti-cancer effects than single-agent treatment. In conclusion, cytoplasmic Cdk1 expression which was elevated in ovarian cancer predicts a poor overall survival. The inhibition of Cdk1 expression and activity reduced ovarian cancer growth. PMID:27385216

  19. Pinin interacts with C-terminal binding proteins for RNA alternative splicing and epithelial cell identity of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanli; Kwok, Jamie Sui-Lam; Choi, Pui-Wah; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Junzheng; Singh, Margit; Ng, Shu-Kay; Welch, William R.; Muto, Michael G.; Tsui, Stephen KW; Sugrue, Stephen P.; Berkowitz, Ross S.; Ng, Shu-Wing

    2016-01-01

    Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells. Knockdown of Pinin in ovarian cancer cells resulted in specific reduction of CtBP1 protein expression, cell adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, and increased drug sensitivity. Whole transcriptomic comparison of next-generation RNA sequencing data between control ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer cell lines with respective knockdown of Pinin, CtBP1, and CtBP2 expression also showed reduced expression of CtBP1 mRNA in the Pinin knockdown cell lines. The Pinin knockdown cell lines shared significant overlap of differentially expressed genes and RNA splicing aberrations with CtBP1 knockdown and in a lesser degree with CtBP2 knockdown cancer cells. Hence, Pinin and CtBP are oncotargets that closely interact with each other to regulate transcription and pre-mRNA alternative splicing and promote cell adhesion and other epithelial characteristics of ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26871283

  20. The clonal origin and clonal evolution of epithelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sergio Britto; Novelli, Marco; Wright, Nicholas A

    2000-01-01

    While the origin of tumours, whether from one cell or many, has been a source of fascination for experimental oncologists for some time, in recent years there has been a veritable explosion of information about the clonal architecture of tumours and their antecedents, stimulated, in the main, by the ready accessibility of new molecular techniques. While most of these new results have apparently confirmed the monoclonal origin of human epithelial (and other) tumours, there are a significant number of studies in which this conclusion just cannot be made. Moreover, analysis of many articles show that the potential impact of such considerations as patch size and clonal evolution on determinations of clonality have largely been ignored, with the result that a number of these studies are confounded. However, the clonal architecture of preneoplastic lesions provide some interesting insights — many lesions which might have been hitherto regarded as hyperplasias are apparently clonal in derivation. If this is indeed true, it calls into some question our hopeful corollary that a monoclonal origin presages a neoplastic habitus. Finally, it is clear, for many reasons, that methods of analysis which involve the disaggregation of tissues, albeit microdissected, are far from ideal and we should be putting more effort into techniques where the clonal architecture of normal tissues, preneoplastic and preinvasive lesions and their derivative tumours can be directly visualized in situ. PMID:10762440

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well.

  2. miR-200c Regulation of Metastases in Ovarian Cancer: Potential Role in Epithelial and Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Jamal, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Among the gynecological malignancies, ovarian cancer is the most fatal due to its high mortality rate. Most of the identified cases are epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with five distinct subtypes: high-grade serous carcinoma, low-grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and clear-cell carcinoma. Lack of an early diagnostic approach, high incidence of tumor relapse and the heterogenous characteristics between each EOC subtypes contribute to the difficulties in developing precise intervention and therapy for the patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that have been shown to function as tumor suppressors or oncomiRs. The miR-200 family, especially miR-200c, has been shown to be implicated in the metastasis and invasion of ovarian carcinoma due to its functional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This mini review is aimed to summarize the recent findings of the miR-200c functional role as well as its validated targets in the metastasis cascade of ovarian cancer, with a focus on EMT regulation. The potential of this miRNA in early diagnosis and its dual expression status are also discussed. PMID:27601996

  3. Ovarian Mouse Models with Targeted Fallopian Tubal Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    serous subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer may also arise from the fallopian epithelium. This shift in cell-of-origin for ovarian cancer has...hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancer may arise from fallopian tubal epithelium are lacking. Therefore, in this proposal we generated a mouse...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT To test the idea that ovarian cancer arises from oviductal

  4. Proton pump inhibitors enhance the effects of cytotoxic agents in chemoresistant epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Eun; Cho, Young Jae; Ryu, Ji Yoon; Choi, Jung-Joo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Gun; Kim, Woo Young; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether proton pump inhibitors (PPI, V-ATPase blocker) could increase the effect of cytotoxic agents in chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Expression of V-ATPase protein was evaluated in patients with EOC using immunohistochemistry, and patient survival was compared based on expression of V-ATPase mRNA from a TCGA data set. In vitro, EOC cell lines were treated with chemotherapeutic agents with or without V-ATPase siRNA or PPI (omeprazole) pretreatment. Cell survival and apoptosis was assessed using MTT assay and ELISA, respectively. In vivo experiments were performed to confirm the synergistic effect with omeprazole and paclitaxel on tumor growth in orthotopic and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. Expression of V-ATPase protein in ovarian cancer tissues was observed in 44 patients (44/59, 74.6%). Higher expression of V-ATPase mRNA was associated with poorer overall survival in TCGA data. Inhibition of V-ATPase by siRNA or omeprazole significantly increased cytotoxicity or apoptosis to paclitaxel in chemoresistant (HeyA8-MDR, SKOV3-TR) and clear cell carcinoma cells (ES-2, RMG-1), but not in chemosensitive cells (HeyA8, SKOV3ip1). Moreover, the combination of omeprazole and paclitaxel significantly decreased the total tumor weight compared with paclitaxel alone in a chemoresistant EOC animal model and a PDX model of clear cell carcinoma. However, this finding was not observed in chemosensitive EOC animal models. These results show that omeprazole pretreatment can increase the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in chemoresistant EOC and clear cell carcinoma via reduction of the acidic tumor microenvironment. PMID:26418900

  5. Outcomes of laparoscopic fertility-sparing surgery in clinically early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) is becoming an important technique in the surgical management of young women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of laparoscopic FSS in presumed clinically early-stage EOC. Methods We retrospectively searched databases of patients who received laparoscopic FSS for EOC between January 1999 and December 2012 at Samsung Medical Center. Women aged ≤40 years were included. The perioperative, oncological, and obstetric outcomes of these patients were evaluated. Results A total of 18 patients was evaluated. The median age of the patients was 33.5 years (range, 14 to 40 years). The number of patients with clinically stage IA and IC was 6 (33.3%) and 12 (66.7%), respectively. There were 7 (38.9%), 5 (27.8%), 3 (16.7%), and 3 patients (16.7%) with mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and serous tumor types, respectively. Complete surgical staging to preserve the uterus and one ovary with adnexa was performed in 4 patients (22.2%). Two out of them were upstaged to The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIIA1. During the median follow-up of 47.3 months (range, 11.5 to 195.3 months), there were no perioperative or long term surgical complications. Four women (22.2%) conceived after their respective ovarian cancer treatments. Three (16.7%) of them completed full-term delivery and one is expecting a baby. One patient had disease recurrence. No patient died of the disease. Conclusion FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC is a challenging and cautious procedure. Further studies are urgent to determine the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic FSS in young patients with presumed clinically early-stage EOC. PMID:26768783

  6. Clinical features and outcomes of neck lymphatic metastasis in ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck lymph node metastasis (NLNM) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is rare and treated as advanced stage cancer. However, ovarian cancer with lymphatic metastasis may manifest a different clinical course from peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods The authors retrospectively assessed 20 patients with EOC and pathologically diagnosed as NLNM between January 2001 and December 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the time of NLNM identification. Statistical methods included Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, and Cox regression analysis. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with NLNM at the same time of surgical exploration of EOC (Group A) and nine patients at cancer recurrence 43.3 months after initial surgery (Group B). In Group A, patients with tumors confined to the pelvic cavity had no recurrence or had isolated lymph node recurrence (ILNR), and survived longer than patients with abdominal tumor spreading (P = 0.0007). In Group B, 2 patients showed ILNR. The median survival time after NLNM was 42 months in Group A and 6 months in Group B (P = 0.01). Cox model demonstrated that non-serous histology, brain metastasis, and NLNM identified at cancer recurrence were major predictors for poor overall survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 18.67, 6.93, and 4.52; P = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Conclusions A subgroup of EOC patients with NLNM who presented limited pelvic cancer had much better overall survival than patients who had cancer spreading beyond the pelvic cavity or were diagnosed with NLNM at cancer recurrence. PMID:24088247

  7. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  8. Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells exhibit intrinsic anti-tumor properties on human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Shixia; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qiuwan; Sun, Junyan; He, Biwei; Xiang, Charlie; Liu, Zhiwei; Lai, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal tumor of all gynecologic tumors. There is no curative therapy for EOC thus far. The tumor-homing ability of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide the promising potential to use them as vehicles to transport therapeutic agents to the site of tumor. Meanwhile, studies have showed the intrinsic anti-tumor properties of MSCs against various kinds of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer. Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood are a novel source for adult MSCs and exert restorative function in some diseases. Whether EnSCs endow innate anti-tumor properties on EOC cells has never been reported. By using tumor-bearing animal model and ex vivo experiments, we found that EnSCs attenuated tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest, promoting apoptosis, disturbing mitochondria membrane potential and decreasing pro-angiogenic ability in EOC cells in vitro and/or in vivo. Furthermore, EnSCs decreased AKT phosphorylation and promoted nuclear translocation of Forkhead box O-3a (FoxO3a) in EOC cells. Collectively, our findings elucidated the potential intrinsic anti-tumor properties of EnSCs on EOC cells in vivo and in vitro. This research provides a potential strategy for EnSC-based anti-cancer therapy against epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:27845405

  9. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5'-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

  10. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5′-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer

  11. Risk Factors and Indications for 30-Day Readmission After Primary Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam; Langstraat, Carrie; Tran, Christine; Martin, Janice; Weaver, Amy; McGree, Michaela; Mariani, Andrea; Cliby, William; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify patients at risk for postoperative morbidities, we evaluated indications and factors associated with 30-day readmission after epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with 30-day readmission. A parsimonious multivariable model was identified using backward and stepwise variable selection. Results In total, 324 (60.2%) patients were stage III and 91 (16.9%) were stage IV. Of all 538 eligible patients, 104 (19.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cytoreduction to no residual disease was achieved in 300 (55.8%) patients, and 167 (31.0%) had measurable disease (≤1 cm residual disease). The most common indications for readmission were surgical site infection (SSI; 21.2%), pleural effusion/ascites management (14.4%), and thromboembolic events (12.5%). Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–2.89; P = 0.007), ascites [1.76 (1.11–2.81); P = 0.02], and postoperative complications during initial admission [grade 3–5 vs none, 2.47 (1.19–5.16); grade 1 vs none, 2.19 (0.98–4.85); grade 2 vs none, 1.28 (0.74–2.21); P = 0.048] to be independently associated with 30-day readmission (c-index = 0.625). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the sole predictor of readmission for SSI (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.33; P = 0.04). Conclusions Clinically significant risk factors for 30-day readmission include American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher, ascites and postoperative complications at initial admission. The SSI and pleural effusions/ascites are common indications for readmission. Systems can be developed to predict patients needing outpatient management, improve care, and reduce

  12. Prognostic analysis of invasive circulating tumor cells (iCTCs) in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearl, Michael L.; Zhao, Qiang; Yang, Jie; Dong, Huan; Tulley, Shaun; Zhang, Qiao1; Golightly, Marc; Zucker, Stanley; Chen, Wen-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Goals: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been introduced as a biomarker in detecting advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC). The goals are to examine the prevalence of the invasive subpopulation of CTCs (iCTCs) in patients at high risk of EOC and to compare this biomarker to serum CA125. Methods: We used a unique Cell Adhesion Matrix (CAM)-based, functional cell enrichment and identification platform to isolate iCTCs from 129 preoperative patients. We confirmed the identity of iCTCs using positive epithelial (Epi+) markers and negative hematopoietic lineage (HL-) markers. Sensitivity and specificity of the assays were examined and iCTCs / CA125 were correlated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and clinical parameters. Results: We found a 41.2% sensitivity, 95.1% specificity and 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV) of the iCTC assay in detecting patients with stage I and II EOC malignancy, and a 83% sensitivity and 97.3% PPV in detecting all stages of EOC malignancy. However, a positive CA125 test provided weak evidence to detect stage I and II malignancy (61.6% PPV) and all EOC (92.1% PPV), because of its 76.2% specificity. A significantly stronger concordance in OS and PFS of clinical factors (tumor stage, debulking and platinum sensitivity) was noted for elevated iCTCs than for serum CA125. Conclusion: The CAM-initiated CTC enrichment / identification method enabled the detection of early stage EOC. iCTCs were better correlated with worse OS and PFS, more specific and better PPV than CA125 in detecting EOC malignancy in patients at high risk of EOC. PMID:24972191

  13. EZH2 inhibition promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Zhao, Janice; Vieth, Edyta; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2016-12-20

    Cancer cells acquire essential characteristics for metastatic dissemination through the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by gene expression and chromatin remodeling changes. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) to repress gene transcription. Here we report the functional roles of EZH2-catalyzed H3K27me3 during EMT in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. TGF-β-induced EMT in SKOV3 OC cells was associated with decreased levels of EZH2 and H3K27me3 (P<0.05). These effects were delayed (~72 h relative to EMT initiation) and coincided with increased (>15-fold) expression of EMT-associated transcription factors ZEB2 and SNAI2. EZH2 knockdown (using siRNA) or enzymatic inhibition (by GSK126) induced EMT-like changes in OC cells. The EMT regulator ZEB2 was upregulated in cells treated with either approach. Furthermore, TGF-β enhanced expression of ZEB2 in EZH2 siRNA- or GSK126-treated cells (P<0.01), suggesting that H3K27me3 plays a role in TGF-β-stimulated ZEB2 induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that TGF-β treatment decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 to the ZEB2 promoter (P<0.05). In all, these results demonstrate that EZH2, by repressing ZEB2, is required for the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype in OC cells.

  14. Redefining the origin and evolution of ovarian cancer: a hormonal connection.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Carlos; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yun, Bo Seong; Mor, Gil

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all female reproductive cancers. Late diagnosis, tumour heterogeneity and the development of chemoresistance contribute to this statistic and work against patient survival. Current studies have revealed novel concepts that impact our view on how ovarian cancer develops. The greatest impact is on our understanding that, as a disease, ovarian cancer has multiple cellular origins and that these malignant precursors are mostly derived from outside of the ovaries. In this review, we propose a new concept of a step-wise developmental process that may underwrite ovarian tumorigenesis and progression: (1) migration/recruitment to the ovaries; (2) seeding and establishment in the ovaries; (3) induction of a dormant cancer stage; and (4) expansion and tumor progression. We will discuss the relationship of each step with the changing ovarian function and milieu during the reproductive age and the subsequent occurrence of menopause. The realization that ovarian cancer development and progression occurs in distinct steps is critical for the search of adequate markers for early detection that will offer personalized strategies for prevention and therapy.

  15. MiR-143 targets CTGF and exerts tumor-suppressing functions in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lufei; He, Jin; Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Longjie; Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    A series of recent studies suggested that miR-143 might involve in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of various cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-143 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the miR-143 expression and its clinical diagnosis significance in patients suffering EOC and to analyze its role and underlying molecular mechanism in EOC. Our result showed that the expression levels of miR-143 were downregulated in EOC tissues and cell lines, was associated with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, pathological grade and lymph node metastasis (all P < 0.01) . Overexpression of miR-143 significantly inhibited EOC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, computational algorithm combined with luciferase reporter assays identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as the direct target of miR-143 in EOC cells. The expression level of CTGF was significantly increased in EOC tissues, was inversely correlated with miR-143 expression in clinical EOC tissues. Knockdown of CTGF mimicked the suppression effect induced by miR-143 overexpression. Restoration of CTGF expression partially reversed the suppression effect induced by miR-143 overexpression. These results suggested that miR-143 inhibited EOC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, at least in part, via suppressing CTGF expression. PMID:27398154

  16. AEG-1 as a predictor of sensitivity to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Jin, Xin; Song, Hongtao; Meng, Fanling

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a critical role in tumor progression and chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of AEG-1 in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who underwent debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Materials and methods The protein expression of AEG-1 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry in 162 patients with EOC. The relationship between AEG-1 expression and chemotherapy resistance was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with covariate adjustments. Results High AEG-1 expression was significantly associated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, age, serum cancer antigen-125 concentration, histological grade, the presence of residual tumor after the interval debulking surgery, and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, AEG-1 expression was significantly higher in NAC-resistant disease than in NAC-sensitive disease (P<0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated AEG-1 expression predicted poor survival. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AEG-1 may be a potential new biomarker for predicting chemoresistance and poor prognoses in patients with EOC. PMID:27143933

  17. Prognostic Significance of the Tumor-Stroma Ratio in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Xiangyu

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has recently been identified as a promising prognostic parameter for several solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of TSR in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and 838 EOC patients were enrolled in this study. TSR was estimated on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained tissue sections from the most invasive part of the primary tumor. Patients were classified as stroma-rich or stroma-poor according to the proportion of stroma ≥50% or <50%. Chi-square test analysis revealed that TSR were significantly associated with FIGO stage, LN status, and recurrence or not (all of them P < 0.001). The higher stroma-rich proportions were found in EOC patients with advanced stage (36.13% versus 19.75%), LN metastasis (51.93% versus 27.25%), and recurrence (34.27% versus 6.82%). Stroma-rich EOC patients had obvious shorter median time of progression-free survival (29 versus 39 months) and overall survival (50 versus 58 months), respectively. TSR was an independent prognostic factor for the evaluation of PFS in EOC. Stroma-rich tumors had worse prognosis and higher risk of relapse compared with those in stroma-poor tumors in EOC patients. Considered easy to determine for routine pathological examination, TSR may serve as a new prognostic histological parameter in EOC. PMID:26609529

  18. Resistance to glucose starvation as metabolic trait of platinum-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pastò, Anna; Pagotto, Anna; Pilotto, Giorgia; De Paoli, Angela; De Salvo, Gian Luca; Baldoni, Alessandra; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Ricci, Francesca; Damia, Giovanna; Bellio, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Deregulated glucose metabolism is observed in cancer but whether this metabolic trait influences response to or is modulated by cytotoxic drugs is unknown. We show here that tumor cells from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients can be categorized, according to their in vitro viability under glucose starvation, into glucose deprivation-sensitive (glucose-addicted, GA) and glucose deprivation-resistant (glucose non-addicted, GNA). When EOC cells were cultured in the absence of glucose, all samples from platinum (PLT)-sensitive patients felt into the GA group; they disclosed higher expression of glucose metabolism enzymes, higher proliferation rates and in vitro sensitivity to PLT. Moreover, GA patients showed reduced multi-drug resistance pump expression and autophagy, compared to GNA samples. The close association between PLT sensitivity and glucose metabolic profile was confirmed in a xenograft model, where a stringent parallelism between PLT sensitivity/resistance and glucose metabolism was identified. Finally, in a cohort of naïve EOC patients categorized as GA or GNA at diagnosis, Kaplan Meier curves showed that the GA phenotype was associated with significantly better progression-free survival, compared to GNA patients. PMID:28031535

  19. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Sustained by Rac1 through Simultaneous Activation of MEK1/2 and Src Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Dongdong; Chen, Huijun; Zhu, Jessica Y; Wang, Wei; Teng, Yong; Ding, Han-Fei; Jing, Qing; Su, Shi-Bing; Huang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as a crucial contributing factor to cancer progression. Diverse factors have been identified as potent EMT inducers in ovarian cancer. However, molecular mechanism sustaining EMT of ovarian cancer cells remains elusive. Here, we show that the presence of SOS1/EPS8/ABI1 complex is critical for sustained EMT traits of ovarian cancer cells. Consistent with the role of SOS1/EPS8/ABI1 complex as a Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, depleting Rac1 results in the loss of most of mesenchymal traits in mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells while expressing constitutively active Rac1 leads to EMT in epithelial-like ovarian cancer cells. With the aid of clinically tested inhibitors targeting various EMT-associated signaling pathways, we show that only combined treatment of MEK1/2 and Src inhibitors can abolish constitutively active Rac1-led EMT and mesenchymal traits displayed by mesenchymal-like ovarian cancer cells. Further experiments also reveal that EMT can be induced in epithelial-like ovarian cancer cells by co-expressing constitutively active MEK1 and Src rather than either alone. As the activities of Erk and Src are higher in ovarian cancer cells with constitutively active Rac1, we conclude that Rac1 sustains ovarian cancer cell EMT through simultaneous activation of MEK1/2 and Src signaling pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that combined use of MEK1/2 and Src inhibitors effectively suppresses development of intraperitoneal xenografts and prolongs the survival of ovarian cancer-bearing mice. This study suggests that cocktail of MEK1/2 and Src inhibitors represents an effective therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer progression. PMID:27617576

  20. Role of nerve growth factor and its TRKA receptor in normal ovarian and epithelial ovarian cancer angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina; Tapia, Verónica; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2014-08-10

    In normal ovarian function a controlled angiogenesis is essential. Several growth factors are involved in this process, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). The angiogenesis process in the normal ovary is a tightly controlled process that occurs in each ovarian cycle. Also, angiogenesis is critical for ovarian cancer development and it is responsible for tumor spread, metastasis and its peritoneal dissemination. Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women and it is distinguished as the most lethal gynecologic cancer. In recent years angiogenesis has been given considerable attention in order to identify targets for developing effective anti-tumor therapies. Several molecules have been reported to promote angiogenesis, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, the angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor system and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Primarily, VEGF has been identified to play key roles in driving angiogenesis. The above-mentioned molecules are candidate drug targets. Used in combination with other treatments, anti-angiogenic therapies have managed to reduce disease progression. The present review is focused in NGF and its high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase A (TRKA). The expression of VEGF, proliferation and the angiogenesis process in ovarian cancer is importantly induced by NGF, among other molecules.

  1. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Their Putative Role in Potentiating the Initiation and Development of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G; Sood, Anil K; Mok, Samuel; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    The progression of ovarian cancer, from cell transformation through invasion of normal tissue, relies on communication between tumor cells and their adjacent stromal microenvironment. Through a natural selection process, an autocrine-paracrine communication loop establishes reciprocal reinforcement of growth and migration signals. Thus, the cancer-activated stromal response is similar to an off-switch-defective form of the normal, universal response needed to survive insult or injury. It is becoming clearer within the cancer literature base that tumor stroma plays a bimodal role in cancer development: it impedes neoplastic growth in normal tissue while encouraging migration and tumor growth in a co-opted desmoplastic response during tumor progression. In this review, we discuss this reciprocal influence that ovarian cancer epithelial cells may have on ovarian stromal cell-reactive phenotype, stromal cell behavior, disrupted signaling networks, and tumor suppressor status in the stroma, within the context of cancer fibroblast studies from alternate cancer tissue settings. We focus on the exchange of secreted factors, in particular interleukin 1β and SDF-1α, between activated fibroblasts and cancer cells as a key area for future investigation and therapeutic development. A better understanding of the bidirectional reliance of early epithelial cancer cells on activated stromal cells could lead to the identification of novel diagnostic stromal markers and targets for therapy. PMID:21532880

  2. Variation in NF-κB Signaling Pathways and Survival in Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Block, Matthew S.; Charbonneau, Bridget; Vierkant, Robert A.; Fogarty, Zachary; Bamlet, William R.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cramer, Daniel; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Schildkraut, Joellen; Menon, Usha; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Levine, Douglas A.; Gronwald, Jacek; Culver, Hoda Anton; Whittemore, Alice S.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bandera, Elisa V.; Hogdall, Estrid; Heitz, Florian; Kaye, Stanley B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Campbell, Ian; Goodman, Marc T.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T.; Hays, Laura E.; Lurie, Galina; Eccles, Diana; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Flanagan, James M.; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Claus K.; Lundvall, Lene; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Ziolkowska-Seta, Izabela; Brinton, Louise A.; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Lester, Jenny; Sieh, Weiva; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Menkiszak, Janusz; Jensen, Allan; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Berchuck, Andrew; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Van Den Berg, David; Terry, Kathryn L.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Ramirez, Starr M.; Rider, David N.; Knutson, Keith L.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Johnatty, Sharon E.; deFazio, Anna; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that impact prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-κB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance—p < 2.5×10−5). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with CARD11 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41–2.35, p=4.13×10−6) and TNFRSF13B (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56–0.82, p=2.33×10−5). Other associations of note included TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77–0.92, p=6.49×10−5) and PLCG1 (phospholipase C, gamma 1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26–0.73, p=4.56×10−4). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies. PMID:24740199

  3. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    PubMed Central

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S. L.; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Mellissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. Methods In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). Conclusion These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations

  4. Exome genotyping arrays to identify rare and low frequency variants associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Permuth, Jennifer B; Pirie, Ailith; Ann Chen, Y; Lin, Hui-Yi; Reid, Brett M; Chen, Zhihua; Monteiro, Alvaro; Dennis, Joe; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; Anne Doherty, Jennifer; Earp, Madalene; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Hogdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y; Kelemen, Linda E; Kjaer, Suzanne K; Kraft, Peter; Le, Nhu D; Levine, Douglas A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Matsuo, Keitaro; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Rosemary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Nakanishi, Toru; Ness, Roberta B; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Anne Rossing, Mary; Sandler, Dale P; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Song, Honglin; Taylor, Jack A; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wilkens, Lynne R; Winham, Stacey; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A

    2016-08-15

    Rare and low frequency variants are not well covered in most germline genotyping arrays and are understudied in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. To address this gap, we used genotyping arrays targeting rarer protein-coding variation in 8,165 EOC cases and 11,619 controls from the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Pooled association analyses were conducted at the variant and gene level for 98,543 variants directly genotyped through two exome genotyping projects. Only common variants that represent or are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with previously-identified signals at established loci reached traditional thresholds for exome-wide significance (P < 5.0 × 10 (-)  (7)). One of the most significant signals (Pall histologies = 1.01 × 10 (-)  (13);Pserous = 3.54 × 10 (-)  (14)) occurred at 3q25.31 for rs62273959, a missense variant mapping to the LEKR1 gene that is in LD (r(2 )=( )0.90) with a previously identified 'best hit' (rs7651446) mapping to an intron of TIPARP. Suggestive associations (5.0 × 10 (-)  (5 )>( )P≥5.0 ×10 (-)  (7)) were detected for rare and low-frequency variants at 16 novel loci. Four rare missense variants were identified (ACTBL2 rs73757391 (5q11.2), BTD rs200337373 (3p25.1), KRT13 rs150321809 (17q21.2) and MC2R rs104894658 (18p11.21)), but only MC2R rs104894668 had a large effect size (OR = 9.66). Genes most strongly associated with EOC risk included ACTBL2 (PAML = 3.23 × 10 (-)  (5); PSKAT-o = 9.23 × 10 (-)  (4)) and KRT13 (PAML = 1.67 × 10 (-)  (4); PSKAT-o = 1.07 × 10 (-)  (5)), reaffirming variant-level analysis. In summary, this large study identified several rare and low-frequency variants and genes that may contribute to EOC susceptibility, albeit with possible small effects. Future studies that integrate epidemiology, sequencing, and functional assays are needed to further

  5. The Potential Role of the Proteases Cathepsin D and Cathepsin L in the Progression and Metastasis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pranjol, Md Zahidul Islam; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hannemann, Michael; Whatmore, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to relatively unspecific early symptoms, and thus often advanced stage, metastasized cancer at presentation. Metastasis of EOC occurs primarily through the transcoelomic route whereby exfoliated tumor cells disseminate within the abdominal cavity, particularly to the omentum. Primary and metastatic tumor growth requires a pool of proangiogenic factors in the microenvironment which propagate new vasculature in the growing cancer. Recent evidence suggests that proangiogenic factors other than the widely known, potent angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor may mediate growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. In this review we examine the role of some of these alternative factors, specifically cathepsin D and cathepsin L. PMID:26610586

  6. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Kate; Iversen, Edwin S.; Tyrer, Jonathan; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Concannon, Patrick; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Li, Qiyuan; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Berchuck, Andrew; Lee, Janet M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Cannioto, Rikki; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Budzilowska, Agnieszka; Sellers, Thomas A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Nieuwenhuysen, Els Van; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association was for CHEK2 SNP rs17507066 with serous EOC (P = 4.74 x 10–7). Additional genotyping and imputation of genotypes from the 1000 genomes project identified a slightly more significant association for CHEK2 SNP rs6005807 (r 2 with rs17507066 = 0.84, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.11–1.24, P = 1.1×10−7). We identified 293 variants in the region with likelihood ratios of less than 1:100 for representing the causal variant. Functional annotation identified 25 candidate SNPs that alter transcription factor binding sites within regulatory elements active in EOC precursor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10−8). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r 2 = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10-8). These data suggest that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene. PMID:26424751

  7. Incidence and Predictors of Venous Thromboembolism After Debulking Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mokri, Bahareh; Mariani, Andrea; Heit, John A.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Martin, Janice R.; Lemens, Maureen A.; Cliby, William A.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) within 30 days after primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods In a historical cohort study, we estimated the postoperative 30-day cumulative incidence of VTE among consecutive Mayo Clinic patients undergoing primary cytoreduction for EOC between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008. We tested perioperative patient characteristics and process-of-care variables (defined by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, >130 variables) as potential predictors of postoperative VTE using the Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Among 569 cases of primary EOC cytoreduction and/or staging and no recent VTE, 35 developed symptomatic VTE within 30 days after surgery (cumulative incidence = 6.5%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%–8.6%). Within the cohort, 95 (16.7%) received graduated compression stockings (GCSs), 367 (64.5%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs, and 69 (12.1%) had sequential compression devices + GCSs + postoperative heparin, with VTE rates of 1.1%, 7.4%, and 5.8%, respectively (P = 0.07, χ2 test). The remaining 38 (6.7%) received various other chemical and mechanical prophylaxis regimens. In the multivariate analysis, current or past tobacco smoking, longer hospital stay, and a remote history of VTE significantly increased the risk for postoperative VTE. Conclusions Venous thromboembolism is a substantial postoperative complication among women with EOC, and the high cumulative rate of VTE within 30 days after primary surgery suggests that a more aggressive strategy is needed for VTE prevention. In addition, because longer hospital stay is independently associated with a higher risk for VTE, methods to decrease length of stay and minimize factors that contribute to prolonged hospitalization are warranted. PMID:24172104

  8. Immunomodulatory action of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-110 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pragya; Paluch, Benjamin E; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R; Collamat-Lai, Golda; Taverna, Pietro; Karpf, Adam R; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of SGI-110 on methylation and expression of the cancer testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo and to establish the impact of SGI-110 on expression of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on EOC cells, and on recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. We also tested the impact of combined SGI-110 and NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells on tumor growth and/or murine survival in a xenograft setting. EOC cells were treated with SGI-110 in vitro at various concentrations and as tumor xenografts with 3 distinct dose schedules. Effects on global methylation (using LINE-1), NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A methylation, mRNA, and protein expression were determined and compared to controls. SGI-110 treated EOC cells were evaluated for expression of immune-modulatory genes using flow cytometry, and were co-cultured with NY-ESO-1 specific T-cell clones to determine immune recognition. In vivo administration of SGI-110 and CD8+ T-cells was performed to determine anti-tumor effects on EOC xenografts. SGI-110 treatment induced hypomethylation and CTA gene expression in a dose dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo, at levels generally superior to azacitidine or decitabine. SGI-110 enhanced the expression of MHC I and ICAM-1, and enhanced recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. Sequential SGI-110 and antigen-specific CD8+ cell treatment restricted EOC tumor growth and enhanced survival in a xenograft setting. SGI-110 is an effective hypomethylating agent and immune modulator and, thus, an attractive candidate for combination with CTA-directed vaccines in EOC.

  9. Immunomodulatory action of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor SGI-110 in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pragya; Paluch, Benjamin E; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R; Collamat-Lai, Golda; Taverna, Pietro; Karpf, Adam R; Griffiths, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of SGI-110 on methylation and expression of the cancer testis antigens (CTAs) NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo and to establish the impact of SGI-110 on expression of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on EOC cells, and on recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. We also tested the impact of combined SGI-110 and NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells on tumor growth and/or murine survival in a xenograft setting. EOC cells were treated with SGI-110 in vitro at various concentrations and as tumor xenografts with 3 distinct dose schedules. Effects on global methylation (using LINE-1), NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A methylation, mRNA, and protein expression were determined and compared to controls. SGI-110 treated EOC cells were evaluated for expression of immune-modulatory genes using flow cytometry, and were co-cultured with NY-ESO-1 specific T-cell clones to determine immune recognition. In vivo administration of SGI-110 and CD8+ T-cells was performed to determine anti-tumor effects on EOC xenografts. SGI-110 treatment induced hypomethylation and CTA gene expression in a dose dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo, at levels generally superior to azacitidine or decitabine. SGI-110 enhanced the expression of MHC I and ICAM-1, and enhanced recognition of EOC cells by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T-cells. Sequential SGI-110 and antigen-specific CD8+ cell treatment restricted EOC tumor growth and enhanced survival in a xenograft setting. SGI-110 is an effective hypomethylating agent and immune modulator and, thus, an attractive candidate for combination with CTA-directed vaccines in EOC. PMID:25793777

  10. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Helena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Grankvist, Kjell; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Well-established associations between reproductive characteristics and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) support an involvement of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC. Limited prior studies have evaluated circulating androgens and risk of EOC, and estrogens and progesterone have been investigated in only one prior study. Further, there is little data on potential heterogeneity in the association between circulating hormones and EOC by histologic subgroup. Therefore, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort to investigate the associations between circulating pre-diagnostic sex steroid concentrations with the histologic subtypes of EOC. We identified 1,052 EOC cases among cohort members diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011. Up to three controls were individually matched to each case (n=2,694). Testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), progesterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in serum samples collected during the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI]. Associations between hormones and EOC differed by tumor histology and invasiveness. Sex steroid concentrations were not associated with invasive serous tumors, however, doubling of testosterone and 17-OHP concentration was associated with ~40% increased risk of borderline serous tumors. A doubling of androgen concentrations was associated with a 50% risk increase for mucinous tumors. Risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher estradiol concentrations (OR: 1.89 [1.20-2.98]). This large prospective study in pregnant women supports a role of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of EOC arising in the ovaries. PMID:25270324

  11. Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer survival in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bešević, Jelena; Gunter, Marc J; Fortner, Renée T; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N; Dossus, Laure; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, Petra H; Jareid, Mie; Ramón Quirós, J; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, María-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dias, Joana A; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Merritt, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which included 521 330 total participants (approximately 370 000 women) aged 25–70 years at recruitment from 1992 to 2000. Methods: Information on reproductive characteristics was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and multivariable models were adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumour stage, smoking status and stratified by study centre. Results: After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (±3.2 s.d.) following EOC diagnosis, 511 (49.9%) of the 1025 women died from EOC. We observed a suggestive survival advantage in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users (ever vs never use, HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.62–1.03) and a significant survival benefit in long-term MHT users (⩾5 years use vs never use, HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.50–0.99, Ptrend=0.04). We observed similar results for MHT use when restricting to serous cases. Other reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use and age at menarche or menopause, were not associated with EOC-specific mortality risk. Conclusions: Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible improvement in EOC survival in MHT users. PMID:26554655

  12. Dietary fat and fatty acid intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: evidence from epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Qi-Jun; Gong, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The associations between dietary fat and fatty acid (FA) intakes and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk have been inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to evaluate these associations. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 20 studies (1 pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies, 5 cohorts, and 14 case-control studies). The summary RR for EOC for the highest versus lowest categories of total dietary fat intake was 1.12 (95%CI= 0.95–1.33; I2 = 77.4%; n = 14). The RRs were not significant when fats were divided into plant-based fats (RR = 0.93, 95%CI = 0.77–1.13; n = 6), animal-based fats (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.95–1.39; n = 8), dairy-based fats (RR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88–1.18; n = 3), saturated FAs (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93–1.17; n = 12), monounsaturated FAs (RR = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.84–1.13; n = 10), polyunsaturated FAs (RR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.81–1.12; n = 10), and trans-unsaturated FAs (RR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.98–1.36; n = 3). Similar non-significant results were also observed in most of the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest a lack of evidence for associations between dietary fat and FA intakes and EOC risk. Further analyses should be conducted to assess the associations with other types of fat, and the results should be stratified by tumor invasiveness and EOC histology. PMID:26515595

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Long-Jia; Xiang, Chun-Lin; Gong, Yi-Zhen; Kuang, Yan; Lu, Fang-Fang; Yi, Su-Yi; Zhang, Yue; Liao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The value of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has not yet been fully defined. We aimed to systematically evaluate the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on survival and complete cytoreduction after debulking surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC) patients. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing NAC and primary debulking surgery (PDS) in AEOC patients. The last search date is February 25, 2016. Cochrane systematic evaluation was used to evaluate bias risk of included studies. RevMan 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. A total of 4 RCTs involving 1922 patients were included. Compared with PDS, NAC may contribute to the completeness of debulking removal [no residual disease (RR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.94–2.91; P<0.00001), residual disease ≤1 cm (RR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.04–1.57; P = 0.02), optimal cytoreduction rate (RR: 1.76; 95%CI: 1.57–1.98; P<0.00001)], but there were no significant differences in both groups with regard to overall survival (HR: 0.94; 95%Cl: 0.81–1.08; P = 0.38) and progression-free survival (HR: 0.89; 95%Cl: 0.77–1.03; P = 0.12). This meta-analysis indicates that the higher rate of optimal debulking made NAC more favorable as a treatment option for AEOC patients with non-inferior survival compared with PDS. PMID:27804983

  14. Gene expression profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer reveals key genes and pathways associated with chemotherapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Luo, S C

    2016-01-22

    The aim of this study is to analyze gene expression data to identify key genes and pathways associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to improve clinical treatment strategies. The gene expression data set was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and included 12 chemotherapy-resistant EOC samples and 16 chemotherapy-sensitive EOC samples. A differential analysis was performed to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional enrichment analysis was conducted for the DEGs using the database for annotation, visualization, and integration discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with information from the human protein reference database. Pathway-pathway interactions were determined with a test based on the hypergeometric distribution. A total of 1564 DEGs were identified in chemotherapy-sensitive EOC, including 654 upregulated genes and 910 downregulated genes. The top three upregulated genes were HIST1H3G, AKT3, and RTN3, while the top three downregulated genes were NBLA00301, TRIM62, and EPHA5. A Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that cell adhesion, biological adhesion, and intracellular signaling cascades were significantly enriched in the DEGs. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and B cell receptor signaling pathways were significantly over-represented in the DEGs. A PPI network containing 101 interactions was acquired. The top three hub genes were RAC1, CAV1, and BCL2. Five modules were identified from the PPI network. Taken together, these findings could advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intrinsic chemotherapy resistance in EOC.

  15. Clinical governance network for clinical audit to improve quality in epithelial ovarian cancer management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Several hospitals throughout the region provide primary treatment for these patients and it is well know that treatment quality is correlated to the hospital that delivers. The aim of this study was to investigate the management and treatment of EOC in a Region of the North Italy (Emilia-Romagna, Italy). Methods A multidisciplinary group made up of 11 physicians and 3 biostatisticians was formed in 2009 to perform clinical audits in order to identify quality indicators and to develop Region-wide workup in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The rationale was that, by setting up an oncogynecology network so as to achieve the best clinical practice, critical points would decrease or even be eliminated. Analysis of cases was based on the review of the medical records. Results 614 EOC patients treated between 2007 and 2008 were identified. We found only 2 high-volume hospitals (≥ 21 patients/year), 3 medium-volume hospitals (11–20 operated patients/year), and 7 low-volume hospitals (≤ 10 operated patients /year). Only 222 patients (76.3%) had a histological diagnosis, FIGO surgical staging was reported only in 206 patients (70.9%) but not all standard surgical procedures were always performed, residual disease were not reported in all patients. No standard number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles was observed. Conclusions The differences in terms of treatments provided led the multidisciplinary group to identify reference centers, to promote centralization, to ensure uniform and adequate treatment to patients treated in regional centers and to promote a new audit involving all regional hospitals to a complete review of the all the EOC patients. PMID:23547941

  16. Bevacizumab toxicity in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bevacizumab was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in recurrent platinum resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), fallopian tube cancer (FTC), or primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) when no more than two prior cytotoxic regimens have been used; due to concerns for gastrointestinal perforation. We sought to determine bevacizumab-related toxicities in heavily pretreated recurrent EOC. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with recurrent EOC, FTC, and PPC from 2001 to 2011. Patients who received at least two prior chemotherapy regimens before bevacizumab were included. Medical records were reviewed for bevacizumab associated toxicities. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative variables. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. At the start of bevacizumab treatment, the median age was 60 years and the median body mass index was 26.5 kg/m2. More than 50% of patients received bevacizumab after three prior cytotoxic regimens. Grade 3 or higher bevacizumab associated toxicity events occurred in four patients, including one patient who developed a rectovaginal fistula. The median overall survival from the start of bevacizumab treatment was 21.05 months (95% CI, 18.23 to 32.67; range, 1.9 to 110 months). The number of cytotoxic regimens prior to bevacizumab treatment did not differ in those that experienced a toxicity versus those that did not (p=0.66). Conclusion The use of bevacizumab in heavily pretreated EOC, FTC, or PPC is worth consideration. PMID:27329195

  17. Common variants at the CHEK2 gene locus and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Kate; Iversen, Edwin S; Tyrer, Jonathan; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Concannon, Patrick; Hazelett, Dennis J; Li, Qiyuan; Marks, Jeffrey R; Berchuck, Andrew; Lee, Janet M; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T; Edwards, Robert P; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Cannioto, Rikki; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Budzilowska, Agnieszka; Sellers, Thomas A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Freedman, Matthew L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Pharoah, Paul D; Gayther, Simon A; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2015-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association was for CHEK2 SNP rs17507066 with serous EOC (P = 4.74 x 10(-7)). Additional genotyping and imputation of genotypes from the 1000 genomes project identified a slightly more significant association for CHEK2 SNP rs6005807 (r (2) with rs17507066 = 0.84, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.24, P = 1.1×10(-7)). We identified 293 variants in the region with likelihood ratios of less than 1:100 for representing the causal variant. Functional annotation identified 25 candidate SNPs that alter transcription factor binding sites within regulatory elements active in EOC precursor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10(-8)). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r (2) = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10(-8)). These data suggest that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene.

  18. Wine drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Shouten, Leo J.; Larsson, Susanna C.; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Yong Beom; Ju, Woong; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2010-01-01

    Objective Wine has been the focus in the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development because resveratrol abundant in wine has anti-carcinogenic properties. However, epidemiologic results have been heterogenous in the chemopreventive effect of wine on the development of EOC. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis for comparing EOC risk between wine and never drinkers using previous related studies. Methods After extensive search of the literature between January 1986 and December 2008, we analyzed 10 studies (3 cohort and 7 case control studies) with 135,871 women, who included 65,578 of wine and 70,293 of never drinkers. Results In all studies, there was no significant difference in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.38; random effects). When we performed re-analysis according to the study design, 3 cohort and 7 case control studies showed that there were also no significant differences in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers, respectively (OR, 1.44 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74 and 2.82 and 0.88 to 1.22; random effects). In sub-analyses using 2 case-control studies, EOC risk was not different between former and never drinkers (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.44; fixed effect), and between current and former drinkers (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.34; random effects). Conclusion Although resveratrol, abundantly found in wine, is a promising naturally occurring compound with chemopreventive properties on EOC in preclinical studies, this meta-analysis suggests the epidemiologic evidence shows no association between wine drinking and EOC risk. PMID:20613902

  19. HER2 amplification and overexpression are significantly correlated in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wan-Ru; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Long; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lin, Jau-Chen; Koo, Chiew-Loon; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Han, Chih-Ping

    2014-04-01

    HER2 gene amplification and protein over-expression are important factors in predicting clinical sensitivity to anti-HER2 therapies in breast, gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between HER2 gene copy numbers and HER2 protein expressions in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Of the 49 tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC, we applied 2010 ToGA trial (Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer) surgical specimen scoring criteria to analyze the HER2 protein expression by an immunohistochemistry (IHC) test with Dako (Carpenteria, CA), c-erb-B2 antibody, and the HER2 gene amplification by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test with Abbott/Vysis PathVysion HER2 DNA Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IA). We achieved a high overall concordance of 97.56% between nonequivocal HER2 results by IHC and FISH tests. In addition, HER2 gene copies before chromosome-17 correction increased significantly in a stepwise order through the negative, equivocal and positive IHC result categories (P<.001), as did the HER2 gene copies after chromosome-17 correction (P<.001). On the other hand, HER2 IHC results correlated significantly with both chromosome-17-uncorrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ=0.630, P<.001) and chromosome-17 corrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ=0.558, P<.001). We concluded that both chromosome-17 corrected and uncorrected HER2 gene copies correlated significantly with HER2 IHC results. Tests for the HER2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction of chromosome-17 can be applied as a potentially valuable tool to analyze the HER2 status in mucinous EOC.

  20. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Expression in Surface Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Shruthi Mysore; Vimala, Manjunath Gubbanna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Surface Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (SEOC) at the moment of diagnosis, the disease is extended beyond the structures of the pelvis. Ki-67 is one of the prognostic marker which determines the growth fraction of a tumour and its over expression is associated with malignancy, tumour aggression, reserved prognosis and metastasis. Aim To evaluate the proliferative activity using Ki-67 immuno-staining in SEOC and to correlate with histological subtype, grade, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, CA125 levels for diagnostic and prognostic purpose. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS University, Mysuru. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 40 cases of SEOC over a period of two years. The proliferation expression related to Ki-67 antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemical monoclonal MIB-1 antibody. In each case, the Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) was articulated as percentage of positively stained cells using high power objective of the microscope (x400). Results Among the 40 carcinomas, 26 were serous, five mucinous, four each of clear cell and undifferentiated and one transitional cell carcinoma. A total of 75% were high grade tumours. High Ki-67 LI was associated with high grade tumours (69.9%), high grade serous tumours (65.34%) and advanced FIGO staging (70.6%) with the p-value of <0.001. CA 125 levels did not have a significant correlation with Ki-67 LI. Conclusion Ki-67 is an exceptionally a cost effective marker to determine the growth fraction of a tumour cell population. In SEOC histological grade and FIGO stage when combined with Ki-67 LI in histopathology report would help in diagnostic differentiation of subtypes, prognostication, deciding the need for adjuvant chemotherapy and in predicting survival analysis. PMID:28384868

  1. Skeletal Muscle Depletion and Markers for Cancer Cachexia Are Strong Prognostic Factors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Stefanie; Knogler, Thomas; Pils, Dietmar; Obermayr, Eva; Reinthaller, Alexander; Zahn, Lisa; Radlgruber, Ilja; Mayerhoefer, Marius Erik; Grimm, Christoph; Polterauer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tumor cachexia is an important prognostic parameter in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Tumor cachexia is characterized by metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. These conditions might be reflected by body composition measurements (BCMs) ascertained by pre-operative computed tomography (CT). Thus, we aimed to identify the prognostically most relevant BCMs assessed by pre-operative CT in EOC patients. Methods We evaluated muscle BCMs and well established markers of nutritional and inflammatory status, as well as clinical-pathological parameters in 140 consecutive patients with EOC. Furthermore, a multiplexed inflammatory marker panel of 25 cytokines was used to determine the relationship of BCMs with inflammatory markers and patient’s outcome. All relevant parameters were evaluated in uni- and multivariate survival analysis. Results Muscle attenuation (MA)—a well established BCM parameter—is an independent prognostic factor for survival in multivariate analysis (HR 2.25; p = 0.028). Low MA—reflecting a state of cachexia—is also associated with residual tumor after cytoreductive surgery (p = 0.046) and with an unfavorable performance status (p = 0.015). Moreover, MA is associated with Eotaxin and IL-10 out of the 25 cytokine multiplex marker panel in multivariate linear regression analysis (p = 0.021 and p = 0.047, respectively). Conclusion MA—ascertained by routine pre-operative CT—is an independent prognostic parameter in EOC patients. Low MA is associated with the inflammatory, as well as the nutritional component of cachexia. Therefore, the clinical value of pre-operative CT could be enhanced by the assessment of MA. PMID:26457674

  2. Treatment related toxicity in BRCA1-associated epithelial ovarian cancer – is DNA repairing impairment associated with more adverse events?

    PubMed Central

    Budryk, Magdalena; Nowara, Elżbieta; Starzyczny-Słota, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study The presence of BRCA germline mutations in patients with ovarian cancer has been shown to have predictive and prognostic significance, including increased platinum-sensitivity. The aim of the study was to evaluate if patients with BRCA1-associated ovarian cancer have more treatment related adverse events and, if so, does it have impact on chemotherapy outcomes. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of 172 patients with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer, treated in Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch between 2007 and 2013. Ninety-six of these patients have known BRCA mutation status – 21 patients were BRCA1(+) and 75 BRCA1(–). Analysed treatment related adverse events (AE’s) were: haematological toxicity, nausea/vomiting, neuropathy and mucositis. Results Grade 3–4 haematological AE’s were significantly more common among BRCA1(+) patients (OR = 3.86; 95% CI: 1.14–13.23; p = 0.02). There was no association between BRCA1 mutation status and neuropathy (p = 0.73) or nausea/vomiting (p = 0.91). Occurrence of above mentioned AE’s has no significant association with PFS (p = 0.75, 0.64, 0.97 respectively) and OS (p = 0.64, 0.69, 0.73 respectively). Conclusions Among patients with BRCA1-associated epithelial ovarian cancer we observed significantly more grade 3–4 haematological complications after chemotherapy. However, occurrence of AE’s did not correlate with better outcomes in this subgroup.

  3. Desmocollin 3 mediates follicle stimulating hormone-induced ovarian epithelial cancer cell proliferation by activating the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Wen-Ping; Jin, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is associated with the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We sought to explore whether desmocollin 3 (Dsc3) mediates FSH-induced ovarian epithelial cancer cell proliferation and whether the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway may be involved in this process. Dsc3 positivity in ovarian tissue specimens from 72 patients was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The positive expression rates of Dsc3 were similar in ovarian cancer tissues (24/31:77.4%) and borderline ovarian tumor tissues (18/22:81.8%) (P>0.05), but were significantly higher in these cancerous tissues than in benign ovarian cyst tissues (3/19:15.8%) (P<0.05). Consistently, the expression of Dsc3 in four out of five ovarian cancer cells (HO8910, Skov3ip, Skov and Hey cells, but not ES-2 and in borderline ovarian MCV152 tumor cells was higher than in the immortalized ovarian epithelial cell line, Moody. FSH up-regulated the expression of Dsc3 and EGFR in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, a converse relationship between the expression of Dsc3, EFGR and PI3K/Akt signaling was elucidated using RNA interference and PI3K/Akt inhibitor in the absence and presence of FSH. A role for these proteins in FSH-induced cell proliferation was verified, highlighting their interdependence in mediating ovarian cancer cell function. These results suggest that Dsc3 can mediate FSH-induced ovarian cancer cell proliferation by activating the EGFR/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Identification of miRNA Signatures Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    physiological conditions, including pregnancy [2], diabetes [3], radiation sickness [4], and numerous forms of cancer [5]. In cancer , circulating miRNAs will...undetectable by RT-PCR (Ct > 40, data not shown). Figure 6. ARIA tests on ovarian cancer cell lines. (A) Relative fold change comparing...Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAs PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Analisa

  5. Functional Polymorphisms in the TERT Promoter Are Associated with Risk of Serous Epithelial Ovarian and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Johnatty, Sharon E.; Dunning, Alison M.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Li, Jun; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lu, Yi; Rider, David N.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Stutz, Michael D.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Nickels, Stefan; Vrieling, Alina; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Dörk, Thilo; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Marees, Tamara; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Kelemen, Linda E.; Campbell, Ian; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ahmed, Shahana; Baynes, Caroline; Pharoah, Paul D.; Investigators, kConFab; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Chaiwerawattana, Arkom; Wiangnon, Surapon; Macgregor, Stuart; Easton, Douglas F.; Reddel, Roger R.; Goode, Ellen L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus at 5p15.33 is associated with susceptibility to several cancers, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We have carried out fine-mapping of this region in EOC which implicates an association with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the TERT promoter. We demonstrate that the minor alleles at rs2736109, and at an additional TERT promoter SNP, rs2736108, are associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and that the combination of both SNPs substantially reduces TERT promoter activity. PMID:21949822

  6. Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/or P53 Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    later by injection with 5 U of human chorionic gonadotropin (hormones purchased from Sigma, St. Louis, MO). 1.5 days following the last hormone...AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0063 TITLE: Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by Alteration of Expression of the BRCA1 and/or P53 Genes...FUNDING NUMBERS Modeling Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Mice by W81XWH-04-1-0063 Alteration of Expression of the BRCAI and/or P53 Genes 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. Dub3 expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Shu, Bin; Xi, Tao; Su, Ning; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Dub3 is a deubiquitinating enzyme. It is highly expressed in tumor-derived cell lines and has an established role in tumor proliferation. However, the role of Dub3 in human ovarian cancer remains unclear. Expression of Dub3 was evaluated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The relationship between Dub3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. Using RNA interference, the effects of Dub3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell line. All normal ovary tissues exhibited very little or no Dub3 immunoreactivity. High levels of Dub3 expression were examined by immunohistochemical analysis in 13.3% of cystadenomas, in 30.0% of borderline tumors, and in 58.9% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Dub3 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical staging (P<0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated that Dub3 expression was an independent prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the expression of Cdc25A was closely correlated with that of Dub3 in cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of Dub3 could inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and increase cell apoptosis. These data indicate that the Dub3 might be a valuable biomarker for the prediction of ovarian cancer prognosis and Dub3 inhibition might be a potential strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.

  8. Glycomics Laboratory for the Early Detection of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ovarian cancer is a silent killer with few early symptoms and advanced disease present at the time of diagnosis. This cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies with over 20,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The 5 year survival rates for ovarian cancer dramatically improve when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. |

  9. Emodin Inhibits the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingjing; Xu, Ying; Wei, Xuan; Zhao, Zhe; Xue, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Despite the anticancer capabilities of emodin observed in many cancers, including EOC, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. A crucial link has been discovered between the acquisition of metastatic traits and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study aimed to determine whether emodin could inhibit the EMT of EOC cells and explore the underlying mechanism. The CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that emodin effectively repressed the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration in A2780 and SK-OV-3 cells. The Western blot showed that emodin upregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Claudin) while it downregulated mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin) and transcription factor (Slug) in a dose-dependent fashion. After transfection of siRNA-Slug, both Slug and N-cadherin were downregulated in EOC cells while E-cadherin was upregulated, which was intensified by emodin. Besides, emodin decreased the expression of ILK, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin, and Slug. Transfection of siRNA-ILK also achieved the same effects, which was further strengthened by following emodin treatment. Nevertheless, SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3β, could reverse the effects of emodin except for ILK expression. These findings suggest that emodin inhibited the EMT of EOC cells via ILK/GSK-3β/Slug signaling pathway. PMID:28097141

  10. Fusion-derived epithelial cancer cells express hematopoietic markers and contribute to stem cell and migratory phenotype in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Mallika; Mathur, Sandeep R; Mukhopadhyay, Asok

    2013-09-01

    For a long time, the external milieu of cancer cells was considered to be of secondary importance when compared with its intrinsic properties. That has changed now as the microenvironment is considered to be a major contributing factor toward the progression of tumor. In this study, we show that in human and mouse epithelial ovarian carcinoma and mouse lung carcinoma, the interaction between tumor-infiltrating hematopoietic cells and epithelial cancer cells results in their fusion. Intriguingly, even after the fusion event, cancer cells retain the expression of the pan-hematopoietic marker (CD45) and various markers of hematopoietic lineage, including those of hematopoietic stem cells, indicating that the hematopoietic genome is not completely reprogrammed. This observation may have implications on the bone marrow contribution to the cancer stem cell population. Interestingly, it was seen that in both cancer models, the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 was largely contributed to by the fused compartment of cancer cells. We hypothesize that the superior migratory potential gained by the cancer cells due to the fusion helps in its dissemination to various secondary organs upon activation of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis. We are the first to report the presence of a hemato-epithelial cancer compartment, which contributes to stem cell markers and CXCR4 in epithelial carcinoma. This finding has repercussions on CXCR4-based therapeutics and opens new avenues in discovering novel molecular targets against fusion and metastasis.

  11. New paradigms for BRCA1/BRCA2 testing in women with ovarian cancer: results of the Genetic Testing in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (GTEOC) study

    PubMed Central

    Plaskocinska, Inga; Shipman, Hannah; Drummond, James; Thompson, Edward; Buchanan, Vanessa; Newcombe, Barbara; Hodgkin, Charlotte; Barter, Elisa; Ridley, Paul; Ng, Rita; Miller, Suzanne; Dann, Adela; Licence, Victoria; Webb, Hayley; Tan, Li Tee; Daly, Margaret; Ayers, Sarah; Rufford, Barnaby; Earl, Helena; Parkinson, Christine; Duncan, Timothy; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Sagoo, Gurdeep S; Abbs, Stephen; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas; Pharoah, Paul; Crawford, Robin; Brenton, James D; Tischkowitz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Over recent years genetic testing for germline mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2 has become more readily available because of technological advances and reducing costs. Objective To explore the feasibility and acceptability of offering genetic testing to all women recently diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods Between 1 July 2013 and 30 June 2015 women newly diagnosed with EOC were recruited through six sites in East Anglia, UK into the Genetic Testing in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (GTEOC) study. Eligibility was irrespective of patient age and family history of cancer. The psychosocial arm of the study used self-report, psychometrically validated questionnaires (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); Impact of Event Scale (IES)) and cost analysis was performed. Results 232 women were recruited and 18 mutations were detected (12 in BRCA1, 6 in BRCA2), giving a mutation yield of 8%, which increased to 12% in unselected women aged <70 years (17/146) but was only 1% in unselected women aged ≥70 years (1/86). IES and DASS-21 scores in response to genetic testing were significantly lower than equivalent scores in response to cancer diagnosis (p<0.001). Correlation tests indicated that although older age is a protective factor against any traumatic impacts of genetic testing, no significant correlation exists between age and distress outcomes. Conclusions The mutation yield in unselected women diagnosed with EOC from a heterogeneous population with no founder mutations was 8% in all ages and 12% in women under 70. Unselected genetic testing in women with EOC was acceptable to patients and is potentially less resource-intensive than current standard practice. PMID:27208206

  12. Gamma secretase inhibitor impairs epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in ovarian tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M C; Abramovich, D; Bechis, A; Accialini, P; Parborell, F; Tesone, M; Irusta, G

    2017-01-15

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by being highly metastatic, a feature that represents the main cause of failure of the treatment. This study investigated the effects of γ-secretase inhibition on the TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in ovarian cancer cell lines. SKOV3 cells incubated in the presence of TGF-β showed morphological and biochemical changes related to EMT, which were blocked by co-stimulation with TGF-β and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. In SKOV3 and IGROV1 cells, the co-stimulation blocked the cadherin switch and the increase in the transcription factors Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb1 induced by TGF-β. DAPT impaired the translocation of phospho-β-catenin to the inner cell compartment observed in TGF-β-treated cells, but was not able to block the induction at protein level induced by TGF-β. Moreover, the inhibitor blocked the increased cell migration and invasiveness ability of both cell lines induced by TGF-β. Notch target genes (Hes1 and Hey1) were induced by TGF-β, decreased by DAPT treatment and remained low in the presence of both stimuli. However, DAPT alone caused no effects on most of the parameters analyzed. These results demonstrate that the γ-secretase inhibitor used in this study exerted a blockade on TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells.

  13. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC.

  14. Gene Set-Based Integrative Analysis Revealing Two Distinct Functional Regulation Patterns in Four Common Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Yi-Ping; Chuang, Jen-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jie; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Chang, Cheng-Chang

    2016-08-05

    Clear cell (CCC), endometrioid (EC), mucinous (MC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (SC) are the four most common subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). The widely accepted dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis divided EOCs into type I and II categories based on the molecular features. However, this hypothesis has not been experimentally demonstrated. We carried out a gene set-based analysis by integrating the microarray gene expression profiles downloaded from the publicly available databases. These quantified biological functions of EOCs were defined by 1454 Gene Ontology (GO) term and 674 Reactome pathway gene sets. The pathogenesis of the four EOC subtypes was investigated by hierarchical clustering and exploratory factor analysis. The patterns of functional regulation among the four subtypes containing 1316 cases could be accurately classified by machine learning. The results revealed that the ERBB and PI3K-related pathways played important roles in the carcinogenesis of CCC, EC and MC; while deregulation of cell cycle was more predominant in SC. The study revealed that two different functional regulation patterns exist among the four EOC subtypes, which were compatible with the type I and II classifications proposed by the dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis.

  15. Inhibition of RUNX2 Transcriptional Activity Blocks the Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bachvarova, Magdalena; Gobeil, Stephane; Morin, Chantale; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have identified the RUNX2 gene as hypomethylated and overexpressed in post-chemotherapy (CT) primary cultures derived from serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, when compared to primary cultures derived from matched primary (prior to CT) tumors. However, we found no differences in the RUNX2 methylation in primary EOC tumors and EOC omental metastases, suggesting that DNA methylation-based epigenetic mechanisms have no impact on RUNX2 expression in advanced (metastatic) stage of the disease. Moreover, RUNX2 displayed significantly higher expression not only in metastatic tissue, but also in high-grade primary tumors and even in low malignant potential tumors. Knockdown of the RUNX2 expression in EOC cells led to a sharp decrease of cell proliferation and significantly inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling and consecutive network and pathway analyses confirmed these findings, as various genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, including EOC tumor invasion and metastasis, were found to be downregulated upon RUNX2 suppression, while a number of pro-apoptotic genes and some EOC tumor suppressor genes were induced. Taken together, our data are indicative for a strong oncogenic potential of the RUNX2 gene in serous EOC progression and suggest that RUNX2 might be a novel EOC therapeutic target. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the functional implications of RUNX2 and other members of the RUNX gene family in ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:24124450

  16. Associations between genes for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their ligands in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Sebastian; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Karabon, Lidia; Jedynak, Anna; Pamula-Pilat, Jolanta; Tecza, Karolina; Kula, Dorota; Kowal, Monika; Frydecka, Irena; Grzybowska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate function of NK cells and subsets of T cells. HLA class I molecules are ligands for inhibitory KIRs while specificity of activating KIRs is mainly unknown. Both KIR and HLA genotypes are highly polymorphic. In this study we analyzed associations of KIR and KIR ligand genes with the incidence and clinical course of epithelial ovarian cancer. DNA of 142 patients was analyzed for KIR genes and 103 samples were typed for HLA class I. Control group consisted of 200 healthy individuals, including 83 women, analyzed separately. The frequency of KIR genes in patients and controls were comparable. HLA-C group 1 (ligand for KIR2DL2/3) was more frequent in patients than in controls (86.4% vs. 67.5%, p=0.002). The frequency of KIR2DS4fl was higher in patients with endometrioid cancer (72.3%) compared with other histological subtypes (36.5%, p=0.004) and controls (29.5%, p=0.0001). KIR and KIR ligand genotype did not influence significantly the clinical course of the disease. We conclude that the genotype of KIR ligands is strongly associated with the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer while KIR2DS4fl confers susceptibility to endometrioid subtype of the disease.

  17. Radiation therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer brain metastases: clinical outcomes and predictors of survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain metastases (BM) and leptomeningeal disease (LMD) are uncommon in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We investigate the outcomes of modern radiation therapy (RT) as a primary treatment modality in patients with EOC BM and LMD. Methods We evaluated 60 patients with EOC treated at our institution from 1996 to 2010 who developed BM. All information was obtained from chart review. Results At EOC diagnosis, median age was 56.1 years and 88% of patients were stage III-IV. At time of BM diagnosis, 46.7% of patients had 1 BM, 16.7% had two to three, 26.7% had four or more, and 10% had LMD. Median follow-up after BM was 9.3 months (range, 0.3-82.3). All patients received RT, and 37% had surgical resection. LMD occurred in the primary or recurrent setting in 12 patients (20%), 9 of whom received RT. Median overall survival (OS) after BM was 9.7 months for all patients (95% CI 5.9–13.5), and 16.1 months (95% CI 3.8-28.3) in patients with one BM. On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status less than 70 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.86, p = 0.018), four or more BM (HR 3.18, p = 0.05), LMD (HR 8.22, p = 0.013), and uncontrolled primary tumor (HR 2.84, p = 0.008) were significantly associated with inferior OS. Use of surgery was not significant (p = 0.31). Median central nervous system freedom from progression (CNS-FFP) in 47 patients with follow-up was 18.5 months (95% CI, 9.3–27.9). Only four or more BM (HR 2.56, p = 0.04) was significantly associated with poorer CNS-FFP. Conclusions Based on our results, RT appears to be an effective treatment modality for brain metastases from EOC and should be routinely offered. Karnofsky performance status less than 70, four or more BM, LMD, and uncontrolled primary tumor predict for worse survival after RT for EOC BM. Whether RT is superior to surgery or chemotherapy for EOC BM remains to be seen in a larger cohort. PMID:23414446

  18. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  19. Targeting Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer with Designer Zinc Finger Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Haydee; Wang, Yuhua; Beltran, Adriana S.; Juárez-Moreno, Karla; Yuan, Xinni; Kato, Sumie; Leisewitz, Andrea V.; Cuello Fredes, Mauricio; Licea, Alexei F.; Connolly, Denise C.; Huang, Leaf; Blancafort, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. It is detected at late stages when the disease is spread through the abdominal cavity in a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions to target advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) represents an important metastasis suppressor initially identified in breast cancer. Herein we have generated a sequence-specific zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ATF) to up-regulate the Maspin promoter in aggressive ovarian cancer cell lines and to interrogate the therapeutic potential of Maspin in ovarian cancer. We found that although Maspin was expressed in some primary ovarian tumors, the promoter was epigenetically silenced in cell lines derived from ascites. Transduction of the ATF in MOVCAR 5009 cells derived from ascitic cultures of a TgMISIIR-TAg mouse model of ovarian cancer resulted in tumor cell growth inhibition, impaired cell invasion, and severe disruption of actin cytoskeleton. Systemic delivery of lipid-protamine-RNA nanoparticles encapsulating a chemically modified ATF mRNA resulted in inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth in nude mice accompanied with Maspin re-expression in the treated tumors. Gene expression microarrays of ATF-transduced cells revealed an exceptional specificity for the Maspin promoter. These analyses identified novel targets co-regulated with Maspin in human short-term cultures derived from ascites, such as TSPAN12, that could mediate the anti-metastatic phenotype of the ATF. Our work outlined the first targeted, non-viral delivery of ATFs into tumors with potential clinical applications for metastatic ovarian cancers. PMID:22782891

  20. Mechanism of Ovarian Epithelial Tumor Predisposition in Individuals Carrying Germline BRCA1 Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    gene knockout developed ovarian/ tubal tumors morphologically very similar to human ovarian serous cystadenomas in strong support of our hypothesis. We...proliferation activity in the uterus of 5 wild type and 5 mutant mice at the diestrus ad estrus phases of the estrus cycle. Histological cross- sections were...zygous knockout restricted to granulosa cells. One ovary was removed from each of 30 Brca1 flox/flox; Fshr-Cre mice at 2 months of age. Histological

  1. The Role of Fanconi/BRCA DNA Repair Pathway in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    linking agents, including cisplatin . In fact, increased chromosomal breakage in response to DNA cross-linkers (mitomycin C and diepoxybutane) is the...BRCA pathway in cisplatin -sensitive ovarian tumors. Nat Med 9, 568-574 (2003). 14 Wang, Z., Li, M., Lu, S., Zhang, Y. & Wang, H. Promoter...management of ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol, 22 Suppl 8, viii5. D’ANDREA, A.D. (2003). The Fanconi Anemia/BRCA signaling pathway: disruption in cisplatin

  2. The accuracy of frozen section by tumor weight for ovarian epithelial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Puls, L; Heidtman, E; Hunter, J E; Crane, M; Stafford, J

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect ovarian weight has on the accuracy of frozen sections in serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. The study group included 294 patients who had an initial frozen section (189 serous and 105 mucinous tumors) at surgery. The pathology reports were separated into subgroups (benign, borderline, or malignant). Tumors were broken down into three weight categories: < or = 450 g, > 450 to < or = 1360 g, and > 1360 g. In each weight category, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicative values were calculated on frozen sections. The mean weight of the ovarian tumors was 1042 g. As the weight increased in serous tumors, the sensitivity fell from 96.2 to 93.8 to 75%, respectively, in each weight category. The same trend was noted with mucinous tumors as sensitivity fell from 91.7 to 87.5 to 66.7%, respectively. With an increase in the size of ovarian tumors, a decrease in the sensitivity of frozen section was observed. With tumors greater than 1360 g, sensitivity was only 69%. Twenty-three percent of ovarian tumors revealing borderline diagnosis at frozen section were malignant on the final pathology report, with the greatest misclassification in > 1360-g mucinous tumors (50%). For patients with large ovarian tumors, consideration should be given to performing staging at the time of the initial laparotomy.

  3. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, Gwendal

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of death from gynecological tumors in women. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis, through their receptors, ERα and ERβ. Interestingly, malignant ovarian tumors originating from epithelial surface constitute about 90% of ovarian cancers and expressed low levels of ERβ, compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoration of ERβ in ovarian cancer cells, leads to strong inhibition of their proliferation and invasion, while apoptosis is enhanced. In this manuscript, recent data suggesting a possible tumor-suppressor role for ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:16399219

  4. The fucosylated CD147 enhances the autophagy in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenhua; Cai, Mingbo; Deng, Lu; Zhu, Liancheng; Gao, Jian; Tan, Mingzi; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is modulated by multiple factors including CD147, but little is know about the effects and mechanism by which the modification of CD147 by Lewis y antigen regulates autophagy of ovarian cancer cell. Here, we reported that Lewis y antigen can promote basic autophagy activity and restrain autophagic cell death in ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, human whole genome expression profile microarrays and massage pathway analysis revealed that during early stages of autophagy in ovarian cancer cells with highly expressing Lewis y antigen, PI3K/Akt-mTOR activity was reduced, in contrast, the PI3K/Akt-mTOR signaling pathway was activated as the length of amino acid deprivation increased, which inhibited eIF4G2 expression, further decreased the transcription of autophagy-related genes, suppressed autophagic cell death. we also elaborated that co-regulates protein degradation in cells via the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway. These findings suggested that the modification of CD147 by Lewis y antigen enhanced the survival ability by promoting basic autophagy activity and restraining autophagic cell death in ovarian cancer, thus playing an important role in ovarian cancer malignant progression. PMID:27863372

  5. Expression of CD44v6 and Its Association with Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dang-Xia; Liu, Yun-Xia; Xue, Ya-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate CD44v6 protein expression and its prognostic value of CD44v6 in ovarian carcinoma. The expression of CD44v6 was analyzed in 62 patients with ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemical method. The data obtained were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The present study clearly demonstrates that tumor tissues from 41 (66.1%) patients showed positive expression with CD44v6. The expression of CD44v6 was significantly correlated with histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade of ovarian carcinomas. Concerning the prognosis, the survival period of patients with CD44v6 positive was shorter than that of patients with CD44v6 negative (36.6% versus 66.7%, 5-year survival, P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that CD44v6 expression, histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade were associated with 5-year survival, and CD44v6 expression was associated with histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade and 5-year survival. In multivariate analysis, using the COX-regression model, CD44v6 expression was important prognostic factor. In conclusion, these results suggest that CD44v6 may be related to histological type, FIGO stage and histological grade of ovarian carcinomas, and CD44v6 may be an important molecular marker for poor prognosis in ovarian carcinomas.

  6. Metformin Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Ovarian Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  7. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  8. Galectin-3 regulates metastatic capabilities and chemotherapy sensitivity in epithelial ovarian carcinoma via NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaiwu; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Guocai; Xie, Lingling; Wu, Miaofang; Lin, Zhongqiu; Yu, Yuefei; Li, Guorong

    2016-08-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been found to be involved in the tumor progression and chemoresistance of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Some studies have shown that Gal-3 may interact with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). However, it is unclear whether the effects of Gal-3 on the metastasis and chemosensitivity of EOC are related to NF-κB. In this study, we aimed to explore whether Gal-3 promoted progression and carboplatin resistance in EOC via NF-κB pathway. Plasmid transfection and RNA interference were used to upregulate or downregulate the expression of Gal-3 in ovarian cancer cell lines. Then, the expression of Gal-3 and the protein expressions of phosphorylation NF-κB pathway molecules were further detected by Western blot. Transwell migration assay was employed to detect the effects of Gal-3 on the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cell lines. After treatment with carboplatin, flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to detect the effects of Gal-3 on carboplatin-induced apoptosis. Immunofluorescence technique was used to examine the translocation of phosphorylated P65 into the nucleus in ovarian cancer cells after the upregulation of Gal-3. After the knockdown of Gal-3 by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the migration and the invasion of cancer cells were significantly inhibited while the apoptosis and the sensitivities to carboplatin increased. Western blot showed reduction in the phosphorylation components of the NF-κB pathway: inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), IκB kinase (IKK), and P65. However, after the Gal-3 upregulation by plasmid transfection, the capabilities of migration and invasion of cancer cells were significantly promoted while the apoptosis and the sensitivities to carboplatin decreased. Immunofluorescence showed increased nuclear translocation of P65. Inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway did not affect the Gal-3 expression level in ovarian cancer cells. Gal-3 may affect the migratory and invasive capabilities of

  9. Diagnostic and referral intervals for Manitoba women with epithelial ovarian cancer - the Manitoba Ovarian Cancer Outcomes (MOCO) study group: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Love, Allison J.; Lambert, Pascal; Turner, Donna; Lotocki, Robert; Dean, Erin; Popowich, Shaundra; Altman, Alon D.; Nachtigal, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers. The poor survival rates are often attributed to the advanced stage at which most of these cancers are detected. We sought to examine the effects of patient demographics, comorbidities and presenting symptoms on diagnostic and referral intervals by location of first presentation (emergency department v. elsewhere) and to identify factors that affect these intervals. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of chart and medical record data for ovarian cancers, with the exceptions of sex cord and germ cell tumours, diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 in Manitoba, Canada. Data were collected on baseline characteristics, time to diagnosis and referral, number and type of physician visits and emergency department visits. Results: The final cohort consisted of 601 patients. Sixty-three percent of patients received their diagnosis within 60 days of initial presentation, and 75.2% had their cancer diagnosed within 2 physician encounters. The median diagnostic interval for all stages of patients presenting to the emergency department was 7 days, compared with 55 days for patients presenting elsewhere. Early stage patients not presenting to the emergency department had their diagnosis a median of 34.0 days later than patients with advanced disease (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.22 to 45.69, p < 0.0001). The presence of some symptoms was associated with shortened diagnostic intervals. Patients with serous, clear-cell or endometrioid histotypes were less likely to have first presentation beginning in the emergency department (odds ratio [OR] 0.40, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.64, p = 0.0001; OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.59, p = 0.007) than those with unclassified epithelial histotype. Interpretation: For this group of patients, the main factor associated with diagnostic and referral intervals is presentation to the emergency department. These patients likely required more urgent attention for their

  10. Suppression of epithelial ovarian cancer invasion into the omentum by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lungchukiet, Panida; Sun, Yuefeng; Kasiappan, Ravi; Quarni, Waise; Nicosia, Santo V.; Zhang, Xiaohong; Bai, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in women, mainly because it has spread to intraperitoneal tissues such as the omentum in the peritoneal cavity by the time of diagnosis. In the present study, we established in vitro assays, ex vivo omental organ culture system and syngeneic animal tumor models using wild type (WT) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) null mice to investigate the effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and VDR on EOC invasion. Treatment of human EOC cells with 1,25D3 suppressed their migration and invasion in monolayer scratch and transwell assays and ability to colonize the omentum in the ex vivo system, supporting a role for epithelial VDR in interfering with EOC invasion. Furthermore, VDR knockdown in OVCAR3 cells increased their ability to colonize the omentum in the ex vivo system in the absence of 1,25D3, showing a potential ligand-independent suppression of EOC invasion by epithelial VDR. In syngeneic models, ID8 tumors exhibited an increased ability to colonize omenta of VDR null over that of WT mice; pre-treatment of WT, not VDR null, mice with EB1089 reduced ID8 colonization, revealing a role for stromal VDR in suppressing EOC invasion. These studies are the first to demonstrate a role for epithelial and stromal VDR in mediating the activity of 1,25D3 as well as a 1,25D3-independent action of the VDR in suppressing EOC invasion. The data suggest that VDR-based drug discovery may lead to the development of new intervention strategies to improve the survival of patients with EOC at advanced stages. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Vitamin D Workshop”. PMID:25448740

  11. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.

  12. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 expression is a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer and correlates with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming; Yu, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) is a common target of herpesviruses and is important in the DNA damage response, which is also upregulated in several cancers, including prostate, colon, liver, and lung cancers. However, less is known about its expression in ovarian cancer tissues. The role of USP7 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not yet been investigated. Materials and methods We recruited 141 patients from Linyi People’s Hospital between June 1999 and June 2013, all pathologically diagnosed with primary EOC. Their clinical data were collected, and the expression of USP7 in the tumor tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between USP7 expression and the clinicopathological variables of patients with EOC were assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation test. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to identify the prognosis value of USP7. The function of USP7 in the EOC cells was also detected in vitro. Results Among the 141 cases, USP7 expression was high in 59 EOC samples (41.8%), and was significantly correlated with lymphatic invasion; USP7 can act as independent prognostic indicator for the overall survival (OS) of EOC, and its high expression was associated with poor OS rate. The RNA inteference and overexpression assays indicated that USP7 can positively regulate the ovarian cell vitality and invasion process. Conclusion Patients with EOC expressing high level of USP7 have worse OS compared with those with low USP7 expression. USP7 may be involved in the proliferation and invasion of EOC cells, and USP7 expression can serve as an independent predictor of EOC. PMID:27051296

  13. Immune response evaluation through determination of type 1, type 2, and type 17 patterns in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Eduardo Batista; Silva, Luciana Maria; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Lamaita, Rívia Mara; Filho, Roberto Mundim Porto; Cota, Bianca Della Croce Vieira; da Silva-Filho, Agnaldo Lopes

    2013-07-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells secrete different cytokines, which participate through distinct mechanisms in cell-mediated immunity and humoral immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response through analysis of type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Our study included 44 patients with EOC (study group) and 32 gynecological patients with no ovarian disease (control group). Fragments of ovarian tissue and blood samples were collected in both groups and aliquots of intracystic fluid and peritoneal fluid were recovered from the EOC patient group. Interleukin (IL)-2/IL-4/IL-6/IL-10/IL-17/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by cytometric bead array. Statistical analysis included chi-squared, Student t, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Cox regression model. Patients with EOC were associated with higher levels of TNF-α/IL-4/IL-6/IL-10 compared to the control group. Both IL-10 and TNF-α concentrations were higher in patients with stage III/IV EOC and also associated with higher levels of cancer antigen 125. Higher Th1-mediated immune response was observed when the cytoreduction was considered optimal. However, patients with EOC with unsatisfactory cytoreductive surgery and undifferentiated tumors were associated with higher concentrations of Th2 cytokines in the 4 sites studied. Higher IL-6/IL-10 and lower IFN-γ concentrations were also associated with a lower overall survival rate in patients with EOC. The EOC group presented a predominantly Th2 response and an immunosuppressant standard and had association between IL-6/IL-10/IFN-γ and prognosis.

  14. CYP1B1 enhances the resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, ZHUANGYAN; MU, YAQIN; QI, CAIXIA; WANG, JIAN; XI, GUOPING; GUO, JUNCHENG; MI, RUORAN; ZHAO, FUXI

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most frequent cause of mortality among gynecological malignancies, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 30%. The standard regimen for OC therapy includes a platinum agent combined with a taxane, to which the patients frequently acquire resistance. Resistance arises from the oxidation of anticancer drugs by CYP1B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme overexpressed in malignant OC. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of CYP1B1 expression in the drug resistance of OC to the taxane, paclitaxel (PTX). Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess CYP1B1 expression in a panel of ovarian samples (53 primary cancer samples, 14 samples of metastastic cancer, 30 benign tumor samples and 19 normal tissue samples). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was also performed to determine CYP1B1 expression in several OC cell lines. Finally, we used proliferation and toxicity assays, as well as a mouse xenograft model using nude mice to determine whether α-naphthoflavone (ANF), a CYP1B1 specific inhibitor, reduces resistance to PTX. CYP1B1 was overexpressed in the samples from primary and metastatic loci of epithelial ovarian cancers. In some cell lines, PTX induced CYP1B1 expression, which resulted in drug resistance. Exposure to ANF reduced drug resistance and enhanced the sensitivity of OC cells to PTX in vitro and in vivo. The expression profile of CYP1B1 suggests that it has the potential to be a useful diagnostic marker and prognostic factor for malignant OC. The inhibition of CYP1B1 expression by specific agents may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients resistant to PTX and may improve the prognosis of these patients. PMID:25516145

  15. The RUNX1 transcription factor is expressed in serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and contributes to cell proliferation, migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Mamadou; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Morin, Chantale; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have identified the RUNX1 gene as hypomethylated and overexpressed in post-chemotherapy (CT) primary cultures derived from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, when compared with primary cultures derived from matched primary (prior to CT) tumors. Here we show that RUNX1 displays a trend of hypomethylation, although not significant, in omental metastases compared with primary EOC tumors. Surprisingly, RUNX1 displayed significantly higher expression not only in metastatic tissue, but also in high-grade primary tumors and even in low malignant potential tumors. The RUNX1 expression levels were almost identical in primary tumors and omental metastases, suggesting that RUNX1 hypomethylation might have a limited impact on its overexpression in advanced (metastatic) stage of the disease. Knockdown of the RUNX1 expression in EOC cells led to sharp decrease of cell proliferation and induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Moreover, RUNX1 suppression significantly inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. Gene expression profiling and consecutive network and pathway analyses confirmed these findings, as numerous genes and pathways known previously to be implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis, including EOC tumor invasion and metastasis, were found to be downregulated upon RUNX1 suppression, while a number of pro-apoptotic genes and some EOC tumor suppressor genes were induced. Taken together, our data are indicative for a strong oncogenic potential of the RUNX1 gene in EOC progression and suggest that RUNX1 might be a novel EOC therapeutic target. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the functional implications of RUNX1 and other members of the RUNX gene family in ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:23442798

  16. CYP1B1 enhances the resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhuangyan; Mu, Yaqin; Qi, Caixia; Wang, Jian; Xi, Guoping; Guo, Juncheng; Mi, Ruoran; Zhao, Fuxi

    2015-02-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most frequent cause of mortality among gynecological malignancies, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 30%. The standard regimen for OC therapy includes a platinum agent combined with a taxane, to which the patients frequently acquire resistance. Resistance arises from the oxidation of anticancer drugs by CYP1B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme overexpressed in malignant OC. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of CYP1B1 expression in the drug resistance of OC to the taxane, paclitaxel (PTX). Immunohistochemical staining was used to assess CYP1B1 expression in a panel of ovarian samples (53 primary cancer samples, 14 samples of metastastic cancer, 30 benign tumor samples and 19 normal tissue samples). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was also performed to determine CYP1B1 expression in several OC cell lines. Finally, we used proliferation and toxicity assays, as well as a mouse xenograft model using nude mice to determine whether α-naphthoflavone (ANF), a CYP1B1 specific inhibitor, reduces resistance to PTX. CYP1B1 was overexpressed in the samples from primary and metastatic loci of epithelial ovarian cancers. In some cell lines, PTX induced CYP1B1 expression, which resulted in drug resistance. Exposure to ANF reduced drug resistance and enhanced the sensitivity of OC cells to PTX in vitro and in vivo. The expression profile of CYP1B1 suggests that it has the potential to be a useful diagnostic marker and prognostic factor for malignant OC. The inhibition of CYP1B1 expression by specific agents may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients resistant to PTX and may improve the prognosis of these patients.

  17. MUC4 mucin-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel mechanism for metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, MP; Lakshmanan, I; Jain, M; Das, S; Chakraborty, S; Dey, P; Batra, SK

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of invasiveness in ovarian cancer (OC) is accompanied by the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The MUC4 mucin is overexpressed in ovarian tumors and has a role in the invasiveness of OC cells. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential involvement of MUC4 in the metastasis of OC cells by inducing EMT. Ectopic overexpression of MUC4 in OC cells (SKOV3-MUC4) resulted in morphological alterations along with a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin (CK)-18) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) compared with the control cells (SKOV3-vector). Also, pro-EMT transcription factors TWIST1, TWIST2 and SNAIL showed an upregulation in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. We further investigated the pathways upstream of N-cadherin, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MKK7, JNK1/2 and c-Jun, which were also activated in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells compared with SKOV3-vector cells. Inhibition of phospho-FAK (pFAK) and pJNK1/2 decreased N-cadherin expression in the MUC4-overexpressing cells, which further led to a significant decrease in cellular motility. Knockdown of N-cadherin decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and inhibited the motility in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells. Upon in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis analysis, the SKOV3-MUC4 cells produced significantly larger tumors and demonstrated a higher incidence of metastasis to distance organs (peritoneal wall, colon, intestine, stomach, lymph nodes, liver and diaphragm). Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in inducing EMT through the upregulation of N-cadherin and promoting metastasis of OC cells. PMID:20697346

  18. Preoperative red cell distribution width and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predict survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Hong, Na; Robertson, Melissa; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Guoqian

    2017-01-01

    Several parameters of preoperative complete blood count (CBC) and inflammation-associated blood cell markers derived from them have been reported to correlate with prognosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but their prognostic importance and optimal cutoffs are still needed be elucidated. Clinic/pathological parameters, 5-year follow-up data and preoperative CBC parameters were obtained retrospectively in 654 EOC patients underwent primary surgery at Mayo Clinic. Cutoffs for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were optimized by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Prognostic significance for overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were determined by Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of RDW and NLR with clinic/pathological parameters were analyzed using non-parametric tests. RDW with cutoff 14.5 and NLR with cutoff 5.25 had independent prognostic significance for OS, while combined RDW and NLR scores stratified patients into low (RDW-low and NLR-low), intermediate (RDW-high or NLR-high) and high risk (RDW-high and NLR-high) groups, especially in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Moreover, high NLR was associated with poor RFS as well. Elevated RDW was strongly associated with age, whereas high NLR was strongly associated with stage, preoperative CA125 level and ascites at surgery. PMID:28223716

  19. Functional genomics identifies five distinct molecular subtypes with clinical relevance and pathways for growth control in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Miow, Qing Hao; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Wong, Meng Kang; Ye, Jieru; Lau, Jieying Amelia; Wu, Meng Chu; Bin Abdul Hadi, Luqman Hakim; Soong, Richie; Choolani, Mahesh; Davidson, Ben; Nesland, Jahn M; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Mandai, Masaki; Konishi, Ikuo; Goh, Boon-Cher; Chang, Jeffrey T; Thiery, Jean Paul; Mori, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is hallmarked by a high degree of heterogeneity. To address this heterogeneity, a classification scheme was developed based on gene expression patterns of 1538 tumours. Five, biologically distinct subgroups — Epi-A, Epi-B, Mes, Stem-A and Stem-B — exhibited significantly distinct clinicopathological characteristics, deregulated pathways and patient prognoses, and were validated using independent datasets. To identify subtype-specific molecular targets, ovarian cancer cell lines representing these molecular subtypes were screened against a genome-wide shRNA library. Focusing on the poor-prognosis Stem-A subtype, we found that two genes involved in tubulin processing, TUBGCP4 and NAT10, were essential for cell growth, an observation supported by a pathway analysis that also predicted involvement of microtubule-related processes. Furthermore, we observed that Stem-A cell lines were indeed more sensitive to inhibitors of tubulin polymerization, vincristine and vinorelbine, than the other subtypes. This subtyping offers new insights into the development of novel diagnostic and personalized treatment for EOC patients. PMID:23666744

  20. Body size in early life and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the Nurses' Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Baer, H J; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S

    2008-01-01

    Adult body mass index (BMI) has been associated with ovarian cancer risk, but few studies have examined body size earlier in life. We prospectively examined associations of body fatness at ages 5 and 10, BMI at age 18, height, and birthweight with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS: 110 311 women, 735 cases) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII: 113 059 women, 137 cases). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was a weak inverse association between average body fatness at ages 5 and 10 and risk in the NHS (RR for heaviest vs most lean=0.81, 95% CI: 0.53–1.24, P for trend=0.04) and a nonsignificant positive association in the NHSII (RR=2.09, 95% CI: 0.98–4.48, P for trend=0.10), possibly due to differences in age and menopausal status. Height was positively associated with risk in both cohorts (RR for ⩾1.75 vs <1.6 m=1.43, 95% CI: 1.05–1.96, P for trend=0.001). Body mass index at the age of 18 years and birthweight were not associated with risk. Further research should examine the biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations. PMID:19034283

  1. Regulation of Murine Ovarian Epithelial Carcinoma by Vaccination against the Cytoplasmic Domain of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor II

    PubMed Central

    Sakalar, Cagri; Mazumder, Suparna; Johnson, Justin M.; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Jaini, Ritika; Aguilar, Robert; Prasad, Sathyamangla V. Naga; Connolly, Denise C.; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone receptor, type II (AMHR2), is a differentiation protein expressed in 90% of primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs), the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. We propose that AMHR2 may serve as a useful target for vaccination against EOC. To this end, we generated the recombinant 399-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of mouse AMHR2 (AMHR2-CD) and tested its efficacy as a vaccine target in inhibiting growth of the ID8 transplantable EOC cell line in C57BL/6 mice and in preventing growth of autochthonous EOCs that occur spontaneously in transgenic mice. We found that AMHR2-CD immunization of C57BL/6 females induced a prominent antigen-specific proinflammatory CD4+ T cell response that resulted in a mild transient autoimmune oophoritis that resolved rapidly with no detectable lingering adverse effects on ovarian function. AMHR2-CD vaccination significantly inhibited ID8 tumor growth when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically, and protection against EOC growth was passively transferred into naive recipients with AMHR2-CD-primed CD4+ T cells but not with primed B cells. In addition, prophylactic AMHR2-CD vaccination of TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice significantly inhibited growth of autochthonous EOCs and provided a 41.7% increase in mean overall survival. We conclude that AMHR2-CD vaccination provides effective immunotherapy of EOC with relatively benign autoimmune complications. PMID:26618181

  2. Germline polymorphisms in an enhancer of PSIP1 are associated with progression-free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    French, Juliet D.; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Lu, Yi; Beesley, Jonathan; Gao, Bo; Kalimutho, Murugan; Henderson, Michelle J.; Russell, Amanda J.; Kar, Siddhartha; Chen, Xiaoqing; Hillman, Kristine M.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; O'Reilly, Martin; Wang, Chen; Korbie, Darren J.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Pisterer, Jacobus; Hillemanns, Peter; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goodman, Marc T.; Lurie, Galina; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James M.; Metcalf, Michelle D.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Brennan, Donal; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul; Harnett, Paul; Norris, Murray D.; Haber, Michelle; Goode, Ellen L.; Lee, Jason S.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Edwards, Stacey L.; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are usually treated with platinum/taxane therapy after cytoreductive surgery but there is considerable inter-individual variation in response. To identify germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that contribute to variations in individual responses to chemotherapy, we carried out a multi-phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,244 women diagnosed with serous EOC who were treated with the same first-line chemotherapy, carboplatin and paclitaxel. We identified two SNPs (rs7874043 and rs72700653) in TTC39B (best P=7×10−5, HR=1.90, for rs7874043) associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Functional analyses show that both SNPs lie in a putative regulatory element (PRE) that physically interacts with the promoters of PSIP1, CCDC171 and an alternative promoter of TTC39B. The C allele of rs7874043 is associated with poor PFS and showed increased binding of the Sp1 transcription factor, which is critical for chromatin interactions with PSIP1. Silencing of PSIP1 significantly impaired DNA damage-induced Rad51 nuclear foci and reduced cell viability in ovarian cancer lines. PSIP1 (PC4 and SFRS1 Interacting Protein 1) is known to protect cells from stress-induced apoptosis, and high expression is associated with poor PFS in EOC patients. We therefore suggest that the minor allele of rs7874043 confers poor PFS by increasing PSIP1 expression. PMID:26840454

  3. Germline polymorphisms in an enhancer of PSIP1 are associated with progression-free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    French, Juliet D; Johnatty, Sharon E; Lu, Yi; Beesley, Jonathan; Gao, Bo; Kalimutho, Murugan; Henderson, Michelle J; Russell, Amanda J; Kar, Siddhartha; Chen, Xiaoqing; Hillman, Kristine M; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; O'Reilly, Martin; Wang, Chen; Korbie, Darren J; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Pisterer, Jacobus; Hillemanns, Peter; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goodman, Marc T; Lurie, Galina; Matsuno, Rayna K; Thompson, Pamela J; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James M; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Brennan, Donal; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul; Harnett, Paul; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle; Goode, Ellen L; Lee, Jason S; Khanna, Kum Kum; Meyer, Kerstin B; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Edwards, Stacey L; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-02-09

    Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are usually treated with platinum/taxane therapy after cytoreductive surgery but there is considerable inter-individual variation in response. To identify germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that contribute to variations in individual responses to chemotherapy, we carried out a multi-phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,244 women diagnosed with serous EOC who were treated with the same first-line chemotherapy, carboplatin and paclitaxel. We identified two SNPs (rs7874043 and rs72700653) in TTC39B (best P=7x10-5, HR=1.90, for rs7874043) associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Functional analyses show that both SNPs lie in a putative regulatory element (PRE) that physically interacts with the promoters of PSIP1, CCDC171 and an alternative promoter of TTC39B. The C allele of rs7874043 is associated with poor PFS and showed increased binding of the Sp1 transcription factor, which is critical for chromatin interactions with PSIP1. Silencing of PSIP1 significantly impaired DNA damage-induced Rad51 nuclear foci and reduced cell viability in ovarian cancer lines. PSIP1 (PC4 and SFRS1 Interacting Protein 1) is known to protect cells from stress-induced apoptosis, and high expression is associated with poor PFS in EOC patients. We therefore suggest that the minor allele of rs7874043 confers poor PFS by increasing PSIP1 expression.

  4. Trefoil factor 3 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer exerts a minor effect on clinicopathological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hoellen, Friederike; Kostara, Athina; Karn, Thomas; Holtrich, Uwe; El-Balat, Ahmed; Otto, Mike; Rody, Achim; Hanker, Lars C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3) has been analyzed in numerous cancers, such as breast and gastrointestinal cancer, and has been associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of TFF3 in ovarian cancers is not clear. Expression analysis of TFF3 in 91 ovarian cancer patients was performed by immunohistochemistry of primary paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The results were scored according to staining intensity and percentage of positive tumor cells resulting in an immune-reactive score (IRS) of 0–12. These results were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and survival. TFF3 expression in our patient cohort exhibited a tendency towards improved overall and progression-free survival (PFS). In TFF3-positive serous and high-grade serous ovarian cancers, the median PFS was 27.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 0–55.7] vs. 15.2 months in TFF3-negative tumors (95% CI: 13.8–16.6) (P=0.183). The median overall survival was 53.9 months in TFF3-positive tumors (95% CI: Non-applicable) vs. 44.4 months in TFF3-negative cases (95% CI: 30.5–58.3) (P=0.36). TFF3 negativity was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (P=0.05). Based on our results, further studies are required in order to elucidate whether survival and chemosensitivity are affected by TFF3 expression in ovarian cancer. PMID:27699037

  5. Mechanism of Ovarian Epithelial Tumor Predispostion in Individuals Carrying Germline BRCA1 Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    are predisposed to ovarian cancer is that the ensuing decrease in BRCA1 gene dosage results in a disruption of normal cellular interactions between...Bioactivation of Mullerian inhibiting substance during gonadal development by a kex2/ subtilisin -like endoprotease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93, 7711

  6. Palliative systemic therapy for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: current options

    PubMed Central

    Elit, Laurie; Hirte, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the available systemic treatments for women with recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods A literature review was conducted for recurrent ovarian cancer articles in English, including randomized trials, Phase II trials, or reviews. Results We discuss the efficacy and toxicity outcomes associated with systemic therapy for platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Clearly, platinum-based combination systemic therapy shows a prolonged progression-free interval compared with single-agent chemotherapy with a low toxicity profile. No clear superior management strategy exists for platinum-resistant/refractory disease. Novel targeted antiangiogenic agents (eg, bevacizumab), angiopoeitin inhibitors (eg, AMG 386), and poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors (eg, olaparib) are reviewed. Conclusion Although combination platinum-based chemotherapy has shown benefits for women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, the optimal treatment strategy for those with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory disease is not clear. Molecular and genetic targeted therapies may provide opportunities for those women with tumor profiles that show sensitivity for specific agents. PMID:23459506

  7. CD133+ ovarian cancer stem-like cells promote non-stem cancer cell metastasis via CCL5 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wei; Huang, Jiani; Chen, Junying; He, Luhang; Liang, Zhiqing; Guo, Bo; Li, Yongsheng; Xie, Rongkai; Zhu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called cancer stem-like cells, CSLCs) can function as “seed cells” for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Here, we report that, in the presence of CD133+ ovarian CSLCs, CD133− non-CSLCs can undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process and display enhanced metastatic capacity in vitro and in vivo. Highly elevated expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and its receptors chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR) 1/3/5 are observed in clinical and murine metastatic tumor tissues from epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Mechanistically, paracrine CCL5 from ovarian CSLCs activates the NF-κB signaling pathway in ovarian non-CSLCs via binding CCR1/3/5, thereby inducing EMT and tumor invasion. Taken together, our results redefine the metastatic potential of non-stem cancer cells and provide evidence that targeting the CCL5:CCR1/3/5-NF-κB pathway could be an effective strategy to prevent ovarian cancer metastasis. PMID:25788271

  8. microRNA-181a has a critical role in ovarian cancer progression through the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Aditya; Lee, Christine; Joseph, Peronne; Marchini, Sergio; Baccarini, Alessia; Kolev, Valentin; Romualdi, Chiara; Fruscio, Robert; Shah, Hardik; Wang, Feng; Mullokandov, Gavriel; Fishman, David; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Rahaman, Jamal; Kalir, Tamara; Redline, Raymond W.; Brown, Brian D.; Narla, Goutham; Difeo, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Effective targets to treat advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and biomarkers to predict treatment response are still lacking because of the complexity of pathways involved in ovarian cancer progression. Here we show that miR-181a promotes TGF-β-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via repression of its functional target, Smad7. miR-181a and phosphorylated Smad2 are enriched in recurrent compared with matched-primary ovarian tumours and their expression is associated with shorter time to recurrence and poor outcome in patients with EOC. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-181a results in increased cellular survival, migration, invasion, drug resistance and in vivo tumour burden and dissemination. In contrast, miR-181a inhibition via decoy vector suppression and Smad7 re-expression results in significant reversion of these phenotypes. Combined, our findings highlight an unappreciated role for miR-181a, Smad7, and the TGF-β signalling pathway in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  9. What Is Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be similar to widespread ovarian cancer. Fallopian tube cancer This is another rare cancer that is ... to epithelial ovarian cancer. It begins in the tube that carries an egg from the ovary to ...

  10. Increased expression of protein kinase CK2α correlates with poor patient prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zebiao; Wang, Xiaojing; He, Jiehua

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadly gynecological malignancies. The function of protein kinase CK2α (CK2α) in EOC is still unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the protein expression of CK2α and the tumor progression, the prognosis of human EOC. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of CK2α through Western blot, using EOC cell lines like A2780, HO8910, COV644, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and the primary normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells. Furthermore, OVCAR3 and SKOV3 EOC cells were employed as a cellular model to study the role of CK2α on cell growth, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution. In addition, we investigated CK2α protein expression in tumor tissues from patients with EOC by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the association between CK2α expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of EOC patients. And we found that compared with NOSE cells, CK2α protein expression was increased in A2780, HO8910, OVCAR3, and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Decreased CK2α expression suppressed OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cell growth and induced more apoptosis. CK2α knockdown using specific siRNAs inhibited migration and invasion ability of OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. In addition, high CK2α protein expression was found in 68.4% (80/117) of EOC patients. Increased CK2α expression of was significantly correlated with FIGO staging and peritoneal cytology. Patients with higher CK2α expression had a significantly poorer overall survival compared with those with lower CK2α expression. Multi-variate Cox regression analysis proved that increased CK2α expression was an independent prognostic marker for EOC. Taken together, our data displayed that CK2α may play a role in tumor aggressive behavior of EOC and could be used as a marker for predicting prognosis of EOC patient. High CK2α expression might predict poor patient survival. PMID:28355289

  11. Comparison of total plasma lysophosphatidic acid and serum CA-125 as a tumor marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barbaros, Merve; Baykara, Elif; Guralp, Onur; Cengiz, Salih; Demirkiran, Fuat; Sanioglu, Cevdet; Arvas, Macit

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a tumor marker in diagnosis and follow-up of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Eighty-seven epithelial ovarian cancer patients, 74 benign ovarian tumor patients, and 50 healthy women were enrolled in the study. Twenty-nine of 87 epithelial ovarian cancer patients were followed up for 6 cycles of paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy. CA-125 and total plasma LPA levels were measured preoperatively and before each chemotherapy cycle. Results Preoperative total plasma LPA and serum CA-125 levels were significantly higher in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors and healthy women. Cut-off value for LPA was determined as 1.3 µmol/L and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 95%, 92%, 95% and 92%, respectively. Mean total plasma LPA level of 29 patients who received chemotherapy was 7.21±6.63 µmol/L preoperatively and 6.84±6.34 µmol/L, 6.34±5.92 µmol/L, 6.14±5.79 µmol/L, 5.86±5.68 µmol/L, 5.23±5.11 µmol/L and 5.21±5.32 µmol/L in measurements held just before the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th chemotherapy cycles, respectively (ANOVA, p=0.832). Total plasma LPA levels decreased slightly with chemotherapy administration and there was a weak negative correlation (Spearman, rs=-0.151, p=0.034), compared to a significant negative correlation in CA-125 (Spearman, rs=-0.596, p<0.001). Conclusion LPA is a better biomarker for diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer compared to CA-125. However, measurement of total plasma LPA levels during chemotherapy administration have no superiority to the serum CA-125 levels. PMID:21278887

  12. Salinomycin repressed the epithelial–mesenchymal transition of epithelial ovarian cancer cells via downregulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Dong, Taotao; Hu, Chen; Lu, Jingjing; Dai, Jun; Liu, Peishu

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies. Most patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage and have distant metastasis ultimately. Salinomycin has been demonstrated to reduce invasive capacity of multiple tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of salinomycin on EOC cells. The cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) and Boyden chamber assays showed that salinomycin could effectively reduce the abilities of proliferation, migration and invasion in EOC cells. The western blot assay showed that salinomycin could increase the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Keratin) while decrease the expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) in a dose-dependent manner. These results were ascertained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Besides, salinomycin could downregulate the expression of proteins associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and repress the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. It was also shown that salinomycin could reverse the aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway induced by GSK-3β inhibitor (SB216763). Our results revealed that salinomycin could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion in EOC cells. In addition, the inhibitive effect of salinomycin on the invasive ability was mediated by repressing the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) program, which may be achieved through its inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:28280366

  13. The Heat Shock Transcription Factor HSF1 Induces Ovarian Cancer Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in a 3D Spheroid Growth Model

    PubMed Central

    Aoisa, Candice; Menzie, Christopher J.; Ubaldini, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, with over 200,000 women diagnosed each year and over half of those cases leading to death. The proteotoxic stress-responsive transcription factor HSF1 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is vital to cellular proliferation and invasion in some cancers. Upon analysis of various patient data sets, we find that HSF1 is frequently overexpressed in ovarian tumor samples. In order to determine the role of HSF1 in ovarian cancer, inducible HSF1 knockdown cell lines were created. Knockdown of HSF1 in SKOV3 and HEY ovarian cancer cell lines attenuates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cells treated with TGFβ, as determined by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of multiple EMT markers. To further explore the role of HSF1 in ovarian cancer EMT, we cultured multicellular spheroids in a non-adherent environment to simulate early avascular tumors. In the spheroid model, cells more readily undergo EMT; however, EMT inhibition by HSF1 becomes more pronounced in the spheroid model. These findings suggest that HSF1 is important in the ovarian cancer TGFβ response and in EMT. PMID:27997575

  14. Effects of HCG on human epithelial ovarian cancer vasculogenic mimicry formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    GAO, SAINAN; FAN, CHAO; HUANG, HUA; ZHU, CHANGLAI; SU, MIN; ZHANG, YUQUAN

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality due to gynecological malignancy, and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation is correlated with poor prognosis. In a previous study, the present authors observed that human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) could promote VM formation in three-dimensional OVCAR-3 cell cultures. In order to investigate whether HCG could promote VM formation in ovarian cancer in vivo, the role of OVCAR-3 cells overexpressing or depleted of chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 5 (CGB5, which is the fifth subunit of β-HCG and was identified as the key part of HCG) were injected into nude mice in the present study, while BeWo cells were used as a positive control. The results demonstrated that overexpressed CGB5 promoted xenografts tumor formation in nude mice, and the results of hematoxylin and eosin and cluster of differentiation (CD)34-periodic acid-Schiff dual staining revealed that CGB5 promoted VM formation. Furthermore, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemistry staining demonstrated that the expression of the vascular markers CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor and factor VIII was also upregulated in the CGB5-overexpressing xenografts tumors. In addition, the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), the receptor of CGB5, was increased in CGB5-overexpressing cells. In conclusion, CGB5 may promote tumor growth and VM formation via activation of the LHR signal transduction pathway, which may support a novel strategy for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27347165

  15. Updates in the Pathologic Diagnosis and Classification of Epithelial Neoplasms of Urachal Origin.

    PubMed

    Paner, Gladell P; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Sirohi, Deepika; Amin, Mahul B

    2016-03-01

    Since the publication of the World Health Organization "blue book" in 2004, several recent studies have provided new insights on the pathologic aspects of urachal neoplasms. The proposed updates include modified criteria for the diagnosis of urachal carcinoma. A uniform nomenclature for cystic tumors was lacking, and it is recommended that urachal mucinous cystic tumors should be separated and classified in a manner similar to ovarian mucinous neoplasms. The spectrum includes mucinous cystadenoma, mucinous cystic tumor of low malignant potential, mucinous cystic tumor of low malignant potential with intraepithelial carcinoma, and microscopically or frankly invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, with 65% of cystic tumors classified as mucinous cystic tumor of low malignant potential. Most importantly, it has been shown that progression-free survival of noninvasive mucinous cystic tumors is significantly better than noncystic invasive adenocarcinoma. This development, along with prior descriptions of urachal villous adenoma, has also reaffirmed the occurrence of benign tumors of urachal epithelial origin. For noncystic (usual) invasive adenocarcinomas, the traditionally described histologic subtypes of enteric, mucinous, signet ring cell, not otherwise specified, and mixed remain appropriate, with 50% of tumors classified as mucinous subtype. Although this subtyping is helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis, the clinical significance of subtyping adenocarcinoma is still uncertain. Rare nonglandular morphologies such as urothelial, squamous, and neuroendocrine carcinoma in urachal carcinomas have been described in detail with proposals for their own set of diagnostic criteria. These criteria are based on unique features of urachal nonglandular carcinomas. Among the immunomarkers studied, only β-catenin and CK7 may be of help in the distinction of urachal from colorectal adenocarcinoma. Awareness of the expression profile of immunomarkers such as CDX2, P504S

  16. Novel high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines that reflect the molecular diversity of both the sporadic and hereditary disease

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Euridice; Portelance, Lise; Arcand, Suzanna L.; Rahimi, Kurosh; Tonin, Patricia N.; Provencher, Diane; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Few cell line models of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have been developed for the high-grade serous (HGS) subtype, which is the most common and lethal form of gynaecological cancer. Here we describe the establishment of six new EOC cell lines spontaneously derived from HGS tumors (TOV2978G, TOV3041G and TOV3291G) or ascites (OV866(2), OV4453 and OV4485). Exome sequencing revealed somatic TP53 mutations in five of the cell lines. One cell line has a novel BRCA1 splice-site mutation, and another, a recurrent BRCA2 nonsense mutation, both of germline origin. The novel BRCA1 mutation induced abnormal splicing, mRNA instability, resulting in the absence of BRCA1 protein. None of the cell lines harbor mutations in KRAS or BRAF, which are characteristic of other EOC subtypes. SNP arrays showed that all of the cell lines exhibited structural chromosomal abnormalities, copy number alterations and regions of loss of heterozygosity, consistent with those described for HGS. Four cell lines were able to produce 3D-spheroids, two exhibited anchorage-independent growth, and three (including the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutated cell lines) formed tumors in SCID mice. These novel HGS EOC cell lines and their detailed characterization provide new research tools for investigating the most common and lethal form of EOC. PMID:26622941

  17. Bilateral respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas originating from the anterior olfactory clefts

    PubMed Central

    Falco, Jeffrey J.; Peine, Brandon S.

    2017-01-01

    A respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) is an uncommon benign lesion often found in the sinonasal tract. We present a case of bilateral REAH originating from the anterior olfactory cleft treated with endoscopic surgical resection without recurrence. We highlight the characteristics of REAH and necessary steps to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Molecular and Functional Characteristics of Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells Transformed by KrasG12D and loss of Pten in a Mouse Model in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, Lisa K.; Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; White, Lisa D.; Marshall, Alexandra; Gunaratne, Preethi; Anderson, Matthew L.; Creighton, Chad J.; Xin, Li; Deavers, Michael; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a complex and deadly disease that remains difficult to detect at an early curable stage. Furthermore, although some oncogenic (Kras, Pten/PI3K and Trp53) pathways that are frequently mutated, deleted or amplified in ovarian cancer are known, how these pathways initiate and drive specific morphological phenotypes and tumor outcomes remain unclear. We recently generated Pten fl/fl; KrasG12D;Amhr2-Cre mice to disrupt the Pten gene and express a stable mutant form of KrasG12D in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Based on histopathologic criteria, the mutant mice developed low-grade ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinomas at an early age and with 100% penetrance. This highly reproducible phenotype provides the first mouse model in which to study this ovarian cancer subtype. OSE cells isolated from ovaries of mutant mice at 5 and 10 weeks of age exhibit temporal changes in the expression of specific Mullerian epithelial marker genes, grow in soft agar and develop ectopic invasive tumors in recipient mice, indicating that the cells are transformed. Gene profiling identified specific mRNAs and microRNAs differentially expressed in purified OSE cells derived from tumors of the mutant mice compared to WT OSE cells. Mapping of transcripts or genes between the mouse OSE mutant datasets, the Kras signature from human cancer cell lines and the human ovarian tumor array datasets, documented significant overlap, indicating that KRAS is a key driver of OSE transformation in this context. Two key hallmarks of the mutant OSE cells in these mice are the elevated expression of the tumor suppressorsTrp53 (p53) and its microRNA target, miR-34a-c. We propose that elevated TRP53 and miR-34a-c may exert negatively regulatory effects that reduce the proliferative potential of OSE cells leading to the low-grade serous adenocarcinoma phenotype. PMID:21423204

  19. Eudaimonic Well-Being and Tumor Norepinephrine in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lauren Z.; Slavich, George M.; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Dahmoush, Laila; Farley, Donna; Markon, Kristian; Penedo, Frank J.; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steve W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of psychological well-being on physiologic processes involved in cancer progression remains unclear. Prior research has implicated adrenergic signaling in tumor growth and metastasis. Given that adrenergic signaling is influenced by both positive and negative factors, we examined how two different aspects of well-being (eudaimonic and positive affect) and psychological distress were associated with tumor norepinephrine (NE) in ovarian cancer patients. Methods Women with suspected ovarian cancer (N=365) completed psychosocial assessments pre-surgery and clinical information was obtained from medical records. Study inclusion was confirmed following histological diagnosis. Tumor NE was measured in frozen tissue samples using HPLC with electrochemical detection. We employed confirmatory factor analysis to model eudaimonic well-being, positive affect, and psychological distress, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine associations between these factors and tumor NE. Results Eudaimonic well-being, positive affect, and psychological distress, modeled as distinct but correlated constructs, best fit the data (i.e., compared to unitary or 2-factor models) (RMSEA=.048, CFI=.982, SRMR=.035). SEM analyses that included physical well-being, stage, histology, psychological treatment history, beta-blocker use, and caffeine use as covariates had good model fit (RMSEA=.052, CFI=.955, SRMR=.036) and showed that eudaimonic well-being was related to lower tumor NE (β=−.24, p=.045). In contrast, we found no effects for positive affect or psychological distress. Conclusion Eudaimonic well-being is associated with lower tumor NE, independent of positive affect and psychological distress. Because adrenergic signaling is implicated in tumor progression, increasing eudaimonic well-being may improve both psychological and physiologic resilience in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26096769

  20. Randomised study of systematic lymphadenectomy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer macroscopically confined to the pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Maggioni, A; Benedetti Panici, P; Dell'Anna, T; Landoni, F; Lissoni, A; Pellegrino, A; Rossi, R S; Chiari, S; Campagnutta, E; Greggi, S; Angioli, R; Manci, N; Calcagno, M; Scambia, G; Fossati, R; Floriani, I; Torri, V; Grassi, R; Mangioni, C

    2006-01-01

    No randomised trials have addressed the value of systematic aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy (SL) in ovarian cancer macroscopically confined to the pelvis. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SL compared with lymph nodes sampling (CONTROL) in the management of early stage ovarian cancer. A total of 268 eligible patients with macroscopically intrapelvic ovarian carcinoma were randomised to SL (N=138) or CONTROL (N=130). The primary objective was to compare the proportion of patients with retroperitoneal nodal involvement between the two groups. Median operating time was longer and more patients required blood transfusions in the SL arm than the CONTROL arm (240 vs 150 min, P<0.001, and 36 vs 22%, P=0.012, respectively). More patients in the SL group had positive nodes at histologic examination than patients on CONTROL (9 vs 22%, P=0.007). Postoperative chemotherapy was delivered in 66% and 51% of patients with negative nodes on CONTROL and SL, respectively (P=0.03). At a median follow-up of 87.8 months, the adjusted risks for progression (hazard ratio [HR]=0.72, 95%CI=0.46–1.21, P=0.16) and death (HR=0.85, 95%CI=0.49–1.47, P=0.56) were lower, but not statistically significant, in the SL than the CONTROL arm. Five-year progression-free survival was 71.3 and 78.3% (difference=7.0%, 95% CI=–3.4–14.3%) and 5-year overall survival was 81.3 and 84.2% (difference=2.9%, 95% CI=−7.0–9.2%) respectively for CONTROL and SL. SL detects a higher proportion of patients with metastatic lymph nodes. This trial may have lacked power to exclude clinically important effects of SL on progression free and overall survival. PMID:16940979

  1. [Update on current care guidelines: ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Leminen, Arto; Auranen, Annika; Bützow, Ralf; Hietanen, Sakari; Komulainen, Marja; Kuoppala, Tapio; Mäenpää, Johanna; Puistola, Ulla; Vuento, Maarit; Vuorela, Piia; Yliskoski, Merja

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer. It appears that seemingly ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinomas, in fact, originate from fimbriae. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended for the removal of ovaries and fimbriae, to reduce the risk of cancer. Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer is based on the combination of surgery and chemotherapy. The residual tumour volume at the primary operation is the most important predictive factor of survival. The best response at the primary treatment is observed with combination chemotherapy with taxane and platinum. Adding bevacitzumab to first line chemotherapy may improve survival.

  2. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MVP gene with platinum resistance and survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YA-NAN; HE, DONG-NING; WANG, YA-DI; LI, JUN-JIE; HA, MIN-WEN

    2016-01-01

    The human major vault protein (MVP) has been linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells, and overexpression of MVP has been observed in ovarian cancer tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MVP gene and the tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy and survival of patients affected by epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), in addition to confirm whether tetra-primer amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an accurate genotyping method. For this purpose, two polymorphisms in the MVP gene, namely reference SNP (rs)1057451 and rs4788186, were selected from the data obtained by the International haplotype map (HapMap) Project regarding Chinese Han population, and were evaluated by tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Upon validation by DNA sequencing, the association of these polymorphisms with platinum resistance, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with EOC was assessed. The results of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR were in agreement with those derived from DNA sequencing. No significant differences were observed between platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant cohorts in terms of allele and genotype distribution of these two polymorphisms in the MVP gene, which were not associated with PFS or OS. However, a trend toward prolonged PFS was observed in patients carrying the heterozygous AG allele at the rs4788186 locus. These results suggest that rs1057451 and rs4788186 variants in the MVP gene are not associated with favorable therapeutic response to platinum or longer survival in Chinese Han patients affected by EOC. In addition, the data of the present study confirm that tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a trustworthy and economical genotyping method. PMID:27073578

  3. Bevacizumab combination therapy: a review of its use in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Sohita

    2013-08-01

    Bevacizumab (Avastin®) is a recombinant, humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of VEGF and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. In the EU, in adult patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer, bevacizumab (in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel) is approved for the first-line treatment of advanced disease and (in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine) is approved for the treatment of patients with first recurrence of platinum-sensitive disease who have not received prior therapy with bevacizumab or other VEGF inhibitors or VEGF receptor-targeted agents. This article summarizes the pharmacology of bevacizumab and reviews the efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab combination therapy in well-designed clinical studies in these indications. The addition of bevacizumab to first-line carboplatin plus paclitaxel, followed by bevacizumab maintenance therapy significantly prolonged progression-free survival in women with newly-diagnosed advanced disease (GOG-0218 and ICON7 studies). Progression-free survival was also significantly prolonged after second-line treatment with bevacizumab in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine, followed by maintenance treatment with bevacizumab alone in women with recurrence (≥ 6 months after front-line platinum-based therapy) of platinum-sensitive disease (OCEANS study). Bevacizumab combination therapy had a generally acceptable tolerability profile in these studies, with the nature of adverse events generally similar to that observed in previous clinical trials in patients with other solid tumors. Although several unanswered questions remain, such as the optimal dosage and duration of treatment, current evidence suggests that bevacizumab combination therapy extends the treatment options available for patients with ovarian cancer.

  4. The Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Cell-Cell Adhesion Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Phillip W.; Clarke, Donald N.; Weis, William I.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Nelson, W. James

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A simple epithelium forms a barrier between the outside and the inside of an organism, and is the first organized multicellular tissue found in evolution. We examine the relationship between the evolution of epithelia and specialized cell-cell adhesion proteins comprising the classical cadherin/β-catenin/α-catenin complex (CCC). A review of the divergent functional properties of the CCC in metazoans and non-metazoans, and an updated phylogenetic coverage of the CCC using recent genomic data reveal: 1) The core CCC likely originated before the last common ancestor of unikonts and their closest bikont sister taxa. 2) Formation of the CCC may have constrained sequence evolution of the classical cadherin cytoplasmic domain and β-catenin in metazoa. 3) The α-catenin binding domain in β-catenin appears to be the favored mutation site for disrupting β-catenin function in the CCC. 4) The ancestral function of the α/β-catenin heterodimer appears to be an actin-binding module. In some metazoan groups, more complex functions of α-catenin were gained by sequence divergence in the non-actin binding (N-, M-) domains. 5) Allosteric regulation of α-catenin, rather than loss of function mutations, may have evolved for more complex regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24210433

  5. Effects of sequential paclitaxel–carboplatin followed by gemcitabine-based chemotherapy compared with paclitaxel-carboplatin therapy administered to patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Du, Xuelian; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Naifu; Yu, Hao; Sheng, Xiugui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to compare the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel–carboplatin for treating advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in this retrospective, STROBE-compliant study. Patients’ tolerance to treatment was also assessed. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 178 women who underwent initial optimal debulking surgery between January 2003 and December 2011 to treat FIGO stage IIIc epithelial ovarian cancer. Patients in arm 1 (n = 88) received 4 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by 2 to 4 cycles of gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy. Patients in arm 2 (n = 90) received 6 to 8 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin. The granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was administered prophylactically to all patients. The median follow-up for both arms was 62 months. Medianprogression-free survival (PFS) between arms 1 and 2 (28 and 19 months [P = 0.003]) as well as 5-year OS (34.1% and 18.9% [P = 0.021]) differed significantly. The neurotoxicity rate was significantly higher in arm 2 than in arm 1 (45.2% vs 27.1%, P = 0.026). There was no significant difference between study arms in hematological toxicity. The sequential regimen significantly improved PFS and 5-year OS with tolerable toxicity compared with the single regimen, and offers an alternative for treating patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:28002342

  6. Intraperitoneal Bortezomib and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Eno, Michele L.; Ahn, Edward H.; Shahzad, Mian M.K.; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshein, Neil B.; Sood, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate risk factors that predict brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Methods All patients with FIGO stage I to IV who underwent initial cytoreductive surgery between January 1995 and January 2009 were evaluated. The tumor samples were evaluated for 7 markers including multi-drug resistance gene (MDR-1), DNA aneuploidity and S-phase fraction, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 mutation, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CD31. Biomarker expression was evaluated as a predictor of hematogenous metastasis to the following locations: (i) liver and spleen, (ii) lung, and (iii) brain. Results There were 309 cases identified during the period. Of those, five (1.6%, 95%CI 0.2-3.0%) women developed brain metastasis. Time to onset of brain metastasis was significantly longer than for other recurrent sites (median time to recurrence after initial cytoreduction, brain vs lung vs liver, 21.4 vs 12.6 vs 11.0 months, p<0.05). Significantly increased expression of MDR-1 was seen in tumors from women who developed brain metastasis (brain vs non-brain sites, 80% vs 4.2-24.3%, p=0.004). In multivariate analysis, MDR-1 was the only significant variable associated with the risk of brain metastasis. MDR-1 expression predicted brain metastasis (Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis, AUC 0.808, p=0.018), and with a 10% positive expression of MDR-1 as the cutoff value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy of prediction of brain metastasis were 80%, 86.1%, 15.4%, 99.3%, and 85.9%, respectively (odds ratio 24.7, 95%CI 2.64-232, p=0.002). Conclusions Increased expression of MDR-1 in the tumor tissue obtained at initial cytoreduction is associated with increased risk of developing brain metastases in women with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer. PMID:20921883

  8. Prognostic factors in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Gruppo Interregionale Cooperativo di Oncologia Ginecologica (GICOG)).

    PubMed Central

    Marsoni, S.; Torri, V.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Belloni, C.; Bianchi, U.; Bolis, G.; Bonazzi, C.; Colombo, N.; Epis, A.; Favalli, G.

    1990-01-01

    The data on 914 patients enrolled in four randomised trials in advanced ovarian cancer, consecutively conducted by the same cooperative group between 1978 and 1986, were analysed with the aims of: (1) determining the impact of selected prognostic variables on survival; (2) finding, from the interaction of favourable prognostic factors and treatment, an approximate estimate of the magnitude of the survival advantage associated with the use of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The overall 3-year survival in this series of patients is twice that reported historically (22%; 95% CL 18.7-25.4). The proportional hazard regression model was used to perform the analysis on survival. Residual tumour size, age, FIGO stage and cell type were all independent determinants of survival. Differences in survival from the various prognostic groups were impressive with 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 62%. However, these differences were not qualitative (i.e. the kinetics of survival were similar for the best and the worst groups) suggesting that current prognostic factors are of little use for selecting 'biologically' different sub-populations. Platinum-based regimens were associated to an overall prolonged median survival, but this benefit was not observable in the subgroup with most favourable prognosis (less than 2 cm residual tumour size). The implications of these observations for clinical research and ovarian cancer patients care are discussed. PMID:2119684

  9. Vasohibin-2 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ovarian cancer cells by modulating TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Norita, Rie; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Furutani, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kazuki; Yoshimatsu, Yasuhiro; Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna A; Watabe, Tetsuro; Sato, Yasufumi

    2017-01-08

    Vasohibin-2 (VASH2) is a homologue of VASH1, an endothelium-derived angiogenesis inhibitor. VASH2 is mainly expressed in cancer cells, and has been implicated in the progression of cancer by inducing angiogenesis and tumor growth. While VASH2 has been recently reported to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), its precise roles are obscure. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of VASH2 in the EMT of cancer cells in relation to TGF-β signaling, which is a major stimulator of the EMT. Decreased expression of VASH2 in ovarian cancer cells significantly repressed the expression of TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI), namely ALK5. TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 was markedly decreased in VASH2 knockdown cells while the expression of Smad2 and Smad3 was unchanged. Accordingly, the responses to TGF-β1 shown by promoter assay and PAI-1 expression were significantly attenuated in VASH2 knockdown cells. Furthermore, knockdown of VASH2 in cancer cells abrogated the TGF-β1-induced reduced expression of epithelial markers including E-cadherin, and the elevated expression of mesenchymal markers including fibronectin, ZEB2 and Snail2, suggesting that endogenous VASH2 is required for TGF-β1-induced EMT. In accordance with these results, the effects of TGF-β1 on cell morphology, migration, invasion and MMP2 expression were also abrogated when VASH2 was knocked-down. These results indicate that VASH2 played a significant role in the EMT by modulating the TGF-β signaling. We propose that VASH2 would be a novel molecular target for the prevention of the EMT in cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The fallopian tube as the origin of high grade serous ovarian cancer: review of a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Reade, Clare J; McVey, Ruaidhrí M; Tone, Alicia A; Finlayson, Sarah J; McAlpine, Jessica N; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Ferguson, Sarah E

    2014-02-01

    Research published over the past 10 years has suggested that most "ovarian cancer," and specifically the high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) subtype of ovarian cancer, actually originates in the fallopian tube. In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the tubal origin hypothesis for HGSC, and discuss the clinical implications of our improved understanding of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. We searched Medline R and Medline in-process and non-indexed citations from inception to December 15, 2012, to identify all English or French language articles discussing the origins of HGSC. Articles and findings were summarized descriptively. A step-wise transformation from normal epithelium to a lesion with the ability to invade and metastasize has been demonstrated within the fallopian tube. Intraepithelial or early invasive carcinoma of the fallopian tube is frequently identified in BRCA mutation carriers who undergo prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. In both BRCA mutation carriers and women from the general population, pre-invasive changes within the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube appear in association with early HGSC. Molecular and genetic studies, as well as in vitro and animal models, have also supported a tubal origin for HGSC. Whether the removal of fallopian tubes (salpingectomy) at the time of pelvic surgery for other reasons will lead to reductions in mortality from ovarian cancer is currently unknown, but it is an important area for future clinical research.

  11. Ovarian Cancer: Opportunity for Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Tomoko; Morgan, Robert; Yen, Yun; Mortimer, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a common cause of cancer mortality in women with limited treatment effectiveness in advanced stages. The limitation to treatment is largely the result of high rates of cancer recurrence despite chemotherapy and eventual resistance to existing chemotherapeutic agents. The objective of this paper is to review current concepts of ovarian carcinogenesis. We will review existing hypotheses of tumor origin from ovarian epithelial cells, Fallopian tube, and endometrium. We will also review the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer which results in two specific pathways of carcinogenesis: (1) type I low-grade tumor and (2) type II high-grade tumor. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of ovarian carcinogenesis has opened new opportunities for targeted therapy. This paper will also review these potential therapeutic targets and will explore new agents that are currently being investigated. PMID:22235203

  12. Adrenomedullin promotes angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer through upregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yang; Ma, Jian; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a multi-functional peptide related to many kinds of tumors. This study was aimed to investigate the role of ADM on angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and its possible mechanism. The expressions of ADM, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and CD34 were examined by immunohistochemistry staining. The relationship among ADM, HIF-1α, VEGF and micro-vessel density (MVD) was assessed in 56 EOC tissues. CAOV3 cells were stably transfected with pcDNA-ADM (plasmid overexpressing ADM gene) or pRNA-shADM (small interfering RNA for ADM gene). Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF. The MTT, transwell migration assay and in vitro tube formation analysis were used to evaluate the proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which were pretreated with ADM or ADM receptor antagonist ADM22-52. Our findings showed that ADM expression was positively correlated with the expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF or MVD in EOC. ADM upregulated expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in CAOV3 cells. ADM promoted HUVECs proliferation, migration and tube formation. In conclusion, ADM was an upstream molecule of HIF-1α/VEGF and it promoted angiogenesis through upregulating HIF-1α/VEGF in EOC. PMID:28091613

  13. Peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a multicenter retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-yu; Liu, Cheng-cheng; Wang, Liang; Zhong, Mei; Tang, Hai-lin; Wang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), as a surrogate marker of systemic inflammation, has been found to be a novel prognostic indicator in various malignancies. Data from 672 advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by debulking surgery were analyzed, and the prognostic value of LMR were evaluated. The optimal cutoff point of LMR in prediction of survival was defined as 3.45 through receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Patients with low LMR (≤3.45) at diagnosis tended to have more adverse clinical features, such as higher histological grade, chemotherapy resistance, and residual tumor >1cm after debulking surgery. No significant correlation was found between LMR level and age and histological type. Moreover, after NAC, the complete remission (CR) rate for the low-LMR group was lower than those for the high-LMR group (P<0.05). Patients with low LMR had poorer progression-free survival (PFS; P<0.001) and overall survival (OS; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that low LMR was an independent adverse predictor for PFS and OS. Results indicated that low LMR at diagnosis is a novel independent prognostic factor for advanced EOC. However, prospective study is needed to validate this prognostic factor and biological studies should further investigate the mechanisms underlying the correlation between low LMR and poor prognosis in advanced EOC.

  14. Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Is a Predictor of Suboptimal Cytoreduction in Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wankyu; Kim, Hong-Bae; Lee, Yong Joo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung; Kim, Heungyeol

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the preoperative lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) is a predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Preoperative clinico-pathologic and hematologic parameters were reviewed in a total of 154 patients with EOC submitted to primary cytoreductive surgery. Patients were categorized into two different groups according to the results of cytoreductive surgery: optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction. Continuous variables were categorized into two groups using the best cutoff points selected on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for suboptimal cytoreduction. Results: Based on data collected from the 154 patients, 133 (86.4%) and 21 (13.6%) patients presented with stage III and IV disease, respectively. One hundred seventeen (76.0%) patients had serous adenocarcinoma, and 92 (59.7%) had histologic tumor grade 3. The optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction groups included 96 (62.3%) and 58 patients (37.7%), respectively. The best LMR cutoff point for suboptimal cytoreduction was 3.75. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, cancer antigen 125, white blood cell count, and LMR were found to be the strongest predictors for suboptimal cytoreduction (P=0.0037, 0.0249, 0.0062, and 0.0015, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative LMR is an independent predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction. It provides additional prognostic information beyond the biological parameters of the tumor. PMID:27698915

  15. Ferritin heavy chain is a negative regulator of ovarian cancer stem cell expansion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Pisanu, Maria Elena; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Jakopin, Žiga; Chiarella, Emanuela; Giovannone, Emilia Dora; Mancini, Rita; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein essential for maintaining the cellular redox status. In recent years ferritin heavy chain (FHC) has been shown to be involved also in the control of cancer cell growth. Analysis of public microarray databases in ovarian cancer revealed a correlation between low FHC expression levels and shorter survival. To better understand the role of FHC in cancer, we have silenced the FHC gene in SKOV3 cells. Results FHC-KO significantly enhanced cell viability and induced a more aggressive behaviour. FHC-silenced cells showed increased ability to form 3D spheroids and enhanced expression of NANOG, OCT4, ALDH and Vimentin. These features were accompanied by augmented expression of SCD1, a major lipid metabolism enzyme. FHC apparently orchestrates part of these changes by regulating a network of miRNAs. Methods FHC-silenced and control shScr SKOV3 cells were monitored for changes in proliferation, migration, ability to propagate as 3D spheroids and for the expression of stem cell and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) markers. The expression of three miRNAs relevant to spheroid formation or EMT was assessed by q-PCR. Conclusions In this paper we uncover a new function of FHC in the control of cancer stem cells. PMID:27566559

  16. Serum levels of macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) have diagnostic, predictive and prognostic roles in epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Karabulut, Senem; Serilmez, Murat; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies, and its expression strongly also affects outcomes of cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of serum levels of MIF in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. A total of 50 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of EOC were enrolled into this study. Serum MIF concentrations were determined using the solid-phase sandwich ELISA method. Age- and sex-matched 30 healthy controls were included in the analysis. Median age of patients was 56.5 years old, range 22 to 83 years. Majority of the patients had an advanced disease (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stages III and IV) (90%). Baseline serum MIF levels were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (p = 0.005). No known clinical variables including histology, grade of histology, stage of disease, debulking surgery, and serum CA 125 levels were found to be correlated with serum MIF levels (p > 0.05). Only those chemotherapy-unresponsive patients had higher serum MIF levels compared with responsive ones (p = 0.02). Patients with elevated serum MIF concentrations had significantly unfavorable overall survival compared to those with lower levels (p = 0.01). However, a serum MIF level was found to play no prognostic role for progression-free survival (p = 0.09). In conclusion, serum levels of MIF have diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic roles in EOC patients.

  17. High expression of CTHRC1 promotes EMT of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanyang; Li, Yang; Pan, Yunping; Feng, Chongjin; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Millicent; Wang, Liantang; Ke, Zunfu

    2015-01-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors. However, the expression characteristics and function of CTHRC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain unclear. We found that CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in the paraffin-embedded EOC tissues compared to borderline or benign tumor tissues. CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (p = 0.008), menopause (p = 0.037), clinical stage (p = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and was also an important prognostic factor for the overall survival of EOC patients, as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTHRC1 increased the invasive capabilities of EOC cells in vitro by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We showed that ectopic transfection of CTHRC1 in EOC cells up-regulated the expression of EMT markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin, and EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression in EOC cells resulted in down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, CTHRC1 may promote EOC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy. PMID:26452130

  18. c-Yes enhances tumor migration and invasion via PI3K/AKT pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunfeng; Huang, Menghui; Wang, Yingying; Yi, Changying; Deng, Yan; Chen, Yannan; Jiang, Lifei; Wang, Juan; Shen, Qin; Liu, Rong; QinghuaXi

    2016-08-01

    Overexpression of c-Yes has been noted to correlation with several human cancers. However, the effects of c-Yes on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development remain unclear. The aim of this study is going to prove the effects of c-Yes and related mechanisms in proliferation, metastasis and invasion of EOC. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 119 human EOC samples, and the data was correlated with clinic pathologic features. Furthermore, western blot analysis is performed for c-Yes in EOC samples and cell lines to evaluate their protein levels and molecular interaction. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis shows that the strong expression of c-Yes exhibited a significant correlation with poor prognosis in human EOC (P<0.01(⁎)). Meanwhile, we found that knockdown of c-Yes by shRNA inhibited the ability of migration and invasion in EOC cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway. In a word, these results suggested that c-Yes plays an important role in migration and invasion of EOC.

  19. Epithelial ovarian cancer-secreted exosomal miR-222-3p induces polarization of tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiang; Wu, Quanfeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Qinyi; Wang, Xinjing; Jiang, Lu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-07-12

    Cancer secreted exosomal miRNAs are emerging as mediators between tumor-stoma crosstalk. Here, we show epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)-derived exosomes activated macrophages to a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-like phenotype with SOCS3/STAT3 pathway involvement, which could facilitate the progression of cancer. MiR-222-3p was enrichment in exosomes released from EOC cells and it could be transferred to macrophages. Overexpression of miR-222-3p in macrophages induced polarization of the M2 phenotype. Luciferase assay verified miR-222-3p targeted SOCS3 genes and expression of SOCS3 was decreased after transfection with a miR-222-3p mimic. Down-regulation of SOCS3 correlated with an increased expression of STAT3 activation. MiR-222-3p could be detected in the exosomes from serum and its levels were related to EOC. These observations propose tumor-derived exosomal miR-222-3p is an effective regulator in the polarization of tumor-promoting M2 macrophages and may be a biomarker of EOC.

  20. The use of laser microdissection in the identification of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR in human FFPE epithelial ovarian tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Li, Tao; Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene.

  1. Phase Ib-IIa study to reverse platinum resistance by the use of a hypomethylating agent azacitidine in platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Iyer, Revathy; Kavanagh, John J.; Coleman, Robert L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Sood, Anil K.; Wolf, Judith K.; Gershenson, David M.; Markman, Maurie; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Kurzrock, Razelle; Bast, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sequential treatment with azacitidine can induce re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes through genomic DNA hypomethylation and reverse carboplatin resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. We initiated a phase Ib-IIa clinical trial of this sequential combination of azacitidine and carboplatin in platinum-resistant or refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Patients with pathologically confirmed intermediate- or high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer who had disease progression within 6 months (resistant, n = 18) or during a platinum-based therapy (refractory, n = 12) were eligible. All patients had measurable disease. Results Thirty patients received a total of 163 cycles of treatment. This regimen produced 1 CR, 3 PR (ORR: 13.8%), and 10 SD among 29 evaluable patients. For those who achieved clinical benefits, the median duration of the treatment was 7.5 months. The median PFS and OS for all patients were 3.7 months and 14 months, respectively. Patients with platinum resistant disease achieved an ORR of 22%, with a median PFS of 5.6 months and a median OS of 23 months. The predominant toxicities were fatigue and myelosuppression. Correlative studies showed that DR4 methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes was decreased during treatment in 3 of 4 objective responders (75%), but in only 5 of 13 non-responders (38%). Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first clinical evidence that a hypomethylating agent may partially reverse platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. Further clinical evaluation of hypomethylating agents in combination with carboplatin is warranted. PMID:21472713

  2. Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and involved in cell proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qizhi; Fu, Aili; Yang, Shude; He, Xiaoli; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Jiadi; Luan, Xiying; Yu, Wenzheng; Xue, Jiangnan

    2015-03-06

    Previous studies have shown that leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on most types of hamatopoietic cells and negatively regulate immune response, but the roles of LAIR-1 in tumor of the non-hematopoietic lineage have not been determined. Despite advances in therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), many questions relating to EOC pathogenesis remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of LAIR-1 expression in EOC and explore the possible association between LAIR-1 and cancer. In this study, a tissue microarray containing 78 ovarian cancer cases was stained following a standard immunohistochemical protocol for LAIR-1 and the correlation of LAIR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features was assessed. LAIR-1 was detected to express in tumor cells of ovarian cancer tissues (73.1%) and EOC cell lines COC1 and HO8910, not in normal ovarian tissues. In addition, LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade (p = 0.004). Furthermore, down-regulation of LAIR-1 in HO8910 cells increased cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasion. These data suggest that LAIR-1 has a relevant impact on EOC progression and may be helpful for a better understanding of molecular pathogenesis of cancer. - Highlights: • LAIR-1 is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. • LAIR-1 expression correlates significantly with tumor grade. • Down-regulation of LAIR-1 expression increased cell proliferation and invasion. • LAIR-1 may be a novel candidate for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  3. Inhibition of growth of OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice by treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, T; Pinski, J; Halmos, G; Szepeshazi, K; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1994-01-01

    Female athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line were treated with potent luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone (LH-RH) antagonist SB-75 (Cetrorelix; [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4 CI)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LH-RH in which Ac-D-Nal(2) = N-acetyl-3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine, D-Phe(4CI) = 4-chloro-D-phenylalanine, D-Pal(3) = 3-(3-pyridyl)-D-alanine, and D-Cit = D-Citrulline) or with the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH. In the first experiment, SB-75 and [D-Trp6]LH-RH were administered in the form of microcapsules releasing 60 and 25 micrograms/day, respectively. In the second study, the analogs were given by daily s.c. injections in doses of 100 micrograms/day. In both experiments, tumor growth, as measured by reduction in tumor volume, percentage change in tumor volume, tumor burden, and increase in tumor doubling time, was significantly inhibited by treatment with SB-75 but not with [D-Trp6]LH-RH. Uterine and ovarian weights were reduced and serum LH levels decreased by administration of either analog. Chronic treatment with SB-75 greatly reduced the concentration of receptors for epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I in tumor cell membranes, a phenomenon that might be related to tumor growth inhibition. It is possible that the antitumoral effects of SB-75 on OV-1063 ovarian cancers are exerted not only through the suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis, but also directly. In view of its strong inhibitory effect on the growth of OV-1063 ovarian cancers in vivo, the potent LH-RH antagonist SB-75 might be considered for possible hormonal therapy of advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:7518926

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated miRNAs in ovarian carcinoma, with highlight on the miR-200 family: prognostic value and prospective role in ovarian cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Koutsaki, Maria; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Zaravinos, Apostolos

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short ribonucleic acids found to play a pivotal role in cancer pathogenesis. MiRNAs are crucial in cellular differentiation, growth, stress response, cell death and other fundamental cellular processes, and their involvement in ovarian cancer has been recently shown. They can repress the expression of important cancer-related genes and they can also function both as oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion and gain migratory and invasive properties. In the ovarian surface epithelium, EMT is considered the key regulator of the post-ovulatory repair process and it can be triggered by a range of environmental stimuli. The aberrant expression of the miR-200 family (miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141 and miR-429) in ovarian carcinoma and its involvement in ovarian cancer initiation and progression has been well-demonstrated. The miR-200 family members seem to be strongly associated with a pathologic EMT and to have a metastasis suppressive role. MiRNA signatures can accurately distinguish ovarian cancer from the normal ovary and can be used as diagnostic tools to predict the clinical response to chemotherapy. Recent evidence suggests a growing list of new miRNAs (miR-187, miR-34a, miR-506, miRNA-138, miR-30c, miR-30d, miR-30e-3p, miR-370 and miR-106a, among others) that are also implicated in ovarian carcinoma-associated EMT, either enhancing or suppressing it. MiRNA-based gene therapy provides a prospective anti-tumour approach for integrated cancer therapy. The aim of nanotechnology-based delivery approach for miRNA therapy is to overcome challenges in miRNA delivery and to effectively encourage the reprogramming of miRNA networks in cancer cells, which may lead to a clinically translatable miRNA-based therapy to benefit ovarian cancer patients.

  5. GRHL2-miR-200-ZEB1 maintains the epithelial status of ovarian cancer through transcriptional regulation and histone modification

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vin Yee; Tan, Tuan Zea; Tan, Ming; Wong, Meng Kang; Kuay, Kuee Theng; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Jieru; Muller, Julius; Koh, Cheryl M.; Guccione, Ernesto; Thiery, Jean Paul; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process by which polarized epithelial cells convert into a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated to contribute to the molecular heterogeneity of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Here we report that a transcription factor—Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) maintains the epithelial phenotype. EOC tumours with lower GRHL2 levels are associated with the Mes/Mesenchymal molecular subtype and a poorer overall survival. shRNA-mediated knockdown of GRHL2 in EOC cells with an epithelial phenotype results in EMT changes, with increased cell migration, invasion and motility. By ChIP-sequencing and gene expression microarray, microRNA-200b/a is identified as the direct transcriptional target of GRHL2 and regulates the epithelial status of EOC through ZEB1 and E-cadherin. Our study demonstrates that loss of GRHL2 increases the levels of histone mark H3K27me3 on promoters and GRHL2-binding sites at miR-200b/a and E-cadherin genes. These findings support GRHL2 as a pivotal gatekeeper of EMT in EOC via miR-200-ZEB1. PMID:26887977

  6. Study of corneal epithelial progenitor origin and the Yap1 requirement using keratin 12 lineage tracing transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Gaddipati, Subhash; Tian, Shifu; Xue, Lei; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Lu, Qingxian; Li, Qiutang

    2016-01-01

    Key issues in corneal epithelium biology are the mechanism for corneal epithelium stem cells to maintain the corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing responses, and what are the regulatory molecular pathways involved. There are apparent discrepancies about the locations of the progenitor populations responsible for corneal epithelial self-renewal. We have developed a genetic mouse model to trace the corneal epithelial progenitor lineages during adult corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing response. Our data revealed that the early corneal epithelial progenitor cells expressing keratin-12 originated from limbus, and gave rise to the transit amplifying cells that migrated centripetally to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells. Our results support a model that both corneal epithelial homeostasis and wound healing are mainly maintained by the activated limbal stem cells originating form limbus, but not from the corneal basal epithelial layer. In the present study, we further demonstrated the nuclear expression of transcriptional coactivator YAP1 in the limbal and corneal basal epithelial cells and its essential role for maintaining the high proliferative potential of those corneal epithelial progenitor cells in vivo. PMID:27734924

  7. Effects of deletion of the transcription factor Nrf2 and benzo[a]pyrene treatment on ovarian follicles and ovarian surface epithelial cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jinhwan; Ortiz, Laura; Nakamura, Brooke N.; Hoang, Yvonne D.; Banuelos, Jesus; Flores, Victoria N.; Chan, Jefferson Y.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and potent ovarian toxicants. The transcription factor NRF2 is an important regulator of the cellular response to electrophilic toxicants like BaP and to oxidative stress. NRF2 regulates transcription of genes involved in the detoxification of reactive metabolites of BaP and reactive oxygen species. We therefore hypothesized that Nrf2−/− mice have accelerated ovarian aging and increased sensitivity to the ovarian toxicity of BaP. A single injection of BaP dose-dependently depleted ovarian follicles in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/− mice, but the effects of BaP were not enhanced in the absence of Nrf2. Similarly, Nrf2−/− mice did not have increased ovarian BaP DNA adduct formation compared to Nrf2+/+ mice. Ovarian follicle numbers did not differ between peripubertal Nrf2−/− and Nrf2+/+ mice, but by middle age, Nrf2−/− mice had significantly fewer primordial follicles than Nrf2+/+ mice, consistent with accelerated ovarian aging. PMID:26247513

  8. Association Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hormone Metabolism and DNA Repair Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from Two Australian Studies and an Additional Validation Set

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, Jonathan; Jordan, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Kjaer, Suzanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; DiCioccio, Richard A.; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Although some high-risk ovarian cancer genes have been identified, it is likely that common low penetrance alleles exist that confer some increase in ovarian cancer risk. We have genotyped nine putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis (SRD5A2, CYP19A1, HSB17B1, and HSD17B4) and DNA repair (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRCA2, and RAD52) using two Australian ovarian cancer case-control studies, comprising a total of 1,466 cases and 1,821 controls of Caucasian origin. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using logistic regression. The only SNP we found to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in both of these two studies was SRD5A2 V89L (rs523349), which showed a significant trend of increasing risk per rare allele (P = 0.00002). We then genotyped another SNP in this gene (rs632148; r2 = 0.945 with V89L) in an attempt to validate this finding in an independent set of 1,479 cases and 2,452 controls from United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark. There was no association between rs632148 and ovarian cancer risk in the validation samples, and overall, there was no significant heterogeneity between the results of the five studies. Further analyses of SNPs in this gene are therefore warranted to determine whether SRD5A2 plays a role in ovarian cancer predisposition. PMID:18086758

  9. The role of HE4 for prediction of recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer patients-results from the OVCAD study.

    PubMed

    Nassir, Mani; Guan, Jun; Luketina, Hrvoje; Siepmann, Timo; Rohr, Irena; Richter, Rolf; Castillo-Tong, Dan Cacsire; Zeillinger, Robert; Vergote, Ignace; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Concin, Nicole; Marth, Christian; Hall, Christina; Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Elena Ioana

    2016-03-01

    Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are at high risk of tumor recurrence. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has been shown to be overexpressed in EOC. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the role of HE4 in predicting recurrence in EOC patients. Furthermore, we assessed the role of HE4 in predicting recurrence after second-line chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed data of 92 out of 275 primary EOC patients of the multicenter project "Ovarian Cancer: Diagnosis of a silent killer" (OVCAD). The concentrations of HE4 and CA125 were determined preoperatively and 6 months after the end of platinum-based first-line chemotherapy (FU) using ELISA and Luminex technique, respectively. The role of HE4 and CA125 for prediction of recurrence was determined using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Out of 92 patients included, 70 (76 %) were responders and 22 (23 %) non-responders in terms of response to platinum-based first-line chemotherapy. Median HE4 concentrations at follow-up (FU) differed between responders and non-responders (60.5 vs. 237.25 pM, p = 0.0001), respectively. The combined use of HE4 and CA125 at FU with cut-off values of 49.5 pM and 25 U/ml for HE4 and CA125, respectively, for predicting recurrence within 12 months after first-line chemotherapy performed better than HE4 or CA125 alone (area under the curve (AUC) 0.928, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 0.838-1, p < 0.001). HE4 at FU could predict recurrence within 6 months after second-line chemotherapy (AUC 0.719, 95 % CI 0.553-0.885, p = 0.024). The combination of both elevated biomarkers revealed significantly worse estimated median progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio (HR) 8.14, 95 % CI 3.75-17.68, p < 0.001) and slightly worse PFS in those in whom only one biomarker was elevated (HR 1.46, 95 % CI 0.72-2.96, p = 0.292) compared to those patients in whom no biomarker was elevated. For the estimated median overall survival (OS), our

  10. High-grade serous ovarian cancer 3 years after bilateral salpingectomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Emi; Nakayama, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Masako; Nakamura, Kohei; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Kyo, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Although epithelial ovarian cancer commonly originates from the ovarian surface epithelium and/or ovarian inclusion cysts, it was recently proposed that high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) develops from the Fallopian tubes. In our department, we encountered a case of HGSC that contradicts the hypothesis of a tubal origin for HGSC. A 51-year-old postmenopausal woman had undergone hysterectomy, left oophorectomy and bilateral salpingectomy for uterine myoma. Three years later, the patient was diagnosed with stage IV ovarian cancer and underwent primary debulking surgery. The pathological examination revealed HGSC, although there was no evidence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or any other type of cancer in the previously resected left ovary and bilateral Fallopian tubes. Moreover, p53 overexpression was not detected in the right ovarian cancer specimen, while paired box gene 8, a marker of Fallopian tube epithelium, was highly expressed. Therefore, HGSC may develop from an inclusion cyst with metaplasia of from the ovarian surface epithelium.

  11. Cediranib, an Oral Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Kinases, Is an Active Drug in Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matulonis, Ursula A.; Berlin, Suzanne; Ivy, Percy; Tyburski, Karin; Krasner, Carolyn; Zarwan, Corrine; Berkenblit, Anna; Campos, Susana; Horowitz, Neil; Cannistra, Stephen A.; Lee, Hang; Lee, Julie; Roche, Maria; Hill, Margaret; Whalen, Christin; Sullivan, Laura; Tran, Chau; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Penson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Angiogenesis is important for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) growth, and blocking angiogenesis can lead to EOC regression. Cediranib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) -1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and c-kit. Patients and Methods We conducted a phase II study of cediranib for recurrent EOC or peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer; cediranib was administered as a daily oral dose, and the original dose was 45 mg daily. Because of toxicities observed in the first 11 patients, the dose was lowered to 30 mg. Eligibility included ≤ two lines of chemotherapy for recurrence. End points included response rate (via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] or modified Gynecological Cancer Intergroup CA-125), toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Forty-seven patients were enrolled; 46 were treated. Clinical benefit rate (defined as complete response [CR] or partial response [PR], stable disease [SD] > 16 weeks, or CA-125 nonprogression > 16 weeks), which was the primary end point, was 30%; eight patients (17%; 95% CI, 7.6% to 30.8%) had a PR, six patients (13%; 95% CI, 4.8% to 25.7%) had SD, and there were no CRs. Eleven patients (23%) were removed from study because of toxicities before two cycles. Grade 3 toxicities (> 20% of patients) included hypertension (46%), fatigue (24%), and diarrhea (13%). Grade 2 hypothyroidism occurred in 43% of patients. Grade 4 toxicities included CNS hemorrhage (n = 1), hypertriglyceridemia/hypercholesterolemia/elevated lipase (n = 1), and dehydration/elevated creatinine (n = 1). No bowel perforations or fistulas occurred. Median PFS was 5.2 months, and median OS has not been reached; median follow-up time is 10.7 months. Conclusion Cediranib has activity in recurrent EOC, tubal cancer, and peritoneal cancer with predictable toxicities observed with other TKIs. PMID:19826113

  12. An independent evaluation of the potential clinical usefulness of proposed CA-125 indices previously shown to be of prognostic significance in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, D. J.; Paul, J.; Lewis, C. R.; McAllister, E. J.; Kaye, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    CA-125 levels were assessed prior to each of the first three cycles of chemotherapy, in 81 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy. All patients have at least 1 year's follow-up. Thirty-nine patients (48%) have progressed clinically or have died within 1 year of treatment (treatment 'failures'). Three CA-125 indices previously shown to be of prognostic value are assessed for their ability to pick-out these 'failures'. When the indices examined are modified to obtain a specificity for picking out failures just exceeding 90%, the maximum sensitivity obtained was 46%. The use of CA-125 for clinical decision making in ovarian cancer requires further investigation to determine and validate a prognostic index with acceptable sensitivity and specificity, and to determine the clinical impact of treatment decisions made using such an index. PMID:1562469

  13. The Impact of the Duration of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer – A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Veronika; Reinthaller, Alexander; Koelbl, Heinz; Concin, Nicole; Nehoda, Regina; Polterauer, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic role of the duration of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer (EOC). Materials and Methods Within the present study we retrospectively evaluated the data of 165 consecutive patients with EOC treated with primary surgery followed by six completed cycles of platinum-taxan based intravenous adjuvant chemotherapy. Medians of total duration of chemotherapy were compared with clinical-pathological parameters. Patients were stratified into four risk groups according to the delay in days of total duration of chemotherapy, and univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed. Results The median duration of six completed cycles of chemotherapy comprised 113 days (IQR 107–124 days). Uni- and multivariable survival analyses revealed a delay of total duration of chemotherapy of at least 9 days to be associated with progression-free (PFS), cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Hazard ratios (HR), confidence intervals (95% CI) and p-values for PFS, CSS and OS due to delay of chemo-duration were 2.9 (1.6–5.4; p = 0.001), 2.9 (1.3–6.2; p = 0.008) and 2.6 (1.3–5.4; p = 0.008), respectively. Prolonged total chemo-duration was associated with the amount of postoperative residual disease (p = 0.001) and the patients’ age (p = 0.03). Conclusion The present study suggests a prolonged duration of adjuvant chemotherapy after primary surgery to adversely affect PFS, CSS and OS in patients with EOC. Yet larger studies are required to validate our results. PMID:28060918

  14. TGF-β induces global changes in DNA methylation during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Horacio; Vieth, Edyta; Lee, Jiyoon; Segar, Mathew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 h post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 h after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer. PMID:25470663

  15. TGF-β induces global changes in DNA methylation during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Vieth, Edyta; Lee, Jiyoon; Segar, Mathew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 h post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 h after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer.

  16. Expression of preoperative KISS1 gene in tumor tissue with epithelial ovarian cancer and its prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang; Chen, Liping; Liu, Manhua; Lin, Weiwei; Ji, Jinlong; You, Jun; Qiao, Fenghai; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-11-01

    Our study aimed to elucidate the role of Kisspeptin (KISS1) in tumor tissues of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and investigate the prognostic value of this biomarker.Forty EOC patients and 20 uterine fibroids female patients with healthy ovaries undergoing cytoreductive surgery between January 2010 and January 2014 in our hospital were enrolled in this study. KISS1 expression in tumor and normal tissues was detected. Correlations between clinic-pathologic variables and KISS1 expression in EOC tissues and the prognostic value of KISS1 for overall survival were evaluated.During the follow-up of 11.2 to 62.1 months, the overall survival rate and mean survival time were 28.9% (11/38) and 38.35 ± 2.84 months. Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was higher in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (P <0.001), and it was associated with histologic grade of tumor, surgical FIGO stage, metastasis, and residual tumor size (all P <0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated significant influence of residual tumor size (HR = 2.357, P = 0.039) and preoperative KISS1 mRNA (HR = 0.0001, P <0.001) on mean survival time. Patients with low KISS1 mRNA expression had shorter survival time than those with high expression (P = 0.001).Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was a potential prognostic biomarker for EOC, and high preoperative KISS1 expression indicated a favorable prognosis.

  17. Genome-wide Association Study of Subtype-Specific Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk Alleles Using Pooled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Madalene A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Swenerton, Kenneth D.; Chenevix–Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fasching, Peter A.; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T.; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.; Ness, Roberta B.; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C.; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H.; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T.; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia–Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G.; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Flanagan, James M.; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M.; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Narod, Steven A.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.; Brooks–Wilson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS (56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC), selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging 6 loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P<0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR=1.17, P=0.029, n=1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P=0.014, n=2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR=0.86, P=0.0043, n=892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR=0.84, P=0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P<0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes. PMID:24190013

  18. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.

  19. MicroRNA-183 correlates cancer prognosis, regulates cancer proliferation and bufalin sensitivity in epithelial ovarian caner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huixiao; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lili; Du, Jing; Wang, Hongying; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background we intended to explore the functional implication of microRNA-183 (miR-183) in predicting clinical prognosis and regulating cancer proliferation and bufalin sensitivity in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods In 75 EOC patients, miR-183 expression was examined, by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), between paired EOC tumors and adjacent normal tissues, and between tumor samples from patients at early clinical stages and those at advanced clinical stages. The association of serum miR-183 and patients' clinicopathological variables were examined. The overall survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier model. And the possibility of miR-183 as a prognostic biomarker for EOC was examined by cox proportional hazard regression model. In EOC cell lines SKOV3 and ES-2 cells, lentiviral transduction was conducted to genetically suppress miR-183. The effect of miR-183 downregulation on EOC in vitro growth, bufalin sensitivity and in vivo tumorigenicity were examined. Results MiR-183 was highly expressed in EOC tumors, as well ass in patients at advanced clinical stages. Serum miR-183 was significantly associated with major clinicopathological variables in EOC patients, such as clinical stage and lymph node metastases. High level of serum miR-183 was associated with poor OS in EOC patients, and proved to be a potential biomarker for EOC. In EOC cell lines, functional assays demonstrated that miR-183 downregulation inhibited cancer proliferation, enhanced bufalin sensitivity and reduced tumorigenicity in vivo. Conclusion MiR-183 may be a prognostic biomarker for EOC, and inhibiting miR-183 may have therapeutic effect to inhibit tumor growth in EOC.

  20. TNFAIP8 as a predictor of metastasis and a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T; Gao, H; Chen, X; Lou, G; Gu, L; Yang, M; Xia, B; Yin, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tumour necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) has been recently documented in various malignancies, but its role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unknown. Methods: Tumour necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 expression was determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. Tumour tissues, consisting of serous, mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell histotypes, from 202 EOC patients (International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians I–IV) who underwent primary cytoreduction were collected. Then, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of TNFAIP8 and evaluated its clinical significances. Results: Tumour necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 overexpression was significantly associated with high histologic grade (P=0.005), large residual tumour size (P=0.014), recurrence (P=0.024) and response to chemotherapy (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that TNFAIP8 overexpression was independently correlated with the presence of lymph node (odds ratio (OR): 4.129; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.491–11.435; P=0.006) and intraperitoneal metastasis (OR: 2.209; 95% CI: 1.174–4.156; P=0.014). Moreover, results revealed that the status of TNFAIP8 expression was an independently prognostic factor for both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR): 1.852; 95% CI: 1.322–2.594; P<0.001) and disease-free survival (HR: 1.724; 95% CI: 1.235–2.407; P=0.001) in patients with EOC. Conclusion: The present data provide evidence that TNFAIP8 predicts EOC metastasis and poor survival, highlighting its potential function as a therapeutic target for EOCs. PMID:23982604

  1. Expression of preoperative KISS1 gene in tumor tissue with epithelial ovarian cancer and its prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fang; Chen, Liping; Liu, Manhua; Lin, Weiwei; Ji, Jinlong; You, Jun; Qiao, Fenghai; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our study aimed to elucidate the role of Kisspeptin (KISS1) in tumor tissues of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and investigate the prognostic value of this biomarker. Forty EOC patients and 20 uterine fibroids female patients with healthy ovaries undergoing cytoreductive surgery between January 2010 and January 2014 in our hospital were enrolled in this study. KISS1 expression in tumor and normal tissues was detected. Correlations between clinic-pathologic variables and KISS1 expression in EOC tissues and the prognostic value of KISS1 for overall survival were evaluated. During the follow-up of 11.2 to 62.1 months, the overall survival rate and mean survival time were 28.9% (11/38) and 38.35 ± 2.84 months. Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was higher in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (P <0.001), and it was associated with histologic grade of tumor, surgical FIGO stage, metastasis, and residual tumor size (all P <0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated significant influence of residual tumor size (HR = 2.357, P = 0.039) and preoperative KISS1 mRNA (HR = 0.0001, P <0.001) on mean survival time. Patients with low KISS1 mRNA expression had shorter survival time than those with high expression (P = 0.001). Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was a potential prognostic biomarker for EOC, and high preoperative KISS1 expression indicated a favorable prognosis. PMID:27861355

  2. Pharmacokinetics of concomitant cisplatin and paclitaxel administered by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy to patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ansaloni, L; Coccolini, F; Morosi, L; Ballerini, A; Ceresoli, M; Grosso, G; Bertoli, P; Busci, L M; Lotti, M; Cambria, F; Pisano, M; Rossetti, D; Frigerio, L; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is advised as a treatment option for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study was designed to define the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) administered together during HIPEC. Methods: Thirteen women with EOC underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, with CDDP and PTX. Blood, peritoneal perfusate and tissue samples were harvested to determine drug exposure by high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Results: The mean maximum concentrations of CDDP and PTX in perfusate were, respectively, 24.8±10.4 μg ml−1 and 69.8±14.3 μg ml−1; in plasma were 1.87±0.4 μg ml−1 and 0.055±0.009 μg ml−1. The mean concentrations of CDDP and PTX in peritoneum at the end of HIPEC were 23.3±8.0 μg g−1 and 30.1±18.3 μg−1g−1, respectively. The penetration of PTX into the peritoneal wall, determined by IMS, was about 0.5 mm. Grade 3–4 surgical complications were recorded in four patients, five patients presented grade 3 and two patients presented grade 4 hematological complications. Conclusions: HIPEC with CDDP and PTX after CRS is feasible with acceptable morbidity and has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile: high drug concentrations are achieved in peritoneal tissue with low systemic exposure. Larger studies are needed to demonstrate its efficacy in patients with microscopic postsurgical residual tumours in the peritoneal cavity. PMID:25461804

  3. Effects of cigarette smoke extracts on the progression and metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells via regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Heo, Jae-Rim; Kim, Cho-Won; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) contains over 60 well-established carcinogens, and there are strong links between these carcinogens and smoking-induced cancers. In this study we investigated whether three types of cigarette smoke extracts (CSEs), 3R4F (standard cigarette), CSE1 and CSE2 (two commercial cigarettes), affect the proliferation, migration, and invasive activity of BG-1 human ovarian cancer cells. All three types of CSEs increased BG-1 cell proliferation at nicotine concentrations of 1.5μM-2.1μM in a cell viability assay. The protein expressions of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 were increased, while p21 and p27 expression was decreased by Western blot assay. However, they did not show a consistent dose-dependent tendency. The protein expressions of Bax and p53, pro-apoptotic genes, were also decreased by CSEs. The expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, was reduced in the treatment of CSEs while the expression of its reverse transition marker, N-cadherin, was slightly increased by CSEs containing 2.1μM of nicotine, but a statistical significance was not observed. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated transcriptional factors, Snail and Slug, were also up-regulated by treatment with CSEs, indicating that CSEs can increase the EMT process in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, CSEs increased the migratory and invasive propensity of cancer cells. These functional alterations were associated with changes in metastasis-related gene expression. Upon exposure to CSEs, the expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin D was increased. Taken together, we confirmed that CSEs increased the growth, migration, and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells by regulating cell cycle, apoptosis, EMT, and metastasis related cellular markers and signaling proteins. Based on the results, cigarette smokers of women might be at a higher risk of ovarian cancer than non-smokers.

  4. Utility of Serum miR-125b as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicator and Its Alliance with a Panel of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Rashid; Gandhi, Gauri; Ray, Prakash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be dysregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and may function as either tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) or as oncogenes. Hypermethylation of miRNA silences the tumour suppressive function of a miRNA or hypermethylation of a TSG regulating that miRNA (or vice versa) leads to its loss of function. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of aberrant microRNA-125b (miR-125b) expression on various clinicopathological features in epithelial ovarian cancer and its association with anomalous methylation of several TSGs. We enrolled 70 newly diagnosed cases of epithelial ovarian cancer, recorded their clinical history and 70 healthy female volunteers. Serum miR-125b levels were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the methylation status of various TSGs was investigated by methylation specific PCR. ROC curves were constructed to estimate the diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of miR-125b. The Kaplan—Meier method was applied to compare survival curves. Expression of miR-125b was found to be significantly upregulated (p<0.0001) in comparison with healthy controls. The expression level of miR-125b was found to be significantly associated with FIGO stage, lymph node and distant metastasis. ROC curve for diagnostic potential yielded significant AUC with an equitable sensitivity and specificity. ROC curves for prognosis yielded significant AUCs for histological grade, distal metastasis, lymph node status and survival. The expression of miR-125b also correlated significantly with the hypermethylation of TSGs. Our results indicate that DNA hypermethylation may be involved in the inactivation of miR-125b and miR-125b may function as a potential independent biomarker for clinical outcome in EOC. PMID:27092777

  5. Utility of Serum miR-125b as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicator and Its Alliance with a Panel of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zuberi, Mariyam; Khan, Imran; Mir, Rashid; Gandhi, Gauri; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Saxena, Alpana

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be dysregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and may function as either tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) or as oncogenes. Hypermethylation of miRNA silences the tumour suppressive function of a miRNA or hypermethylation of a TSG regulating that miRNA (or vice versa) leads to its loss of function. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of aberrant microRNA-125b (miR-125b) expression on various clinicopathological features in epithelial ovarian cancer and its association with anomalous methylation of several TSGs. We enrolled 70 newly diagnosed cases of epithelial ovarian cancer, recorded their clinical history and 70 healthy female volunteers. Serum miR-125b levels were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the methylation status of various TSGs was investigated by methylation specific PCR. ROC curves were constructed to estimate the diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of miR-125b. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to compare survival curves. Expression of miR-125b was found to be significantly upregulated (p<0.0001) in comparison with healthy controls. The expression level of miR-125b was found to be significantly associated with FIGO stage, lymph node and distant metastasis. ROC curve for diagnostic potential yielded significant AUC with an equitable sensitivity and specificity. ROC curves for prognosis yielded significant AUCs for histological grade, distal metastasis, lymph node status and survival. The expression of miR-125b also correlated significantly with the hypermethylation of TSGs. Our results indicate that DNA hypermethylation may be involved in the inactivation of miR-125b and miR-125b may function as a potential independent biomarker for clinical outcome in EOC.

  6. Downregulation of miR-429 contributes to the development of drug resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer by targeting ZEB1

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jing; Liu, Ling; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fuqiang; Yang, Zhijun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is an obstacle to the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. Recently, research has suggested that miRNAs (microRNAs) are involved in cancer development, and speculation has been made about their possible involvement in drug resistance. Thus, we attempted to identify selected miRNAs involved in the development of chemo-resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer. Using miRNA profiles of a panel of cisplatin-resistant (SKOV3/DDP) cells, we validated data using quantitative real time-PCR (QRT-PCR), and studied the effects of miR-429 on cancer cell chemo-sensitivity, using gain- and loss-of-function studies. Data show that SKOV3/DDP expressed less miR-429 compared with parental SKOV3 cells and lower miR-429 expression conferred shorter overall survival (OS) and less progression-free survival (PFS) than the patients with more miR-429 expression (P < 0.01). Upregulation of miR-429 increases cisplatin sensitivity in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Studies have confirmed that the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox1 (ZEB1) is a direct and functional target of miR-429 and that over-expression of miR-429 reduces autophagy-related protein anti-ATG7, anti-LC3A/B (P < 0.05). Thus, overexpression of miR-429 may suppress ZEB1, and may be a potential sensitizer to cisplatin treatment that may have therapeutic implications. PMID:28386361

  7. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Hydrochloride With or Without Bevacizumab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Identification of miRNA Signatures Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Platinum and taxane-based drugs are used in combination as first-line...expression with the IC50 of each cell lines which is a measure of the effectiveness of platinum in inducing apoptosis. As shown in Figure 3, the...to assess miR-181a’s direct effects on stem cell frequency. One, five, ten or twenty cells/ were sorted and placed directly into 96 well ultra-low

  9. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Melanoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Melanoma; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  10. Mechanism of Ovarian Epithelial Tumor Predisposition in Individuals Carrying Germline BRCA1 Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 01-12-2006 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 15 Dec 2003 – 14 nov 2006 4...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Original contains colored plates: ALL DTIC reproductions will be in black and white. 14 . ABSTRACT Women...underscored by the fact that it was featured in the News & View section of Nature, April 14 , 2005 issue. Given that humans with germline BRCA1

  11. The plasma concentration of VEGF, HE4 and CA125 as a new biomarkers panel in different stages and sub-types of epithelial ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VEGF may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer disease, for example in cell growth, proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated plasma levels of this cytokine in comparison to plasma levels of a new biomarker - HE4 and the established tumor marker CA125 in ovarian cancer patients (100) as compared to control groups: patients with a benign ovarian tumor (80) and healthy subjects (50). Methods Plasma levels of VEGF were determined by ELISA, HE4 and CA125 by CMIA method. Results The results showed that levels of VEGF, CA125 and HE4 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer (OC) patients as compared to the both control groups. VEGF has demonstrated as high as comparative markers values of the diagnostic sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), the predictive values of positive and negative test results (PV-PR, PV-NR), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) in early stages of cancer tested groups. The combined use of parameters studied resulted in the increase in the diagnostic criteria values and the AUC. Conclusions These findings suggest the usefulness of VEGF in the early diagnostics of ovarian cancer, especially in combination with CA125 and HE4, as a new biomarkers panel. Additionally, VEGF is the most useful tool in the diagnostics of locally advanced ovarian cancer without metastases. Investigated cytokine presented similar to HE4 usefulness in differentiation of OC according to its histopathlogical sub-type, and could be used especially in the diagnostics of endometrioid epithelial OC. PMID:23819707

  12. Management of epithelial ovarian cancer from diagnosis to restaging: an overview of the role of imaging techniques with particular regard to the contribution of 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Musto, Alessandra; Grassetto, Gaia; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Rampin, Lucia; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Colletti, Patrick M; Perkins, Alan C; Fagioli, Giorgio; Rubello, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a major form of cancer affecting women in the western world. The silent nature of this disease results in late presentation at an advanced stage in many patients. It is therefore important to assess the role of imaging techniques in the management of these patients. This article presents a review of the literature on the role of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in the different stages of management of epithelial ovarian cancer. Moreover, a comparison with other imaging techniques has been made and the relationship between (18)F-PET/CT and the assay of serum CA-125 levels has been discussed.

  13. Review of epidemiological evidence for reproductive and hormonal factors in relation to the risk of epithelial ovarian malignancies.

    PubMed

    Riman, Tomas; Nilsson, Staffan; Persson, Ingemar R

    2004-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality related to gynecologic malignancies in Sweden but there is no current screening program. Based upon epidemiological research there is evidence that certain reproductive factors are associated with ovarian cancer risk. Most studies generally indicate that each childbirth incurs a 15-20% risk reduction. Women who have used oral contraceptives for 5 years or longer experience about half the risk of ovarian cancer compared with never users. Breastfeeding seems to be protective while age at menarche and at menopause are less consistent risk predictors. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy seem to reduce ovarian cancer risk by up to 80%. Although some studies found endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) to be positively related to ovarian cancer, the role of these factors is not yet established. Most recent studies observed an approximately 50% ovarian cancer risk increase among ever users of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) compared with never users, and the risk increased further with long-term use. There is less information concerning separate estrogen and progestin effects of HRT and ovarian cancer risk. Although the cause of ovarian cancer remains obscure, hypotheses relating to "incessant" ovulation, excessive gonadotropin secretion, retrograde carcinogen transportation, apoptosis and estrogen/progestin imbalance have been invoked as etiological explanations. All these hypotheses find various epidemiological support. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiological findings on reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk. These findings are considered in the context of etiologic hypotheses and some new research areas are suggested.

  14. Preclinical humanized mouse model with ectopic ovarian tissues

    PubMed Central

    FU, SHILONG; WANG, JUE; SUN, WU; XU, YI; ZHOU, XIAOYU; CHENG, WENJUN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish human ovarian stroma within the mouse subcutaneously, in order for the resulting stroma to serve as a useful preclinical tool to study the progression of human ovarian cancer in a humanized ovarian microenvironment. Normal human ovarian tissues were subcutaneously implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and then the implants were identified by immunohistochemistry. The implants became vascularized and retained their original morphology for about 4 weeks following implantation. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin-7 confirmed the ovarian origin of the epithelial cells. CD34 staining demonstrated human-derived vessels. Positive estrogen receptor and partially-positive progesterone receptor staining indicated the estrogen and progesterone dependence of the implants. Only vascular pericytes expressed α-smooth muscle actin, indicating the normal ovarian origin of the xenografts. Human ovarian tissue successfully survived in SCID mice and retained its original properties. This humanized mouse model may be used as preclinical tool to investigate ovarian cancer. PMID:25120592

  15. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Bevacizumab, and Veliparib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Tumor; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  16. A functional variant in HOXA11-AS, a novel long non-coding RNA, inhibits the oncogenic phenotype of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y. Ann; Coppola, Domenico; Reid, Brett M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Teer, Jamie K.; Berchuck, Andrew; Birrer, Michael J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Gayther, Simon A.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Cheng, Jin Q.

    2015-01-01

    The homeobox A (HOXA) region of protein-coding genes impacts female reproductive system embryogenesis and ovarian carcinogenesis. The 5-prime end of HOXA includes three long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (HOXA10-AS, HOXA11-AS, and HOTTIP) that are underexplored in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We evaluated whether common genetic variants in these lncRNAs are associated with EOC risk and/or have functional roles in EOC development. Using genome-wide association study data from 1,201 serous EOC cases and 2,009 controls, an exonic variant within HOXA11-AS, rs17427875 (A>T), was marginally associated with reduced serous EOC risk (OR = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.78-1.01, p = 0.06). Functional studies of ectopic expression of HOXA11-AS minor allele T in EOC cells showed decreased survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion compared to common allele A expression. Additionally, stable expression of HOXA11-AS minor allele T reduced primary tumor growth in mouse xenograft models to a greater extent than common allele A. Furthermore, HOXA11-AS expression levels were significantly lower in human EOC tumors than normal ovarian tissues (p < 0.05), suggesting that HOXA11-AS has a tumor suppressor function in EOC which may be enhanced by the T allele. These findings demonstrate for the first time a role for HOXA11-AS in EOC with effects that could be modified by germline variants. PMID:26430965

  17. Proteomic analysis of ovarian cancer cells during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) reveals mechanisms of cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Mariana Lopes; Palma, Camila de Souza; Thomé, Carolina Hassibe; Lanfredi, Guilherme Pauperio; Poersch, Aline; Faça, Vitor Marcel

    2017-01-16

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-orchestrated process that culminates with loss of epithelial phenotype and gain of a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype. EMT enhances cancer cell invasiveness and drug resistance, favoring metastasis. Dysregulation of transcription factors, signaling pathways, miRNAs and growth factors including EGF, TGF-beta and HGF can trigger EMT. In ovarian cancer, overexpression of the EGFR family is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior. Here, the ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line Caov-3 was induced to EMT with EGF in order to identify specific mechanisms controlled by this process. Caov-3 cells induced to EMT were thoroughly validated and a combination of subcellular proteome enrichment, GEL-LC-MS/MS and SILAC strategy allowed consistent proteome identification and quantitation. Protein network analysis of differentially expressed proteins highlighted regulation of metabolism and cell cycle. Activation of relevant signaling pathways, such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras/Erk MAPK, in response to EGF-induced EMT was validated. Also, EMT did not affected the proliferation rate of Caov-3 cells, but led to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase regulated by increased levels of p21Waf1/Cip1, independently of p53. Furthermore, a decrease in G1 and G2 checkpoint proteins was observed, supporting the involvement of EGF-induced EMT in cell cycle control.

  18. Controversies on the Origin of Proliferating Epithelial Cells after Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Tetsuro; Humphreys, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    The kidney possesses the capacity to repair after an acute insult, even one that causes complete organ failure. This regenerative response is characterized by robust proliferation of epithelial cells, principally those located in the proximal tubule. Because defining the origin of these reparative cells has important consequences for stem cell and regenerative approaches to treat kidney injury, this area has been the subject of intense investigation and debate. While progress has been made in narrowing the possible origin of these cells to an intratubular source, there has been no consensus between the possibility of a preexisting intratubular stem or progenitor cell versus the possibility that fully differentiated epithelial cells re-enter the cell cycle after injury and generate new proximal tubule cells through self-duplication. This review will summarize the evidence on both sides of this active controversy and provide support for the notion that no preexisting proximal tubule stem cell population exists, but rather all differentiated proximal tubule epithelia have the capacity to proliferate during repair by a mechanism of dedifferentiation and self-duplication. PMID:24322596

  19. Controversies on the origin of proliferating epithelial cells after kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kusaba, Tetsuro; Humphreys, Benjamin D

    2014-04-01

    The kidney possesses the capacity to repair after an acute insult, even one that causes complete organ failure. This regenerative response is characterized by robust proliferation of epithelial cells, principally those located in the proximal tubule. Because defining the origin of these reparative cells has important consequences for stem cell and regenerative approaches to treating kidney injury, this area has been the subject of intense investigation and debate. While progress has been made in narrowing the possible origin of these cells to an intratubular source, there has been no consensus between the possibility of a pre-existing intratubular stem or progenitor cell versus the possibility that fully differentiated epithelial cells re-enter the cell cycle after injury and generate new proximal tubule cells through self-duplication. This review will summarize the evidence on both sides of this active controversy and provide support for the notion that no pre-existing proximal tubule stem cell population exists, but rather all differentiated proximal tubule epithelia have the capacity to proliferate during repair by a mechanism of dedifferentiation and self-duplication.

  20. Anticancer activity of NOB1-targeted shRNA combination with TRAIL in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Xu, Tianmin; Teng, Hong; Cui, Manhua

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based strategy is a promising targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, the effectiveness of the treatment remains limited due to the inherent or acquired resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL. Our previously study demonstrated that downregulation of NOB1 (NIN1/RPN12 binding protein 1 homolog) expression by a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery system (Lv/sh-NOB1) suppressed ovarian cancer growth. Here, Lv/sh-NOB1 and TRAIL were combined and tested the effects of this combination on ovarian cancer cells to identify more effective therapeutics against ovarian cancer by several in vitro experiments. Tumor growth ability in SKVO3 xenograft nude mice was also determined to define this combination treatment effect in tumorigenesis in vivo. In vitro assay showed that Lv/sh-NOB1 in combination with TRAIL treatment in ovarian cancer cell synergistically suppressed the proliferation and colony formation, as well as induced cell apoptosis and increased the activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9. In vivo assay showed that Lv/sh-NOB1 combination with TRAIL synergistically suppressed tumor growth of nude mice model. Importantly, we found that downregulation of NOB1 could upregulate DR5 expression and active MAPK pathway, which might contribute to increase sensitivity TRAIL to ovarian cancer cells. These findings suggested that Lv/sh-NOB1 combination with TRAIL treatment may be a potential treatment approach for ovarian cancer.

  1. Prognostic Value and Implication for Chemotherapy Treatment of ABCB1 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Yapei; Zhao, Simei; Wang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy resistance is reported to correlate with up-regulation of anti-tumor agent transporter ABCB1 (p-gp) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but the results remain controversial. To reconcile the results, a systematic review followed by meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between high ABCB1 status or ABCB1 gene variants and overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), and total response rate (TR) in patients with EOC. Materials and Methods Electronic searches were performed using Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Chinese Wanfang databases from January 1990 to February 2016. Summary hazard ratio (HR), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined using fixed or random-effects models as appropriate. Results Thirty-eight retrospective studies of 8607 cases qualified for meta-analysis were identified. Our results suggested that ABCB1 over-expression was significantly associated with unfavorable OS (HR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.25–1.90), PFS (HR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.22–1.82) and TR (RR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54–0.75). After adjustment for age, clinical stage, residual disease, histological type and tumor grade, high ABCB1 status remained to be a significant risk factor for adverse OS and PFS. Patients with recurrent ABCB1 positivity suffered from poorer OS than those with primary ABCB1 positivity. However, stratified by chemotherapy regimen, inverse correlation between high ABCB1 status and poor OS, PFS and TR were only found in patients underwent platinum-based chemotherapy but not in patients received standard platinum/paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. No evidence was found for any association between ABCB1 gene polymorphisms and OS, PFS or TR. Conclusion High ABCB1 status is significantly associated with chemo-resistance and poor prognosis in patients with EOC. Large-scale, prospective studies are needed to assess the clinical value of ABCB1 expression in EOC more accurately. PMID:27812204

  2. Genome-wide association study of subtype-specific epithelial ovarian cancer risk alleles using pooled DNA.

    PubMed

    Earp, Madalene A; Kelemen, Linda E; Magliocco, Anthony M; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lu, Yi; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Friel, Grace; Moysich, Kirsten B; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Lurie, Galina; Goodman, Marc T; Carney, Michael E; Thompson, Pamela J; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Leminen, Arto; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M; Butzow, Ralf; Bunker, Clareann H; Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P; Ness, Roberta B; du Bois, Andreas; Heitz, Florian; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Karlan, Beth Y; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Claus K; Høgdall, Estrid; Lundvall, Lene; Sellers, Thomas A; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Vierkant, Robert A; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Southey, Melissa C; Liang, Dong; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Levine, Douglas A; Bisogna, Maria; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Iversen, Edwin S; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Orlow, Irene; Olson, Sara H; Wik, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B; Bjorge, Line; Halle, Mari K; van Altena, Anne M; Aben, Katja K H; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie T; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Dicks, Ed; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Pharoah, Paul D P; Eccles, Diana; Campbell, Ian G; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H; Flanagan, James M; Paul, James; Brown, Robert; Phelan, Catherine M; Risch, Harvey A; McLaughlin, John R; Narod, Steven A; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Wu, Anna H; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm C; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Szafron, Lukasz M; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Cook, Linda S; Le, Nhu D; Brooks-Wilson, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS [56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low-malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC], selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging six loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P < 0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR = 1.17, P = 0.029, n = 1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P = 0.014, n = 2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR = 0.86, P = 0.0043, n = 892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR = 0.84, P = 0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P < 0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes.

  3. Discovery of Specific Metastasis-Related N-Glycan Alterations in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Based on Quantitative Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yifan; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Zejian; Liu, Xijun; Zhao, Ran; Zhou, Lei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Haiou; Ren, Shifang; Xu, Congjian; Gu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Generally, most of ovarian cancer cannot be detected until large scale and remote metastasis occurs, which is the major cause of high mortality in ovarian cancer. Therefore, it is urgent to discover metastasis-related biomarkers for the detection of ovarian cancer in its occult metastasis stage. Altered glycosylation is a universal feature of malignancy and certain types of glycan structures are well-known markers for tumor progressions. Thus, this study aimed to reveal specific changes of N-glycans in the secretome of the metastatic ovarian cancer. We employed a quantitative glycomics approach based on metabolic stable isotope labeling to compare the differential N-glycosylation of secretome between an ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and its high metastatic derivative SKOV3-ip. Intriguingly, among total 17 N-glycans identified, the N-glycans with bisecting GlcNAc were all significantly decreased in SKOV3-ip in comparison to SKOV3. This alteration in bisecting GlcNAc glycoforms as well as its corresponding association with ovarian cancer metastatic behavior was further validated at the glycotransferase level with multiple techniques including real-time PCR, western blotting, transwell assay, lectin blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis. This study illustrated metastasis-related N-glycan alterations in ovarian cancer secretome in vitro for the first time, which is a valuable source for biomarker discovery as well. Moreover, N-glycans with bisecting GlcNAc shed light on the detection of ovarian cancer in early peritoneal metastasis stage which may accordingly improve the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24516574

  4. FBXW12, a novel F box protein-encoding gene, is deleted or methylated in some cases of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chesnaye, Elsa De La; Méndez, Juan Pablo; López-Romero, Ricardo; Romero-Tlalolini, María de los Angeles; Vergara, María Dolores; Salcedo, Mauricio; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of gynecological malignancies. Due to its lack of early symptoms, detection usually occurs when the tumor is no longer confined to the ovary. We previously identified Fbxw15, a gene encoding an F-box protein in the mouse ovary, and showed that its expression is developmentally regulated. Here we report the molecular analysis of its human homologue, FBXW12 in epithelial ovarian tumors. To search for FBXW12 gene mutations, we PCR-amplified and sequenced the coding region of FBXW12, the gene’s 5-untranslated region and the proximal promoter in each of 30 EOC tumors. Promoter methylation was determined by DNA bisulfite conversion, followed by methylation specific PCR. FBXW12 intracellular localization was identified by means of immunohistochemistry. A complete deletion of the gene’s coding region, the 5’-UTR and the proximal promoter, was observed in 3 EOC samples. Eight of the remaining 27, had a deletion of the 5’-UTR, and the proximal promoter. FBXW12 mRNA was detected in 2 of the 19 samples without deletions. The methylation specific PCR results demonstrated CpGs methylation in the FBXW12 proximal promoter. Immunohistochemistry assay revealed that within the normal ovary, FBXW12 has an oocyte specific expression, whereas in EOC samples it is present in the ovarian surface epithelium. Our results indicate that the FBXW12 gene is deleted in approximately ten percent of the EOC cases studied; such deletions comprised either the FBXW12 promoter or the mRNA-encoding region. Moreover, FBXW12 could be epigenetically silenced by CpGs methylation in some of these EOC cases. PMID:26617728

  5. FBXW12, a novel F box protein-encoding gene, is deleted or methylated in some cases of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    De La Chesnaye, Elsa; Méndez, Juan Pablo; López-Romero, Ricardo; De Los Angeles Romero-Tlalolini, María; Vergara, María Dolores; Salcedo, Mauricio; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of gynecological malignancies. Due to its lack of early symptoms, detection usually occurs when the tumor is no longer confined to the ovary. We previously identified Fbxw15, a gene encoding an F-box protein in the mouse ovary, and showed that its expression is developmentally regulated. Here we report the molecular analysis of its human homologue, FBXW12 in epithelial ovarian tumors. To search for FBXW12 gene mutations, we PCR-amplified and sequenced the coding region of FBXW12, the gene's 5-untranslated region and the proximal promoter in each of 30 EOC tumors. Promoter methylation was determined by DNA bisulfite conversion, followed by methylation specific PCR. FBXW12 intracellular localization was identified by means of immunohistochemistry. A complete deletion of the gene's coding region, the 5'-UTR and the proximal promoter, was observed in 3 EOC samples. Eight of the remaining 27, had a deletion of the 5'-UTR, and the proximal promoter. FBXW12 mRNA was detected in 2 of the 19 samples without deletions. The methylation specific PCR results demonstrated CpGs methylation in the FBXW12 proximal promoter. Immunohistochemistry assay revealed that within the normal ovary, FBXW12 has an oocyte specific expression, whereas in EOC samples it is present in the ovarian surface epithelium. Our results indicate that the FBXW12 gene is deleted in approximately ten percent of the EOC cases studied; such deletions comprised either the FBXW12 promoter or the mRNA-encoding region. Moreover, FBXW12 could be epigenetically silenced by CpGs methylation in some of these EOC cases.

  6. Differential distribution of tumor-associated macrophages and Treg/Th17 cells in the progression of malignant and benign epithelial ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinyi; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xipeng

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the predominant causes of cancer-associated mortality in women with gynecological oncology. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and T helper cell 17 (Th17) cells have been hypothesized to be involved in the progression of EOC. However, the association between TAMs and T cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential distribution of TAMs, Treg cells and Th17 cells in benign ovarian tumor tissues and in tissues from patients with EOC, and to examine their association with the clinical pathology of EOC. A total of 126 tissue samples from patients with EOC and 26 tissue samples from patients with benign ovarian tumors were analyzed, and it was identified that the distribution of TAMs, Treg cells, Th17 cells and the ratio of Treg/Th17 cells were higher in the patients with EOC using triple color immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The high frequency of TAMs and ratio of Treg/Th17 cells in late tumor grades suggested that they may be significant in tumor progression. The frequency of TAMs was different between the histological types of EOC. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the microvessel density (MVD) in the EOC and benign ovarian tumor tissues. A higher MVD was observed in the EOC patient tissues, particularly, in the late tumor grade tissues. The present study provided clinical data demonstrating the high distribution of TAMs and T-cells in EOC, which may contribute to tumor progression through angiogenesis. The mechanisms by which TAMs are associated with Treg cells and Th17 cells requires further investigation as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets for EOC. PMID:28123537

  7. Solid pseudopapillary tumor: an invasive case report of primary ovarian origin and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuqian; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Ping; Cheng, Yuxia; Sun, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm occurring as a primary tumor outside the pancreas is a rare event. We report a case of an ovarian primary occurring with an ill-defined cystic mass in a 39-year-old woman. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the ovarian neoplasm described in this report are compatible with those of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas. Histologically, the tumor cells of the case we report infiltrate into the ovarian parenchyma. Because of the diagnosis is not clear before surgery, the patient had a reoccurrence two months after the operation in which laparoscopic simple ovarian cystectomy and part ovarian tissue removal, followed by the right salpingo-oophorectomy. The case herein confirms that solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the ovary belongs to the class of low-grade malignant tumor with certain invasiveness. The diagnosis should be taken into serious consideration in order to avoid missed diagnosis and delay treatment. Through this case we have a better understanding of the biological behavior of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the ovary. PMID:26339451

  8. Hedgehog signaling regulates drug sensitivity by targeting ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Bieber, Marcia M; Teng, Nelson N H

    2014-08-01

    A major challenge of successful chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is overcoming intrinsic or acquired multi-drug resistance caused by active drug efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Regulation of these transporters in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. We have found that abnormal expression of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway transcription factor Gli1 is involved in the regulation of ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in ovarian cancer. Hh is a known regulator of cancer cell proliferation and differentiation in several other types of invasive and metastatic malignancies. Our work has demonstrated that Gli1 is abnormally activated in a portion of ovarian cancers. Inhibition of Gli1 expression decreases ABCB1 and ABCG2 gene expression levels and enhances the response of ovarian cancer cells to certain chemotherapeutic drugs. The underlying mechanism is a direct association of Gli1 with a specific consensus sequence located in the promoter region of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. This study provides new understanding of ABC gene regulation by Hh signaling pathway, which may lead to the identification of new markers to detect and to anticipate ovarian cancer chemotherapy drug sensitivity.

  9. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer Following Surgery and Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Tumor; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  10. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  11. Metformin Hydrochloride and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-28

    Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ascites; Malignant Pleural Effusion; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  12. Comparison of c-met Expression in Ovarian Epithelial Tumors and Normal Epithelia of the Female Reproductive Tract by Quantitative Laser Scan Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huntsman, David; Resau, James H.; Klineberg, Eric; Auersperg, Nelly

    1999-01-01

    The transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor c-met with its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), acts as a mitogen, motogen, and morphogen in many normal epithelia. HGF/SF-met signaling has also been implicated in neoplastic progression and metastasis. In this study, immunofluorescence staining and quantitative laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to measure c-met expression in ovarian surface epithelial tumors from 17 oophorectomy specimens. These specimens were from patients aged 25 to 81 (mean age, 52) and included 10 malignant tumors, 4 borderline tumors, and five benign tumors including a Brenner tumor. For comparison, c-met expression was measured in normal tissues from the same patients, including 4 ovarian surface epithelia, 4 fallopian tube epithelia, 2 endometria, and 3 endocervical epithelia, as well as 3 cases of endometriosis. Relative pixel intensity values of c-met expression ranged from 0.4 in a normal ovarian surface epithelium to 22.3 in a borderline serous tumor. Malignant tumors (mean, 9.6) and borderline tumors (mean, 12.9) had higher average c-met expression levels than normal tissues (mean, 3.6) and endometriosis (mean, 1.8). The expression levels of benign tumors were intermediate (mean, 7.9). Among the normal tissues, c-met expression in fallopian tubes (mean, 8.2; range, 3.4–12.9) was higher than that of the other normal epithelia (mean, 1.6; range, 0.4–4.3). In eight cases where both normal and malignant tissues were sampled, c-met expression was significantly greater in malignant than in normal epithelia (P = 0.01). These findings indicate that c-met plays a role in the biology of the normal tissues examined. They confirm that its expression increases in the malignant progression of ovarian surface epithelial tumors, and suggest that increases comparable to those in frankly malignant carcinomas have already been reached in borderline lesions, ie, early in the neoplastic process. PMID:10433927

  13. Prostate epithelial cell of origin determines cancer differentiation state in an organoid transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Wook; Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Huang, Patrick; Cheng, Donghui; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-19

    The cell of origin for prostate cancer remains a subject of debate. Genetically engineered mouse models have demonstrated that both basal and luminal cells can serve as cells of origin for prostate cancer. Using a human prostate regeneration and transformation assay, our group previously demonstrated that basal cells can serve as efficient targets for transformation. Recently, a subpopulation of multipotent human luminal cells defined by CD26 expression that retains progenitor activity in a defined organoid culture was identified. We transduced primary human prostate basal and luminal cells with lentiviruses expressing c-Myc and activated AKT1 (myristoylated AKT1 or myrAKT1) to mimic theMYCamplification andPTENloss commonly detected in human prostate cancer. These cells were propagated in organoid culture before being transplanted into immunodeficient mice. We found that c-Myc/myrAKT1-transduced luminal xenografts exhibited histological features of well-differentiated acinar adenocarcinoma, with strong androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression. In contrast, c-Myc/myrAKT1-transduced basal xenografts were histologically more aggressive, with a loss of acinar structures and low/absent AR and PSA expression. Our findings imply that distinct subtypes of prostate cancer may arise from luminal and basal epithelial cell types subjected to the same oncogenic insults. This study provides a platform for the functional evaluation of oncogenes in basal and luminal epithelial populations of the human prostate. Tumors derived in this fashion with defined genetics can be used in the preclinical development of targeted therapeutics.

  14. Human lymphatic endothelial cells contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma metastasis by promoting lymphangiogenesis and tumour cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YIHONG; ZHONG, YANPING; GAO, TING; ZHANG, XINYING; LI, LI; RUAN, HEYUN; LI, DANRONG

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment of a tumour is an important factor in ovarian cancer metastasis. The present study aimed to simulate the in vivo microenvironment of an ovarian carcinoma using a co-culture system consisting of human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) and human ovarian carcinoma cells with directional high lymphatic metastasis (SKOV3-PM4s) in order to investigate the role of both cell types in ovarian carcinoma metastasis. The SKOV3-PM4s cultured in the HLEC-conditioned medium exhibited increased numbers of pseudopodia and mitotic figures, proliferated at a faster rate and exhibited enhanced invasion and migratory abilities. Furthermore, the HLECs cultured in SKOV3-PM4-conditioned medium exhibited significant morphological alterations and vacuolisation of the cytoplasm, as well as increased invasion, migratory and tube forming abilities. In addition, spontaneous fusion of the SKOV3-PM4s and HLECs was observed in the co-culture system using laser confocal microscopy. The gelatin zymography assay demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinase-2, which was downregulated in the SKOV3-PM4s, was upregulated in the co-culture system. The results of the present study suggested that the invasion ability of the SKOV3-PM4s was increased in the in vitro co-culture system of SKOV3-PM4 and HLECs. Therefore, alterations in the cell microenvironment may represent a novel strategy for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:27168777

  15. Re-purposing of curcumin as an anti-metastatic agent for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer: in vitro model using cancer stem cell enriched ovarian cancer spheroids

    PubMed Central

    He, Misi; Wang, Dong; Zou, Dongling; Wang, Chen; Lopes-Bastos, Bruno; Jiang, Wen G.; Chester, John; Zhou, Qi; Cai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Malignant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) spheroids high frequently are detected in the malignant ascites of the patients with the extensive peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer, which represent a significant obstacle to efficacious treatment. Clinical data also suggested that EOC spheroids play a putative role in the development of chemoresistance. Since standard surgery and conventional chemotherapy is the only available treatment, there is an urgent need to identify a more effective therapeutic strategy. Recent studies demonstrated that curcumin exerts an anticancer effect in a variety of human cancers including ovarian cancer. This study evaluates anti-peritoneal metastasis and chemoresistance of curcumin related to the EOC spheroids. In this study, we confirm that the high invasive EOC cells forming the spheroids express a high level of a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1), which was significantly down-regulated by curcumin treatment. Curcumin treatment markedly enhances the sensitivity of EOC spheroids to cisplatin in a dose-dependent manner. Our experiments provided evidence that curcumin could abolish the sphere-forming capacity of EOC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, curcumin substantially suppressed the growth of the pre-existed EOC spheroids, inhibited the adhesion of EOC spheroids to ECM as well as the invasion of EOC spheroids to the mesothelial monolayers. We propose to re-purpose curcumin as anti-metastatic and chemoresistant agent for EOC management in combination with conventional regimen. Further preclinical studies are necessary to validate the anti-cancer effect of curcumin in patients with EOC. PMID:27863439

  16. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer—Stromal cell cancer occurs in the connective tissue, which provides the internal structure of the ovary. It also has a high cure rate. What are the risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer? Certain risk factors are associated with ...

  17. Ruxolitinib Phosphate, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinosarcoma; Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Neoplasm; High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. Ovarian Cancer Is an Imported Disease: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Kurman, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The cell of origin of ovarian cancer has been long debated. The current paradigm is that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). OSE is composed of flat, nondescript cells more closely resembling the mesothelium lining the peritoneal cavity, with which it is continuous, rather than the various histologic types of ovarian carcinoma (serous, endometrioid, and clear cell carcinoma), which have a Müllerian phenotype. Accordingly, it has been argued that the OSE undergoes a process termed “metaplasia” to account for this profound morphologic transformation. Recent molecular and clinicopathologic studies not only have failed to support this hypothesis but also have provided evidence that EOC stems from Müllerian-derived extraovarian cells that involve the ovary secondarily, thereby calling into question the very existence of primary EOC. This new model of ovarian carcinogenesis proposes that fallopian tube epithelium (benign or malignant) implants on the ovary to give rise to both high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas, and that endometrial tissue implants on the ovary and produces endometriosis, which can undergo malignant transformation into endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma. Thus, ultimately EOC is not ovarian in origin but rather is secondary, and it is logical to conclude that the only true primary ovarian neoplasms are germ cell and gonadal stromal tumors analogous to tumors in the testis. If this new model is confirmed, it has profound implications for the early detection and treatment of “ovarian cancer.” PMID:22506137

  19. Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of an 18F-labeled single-chain antibody fragment for PET imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Wuest, Melinda; Way, Jenilee D; Bouvet, Vincent R; Wang, Monica; Wuest, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CA125 antibodies have been used in immunoassays to quantify levels of shed antigen in the serum of patients who are under surveillance for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no molecular imaging probe in the clinic for the assessment of CA125 expression in vivo. The present study describes the development of an 18F-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for PET imaging of CA125 in preclinical EOC models. Anti-CA125 scFv was derived from MAb-B43.13 by recombinant expression of the fragment in E.coli. Fragment scFv-B43.13 was purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterized for antigen binding via immuno-staining and flow cytometry. Prosthetic group N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) was used for radiolabeling of scFv-B43.13. Preclinical ovarian cancer models were developed based on ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 (CA125-positive) and SKOV3 (CA125-negative) in NIH-III mice. The radiopharmacological profile of 18F-labeled scFv-B43.13 ([18F]FBz-scFv-B43.13) was studied with PET. [18F]FBz-scFv-B43.13 was prepared in radiochemical yields of 3.7 ± 1.8% (n = 5) at an effective specific activity of 3.88 ± 0.76 GBq/µmol (n = 5). The radiotracer demonstrated selective uptake in CA125-positive OVCAR3 cells and virtually no uptake in CA125-negative SKOV3 cells. Standardized uptake values (SUV) of radioactivity uptake in OVCAR3 tumors was 0.5 (n = 3) and 0.3 (n = 2) in SKOV3 tumors after 60 min post injection (p.i.). PMID:27508105

  20. PRIMA-1MET induces apoptosis through accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species irrespective of p53 status and chemo-sensitivity in epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIKAWA, NOBUHISA; KAJIYAMA, HIROAKI; NAKAMURA, KAE; UTSUMI, FUMI; NIIMI, KAORU; MITSUI, HIROKO; SEKIYA, RYUICHIRO; SUZUKI, SHIRO; SHIBATA, KIYOSUMI; CALLEN, DAVID; KIKKAWA, FUMITAKA

    2016-01-01

    There is an intensive need for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most lethal gynecologic malignancy due to the high recurrence rate. TP53 mutation is a common event in EOC, particularly in high-grade serous ovarian cancer, where it occurs in more than 90% of cases. Recently, PRIMA-1 and PRIMA-1MET (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis and its methylated form) were shown to have an antitumor effect on several types of cancer. Despite that PRIMA-1MET is the first compound evaluated in clinical trials, the antitumor effects of PRIMA-1MET on EOC remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of PRIMA-1MET for the treatment of EOC cells. PRIMA-1MET treatment of EOC cell lines (n=13) resulted in rapid apoptosis at various concentrations (24 h IC50 2.6–20.1 µM). The apoptotic response was independent of the p53 status and chemo-sensitivity. PRIMA-1MET treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and PRIMA-1MET-induced apoptosis was rescued by an ROS scavenger. Furthermore, RNA expression analysis revealed that the mechanism of action of PRIMA-1MET may be due to inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, such as Prx3 and GPx-1. In conclusion, our results suggest that PRIMA-1MET represents a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer irrespective of p53 status and chemo-sensitivity. PMID:26986846

  1. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    Prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing ovarian cancer mortality . To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian...Progestins have a potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells and we have shown that levonorgestrel dramatically decreases ovarian cancer incidence...effective chemoprevention strategies that might decrease mortality from this disease.

  2. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector mediated miR-21 gene editing inhibits the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wenying; Zhao, Guannan; Yin, Jinggang; Ouyang, Xuan; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Chuanhe; Wang, Baojing; Dong, Peixin; Wang, Zhixiang; Watari, Hidemichi; Chaum, Edward; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for loss of function studies. Here we report that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors are highly efficient in introducing mutations in the precursor miRNA sequence, thus leading to the loss of miRNA expression and function. We constructed four different lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors that target different regions of the precursor miR-21 sequence and found that these lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 miR-21 gRNA vectors induced mutations in the precursor sequences as shown by DNA surveyor mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. Two miR-21 lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA vectors were selected to probe miR-21 function in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Our data demonstrate that disruption of pre-miR-21 sequences leads to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-21 gene editing sensitizes both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Disruption of miR-21 leads to the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells as evidenced by the upregulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and downregulation of mesenchymal marker genes, vimentin and Snai2. The miR-21 target genes PDCD4 and SPRY2 were upregulated in cells transduced with miR-21gRNAs compared to controls. Our study indicates that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miRNA gene editing is an effective approach to address miRNA function, and disruption of miR-21 inhibits EMT in ovarian cancer cells.

  3. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector mediated miR-21 gene editing inhibits the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Wenying; Zhao, Guannan; Yin, Jinggang; Ouyang, Xuan; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Chuanhe; Wang, Baojing; Dong, Peixin; Wang, Zhixiang; Watari, Hidemichi; Chaum, Edward; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for loss of function studies. Here we report that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors are highly efficient in introducing mutations in the precursor miRNA sequence, thus leading to the loss of miRNA expression and function. We constructed four different lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors that target different regions of the precursor miR-21 sequence and found that these lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 miR-21 gRNA vectors induced mutations in the precursor sequences as shown by DNA surveyor mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. Two miR-21 lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA vectors were selected to probe miR-21 function in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Our data demonstrate that disruption of pre-miR-21 sequences leads to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-21 gene editing sensitizes both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Disruption of miR-21 leads to the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells as evidenced by the upregulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and downregulation of mesenchymal marker genes, vimentin and Snai2. The miR-21 target genes PDCD4 and SPRY2 were upregulated in cells transduced with miR-21gRNAs compared to controls. Our study indicates that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miRNA gene editing is an effective approach to address miRNA function, and disruption of miR-21 inhibits EMT in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:28123598

  4. Crosstalk between the mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and the cell cycle is identified across various cancer types and can impact survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Deepak Kumar; Parker, Danitra J.; Gupta, Priyanka; Spurlock, Brian; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Basu, Malay Kumar; Mitra, Kasturi

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Although mitochondrial function can impact cell cycle regulation it has been an understudied area in cancer research. Our study highlights a specific involvement of mitochondria in cell cycle regulation across cancer types. The mitochondrial fission process, which is regulated at the core by Drp1, impacts various cellular functions. Drp1 has been implicated in various cancer types with no common mechanism reported. Our Drp1-directed large-scale analyses of the publically available cancer genomes reveal a robust correlation of Drp1 with cell-cycle genes in 29 of the 31 cancer types examined. Hypothesis driven investigation on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) revealed that Drp1 co-expresses specifically with the cell-cycle module responsible for mitotic transition. Repression of Drp1 in EOC cells can specifically attenuate mitotic transition, establishing a potential casual role of Drp1 in mitotic transition. Interestingly, Drp1-Cell-Cycle co-expression module is specifically detected in primary epithelial ovarian tumors that robustly responded to chemotherapy, suggesting that Drp1 driven mitosis may underlie chemo-sensitivity of the primary tumors. Analyses of matched primary and relapsed EOC samples revealed a Drp1-based-gene-expression-signature that could identify patients with poor survival probabilities from their primary tumors. Our results imply that around 60% of platinum-sensitive EOC patients undergoing relapse show poor survival, potentially due to further activation of a mitochondria driven cell-cycle regime in their recurrent disease. We speculate that this patient group could possibly benefit from mitochondria directed therapies that are being currently evaluated at various levels, thus enabling targeted or personalized therapy based cancer management. PMID:27509055

  5. Proliferation of rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cells in culture: Lack of mitogenic response to steroid or gonadotropic hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Toth-Fejel, Suellen; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2002-06-30

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer and approximately 90% of ovarian cancers derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), yet the biology of the OSE is poorly understood. Factors associated with increased risk of non-hereditary ovarian cancer include the formation of inclusion cysts, effects of reproductive hormones cytokeratin, vimentin, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, estrogen receptor-a, and progesterone receptor. We show that these cells activate MAP Kinase and proliferate in response to extracellular calcium, as do human and rat OSE. In contrast, the gonadotropic hormones FSH (4-400 IU/L), LH (8.5-850 IU/l), and hCG (10-1000 IU/l) fail to stimulate proliferation. We find that concentrations of progesterone and estrogen normally present in follicles just prior to ovulation ( ~1000 ng/ml) significantly decrease the number of mitotically active RhOSE cells as determined by PCNA labelling, total cell count, and 3H-thymidine uptake, while lower steroid concentrations have no effect.

  6. Effect of Procyanidin-rich Extract from Natural Cocoa Powder on Cellular Viability, Cell Cycle Progression, and Chemoresistance in Human Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Taparia, Shruti; Khanna, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last 400 years, cocoa and chocolate have been described as having potential medicinal value, being consumed as a beverage or eaten as food. Concentration–dependant, antiproliferation, and cytotoxic effects of some of their polyphenolic constituents have been demonstrated against various cancers. Such an effect remains to be demonstrated in ovarian cancer Objective: To investigate the effect of cocoa procyanidins against ovarian cancer in vitro using OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cocoa procyanidins were extracted and enriched from non alkalized cocoa powder. The polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined. Effect on cell viability was determined after the treatment with ≤1000 μg/mL cocoa procyanidin-rich extract on OAW42 and OVCAR3 and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Similarly, chemosensitization effect was determined by pretreating cancer cell lines with extract followed by doxorubicin hydrochloride treatment. The effect of treatment on cell cycle and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was determined using flow cytometry. Results: The cocoa extract showed high polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Treatment with extract caused cytotoxicity and chemosensitization in OAW42 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Normal dermal fibroblasts showed an increase in cell viability post treatment with extract. Treatment with extract affected the cell cycle and an increasing percentage of cells in hypodiploid sub-G1/G0 phase was observed. Treatment of OVCAR3 with the extract caused reduction of P-gp expression. Conclusion: Cocoa procyanidins were found to be selectively cytotoxic against epithelial ovarian cancer, interfered with the normal cell cycle and sensitized cells to subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment. Chemosensitization was found to be associated with P-gp reduction in OVCAR3 cells. SUMMARY Among the naturally occurring flavonoids, procyanidins have been shown to be effective against cancersNon alkalized

  7. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A. )

    1989-10-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms.

  8. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Using T Cells Simultaneously Targeted to Tumor and Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    will be delivered to separate T-cell populations using the SFG retroviral vector and retronectin - coated tissue culture dishes: (i) HOX – targets MUC1 and...cancer. Patient derived T-cells were activated with CSD3+CD28- coated beads and transduced with retroviral expression vectors. A representative example for...cells from ascites and tumor tissue stained from a patient with ovarian cancer. Tumor cells were separated using magnetic beads coated with antibodies

  9. The involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins in AKT-regulated cell survival in cisplatin resistant epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yan; Jin, Shiguang; Li, Xueping; Wang, Daxin

    2017-01-01

    Many studies involving patients with cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer have shown that AKT activation leads to inhibition of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine the potential involvement of the Bcl-2 family proteins in AKT-regulated cell survival in response to cisplatin treatment. Cisplatin-sensitive (PEO1) and cisplatin-resistant (PEO4) cells were taken from ascites of patients with ovarian cancer before cisplatin treatment and after development of chemoresistance. It was found that cisplatin treatment activated the AKT signaling pathway and promoted cell proliferation in cisplatin-resistant EOC cells. When AKT was transfected into nucleus of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells, DNA-PK was phosphorylated at S473. The activated AKT (pAKT-S473) in these cells inhibited the death signal induced by cisplatin thereby inhibiting cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Results from this study showed that the combination of cisplatin, DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441, and AKT inhibitor TCN can overcome drug resistance, increase apoptosis, and re-sensitize PEO4 cells to cisplatin treatment. A decrease in apoptotic activity was seen in PEO4 cells when Bad was downregulated by siRNA, which indicated that Bad promotes apoptosis in PEO4 cells. Use of the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 showed that ABT-737 binds to Bcl-2 but not Mcl-1 and releases Bax/Bak which leads to cell apoptosis. The combination of ABT-737 and cisplatin leads to a significant increase in the death of PEO1 and PEO4 cells. All together, these results indicate that Bcl-2 family proteins are regulators of drug resistance. The combination of cisplatin and Bcl-2 family protein inhibitor could be a strategy for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:27935869

  10. Epithelial Tumors Originate in Tumor Hotspots, a Tissue-Intrinsic Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Tamori, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Emiko; Deng, Wu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Malignant tumors are caused by uncontrolled proliferation of transformed mutant cells that have lost the ability to maintain tissue integrity. Although a number of causative genetic backgrounds for tumor development have been discovered, the initial steps mutant cells take to escape tissue integrity and trigger tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we show through analysis of conserved neoplastic tumor-suppressor genes (nTSGs) in Drosophila wing imaginal disc epithelia that tumor initiation depends on tissue-intrinsic local cytoarchitectures, causing tumors to consistently originate in a specific region of the tissue. In this “tumor hotspot” where cells constitute a network of robust structures on their basal side, nTSG-deficient cells delaminate from the apical side of the epithelium and begin tumorigenic overgrowth by exploiting endogenous Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling activity. Conversely, in other regions, the “tumor coldspot” nTSG-deficient cells are extruded toward the basal side and undergo apoptosis. When the direction of delamination is reversed through suppression of RhoGEF2, an activator of the Rho family small GTPases, and JAK/STAT is activated ectopically in these coldspot nTSG-deficient cells, tumorigenesis is induced. These data indicate that two independent processes, apical delamination and JAK/STAT activation, are concurrently required for the initiation of nTSG-deficient-induced tumorigenesis. Given the conservation of the epithelial cytoarchitecture, tumorigenesis may be generally initiated from tumor hotspots by a similar mechanism. PMID:27584724

  11. Endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblast cells exhibit specific splicing programs independently of their tissue of origin

    PubMed Central

    Mallinjoud, Pierre; Villemin, Jean-Philippe; Mortada, Hussein; Polay Espinoza, Micaela; Desmet, François-Olivier; Samaan, Samaan; Chautard, Emilie; Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Auboeuf, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is the main mechanism of increasing the proteome diversity coded by a limited number of genes. It is well established that different tissues or organs express different splicing variants. However, organs are composed of common major cell types, including fibroblasts, epithelial, and endothelial cells. By analyzing large-scale data sets generated by The ENCODE Project Consortium and after extensive RT-PCR validation, we demonstrate that each of the three major cell types expresses a specific splicing program independently of its organ origin. Furthermore, by analyzing splicing factor expression across samples, publicly available splicing factor binding site data sets (CLIP-seq), and exon array data sets after splicing factor depletion, we identified several splicing factors, including ESRP1 and 2, MBNL1, NOVA1, PTBP1, and RBFOX2, that contribute to establishing these cell type–specific splicing programs. All of the analyzed data sets are freely available in a user-friendly web interface named FasterDB, which describes all known splicing variants of human and mouse genes and their splicing patterns across several dozens of normal and cancer cells as well as across tissues. Information regarding splicing factors that potentially contribute to individual exon regulation is also provided via a dedicated CLIP-seq and exon array data visualization interface. To the best of our knowledge, FasterDB is the first database integrating such a variety of large-scale data sets to enable functional genomics analyses at exon-level resolution. PMID:24307554

  12. CT differentiation between tubo-ovarian and appendiceal origin of right lower quadrant abscess: CT, clinical, and laboratory correlation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Nurith; Fux, Tal; Finkelstein, Anna; Mezeh, Haggi; Simanovsky, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    To investigate which clinical, laboratory, and CT findings potentially facilitate the differential diagnosis between tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) and periappendicular abscess (PAA), we retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT examinations and medical records for all women who presented to our medical center with unilateral right pelvic abscess formation who underwent CT evaluation from 2004-2014. A wide spectrum of clinical data and imaging findings were recorded. CT diagnoses were made in consensus by two experienced body radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis. Findings associated with the infections were compared using the chi-square (χ(2)) or the Fisher exact test. Ninety-one patients were included; 58 with PAA (mean age 46 years) and 33 with TOA (mean age 37 years). Pain on cervical motion (67 %) and vaginal discharge (21 %) were significantly more common in TOA; other clinical signs were similar. The presence of right ovarian vein entering the mass on CT had 100 % specificity and 94 % sensitivity to TOA. Distended right fallopian tube (79 %), mass posterior to mesovarium (76 %), contralateral pelvic fat stranding (55 %), and thickening of sacrouterine ligaments (55 %) were significantly more common in TOA. Positive "arrowhead sign" (91 %), mesenteric lymphadenopathy (85 %), small bowel wall thickening (55 %), fluid in the right paracolic gutter (50 %), and cecal wall thickening (48 %) were significantly more common in PAA;internal gas was revealed only in PAA (33 %). Distinct CT features can increase diagnostic certainty regarding the origin of right lower quadrant abscess in women.

  13. Searching the Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Mucus Protein Components—Mucins and FCGBP

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Tiange; Klasson, Sofia; Larsson, Erik; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Samuelsson, Tore

    2016-01-01

    The gel-forming mucins are large glycosylated proteins that are essential components of the mucus layers covering epithelial cells. Using novel methods of identifying mucins based on profile hidden Markov models, we have found a large number of such proteins in Metazoa, aiding in their classification and allowing evolutionary studies. Most vertebrates have 5–6 gel-forming mucin genes and the genomic arrangement of these genes is well conserved throughout vertebrates. An exception is the frog Xenopus tropicalis with an expanded repertoire of at least 26 mucins of this type. Furthermore, we found that the ovomucin protein, originally identified in chicken, is characteristic of reptiles, birds, and amphibians. Muc6 is absent in teleost fish, but we now show that it is present in animals such as ghost sharks, demonstrating an early origin in vertebrate evolution. Public RNA-Seq data were analyzed with respect to mucins in zebrafish, frog, and chicken, thus allowing comparison in regard of tissue and developmental specificity. Analyses of invertebrate proteins reveal that gel-forming-mucin type of proteins is widely distributed also in this group. Their presence in Cnidaria, Porifera, and in Ctenophora (comb jellies) shows that these proteins were present early in metazoan evolution. Finally, we examined the evolution of the FCGBP protein, abundant in mucus and related to gel-forming mucins in terms of structure and localization. We demonstrate that FCGBP, ubiquitous in vertebrates, has a conserved N-terminal domain. Interestingly, this domain is also present as an N-terminal sequence in a number of bacterial proteins. PMID:27189557

  14. PT19c, Another Nonhypercalcemic Vitamin D2 Derivative, Demonstrates Antitumor Efficacy in Epithelial Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Kawar, Nada; Maclaughlan, Shannon; Horan, Timothy C.; Uzun, Alper; Lange, Thilo S.; Kim, Kyu K.; Hopson, Russell; Singh, Ajay P.; Sidhu, Preetpal S.; Glass, Kyle A.; Shaw, Sunil; Padbury, James F.; Vorsa, Nicholi; Arnold, Leggy A.; Moore, Richard G.; Brard, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Hypercalcemia remains a major impediment to the clinical use of vitamin D in cancer treatment. Approaches to remove hypercalcemia and development of nonhypercalcemic agents can lead to the development of vitamin D–based therapies for treatment of various cancers. In this report, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy, safety, and details of vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions of PT19c, a novel nonhypercalcemic vitamin D derived anticancer agent, are described. PT19c was synthesized by bromoacetylation of PTAD-ergocalciferol adduct. Broader growth inhibitory potential of PT19c was evaluated in a panel of chemoresistant breast, renal, ovarian, lung, colon, leukemia, prostate, melanoma, and central nervous system cancers cell line types of NCI60 cell line panel. Interactions of PT19c with VDR were determined by a VDR transactivation assay in a VDR overexpressing VDR-UAS-bla-HEK293 cells, in vitro VDR-coregulator binding, and molecular docking with VDR-ligand binding domain (VDR-LBD) in comparison with calcitriol. Acute toxicity of PT19c was determined in nontumored mice. In vivo antitumor efficacy of PT19c was determined via ovarian and endometrial cancer xenograft experiments. Effect of PT19c on actin filament organization and focal adhesion formation was examined by microscopy. PT19c treatment inhibited growth of chemoresistant NCI60 cell lines (log10GI50 ~ −4.05 to −6.73). PT19c (10 mg/kg, 35 days) reduced growth of ovarian and endometrial xenograft tumor without hypercalcemia. PT19c exerted no acute toxicity up to 400 mg/kg (QDx1) in animals. PT19c showed weak VDR antagonism, lack of VDR binding, and inverted spatial accommodation in VDR-LBD. PT19c caused actin filament dysfunction and inhibited focal adhesion in SKOV-3 cells. PT19c is a VDR independent nonhypercalcemic vitamin D–derived agent that showed noteworthy safety and efficacy in ovarian and endometrial cancer animal models and inhibited actin organization and focal adhesion in ovarian cancer

  15. PT19c, Another Nonhypercalcemic Vitamin D2 Derivative, Demonstrates Antitumor Efficacy in Epithelial Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Kawar, Nada; Maclaughlan, Shannon; Horan, Timothy C; Uzun, Alper; Lange, Thilo S; Kim, Kyu K; Hopson, Russell; Singh, Ajay P; Sidhu, Preetpal S; Glass, Kyle A; Shaw, Sunil; Padbury, James F; Vorsa, Nicholi; Arnold, Leggy A; Moore, Richard G; Brard, Laurent; Singh, Rakesh K

    2013-11-01

    Hypercalcemia remains a major impediment to the clinical use of vitamin D in cancer treatment. Approaches to remove hypercalcemia and development of nonhypercalcemic agents can lead to the development of vitamin D-based therapies for treatment of various cancers. In this report, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy, safety, and details of vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions of PT19c, a novel nonhypercalcemic vitamin D derived anticancer agent, are described. PT19c was synthesized by bromoacetylation of PTAD-ergocalciferol adduct. Broader growth inhibitory potential of PT19c was evaluated in a panel of chemoresistant breast, renal, ovarian, lung, colon, leukemia, prostate, melanoma, and central nervous system cancers cell line types of NCI60 cell line panel. Interactions of PT19c with VDR were determined by a VDR transactivation assay in a VDR overexpressing VDR-UAS-bla-HEK293 cells, in vitro VDR-coregulator binding, and molecular docking with VDR-ligand binding domain (VDR-LBD) in comparison with calcitriol. Acute toxicity of PT19c was determined in nontumored mice. In vivo antitumor efficacy of PT19c was determined via ovarian and endometrial cancer xenograft experiments. Effect of PT19c on actin filament organization and focal adhesion formation was examined by microscopy. PT19c treatment inhibited growth of chemoresistant NCI60 cell lines (log10GI50 ~ -4.05 to -6.73). PT19c (10 mg/kg, 35 days) reduced growth of ovarian and endometrial xenograft tumor without hypercalcemia. PT19c exerted no acute toxicity up to 400 mg/kg (QDx1) in animals. PT19c showed weak VDR antagonism, lack of VDR binding, and inverted spatial accommodation in VDR-LBD. PT19c caused actin filament dysfunction and inhibited focal adhesion in SKOV-3 cells. PT19c is a VDR independent nonhypercalcemic vitamin D-derived agent that showed noteworthy safety and efficacy in ovarian and endometrial cancer animal models and inhibited actin organization and focal adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Human intestinal Vdelta1+ lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    complex restricted or to be correlated with target cell expression of heat- shock proteins. Based on the ability of some epithelial tumors, including colorectal, pancreatic, and renal cell cancers to effectively cold target inhibit the lysis of colorectal cancer cell lines by these Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cell lines, we suggest that intestinal Vdelta1+ T cells are capable of recognizing cell surface Ag(s) shared by tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:8666926

  17. Epacadostat Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Stage III Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. [The ovarian origin of hiperandrogenism in the postmenopausal woman the adrenal adenoma--a case report].

    PubMed

    Mrozińska, Sandra; Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Milewicz, Tomasz; Jach, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is a clinical condition characterized by excessive secretion of male sex hormones. An excess amount of androgens in women is manifested by symptoms of defeminization and masculinization. Hormonally active adrenal and ovarian tumors and non-tumor causes must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The authors describe the case of a 77-year-old patient who had hirsutism and reduction of the timbre of the voice. At the beginning she was suspected to have adrenal hyperandrogenism because of the tumor in the adrenal gland. Then adrenalectomy was conducted but it did not lead to alleviate symptoms. A MRI of the pelvis revealed a change of appendages projection and the patient underwent the total hysterectomy. The normalization of testosterone levels as well as reduction of the symptoms was observed after the operation. Finally, the ovary etiology of hyperandrogenism was confirmed. This case report is an example of difficulties in recognition the etiology of hyperandrogenism.

  19. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism of ovarian origin: A clinicopathologic study of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Ajith, S.; Beena, George; Mathew, Nitu Mariam; Omana, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    In postmenopausal women presenting with virilization and elevated testosterone levels, laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered after exclusion of adrenal causes. A clinicopathological study was conducted among those women who presented with features of hyperandrogenism in our postmenopausal clinic over a period of 2 years. Relevant past medical and surgical histories were elicited. Basic hormonal evaluation and radiological imaging were done. Laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Six weeks postoperatively, serum testosterone was undetectable with significant clinical improvement. There was no recurrence of symptoms during the follow-up period of 2 years. Treatment of postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenism and virilization with laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is effective if she has no pronounced ovarian enlargement or adrenal tumor on imaging. An extensive endocrine testing and a detailed search for metastatic disease may be unnecessary. PMID:28096644

  20. Overexpression of microRNA-196b Accelerates Invasiveness of Cancer Cells in Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Through Regulation of Homeobox A9

    PubMed Central

    CHONG, GUN OH; JEON, HYO-SUNG; HAN, HYUNG SOO; SON, JI WOONG; LEE, YOON HEE; HONG, DAE GY; PARK, HONG JUN; LEE, YOON SOON; CHO, YOUNG LAE

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to influence messenger RNA post-transcriptional control and contribute to human tumorigenesis, little is known about the differences in miRNA expression between primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The purpose of this study was to assess the differential miRNA expression between primary and recurrent EOC and to investigate whether miR-196b could regulate the expression of the Homeobox A9 (HOXA9) gene, and thus affect the invasiveness of cancer cells in recurrent EOC. Materials and Methods: Microarrays were used to generate the expression profiles of 6658 miRNAs from samples of 10 patients with EOC. miRNA expression patterns were compared between primary and recurrent EOC. Aberrantly expressed miRNA, associated genes, and invasion activities were validated by a luciferase assay and an in vitro invasion assay. Results: miRNA microarray analysis identified 33 overexpressed miRNAs (including miR-196b) and 18 under expressed miRNAs in recurrent EOC from 6658 human miRNAs. HOXA9 expression was inversely correlated with miR-196b levels in recurrent EOC. We noted that miR-196b induced ovarian cancer cell invasiveness in recurrent EOC by an in vitro invasion assay. Conclusion: Overexpression of miR-196b may contribute to invasion activities in recurrent EOC by regulating the HOXA9 gene. Moreover, miR-196b can be a potential biomarker in recurrent EOC.

  1. Characterization of matrix metalloproteinase-26, a novel metalloproteinase widely expressed in cancer cells of epithelial origin.

    PubMed Central

    Marchenko, G N; Ratnikov, B I; Rozanov, D V; Godzik, A; Deryugina, E I; Strongin, A Y

    2001-01-01

    Identification of expanding roles for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in complex regulatory processes of tissue remodelling has stimulated the search for genes encoding proteinases with unique functions, regulation and expression patterns. By using a novel cloning strategy, we identified three previously unknown human MMPs, i.e. MMP-21, MMP-26 and MMP-28, in comprehensive gene libraries. The present study is focused on the gene and the protein of a novel MMP, MMP-26. Our findings show that MMP-26 is specifically expressed in cancer cells of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of lung, prostate and breast. Several unique structural and regulatory features, including an unusual 'cysteine-switch' motif, discriminate broad-spectrum MMP-26 from most other MMPs. MMP-26 efficiently cleaves fibrinogen and extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, vitronectin and denatured collagen. Protein sequence, minimal modular domain structure, exon-intron mapping and computer modelling demonstrate similarity between MMP-26 and MMP-7 (matrilysin). However, substrate specificity and transcriptional regulation, as well as the functional role of MMP-26 and MMP-7 in cancer, are likely to be distinct. Despite these differences, matrilysin-2 may be a suitable trivial name for MMP-26. Our observations suggest an important specific function for MMP-26 in tumour progression and angiogenesis, and confirm and extend the recent findings of other authors [Park, Ni, Gerkema, Liu, Belozerov and Sang (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 20540--20544; Uría and López-Otín (2000) Cancer Res. 60, 4745--4751; de Coignac, Elson, Delneste, Magistrelli, Jeannin, Aubry, Berthier, Schmitt, Bonnefoy and Gauchat (2000) Eur. J. Biochem. 267, 3323--3329]. PMID:11389678

  2. Antigen-specific immunotherapy of cervical and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, TC; Monie, Archana; Roden, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary We contrast the efforts to treat ovarian cancer and cervical cancer through vaccination because of their different pathobiology. A plethora of approaches have been developed for therapeutic vaccination against cancer, many of which target defined tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is necessary cause of cervical cancer. Furthermore, cervical cancer patients frequently mount both humoral and T cell immune responses to the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is required for the transformed phenotype. Numerous vaccine studies target these viral TAAs, including recent trials that may enhance clearance of pre-malignant disease. By contrast little is known about the etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Although it is clear that p53 mutation or loss is a critical early event in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, no precursor lesion has been described for the most common serous histotype, and even the location of its origin is debated. These issues have complicated the selection of appropriate ovarian TAAs and the design of vaccines. Here we focus on mesothelin as a promising ovarian TAA because it is overexpressed and immunogenic at high frequency in patients, is displayed on the cell surface and potentially contributes to ovarian cancer biology. PMID:18363994

  3. Pathway modulations and epigenetic alterations in ovarian tumorbiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Sabita N.; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular pathways are numerous and are highly integrated in function in the control of cellular systems. They collectively regulate cell division, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells and mutagenesis of key genes that control these pathways can initiate neoplastic transformations. Understanding these pathways is crucial to future therapeutic and preventive strategies of the disease. Ovarian cancers are of three major types; epithelial, germ-cell and stromal. However, ovarian cancers of epithelial origin, arising from the mesothelium, are the predominant form. Of the subtypes of ovarian cancer, the high-grade serous tumors are fatal, with low survival rate due to late detection and poor response to treatments. Close examination of preserved ovarian tissues and in vitro studies have provided insights into the mechanistic changes occurring in cells mediated by a few key genes. This review will focus on pathways and key genes of the pathways that are mutated or have aberrant functions in the pathology of ovarian cancer. Non-genetic mechanisms that are gaining prominence in the pathology of ovarian cancer, miRNAs and epigenetics, will also be discussed in the review. PMID:24105793

  4. A new tumor suppressor lncRNA RP11-190D6.2 inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Wenxian; Yang, Liu; Yu, Qiang; Yao, Jie; He, Anbing

    2017-01-01

    At present, a large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) from the human genome have been discovered. Meanwhile, emerging evidence has indicated that lncRNAs could play a critical role in the regulation of cellular processes such as cancer progression and metastasis. However, the functions of some new lncRNAs in the complex transcriptional process are mostly unknown at present. Existing studies suggest that loss of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) expression is linked with poor prognosis in numerous cancers, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the functional role of its antisense transcript RP11-190D6.2 is not clear to date. In this study, WWOX antisense transcript RP11-190D6.2 was analyzed specifically in EOC cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction and gain-/loss-of-function studies. We found that RP11-190D6.2 expression was positively correlated with WWOX expression. The RP11-190D6.2 expression was markedly downregulated in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues, but the RP11-190D6.2 expression was significantly downregu-lated in four EOC cell lines compared with human ovarian surface epithelial cell line. RP11-190D6.2 overexpression resulted in the increase of WWOX expression, whereas its knockdown led to the decrease of WWOX expression. We also found that RP11-190D6.2 was restored by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment in EOC. In addition, the RP11-190D6.2 overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that RP11-190D6.2 overexpression inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities in HO8910-PM cells, whereas RP11-190D6.2 knockdown in HEY-A8 cells had the opposite effect. The analyses in EOC implicate that RP11-190D6.2 may play a pivotal role in the regulation of tumor metastasis, suggesting that RP11-190D6.2 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for EOC. PMID:28280357

  5. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. IL-6R/STAT3/miR-204 feedback loop contributes to cisplatin resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolan; Shen, Huiling; Yin, Xinming; Long, Lulu; Chen, Xiaofang; Feng, Fan; Liu, Yueqin; Zhao, Peiqing; Xu, Yue; Li, Mei; Xu, Wenlin; Li, Yuefeng

    2017-03-27

    Enhanced chemoresistance is, among other factors, believed to be responsible for treatment failure and tumor relapse in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Here, we exposed EOC cells to interleukin-6 (IL-6) to activate oncogenic STAT3, which directly repressed miR-204 via a conserved STAT3-binding site near the TRPM3 promoter region upstream of miR-204. Repression of miR-204 was required for IL-6-induced cisplatin (cDDP) resistance. Furthermore, we identified the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), which mediates IL-6-dependent STAT3 activation, as a direct miR-204 target. Importantly, the resulting IL-6R/STAT3/miR-204 feedback loop was identified in patients with EOC, and its activity correlated with chemosensitivity. Moreover, exogenous miR-204 blocked this circuit and enhanced cDDP sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo by inactivating IL-6R/STAT3 signaling and subsequently decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Our findings illustrate the function of this feedback loop in cDDP-based therapy and may offer a broadly useful approach to improve EOC therapy.

  7. Human omental adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium alters the proteomic profile of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Dong, Weihong; Wang, Junjie; Cai, Jing; Wang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to participate in the formation of supportive tumor stroma. The abilities of proliferation and invasion of human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells were significantly enhanced when indirectly cocultured with human omental adipose-derived MSCs (O-ADSCs) in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, EOC cells were cultured with conditioned medium (CM) from O-ADSCs (O-ADSC), and the effect of O-ADSC CM on the proteomic profile of EOC cells was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The 2-DE assays revealed a global increase in protein expression in the EOC cells treated with CM. Nine proteins were identified from 11 selected protein spots with differential expression after treatment with CM from O-ADSCs. All the nine proteins have been linked to carcinoma and apoptosis, and the migration ability of tumor cells can be regulated by these proteins. Moreover, the upregulation of prohibitin and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 in EOC cells treated with CM was further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that O-ADSCs affect the proteomic profile of EOC cells via paracrine mechanism in favor of EOC progression. PMID:28360526

  8. Differential cellular responses induced by dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jennifer L; Lagasse, Brittany J; Minuk, Ainsley J; Love, Allison J; Moraya, Amani I; Lam, Linda; Arthur, Gilbert; Gibson, Spencer B; Morrison, Ludivine Coudière; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra E; Fu, Yangxin; Nachtigal, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    Inherent or acquired drug resistance is a major contributor to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mortality. Novel drugs or drug combinations that produce EOC cell death or resensitize drug resistant cells to standard chemotherapy may improve patient treatment. After conducting drug tolerability studies for the multikinase inhibitors dorsomorphin (DM) and it is structural analogue LDN-193189 (LDN), these drugs were tested in a mouse intraperitoneal xenograft model of EOC. DM significantly increased survival, whereas LDN showed a trend toward increased survival. In vitro experiments using cisplatin (CP)-resistant EOC cell lines, A2780-cp or SKOV3, we determined that pretreatment or cotreatment with DM or LDN resensitized cells to the killing effect of CP or carboplatin (CB). DM was capable of blocking EOC cell cycle and migration, whereas LDN produced a less pronounced effect on cell cycle and no effect on migration. Subsequent analyses using primary human EOC cell samples or additional established EOC cells lines showed that DM or LDN induced a dose-dependent autophagic or cell death response, respectively. DM induced a characteristic morphological change with the appearance of numerous LC3B-containing acidic vacuoles and an increase in LC3BII levels. This was coincident with a decrease in cell growth and the altered cell cycle consistent with DM-induced cytostasis. By contrast, LDN produced a caspase 3-independent, reactive oxygen species-dependent cell death. Overall, DM and LDN possess drug characteristics suitable for adjuvant agents used to treat chemotherapy-sensitive and -resistant EOC.

  9. The long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis and senescence in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jun-jun; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ying-lei; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jing-xin; Hua, Ke-qin

    2016-01-01

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been implicated in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we evaluated ANRIL expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and defined its clinical implications and biological functions. ANRIL was overexpressed in EOC tissues relative to normal controls. Overexpression correlated with advanced International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stage and high histological grade. Multivariate analysis indicated that ANRIL is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in EOC. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that ANRIL promotes EOC cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The proliferative effect was linked to the promotion of cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis and senescence. Down-regulation of P15INK4B and up-regulation of Bcl-2 by ANRIL may partially explain ANRIL-induced EOC cell proliferation. This study is the first to establish that ANRIL promotes EOC progression and is a potential prognostic biomarker. PMID:27095571

  10. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Montag, A.; Lastra, R. R.; Lengyel, E.; Mann, M.

    2016-01-01

    A cell line representative of human high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) should not only resemble its tumour of origin at the molecular level, but also demonstrate functional utility in pre-clinical investigations. Here, we report the integrated proteomic analysis of 26 ovarian cancer cell lines, HGSOC tumours, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and fallopian tube epithelial cells via a single-run mass spectrometric workflow. The in-depth quantification of >10,000 proteins results in three distinct cell line categories: epithelial (group I), clear cell (group II) and mesenchymal (group III). We identify a 67-protein cell line signature, which separates our entire proteomic data set, as well as a confirmatory publicly available CPTAC/TCGA tumour proteome data set, into a predominantly epithelial and mesenchymal HGSOC tumour cluster. This proteomics-based epithelial/mesenchymal stratification of cell lines and human tumours indicates a possible origin of HGSOC either from the fallopian tube or from the ovarian surface epithelium. PMID:27561551

  11. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  12. Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Panel (OCCP): Clinical Importance of In Vitro Morphological Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Beaufort, Corine M.; Helmijr, Jean C. A.; Piskorz, Anna M.; Hoogstraat, Marlous; Ruigrok-Ritstier, Kirsten; Besselink, Nicolle; Murtaza, Muhammed; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Heine, Anouk A. J.; Smid, Marcel; Koudijs, Marco J.; Brenton, James D.; Berns, Els M. J. J.; Helleman, Jozien

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease and remains the most lethal gynaecological malignancy in the Western world. Therapeutic approaches need to account for inter-patient and intra-tumoural heterogeneity and detailed characterization of in vitro models representing the different histological and molecular ovarian cancer subtypes is critical to enable reliable preclinical testing. There are approximately 100 publicly available ovarian cancer cell lines but their cellular and molecular characteristics are largely undescribed. We have characterized 39 ovarian cancer cell lines under uniform conditions for growth characteristics, mRNA/microRNA expression, exon sequencing, drug response for clinically-relevant therapeutics and collated all available information on the original clinical features and site of origin. We tested for statistical associations between the cellular and molecular features of the lines and clinical features. Of the 39 ovarian cancer cell lines, 14 were assigned as high-grade serous, four serous-type, one low-grade serous and 20 non-serous type. Three morphological subtypes: Epithelial (n = 21), Round (n = 7) and Spindle (n = 12) were identified that showed distinct biological and molecular characteristics, including overexpression of cell movement and migration-associated genes in the Spindle subtype. Comparison with the original clinical data showed association of the spindle-like tumours with metastasis, advanced stage, suboptimal debulking and poor prognosis. In addition, the expression profiles of Spindle, Round and Epithelial morphologies clustered with the previously described C1-stromal, C5-mesenchymal and C4 ovarian subtype expression profiles respectively. Comprehensive profiling of 39 ovarian cancer cell lines under controlled, uniform conditions demonstrates clinically relevant cellular and genomic characteristics. This data provides a rational basis for selecting models to develop specific treatment

  13. Characterization of human tracheal epithelial cells transformed by an origin-defective simian virus 40.

    PubMed Central

    Gruenert, D C; Basbaum, C B; Welsh, M J; Li, M; Finkbeiner, W E; Nadel, J A

    1988-01-01

    To facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer and cystic fibrosis, we have transformed and characterized cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Cells were transfected by calcium phosphate precipitation with a plasmid containing a replication-defective simian virus 40 (SV40) genome. Colonies of cells with enhanced growth potential were isolated and analyzed for transformation- and epithelial-specific characteristics. Precrisis cells were observed to express the SV40 large tumor antigen, produce cytokeratins, have microvilli, and form tight junctions. After crisis, cells continued to express the SV40 large tumor antigen as well as epithelial-specific cytokeratins and to display the apical membrane microvilli. Apical membrane Cl channels were opened in postcrisis cells exposed to 50 microM forskolin. These channels showed electrical properties similar to those observed in primary cultures. The postcrisis cells have been in culture for greater than 250 generations and are potentially "immortal." In addition to providing a useful in vitro model for the study of ion transport by human airway epithelial cells, the cells can be used to examine stages of neoplastic progression. Images PMID:2457904

  14. Candidate genes and pathways downstream of PAX8 involved in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Amata Amy; Monticelli, Antonella; Affinito, Ornella; Cocozza, Sergio; Zannini, Mariastella

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biology and molecular pathogenesis of ovarian epithelial cancer (EOC) is key to developing improved diagnostic and prognostic indicators and effective therapies. Although research has traditionally focused on the hypothesis that high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) arises from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), recent studies suggest that additional sites of origin exist and a substantial proportion of cases may arise from precursor lesions located in the Fallopian tubal epithelium (FTE). In FTE cells, the transcription factor PAX8 is a marker of the secretory cell lineage and its expression is retained in 96% of EOC. We have recently reported that PAX8 is involved in the tumorigenic phenotype of ovarian cancer cells. In this study, to uncover genes and pathways downstream of PAX8 involved in ovarian carcinoma we have determined the molecular profiles of ovarian cancer cells and in parallel of Fallopian tube epithelial cells by means of a silencing approach followed by an RNA-seq analysis. Interestingly, we highlighted the involvement of pathways like WNT signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, p53 and apoptosis. We believe that our analysis has led to the identification of candidate genes and pathways regulated by PAX8 that could be additional targets for the therapy of ovarian carcinoma. PMID:27259239

  15. Phase II trial of bryostatin-1 in combination with cisplatin in patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer: a California cancer consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Lucille; Chow, Warren; Gandara, David; Frankel, Paul; Garcia, Agustin; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Doroshow, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The California Cancer Consortium has performed a Phase II trial of infusional bryostatin, a protein kinase C inhibitor isolated from the marine invertebrate bryozoan, Bugula Neritina, a member of the phylum Ectoprocta, in combination with cisplatin, in patients (pts) with recurrent platinum-sensitive or resistant ovarian cancer (OC). Methods Pts received bryostatin 45 mcg/m2 as a 72 h continuous infusion followed by cisplatin 50 mg/m2. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. Dosages were chosen based on phase I data obtained by the CCC in a population of pts with mixed tumor types. Results Eight pts with recurrent or persistent epithelial OC received 23 cycles of treatment. All pts had received previous platinum-based chemotherapy; two pts had received one prior course, five had received two prior courses, and one had received three prior courses of chemotherapy. The median age was 64 (range 32–72), and Karnofsky performance status 90 (range 80–100). A median of 3 cycles of chemotherapy were delivered (range: 1–5). The median progression-free and overall survivals were 3 and 8.2 months respectively. Best responses included two partial responses (one in a platinum-resistant pt), three pts with stable disease, and three progressions. All pts experienced Grade 3 or 4 toxicities including severe myalgias/pain/fatigue/asthenia in six pts, and severe nausea/ vomiting/constipation in two other pts. One pt experienced a seizure and liver function tests were elevated in one other. Conclusions A modest response rate is observed in pts with recurrent or persistent ovarian cancer treated with the combination of bryostatin and cisplatin. The toxicity profile, however, observed in this pt population (primarily severe myalgias), precludes tolerability and prevents this combination from further investigation at this dose and schedule. It is possible that platinum pre-exposure in OC patients exacerbates observed toxicity. Phase II dosages of investigational

  16. Morphologic responses of the mouse ovarian surface epithelium to ovulation and steroid hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Gotfredson, Garry S; Murdoch, William J

    2007-02-01

    Ovarian cancer of surface epithelial origin is an ovulation- and endocrine-related disease. It appears that a cell transformed by genotoxins generated at follicular rupture is propagated during postovulatory wound repair. A consequent steroid hormonal imbalance favoring the mitogenic estrogens is a prospective predisposing factor in ovarian neoplasia. Protection against epithelial ovarian cancer is conferred by progesterone. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute effects of ovulation and steroid hormonal exposure on morphologic responses of surface epithelial cells of mouse ovaries. Follicular development and ovulation were induced in immature animals with equine and human (=Day 0) choriogonadotropins, respectively. On Day 2 (approximately 36 hrs after ovulation), surface epithelial classifications presented in histologic sections were altered from simple (single-layered) squamous and cuboidal toward stratification; this trend was reversed (i.e., reverted to the control status) on Days 4-8. Shifts in the ovarian epithelium from simple to stratified were accentuated following postovulatory (Days 1-8) treatment with estradiol. Surface epithelia of ovaries obtained after 1 week of progesterone administration were exclusively of a simple phenotype. We conclude that the proliferative/procarcinogenic reaction of the ovarian surface epithelium to ovulation is exacerbated by estrogen and counteracted by progesterone.

  17. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine With or Without Bevacizumab as First-Line Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV or Recurrent Stage I Epithelial Ovarian or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-05

    Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  18. DNA hypomethylation-mediated activation of Cancer/Testis Antigen 45 (CT45) genes is associated with disease progression and reduced survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wa; Barger, Carter J; Link, Petra A; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Akers, Stacey N; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a highly lethal malignancy due to a lack of early detection approaches coupled with poor outcomes for patients with clinically advanced disease. Cancer-testis (CT) or cancer-germline genes encode antigens known to generate spontaneous anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients. CT45 genes are a recently discovered 6-member family of X-linked CT genes with oncogenic function. Here, we determined CT45 expression in EOC and fully defined its epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation. CT45 was silent and hypermethylated in normal control tissues, but a large subset of EOC samples showed increased CT45 expression in conjunction with promoter DNA hypomethylation. In contrast, copy number status did not correlate with CT45 expression in the TCGA database for EOC. CT45 promoter methylation inversely correlated with both CT45 mRNA and protein expression, the latter determined using IHC staining of an EOC TMA. CT45 expression was increased and CT45 promoter methylation was decreased in late-stage and high-grade EOC, and both measures were associated with poor survival. CT45 hypomethylation was directly associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation, and CT45 was frequently co-expressed with other CT antigen genes in EOC. Decitabine treatment induced CT45 mRNA and protein expression in EOC cells, and promoter transgene analyses indicated that DNA methylation directly represses CT45 promoter activity. These data verify CT45 expression and promoter hypomethylation as possible prognostic biomarkers, and suggest CT45 as an immunological or therapeutic target in EOC. Treatment with decitabine or other epigenetic modulators could provide a means for more effective immunological targeting of CT45.

  19. DNA hypomethylation-mediated activation of Cancer/Testis Antigen 45 (CT45) genes is associated with disease progression and reduced survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wa; Barger, Carter J; Link, Petra A; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Akers, Stacey N; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a highly lethal malignancy due to a lack of early detection approaches coupled with poor outcomes for patients with clinically advanced disease. Cancer-testis (CT) or cancer-germline genes encode antigens known to generate spontaneous anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients. CT45 genes are a recently discovered 6-member family of X-linked CT genes with oncogenic function. Here, we determined CT45 expression in EOC and fully defined its epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation. CT45 was silent and hypermethylated in normal control tissues, but a large subset of EOC samples showed increased CT45 expression in conjunction with promoter DNA hypomethylation. In contrast, copy number status did not correlate with CT45 expression in the TCGA database for EOC. CT45 promoter methylation inversely correlated with both CT45 mRNA and protein expression, the latter determined using IHC staining of an EOC TMA. CT45 expression was increased and CT45 promoter methylation was decreased in late-stage and high-grade EOC, and both measures were associated with poor survival. CT45 hypomethylation was directly associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation, and CT45 was frequently co-expressed with other CT antigen genes in EOC. Decitabine treatment induced CT45 mRNA and protein expression in EOC cells, and promoter transgene analyses indicated that DNA methylation directly represses CT45 promoter activity. These data verify CT45 expression and promoter hypomethylation as possible prognostic biomarkers, and suggest CT45 as an immunological or therapeutic target in EOC. Treatment with decitabine or other epigenetic modulators could provide a means for more effective immunological targeting of CT45. PMID:26098711

  20. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio are predictive of chemotherapeutic response and prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yi; Yan, Qin; Li, Shuangdi; Li, Bilan; Feng, Youji

    2016-06-07

    The aim of present study was to investigate the role of preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) used as prognostic markers for predicting chemotherapeutic response and survival outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy. A total of 344 patients diagnosed with EOC who are receiving platinum-based chemotherapy from 2005 to 2010 in the hospital were enrolled. NLR and PLR were calculated from complete blood cell count taken before operation. The patients were divided into platinum-resistant (P-R) group and platinum-sensitive (P-S) group according to chemotherapeutic response. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared among groups. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to calculate optimal cut-off values for NLR and PLR to predict chemotherapeutic response and prognosis. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity of NLR > 3.02 to predict platinum resistance were 0.819, 75.0% and 81.45%, respectively. The corresponding values of PLR > 207 were 0.727, 60.42% and 85.48%, respectively. Patients with lower value of NLR (NLR < 3.02) or PLR (PLR < 207) had a longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, NLR and PLR showed a significant association with PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.733; 95%CI, 1.225-2.453, P = 0.002 and HR, 1.952; 95%CI, 1.430-2.662, P < 0.001) and OS (HR, 1.616; 95%CI, 1.138-2.297, P = 0.007, and HR, 2.167; 95%CI, 1.565-3.000, P < 0.001). These results suggest that the assessment of NLR and PLR could assist the identification of patients with poor prognosis and had potential clinical value in predicting platinum resistance in patients with EOC.

  1. Prognostic impact of human leukocyte antigen class I expression and association of platinum resistance with immunologic profiles in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mariya, Tasuku; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Kuroda, Takafumi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Sonoda, Tomoko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most deadly carcinomas in females. Immune systems can recognize EOCs; however, a defect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression is known to be a major mechanism for escape from immune systems, resulting in poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to identify novel correlations between immunologic responses and other clinical factors. We investigated the expression of immunologic components in 122 cases of EOCs for which surgical operations were performed between 2001 and 2011. We immunohistochemically stained EOC specimens using an anti-pan HLA class I monoclonal antibody (EMR8-5) and anti-CD3, -CD4, and -CD8 antibodies, and we analyzed correlations between immunologic parameters and clinical factors. In multivariate analysis that used the Cox proportional hazards model, independent prognostic factors for overall survival in advanced EOCs included low expression level of HLA class I [risk ratio (RR), 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.83; P = 0.046] and loss of intraepithelial cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.06-4.20; P = 0.033). Interestingly, almost all platinum-resistant cases showed a significantly low rate of intraepithelial CTL infiltration in the χ(2) test (positive vs. negative: 9.0% vs. 97.7%; P < 0.001). Results from a logistic regression model revealed that low CTL infiltration rate was an independent factor of platinum resistance in multivariate analysis (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.08-13.12; P = 0.037). Platinum-resistant EOCs show poor immunologic responses. The immune escape system of EOCs may be one of the mechanisms of platinum resistance.

  2. Cytoreductive Surgery plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy to Treat Advanced/Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from a Retrospective Study on Prospectively Established Database1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-Hua; Ji, Zhong-He; Yu, Yang; Wu, Hai-Tao; Huang, Chao-Qun; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yonemura, Yutaka; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the best standard treatment, optimal cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy, prognosis of advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remains poor. Recently, CRS plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CRS+HIPEC to treat PC from advanced/recurrent EOC. METHODS: Forty-six PC patients from advanced EOC (group A) or recurrent EOC (group B) were treated by 50 CRS+HIPEC procedures. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); the secondary endpoints were safety profiles. RESULTS: The median OS was 74.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.5-139.5] for group A versus 57.5 months (95% CI 29.8-85.2) for group B (P = .68). The median PFS was not reached for group A versus 8.5 months (95% CI 0-17.5) for group B (P = .034). Better median OS correlated with peritoneal cancer index (PCI) < 20 (76.6 months for PCI ≤ 20 group vs 38.5 months for PCI > 20 group, P = .01), complete cyroreduction (residual disease ≤ 2.5 mm) [79.5 months for completeness of cytoreduction (CC) score 0-1 vs 24.3 months for CC 2-3, P = .00], and sensitivity to platinum (65.3 months for platinum-sensitive group vs 20.0 for platinum-resistant group, P = .05). Serious adverse events occurred in five patients (10.0%). Multivariate analysis identified CC score as the only independent factor for better survival. CONCLUSION: For advanced/recurrent EOC, CRS+HIPEC could improve OS with acceptable safety. PMID:27084429

  3. The Effect of Breastfeeding Duration and Parity on the Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Seung Hyun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hwang, Yunji; Ahn, Choonghyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Tae Jin; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize current evidence regarding the association of parity and duration of breastfeeding with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods A systematic search of relevant studies published by December 31, 2015 was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. A random-effect model was used to obtain the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Thirty-two studies had parity categories of 1, 2, and ≥3. The summary RRs for EOC were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.79), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.65), and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.41 to 0.52), respectively. Small to moderate heterogeneity was observed for one birth (p<0.01; Q=59.46; I2=47.9%). Fifteen studies had breastfeeding categories of <6 months, 6-12 months, and >13 months. The summary RRs were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.87), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.81), and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.79), respectively. Only small heterogeneity was observed for <6 months of breastfeeding (p=0.17; Q=18.79, I2=25.5%). Compared to nulliparous women with no history of breastfeeding, the joint effects of two births and <6 months of breastfeeding resulted in a 0.5-fold reduced risk for EOC. Conclusions The first birth and breastfeeding for <6 months were associated with significant reductions in EOC risk. PMID:27951628

  4. Assessing the HER2 status in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer on the basis of the 2013 ASCO/CAP guideline update.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wan-Ru; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Koo, Chiew-Loon; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Han, Chih-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Her2 gene amplification and protein overexpression are important factors in predicting clinical sensitivity to anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy in breast, gastric, or gastro-esophageal junction cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the HER2 status in the mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Adopting the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists guideline update for HER2 testing, 49 tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests. The prevalence of HER2 positivity in Asian mucinous EOC was 9 of 49 Asian women (18.37%). The overall concordance was 100% between IHC and FISH results. Her2 gene copies before chromosome-17 correction increased significantly in a stepwise order through the negative, equivocal, and positive IHC result categories (P<0.001), as did the Her2 gene copies after chromosome-17 correction (P<0.001). Of the Taiwanese cohort (n=21), HER2 heterogeneity was 4.76% (1/21) in all but 14.26% (1/7) in HER2-positive cancer. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the prevalence of HER2 positivity in both Asian and white women was comparable; complete HER2 concordance existed between IHC and FISH tests for the Her2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction of chromosome-17, and this can be applied as a potentially valuable tool to analyze the HER2 status. Polysomy-17 was absent under the CEP17 cutoff ≥3. The existence of HER2 heterogeneity can be discerned in certain HER2-expressed primary mucinous EOC in Taiwanese women.

  5. The zinc finger gene ZIC2 has features of an oncogene and its over- expression correlates strongly with the clinical course of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Sergio; Poynor, Elizabeth; Barakat, Richard R; Clivio, Luca; Cinquini, Michela; Fruscio, Robert; Porcu, Luca; Bussani, Cecilia; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Erba, Eugenio; Romano, Michela; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Koff, Andrew; Luzzatto, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epithelial ovarian tumors (EOTs) are amongst the most lethal of malignancies in women. We have previously identified ZIC2 as expressed at a higher level in samples of a malignant form (MAL) of EOT than in samples of a form with low malignant potential (LMP). We have now investigated the role of ZIC2 in driving tumor growth and its association with clinical outcomes. Experimental Design ZIC2 expression levels were analysed in two independent tumor tissue collections of LMP and MAL. In vitro experiments aimed to test the role of ZIC2 as a transforming gene. Cox models were used to correlate ZIC2 expression with clinical endpoints. Results ZIC2 expression was about 40-fold in terms of mRNA and about 17-fold in terms of protein in MAL (n = 193) versus LMP (n = 39) tumors. ZIC2 mRNA levels were high in MAL cell lines, but undetectable in LMP cell lines. Over-expression of ZIC2 was localized to the nucleus. ZIC2 over-expression increases the growth rate and foci formation of NIH 3T3 cells, and stimulates anchorage-independent colony formation; down-regulation of ZIC2 decreases the growth rate of MAL cell lines. Zinc finger domains 1 and 2 are required for transforming activity. In stage I MAL ZIC2 expression was significantly associated with overall survival in both univariate (p = 0.046), and multivariate model (p = 0.049). Conclusions ZIC2, a transcription factor related to the sonic hedgehog pathway, is a strong discriminant between MAL and LMP tumors: it may be a major determinant of outcome of EOT. PMID:22733541

  6. The Combination of Laser Therapy and Metal Nanoparticles in Cancer Treatment Originated From Epithelial Tissues: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fekrazad, Reza; Naghdi, Nafiseh; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Bagheri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Several methods have been employed for cancer treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Today, recent advances in medical science and development of new technologies, have led to the introduction of new methods such as hormone therapy, Photodynamic therapy (PDT), treatments using nanoparticles and eventually combinations of lasers and nanoparticles. The unique features of LASERs such as photo-thermal properties and the particular characteristics of nanoparticles, given their extremely small size, may provide an interesting combined therapeutic effect. The purpose of this study was to review the simultaneous application of lasers and metal nanoparticles for the treatment of cancers with epithelial origin. A comprehensive search in electronic sources including PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct was carried out between 2000 and 2013. Among the initial 400 articles, 250 articles applied nanoparticles and lasers in combination, in which more than 50 articles covered the treatment of cancer with epithelial origin. In the future, the combination of laser and nanoparticles may be used as a new or an alternative method for cancer therapy or diagnosis. Obviously, to exclude the effect of laser’s wavelength and nanoparticle’s properties more animal studies and clinical trials are required as a lack of perfect studies PMID:27330701

  7. Adenocarcinoma of Mullerian origin: review of pathogenesis, molecular biology, and emerging treatment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Lauren Patterson; Gaillard, Stephanie; Wang, Yihong; Shih, Ie-Ming; Secord, Angeles Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers have been viewed as separate entities with disparate origins, pathogenesis, clinical features, and outcomes. Additionally, previous classification systems for ovarian cancer have proposed two primary histologic groups that encompass the standard histologic subtypes. Recent data suggest that these groupings no longer accurately reflect our knowledge surrounding these cancers. In this review, we propose that epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal carcinomas represent a spectrum of disease that originates in the Mullerian compartment. We will discuss the incidence, classification, origin, molecular determinants, and pathologic analysis of these cancers that support the conclusion they should be collectively referred to as adenocarcinomas of Mullerian origin. As our understanding of the molecular and pathologic profiling of adenocarcinomas of Mullerian origin advances, we anticipate treatment paradigms will shift towards genomic driven therapeutic interventions.

  8. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Since reduction of ovulation is protective against ovarian cancer, prevention may represent a feasible approach to decreasing mortality . To achieve a...potent apoptotic effect on ovarian epithelial cells, the use of levonorgestrel in chemoprevention of ovarian cancer is being explored in chickens and women...A chemoprevention trial is ongoing in chickens and we will begin a trial to determine whether levonorgestrel induces apoptosis in the ovarian epithelium of women undergoing oophorectomy.

  9. Adoptive Immunotherapy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Using T Cells Simultaneously Targeted to Tumor and Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    CD28 expander beads. It was originally planned to deliver four CARs to separate T-cell populations using the SFG retroviral vector and retronectin ... coated tissue culture dishes: (i) HOX – targets MUC1 and contains a fused CD28+OX40+CD3ζ endodomain (2, 3) (ii) CSF28z – targets CSF-1R and contains a...renilla-­‐containing   retroviral   vectors.   (A)  Human  T-­‐cells  were  activated  with  CD3  +   CD28-­‐ coated   paramagnetic

  10. Identification of miRNA Signatures Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    478-486. 7. Kumar S, Kumar A, Shah PP, Rai SN, Panguluri SK, Kakar SS. MicroRNA Signature of Cisplatin Resistant vs. Cis-Platin Sensitive Ovarian...Cancer Cell Lines. J Ovarian Res. 2011 Sep 22;4(1):17. 8. Yang L, Li N, Wang H, Jia X, Wang X, Luo J. Altered microRNA expression in cisplatin - resistant

  11. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Intestinal Neoplasia in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Indicates Epithelial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Colleen E.; Kent, Michael L.; Peterson, Tracy S.; Wang, Rong; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Löhr, Christiane V.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous neoplasia of the intestinal tract in sentinel and moribund zebrafish (Danio rerio) is common in some zebrafish facilities. We previously classified these tumors as adenocarcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, or carcinoma otherwise unspecified based on histomorphologic characteristics. Based on histological presentation, the primary differential diagnosis for the intestinal carcinomas was tumor of neuroendocrine cells (e.g., carcinoids). To further characterize the phenotype of the neoplastic cells, select tissue sections were stained with a panel of antibodies directed toward human epithelial (Cytokeratin Wide Spectrum Screening [WSS], AE1/AE3) or neuroendocrine (S100, chromogranin A) markers. We also investigated antibody specificity by Western blot analysis, using a human cell line and zebrafish tissues. Nine of the intestinal neoplasms (64%) stained for AE1/AE3, seven (50%) also stained for WSS. None of the intestinal neoplastic cells were stained for chromogranin A or S100. Endocrine cells of the pituitary gland and neurons and axons of peripheral nerves and ganglia stained for Chromogranin A, whereas perineural and periaxonal cells of peripheral intestinal ganglia, and glial and ependymal cells of the brain stained for S100. Immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins confirmed the majority of intestinal neoplasms in this cohort of zebrafish as carcinomas. PMID:26503773

  12. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  13. Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  14. Ovarian differentiation and development in cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum.

    PubMed

    Valentin, F N; Batlouni, S R; Nascimento, N F; Silva, R C; Manzini, B; Hilbig, C C; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O

    2016-07-01

    One thousand five hundred cachara or tiger shovelnose catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, obtained from induced reproduction, were used to determine the onset of ovarian differentiation and development and to record the main characteristics of this process. Samples were collected from 0 to 240 days post-fertilization (dpf) and the results classified into stages I-XII. Ovarian formation was histologically detected for the first time when juveniles measured mean ± s.d. 51·5 ± 8·3 mm total length (LT ) at 39-45 dpf (stages I-V), with intense somatic cell proliferation originating in the ovarian cavity. Both LT and age of fish had a positive correlation (P < 0·001) with ovarian differentiation, but LT showed a greater correlation (r(2)  = 0·95) than age (r(2)  = 0·85), especially during the initial stages of development. From stages VI to VII, the ovarian cavity was enlarged and undifferentiated oogonia were present. At stage VIII, small projections formed in the ovarian stroma towards the ventral region of the gonad (future ovarian lamellae) and the basal membrane and differentiated oogonia nests could be seen. At stages IX and X, the germ cells entered meiosis and folliculogenesis was completed by stages XI and XII, which can be considered late in comparison to other Siluriformes. This study has demonstrated that ovarian differentiation in P. fasciatum begins with an intense proliferation of squamous epithelial cells (somatic cells) during the early stages of development and that sex inversion protocols could, thus, be applied successfully before this period. Furthermore, the results have demonstrated that both size and age can influence gonad differentiation and development in this species.

  15. Sex-determining region Y-box3 (SOX3) functions as an oncogene in promoting epithelial ovarian cancer by targeting Src kinase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qin; Wang, Fangyuan; Miao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Bai, Mingzhu; Xi, Xiaowei; Feng, Youji

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers which cause female mortality. The knowledge of ovarian cancer initiation and progression is critical to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent it. Recently, SOX3 has been reported to play a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the clinical significance of SOX3 in human ovarian cancer remains elusive, and the identity of SOX3 in ovarian cancer initiation, progression, and the related underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we showed that SOX3 expression increased from benign and borderline to malignant ovarian tumors. Subsequently, we found that overexpression of SOX3 in EOC cells promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, while restrained apoptosis and adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, silencing of SOX3 gained the opposite results. Finally, we discovered SOX3 targeted Src kinase in EOC cells. These data imply that SOX3, acting as an oncogene in EOC, is not only a crucial factor in the carcinogenesis but also a promising therapeutic target for EOC.

  16. Targeted resequencing of the microRNAome and 3′UTRome reveals functional germline DNA variants with altered prevalence in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X; Paranjape, T; Stahlhut, C; McVeigh, T; Keane, F; Nallur, S; Miller, N; Kerin, M; Deng, Y; Yao, X; Zhao, H; Weidhaas, JB; Slack, FJ

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths, yet there have been few known genetic risk factors identified, the best known of which are disruptions in protein coding sequences (BRCA1 and 2). Recent findings indicate that there are powerful genetic markers of cancer risk outside of these regions, in the noncoding mRNA control regions. To identify additional cancer-associated, functional non-protein-coding sequence germline variants associated with ovarian cancer risk, we captured DNA regions corresponding to all validated human microRNAs and the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of ~ 6000 cancer-associated genes from 31 ovarian cancer patients. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3′UTR of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/FLT1, E2F2 and PCM1 oncogenes were highly enriched in ovarian cancer patients compared with the 1000 Genome Project. Sequenom validation in a case–control study (267 cases and 89 controls) confirmed a novel variant in the PCM1 3′UTR is significantly associated with ovarian cancer (P = 0.0086). This work identifies a potential new ovarian cancer locus and further confirms that cancer resequencing efforts should not ignore the study of noncoding regions of cancer patients. PMID:24909162

  17. Differential vimentin expression in ovarian and uterine corpus endometrioid adenocarcinomas: diagnostic utility in distinguishing double primaries from metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Kallas, Sarah J; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Hameed, Omar; Fadare, Oluwole

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of vimentin expression in differentiating endometrioid adenocarcinoma of primary uterine corpus and ovarian origin. Immunohistochemical analyses for the expression of vimentin in tumoral epithelial cells were performed on 149 endometrioid adenocarcinomas wherein the primary sites were not in question, including whole tissue sections of 27 carcinomas of uterine corpus origin (and no synchronous ovarian tumor), 7 carcinomas of ovarian origin (and no synchronous uterine corpus tumor) and a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 91 primary uterine corpus and 24 primary ovarian carcinomas. We also assessed 15 cases that synchronously involved the uterine corpus and ovary, 15 cases of metastasis to organs/tissues other than uterine corpus or ovary as well as 7 lymph node metastases. Vimentin was negative in 97% (30/31) of primary ovarian carcinomas. In contrast, 82% (97/118) of primary uterine corpus carcinomas were vimentin-positive. Vimentin expression was discordant in 53% of synchronous tumors. The sensitivity and specificity of negative vimentin staining in predicting an ovarian primary were 97% and 82%, respectively, whereas parallel values for positive vimentin staining in predicting a primary uterine tumor were 82% and 97%, respectively. The pattern of vimentin expression in all cases was maintained in their respective regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. In conclusion, ovarian and uterine corpus endometrioid adenocarcinomas have different patterns of vimentin expression. If validated in larger and/or different data sets, these findings may have diagnostic value in distinguishing metastatic lesions from double primary tumors involving both sites.

  18. Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy despite several decades of progress in diagnosis and treatment. Taking advantage of the robust development of discovery and utility of prognostic biomarkers, clinicians and researchers are developing personalized and targeted treatment strategies. This review encompasses recently discovered biomarkers of ovarian cancer, the utility of published prognostic biomarkers for EOC (especially biomarkers related to angiogenesis and key signaling pathways), and their integration into clinical practice. PMID:22045356

  19. Follow-up of patients who are clinically disease-free after primary treatment for fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer: a Program in Evidence-Based Care guideline adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Le, T.; Kennedy, E.B.; Dodge, J.; Elit, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background A need for follow-up recommendations for survivors of fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer after completion of primary treatment was identified by Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care. Methods We searched for existing guidelines, conducted a systematic review (medline, embase, and cdsr, January 2010 to March 2015), created draft recommendations, and completed a comprehensive review process. Outcomes included overall survival, quality of life, and patient preferences. Results The Cancer Australia guidance document Follow Up of Women with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer was adapted for the Ontario context. A key randomized controlled trial found that the overall survival rate did not differ between asymptomatic women who received early treatment based on elevated serum cancer antigen 125 (ca125) alone and women who waited for the appearance of clinical symptoms before initiating treatment (hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.80 to 1.20; p = 0.85); in addition, patients in the delayed treatment group reported good global health scores for longer. No randomized studies were found for other types of follow-up. We recommend that survivors be made aware of the potential harms and benefits of surveillance, including a discussion of the limitations of ca125 testing. Women could be offered the option of no formal follow-up or a follow-up schedule that is agreed upon by the woman and her health care provider. Education about the most common symptoms of recurrence should be provided. Alternative models of care such as nurse-led or telephone-based follow-up (or both) could be emerging options. Conclusions The recommendations provided in this guidance document have a limited evidence base. Recommendations should be updated as further information becomes available. PMID:27803599

  20. Vaccine Therapy With Sargramostim (GM-CSF) in Treating Patients With Her-2 Positive Stage III-IV Breast Cancer or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-02

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  1. Anticancer role of MUC1 aptamer-miR-29b chimera in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells through regulation of PTEN methylation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Furong; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xin; Shan, Nianchun; Chen, Yuxiang

    2012-12-01

    Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis and advanced ovarian cancer lacks effective therapy. In this study, we seek to establish targeting therapy for ovaria