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Sample records for epithelium promotes milk

  1. Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

    2013-10-04

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn.

  2. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  3. Epithelium

    MedlinePlus

    The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make ... Epithelium. In: Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL. Histology and Cell Biology - An Introduction to Pathology , 3rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Notch signaling promotes the corneal epithelium wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huayi; Lu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yajuan; Li, Qiutang

    2012-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays crucial roles in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and cell fate decision in multiple tissues and cell types. This study was designed to test the effects of enhanced Notch activity on corneal epithelium homeostasis and wound healing using the transgenic mice that overexpressed an activated Notch1 (NICD) in cornea epithelium. The studies were performed on R26(fN1-ICD) transgenic mice that carry a NICD cDNA (cDNA) whose expression is prevented by a "Lox-STOP-Lox" cassette. When this transgenic mouse is bred to a mouse strain carrying a Cre recombinase expression cassette driven by a tissue-specific keratin 14 (K14) promoter, the floxed "STOP" cassette is excised and NICD is expressed in the cornea epithelium. The expression level of NICD and its downstream target genes, hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) and hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 1 (Hey1), in the transgenic corneal epithelium was examined by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The phenotypes and morphology of the transgenic corneal epithelium were compared with that of wild type (WT) controls. The proliferation rate of the epithelial cells was assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and the differentiation statues were examined by K14, tumor protein p63 (p63), K12, and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) immunoreactivity at either normal developmental condition or after corneal epithelial debridement. The corneal epithelial response to wound healing was studied by fluorescent staining and Richardson's staining macroscopically and by H&E staining at microscope level at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h post injury. Although overexpression of NICD in cornea epithelium led to upregulation of its downstream targets, i.e., Hes1 and Hey1, this did not alter corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. However, wound healing induced Notch activity and overexpression of NICD promoted corneal epithelial wound healing, which was in agreement with more

  5. How Research on Charitable Giving Can Inform Strategies to Promote Human Milk Donations to Milk Banks.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed.

  6. Luminal Microbes Promote Monocyte–Stem Cell Interactions Across a Healthy Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Skoczek, Dagmara A.; Walczysko, Petr; Horn, Nikki; Parris, Alyson; Clare, Simon; Williams, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a vital barrier between luminal microbes and the underlying mucosal immune system. Epithelial barrier function is maintained by continuous renewal of the epithelium and is pivotal for gut homeostasis. Breaching of the barrier causes mobilization of immune cells to promote epithelial restitution. However, it is not known whether microbes at the luminal surface of a healthy epithelial barrier influence immune cell mobilization to modulate tissue homeostasis. Using a mouse colonic mucosal explant model, we demonstrate that close proximity of luminal microbes to a healthy, intact epithelium results in rapid mucus secretion and movement of Ly6C+7/4+ monocytes closer to epithelial stem cells. These early events are driven by the epithelial MyD88-signaling pathway and result in increased crypt cell proliferation and intestinal stem cell number. Over time, stem cell number and monocyte–crypt stem cell juxtapositioning return to homeostatic levels observed in vivo. We also demonstrate that reduced numbers of tissue Ly6C+ monocytes can suppress Lgr5EGFP+ stem cell expression in vivo and abrogate the response to luminal microbes ex vivo. The functional link between monocyte recruitment and increased crypt cell proliferation was further confirmed using a crypt–monocyte coculture model. This work demonstrates that the healthy gut epithelium mediates communication between luminal bacteria and monocytes, and monocytes can modulate crypt stem cell number and promote crypt cell proliferation to help maintain gut homeostasis. PMID:24907348

  7. Milk--the promoter of chronic Western diseases.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis.

  8. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  9. Differences in monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 expression in rumen epithelium of newborn calves due to age and milk or milk replacer feeding.

    PubMed

    Flaga, J; Górka, P; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether besides age and solid feed intake, monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 (MCT1) expression in the rumen epithelium of calves is affected by liquid feed type [whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR)]. Thirty bull calves at the mean age of 5 days were randomly allocated to five experimental groups (six calves/group). Six calves were slaughtered immediately after allocation to the trial (5 days of life), eighteen calves were fed MR and slaughtered at week intervals (on 12, 19, 26 days of life respectively), and six calves were fed WM and slaughtered at the 26 days of life. MCT1 protein abundance and the MCT1 mRNA level were investigated in the dorsal and ventral sack of the rumen. Solid feed intake and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in the rumen fluid increased linearly with calves' age. The amount of the MCT1 protein and mRNA in the dorsal sac of rumen as well as the amount of MCT1 protein in the cranial ventral sac of rumen also increased linearly with calves' age. Calves fed WM had greater solid feed intake in the last week of the study as compared to calves fed MR, but SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid was not different. MCT1 mRNA expression in the cranial dorsal sac of rumen and protein MCT1 expression in both dorsal and ventral cranial sack of the rumen were higher in calves fed WM as compared to calves fed MR. This study confirmed age-dependent changes of MCT1 expression in the rumen epithelium of newborn calves and showed that its expression might be affected by liquid feed type. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Human milk oligosaccharides promote the growth of staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Hunt, K M; Preuss, J; Nissan, C; Davlin, C A; Williams, J E; Shafii, B; Richardson, A D; McGuire, M K; Bode, L; McGuire, M A

    2012-07-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), which constitute a major component of human milk, promote the growth of particular bacterial species in the infant's gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that HMO also interact with the bacterial communities present in human milk. To test this hypothesis, two experiments were conducted. First, milk samples were collected from healthy women (n = 16); culture-independent analysis of the bacterial communities was performed, HMO content was analyzed, and the relation between these factors was investigated. A positive correlation was observed between the relative abundance of Staphylococcus and total HMO content (r = 0.66). In a follow-up study, we conducted a series of in vitro growth curve experiments utilizing Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and HMO isolated from human milk. HMO exhibited stimulatory effects on bacterial growth under various nutritional conditions. Analysis of culture supernatants from these experiments revealed that HMO did not measurably disappear from the culture medium, indicating that the growth-enhancing effects were not a result of bacterial metabolism of the HMO. Instead, stimulation of growth caused greater utilization of amino acids in minimal medium. Collectively, the data provide evidence that HMO may promote the growth of Staphylococcus species in the lactating mammary gland.

  11. Gene expression in the human mammary epithelium during lactation: the milk fat globule transcriptome.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The molecular physiology underlying human milk production is largely unknown because of limitations in obtaining tissue samples. Determining gene expression in normal lactating women would be a potential step toward understanding why some women struggle with or fail at breastfeeding their infants. R...

  12. Prostaglandin E2 promotes intestinal repair through an adaptive cellular response of the epithelium.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; VanDussen, Kelli L; Malvin, Nicole P; Ryu, Stacy H; Wang, Yi; Sonnek, Naomi M; Lai, Chin-Wen; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2017-01-04

    Adaptive cellular responses are often required during wound repair. Following disruption of the intestinal epithelium, wound-associated epithelial (WAE) cells form the initial barrier over the wound. Our goal was to determine the critical factor that promotes WAE cell differentiation. Using an adaptation of our in vitro primary epithelial cell culture system, we found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) signaling through one of its receptors, Ptger4, was sufficient to drive a differentiation state morphologically and transcriptionally similar to in vivo WAE cells. WAE cell differentiation was a permanent state and dominant over enterocyte differentiation in plasticity experiments. WAE cell differentiation was triggered by nuclear β-catenin signaling independent of canonical Wnt signaling. Creation of WAE cells via the PGE2-Ptger4 pathway was required in vivo, as mice with loss of Ptger4 in the intestinal epithelium did not produce WAE cells and exhibited impaired wound repair. Our results demonstrate a mechanism by which WAE cells are formed by PGE2 and suggest a process of adaptive cellular reprogramming of the intestinal epithelium that occurs to ensure proper repair to injury. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Epithelium-generated neuropeptide Y induces smooth muscle contraction to promote airway hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanru; Koziol-White, Cynthia; Jude, Joseph; Jiang, Meiqi; Zhao, Hengjiang; Cao, Gaoyuan; Yoo, Edwin; Jester, William; Morley, Michael P.; Zhou, Su; Wang, Yi; Lu, Min Min; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases globally and can be divided into presenting with or without an immune response. Current therapies have little effect on nonimmune disease, and the mechanisms that drive this type of asthma are poorly understood. Here, we have shown that loss of the transcription factors forkhead box P1 (Foxp1) and Foxp4, which are critical for lung epithelial development, in the adult airway epithelium evokes a non-Th2 asthma phenotype that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) without eosinophilic inflammation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that loss of Foxp1 and Foxp4 expression induces ectopic expression of neuropeptide Y (Npy), which has been reported to be present in the airways of asthma patients, but whose importance in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Treatment of human lung airway explants with recombinant NPY increased airway contractility. Conversely, loss of Npy in Foxp1- and Foxp4-mutant airway epithelium rescued the AHR phenotype. We determined that NPY promotes AHR through the induction of Rho kinase activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which induces airway smooth muscle contraction. Together, these studies highlight the importance of paracrine signals from the airway epithelium to the underlying smooth muscle to induce AHR and suggest that therapies targeting epithelial induction of this phenotype may prove useful in treatment of noneosinophilic asthma. PMID:27088802

  14. AGEs Promote Oxidative Stress and Induce Apoptosis in Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Cells RAGE-dependently.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ling; Yu, Tao; Yan, Qi-Chang; Wang, Wei; Meng, Nan; Li, Xue-Jiao; Luo, Ya-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are extremely accumulated in diabetes mellitus, particularly in retinal vascular and epithelium cells, and are confirmed to contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR). In the present study, we determined the promotion by AGEs to the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal pigmented epithelium ARPE-19 cells and investigated the influence by the knockdown or the overexpression of receptor for AGEs (RAGE) on the AGE-promoted oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, we determined the induction by AGEs to the cell apoptosis and to the activation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) families in the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis, and examined the RAGE-dependence in such induction. Results demonstrated that AGE-BSA upregulated the hydrogen peroxide production and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in ARPE-19 cells, dose-dependently. And the further investigation indicated that the AGE-RAGE interaction was required for the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, the AGE-BSA treatment promoted a significantly high level of apoptotic cells, and the Bcl-2 family was implicated in the AGE-BSA-induced apoptosis, there was a significant high level of Cyt c release, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) induction, Bcl-2 reduction, and caspase 9 activation in the AGE-BSA-treated cells. In conclusion, the present study recognized the apoptosis induction by AGE-BSAs in the retinal epithelium ARPE-19 cells, RAGE-dependently. The mitochondrial dysfunction was induced, and the Bcl-2 family was deregulated during the AGE-BSA-induced ARPE-19 cell apoptosis.

  15. Permeability of milk protein antigens across the intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marcon-Genty, D; Tomé, D; Dumontier, A M; Kheroua, O; Desjeux, J F

    1989-01-01

    Degradations by proteolytic enzymes and intestinal epithelial permeability represent two major drawbacks to the transfer of food protein antigens to blood. These steps were studied in vitro for the milk protein antigens beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-casein (beta-cas). Pepsin-trypsin hydrolysis and permeability in isolated rabbit ileum in Ussing chamber were suited by ELISA and radiolabelled-protein measurement. Pepsin-trypsin hydrolysis showed an increasing resistance in the order beta-cas less than alpha-La less than beta-Lg. The rate of absorption of the antigenic proteins by isolated rabbit ileum was in the same order, and the rate of absorption of the whole proteins (degraded and antigenic forms) was significantly higher for beta-Lg than for alpha-La and beta-cas. These results suggest a selective intestinal permeability for milk protein antigens. This selectivity is probably important in the mechanism of food protein sensitization via the oral route.

  16. Activation of MTOR in pulmonary epithelium promotes LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Lou, Jian; Mao, Yuan-Yuan; Lai, Tian-Wen; Liu, Li-Yao; Zhu, Chen; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Juan; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhang, Fan; Li, Wen; Ying, Song-Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao

    2016-12-01

    MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) plays a crucial role in many major cellular processes including metabolism, proliferation and macroautophagy/autophagy induction, and is also implicated in a growing number of proliferative and metabolic diseases. Both MTOR and autophagy have been suggested to be involved in lung disorders, however, little is known about the role of MTOR and autophagy in pulmonary epithelium in the context of acute lung injury (ALI). In the present study, we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced MTOR phosphorylation and decreased the expression of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β)-II, a hallmark of autophagy, in mouse lung epithelium and in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The activation of MTOR in HBE cells was mediated by TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) signaling. Genetic knockdown of MTOR or overexpression of autophagy-related proteins significantly attenuated, whereas inhibition of autophagy further augmented, LPS-induced expression of IL6 (interleukin 6) and IL8, through NFKB signaling in HBE cells. Mice with specific knockdown of Mtor in bronchial or alveolar epithelial cells exhibited significantly attenuated airway inflammation, barrier disruption, and lung edema, and displayed prolonged survival in response to LPS exposure. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of MTOR in the epithelium promotes LPS-induced ALI, likely through downregulation of autophagy and the subsequent activation of NFKB. Thus, inhibition of MTOR in pulmonary epithelial cells may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing ALI induced by certain bacteria.

  17. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  18. An Intervention to Promote Breast Milk Production in Mothers of Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Héon, Marjolaine; Goulet, Céline; Garofalo, Carole; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Levy, Emile

    2016-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted to estimate the effects of a breast milk expression education and support intervention on breast milk production outcomes in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants. Forty mothers of hospitalized preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation) were randomized to the experimental intervention or standard care for 6 weeks. Duration and frequency of breast milk expressions and volume of expressed breast milk were measured daily. Samples of breast milk were collected thrice during the study and analyzed for their lipid concentration. Mothers in the experimental group had a statistically significant higher duration of breast milk expression in min/day (p= .043). Differences observed between the two groups regarding the frequency of breast milk expression, volume of breast milk, and lipid concentration were not statistically significant. Results suggest that the experimental intervention may promote breast milk production in mothers of very and extremely preterm infants.

  19. BDNF promoter-mediated beta-galactosidase expression in the olfactory epithelium and bulb.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Amy C; Salcedo, Ernesto; Jones, Kevin R; Restrepo, Diego

    2008-07-01

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the generation and differentiation of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and in the regulation of branching of OSN axons in their target glomeruli. However, previous reports of BDNF mRNA and protein expression in olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb (OB) have been inconsistent, raising questions on the proposed roles for BDNF. Here, we report on beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) expression in adult gene-targeted mice where the BDNF promoter drives expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene (BDNF(lacZneo) mice). We find that beta-gal is expressed in a small subset of OSNs with axons that reach the olfactory nerve layers throughout the OB. In the OB, we find expression of beta-gal in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic but not dopaminergic periglomerular cells and external tufted cells and in interneurons located in the mitral cell layer. Our results are inconsistent with the regulation of generation and differentiation of new OSNs elicited by the release of BDNF from horizontal basal cells. The results are consistent with a role for BDNF in competitive branching of OSN axons within the glomeruli of the OB.

  20. Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica promotes corneal epithelium wound healing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Manan, Nur Azeanty Bt Abdul; Fong, Ooi Sew; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2012-03-27

    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing. This study was done to evaluate the effects of Centella asiatica on the proliferation and migration of rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells in the in vitro wound healing model. RCE cells were cultured with or without supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract. Viability and proliferation of the RCE cells was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro re-epithelization was studied by scratch assay and migration rate was evaluated quantitatively by image analyzer. Expression of corneal specific differentiation markers, CK12 and connexin 43, were studied via RT-PCR. It was found that supplementation of Centella asiatica did not show any significant effect on the RCE cells proliferation at the concentration up to 500ppm, while at the concentration of 1000ppm significantly inhibited RCE cells proliferation (p<0.05). However, at the concentration up to 62.5ppm, RCE cells shows significant enhancement of migration rate compared to the control group (p<0.05). It was also found that the supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract did not alter the expression of differentiation markers and cell cycle. In conclusion, supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract at low concentrations could be useful to promote corneal epithelium wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of p21(CIP1/WAF1) in mammary epithelium accelerates mammary tumorigenesis and promotes lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoyun; Xia, Weiya; Yang, Jer-Yen; Hsu, Jennifer L; Chou, Chao-Kai; Sun, Hui-Lung; Wyszomierski, Shannon L; Mills, Gordon B; Muller, William J; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-12-03

    While p21 is well known to inhibit cyclin-CDK activity in the nucleus and it has also been demonstrated to have oncogenic properties in different types of human cancers. In vitro studies showed that the oncogenic function of p21is closely related to its cytoplasmic localization. However, it is unclear whether cytoplasmic p21 contributes to tumorigenesis in vivo. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice expressing the Akt-phosphorylated form of p21 (p21T145D) in the mammary epithelium. The results showed that Akt-activated p21 was expressed in the cytoplasm of mammary epithelium. Overexpression of Akt-activated p21 accelerated tumor onset and promoted lung metastasis in MMTV/neu mice, providing evidence that p21, especially cytoplasmic phosphorylated p21, has an oncogenic role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  2. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Sodhi, C P; Egan, C E; Afrazi, A; Jia, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Lu, P; Branca, M F; Ma, C; Prindle, T; Mielo, S; Pompa, A; Hodzic, Z; Ozolek, J A; Hackam, D J

    2015-09-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease that is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whereas selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Overexpression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis.

  3. Identification of transcription factors that promote the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Ko, Shigeru B H; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Tomohiko; Goparaju, Sravan K; Soma, Atsumi; Nakatake, Yuhki; Sakota, Miki; Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Nana; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ko, Minoru S H

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye disease is the most prevalent pathological condition in aging eyes. One potential therapeutic strategy is the transplantation of lacrimal glands, generated in vitro from pluripotent stem cells such as human embryonic stem cells, into patients. One of the preceding requirements is a method to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium cells. As the first step for this approach, this study aims to identify a set of transcription factors whose overexpression can promote the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells. We performed microarray analyses of lacrimal glands and lacrimal glands-related organs obtained from mouse embryos and adults, and identified transcription factors enriched in lacrimal gland epithelium cells. We then transfected synthetic messenger RNAs encoding human orthologues of these transcription factors into human embryonic stem cells and examined whether the human embryonic stem cells differentiate into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells by assessing cell morphology and marker gene expression. The microarray analysis of lacrimal glands tissues identified 16 transcription factors that were enriched in lacrimal gland epithelium cells. We focused on three of the transcription factors, because they are expressed in other glands such as salivary glands and are also known to be involved in the development of lacrimal glands. We tested the overexpression of various combinations of the three transcription factors and PAX6, which is an indispensable gene for lacrimal glands development, in human embryonic stem cells. Combining PAX6, SIX1, and FOXC1 caused significant changes in morphology, i.e., elongated cell shape and increased expression (both RNAs and proteins) of epithelial markers such as cytokeratin15, branching morphogenesis markers such as BARX2, and lacrimal glands markers such as aquaporin5 and lactoferrin. We identified a set of transcription factors enriched in

  4. Health-promoting properties of bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins in infant food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Dassios, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Milk proteins have attracted extensive interest in terms of their bioavailability following ingestion. Enzymatic digestion of dairy products generates numerous peptides with various biological activities. Both human milk and infant formulas based on cow's milk are potential sources of bioactive peptides. This review aims to present current knowledge on the formation and fate of bioactive peptides from milk feeds intended for infants. Emphasis is placed on the source of the bioactive peptides with the nutritional impact of human milk and cow milk-based formulas on infant health being critically discussed from that perspective. Furthermore, the effect of processing and in vitro or in vivo digestion on the release and availability of peptides with bioactive sequences is evaluated. Considerable differences with respect to bioavailability and metabolic effects between the biologically active fragments generated following ingestion of human milk and infant formulas are documented. Peptides from milk protein of bovine origin could be a valuable supplement to human milk as multiple health-promoting properties are attributed to peptide fractions identified in standard cow milk-based infant formulas.

  5. Bioinspired onion epithelium-like structure promotes the maturation of cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Wang, Li; Yu, Yue; Yin, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Lei; Qin, Jianhua

    2017-08-22

    Organized cardiomyocyte alignment is critical to maintain the mechanical properties of the heart. In this study, we present a new and simple strategy to fabricate a biomimetic microchip designed with an onion epithelium-like structure and investigate the guided behavior of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) on the substrate. The hiPSC-CMs were observed to be confined by the three dimensional surficial features morphologically, analogous to the in vivo microenvironment, and exhibited an organized anisotropic alignment on the onion epithelium-like structure with good beating function. The calcium imaging of hiPSC-CMs demonstrated a more mature Ca(2+) spark pattern as well. Furthermore, the expression of sarcomere genes (TNNI3, MYH6 and MYH7), potassium channel genes (KCNE1 and KCNH2), and calcium channel genes (RYR2) was significantly up-regulated on the substrate with an onion epithelium-like structure instead of the surface without the structure, indicating a more matured status of cardiomyocytes induced by this structure. It appears that the biomimetic micropatterned structure, analogous to in vivo cellular organization, is an important factor that might promote the maturation of hiPSC-CMs, providing new biological insights to guide hiPSC-CM maturation by biophysical factors. The established approach may offer an effective in vitro model for investigating cardiomyocyte differentiation, maturation and tissue engineering applications.

  6. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fernanda; Mandke, Pooja; Chau, Eric; Aggarwal, Neil R.; D’Alessio, Franco R.; Lambert, Allison A.; Kirk, Gregory; Blankson, Joel; Drummond, M. Bradley; Tsibris, Athe M.

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies show that individuals with HIV are at an increased risk for worsened lung function and for the development of COPD, although the mechanism underlying this increased susceptibility is poorly understood. The airway epithelium, situated at the interface between the external environment and the lung parenchyma, acts as a physical and immunological barrier that secretes mucins and cytokines in response to noxious stimuli which can contribute to the pathobiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We grew primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and primary lung epithelial cells isolated from bronchial brushings of patients to confluence and allowed them to differentiate at an air- liquid interface (ALI) to assess the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We assessed changes in monolayer permeability as well as the expression of E-cadherin and inflammatory modulators to determine the effect of HIV on the lung epithelium. We measured E-cadherin protein abundance in patients with HIV compared to normal controls. Cell associated HIV RNA and DNA were quantified and the p24 viral antigen was measured in culture supernatant. Surprisingly, X4, not R5, tropic virus decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased monolayer permeability. While there was some transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, there was significant increase in lysosome-mediated protein degradation in cells exposed to X4 tropic HIV. Interaction with CXCR4 and viral fusion with the epithelial cell were required to induce the epithelial changes. X4 tropic virus was able to enter the airway epithelial cells but not replicate in these cells, while R5 tropic viruses did not enter the epithelial cells. Significantly, X4 tropic HIV induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We demonstrate that HIV can enter airway

  7. HIV Impairs Lung Epithelial Integrity and Enters the Epithelium to Promote Chronic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brune, Kieran A; Ferreira, Fernanda; Mandke, Pooja; Chau, Eric; Aggarwal, Neil R; D'Alessio, Franco R; Lambert, Allison A; Kirk, Gregory; Blankson, Joel; Drummond, M Bradley; Tsibris, Athe M; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies show that individuals with HIV are at an increased risk for worsened lung function and for the development of COPD, although the mechanism underlying this increased susceptibility is poorly understood. The airway epithelium, situated at the interface between the external environment and the lung parenchyma, acts as a physical and immunological barrier that secretes mucins and cytokines in response to noxious stimuli which can contribute to the pathobiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We grew primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and primary lung epithelial cells isolated from bronchial brushings of patients to confluence and allowed them to differentiate at an air- liquid interface (ALI) to assess the effects of HIV on the lung epithelium. We assessed changes in monolayer permeability as well as the expression of E-cadherin and inflammatory modulators to determine the effect of HIV on the lung epithelium. We measured E-cadherin protein abundance in patients with HIV compared to normal controls. Cell associated HIV RNA and DNA were quantified and the p24 viral antigen was measured in culture supernatant. Surprisingly, X4, not R5, tropic virus decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased monolayer permeability. While there was some transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, there was significant increase in lysosome-mediated protein degradation in cells exposed to X4 tropic HIV. Interaction with CXCR4 and viral fusion with the epithelial cell were required to induce the epithelial changes. X4 tropic virus was able to enter the airway epithelial cells but not replicate in these cells, while R5 tropic viruses did not enter the epithelial cells. Significantly, X4 tropic HIV induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We demonstrate that HIV can enter airway

  8. Milk--A Nutrient System of Mammalian Evolution Promoting mTORC1-Dependent Translation.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-07-27

    Based on own translational research of the biochemical and hormonal effects of cow's milk consumption in humans, this review presents milk as a signaling system of mammalian evolution that activates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the pivotal regulator of translation. Milk, a mammary gland-derived secretory product, is required for species-specific gene-nutrient interactions that promote appropriate growth and development of the newborn mammal. This signaling system is highly conserved and tightly controlled by the lactation genome. Milk is sufficient to activate mTORC1, the crucial regulator of protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis orchestrating anabolism, cell growth and proliferation. To fulfill its mTORC1-activating function, milk delivers four key metabolic messengers: (1) essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs); (2) glutamine; (3) palmitic acid; and (4) bioactive exosomal microRNAs, which in a synergistical fashion promote mTORC1-dependent translation. In all mammals except Neolithic humans, postnatal activation of mTORC1 by milk intake is restricted to the postnatal lactation period. It is of critical concern that persistent hyperactivation of mTORC1 is associated with aging and the development of age-related disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Persistent mTORC1 activation promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives an aimless quasi-program, which promotes aging and age-related diseases.

  9. Loss of giant obscurins from breast epithelium promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, tumorigenicity and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shriver, M; Stroka, KM; Vitolo, MI; Martin, S; Huso, DL; Konstantopoulos, K; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A

    2015-01-01

    Obscurins, encoded by the single OBSCN gene, are giant cytoskeletal proteins with structural and regulatory roles. The OBSCN gene is highly mutated in different types of cancers. Loss of giant obscurins from breast epithelial cells confers them with a survival and growth advantage, following exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Here we demonstrate that the expression levels and subcellular distribution of giant obscurins are altered in human breast cancer biopsies compared with matched normal samples. Stable clones of non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells lacking giant obscurins fail to form adhesion junctions, undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and generate >100-μm mammospheres bearing markers of cancer-initiating cells. Obscurin-knockdown MCF10A cells display markedly increased motility as a sheet in 2-dimensional (2D) substrata and individually in confined spaces and invasion in 3D matrices. In line with these observations, actin filaments redistribute to extending filopodia where they exhibit increased dynamics. MCF10A cells that stably express the K-Ras oncogene and obscurin short hairpin RNA (shRNA), but not scramble control shRNA, exhibit increased primary tumor formation and lung colonization after subcutaneous and tail vein injections, respectively. Collectively, our findings reveal that loss of giant obscurins from breast epithelium results in disruption of the cell–cell contacts and acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype that leads to enhanced tumorigenesis, migration and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25381817

  10. Erlotinib promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Lu; Hu, Lingna; Yang, Baofang; Fang, Xianying; Gao, Zhe; Li, Wanshuai; Sun, Yang; Shen, Yan; Wu, Xuefeng; Shu, Yongqian; Gu, Yanhong; Wu, Xudong; Xu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Erlotinib, a popular drug for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), causes diarrhea in approximately 55% of patients receiving this drug. In the present study, we found that erlotinib induced barrier dysfunction in rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6) by increasing epithelial permeability and down-regulating E-cadherin. The mRNA levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-25 and Il-17f) were increased after erlotinib treatment in IEC-6 cells. Erlotinib concentration- and time-dependently induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in both IEC-6 and human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoN). Intestinal epithelial injury was also observed in male C57BL/6J mice administrated with erlotinib. Knockdown of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) with small interference RNA partially reversed erlotinib-induced apoptosis, production of IL-6 and down-regulation of E-cadherin in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. In conclusion, erlotinib caused ER stress-mediated injury in the intestinal epithelium, contributing to its side effects of diarrhea in patients. - Highlights: • Erlotinib destroyed barrier integrity both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. • Erlotinib induced apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. • ER stress contributed to erlotinib-induced barrier dysfunction.

  11. PKA-regulated VASP phosphorylation promotes extrusion of transformed cells from the epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Katarzyna A.; Sinclair, John; Ohoka, Atsuko; Kajita, Mihoko; Ishikawa, Susumu; Benz, Peter M.; Renne, Thomas; Balda, Maria; Matter, Karl; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT At the early stages of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within tissues. In an epithelial monolayer, such mutated cells are recognized by their normal neighbors and are often apically extruded. The apical extrusion requires cytoskeletal reorganization and changes in cell shape, but the molecular switches involved in the regulation of these processes are poorly understood. Here, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative mass spectrometry, we have identified proteins that are modulated in transformed cells upon their interaction with normal cells. Phosphorylation of VASP at serine 239 is specifically upregulated in RasV12-transformed cells when they are surrounded by normal cells. VASP phosphorylation is required for the cell shape changes and apical extrusion of Ras-transformed cells. Furthermore, PKA is activated in Ras-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells, leading to VASP phosphorylation. These results indicate that the PKA–VASP pathway is a crucial regulator of tumor cell extrusion from the epithelium, and they shed light on the events occurring at the early stage of carcinogenesis. PMID:24963131

  12. Matriptase proteolytically activates influenza virus and promotes multicycle replication in the human airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric; Richter, Martin V

    2013-04-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place.

  13. Matriptase Proteolytically Activates Influenza Virus and Promotes Multicycle Replication in the Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Alexandre; Gravel, Émilie; Cloutier, Alexandre; Marois, Isabelle; Colombo, Éloïc; Désilets, Antoine; Verreault, Catherine; Leduc, Richard; Marsault, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses do not encode any proteases and must rely on host proteases for the proteolytic activation of their surface hemagglutinin proteins in order to fuse with the infected host cells. Recent progress in the understanding of human proteases responsible for influenza virus hemagglutinin activation has led to the identification of members of the type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 and human airway trypsin-like protease; however, none has proved to be the sole enzyme responsible for hemagglutinin cleavage. In this study, we identify and characterize matriptase as an influenza virus-activating protease capable of supporting multicycle viral replication in the human respiratory epithelium. Using confocal microscopy, we found matriptase to colocalize with hemagglutinin at the apical surface of human epithelial cells and within endosomes, and we showed that the soluble form of the protease was able to specifically cleave hemagglutinins from H1 virus, but not from H2 and H3 viruses, in a broad pH range. We showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of matriptase in human bronchial epithelial cells significantly blocked influenza virus replication in these cells. Lastly, we provide a selective, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of matriptase that significantly reduces viral replication (by 1.5 log) of H1N1 influenza virus, including the 2009 pandemic virus. Our study establishes a three-pronged model for the action of matriptase: activation of incoming viruses in the extracellular space in its shed form, upon viral attachment or exit in its membrane-bound and/or shed forms at the apical surface of epithelial cells, and within endosomes by its membrane-bound form where viral fusion takes place. PMID:23365447

  14. Oestrogen promotes KCNQ1 potassium channel endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking in colonic epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Rapetti-Mauss, Raphael; O'Mahony, Fiona; Sepulveda, Francisco V; Urbach, Valerie; Harvey, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The cAMP-regulated potassium channel KCNQ1:KCNE3 plays an essential role in transepithelial Cl− secretion. Recycling of K+ across the basolateral membrane provides the driving force necessary to maintain apical Cl− secretion. The steroid hormone oestrogen (17β-oestradiol; E2), produces a female-specific antisecretory response in rat distal colon through the inhibition of the KCNQ1:KCNE3 channel. It has previously been shown that rapid inhibition of the channel conductance results from E2-induced uncoupling of the KCNE3 regulatory subunit from the KCNQ1 channel pore complex. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism required for sustained inhibition of the channel function. We found that E2 plays a role in regulation of KCNQ1 cell membrane abundance by endocytosis. Ussing chamber experiments have shown that E2 inhibits both Cl− secretion and KCNQ1 current in a colonic cell line, HT29cl.19A, when cultured as a confluent epithelium. Following E2 treatment, KCNQ1 was retrieved from the plasma membrane by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which involved the association between KCNQ1 and the clathrin adaptor, AP-2. Following endocytosis, KCNQ1 was accumulated in early endosomes. Following E2-induced endocytosis, rather than being degraded, KCNQ1 was recycled by a biphasic mechanism involving Rab4 and Rab11. Protein kinase Cδ and AMP-dependent kinase were rapidly phosphorylated in response to E2 on their activating phosphorylation sites, Ser643 and Thr172, respectively (as previously shown). Both kinases are necessary for the E2-induced endocytosis, because E2 failed to induce KCNQ1 internalization following pretreatment with specific inhibitors of both protein kinase Cδ and AMP-dependent kinase. The ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 binds KCNQ1 in response to E2 to induce channel internalization. This study has provided the first demonstration of hormonal regulation of KCNQ1 trafficking. In conclusion, we propose that internalization of KCNQ1 is a key event

  15. Eye drop delivery of pigment epithelium-derived factor-34 promotes retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Esmaeili, Maryam; Deer, Louise; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Ahmed, Zubair

    2015-09-01

    Axotomised retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die rapidly by apoptosis and fail to regenerate because of the limited availability of neurotrophic factors and a lack of axogenic stimuli. However, we have recently showed that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury. PEDF has multiple fragments of the native peptide that are neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. Here we investigated the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of a fragment of PEDF, PEDF-34, in retinal neurons in vitro and when delivered by intravitreal injection and eye drops in vivo. We found that PEDF-34 was 43% more neuroprotective and 52% more neuritogenic than PEDF-44 in vitro. Moreover, in vivo, intravitreal delivery of 1.88nM PEDF-34 was 71% RGC neuroprotective at 21days after optic nerve crush compared to intact controls, whilst daily eye drops containing 1.88nM PEDF-34 promoted 87% RGC survival. After topical eye drop delivery, PEDF-34 was detected in the vitreous body within 30min and attained physiologically relevant concentrations in the retina by 4h peaking at 1.4±0.05nM by 14days. In eye drop- compared to intravitreal-treated PEDF-34 animals, 55% more RGC axons regenerated 250μm beyond the optic nerve lesion. We conclude that daily topical eye drop application of PEDF-34 is superior to weekly intravitreal injections in promoting RGC survival and axon regeneration through both direct effects on retinal neurons and indirect effects on other retinal cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua; Guo, Renfeng; Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin--Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua; Guo, Renfeng; Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2015-10-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. JAM-C maintains VEGR2 expression to promote retinal pigment epithelium cell survival under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Qishan; Du, Yuxiang; Huang, Lijuan; Ye, Zhimin; Ren, Xiangrong; Wang, Shasha; Lee, Chunsik; Tang, Zhongshu; Li, Xuri; Ju, Rong

    2017-04-03

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) has been shown to play critical roles during development and in immune responses. However, its role in adult eyes under oxidative stress remains poorly understood. Here, we report that JAM-C is abundantly expressed in adult mouse retinae and choroids in vivo and in cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells in vitro. Importantly, both JAM-C expression and its membrane localisation are downregulated by H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Under H2O2-induced oxidative stress, JAM-C is critically required for the survival of human RPE cells. Indeed, loss of JAM-C by siRNA knockdown decreased RPE cell survival. Mechanistically, we show that JAM-C is required to maintain VEGFR2 expression in RPE cells, and VEGFR2 plays an important role in keeping the RPE cells viable since overexpression of VEGFR2 partially restored impaired RPE survival caused by JAM-C knockdown and increased RPE survival. We further show that JAM-C regulates VEGFR2 expression and, in turn, modulates p38 phosphorylation. Together, our data demonstrate that JAM-C plays an important role in maintaining VEGR2 expression to promote RPE cell survival under oxidative stress. Given the vital importance of RPE in the eye, approaches that can modulate JAM-C expression may have therapeutic values in treating diseases with impaired RPE survival.

  19. Porcine milk-derived exosomes promote proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Xie, Mei-Ying; Sun, Jia-Jie; Ye, Rui-Song; Cheng, Xiao; Sun, Rui-Ping; Wei, Li-Min; Li, Meng; Lin, De-Lin; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Milk-derived exosomes were identified as a novel mechanism of mother-to-child transmission of regulatory molecules, but their functions in intestinal tissues of neonates are not well-studied. Here, we characterized potential roles of porcine milk-derived exosomes in the intestinal tract. In vitro, treatment with milk-derived exosomes (27 ± 3 ng and 55 ± 5 ng total RNA) significantly promoted IPEC-J2 cell proliferation by MTT, CCK8, EdU fluorescence and EdU flow cytometry assays. The qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated milk-derived exosomes (0.27 ± 0.03 μg total RNA) significantly promoted expression of CDX2, IGF-1R and PCNA, and inhibited p53 gene expression involved in intestinal proliferation. Additionally, six detected miRNAs were significantly increased in IPEC-J2 cell, while FAS and SERPINE were significantly down-regulated relative to that in control. In vivo, treated groups (0.125 μg and 0.25 μg total RNA) significantly raised mice’ villus height, crypt depth and ratio of villus length to crypt depth of intestinal tissues, significantly increased CDX2, PCNA and IGF-1R’ expression and significantly inhibited p53′ expression. Our study demonstrated that milk-derived exosomes can facilitate intestinal cell proliferation and intestinal tract development, thus giving a new insight for milk nutrition and newborn development and health. PMID:27646050

  20. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2011-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, the most common skin disease of western civilization, has evolved to an epidemic affecting more than 85% of adolescents. Acne can be regarded as an indicator disease of exaggerated insulinotropic western nutrition. Especially milk and whey protein-based products contribute to elevations of postprandial insulin and basal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plasma levels. It is the evolutional principle of mammalian milk to promote growth and support anabolic conditions for the neonate during the nursing period. Whey proteins are most potent inducers of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide secreted by enteroendocrine K cells which in concert with hydrolyzed whey protein-derived essential amino acids stimulate insulin secretion of pancreatic β-cells. Increased insulin/IGF-I signaling activates the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway, thereby reducing the nuclear content of the transcription factor FoxO1, the key nutrigenomic regulator of acne target genes. Nuclear FoxO1 deficiency has been linked to all major factors of acne pathogenesis, i.e. androgen receptor transactivation, comedogenesis, increased sebaceous lipogenesis, and follicular inflammation. The elimination of the whey protein-based insulinotropic mechanisms of milk will be the most important future challenge for nutrition research. Both, restriction of milk consumption or generation of less insulinotropic milk will have an enormous impact on the prevention of epidemic western diseases like obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and acne. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. ROCK Inhibition Promotes Attachment, Proliferation, and Wound Closure in Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Croze, Roxanne H; Thi, William J; Clegg, Dennis O

    2016-11-01

    Nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is associated with the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the development of geographic atrophy, which are areas devoid of RPE cells and photoreceptors. One possible treatment option would be to stimulate RPE attachment and proliferation to replace dying/dysfunctional RPE and bring about wound repair. Clinical trials are underway testing injections of RPE cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to determine their safety and efficacy in treating AMD. However, the factors regulating RPE responses to AMD-associated lesions are not well understood. Here, we use cell culture to investigate the role of RhoA coiled coil kinases (ROCKs) in human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) attachment, proliferation, and wound closure. H9 hESC were spontaneously differentiated into RPE cells. hESC-RPE cells were treated with a pan ROCK1/2 or a ROCK2 only inhibitor; attachment, and proliferation and cell size within an in vitro scratch assay were examined. Pharmacological inhibition of ROCKs promoted hESC-RPE attachment and proliferation, and increased the rate of closure of in vitro wounds. ROCK inhibition decreased phosphorylation of cofilin and myosin light chain, suggesting that regulation of the cytoskeleton underlies the mechanism of action of ROCK inhibition. ROCK inhibition promotes attachment, proliferation, and wound closure in H9 hESC-RPE cells. ROCK isoforms may have different roles in wound healing. Modulation of the ROCK-cytoskeletal axis has potential in stimulating wound repair in transplanted RPE cells and attachment in cellular therapies.

  2. ROCK Inhibition Promotes Attachment, Proliferation, and Wound Closure in Human Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Croze, Roxanne H.; Thi, William J.; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is associated with the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the development of geographic atrophy, which are areas devoid of RPE cells and photoreceptors. One possible treatment option would be to stimulate RPE attachment and proliferation to replace dying/dysfunctional RPE and bring about wound repair. Clinical trials are underway testing injections of RPE cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to determine their safety and efficacy in treating AMD. However, the factors regulating RPE responses to AMD-associated lesions are not well understood. Here, we use cell culture to investigate the role of RhoA coiled coil kinases (ROCKs) in human embryonic stem cell–derived RPE (hESC-RPE) attachment, proliferation, and wound closure. Methods H9 hESC were spontaneously differentiated into RPE cells. hESC-RPE cells were treated with a pan ROCK1/2 or a ROCK2 only inhibitor; attachment, and proliferation and cell size within an in vitro scratch assay were examined. Results Pharmacological inhibition of ROCKs promoted hESC-RPE attachment and proliferation, and increased the rate of closure of in vitro wounds. ROCK inhibition decreased phosphorylation of cofilin and myosin light chain, suggesting that regulation of the cytoskeleton underlies the mechanism of action of ROCK inhibition. Conclusions ROCK inhibition promotes attachment, proliferation, and wound closure in H9 hESC-RPE cells. ROCK isoforms may have different roles in wound healing. Translational Relevance Modulation of the ROCK-cytoskeletal axis has potential in stimulating wound repair in transplanted RPE cells and attachment in cellular therapies. PMID:27917311

  3. Promoter methylation in epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell populations isolated from breast milk.

    PubMed

    Browne, Eva P; Dinc, Signem E; Punska, Elizabeth C; Agus, Sami; Vitrinel, Ayca; Erdag, Gulay Ciler; Anderton, Douglas L; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among Turkish women and both the incidence and associated mortality appear to be increasing. Of particular concern is the percentage of young women diagnosed with breast cancer; roughly 20% of all breast cancer diagnoses in Turkey are in women younger than 40 years. Increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is a promising molecular biomarker, and human milk provides exfoliated breast epithelial cells appropriate for DNA methylation analyses. Comparisons between DNA methylation patterns in epithelial (epithelial-enriched) and nonepithelial (epithelial-depleted) cell fractions from breast milk have not been reported previously. In the present study, we examined promoter methylation of 3 tumor suppressor genes in epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell fractions isolated from breast milk of 43 Turkish women. Percentage methylation in the promoter region of Rass association domain family 1 (RASSF1), secreted frizzle related protein 1 (SFRP1), and glutathione-S-transferase class pi 1 was determined by pyrosequencing of the epithelial-enriched and epithelial-depleted cell fractions. Pyrosequencing identified a few subjects with significantly increased methylation in 1 or more genes. There was little correlation between the 2 cell fractions within individuals; only 1 woman had increased methylation for 1 gene (SFRP1) in both her enriched and depleted cell fractions. Methylation was positively associated with age for SFRP1 (epithelial-depleted fraction) and with body mass index for RASSF1 (epithelial-enriched cell fraction), respectively. Overall, results show that the methylation signals vary between different cell types in breast milk and suggest that breast milk can be used to assess DNA methylation patterns associated with increased breast cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Quantitative analysis of promoter methylation in exfoliated epithelial cells isolated from breast milk of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chung M; Anderton, Douglas L; Smith-Schneider, Sallie; Wing, Megan A; Greven, Melissa C; Arcaro, Kathleen F

    2010-10-01

    Promoter methylation analysis of genes frequently silenced in breast cancer is a promising indicator of breast cancer risk, as these methylation events are thought to occur long before presentation of disease. The numerous exfoliated epithelial cells present in breast milk may provide the breast epithelial DNA needed for detailed methylation analysis and assessment of breast cancer risk. Fresh breast milk samples and health, lifestyle, and reproductive history questionnaires were collected from 111 women. Pyrosequencing analysis was conducted on DNA isolated from the exfoliated epithelial cells immunomagnetically separated from the total cell population in the breast milk of 102 women. A total of 65 CpG sites were examined in six tumor suppressor genes: PYCARD (also known as ASC or TMS1), CDH1, GSTP1, RBP1 (also known as CRBP1), SFRP1, and RASSF1. A sufficient quantity of DNA was obtained for meaningful analysis of promoter methylation; women donated an average of 86 ml of milk with a mean yield of 32,700 epithelial cells per ml. Methylation scores were in general low as expected of benign tissue, but analysis of outlier methylation scores revealed a significant relationship between breast cancer risk, as indicated by previous biopsy, and methylation score for several CpG sites in CDH1, GSTP1, SFRP1, and RBP1. Methylation of RASSF1 was positively correlated with women's age irrespective of her reproductive history. Promoter methylation patterns in DNA from breast milk epithelial cells can likely be used to assess breast cancer risk. Additional studies of women at high breast cancer risk are warranted.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of 1% or less media campaigns promoting low-fat milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Wootan, Margo G; Reger-Nash, Bill; Booth-Butterfield, Steve; Cooper, Linda

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four strategies using components of 1% Or Less to promote population-based behavior change. 1% Or Less is a mass-media campaign that encourages switching from high-fat (whole or 2%) to low-fat (1% or skim) milk. Using a quasi-experimental design, campaigns were previously conducted in four West Virginia communities using different combinations of 1) paid advertising, 2) media relations, and 3) community-based educational activities. Telephone surveys and supermarket milk sales data were used to measure the campaigns' effectiveness. Using data from the previously completed studies, we analyzed the cost of each campaign. We then calculated the cost per person exposed to the campaign and cost per person who switched from high- to low-fat milk. The combination of paid advertising and media relations was the most cost-effective campaign, with a cost of 0.57 dollars per person to elicit a switch from high- to low-fat milk, and the combination of media relations and community-based educational activities was the least cost-effective campaign, with a cost of 11.85 dollars per person to elicit a switch. Population-based campaigns using a combination of paid advertising and media relations strategies can be a cost-effective way to promote a behavior change in a community.

  6. A case study of infant health promotion and corporate marketing of milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country's Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine policy costs and risks against the benefits of delineating and containing corporate marketing strategies for milk substitutes and supplements. The study finds that the methodological and information-based challenges faced by courts in resolving multi-dimensional health issues may not be overcome without serious questions concerning the legitimacy of the judicial process itself. Despite the deficiencies of litigation and adjudication, the study notes the catalytic potential of a judicial decision in opening up vital policy space for future renegotiations among rival parties and interests. Third-party intervention is explored relative to this catalytic function.

  7. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Eugene; Miletin, Jan

    2010-06-16

    Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and

  8. Milk-derived bioactive peptides and their health promoting effects: a potential role in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Simone; Belton, Orina; Fitzgerald, Desmond J

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are food components that, in addition to their nutritional value, retain many biological properties and have therapeutic effects in several health disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Amongst these, atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of heart attack and strokes. It is a progressive dyslipidaemic and inflammatory disease where accumulation of oxidized lipids and inflammatory cells leads to the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall. Milk-derived bioactive peptides can be released during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by enzymatic and bacterial fermentation and are considered to promote diverse beneficial effects such as lipid lowering, antihypertensive, immnomodulating, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. In this review, an overview of the diverse biological effects of these compounds is given, particularly focusing on their beneficial properties on cardiovascular disease and proposing novel mechanisms of action responsible for their bioactivity. Attempts to prevent cardiovascular diseases target modifications of several risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, high blood concentrations of lipids or insulin resistance. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are a source of health-enhancing components and the potential health benefit of these compounds has a growing commercial potential. Consequently, they have been incorporated as ingredients in functional foods, as dietary supplements and as pharmaceuticals to promote health and reduce risk of chronic diseases. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. A social marketing campaign to promote low-fat milk consumption in an inner-city Latino community.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Wernick, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors proposed the Lowfat Milk Campaign, a multifaceted social marketing campaign to promote the use of low-fat milk in the Washington Heights-Inwood neighborhood of New York City, a low-income, inner-city, Latino community. The campaign was designed for implementation by the Washington Heights-Inwood Health Heart Program, a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention agency. The first phase of the campaign began in November 1990. A followup phase for the period 1991-92 is in progress. The campaign focuses on a clear, relatively easily accomplished behavioral change, a switch by consumers of whole milk to low-fat milk, which may significantly reduce the fat consumption of persons in such a population, particularly children. The campaign strategy featured a mix of traditional health education methods, intensive local information media publicity, and innovative marketing techniques. In addition to increasing consumer demand for low-fat milk, the campaign successfully promoted institutional changes that are expected to facilitate healthy dietary choices in the future by members of the study population. Schools and other institutions that serve milk have been persuaded to begin offering low-fat milk in addition to, or instead of, whole milk. An essential component of campaign strategy was building support from key community organizations and leaders. Significant assistance was provided by the local school district, parents associations, churches, newspapers, radio stations, fraternal organizations, and a coalition of child care agencies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1561304

  10. Sialylated milk oligosaccharides promote microbiota-dependent growth in models of infant undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Mark R.; O’Donnell, David; Blanton, Laura V.; Totten, Sarah M.; Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Barratt, Michael J.; Cheng, Jiye; Guruge, Janaki; Talcott, Michael; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Wu, Chao; Struckmeyer, Tedd; Barile, Daniela; Mangani, Charles; Jorgensen, Josh; Fan, Yue-mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Dewey, Kathryn G.; Ashorn, Per; Newgard, Christopher B.; Lebrilla, Carlito; Mills, David A.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth-cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in mothers with severely stunted infants. To explore this association, we colonized young germ-free mice with a consortium of bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of a 6-month old stunted Malawian infant and fed recipient animals a prototypic Malawian diet with or without purified sialylated bovine milk oligosaccharides (S-BMO). S-BMO produced a microbiota-dependent augmentation of lean body mass gain, changed bone morphology and altered liver, muscle and brain metabolism in ways indicative of a greater ability to utilize nutrients for anabolism. These effects were also documented in gnotobiotic piglets using the same consortium and Malawian diet. These preclinical models indicate a causal, microbiota-dependent relationship between S-BMO and growth promotion. PMID:26898329

  11. Sialylated Milk Oligosaccharides Promote Microbiota-Dependent Growth in Models of Infant Undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Mark R; O'Donnell, David; Blanton, Laura V; Totten, Sarah M; Davis, Jasmine C C; Barratt, Michael J; Cheng, Jiye; Guruge, Janaki; Talcott, Michael; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga; Wu, Chao; Struckmeyer, Tedd; Barile, Daniela; Mangani, Charles; Jorgensen, Josh; Fan, Yue-mei; Maleta, Kenneth; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Per; Newgard, Christopher B; Lebrilla, Carlito; Mills, David A; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2016-02-25

    Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants. To explore this association, we colonized young germ-free mice with a consortium of bacterial strains cultured from the fecal microbiota of a 6-month-old stunted Malawian infant and fed recipient animals a prototypic Malawian diet with or without purified sialylated bovine milk oligosaccharides (S-BMO). S-BMO produced a microbiota-dependent augmentation of lean body mass gain, changed bone morphology, and altered liver, muscle, and brain metabolism in ways indicative of a greater ability to utilize nutrients for anabolism. These effects were also documented in gnotobiotic piglets using the same consortium and Malawian diet. These preclinical models indicate a causal, microbiota-dependent relationship between S-BMO and growth promotion.

  12. A social marketing campaign to promote low-fat milk consumption in an inner-city Latino community.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, H; Wernick, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors proposed the Lowfat Milk Campaign, a multifaceted social marketing campaign to promote the use of low-fat milk in the Washington Heights-Inwood neighborhood of New York City, a low-income, inner-city, Latino community. The campaign was designed for implementation by the Washington Heights-Inwood Health Heart Program, a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention agency. The first phase of the campaign began in November 1990. A followup phase for the period 1991-92 is in progress. The campaign focuses on a clear, relatively easily accomplished behavioral change, a switch by consumers of whole milk to low-fat milk, which may significantly reduce the fat consumption of persons in such a population, particularly children. The campaign strategy featured a mix of traditional health education methods, intensive local information media publicity, and innovative marketing techniques. In addition to increasing consumer demand for low-fat milk, the campaign successfully promoted institutional changes that are expected to facilitate healthy dietary choices in the future by members of the study population. Schools and other institutions that serve milk have been persuaded to begin offering low-fat milk in addition to, or instead of, whole milk. An essential component of campaign strategy was building support from key community organizations and leaders. Significant assistance was provided by the local school district, parents associations, churches, newspapers, radio stations, fraternal organizations, and a coalition of child care agencies. The campaign demonstrates a cost effective and culturally sensitive approach to promoting important cardiovascular health behavior changes by an underserved population.

  13. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Expression Induced by EGFRvIII Promotes Self-renewal and Tumor Progression of Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Hong, Jun Hee; Kim, Youn-Jae; Jin, Xiong; Kang, Sangjo; Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Yub; Yun, Hyeongsun; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Minkyung; Chung, Junho; Kim, Hyunggee; Nakano, Ichiro; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Yoo, Heon; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Jong Heon; Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Jeongwu; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Park, Jong Bae

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby promoting self-renewal and tumor progression of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Mechanistically, PEDF sustained GSC self-renewal by Notch1 cleavage, and the generated intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) induced the expression of Sox2 through interaction with its promoter region. Furthermore, a subpopulation with high levels of PEDF was capable of infiltration along corpus callosum. Inhibition of PEDF diminished GSC self-renewal and increased survival of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Together, these data indicate the novel role of PEDF as a key regulator of GSC and suggest clinical implications. PMID:25992628

  14. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) Expression Induced by EGFRvIII Promotes Self-renewal and Tumor Progression of Glioma Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jinlong; Park, Gunwoo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Hong, Jun Hee; Kim, Youn-Jae; Jin, Xiong; Kang, Sangjo; Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Yub; Yun, Hyeongsun; Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Minkyung; Chung, Junho; Kim, Hyunggee; Nakano, Ichiro; Gwak, Ho-Shin; Yoo, Heon; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Jong Heon; Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Jeongwu; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Park, Jong Bae

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been associated with glioma stemness, but the direct molecular mechanism linking the two is largely unknown. Here, we show that EGFRvIII induces the expression and secretion of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), thereby promoting self-renewal and tumor progression of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Mechanistically, PEDF sustained GSC self-renewal by Notch1 cleavage, and the generated intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD) induced the expression of Sox2 through interaction with its promoter region. Furthermore, a subpopulation with high levels of PEDF was capable of infiltration along corpus callosum. Inhibition of PEDF diminished GSC self-renewal and increased survival of orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Together, these data indicate the novel role of PEDF as a key regulator of GSC and suggest clinical implications.

  15. Association analysis of polymorphism in thyroglobulin gene promoter with milk production traits in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, S.K.; Yadav, A.K.; Kathiravan, P.; Arora, R.; Malik, R.; Kataria, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism within the promoter region of bovine thyroglobulin has been reported to be associated with milk and meat quality. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation within thyroglobulin promoter region of swamp and riverine buffaloes using PCR–SSCP technique and sequencing, and also analyzing association of polymorphism with the milk production traits. The study revealed four conformational patterns, A, B, C, and D among 323 buffaloes of two riverine breeds and different swamp populations. The frequency of SSCP variant ‘A’ was found to be invariably high among all buffalo populations. Variant ‘C’ was found to be absent in pure swamp population and present with higher frequency among riverine dairy breeds Mehsana and Nili Ravi. Frequency of D variant was observed to be highest in buffalo population, representing riverine and hybrid types. Sequencing of three representative PCR products of each of the SSCP variants, revealed three polymorphic sites responsible, 33C > T, 176G > T and 221C > T, in the buffalo TG promoter region. Further, association studies of SSCP variants with various milk production and milk quality traits indicated significant effect on fat percentage in buffaloes belonging to Mehsana and Nili Ravi dairy breeds. The preliminary results also showed the substantial variations in the distribution of SSCP variants' frequencies across swamp and riverine buffaloes, two distinct populations being reared for meat and milk production, respectively. PMID:26273563

  16. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W K; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers.

  17. Notch signaling in the pigmented epithelium of the anterior eye segment promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Bhushan; Nowell, Craig S; Ihm, JongEun; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Moulin, Alexandre P; Schorderet, Daniel F; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2014-07-01

    The ciliary body and iris are pigmented epithelial structures in the anterior eye segment that function to maintain correct intra-ocular pressure and regulate exposure of the internal eye structures to light, respectively. The cellular and molecular factors that mediate the development of the ciliary body and iris from the ocular pigmented epithelium remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we have investigated the role of Notch signaling during the development of the anterior pigmented epithelium by using genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches. Loss of canonical Notch signaling results in normal iris development but absence of the ciliary body. This causes progressive hypotony and over time leads to phthisis bulbi, a condition characterized by shrinkage of the eye and loss of structure/function. Conversely, Notch gain-of-function results in aniridia and profound ciliary body hyperplasia, which causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma-like disease. Collectively, these data indicate that Notch signaling promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation and reveals novel animal models of human ocular pathologies.

  18. Milk with and without lactoferrin can influence intestinal damage in a pig model of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Feltrin, Cristiano; Hamilton, M Kristina; Hagey, Jill V; Murray, James D; Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Raybould, Helen E; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of five worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood necessitating an appropriate animal model to answer fundamental questions and conduct translational research into optimal interventions. One potential intervention is milk from livestock that more closely mimics human milk by increased levels of bioactive components that can promote a healthy intestinal epithelium. We tested the ability of cow milk and milk from transgenic cows expressing human lactoferrin at levels found in human milk (hLF milk) to mitigate the effects of malnutrition at the level of the intestine in a pig model of malnutrition. Weaned pigs (3 weeks old) were fed a protein and calorie restricted diet for five weeks, receiving cow, hLF or no milk supplementation daily from weeks 3-5. After three weeks, the restricted diet induced changes in growth, blood chemistry and intestinal structure including villous atrophy, increased ex vivo permeability and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. Addition of both cow and hLF milk to the diet increased growth rate and calcium and glucose levels while promoting growth of the intestinal epithelium. In the jejunum hLF milk restored intestinal morphology, reduced permeability and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Overall, this pig model of malnutrition mimics salient aspects of the human condition and demonstrates that cow milk can stimulate the repair of damage to the intestinal epithelium caused by protein and calorie restriction with hLF milk improving this recovery to a greater extent.

  19. Growth-promoting effects of caseinomacropeptide from cow and goat milk on probiotics.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    Caseinomacropeptide (CMP), a 7-kDa phosphoglycopolypeptide fragment released from κ-casein during milk renneting, is heterogeneous with respect to post-translational glycosylation. Several studies have reported that CMP has growth-promoting activity on lactic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Bifidobacterium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glycosylation and sequence variations between bovine and caprine CMP on the growth of two probiotics: Lactobacillus rhamnosus RW-9595-M and Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67. The growth-promoting activities of CMP (mixture of glycosylated (gCMP) and non-glycosylated (aCMP) fractions), aCMP and gCMP were measured in a basal minimal culture medium using turbidimetric microplate assay at 37 °C. Supplementation of the culture media at 2 mg/ml significantly improved maximum growth by 1.5 to 1.8 times depending on the strain, the additive (CMP, aCMP, gCMP), and the bovine or caprine origin (P < 0.05). CMP preparations also decreased the time needed to reach the inflexion point of the growth curve and increase the cell density at that time (P < 0.05). The effects of CMP preparations were dose dependent and significantly superior to the effect of bovine β-lactoglobulin added to the culture media. As gCMP and aCMP were as efficient as bovine and caprine CMP (P > 0.1), it was concluded that the presence of oligosaccharides linked to CMP was not essential for growth-promoting activity of CMP.

  20. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  1. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.109 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1160.109 Section 1160.109 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.109 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States....

  5. Natural and artificial feeding management before weaning promote different rumen microbial colonization but not differences in gene expression levels at the rumen epithelium of newborn goats

    PubMed Central

    Abecia, Leticia; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A. Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Pinloche, Eric; Denman, Stuart E.; Newbold, C. Jamie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life. On the sampling day, after slaughtering, the rumen content was sampled and epithelial rumen tissue was collected. Pyrosequencing analyses of the bacterial community structure on samples collected at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days showed that both systems promoted significantly different colonization patterns (P = 0.001). Diversity indices increased with age and were higher in NAT feeding system. Lower mRNA abundance was detected in TLR2, TLR8 and TLR10 in days 3 and 5 compared to the other days (7, 14, 21 and 28). Only TLR5 showed a significantly different level of expression according to the feeding system, presenting higher mRNA abundances in ART kids. PGLYRP1 showed significantly higher abundance levels in days 3, 5 and 7, and then experienced a decline independently of the feeding system. These observations confirmed a highly diverse microbial colonisation from the first day of life in the undeveloped rumen, and show that the colonization pattern substantially differs between pre-ruminants reared under natural or artificial milk feeding systems. However, the rumen epithelial immune development does not differentially respond to distinct microbial colonization patterns. PMID:28813529

  6. MicroRNA-184 promotes differentiation of the retinal pigment epithelium by targeting the AKT2/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Qin, Bing; Liu, Guohua; Sun, Xiantao; Shi, Houxia; Ding, Sijia; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Meidong; Chen, Xue; Zhao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells is a crucial contributing factor to the pathology of retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Herein, we aim to reveal the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in RPE dedifferentiation and seek for potential therapeutic targets. Based on the microarray data, miR-184 was sorted out as the most up-regulated signature along with the differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to RPE cells, suggesting its potential promotive role in RPE differentiation. In vitro study indicated that miR-184 insufficiency suppressed RPE differentiation, typified by reduction of RPE markers, and promoted cell proliferation and migration. The role of miR-184 in maintaining regular RPE function was further proved in zebrafish studies. We also noticed that miR-184 expression was reduced in the macular RPE-choroid from a donor with RPE dysfunction compared to a healthy control. We next demonstrated that RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT2) was a direct target for miR-184. MiR-184 promoted RPE differentiation via suppression of AKT2/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. We also found that AKT2 was up-regulated in macular RPE-choroid of the donor with RPE dysfunction and dry AMD patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-184 insufficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. MiR-184 promotes RPE differentiation via inhibiting the AKT2/mTOR signaling pathway. MiR-184 based supplementary therapeutics and mTOR blocker, like rapamycin, are prospective options for AMD treatment. PMID:27418134

  7. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes tumor cell death by inducing macrophage membrane tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Yang, Su-Lin; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Cheng, Huey-Chuan; Chen, Lee-Jen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2011-10-14

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an intrinsic anti-angiogenic factor and a potential anti-tumor agent. The tumoricidal mechanism of PEDF, however, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that PEDF induces the apoptosis of TC-1 and SK-Hep-1 tumor cells when they are cocultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). This macrophage-mediated tumor killing is prevented by blockage of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) following treatment with the soluble TRAIL receptor. PEDF also increases the amount of membrane-bound TRAIL on cultured mouse BMDMs and on macrophages surrounding subcutaneous tumors. PEDF-induced tumor killing and TRAIL induction are abrogated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonists or small interfering RNAs targeting PPARγ. PEDF also induces PPARγ in BMDMs. Furthermore, the activity of the TRAIL promoter in human macrophages is increased by PEDF stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA pull-down assays confirmed that endogenous PPARγ binds to a functional PPAR-response element (PPRE) in the TRAIL promoter, and mutation of this PPRE abolishes the binding of the PPARγ-RXRα heterodimer. Also, PPARγ-dependent transactivation and PPARγ-RXRα binding to this PPRE are prevented by PPARγ antagonists. Our results provide a novel mechanism for the tumoricidal activity of PEDF, which involves tumor cell killing via PPARγ-mediated TRAIL induction in macrophages.

  8. Sex-specific association of sequence variants in CBS and MTRR with risk for promoter hypermethylation in the lung epithelium of smokers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kristina G; Stidley, Christine A; Mackey, Amanda J; Picchi, Maria A; Stabler, Sally P; Siegfried, Jill M; Byers, Tim; Berwick, Marianne; Belinsky, Steven A; Leng, Shuguang

    2012-08-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation is now regarded as a promising biomarker for the risk and progression of lung cancer. The one-carbon metabolism pathway is postulated to affect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation because it is responsible for the generation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for cellular methylation reactions. This study investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six one-carbon metabolism-related genes with promoter hypermethylation in sputum DNA from non-Hispanic white smokers in the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (LSC) (n = 907). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of SNPs with hypermethylation using a high/low methylation cutoff. SNPs in the cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) genes were significantly associated with high methylation in males [CBS rs2850146 (-8283G > C), OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.98, 12.2, P = 0.0006] and low methylation in females [MTRR rs3776467 (7068A > G), OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.77, P = 0.0003]. The variant allele of rs2850146 was associated with reduced gene expression and increased plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. Three plasma metabolites, Hcy, methionine and dimethylglycine, were associated with increased risk for gene methylation. These studies suggest that SNPs in CBS and MTRR have sex-specific associations with aberrant methylation in the lung epithelium of smokers that could be mediated by the affected one-carbon metabolism and transsulfuration in the cells.

  9. Designing evaluation plans for health promotion mHealth interventions: a case study of the Milk Man mobile app.

    PubMed

    White, Becky K; Burns, Sharyn K; Giglia, Roslyn C; Scott, Jane A

    2016-10-26

    Evaluating complex health promotion interventions that use mobile apps requires comprehensive and adaptive evaluation plans. As mobile usage becomes increasingly sophisticated and personalised, broad evaluation plans are important in determining the impact and efficacy of a mobile health (mHealth) app. Evaluation should consider user feedback and outcome measures, as well as examine elements such as the robustness of the technology, the intervention principles and engagement strategies, and the interaction of the user with the technology. This paper introduces four mHealth evaluation models and tools and describes the evaluation plan that has been developed for Milk Man, a breastfeeding app targeting new and expectant fathers. Milk Man is a socially connected, gamified app that is being tested in a large Randomised Control Trial (RCT). While there is a need for mobile apps to be evaluated in adequately powered RCTs, trialling mobile apps over a long period of time presents challenges. Incorporating robust evaluation design will help ensure that technological performance, app intervention principles, as well as health and behavioural outcomes are measured. The detail and scope of the Milk Man app evaluation plan will ensure the findings add to the evidence base and have broad relevance to health promotion practitioners.So what? Evidence about the efficacy of mHealth interventions is an emerging area and appropriate evaluation skills are needed. This paper illustrates an evaluation planning approach for mHealth interventions that could be adapted for use by health promotion practitioners and researchers.

  10. Two GC boxes (Sp1 sites) are involved in regulation of the activity of the epithelium-specific MUC1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, A; Lu, P J; Peat, N; Morris, J; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J

    1996-07-26

    In this report, we have analyzed the function of two Sp1 sites present in the epithelium-specific MUC1 promoter. Using promoter-reporter gene (CAT) constructs, we found that mutagenesis of either of the Sp1 binding motifs at -576/-568 and -99/-90, reduced transcription in MUC1-expressing epithelial cell lines. However, abolition of the binding site at -99/-91 by mutagenesis also resulted in increased transcriptional activity in non-epithelial cell lines, suggesting involvement of the site in tissue-specific expression. In vitro binding assays revealed a novel binding motif at -101/-89 (AGGGGGCGGGGTT), which overlaps but differs from the Sp1 consensus motif by having an adenine residue in the 5'-flanking sequence. The 5'-flanking sequence appeared to be important for binding of an Sp1-unrelated factor (SpA) but not for binding of Sp1. Site-directed mutagenesis of the motif into a site able to bind Sp1, but unable to bind SpA, resulted in an increased level of transcription of the CAT reporter gene in all cell lines tested, suggesting a repressive effect of the novel factor on transcription. The ratio between the Sp1 and SpA binding activity in nuclear extracts correlated with both promoter activity and the levels of endogenous transcription in different breast cancer cell lines. Our results are consistent with the idea that the relative activities of the two factors may be involved in the up-regulation of expression of the MUC1 gene seen in breast and other carcinomas.

  11. Promoting the selection of low-fat milk in elementary school cafeterias in an inner-city Latino community: evaluation of an intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Basch, C E; Zybert, P; Shea, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of a school-based intervention designed to promote the consumption of low-fat white milk at lunchtime in 6 elementary schools in an inner-city, primarily Latino neighborhood. METHODS: A multifaceted intervention based on social marketing techniques was delivered at 3 randomly selected schools. The school was the unit of assignment and analysis; 6902 children were involved in the study. Milk selection and consumption were measured by sampling discarded milk and/or tallying milk carton disappearance at baseline, immediately postintervention, and at 3 to 4 months follow-up. RESULTS: Immediately postintervention, the mean proportion of sampled milk cartons that contained low-fat milk increased in the intervention schools, from 25% to 57%, but remained constant at 28% in the control schools. Differences between intervention and control schools remained significant at 3 to 4 months follow-up. The intervention was not associated with a decrease in overall milk consumption. CONCLUSIONS: A school-based intervention can lead to significant increases in student consumption of low-fat milk. PMID:9518975

  12. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which milk...

  13. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  14. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk produced in the United States. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk. ...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1150.111 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk. 1150.111 Section 1150.111 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.111 Milk. Milk means any class of cow's milk. ...

  19. The Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system promotes IL-8 synthesis in a model of pediatric airway epithelium via p38 MAP kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Monica T.; Hansen, Lori M.; Solnick, Jay V.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys. Airway epithelial cell cultures were infected with wild-type or cag pathogenicity island mutant H. pylori strains, followed by evaluation of IL-8 and IL-6 protein synthesis. We found that H. pylori primarily increased IL-8 synthesis in a MOI and age-dependent fashion, with a greater than 4-fold induction in infant versus adult cultures. H. pylori-induced IL-8 synthesis in infant and juvenile cultures was significantly reduced by cag pathogenicity island mutants, indicating a requirement for the type IV secretion system. Although peptidoglycan recognition of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NF-kappaB have been implicated as key cytokine signaling molecules for H. pylori infection in gastric epithelium, NOD1 (ML130) or NF-kappaB (JSH-23) inhibitors minimally affected IL-8 synthesis in airway epithelial cell cultures following H. pylori infection. In contrast, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway (SB203580) resulted in almost complete suppression of H. pylori-induced IL-8 synthesis. Collectively, these results indicate that H. pylori can preferentially elicit IL-8 synthesis in a model of pediatric airway epithelium using the type IV secretion system via p38 MAP kinase. PMID:28813514

  20. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R.; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  1. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  2. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  3. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  5. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  6. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person who...

  7. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person who...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person who...

  10. 7 CFR 1160.115 - Milk marketing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk marketing area. 1160.115 Section 1160.115... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.115 Milk marketing area. Milk marketing area means each area within which...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.108 - Fluid milk processor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk processor. 1160.108 Section 1160.108... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.108 Fluid milk processor. (a) Fluid milk processor means any person...

  12. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  13. Media audit reveals inappropriate promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Vinje, Kristine Hansen; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Nguyen, Tuan Thanh; Henjum, Sigrun; Ribe, Lovise Omoijuanfo; Mathisen, Roger

    2017-06-01

    To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Regulations on the child's age for inappropriate marketing of products are all below the Code's updated recommendation of 36 months (i.e. 12 months in Thailand and Indonesia; 24 months in the other three countries) and are voluntary in Thailand. Although the advertisements complied with the national regulations on the age limit, they had content (e.g. stages of milk formula; messages about the benefit; pictures of a child) that confused audiences. Market size and growth of milk formula were positively associated with the number of newborns and the number of advertisements, and were not affected by the current level of implementation of breast-milk substitute laws and regulations. The present media audit reveals inappropriate promotion and insufficient national regulation of products under the scope of the Code in South-East Asia. Strengthened implementation of regulations aligned with the Code's updated recommendation should be part of comprehensive strategies to minimize the harmful effects of advertisements of breast-milk substitutes on maternal and child nutrition and health.

  14. Bisphenol A Promotes Human Prostate Stem-Progenitor Cell Self-Renewal and Increases In Vivo Carcinogenesis in Human Prostate Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Majumdar, Shyama; Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nelles, Jason L.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Walker, Cheryl Lyn; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in rodent models have shown that early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) reprograms the prostate and enhances its susceptibility to hormonal carcinogenesis with aging. To determine whether the human prostate is similarly sensitive to BPA, the current study used human prostate epithelial stem-like cells cultured from prostates of young, disease-free donors. Similar to estradiol-17β (E2), BPA increased stem-progenitor cell self-renewal and expression of stem-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. Further, 10 nM BPA and E2 possessed equimolar membrane-initiated signaling with robust induction of p-Akt and p-Erk at 15 minutes. To assess in vivo carcinogenicity, human prostate stem-progenitor cells combined with rat mesenchyme were grown as renal grafts in nude mice, forming normal human prostate epithelium at 1 month. Developmental BPA exposure was achieved through oral administration of 100 or 250 μg BPA/kg body weight to hosts for 2 weeks after grafting, producing free BPA levels of 0.39 and 1.35 ng/mL serum, respectively. Carcinogenesis was driven by testosterone plus E2 treatment for 2 to 4 months to model rising E2 levels in aging men. The incidence of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma markedly increased from 13% in oil-fed controls to 33% to 36% in grafts exposed in vivo to BPA (P < .05). Continuous developmental BPA exposure through in vitro (200 nM) plus in vivo (250 μg/kg body weight) treatments increased high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia/cancer incidence to 45% (P < .01). Together, the present findings demonstrate that human prostate stem-progenitor cells are direct BPA targets and that developmental exposure to BPA at low doses increases hormone-dependent cancer risk in the human prostate epithelium. PMID:24424067

  15. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Alicia M.; Roy, Nicole C.; McNabb, Warren C.; Cookson, Adrian L.

    2016-01-01

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells), that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10) and large intestine (75:25). Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL) enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27164134

  16. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Milk: Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulajić, S.; Đorđević, J.; Ledina, T.; Šarčević, D.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    Although milk/dairy consumption is part of many cultures and is recommended in most dietary guidelines around the world, its contribution to overall diet quality remains a matter of controversy, leading to a highly polarized debate within the scientific community, media and public sector. The present article, at first, describes the evolutionary roots of milk consumption, then reviews the milk-derived bioactive peptides as health-promoting components. The third part of the article, in general, presents the associations between milk nutrients, disease prevention, and health promotion.

  18. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) peptide promotes the expansion of hepatic stem/progenitor cells via ERK and STAT3-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) have been considered as a potential cell source of an alternative to liver transplantation. Production of large numbers of autologous HPC from small pieces of live tissue is crucial for the application of HPC-based liver therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that a synthetic 44-amino acid peptide (44-mer) derived from pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can facilitate the production of a large number of actively dividing HPC from normal adult rat livers in a 35-day culture period. The phenotypic properties of HPC were characterized by morphological observation, colony formation and high expression of classical HPC markers including epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and tumor-associated calcium signal transducer (TROP2). The 44-mer stimulated HPC proliferation in vitro and in mouse livers injured by a single intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the 44-mer induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 in HPC. Blocking the activity of ERK or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of the 44-mer on the induction of HPC proliferation. The long-term expanded HPC still possessed a bipotent ability to differentiate towards bile duct cells and mature hepatocytes. These results imply that the PEDF peptide may be a simple and effective agent to improve HPC-based liver therapy.

  19. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) peptide promotes the expansion of hepatic stem/progenitor cells via ERK and STAT3-dependent signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shou-Chuan; Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chen, Show-Li; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) have been considered as a potential cell source of an alternative to liver transplantation. Production of large numbers of autologous HPC from small pieces of live tissue is crucial for the application of HPC-based liver therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that a synthetic 44-amino acid peptide (44-mer) derived from pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can facilitate the production of a large number of actively dividing HPC from normal adult rat livers in a 35-day culture period. The phenotypic properties of HPC were characterized by morphological observation, colony formation and high expression of classical HPC markers including epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and tumor-associated calcium signal transducer (TROP2). The 44-mer stimulated HPC proliferation in vitro and in mouse livers injured by a single intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the 44-mer induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 in HPC. Blocking the activity of ERK or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of the 44-mer on the induction of HPC proliferation. The long-term expanded HPC still possessed a bipotent ability to differentiate towards bile duct cells and mature hepatocytes. These results imply that the PEDF peptide may be a simple and effective agent to improve HPC-based liver therapy. PMID:28386338

  20. Development of preneoplastic lesions in the liver and nasal epithelium of rats initiated with N-nitrosodimethylamine or N-nitrosopyrrolidine and promoted with polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Rangga-Tabbu, C; Sleight, S D

    1992-11-01

    In rats, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) induce liver tumours and, to a lesser extent, nasal tumours. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are liver tumour promoters and are highly persistent in tissues of rats. To characterize the development of preneoplastic lesions in the liver and nasal cavity, female Sprague-Dawley rats were initiated with NDMA or NPYR and promoted with Firemaster (FM), a commercial mixture of PBBs. Rats were killed after 30, 120 or 180 days of promotion. Liver and nasal tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and were tested immunohistochemically for glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P). Significantly more altered hepatocellular foci (AHF) were evident in rats initiated with NDMA or NPYR and promoted with FM compared with non-promoted groups or rats given only FM. Appreciable numbers of AHF were seen at 120 and 180 days in livers of rats in all other treatment groups, whereas the untreated control rats had no AHF. The percentage volume of the liver occupied by AHF was significantly higher in promoted rats given NDMA than in rats given only NDMA or FM. These results indicate that a single oral dose of PBB can significantly enhance development of AHF in rats initiated with NDMA or NPYR. Preneoplastic lesions in nasal tissues were not detected by staining with GST-P.

  1. Equine infectious anemia viral vector-mediated codelivery of endostatin and angiostatin driven by retinal pigmented epithelium-specific VMD2 promoter inhibits choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Kachi, Shu; Binley, Katie; Yokoi, Katsutoshi; Umeda, Naoyasu; Akiyama, Hideo; Muramatu, Daisuke; Iqball, Sharifah; Kan, On; Naylor, Stuart; Campochiaro, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a nonprimate lentivirus that does not cause human disease. Subretinal injection into mice of a recombinant EIAV lentiviral vector in which lacZ is driven by a CMV promoter (EIAV CMV LacZ) resulted in rapid and strong expression of LacZ in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and some other cells including ganglion cells, resulting in the presence of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside within the optic nerve. Substitution of the RPE-specific promoter from the vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD2) gene for the CMV promoter resulted in prolonged (at least 1 year) expression of LacZ that was restricted to RPE cells, albeit reduced 6- to 10-fold compared with the CMV promoter. Similarly, the amount of FLAG-tagged endostatin detected in eyes injected with the EIAV VMD2 Endo(FLAG) vector was similar to that seen in eyes injected with a vector that expressed both endostatin and angiostatin [EIAV VMD2 Endo(FLAG)/Angio]; expression was approximately 6-fold lower than with identical vectors in which the CMV promoter drove expression. Compared with murine eyes treated with a control EIAV vector, subretinal injection of EIAV vectors expressing murine endostatin alone or in combination with angiostatin driven by either the CMV or VMD2 promoter caused significant suppression of choroidal neovascularization (NV) at laser-induced rupture sites in Bruch's membrane. These data support proceeding toward clinical studies with EIAV-based gene therapy for choroidal NV, using the VMD2 promoter to selectively drive expression of a combination of endostatin and angiostatin in RPE cells.

  2. Breast-milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poland, R L

    1981-07-01

    The inhibiting agent of UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT), inhibition of which is associated with breast milk jaundice syndrome in infants, was thought to be 3(alpha),20(beta)-pregnandiol. European researchers have begun in vitro investigations to discover the inhibiting substance, and all studies have confirmed it is a nonesterified fatty acid. The strong association between breast milk jaundice, elevated values of nonesterified fatty acids, and unstimulated lipase in UDPGT-inhibitory milk was confirmed by electrophoretic technique. The mechanisms responsible for production of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubeinemia in infants, however, is not understood. 2 theories have been offered: 1) that milk triglyceride digestion before the milk reaches the duodenum leads to early absorption of most of the liberated glycerol that might otherwise be used by intestinal epithelium to resynthesize triglycerides; or 2) inhibitory human milk may facilitate the enterohepatic recirculation of bilirubin (reabsorption of bilirubin from intestinal lumen). Breast-feeding per se does not result in an increased incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; it is rather those infants who receive insufficient amounts of breast milk who develop the condition.

  3. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  4. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  5. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  6. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products normally...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  8. Isolation of a glycopolypeptide fraction with Lactobacillus bifidus subspecies pennsylvanicus growth-promoting activity from whole human milk casein.

    PubMed

    Bezkorovainy, A; Grohlich, D; Nichols, J H

    1979-07-01

    Human milk casein samples were digested with trypsin and chymotrypsin, and a glycopolypeptide fraction was isolated from the soluble portion of the digests by a series of gel filtration steps. The glycopeptide fraction stimulated the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus subspecies pennsylvanicius to the same extent as a whey glycopolypeptide fraction previously isolated (Pediat. Res. 10: 1, 1976). It contained between 60 and 70% carbohydrate consisting of galactose, galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, and sialic acid. This, along with its apparent molecular weight of near 30,000 was also similar to the respective parameters of the whey glycopolypeptide. It is proposed that human milk casein may serve a dual function: that serving the nutritional needs of the breast-fed infant, and that stimulating the growth of L. bifidus subspecies pennsylvanicus. Additionally, the whey glycopolypeptide may arise from casein through proteolysis by an endogenous milk protease.

  9. Inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 and activation of receptor 2 protect against colonic injury and promote epithelium repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Lee, Carol; Filler, Tali; Hock, Alison; Wu, Richard You; Li, Qi; Chen, Shigang; Koike, Yuhki; Ip, Wan; Chi, Lijun; Zani-Ruttenstock, Elke; Määttänen, Pekka; Gonska, Tanja; Delgado-Olguin, Paul; Zani, Augusto; Sherman, Philip M.; Pierro, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Maternal separation (MS) in neonates can lead to intestinal injury. MS in neonatal mice disrupts mucosal morphology, induces colonic inflammation and increases trans-cellular permeability. Several studies indicate that intestinal epithelial stem cells are capable of initiating gut repair in a variety of injury models but have not been reported in MS. The pathophysiology of MS-induced gut injury and subsequent repair remains unclear, but communication between the brain and gut contribute to MS-induced colonic injury. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the mediators involved in the brain–gut axis response to MS-induced damage. We investigated the roles of the CRH receptors, CRHR1 and CRHR2, in MS-induced intestinal injury and subsequent repair. To distinguish their specific roles in mucosal injury, we selectively blocked CRHR1 and CRHR2 with pharmacological antagonists. Our results show that in response to MS, CRHR1 mediates gut injury by promoting intestinal inflammation, increasing gut permeability, altering intestinal morphology, and modulating the intestinal microbiota. In contrast, CRHR2 activates intestinal stem cells and is important for gut repair. Thus, selectively blocking CRHR1 and promoting CRHR2 activity could prevent the development of intestinal injuries and enhance repair in the neonatal period when there is increased risk of intestinal injury such as necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:28492284

  10. Iodine-induced neonatal hypothyroidism secondary to maternal seaweed consumption: a common practice in some Asian cultures to promote breast milk supply.

    PubMed

    Emder, Phillip John; Jack, Michelle Marion

    2011-10-01

    Mild iodine deficiency is a recognised problem in Australia and New Zealand. However, iodine excess can cause hypothyroidism in some infants. We highlight two cases which illustrate the risks of excess dietary iodine intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding. They also describe a cultural practice of consuming seaweed soup to promote breast milk supply. Although most attention recently has been on the inadequacy of iodine in Australian diets, the reverse situation should not be overlooked. Neither feast nor famine is desirable. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating humans and to determine whether RNA extracted from milk fractions is representative of RNA extracted from mammary tissue for the purpose of studying the transcriptome of milk-producing cells. Results We confirmed that macaque milk contains cytoplasmic crescents and that ample high-quality RNA can be obtained for sequencing. Using RNA sequencing, RNA extracted from macaque milk fat and milk cell fractions more accurately represented RNA from mammary epithelial cells (cells that produce milk) than did RNA from whole mammary tissue. Mammary epithelium-specific transcripts were more abundant in macaque milk fat, whereas adipose or stroma-specific transcripts were more abundant in mammary tissue. Functional analyses confirmed the validity of milk as a source of RNA from milk-producing mammary epithelial cells. Conclusions RNA extracted from the milk fat during lactation accurately portrayed the RNA profile of milk-producing mammary epithelial cells in a non-human primate. However, this sample type clearly requires protocols that minimize RNA degradation. Overall, we validated the use of RNA extracted from human and macaque milk and provided evidence to support the use of lactating macaques as a model for human lactation. PMID:24330573

  12. Optimizing School-Based Health-Promotion Programmes: Lessons from a Qualitative Study of Fluoridated Milk Schemes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Geraldine R. K.; Tickle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Some districts in the United Kingdom (UK), where the level of child dental caries is high and water fluoridation has not been possible, implement school-based fluoridated milk (FM) schemes. However, process variables, such as consent to drink FM and loss of children as they mature, impede the effectiveness of these…

  13. Optimizing School-Based Health-Promotion Programmes: Lessons from a Qualitative Study of Fluoridated Milk Schemes in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Geraldine R. K.; Tickle, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective: Some districts in the United Kingdom (UK), where the level of child dental caries is high and water fluoridation has not been possible, implement school-based fluoridated milk (FM) schemes. However, process variables, such as consent to drink FM and loss of children as they mature, impede the effectiveness of these…

  14. Milk fermentation products of L. helveticus R389 activate calcineurin as a signal to promote gut mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Matar, Chantal; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Background Fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria are a way of delivering bioactive constituents to targets in the gastrointestinal tract. We reported previously that the fermentation of milk at constant pH 6 by L. helveticus R389 increased its content of peptide fractions, and the oral administration of the non-bacterial fraction (FMSpH6) to mice increased total secretory IgA in the intestinal lumen and enhanced the number of IgA and various cytokines producing cells as well as the secretion of IL-6 by small intestine epithelial cells. We also demonstrated that this FMSpH6 was effective for the prevention of Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. In this work, we studied in mice the impact of the oral administration of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 on the gut physiology by measuring parameters such as calcium channels and E-cadherin expression, the activation of the biological signal calcineurin and mast and goblet cells, as a way to determine some mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating effects of the milk fermentation products, observed in previous studies. We analyzed the impact of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 at pH6-controlled on the expression of calcineurin and on the reinforcement of the ephitelial barrier, measuring parameters such as calcium channels and E-cadherin expression and in the reinforcement of the non-specific immunity determining mast cells and goblet cells associated to the gut. Results We observed an enhanced expression of TRPV6 channels in the duodenum, indicating an improved capacity for dietary Ca2+ uptake. We demonstrated an enhanced expression of calcineurin in the small intestine, able to upregulate immune parameters such as IL-2 and TNF production, with an increase in the number of these cytokines secreting cells. We determined an increase in the number of mucosal mast cells and goblet cells, which would mean an improved state of mucosal surveillance at sites of

  15. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

    PubMed

    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children.

  16. A low-molecular-weight factor in human milk whey promotes iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, Paz; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P

    2004-01-01

    The iron bioavailability of human milk (HM) is substantially greater than that of cow's milk (CM), but the factor responsible for this high bioavailability is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of various HM and CM fractions on iron bioavailability. Milk was separated into fat, casein and whey fractions by ultracentrifugation. Whey was further fractionated by ultrafiltration with a 10-kDa membrane to produce a 10-kDa retentate (10kR) and a 10-kDa filtrate (10kF). Samples were prepared by mixing various combinations of the fractions, bringing the samples to prefractionation weight with minimum essential medium (MEM), and adding iron (10 micro mol/L) as ferrous sulfate. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one was subjected to in vitro digestion, the other was not. Bioavailability was assessed by applying the samples to Caco-2 cell monolayers and incubating for 24 h. Ferritin formation in the cells was used as an index of iron uptake. Removing the fat from undigested HM samples doubled the ferritin formation, but removing the whey or casein had no effect. Results with digested HM samples were similar, except that removing the whey decreased ferritin formation by 48%. Removing the fat from digested CM samples had no effect, but removing the casein doubled the ferritin formation. Removing the 10kF from HM reduced ferritin formation by 60%, but removing the 10kR had no effect. These data suggest that a low-molecular-weight factor (<10 kDa) in human milk enhances iron absorption.

  17. [Regeneration of airway epithelium].

    PubMed

    Adam, D; Perotin, J-M; Lebargy, F; Birembaut, P; Deslée, G; Coraux, C

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a complex process. It can lead to the remodeling of the airway epithelium as in asthma, COPD or cystic fibrosis. The development of in vivo and in vitro models has allowed the analysis of remodeling mechanisms and showed the role of components of extracellular matrix, proteases, cytokines and growth factors. Airway epithelial progenitors and stems cells have been studied in these models. However, their identification remains difficult. Identification and characterization of airway epithelial progenitor/stem-cells, and a better knowledge of the regeneration process may allow the development of new therapeutic strategies for airway epithelial reconstitution. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural Stem Cell-based Intraocular Administration of Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Axon Regeneration after Optic Nerve Crush Injury in Rat: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Gao, Yan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is regarded as a multifunctional protein possessing neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. PEDF has a very short half-life, and it would require multiple injections to maintain a therapeutically relevant level without a delivery system. However, multiple injections are prone to cause local damage or infection. To overcome this, we chose a cell-based system that provided sustained delivery of PEDF and compared the effect of weekly injections of PEDF and neural stem cell (NSC)-based intraocular administration of PEDF on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. Methods: Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group with injections of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n=24), group with weekly injections of PEDF (n=24), and group with NSC-based administration of PEDF (n=24). Western blot was used to analyze the PEDF protein level 2 weeks after injection. Retinal flat mounts and immunohistochemistry were employed to analyze RGC survival and axon regeneration 2 weeks and 4 weeks after injection. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA in SPSS (version 19.0). A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The PEDF protein level in the group with NSC-based administration of PEDF increased compared with that in the groups with injections of PEDF and PBS (P<0.05). The PEDF-modified NSCs differentiated into GFAP-positive astrocytes andβ-tubulin-III-positive neurons. NSC-based administration of PEDF effectively increased RGC survival and improved the axon regeneration of the optic nerve compared with weekly injections of PEDF. Conclusion: Subretinal space transplantation of PEDF-secreting NSCs sustained high concentrations of PEDF, differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, and significantly promoted RGC survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury. PMID:27582587

  19. Intrinsic Defense Mechanisms of the Intestinal Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-04-13

    The intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer that facilitates the absorption of nutrients but also provides a tight barrier to prevent pathogen invasion and dissemination of commensal microbes. Specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract achieve this frontline defense by working in concert with lymphoid, myeloid, and stromal cells to secrete an array of factors that limit direct contact between the epithelium and infectious agents. The importance of these mechanisms is underscored by the ability of enteric pathogens to target these mechanisms to achieve invasion and dissemination. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of these intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms adopted by these cells to promote spatial segregation and barrier maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic Defense Mechanisms of the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer that facilitates the absorption of nutrients but also provides a tight barrier to prevent pathogen invasion and dissemination of commensal microbes. Specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract achieve this front-line defense by working in concert with lymphoid, myeloid, and stromal cells to secrete an array of factors that limit direct contact between the epithelium and infectious agents. The importance of these mechanisms is underscored by the ability of enteric pathogens to target these mechanisms to achieve invasion and dissemination. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of these intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms adopted by these cells to promote spatial segregation and barrier maintenance. PMID:27049583

  1. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection, and can cause severe pathology in the fetus and the immunocompromised host[1]. Breast milk is the primary route of transmission in humans worldwide, and breast epithelium is thus a likely site of persistent infection and/or reactivation, though this phenomenon has not previously been demonstrated. Increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate signaling pathways associated with oncogenesis. We hypothesized that persistent HCMV infection occurs in normal adult breast epithelium and that persistent viral expression might be associated with normal and neoplastic ductal epithelium. Methods Surgical biopsy specimens of normal breast (n = 38) breast carcinoma (n = 39) and paired normal breast from breast cancer patients (n = 21) were obtained. Specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, PCR and DNA sequencing for evidence of HCMV antigens and nucleic acids. Results We detected HCMV expression specifically in glandular epithelium in 17/27 (63%) of normal adult breast cases evaluated. In contrast, HCMV expression was evident in the neoplastic epithelium of 31/32 (97%) patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases evaluated (p = 0.0009). Conclusions These findings are the first to demonstrate that persistent HCMV infection occurs in breast epithelium in a significant percentage of normal adult females. HCMV expression was also evident in neoplastic breast epithelium in a high percentage of normal and neoplastic breast tissues obtained from breast cancer patients, raising the possibility that viral infection may be involved in the neoplastic process. PMID:21429243

  2. Lactose in blood plasma and the ability of dairy cows to tolerate once-daily milking in terms of milk loss and milk recovery.

    PubMed

    Guinard-Flament, J; Gallard, Y; Larroque, H

    2011-07-01

    This experiment described the variability among cows with the aim of studying the ability of dairy cows to tolerate once-daily milking (ODM) in terms of milk losses and milk recoveries observed when cows are switched from twice- to once-daily milking and then back to twice-daily milking (TDM). It also aimed to investigate whether or not lactose in blood plasma, which indicates the mammary epithelium permeability, is correlated with milk losses and recoveries and, consequently, a potential candidate assessor of dairy cow tolerance to ODM. The study used 86 crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Normande) split into 5 groups over 2 yr. The trial consisted of 3 successive periods: a 1-wk control period of TDM, then 3 wk of ODM, followed by 2 wk of TDM. Blood samples were collected 1 to 1.5h before the morning milking and 5 to 6h after milking on d -3, 0, 1, 3, 7, 21, 23, and 28, where d 0 is the last d of the control period. Milk losses measured as kilograms per day were higher in cows with highest control-period milk yields (r=-0.66). When expressed in relative terms (%), milk losses were weakly correlated with the control-period milk yield (r=-0.22). When switched back to TDM, cows recovered only 47% of the milk lost. Milk recovery (kg/d) was weakly correlated with control milk yield (r=0.34) and not correlated with ODM milk yield. Milk recovery was correlated with milk yield losses: the higher the milk yield losses (kg/d or %), the higher the milk recovery (kg/d; r=-0.59 and -0.52, respectively). Rate of milk recovery expressed as the quantity of milk recovered per kilogram of milk lost, was not correlated with milk loss expressed as a percentage. This means that to be considered well-adapted to ODM scheduling, a cow must be well adapted to milk loss, and be well adapted to milk recovery. Blood plasma lactose concentration (log(10)-transformed data) was not correlated with milk production levels in either control, ODM, or back-to-TDM periods. It was poorly correlated

  3. Intron V, not intron I of human thrombopoietin, improves expression in the milk of transgenic mice regulated by goat beta-casein promoter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Mingqian; Zhou, Hongwei; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Ning, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    Introns near 5′ end of genes generally enhance gene expression because of an enhancer /a promoter within their sequence or as intron-mediated enhancement. Surprisingly, our previous experiments found that the vector containing the last intron (intron V) of human thromobopoietin (hTPO) expressed higher hTPO in cos-1 cell than the vector containing intron I regulated by cytomegalovirus promoter. Moreover, regulated by 1.0 kb rat whey acidic protein promoter, hTPO expression was higher in transgenic mice generated by intron V-TPOcDNA than in transgenic mice generated by TPOcDNA and TPOgDNA. However, it is unknown whether the enhancement of hTPO expression by intron I is decreased by uAUG7 at 5′-UTR of hTPO in vivo. Currently, we constructed vectors regulated by stronger 6.5kb β-casein promoter, including pTPOGA (containing TPOcDNA), pTPOGB (containing TUR-TPOcDNA, TUR including exon1, intron I and non-coding exon2 of hTPO gene), pTPOGC (containing ΔTUR-TPOcDNA, nucleotides of TUR from uAUG7 to physiological AUG were deleted), pTPOGD (containing intron V-TPOcDNA) and pTPOGE (containing TPOgDNA), to evaluate the effect of intron I on hTPO expression and to further verify whether intron V enhances hTPO expression in the milk of transgenic mice. The results demonstrated that intron V, not intron I improved hTPO expression. PMID:26527459

  4. Intron V, not intron I of human thrombopoietin, improves expression in the milk of transgenic mice regulated by goat beta-casein promoter.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Mingqian; Zhou, Hongwei; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Ning, Yunshan

    2015-11-03

    Introns near 5' end of genes generally enhance gene expression because of an enhancer /a promoter within their sequence or as intron-mediated enhancement. Surprisingly, our previous experiments found that the vector containing the last intron (intron V) of human thromobopoietin (hTPO) expressed higher hTPO in cos-1 cell than the vector containing intron I regulated by cytomegalovirus promoter. Moreover, regulated by 1.0 kb rat whey acidic protein promoter, hTPO expression was higher in transgenic mice generated by intron V-TPOcDNA than in transgenic mice generated by TPOcDNA and TPOgDNA. However, it is unknown whether the enhancement of hTPO expression by intron I is decreased by uAUG7 at 5'-UTR of hTPO in vivo. Currently, we constructed vectors regulated by stronger 6.5 kb β-casein promoter, including pTPOGA (containing TPOcDNA), pTPOGB (containing TUR-TPOcDNA, TUR including exon1, intron I and non-coding exon2 of hTPO gene), pTPOGC (containing ΔTUR-TPOcDNA, nucleotides of TUR from uAUG7 to physiological AUG were deleted), pTPOGD (containing intron V-TPOcDNA) and pTPOGE (containing TPOgDNA), to evaluate the effect of intron I on hTPO expression and to further verify whether intron V enhances hTPO expression in the milk of transgenic mice. The results demonstrated that intron V, not intron I improved hTPO expression.

  5. A milk protein gene promoter directs the expression of human tissue plasminogen activator cDNA to the mammary gland in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pittius, C.W.; Hennighausen, L.; Lee, E.; Westphal, H.; Nicols, E.; Vitale, J.; Gordon, K. )

    1988-08-01

    Whey acidic protein (WAP) is a major whey protein in mouse milk. Its gene is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is inducible by steroid and peptide hormones. A series of transgenic mice containing a hybrid gene in which human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) cDNA is under the control of the murine WAP gene promoter had previously been generated. In this study, 21 tissues from lactating and virgin transgenic female mice containing the WAP-tPA hybrid gene were screened for the distribution of murine WAP and human tPA transcripts. Like the endogenous WAP RNA, WAP-tPA RNA was expressed predominantly in mammary gland tissue and appeared to be inducible by lactation. Whereas WAP transcripts were not detected in 22 tissues of virgin mice, low levels of WAP-tPA RNA, which were not modulated during lactation, were found in tongue, kidney, and sublingual gland. These studies demonstrate that the WAP gene promoter can target the expression of a transgene to the mammary gland and that this expression is inducible during lactation.

  6. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  7. Milk Thistle

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Milk Thistle Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about milk thistle—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  8. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink anything calcium-enriched, make sure it's also dairy-free. Milk and milk products can lurk in ... margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another product that may contain ...

  9. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause anaphylaxis — a severe, life-threatening reaction. Avoidance is the primary treatment for milk allergy. Fortunately, ... the symptoms, such as allergy medication or milk avoidance? What, if anything, appears to worsen the symptoms? ...

  10. Thoracoabdominal foregut duplication cyst with respiratory epithelium and alimentary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Ke Ren; Bai, Yu Zuo; Song, Dan; Wang, Weilin

    2010-05-01

    Thoracoabdominal foregut duplication is a rare congenital abnormality. The authors report a case of thoracoabdominal foregut duplication cyst in a 13-year-old male patient. The pathologic report revealed that a thoracic mass with a pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar epithelial lining (respiratory tract epithelium), an abdominal mass with gastric mucosa (alimentary tract epithelium), and the cyst originated from the foregut. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  12. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.111 Promotion. Promotion means the following activities: (a) Consumer Education,...

  13. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.111 Promotion. Promotion means the following activities: (a) Consumer Education, which...

  14. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  15. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  16. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    PubMed

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Supplementation in Formula Modulates the Neonatal Gut Microbiome and Normalizes Intestinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bhinder, Ganive; Allaire, Joannie M.; Garcia, Cyrielle; Lau, Jennifer T.; Chan, Justin M.; Ryz, Natasha R.; Bosman, Else S.; Graef, Franziska A.; Crowley, Shauna M.; Celiberto, Larissa S.; Berkmann, Julia C.; Dyer, Roger A.; Jacobson, Kevan; Surette, Michael G.; Innis, Sheila M.; Vallance, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Breast milk has many beneficial properties and unusual characteristics including a unique fat component, termed milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). While breast milk yields important developmental benefits, there are situations where it is unavailable resulting in a need for formula feeding. Most formulas do not contain MFGM, but derive their lipids from vegetable sources, which differ greatly in size and composition. Here we tested the effects of MFGM supplementation on intestinal development and the microbiome as well as its potential to protect against Clostridium difficile induced colitis. The pup-in-a-cup model was used to deliver either control or MFGM supplemented formula to rats from 5 to 15 days of age; with mother’s milk (MM) reared animals used as controls. While CTL formula yielded significant deficits in intestinal development as compared to MM littermates, addition of MFGM to formula restored intestinal growth, Paneth and goblet cell numbers, and tight junction protein patterns to that of MM pups. Moreover, the gut microbiota of MFGM and MM pups displayed greater similarities than CTL, and proved protective against C. difficile toxin induced inflammation. Our study thus demonstrates that addition of MFGM to formula promotes development of the intestinal epithelium and microbiome and protects against inflammation. PMID:28349941

  18. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  19. Targeted expression of activated Rac3 in mammary epithelium leads to defective postlactational involution and benign mammary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Leung, Karen; Nagy, Andre; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora; Kaartinen, Vesa

    2003-01-01

    Rac3, a novel member of the Rho subfamily of the small GTPases, is frequently activated in cultured breast cancer cells and has been shown to mediate its effect via the p21-activated kinase (Pak) pathway. In order to evaluate these findings in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express human constitutively active V12Rac under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, which targets the transgene expression to the mammary epithelium. V12Rac3 expression could be detected during the first pregnancy, and the transgenic mammary gland tissues displayed an elevated Pak1 phosphorylation. Although milk proteins, beta-casein and whey acidic protein were expressed and milk fat globules accumulated normally during pregnancy, 60% of transgenic mothers failed to nurse their pups. Surprisingly, although full lactational differentiation was never achieved in transgenic mice, gland involution was incomplete. For 5 days after weaning, involution was normal, but thereafter, epithelial islands characteristic of this early stage of involution persisted for months. The apoptotic index decreased after 5 days, and these glands were associated with increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Nine months postpartum, the transgenic mammary glands still demonstrated a large amount of persistent epithelial islands and abnormally large ducts with lymphocyte infiltration, whereas the tissues of non-transgenic controls had returned to their normal 'virgin-like' phenotype. These data show that sustained activation of Rac3 in the mammary epithelium leads to impaired mammary gland physiology and results in the formation of mammary gland lesions. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor VIII Attenuates CNS Injury by Promoting Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Migration after Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Jacob, Asha; Zhou, Mian; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The mediators in activating neural stem cells during the regenerative process of neurogenesis following stroke have not been fully identified. Milk fat globule-EGF Factor VIII (MFG-E8), a secreted glycoprotein serves several cellular functions by binding to its receptor, αv β3-integrin. However, its role in regulating neural stem cells after stroke has not been determined yet. We therefore, aim to reveal whether MFG-E8 promotes neural stem cell proliferation and migration during stroke. Stroke was induced in wild-type (Wt) and MFG-E8-deficinet (Mfge8-/-) mice by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Commercially available recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) was used for mechanistic assays in neural stem cell line, while the in house prepared recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) was used for in vivo administration into rats with tMCAO. The in vitro effects of recombinant rmMFG-E8 for the neural stem cell proliferation and migration were determined by BrdU and transwell migration assay, respectively. The expression of cyclin D2, p53 and netrin-1, was analyzed by qPCR. We report that the treatment of rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the neurological deficit score, body weight lost and neural stem cell proliferation in a rat model of tMCAO. Conversely, decreased neural stem cell proliferation was observed in Mfge8-/- mice in comparison with the Wt counterparts underwent tMCAO. rmMFG-E8 stimulated the proliferation of mouse embryonic neural stem cells via upregulation of cyclin D2 and downregulation of p53, which is mediated by αv β3-integrin. rmMFG-E8 also promoted mouse embryonic neural stem cell migration via αv β3-integrin dependent manner in upregulating netrin-1. Our findings suggest MFG-E8 to promote neural stem cell proliferation and migration, which therefore establishes a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia. PMID:25867181

  1. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components.

    PubMed

    Hill, David R; Newburg, David S

    2015-07-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications.

  2. Clinical applications of bioactive milk components

    PubMed Central

    Newburg, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Milk represents a unique resource for translational medicine: It contains a rich pool of biologically active molecules with demonstrated clinical benefits. The ongoing characterization of the mechanistic process through which milk components promote development and immunity has revealed numerous milk-derived compounds with potential applications as clinical therapies in infectious and inflammatory disease, cancer, and other conditions. Lactoferrin is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent in high-risk patient populations and a potentially potent adjuvant to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Enteric nutrition formulas supplemented with transforming growth factor β, a milk cytokine, have been shown to promote remission in pediatric Crohn's disease. A number of milk glycans, including human milk oligosaccharides, show promise in preclinical studies as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. While active preclinical investigations of human milk may soon result in large-scale production of human milk molecules, bovine milk components in many instances represent a practical source of bioactive milk compounds for use in clinical trials. This review summarizes current efforts to translate the compounds derived from human and bovine milk into effective clinical therapies. These efforts suggest a common pathway for the translation of milk-derived compounds into clinical applications. PMID:26011900

  3. Milk lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  4. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  5. [Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk].

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in innate immunity when transferred to the offspring and may accelerate maturation of the immune system in neonates. The immunotropic properties of these proteins prompted investigators research their potential application in prevention and therapy. Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitice, and antitumoral activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth, and accelerates the recovery of immune system function in immunocompromised animals. LF was tried in the treatment of hepatitis C infection and the intestinal form of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) demonstrated a variety of immunotropic functions, including the promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders. PRP, in the form of chewable tablets (Colostrinin) was recently found to improve or stabilize the health status of Alzheimer's disease patients. Casein and casein-derived peptides showed protective activities in enamel demineralization and as caries-preventing agents. The protein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced tumor growth, had antihypertensive activity and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a peptide derived from kappa-casein, exhibited various antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. Alpha-lactalbumin (LA) demonstrated antiviral, antitumoral and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea, and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. HAMLET, a complex of LA and oleic acid, was effective in patients with cutaneous papillomas. Lysozyme found application in infant formulas, the treatment of periodentitis, and the prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. Interesting

  6. Epigenetic Regulation of the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ellen N.; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is an ideal model system for the study of normal and pathological differentiation processes. The mammalian intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer comprised of proliferative crypts and differentiated villi. The crypts contain both proliferating and quiescent stem cell populations that self-renew and produce all the differentiated cell types, which are replaced every 3 to 5 days. The genetics of intestinal development, homeostasis, and disease are well defined, but less is known about the contribution of epigenetics in modulating these processes. Epigenetics refers to heritable phenotypic traits, including gene expression, which are independent of mutations in the DNA sequence. We have known for several decades that human colorectal cancers contain hypomethylated DNA, but the causes and consequences of this phenomenon are not fully understood. In contrast, tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated in colorectal cancer, resulting in decreased expression of the associated gene. In this review, we describe the role that epigenetics plays in intestinal homeostasis and disease, with an emphasis on results from mouse models. We highlight the importance of producing and analyzing next-generation sequencing data detailing the epigenome from intestinal stem cell to differentiated intestinal villus cell. PMID:26220502

  7. Comparison of the levels of the growth factors in umbilical cord serum and human milk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Patki, Satish; Patki, Ujjwala; Patil, Rajendra; Indumathi, S; Kaingade, Pankaj; Bulbule, Akshata; Nikam, Amar; Pishte, Amit

    2012-08-01

    The process of the growth of the fetus begins in the uterus and gets further accelerated following the birth, especially during initial few months. The role of the growth factors in the physiology of the cellular growth is already well established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) seem to be imperative for angiogenesis, cell development and proliferation as well as maintenance of the tissues. The levels of these factors in the maternal serum during pregnancy as well as during postpartum period are insignificant. Consequently, we hypothesized that the fetus receives moderate supply of these growth factors from the placenta during its stay in the uterus. This supply gets further augmented during the postpartum period through the different source, i.e. mother's milk. To study this physiological transition of the source of the growth factors from the placenta to the breast milk, the concentrations of VEGF and HGF in the cord serum of full term neonates and that in the breast milk of the corresponding mothers were analyzed during ELISA. The human milk, especially the colostrum revealed significantly higher levels of VEGF and HGF (1541.759 ± 119.349 pg/ml and 7129.249 ± 273.472 pg/ml) than cord serum (16.632 ± 0.773 pg/ml and 2581.6 ± 108.275 pg/ml) respectively. The multifold higher levels of VEGF observed in colostrum probably correlates with its high neonatal requirement for the maturation of the gastrointestinal epithelium following birth. The higher levels of both the growth factors in the breast milk than those observed in the cord serum probably explain their higher needs by the neonates for immunological protection, protein synthesis and neurocognitive development. The observations of the present study strengthen the policy of the colostrum feeding, which is promoted by organizations like World Health Organization (WHO). This study further documents the fact that the commercial milk formulae cannot replace the human

  8. Milk, milk products, and disease free health: an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, R; Behare, P V; Kumar, M; Mohania, D; Yadav, M; Jain, S; Menon, S; Parkash, O; Marotta, F; Minelli, E; Henry, C J K; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    The cow and its milk have been held sacred in the world since the dawn of human civilization. Indian ancient Vedic texts describe the virtues of milk and dairy products, as is authenticated by modern scientific principles and proofs. Therefore, milk has been considered as one of the most natural and highly nutritive part of a daily balanced diet. Currently, the integration of advanced scientific knowledge with traditional information is gaining incredible momentum toward developing the concept of potential therapeutic foods. Furthermore, new advances toward understanding the therapeutic roles of milk and milk products have also given a new impetus for unraveling the age old secrets of milk. At present, the best-known examples of therapeutic foods are fermented milk products containing health promoting probiotic bacteria. In the present article, we have tried to review the various aspects of the therapeutic nature of milk and fermented dairy products in a highly up-dated manner, and offer an in-depth insight into the development of targeted therapeutic future foods as per the requirements of consumers.

  9. Barrier function of airway tract epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Comstock, Adam T; Sajjan, Uma S

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelium contributes significantly to the barrier function of airway tract. Mucociliary escalator, intercellular apical junctional complexes which regulate paracellular permeability and antimicrobial peptides secreted by the airway epithelial cells are the three primary components of barrier function of airway tract. These three components act cooperatively to clear inhaled pathogens, allergens and particulate matter without inducing inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. Therefore impairment of one or more of these essential components of barrier function may increase susceptibility to infection and promote exaggerated and prolonged innate immune responses to environmental factors including allergens and pathogens resulting in chronic inflammation. Here we review the regulation of components of barrier function with respect to chronic airways diseases. PMID:24665407

  10. Expanding the Supply of Pasteurized Donor Milk: Understanding Why Peer-to-Peer Milk Sharers in the United States Do Not Donate to Milk Banks.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Goodell, L Suzanne; Fogleman, April; Pettus, Hannah; Bodenheimer, Amanda L; Palmquist, Aunchalee E L

    2016-05-01

    Lactating women in the United States have several options for what they do with excess breast milk, including donating to milk banks that serve medically fragile infants, sharing directly with families seeking milk, and selling to individuals or for-profit entities. The World Health Organization and the US Surgeon General have issued calls to increase access to pasteurized donor milk for medically fragile infants. To explore how lactating women with a surplus of breast milk come to the decision to share their milk with a peer rather than donate to a milk bank. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was employed. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 27 women who had shared milk with a peer but not with a milk bank. Five dominant themes were identified: a strong belief in the value of breast milk, unexpected versus planned donation, sources of information regarding milk exchange, concerns and knowledge gaps about milk banks, and helping and connecting. This research offers insights into potential strategies for promoting milk bank donation among peer-to-peer milk sharers, including developing donor education campaigns focused on knowledge gaps regarding milk banks and developing health care professional referral programs that can reduce barriers associated with the convenience of milk bank donation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as processed lunchmeats, margarine, baked goods, artificial butter flavor, and non-dairy products. Chocolate is another ... yogurt, milk, pudding, sour cream, and cottage cheese butter, butter flavoring (such as diacetyl), butter fat, butter ...

  12. Beta-palmitate - a natural component of human milk in supplemental milk formulas.

    PubMed

    Havlicekova, Zuzana; Jesenak, Milos; Banovcin, Peter; Kuchta, Milan

    2016-03-17

    The composition and function of human milk is unique and gives a basis for the development of modern artificial milk formulas that can provide an appropriate substitute for non-breastfed infants. Although human milk is not fully substitutable, modern milk formulas are attempting to mimic human milk and partially substitute its complex biological positive effects on infants. Besides the immunomodulatory factors from human milk, research has been focused on the composition and structure of human milk fat with a high content of β-palmitic acid (sn-2 palmitic acid, β-palmitate). According to the available studies, increasing the content of β-palmitate added to milk formulas promotes several beneficial physiological functions. β-palmitate positively influences fatty acid metabolism, increases calcium absorption, improves bone matrix quality and the stool consistency, and has a positive effect on the development of the intestinal microbiome.

  13. Fortification of human milk for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Radmacher, Paula G; Adamkin, David H

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including those of very low birth weight (<1500 g). It has both nutritional and anti-infective properties which are especially important for infants at risk for sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. When maternal milk is not available or the amount produced is not sufficient to meet daily needs, donor human milk may (should) be used in its place. However, donor human milk is generally term in quality and likely has insufficient protein to promote appropriate growth. Whether donor or mother's own milk, fortification of human milk is required to meet nutrient requirements for growth and development for these preterm infants who are at high risk for growth faltering during the hospital stay. There are multiple strategies and products that may be employed to support desired growth rates. The advent of human milk analyzers may be helpful in a more customized approach to fortification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Late gestational hyperprolactinemia accelerates mammary epithelial cell differentiation that leads to increased milk yield.

    PubMed

    Vanklompenberg, M K; Manjarin, R; Trott, J F; McMicking, H F; Hovey, R C

    2013-03-01

    The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation. We hypothesized that inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet growth. A total of 19 Yorkshire-Hampshire gilts were assigned to receive either no treatment (CON, n = 9) or DOM (n = 10) twice daily from gestation d 90 to 110. Serial blood sampling during the treatment period and subsequent lactation confirmed that plasma PRL concentrations were increased in DOM gilts on gestation d 91 and 96 (P < 0.001). Piglets reared by DOM-treated gilts gained 21% more BW during lactation than controls (P = 0.03) because of increased milk production by these same gilts on d 14 (24%, P = 0.02) and 21 (32%, P < 0.001) of lactation. Milk composition did not differ between the 2 groups on d 1 or 20 of lactation. Alveolar volume within the MG of DOM-treated gilts was increased during the treatment period (P < 0.001), whereas epithelial proliferation was unaffected by treatment. Exposure to DOM during late gestation augmented the postpartum increase in mRNA expression within the MG for β-casein (P < 0.03), acetyl CoA carboxylase-α (P < 0.01), lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.06), α-lactalbumin (P < 0.08), and glucose transporter 1 (P < 0.06). These findings demonstrate that late gestational hyperprolactinemia enhances lactogenesis within the porcine MG and increases milk production in the subsequent lactation.

  15. Does milk intake promote prostate cancer initiation or progression via effects on insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sean; Lennon, Rosie; Holly, Jeff; Higgins, Julian P T; Gardner, Mike; Perks, Claire; Gaunt, Tom; Tan, Vanessa; Borwick, Cath; Emmet, Pauline; Jeffreys, Mona; Northstone, Kate; Rinaldi, Sabina; Thomas, Stephen; Turner, Suzanne D; Pease, Anna; Vilenchick, Vicky; Martin, Richard M; Lewis, Sarah J

    2017-06-01

    To establish whether the association between milk intake and prostate cancer operates via the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway (including IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3). Systematic review, collating data from all relevant studies examining associations of milk with IGF, and those examining associations of IGF with prostate cancer risk and progression. Data were extracted from experimental and observational studies conducted in either humans or animals, and analyzed using meta-analysis where possible, with summary data presented otherwise. One hundred and seventy-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 31 examining the milk-IGF relationship; 132 examining the IGF-prostate cancer relationship in humans; and 10 animal studies examining the IGF-prostate cancer relationship. There was moderate evidence that circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increase with milk (and dairy protein) intake (an estimated standardized effect size of 0.10 SD increase in IGF-I and 0.05 SD in IGFBP-3 per 1 SD increase in milk intake). There was moderate evidence that prostate cancer risk increased with IGF-I (Random effects meta-analysis OR per SD increase in IGF-I 1.09; 95% CI 1.03, 1.16; n = 51 studies) and decreased with IGFBP-3 (OR 0.90; 0.83, 0.98; n = 39 studies), but not with other growth factors. The IGFBP-3 -202A/C single nucleotide polymorphism was positively associated with prostate cancer (pooled OR for A/C vs. AA = 1.22; 95% CI 0.84, 1.79; OR for C/C vs. AA = 1.51; 1.03, 2.21, n = 8 studies). No strong associations were observed for IGF-II, IGFBP-1 or IGFBP-2 with either milk intake or prostate cancer risk. There was little consistency within the data extracted from the small number of animal studies. There was additional evidence to suggest that the suppression of IGF-II can reduce tumor size, and contradictory evidence with regards to the effect of IGFBP-3 suppression on tumor progression. IGF-I is a potential mechanism underlying the

  16. Milk-derived proteins and peptides of potential therapeutic and nutritive value.

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michal; Kruzel, Marian L

    2007-01-01

    Milk and colostrum are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in development of the immune system in mammalian offspring. Immunotropic properties of these compounds prompted investigators to search for their utility in prevention and therapy of various disorders in humans. The following constituents of milk are of particular interest: 1) Lactoferrin (LF)--exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasite and antitumor activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth and accelerates recovery of the immune system function in immunocompromised animal; 2) A Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) shows a variety of immunotropic functions, including promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition'of autoimmune disorders. PRP was recently found to improve or stabilize the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living status in Alzheimer's disease patients. 3) Casein--has been protective in experimental bacteremia by eliciting myelopoiesis. Casein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced the tumor growth and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Casein-derived peptides have been found to have antihypertensive effects. Glycomacropeptide (GMP)--a peptide derived from kappa casein, exhibits antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. 4) Alpha lactalbumin (LA)--demonstrates antiviral, antitumor and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. 5) Lysozyme--is effective in treatment of periodentitis and prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. 6) Lactoperoxidase--shows antibacterial properties. In conclusion, milk-derived proteins and peptides are bio-accessible and safe for the prevention and treatment of numerous disorders in humans.

  17. Introduction of the human growth hormone gene into the guinea pig mammary gland by in vivo transfection promotes sustained expression of human growth hormone in the milk throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Hens, J R; Amstutz, M D; Schanbacher, F L; Mather, I H

    2000-10-18

    We tested the feasibility of transfecting mammary tissue in vivo with an expression plasmid encoding the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Guinea pig mammary glands were transfected with plasmid DNA infused through the nipple canal and expression was monitored in control and transfected glands by radioimmunoassay of milk samples for hGH. Sustained expression of hGH throughout lactation was attained with a polyion transfection complex shown to be optimal for the transfection of bovine mammary cells, in vitro. However, contrary to expectations, hGH expression was consistently 5- to 10-fold higher when DEAE-dextran was used alone for transfection. Thus polyion complexes which are optimal for the transfection of cells in vitro may not be optimal in vivo. The highest concentrations of hGH in milk were obtained when glands were transfected within 3 days before parturition. This method may have application for studying the biological role or physical properties of recombinant proteins expressed in low quantities, or for investigating the regulation of gene promoters without the need to construct viral vectors or produce transgenic animals.

  18. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  19. Bovine milk in human nutrition – a review

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-01-01

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases. PMID:17894873

  20. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-09-25

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  1. Apoptosis induced by a human milk protein.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, A; Zhivotovsky, B; Orrenius, S; Sabharwal, H; Svanborg, C

    1995-08-15

    To the breast-fed infant, human milk is more than a source of nutrients; it furnishes a wide array of molecules that restrict microbes, such as antibodies, bactericidins, and inhibitors of bacterial adherence. However, it has rarely been considered that human milk may also contain substances bioactive toward host cells. While investigating the effect of human milk on bacterial adherence to a human lung cancer cell line, we were surprised to discover that the milk killed the cells. Analysis of this effect revealed that a component of milk in a particular physical state--multimeric alpha-lact-albumin--is a potent Ca(2+)-elevating and apoptosis-inducing agent with broad, yet selective, cytotoxic activity. Multimeric alpha-lactalbumin killed all transformed, embryonic, and lymphoid cells tested but spared mature epithelial elements. These findings raise the possibility that milk contributes to mucosal immunity not only by furnishing antimicrobial molecules but also by policing the function of lymphocytes and epithelium. Finally, analysis of the mechanism by which multimeric alpha-lactalbumin induces apoptosis in transformed epithelial cells could lead to the design of antitumor agents.

  2. Ductal barriers in mammary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Mark B; Hill, Arnold DK; Hopkins, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Tissue barriers play an integral role in the biology and pathobiology of mammary ductal epithelium. In normal breast physiology, tight and adherens junctions undergo dynamic changes in permeability in response to hormonal and other stimuli, while several of their proteins are directly involved in mammary tumorigenesis. This review describes first the structure of mammary ductal epithelial barriers and their role in normal mammary development, examining the cyclical changes in response to puberty, pregnancy, lactation and involution. It then examines the role of adherens and tight junctions and the participation of their constituent proteins in mammary tumorigenic functions such as migration, invasion and metastasis. Finally, it discusses the potential of these adhesion proteins as both prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer. PMID:24665412

  3. Donor human milk versus mother's own milk in preterm VLBWIs: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, F; Prandi, G; Coscia, A; Cresi, F; Di Nicola, P; Raia, M; Sabatino, G; Occhi, L; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    As for term infants, over the past decades there has been increasing evidence of the benefits of human milk in the feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBWI), influencing not only short-term health outcomes but also long-term neurodevelopmental, metabolic outcomes, and growth. Mother's own milk is the first choice for all neonates including preterm infants, when it is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk offers a safe alternative and is considered the next best choice. The main aim of this case-control retrospective analysis was to evaluate short term advantages of mother's own milk as a sole diet compared to donor milk as a sole diet, in terms of growth, antiinfectious properties, feeding tolerance, NEC and ROP prevention in a population of VLBWI born in a tertiary center. We did not find significant differences in clinical outcome from mother's own milk compared with pasteurized donor milk. Only a slight and statistically not significant difference in growth could be observed, in favour of maternal milk. We conclude that the maximum effort should always be put in supporting and promoting breastfeeding and donor milk used not only as an alternative to mother's milk but also as a breastfeeding promotion and support strategy.

  4. Does milk matter: Is children's intake affected by the type or amount of milk served at a meal?

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Samantha M.R.; Roe, Liane S.; Sanchez, Christine E.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 children aged 3-5 y (67 boys; 58 girls). Across the meals, milk was varied in ED (lower-ED [1% fat]; higher-ED [3.25% fat]) and portion size (100% [183 g]; 150% [275 g]). Foods in the meal were not varied; children ate as much of the meal as they wanted. Serving higher-ED milk did not affect milk intake by weight, but increased energy intake from milk by 31±2 kcal compared to serving lower-ED milk (P<0.0001). Serving the 150% portion of milk increased milk intake by 20±3 kcal compared to serving the 100% portion (P<0.0001). Increases in both ED and portion size combined to increase milk intake by 49±4 kcal (63%; P<0.0001). Across all children, food intake decreased when higher-ED rather than lower-ED milk was served, but meal energy intake (food+milk) did not change significantly. This response varied by sex: for boys, serving higher-ED milk decreased food intake by 43±8 kcal (P<0.0001) but did not affect meal energy intake, while for girls, higher-ED milk did not reduce food intake so that meal energy intake increased by 24±10 kcal (P=0.03). Thus, boys adjusted food intake in response to changes in ED of milk consumed with lunch, but girls did not. Serving milk in larger portions promotes intake of this nutrient-dense beverage, but the effects of milk ED on meal intake vary between children. PMID:27338218

  5. Human milk and the premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is the preferred feeding for both term and preterm infants. While being considered optimal for term infants, human milk, even from mothers delivering preterm infants, is lacking in protein, energy, sodium, calcium, and phosphorus, resulting in poorer growth and nutrient deficiencies when compared to formulas designed for these high-risk infants. Further, the lack of growth is associated with long-term adverse consequences. Since human milk has unique properties in promoting gastrointestinal maturation and immunological benefits, it is prudent to implement strategies to fortify it appropriately to realize its benefits which include reduced rates of necrotizing enterocolitis, fewer episodes of sepsis and urinary tract infections, and improved visual and neurocognitive development. Donor human milk is being widely used when mothers' own milk is not available or is in short supply. While it retains some of the biological properties and clinical benefits of mothers' own milk, it requires additional care in fortification, especially if the donor milk is from a pool of term human milk. As nutritional strategies improve, the ultimate goal is to minimize extrauterine growth restriction and promote appropriate growth after regaining birth weight.

  6. Activin Potentiates Proliferation in Mature Avian Auditory Sensory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McCullar, Jennifer S.; Ty, Sidya; Campbell, Sean; Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and other mammals are highly susceptible to permanent hearing and balance deficits due to an inability to regenerate sensory hair cells lost to inner ear trauma. In contrast, nonmammalian vertebrates, such as birds, robustly regenerate replacement hair cells and restore hearing and balance functions to near-normal levels. There is considerable interest in understanding the cellular mechanisms responsible for this difference in regenerative capacity. Here we report on involvement of the TGFβ superfamily type II activin receptors, Acvr2a and Acvr2b, in regulating proliferation in mature avian auditory sensory epithelium. Cultured, posthatch avian auditory sensory epithelium treated with Acvr2a and Acvr2b inhibitors shows decreased proliferation of support cells, the cell type that gives rise to new hair cells. Conversely, addition of activin A, an Acvr2a/b ligand, potentiates support cell proliferation. Neither treatment (inhibitor or ligand) affected hair cell survival, suggesting a specific effect of Acvr2a/b signaling on support cell mitogenicity. Using immunocytochemistry, Acvr2a, Acvr2b, and downstream Smad effector proteins were differentially localized in avian and mammalian auditory sensory epithelia. Collectively, these data suggest that signaling through Acvr2a/b promotes support cell proliferation in mature avian auditory sensory epithelium and that this signaling pathway may be incomplete, or actively blocked, in the adult mammalian ear. PMID:20071511

  7. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  8. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    PubMed

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  9. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth

    PubMed Central

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period. PMID:24785116

  10. Breast milk is the best.

    PubMed

    Saroja, K

    1981-02-01

    Throughout the world, the concept that the best milk is breast milk is gaining momentum from ever increasing supportive scientific evidence. In India the average mother even with her poor nutritional status has the ability to breastfeed her infant for prolonged periods, sometimes extending to nearly 2 years. Human milk generally forms the only source of dietary protein for poor Indian infants, and the nutritional status of poor infants and children would be much worse than what it is today if not for breast milk. The positive economic and health implications of breast milk are obvious; it is the most hygienic, safest, and suitable nourishment a mother can provide for her infant. Recently, there has been an unfortunate trend toward artificial feeding among the average Indian mother. This practice is spreading among rural mothers and mothers of low socioeconomic groups. Due to poverty and ignorance many mothers neither can prepare the artificial milk feeding formula hygienically nor feed their children well, and the children are not only deprived of essential nutrients but are exposed to unnecessary intestinal infections introduced through unsterilized bottles and nipples. The Protein Advisory Group of the UN has warned against early abandonment of breastfeeding, particularly in poor families, as devastating to the health and survival of infants. The practice of artificial feeding also has adverse economic implications. The expenditure incurred in the processing, packing, distributing, preparing, and refrigerating cow's milk is enormous and one that a developing country like India cannot afford. Breast feeding also has the advantage of a certain amount of contraceptive effect. Generalizations for the promotion of breastfeeding include the following: 1) unsupplemented human milk is all that is needed to sustain growth and good nutrition for the first 6 months of life; 2) the volume and composition of human milk among poor women is surprisingly good despite their low

  11. Comparative cytokeratin distribution patterns in cholesteatoma epithelium.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, E; Sudhoff, H

    2007-01-01

    Cytokeratins (CKs) are known as the intermediate filament proteins of epithelial origin. Their distribution in human epithelia is different according to the type of epithelium, state of growth and differentiation. We used monoclonal mouse antibodies against cytokeratins to study CK expression in the following human tissues: cholesteatoma, middle ear mucosa, glandular epithelium, and meatal ear canal epithelium. Immunohistochemical processing was performed using the labeled steptavidin peroxidase method to demonstrate the presence of CKs in cells of human epidermis. Positive reaction was obtained for CK4, CK34betaE12, CK10, CK14 in skin and cholesteatoma epithelium. However, a more extensive positive reaction with those CKs was observed in cholesteatoma epithelium. Positive immunoreactivity was seen with anti- CK19 in the glandular epithelium. Middle ear mucosa specimens revealed positive immunoreactivity with the antibodies against CK4. The expression of CK4 was definitely positive within the basal layers of the epidermis. The glandular epithelium showed no positive reaction with anti- CK4, anti- CK34betaE12, anti- CK14 and anti-CK10. Immunohistochemistry for CK18 showed no reaction in all examined tissues. Cholesteatoma is known as a proliferative disease in the middle ear which pathogenesis is not completely understood. Keratinocytes express hyperproliferation- associated CKs and after reaching the suprabasal layers they finally undergo apoptosis creating keratinous debris. Cytokeratin expression observed in the epithelium explains proliferative behavior of cholesteatoma which is associated with increased keratinocyte migration. Cytokeratins can be used as potential proliferative markers. It can also allow for searching the usefulness of inhibiting regulators in the treatment of hyperproliferative diseases.

  12. Osmotic regulation of airway reactivity by epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fedan, J S; Yuan, L X; Chang, V C; Viola, J O; Cutler, D; Pettit, L L

    1999-05-01

    Inhalation of nonisotonic solutions can elicit pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic airways. We evaluated the hypothesis that the respiratory epithelium is involved in responses of the airways to nonisotonic solutions using the guinea pig isolated, perfused trachea preparation to restrict applied agents to the mucosal (intraluminal) or serosal (extraluminal) surface of the airway. In methacholine-contracted tracheae, intraluminally applied NaCl or KCl equipotently caused relaxation that was unaffected by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but was attenuated by removal of the epithelium and Na+ and Cl- channel blockers. Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and nitric oxide synthase blockers caused a slight inhibition of relaxation, whereas Na+,K+-pump inhibition produced a small potentiation. Intraluminal hyperosmolar KCl and NaCl inhibited contractions in response to intra- or extraluminally applied methacholine, as well as neurogenic cholinergic contractions elicited with electric field stimulation (+/- indomethacin). Extraluminally applied NaCl and KCl elicited epithelium-dependent relaxation (which for KCl was followed by contraction). In contrast to the effects of hyperosmolarity, intraluminal hypo-osmolarity caused papaverine-inhibitable contractions (+/- epithelium). These findings suggest that the epithelium is an osmotic sensor which, through the release of epithelium-derived relaxing factor, can regulate airway diameter by modulating smooth muscle responsiveness and excitatory neurotransmission.

  13. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally. ...

  16. Intrachoroidal Neovascularization in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schwesinger, Catherine; Yee, Charles; Rohan, Richard M.; Joussen, Antonia M.; Fernandez, Antonio; Meyer, Tobias N.; Poulaki, Vassiliki; Ma, Joseph J. K.; Redmond, T. Michael; Liu, Suyan; Adamis, Anthony P.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration is a frequent and poorly treatable cause of vision loss in elderly Caucasians. This choroidal neovascularization has been associated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In current animal models choroidal neovascularization is induced by subretinal injection of growth factors or vectors encoding growth factors such as VEGF, or by disruption of the Bruch’s membrane/retinal pigment epithelium complex with laser treatment. We wished to establish a transgenic murine model of age-related macular degeneration, in which the overexpression of VEGF by the retinal pigment epithelium induces choroidal neovascularization. A construct consisting of a tissue-specific murine retinal pigment epithelium promoter (RPE65 promoter) coupled to murine VEGF164 cDNA with a rabbit β-globin-3′ UTR was introduced into the genome of albino mice. Transgene mRNA was expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium at all ages peaking at 4 months. The expression of VEGF protein was increased in both the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. An increase of intravascular adherent leukocytes and vessel leakage was observed. Histopathology revealed intrachoroidal neovascularization that did not penetrate through an intact Bruch’s membrane. These results support the hypothesis that additional insults to the integrity of Bruch’s membrane are required to induce growth of choroidal vessels into the subretinal space as seen in age-related macular degeneration. This model may be useful to screen for inhibitors of choroidal vessel growth. PMID:11238064

  17. Adenosine triphosphate in milk.

    PubMed

    Zulak, I M; Patton, S; Hammerstedt, R H

    1976-08-01

    Freshly secreted goat's milk contains a number of viable metabolic pathways including those for the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Toward understanding this matter, amounts of the fundamentally important energy substrate, adenosine triphosphate, in goat's milk were evaluated. Milk left in the goat udder overnight had less adenosine triphosphate (12.4 muM) than fresh secreted milk (37.6 muM). In similar experiments the skim milk derived from whole accumulating in the udder overnight was lower in adenosine triphosphate (14.2 muM) than skim milk from freshly secreted milk (26.0 muM). To determine changes in quantities of adenosine triphosphate after milking, milks were divided into two parts, one containing only milk and the other milk plus 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium arsenate, inhibitors of oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation. Adenosine triphosphate in milk decreased during 4-h in vitro incubations, and the rate of decline was markedly greater in the presence of the inhibitors. Thus, freshly secreted goat's milk contains significant amounts of adenosine triphosphate, and more can be synthesized therein after removal from the udder. In limited samples human and bovine milks contained much lower concentrations of the compound than those in goat's milk.

  18. Milk processing quality of suckled/milked goats: effects of milk accumulation interval and milking regime.

    PubMed

    Högberg, M; Dahlborn, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Hartmann, E; Andrén, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk with a high concentration of fat and casein is required for cheese production, and these components have a major impact for both quality and yield of the curd. Recent observations have shown that suckling can elevate milk fat concentration in goats and our aim was therefore to check the hypothesis that animal welfare and cheese-processing properties of goat milk could be optimised by appropriate management of suckled/milked goats. Twelve Swedish dairy goats were kept together with one kid each in 4 different mixed management-systems (milking combined with partial suckling) in a cross-over design. Two milk accumulation intervals were tested; Short = dams and kids were together for 16 h (T16) and Long = ; dams and kids were together for 8 h (T8 h). In addition, two milking regimes were used; Suckled Before Milking = S and Milked Before Suckling = M. Milk accumulation interval referred to how long dams and kids were separated. The milk yield available for processing (milk offtake), was weighed and analysed from each milking occasion and the suckled milk yield was estimated by a weigh-suckle-weigh method (WSW) in combination with observing the suckling behaviour during the free suckling periods. Milking managements, such as 'suckling before milking (S)', increased milk fat concentration compared to milking before suckling (M) and 'Short accumulation treatments (T16)' gave higher milk fat, casein concentration and individual curd yield (%) compared to the 'Long accumulation treatment (T8)'. The total individual curd yield (g) was the same despite treatment, but the animal welfare was most likely higher in T16 where dams and kids spent more time together.

  19. Olfactory epithelium changes in germfree mice

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Grebert, Denise; Rhimi, Moez; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Naudon, Laurent; Rabot, Sylvie; Meunier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelium development is dramatically impaired in germfree rodents, but the consequences of the absence of microbiota have been overlooked in other epithelia. In the present study, we present the first description of the bacterial communities associated with the olfactory epithelium and explored differences in olfactory epithelium characteristics between germfree and conventional, specific pathogen-free, mice. While the anatomy of the olfactory epithelium was not significantly different, we observed a thinner olfactory cilia layer along with a decreased cellular turn-over in germfree mice. Using electro-olfactogram, we recorded the responses of olfactory sensitive neuronal populations to various odorant stimulations. We observed a global increase in the amplitude of responses to odorants in germfree mice as well as altered responses kinetics. These changes were associated with a decreased transcription of most olfactory transduction actors and of olfactory xenobiotic metabolising enzymes. Overall, we present here the first evidence that the microbiota modulates the physiology of olfactory epithelium. As olfaction is a major sensory modality for most animal species, the microbiota may have an important impact on animal physiology and behaviour through olfaction alteration. PMID:27089944

  20. THE PERMEABILITY OF RAT TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, R. M.

    1966-01-01

    Permeability barriers must exist in transitional epithelium to prevent the free flow of water from underlying blood capillaries through the epithelium into the hypertonic urine, and such a barrier has now been demonstrated in isolated bladders. This barrier is passive in function and can be destroyed by damaging the luminal surface of the transitional epithelium with sodium hydroxide and 8 M urea solutions, by digesting it with trypsin, lecithinase C, and lecithinase D, or by treating it with lipid solvents such as Triton x 100 and saponin. From this it is concluded that the barrier depends on the integrity of lipoprotein cell membranes. The barrier function is also destroyed by sodium thioglycollate solutions, and electron microscope investigations show that sodium thioglycollate damages the thick asymmetric membrane which limits the luminal face of the superficial squamous cell. Cytochemical staining shows the epithelium to contain disulfide and thiol groups and to have a concentration of these groups at the luminal margin of the superficial cells. It thus appears that the permeability barrier also depends on the presence of disulfide bridges in the epithelium, and it is presumed that these links are located in keratin. Because of the effect of thioglycollates, both on the barrier function and on the morphology of the membrane, it is suggested that keratin may be incorporated in the thick barrier membrane. It is proposed that the cells lining the urinary bladder and ureters should be regarded as a keratinizing epitheluim. PMID:5901498

  1. Milk nutritional composition and its role in human health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula C

    2014-06-01

    Dairy and milk consumption are frequently included as important elements in a healthy and balanced diet. It is the first food for mammals and provides all the necessary energy and nutrients to ensure proper growth and development, being crucial in respect to bone mass formation. However, several controversies arise from consumption of dairy and milk products during adulthood, especially because it refers to milk from other species. Despite these controversies, epidemiologic studies confirm the nutritional importance of milk in the human diet and reinforce the possible role of its consumption in preventing several chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), some forms of cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Lactose malabsorption symptoms and cow milk protein allergy are generally considered to be the adverse reactions to milk consumption. The present article reviews the main aspects of milk nutritional composition and establishes several associations between its nutritious role, health promotion, and disease prevention.

  2. Milk stimulates growth of prostate cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia L; Bibb, Robert; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2011-11-01

    Concern has been expressed about the fact that cows' milk contains estrogens and could stimulate the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors. In this study, organic cows' milk and two commercial substitutes were digested in vitro and tested for their effects on the growth of cultures of prostate and breast cancer cells. Cows' milk stimulated the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in each of 14 separate experiments, producing an average increase in growth rate of over 30%. In contrast, almond milk suppressed the growth of these cells by over 30%. Neither cows' milk nor almond milk affected the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells or AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells significantly. Soy milk increased the growth rate of the breast cancer cells. These data indicate that prostate and breast cancer patients should be cautioned about the possible promotional effects of commercial dairy products and their substitutes.

  3. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  4. Lysozyme transgenic goats' milk influences gastrointestinal morphology in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Brundige, Dottie R; Maga, Elizabeth A; Klasing, Kirk C; Murray, James D

    2008-05-01

    Transgenesis provides a method of expressing novel proteins in milk to increase the functional benefits of milk consumption. Transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme (hLZ) at 67% of the concentration in human breast milk were produced, thereby enhancing the antimicrobial properties of goats' milk. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of pasteurized milk containing hLZ on growth, the intestinal epithelium, and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in young weaned pigs. Pigs were placed into 4 groups and fed a diet of solid food and either control (nontransgenic) goats' milk or milk from hLZ-transgenic goats. Growth was assessed by weight gain. Nonchallenged pigs were necropsied after 6 wk, whereas the remaining pigs were necropsied at 7 wk following bacterial challenge. We determined the numbers of total coliforms and E. coli and examined small intestinal histology for all pigs. Complete blood counts were also determined pre- and postchallenge. Challenged pigs receiving hLZ milk had fewer total coliforms (P = 0.029) and E. coli (P = 0.030) in the ileum than controls. hLZ-fed pigs also had a greater duodenal villi width (P = 0.029) than controls. Additionally, nonchallenged hLZ-fed pigs had fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes per micron of villi height (P = 0.020) than nonchallenged controls. These results indicate that the consumption of pasteurized hLZ goats' milk has the potential to improve gastrointestinal health and is protective against an EPEC in young weaned pigs. These same benefits may occur in young children if they were to consume milk from hLZ-transgenic goats.

  5. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  6. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  7. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  8. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jäkälä, Pauliina; Vapaatalo, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure. PMID:27713251

  9. Human milk sharing practices in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E L; Doehler, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to describe human milk sharing practices in the U.S. Specifically, we examine milk sharing social networks, donor compensation, the prevalence of anonymous milk sharing interactions, recipients' concerns about specific milk sharing risks, and lay screening behaviors. Data on human milk sharing practices were collected via an online survey September 2013-March 2014. Chi-square analyses were used to test the association between risk perception and screening practices. A total of 867 (661 donors, 206 recipients) respondents were included in the analyses. Most (96.1%) reported sharing milk face-to-face. Only 10% of respondents reported giving or receiving milk through a non-profit human milk bank, respectively. There were no reports of anonymous purchases of human milk. A small proportion of recipients (4.0%) reported that their infant had a serious medical condition. Screening of prospective donors was common (90.7%) but varied with social relationship and familiarity. Likewise, concern about specific milk sharing risks was varied, and risk perception was significantly associated (P-values = 0.01 or less) with donor screening for all risk variables except diet. Understanding lay perceptions of milk sharing risk and risk reduction strategies that parents are using is an essential first step in developing public health interventions and clinical practices that promote infant safety.

  10. [Donors' personal profile in Tuscany's network of milk banks].

    PubMed

    Strambi, M; Anselmi, A; Coppi, S

    2012-10-01

    An investigation on human milk donors among the milk banks of Tuscany's network was carried out. Milk banks select, collect, check, process, store and deliver human milk, whose donors should have certain physical and psychological well-being features. The aim of the study was to describe a personal and social profile of milk donors. The study included a sample of 100 milk donors and a sample of 100 non-milk donor mothers; a questionnaire that collected data about mothers' general information, clinical history, pregnancy and delivery, weight variations, state of health, lifestyle, breastfeeding and knowledge about milk banks was administered to all of them. Then information about food history of mothers has also been collected. First the samples of donors were analysed for all variables considered. Subsequently the samples of donors were compared with the samples of non-donors: statistical analysis was carried out with χ2 test and documented significant differences between donors and non-donors for the majority of variables considered in the questionnaire and for food history. Milk donors have a good state of health, and the integration in milk donation initiative headed towards a healthier lifestyle. It is necessary to promote an advertising campaign to integrate social and sanitary politics, fitting to local socio-economical contest. Furthermore, the improvement of milk banks of public hospitals is necessary, as hospitals are places of major stream both of potential donors and newborns.

  11. Aberrant maspin expression in gallbladder epithelium is associated with intestinal metaplasia in patients with cholelithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Maesawa, C; Ogasawara, S; Yashima‐Abo, A; Kimura, T; Kotani, K; Masuda, S; Nagata, Y; Iwaya, T; Suzuki, K; Oyake, T; Akiyama, Y; Kawamura, H; Masuda, T

    2006-01-01

    Objective Aberrant expression of maspin protein related to DNA hypomethylation in the promoter region is frequently observed in gallbladder carcinomas, whereas the non‐tumorous gallbladder epithelium is maspin negative. We investigated maspin expression in non‐tumorous gallbladder epithelium in patients with cholelithiasis. Methods An immunohistochemical study of maspin expression was performed in 69 patients with cholelithiasis and 30 patients with gastric cancer without cholelithiasis. Results Immunoreactivity for maspin was observed in focal and patchy regions of the gallbladder epithelium. Positive immunoreactivity for maspin was significantly associated with the presence of intestinal metaplasia in patients with cholelithiasis (p<0.05). Conclusion The high incidence of aberrant maspin expression in both intestinal metaplasia and carcinoma of the gallbladder supports the assumption that intestinal metaplasia of the gallbladder may predispose to gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:16505288

  12. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium.

    PubMed

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Castel, Pau; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Baselga, José; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2016-01-26

    Epithelial morphogenesis and stability are essential for normal development and organ homeostasis. The mouse neural plate is a cuboidal epithelium that remodels into a columnar pseudostratified epithelium over the course of 24 hr. Here we show that the transition to a columnar epithelium fails in mutant embryos that lack the tumor suppressor PTEN, although proliferation, patterning and apical-basal polarity markers are normal in the mutants. The Pten phenotype is mimicked by constitutive activation of PI3 kinase and is rescued by the removal of PDK1 (PDPK1), but does not depend on the downstream kinases AKT and mTORC1. High resolution imaging shows that PTEN is required for stabilization of planar cell packing in the neural plate and for the formation of stable apical-basal microtubule arrays. The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis.

  13. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented.

  15. Human milk and breast feeding: recent highlights.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-10-01

    Interest in breast feeding and human milk continued in the literature in 1977. A review of the various areas related to lactation which appeared in publications in 1977 is made. The biological interactions between mother and nursing infant were explored. The biochemical composition of human milk was investigated in different circumstances. There seem to be particular problems with assessing the volume of breast milk produced in relation to optimal infant growth. Research as already shown that human milk has antiviral properties. Environmental pollutants are found in breast milk, but no immediate ill effects have yet been noted. Breast milk has been shown to be a better protection for the infant against protein allergies and common infections. Lactation seems to protect the mothers against development of breast cancer. Investigation continues into longterm advantages for the child of breast- as opposed to bottle-feeding. National health services have become interested in promoting breast feeding in many developing countries. Research is continuing into ways to promote breast feeding among working women.

  16. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  17. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  18. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  19. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... which normally fights infections, overreacts to proteins in cow's milk (the basis for most commercial baby formulas). ... days to weeks after they're first given cow milk-based formula. Breastfed infants have a lower ...

  20. PKC iota in the intestinal epithelium protects against DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Shelly R.; Li, Shuhua; Shahid, Muhammad W.; Wallace, Michael B.; Leitges, Michael; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The integrity of the intestinal epithelium is critical for the absorption and retention of fluid and nutrients. The intestinal epithelium also provides a barrier between the intestinal bacteria and the body's immune surveillance. Therefore, intestinal epithelial barrier function is critically important, and disruption of the intestinal epithelium results in rapid repair of the damaged area. Methods We evaluated the requirement for protein kinase C iota (PKCι) in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and response to epithelial damage using a well-characterized mouse model of colitis. Mice were analyzed for the clinical, histological and cellular effects of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment. Results Knock out of the mouse PKCι gene (Prkci) in the intestinal epithelium (Prkci KO mice) had no effect on normal colonic homeostasis, however, Prkci KO mice were significantly more sensitive to DSS-induced colitis and death. After withdrawal of DSS, Prkci KO mice exhibited a continued increase in apoptosis, inflammation and damage to the intestinal microvasculature, and a progressive loss of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression, a regulatory peptide important for intestinal wound healing. Knockdown of PKCι expression in HT-29 cells reduced wound healing and TFF3 expression, while addition of exogenous TFF3 restored wound healing in PKCι-depleted cells. Conclusions Expression of PKCι in the intestinal epithelium protects against DSS-induced colitis. Our data suggest that PKCι reduces DSS-induced damage by promoting intestinal epithelial wound healing through the control of TFF3 expression. PMID:21744423

  1. Expressions of TRPVs in the cholesteatoma epithelium.

    PubMed

    Do, Ba Hung; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Kawaguchi, Rintaro; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2017-10-01

    We have recently proposed a hypothesis that acid leakage through the cholesteatoma epithelium mediates bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which have been shown to play roles in the regulation of epidermal barrier function, in the cholesteatoma epithelium in comparison with the normal skin. Cholesteatoma epithelium and postauricular skin were collected from 17 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy. Expressions of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 were explored by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 mRNAs were all detected by qRT-PCR both in the skin and cholesteatoma tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TRPV1 and TRPV3 were positive in the viable cell layers of the epidermis of the skin, and only TRPV3 was positive in those of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The immunoreactivity for TRPV3 was significantly weaker in cholesteatoma than in the skin. The lower expression of TRPV3 in cholesteatoma may be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased permeability of this tissue. On the other hand, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6 are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of epithelial permeability in cholesteatoma.

  2. Milk, flavoured milk products and caries.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    2001-07-14

    The consumption of flavoured milk increased by 50% between 1992 and 1999 and dental health educators need to know if these and other sugar and fruit juice sweetened milk products, such as fruit yoghurts, are acceptable as snack items. Available evidence suggests that their cariogenicity is negligible to low and consumed in moderation they are a preferable alternative to similarly sweetened soft drinks.

  3. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  4. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  5. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula.

  6. Cow's milk and immune-mediated diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wasmuth, H E; Kolb, H

    2000-11-01

    Cow's milk-based infant formulas and cow's milk consumption in childhood have been suggested to promote the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus and other immune-mediated or neurological diseases. Epidemiological studies in man have led to the hypothesis that introduction of cow's milk-based infant formula within the first 3 months of life is associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, in animal models of type 1 diabetes mellitus, cow's milk proteins have been proven to be 'diabetogenic'. However, the issue seems far from being resolved. Several epidemiological studies and, more importantly, the first prospective trials did not show an association between early exposure to cow's milk and type 1 diabetes mellitus. In animal models, cow's milk proteins are modestly and variably diabetogenic, wheat or soybean proteins in the diet cause higher rates of autoimmune diabetes. In both man and rodents there is increasing evidence that the gut-associated immune system plays a major role in disease development, probably because of disturbed oral tolerance mechanisms. Oral tolerance depends on immunological homeostasis and normal maturation of the gut. These factors are influenced by growth factors and cytokines from breast milk, normal bacterial colonization, infections and diet. All these factors have been proposed as risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Hence, cow's milk proteins may provide mimicry epitopes relevant in autoimmunity, as well as destabilizing oral tolerance mechanisms by biologically active peptides. The concept of dietary regulation of autoimmunity does not apply only to cow's milk protein, but also to other dietary proteins.

  7. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-03-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors.

  8. Got low-fat milk? How a community-based coalition changed school milk policy in New York City.

    PubMed

    Golub, Maxine; Charlop, Megan; Groisman-Perelstein, Adriana Estela; Ruddock, Charmaine; Calman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, New York City, the largest school district in the country, eliminated whole milk and reduced the availability of sweetened milk in 1,579 schools. Despite pressure from the American Dairy Council, skepticism from school food administrators and elected officials, and the difficulties inherent in changing a system that serves 120,000,000 containers of milk per year, a community-led coalition prevailed. This article describes how parents, educational leaders, advocates, and health professionals collaborated to educate school children and their families to choose low-fat milk, and created change at a system, policy, and environmental level to promote health in the community.

  9. Glycobiology of human milk.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    2013-07-01

    Glycans are characteristic components of milk, and each species has unique patterns of specific carbohydrates. Human milk is unusually rich in glycans, with the major components being lactose and oligosaccharides, representing approximately 6.8 and 1% of the milk, respectively. Other sources of glycans in human milk include monosaccharides, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. In human milk, the presence and patterns of these glycans vary depending upon the stage of lactation and the maternal genes and their genetic polymorphisms that control glycosyl transferases. The synthesis of milk glycans utilizes a significant portion of the metabolic energy that the mother expends when producing her milk, but other than lactose, these glycans contribute little to the nutritional needs of the infant. The data herein support several functions. 1) Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogens from binding to the intestinal mucosa. 2) Human milk glycans attenuate inflammation. 3) Glycans also directly stimulate the growth of beneficial (mutualist) bacteria of the microbiota (formerly considered commensal microflora of the intestine); these mutualists and their fermentation products can, in turn, (a) inhibit pathogens, (b) modulate signaling and inflammation, and (c) the fermentation products can be absorbed and utilized as a source of dietary calories. These functions can help direct and support intestinal postnatal growth, development, and ontogeny of colonization. The many functions of the milk glycans may synergistically protect infants from disease. Hence, human milk glycans and their homologs may serve as novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for a diverse range of deleterious conditions.

  10. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  11. Abl suppresses cell extrusion and intercalation during epithelium folding.

    PubMed

    Jodoin, Jeanne N; Martin, Adam C

    2016-09-15

    Tissue morphogenesis requires control over cell shape changes and rearrangements. In the Drosophila mesoderm, linked epithelial cells apically constrict, without cell extrusion or intercalation, to fold the epithelium into a tube that will then undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Apical constriction drives tissue folding or cell extrusion in different contexts, but the mechanisms that dictate the specific outcomes are poorly understood. Using live imaging, we found that Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase depletion causes apically constricting cells to undergo aberrant basal cell extrusion and cell intercalation. abl depletion disrupted apical-basal polarity and adherens junction organization in mesoderm cells, suggesting that extruding cells undergo premature EMT. The polarity loss was associated with abnormal basolateral contractile actomyosin and Enabled (Ena) accumulation. Depletion of the Abl effector Enabled (Ena) in abl-depleted embryos suppressed the abl phenotype, consistent with cell extrusion resulting from misregulated ena Our work provides new insight into how Abl loss and Ena misregulation promote cell extrusion and EMT.

  12. Breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Chan, C W; Yu, C M

    2004-07-01

    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes (the Code) to support breastfeeding. Despite improving trends, Hong Kong has low rates of breastfeeding compared to other developed countries. We surveyed companies marketing breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong to determine self-reported adherence to the Code. Companies were informed that individual responses would not be published and seven of nine companies responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents promoted infant and follow-on formula in hospitals and provided free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. Follow-on formula and weaning foods were promoted in shops and to the general public and free samples were given to mothers reflecting a belief that, despite WHA resolutions, follow-on formula is not a breast milk substitute. Transnational companies should follow the Code and subsequent WHA resolutions equally in all countries.

  13. Major advances in milk marketing: government and industry consolidation.

    PubMed

    Stukenberg, D; Blayney, D; Miller, J

    2006-04-01

    Federal dairy programs have been instituted to assist dairy farmers in marketing their milk. Milk marketing licenses were issued for city markets in 1933 during the depression. Federal Milk Orders replaced licenses in 1937 with enactment of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. Low prices returned in the late 1940s and Congress passed the Agricultural Act of 1949 creating the support program for milk. Congressional involvement in milk marketing was minimal until passage of the 1977 Farm Bill. A support price adjustment to seek favorable political responses from farmers resulted in higher prices and ultimately higher production. Large expenditures and burdensome supplies caused Congress to make major changes to both programs. Other milk marketing programs have evolved from Congressional actions, including export and promotion programs. The exiting and consolidation of the dairy processors and producers has lead to a reduction in the number of marketing orders.

  14. [Investigation of gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats].

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn; Ducza, Eszter; Gáspár, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in traditional medicine. The best-known honeybee products are the honey, the propolis and the royal jelly. Drone milk is a relatively little-known honeybee product. Although, drone milk is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women in certain countries, the literature furnishes no information concerning effects of the drone milk. The oestrogenic and androgenic effects of drone milk have recently been reported in rats and the effective compounds have also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the putative gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats. Maintenance of pregnancy assays revealed that drone milk was able to increase the number of surviving fetuses. This results suggested some gestagenic effects. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot methods in which the mRNA and protein expressions of gestagen-dependent CRLR (Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor) peptide were determined. To determine the efficacy of gestagenic effect of drone milk, spironolactone (weak gestagen compound) was used. The combination of drone milk and spironolactone showed more potent gestagenic effect. These results lead us to suppose that raw drone milk shows weak gestagenic effect and this effect can be increased by another weak gestagen. Further studies are required to clarify the gestagenic mechanisms of action of drone milk.

  15. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16 Milk and milk products. (a) The following milk products are exempt from the provisions of this part:...

  16. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  17. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Varner, Victor D; Gleghorn, Jason P; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C; Nelson, Celeste M

    2015-07-28

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo.

  18. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  19. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  20. [Neutrophils and monocytes in gingival epithelium

    PubMed

    Meng, H X; Zheng, L P

    1994-06-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes of gingival epithellium in health gingiva(H),marginal gingivitis(MG),juvenile periodontitis(JP),adult periodontitis(AP) and subgingival bacteria were quantitated and analyzed,The results showed that the numbers of PMN within either pocket epithelium or oral gingival epithelium in JP were significantly lower than in AP and G.The amounts of PMN in AP were much larger than other three groups.Positive correlation between the number of PMN in sulcular pocket epitelium and the motile bacteri of subgingival plaque was demonstrated by correlation analysis.Monocytes mainly presented in deep pocket and junctional epithelum which were stained by NAE method,however very few Langhans cells were seen in these areas.

  1. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning identifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth.

    PubMed

    Connor, Erin E; Baldwin, Ransom L; Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W; Chung, Hoyoung

    2013-03-01

    During weaning, epithelial cell function in the rumen transitions in response to conversion from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant environment to ensure efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. To identify gene networks affected by weaning in bovine rumen, Holstein bull calves were fed commercial milk replacer only (MRO) until 42 days of age, then were provided diets of either milk + orchardgrass hay (MH) or milk + grain-based calf starter (MG). Rumen epithelial RNA was extracted from calves sacrificed at four time points: day 14 (n = 3) and day 42 (n = 3) of age while fed the MRO diet and day 56 (n = 3/diet) and day 70 (n = 3/diet) while fed the MH and MG diets for transcript profiling by microarray hybridization. Five two-group comparisons were made using Permutation Analysis of Differential Expression® to identify differentially expressed genes over time and developmental stage between days 14 and 42 within the MRO diet, between day 42 on the MRO diet and day 56 on the MG or MH diets, and between the MG and MH diets at days 56 and 70. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of differentially expressed genes during weaning indicated the top 5 gene networks involving molecules participating in lipid metabolism, cell morphology and death, cellular growth and proliferation, molecular transport, and the cell cycle. Putative genes functioning in the establishment of the rumen microbial population and associated rumen epithelial inflammation during weaning were identified. Activation of transcription factor PPAR-α was identified by IPA software as an important regulator of molecular changes in rumen epithelium that function in papillary development and fatty acid oxidation during the transition from pre-rumination to rumination. Thus, molecular markers of rumen development and gene networks regulating differentiation and growth of rumen epithelium were identified for selecting targets and methods for improving and assessing rumen development and

  2. Airway epithelium stimulates smooth muscle proliferation.

    PubMed

    Malavia, Nikita K; Raub, Christopher B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Panettieri, Reynold A; George, Steven C

    2009-09-01

    Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air-liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM) using commercially available Transwells. In some co-cultures, the NHBE were repeatedly (x4) scrape-injured. An in vivo model of tracheal injury consisted of gently denuding the tracheal epithelium (x3) of a rabbit over 5 days and then examining the trachea by histology 3 days after the last injury. Our results show that HASM cell number increases 2.5-fold in the presence of NHBE, and 4.3-fold in the presence of injured NHBE compared with HASM alone after 8 days of in vitro co-culture. In addition, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and, more markedly, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration increased in co-culture correlating with enhanced HASM growth. Inhibiting MMP-9 release significantly attenuated the NHBE-dependent HASM proliferation in co-culture. In vivo, the injured rabbit trachea demonstrated proliferation in the smooth muscle (trachealis) region and significant MMP-9 staining, which was absent in the uninjured control. The airway epithelium modulates smooth muscle cell proliferation via a mechanism that involves secretion of soluble mediators including potential smooth muscle mitogens such as IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, but also through a novel MMP-9-dependent mechanism.

  3. Effects of formaldehyde on xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium. Research report, August 1986-April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Ura, H.; Momiki, S.; Bonfil, D.; Litwin, S.

    1992-07-01

    A laboratory animal model that permits the exposure of xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium to formaldehyde was used to study the effects of formaldehyde alone or in combination with a carcinogenic metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide. Epithelial cells obtained from autopsies of 20 full-term human fetuses or infants less than one year old were isolated, amplified in vitro, inoculated into rat tracheas from which the epithelial layer had been removed, and then transplanted subcutaneously into irradiated athymic nude mice. Four weeks after transplantation, the tracheal transplants were implanted with silastic devices containing 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 mg of powdered formaldehyde (Study 1). The tracheal transplants were examined histologically 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks after transplantation. Before killing, all animals were injected with a single pulse of tritiated thymidine. A maximum effect was visible two weeks after exposure; 2 mg of formaldehyde produced numerous areas of epithelial erosion and inflammation. All doses produced areas of hyperplastic epithelium and areas of atrophic epithelium. The labeling indices showed dose dependence between two and four weeks after the initiation of exposure. These studies show that low doses of formaldehyde can elicit a proliferative response in human infant tracheobronchial epithelium that is not preceded by a massive toxic effect. Similar studies using xenotransplanted human adult nasal respiratory epithelium (Study 2) showed a response pattern similar to that of Study 1. In Study 3, using cells from 11 human infants, formaldehyde applied simultaneously or sequentially with benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide did not induce epithelial alterations different from those observed with formaldehyde alone. This indicated that, under the doses and exposure conditions used, it was not possible to observe any cocarcinogenic or promoting effects of formaldehyde on the human infant tracheobronchial epithelium.

  4. Rhinovirus Delays Cell Repolarization in a Model of Injured/Regenerating Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Faris, Andrea N.; Ganesan, Shyamala; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Chattoraj, Sangbrita S.; Comstock, Adam T.; Unger, Benjamin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus (RV), which causes exacerbation in patients with chronic airway diseases, readily infects injured airway epithelium and has been reported to delay wound closure. In this study, we examined the effects of RV on cell repolarization and differentiation in a model of injured/regenerating airway epithelium (polarized, undifferentiated cells). RV causes only a transient barrier disruption in a model of normal (mucociliary-differentiated) airway epithelium. However, in the injury/regeneration model, RV prolongs barrier dysfunction and alters the differentiation of cells. The prolonged barrier dysfunction caused by RV was not a result of excessive cell death but was instead associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like features, such as reduced expression of the apicolateral junction and polarity complex proteins, E-cadherin, occludin, ZO-1, claudins 1 and 4, and Crumbs3 and increased expression of vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker. The expression of Snail, a transcriptional repressor of tight and adherence junctions, was also up-regulated in RV-infected injured/regenerating airway epithelium, and inhibition of Snail reversed RV-induced EMT-like features. In addition, compared with sham-infected cells, the RV-infected injured/regenerating airway epithelium showed more goblet cells and fewer ciliated cells. Inhibition of epithelial growth factor receptor promoted repolarization of cells by inhibiting Snail and enhancing expression of E-cadherin, occludin, and Crumbs3 proteins, reduced the number of goblet cells, and increased the number of ciliated cells. Together, these results suggest that RV not only disrupts barrier function, but also interferes with normal renewal of injured/regenerating airway epithelium by inducing EMT-like features and subsequent goblet cell hyperplasia. PMID:27119973

  5. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (P<0.05) in all the studied variables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking

  6. Modulation of the gastrointestinal tract of infants by human milk. Interfaces and interactions. An evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A S

    2000-02-01

    Human milk contains agents that affect the growth, development and functions of the epithelium, immune system or nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract. Some human and animal studies indicate that human milk affects the growth of intestinal villi, the development of intestinal disaccharidases, the permeability of the gastrointestinal tract and resistance to certain inflammatory/immune-mediated diseases. Moreover, one cytokine in human milk, interleukin (IL)-10, protects infant mice genetically deficient in IL-10 against an enterocolitis that resembles necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in human premature infants. There are seven overlapping evolutionary strategies regarding the relationships between the functions of the mammary gland and the infant's gastrointestinal tract as follows: 1) certain immunologic agents in human milk compensate directly for developmental delays in those same agents in the recipient infant; 2) other agents in human milk do not compensate directly for developmental delays in the production of those same agents, but nevertheless protect the recipient; 3) agents in human milk enhance functions that are poorly expressed in the recipient; 4) agents in human milk change the physiologic state of the intestines from one adapted to intrauterine life to one suited to extrauterine life; 5) some agents in human milk prevent inflammation in the recipient's gastrointestinal tract; 6) survival of human milk agents in the gastrointestinal tract is enhanced because of delayed production of pancreatic proteases and gastric acid by newborn infants, antiproteases and inhibitors of gastric acid production in human milk, inherent resistance of some human milk agents to proteolysis, and protective binding of other factors in human milk; and 7) growth factors in human milk aid in establishing a commensal enteric microflora.

  7. Novel organelles in primate retinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, A; Gouras, P

    2016-10-01

    We are investigating age-related changes in organelles in monkey retinal epithelium using transmission and analytic electron microscopy. We previously described a circular organelle in retinal epithelium with a diameter of about 0.5μm. The organelle is unique in containing a single, round vacuole within an otherwise electron dense interior. We suggested that the organelle might be a melanosome with lysosomal properties. We now find that there are two similar organelles with such a single vacuole but which differ in their chemical composition, electron density, cell location and according to age. Epon embedded sections from the macular epithelium of seven monkeys, ranging from 1 to 35 years of age, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. A seven year old monkey was processed for analytic electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of the organelles. The number and location of the organelles in the retinal epithelium were determined. The chemical composition of these two organelles was different. One of the organelles contained high mole fractions of oxygen and nitrogen and little phosphorous characteristic of melanin; the other had little oxygen and nitrogen and higher mole fractions of phosphorous uncharacteristic of melanin, but more common with lysosomal organelles. The latter had an electron dense rim around the vacuole, a less electron dense interior than the melanin containing organelle and also contained iron. The melanin containing organelle was more common in young monkeys and in the middle third of the cell. The organelle without melanin was more common in old monkeys and localized in the basal third of the cell. Two similarly vacuolated organelles, not identified before in retinal epithelium, differ in their chemical composition. One contains melanin; the other does not. The former is more common in young and the latter more common in old monkeys. This suggests reorganization and or degradation of melanin-containing organelles

  8. Protein composition of rhesus monkey milk: comparison to human milk.

    PubMed

    Kunz, C; Lönnerdal, B

    1993-04-01

    1. Proteins in human milk and Rhesus monkey milk have been compared by FPLC gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography, SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, nitrogen and protein determination. 2. Mature Rhesus milk is higher in protein concentration (15-20 mg/ml) than human milk (8-9 mg/ml). 3. Non-Protein nitrogen is 6-13% in Rhesus milk but 25-30% in human milk. 4. Secretory IgA, lactoferrin, serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme are present in Rhesus milk, but at a lower concentration than in human milk. 5. The casein subunit pattern is more complex in Rhesus milk compared to human milk. 6. The ratio of whey proteins to casein is similar in both milks (approximately 60/40). 7. A protein with a M(r) of 21,600 is a major component in monkey whey but is not found in human milk.

  9. Are milk polyamines preventive agents against food allergy?

    PubMed

    Dandrifosse, G; Peulen, O; El Khefif, N; Deloyer, P; Dandrifosse, A C; Grandfils, C

    2000-02-01

    Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In sucking rats it has been established that oral administration of spermine can induce all the modifications occurring in the digestive tract at weaning. In the intestine events occur in two phases. The early event consists of desquamation of the epithelium resulting from an activation of apoptosis. The late event appears to involve an hormonal cascade in which adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytokines, bombesin and corticosterone are included. Observations in human subjects show that: (1) the spermine and spermidine concentrations are generally lower in infant formulas than in human breast milk. Mothers seem consistently to have relatively high or relatively low concentrations of spermine and spermidine in their milk. These individual variations may be due to diet, lifestyle or genetic background; (2) the probability of developing allergy can reach 80 % if the mean spermine concentration in the milk is lower than 2 nmol/ml milk. It is approximately 0 % if the mean spermine concentration is higher than 13 nmol/ml milk; (3) preliminary results show that the intestinal permeability to macromolecules differs in premature babies when they are fed on breast milk compared with infant formulas (J Senterre, J Rigo, G Forget, G Dandrifosse and N Romain, unpublished results). This difference does not seem to be present when powdered milk is supplemented with polyamines at the concentration found in breast milk; (4) spermine increases proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes isolated from the tonsils of children.

  10. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  11. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising,...

  12. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.114 Promotion. Promotion means actions such as paid advertising, sales...

  13. Albumin transcytosis across the epithelium of the lactating mouse mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Monks, Jenifer; Neville, Margaret C

    2004-01-01

    Murine milk contains 18 mg ml−1 serum albumin, a concentration equal to that in the serum of the lactating mouse. We examined cellular transport using in vivo methods in the mouse. At steady state the specific activity of 125I-albumin injected into the blood stream was equal in plasma and whey, confirming that milk albumin is extra-mammary in origin. Fluorescent albumin crossed the gland from basolateral surface to lumen via cytoplasmic vesicles, but was not transported in the apical to basal direction. Albumin was segregated from transferrin at the basal surface of the epithelial cells and did not colocalize with either caveolin-1 or -2. Vesicular transport was not disrupted by filipin providing additional evidence that, unlike the vascular endothelium, caveoli are not involved. Cytoplasmic albumin was localized to vesicles containing IgA and transport was disrupted by agents that interfere with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Together, these findings provide evidence that albumin is transported across the mammary epithelium by the same pathway as immunoglobulin. The possibility that the massive transfer of albumin into mouse milk is mediated by fluid phase transport is considered. PMID:15297572

  14. Albumin transcytosis across the epithelium of the lactating mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Monks, Jenifer; Neville, Margaret C

    2004-10-01

    Murine milk contains 18 mg ml(-1) serum albumin, a concentration equal to that in the serum of the lactating mouse. We examined cellular transport using in vivo methods in the mouse. At steady state the specific activity of (125)I-albumin injected into the blood stream was equal in plasma and whey, confirming that milk albumin is extra-mammary in origin. Fluorescent albumin crossed the gland from basolateral surface to lumen via cytoplasmic vesicles, but was not transported in the apical to basal direction. Albumin was segregated from transferrin at the basal surface of the epithelial cells and did not colocalize with either caveolin-1 or -2. Vesicular transport was not disrupted by filipin providing additional evidence that, unlike the vascular endothelium, caveoli are not involved. Cytoplasmic albumin was localized to vesicles containing IgA and transport was disrupted by agents that interfere with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Together, these findings provide evidence that albumin is transported across the mammary epithelium by the same pathway as immunoglobulin. The possibility that the massive transfer of albumin into mouse milk is mediated by fluid phase transport is considered.

  15. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  16. Physiological properties of milk ingredients released by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Hartung, Julia

    2013-02-01

    The demand for health-promoting food ingredients rises within an increasing market worldwide. Different milks fermented with bacteria, yeasts, moulds or enzymes from animal, plant and microbial sources offer a broad range of possibilities to cover different health aspects with new bioactive components. By the fermentation process interesting ingredients are enriched and released from the matrix, like lactoferrin, micro-nutrients, CLA and sphingolipids or synthesized, such as exo-polysaccharides and bioactive peptides. In particular, milk derived bioactive peptides exert several important health-promoting activities, such as anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, opioid and mineral-binding properties. Milk-fermentation processes with probiotic bacteria synergistically combine health supporting bacterial and milk ingredient aspects which include new therapeutic solutions concerning hypercholesterolemia, carcinogenic intoxications, treatment of diarrhea, reduction of intestine pathogens, and supporting natural immune defense. Especially, milk-proteins and associated bioactive peptides released during microbial or enzymatic fermentation of milk offer a broad spectrum of new functional properties, for instance anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, immuno-modulatory, opioid and mineral-binding properties. This review aimed at discussing recent research activities on physiological purposes and technical process aspects of functional components from fermented milk with a specific focus on biofunctional peptides released from fermented milk proteins.

  17. Lgr5 regulates the regeneration of lesioned nasal respiratory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Qiang; Li, Peng; Zhang, Feng-Qin; Sun, Shao-Jun; Cao, Yin-Guang

    2016-12-09

    Nasal respiratory epithelium is a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The cellular components of nasal respiratory epithelium include ciliated cells, goblet cells, and basal cells. Until now, our knowledge in the development of nasal respiratory epithelium is still limited and the cellular mechanism of regeneration is still elusive. In this study, we found that adult stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in the mice nasal respiratory epithelium. Both immunostaining and lineage tracing analysis indicated Lgr5 positive cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium are proliferative stem/progenitor cells. Using the Rosa-Tdtomato and Rosa26-DTR mice, we elucidated that Lgr5(+) cells participate in the regeneration of lesioned nasal respiratory epithelium, and this group of cells is necessary in the process of epithelium recovery. Using the in vitro culture system, we observed the formation of spheres from Lgr5(+) cells and these spheres have the capacity to generate other types of cells. Above all, this study reported a group of previously unidentified progenitor/stem cells in nasal respiratory epithelium, unveiling the potential cellular mechanism in nasal respiratory epithelium regeneration.

  18. Milk signalling in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2011-04-01

    The presented hypothesis identifies milk consumption as an environmental risk factor of Western diet promoting type 2 diabetes (T2D). Milk, commonly regarded as a valuable nutrient, exerts important endocrine functions as an insulinotropic, anabolic and mitogenic signalling system supporting neonatal growth and development. The presented hypothesis substantiates milk's physiological role as a signalling system for pancreatic β-cell proliferation by milk's ability to increase prolactin-, growth hormone and incretin-signalling. The proposed mechanism of milk-induced postnatal β-cell mass expansion mimics the adaptive prolactin-dependent proliferative changes observed in pregnancy. Milk signalling down-regulates the key transcription factor FoxO1 leading to up-regulation of insulin promoter factor-1 which stimulates β-cell proliferation, insulin secretion as well as coexpression of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). The recent finding that adult rodent β-cells only proliferate by self-duplication is of crucial importance, because permanent milk consumption beyond the weaning period may continuously over-stimulate β-cell replication thereby accelerating the onset of replicative β-cell senescence. The long-term use of milk may thus increase endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and toxic IAPP oligomer formation by overloading the ER with cytotoxic IAPPs thereby promoting β-cell apoptosis. Both increased β-cell proliferation and β-cell apoptosis are hallmarks of T2D. This hypothesis gets support from clinical states of hyperprolactinaemia and progeria syndromes with early onset of cell senescence which are both associated with an increased incidence of T2D and share common features of milk signalling. Furthermore, the presented milk hypothesis of T2D is compatible with the concept of high ER stress in T2D and the toxic oligomer hypothesis of T2D and may explain the high association of T2D and Alzheimer disease.

  19. Redox regulation of sperm surface thiols modulates adhesion to the fallopian tube epithelium.

    PubMed

    Talevi, Riccardo; Zagami, Maria; Castaldo, Marianna; Gualtieri, Roberto

    2007-04-01

    Sperm that adhere to the fallopian tube epithelium are of superior quality and adhesion extends their fertile life. It has been postulated that periovulatory signals, as yet undefined, promote sperm release. In the in vitro studies described here, we examined the effects of several antioxidants, reportedly present within oviductal fluid, on the modulation of sperm-oviduct adhesion in bovine species. Results showed that 1) the cell-permeant thiols (penicillamine, beta mercaptoethanol, cysteine, and dithiotreitol), as well as the nonpermeant thiol, reduced glutathione, cause adhering spermatozoa to release from the epithelium; 2) thiol action is exerted on spermatozoa; and 3) oxidized glutathione, as well as the non-thiol antioxidants (dimethylthiourea, trolox, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) have no effect. Sperm surface sulfhydryls labeled with iodoacetamide fluorescein showed that spermatozoa devoid of sulfhydryls on the head surface adhered to the fallopian epithelium in vitro, whereas thiol-induced release increased the exposure of sulfhydryls on the sperm head surface. Finally, analysis of capacitation status demonstrated that uncapacitated spermatozoa adhered to the oviduct, and that thiol-induced release of spermatozoa was accompanied by capacitation. In conclusion, thiol-reducing agents in the oviductal fluid may modulate the redox status of sperm surface proteins, leading to the release of spermatozoa selected and stored through adhesion to the fallopian tube epithelium in the bovine species.

  20. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) silencing in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Nanjo, Sohachi; Ando, Takayuki; Fujinami, Haruka; Kajiura, Shinya; Hosokawa, Ayumu; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection induces methylation silencing of specific genes in gastric epithelium. Various stimuli activate the nonselective cation channel TRPV4, which is expressed in gastric epithelium where it detects mechanical stimuli and promotes ATP release. As CpG islands in TRPV4 are methylated in HP-infected gastric epithelium, we evaluated HP infection-dependent changes in TRPV4 expression in gastric epithelium. Human gastric biopsy samples, a human gastric cancer cell line (AGS), and a normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) were used to detect TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Ca(2+) imaging was used to evaluate TRPV4 ion channel activity. TRPV4 methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). ATP release was measured by a luciferin-luciferase assay. TRPV4 mRNA and protein were detected in human gastric biopsy samples and in GES-1 cells. MSP and demethylation assays showed TRPV4 methylation silencing in AGS cells. HP coculture directly induced methylation silencing of TRPV4 in GES-1 cells. In human samples, HP infection was associated with TRPV4 methylation silencing that recovered after HP eradication in a time-dependent manner. HP infection-dependent DNA methylation suppressed TRPV4 expression in human gastric epithelia, suggesting that TRPV4 methylation may be involved in HP-associated dyspepsia. © 2016 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Defective barrier function in neosquamous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Orlando, Geraldine S; Djukic, Zorka; Orlando, Roy C

    2013-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a common strategy for the prevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). After RFA, the ablated esophagus heals on acid suppressive therapy, and is re-populated with a stratified squamous epithelium, referred to as "neosquamous epithelium (NSE)." Because the ability of the NSE to protect the underlying tissue from recurrent insult by reflux is unclear, we assessed the barrier function of NSE by comparing it to that of the native upper squamous epithelium (USE) in subjects having undergone RFA. At varying intervals following RFA, the barrier function of NSE and USE were assessed in endoscopic biopsies by light and electron microscopy, and by measurement of electrical resistance (R) and fluorescein flux in mini-Ussing chambers. Chamber results were further compared with results from control biopsies (healthy distal esophagus). A claudin expression profile in the tight junctions (TJs) of NSE and USE was determined using Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Differential expression of claudin-4 between NSE and USE was assayed by immunoblots. USE was histologically normal whereas NSE showed dilated intercellular spaces and marked eosinophilia. NSE was also more permeable than USE and healthy controls, having lower mean R and higher fluorescein fluxes. Abnormally low R values for NSE were unrelated to the time period following RFA (or number of prior RFA sessions), being abnormal even 26 months after RFA. Abnormal permeability in NSE was associated with significantly lower values for claudin-4 and claudin-10 than in USE. NSE commonly exhibits defective barrier function. As this defect will make it vulnerable to injury, inflammation, and destruction by acidic and weakly acidic refluxates, it may in part explain incidences of recurrence of BE following ablation.

  2. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Boutinaud, Marion; Herve, Lucile; Lollivier, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Milk is produced in the udder by mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Milk contains MEC, which are gradually exfoliated from the epithelium during lactation. Isolation of MEC from milk using immunomagnetic separation may be a useful non-invasive method to investigate transcriptional regulations in ruminants’ udder. This review aims to describe the process of isolating MEC from milk, to provide an overview on the studies that use this method to analyze gene expression by qRT PCR and to evaluate the validity of this method by analyzing and comparing the results between studies. In several goat and cow studies, consistent reductions in alpha-lactalbumin mRNA levels during once-daily milking (ODM) and in SLC2A1 mRNA level during feed restriction are observed. The effect of ODM on alpha-lactalbumin mRNA level was similarly observed in milk isolated MEC and mammary biopsy. Moreover, we and others showed decreasing alpha-lactalbumin and increasing BAX mRNA levels with advanced stages of lactation in dairy cows and buffalo. The relevance of using the milk-isolated MEC method to analyze mammary gene expression is proven, as the transcript variations were also consistent with milk yield and composition variations under the effect of different factors such as prolactin inhibition or photoperiod. However, the RNA from milk-isolated MEC is particularly sensitive to degradation. This could explain the differences obtained between milk-isolated MEC and mammary biopsy in two studies where gene expression was compared using qRT-PCR or RNA Sequencing analyses. As a conclusion, when the RNA quality is conserved, MEC isolated from milk are a valuable, non-invasive source of mammary mRNA to study various factors that impact milk yield and composition (ODM, feeding level, endocrine status, photoperiod modulation, and stage of lactation). PMID:26579195

  3. Odontogenic potential of post-natal oral mucosal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, E; Itoh, T; Yoshie, H; Satokata, I

    2009-03-01

    A bioengineered tooth would provide a powerful alternative to currently available clinical treatments. Previous experiments have succeeded in bioengineering teeth using tooth germs from animal embryos. However, the ultimate goal is to develop a technology which enables teeth to be regenerated with the use of autologous cells. To pursue this goal, we re-associated the palatal epithelium from young mice with the odontogenic dental mesenchyme and transplanted the re-associated tissues into mouse kidney capsules. Morphologically defined teeth were formed from the re-associated cultured palatal epithelial cell sheets from mice aged up to 4 wks, but no tooth was formed when the palatal epithelium from mice after 2 days of age was directly re-associated. Our results demonstrated that post-natal non-dental oral mucosal epithelium can be used as a substitute for dental epithelium, and that epithelial cell sheet improves the ability of the oral epithelium of older mice to differentiate into dental epithelium.

  4. Ability of transplanted cultured epithelium to respond to dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Xing, L; Kobayashi, K

    2001-10-01

    Cultured epithelium has been used successfully in the treatment of extensive burns. Regenerated epidermis, however, lacks such as hair follicles and sweat glands that are common in mammalian skin. We attempted to determine whether cultured epithelium could be induced to form hair follicles by dermal papillae, which are most important for the morphogenesis and growth of hair follicles. We cultivated adult rat sole keratinocytes, obtained the cultured epithelium, and prepared recombinants consisting of cultured epithelium and fresh dermal papillae with or without the sole dermis. These recombinants were then transplanted underneath the dermis of the dorsal skin of syngeneic rats or athymic mice. Histologic examination revealed that the transplanted cultured epithelium formed the follicular structures with sebaceous gland-like structure following induction of the dermal papillae, especially when supported by the dermis. We concluded that transplanted cultured epithelium of adult rat sole keratinocytes can respond to growth signals from adult dermal papillae.

  5. [Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins].

    PubMed

    Torres-Llanez, María de Jesús; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aaron Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Milk proteins are known for having a wide range of nutritional, functional and biological properties that make them important ingredients in functional or health promoting foods. These properties are partly attributed to bioactive peptides coded in the different milk proteins. Bioactive peptides are inactive within the protein sequence but may be released by the action of native proteolitic enzymes from milk, enzymes from lactic acid bacteria or from exogenous sources or may be produced during gastrointestinal digestion or processing of foods. Peptides derived from caseins and whey proteins were shown to present several bioactive properties such as opioid, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunodulatory, mineral carrier and antithrombotic. This overview presents a perspective of the importance of dairy proteins in the production of bioactive peptides and their biological activities, as well as the main analytical tecniques that have been used for the isolation and identification of these peptides.

  6. Milk Thistle (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Question 6 ). Milk thistle has a long history of use as a complementary and alternative therapy , especially for liver ailments (see Question 2 ). ... German), and Chardon-Marie (French). What is the history of the discovery ... complementary and alternative therapy? The ancient Greeks and Romans used milk ...

  7. Breast-milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Brooten, D; Brown, L; Hollingsworth, A; Tanis, J; Bakewell-Sachs, S

    1985-01-01

    The syndrome of breast-milk jaundice, which often results in cessation of breastfeeding, maternal anxiety, and guilt, may be increasing. Research to date on pregnanediol, increased lipase, and free fatty acids as the causes of breast milk jaundice is reviewed. Variations in current treatment are presented and nursing measures supportive of parents and continued breastfeeding are provided.

  8. Transport pathways in rat lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Simon, S A; Robb, R; Schiffman, S S

    1988-02-01

    Measurements of ion transport across isolated lingual epithelium of rat were correlated with electrophysiological recordings from taste nerves. At hyperosmotic concentrations of NaCl, sodium ions enter the mucosal membrane of the isolated epithelium partially through an amiloride-inhibitable pathway and exit the serosal membrane through a Na+-K+-ATPase. At hyposmotic concentrations of KCl, potassium ions enter the mucosal membrane through a K+ pathway that is inhibited by 4-aminopyridine and exit at the serosal membrane through a K+ pathway that is inhibited by BaCl2. The inhibition of sodium transport by amiloride and potassium transport by 4-aminopyridine is consistent with previously published electrophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve bundle (CT) and recordings from nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) obtained here. The responses to NaCl are greater than the responses to KCl at equimolar concentrations over the entire concentration range both in epithelial and neural measurements. At hyposmotic concentrations of NaCl the epithelial responses include inward sodium and outward chloride components. Isolated rat tongue is only slightly stimulated by D-glucose or sucrose as are the CT and NTS responses. These data suggest that events in taste transduction can be understood, in part, by measuring the epithelial responses of isolated rat tongue.

  9. Effluxing ABC Transporters in Human Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Mannermaa, Eliisa; Turner, Helen; Häkli, Marika; Wolosin, J. Mario; Tervo, Timo; Honkakoski, Paavo; Urtti, Arto

    2010-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are able to efflux their substrate drugs from the cells. We compared expression of efflux proteins in normal human corneal epithelial tissue, primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEpiC), and corneal epithelial cell culture model (HCE model) based on human immortal cell line. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1–6 (MRP1–6) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) was studied using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Only MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP were expressed in the freshly excised human corneal epithelial tissue. Expression of MRP1 and MRP5 was localized predominantly in the basal cells of the central cornea and limbus. Functional efflux activity was shown in the cell models, but they showed over-expression of most efflux transporters compared to that of normal corneal epithelium. In conclusion, MRP1, MRP5, and BCRP are expressed in the corneal epithelium, but MDR1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, and MRP6 are not significantly expressed. HCE cell model and commercially available primary cells deviate from this expression profile. PMID:19623615

  10. Milk secretion: The role of SNARE proteins.

    PubMed

    Truchet, Sandrine; Chat, Sophie; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

    2014-03-01

    During lactation, polarized mammary epithelial secretory cells (MESCs) secrete huge quantities of the nutrient molecules that make up milk, i.e. proteins, fat globules and soluble components such as lactose and minerals. Some of these nutrients are only produced by the MESCs themselves, while others are to a great extent transferred from the blood. MESCs can thus be seen as a crossroads for both the uptake and the secretion with cross-talks between intracellular compartments that enable spatial and temporal coordination of the secretion of the milk constituents. Although the physiology of lactation is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underlying the secretion of milk components remain incompletely characterized. Major milk proteins, namely caseins, are secreted by exocytosis, while the milk fat globules are released by budding, being enwrapped by the apical plasma membrane. Prolactin, which stimulates the transcription of casein genes, also induces the production of arachidonic acid, leading to accelerated casein transport and/or secretion. Because of their ability to form complexes that bridge two membranes and promote their fusion, SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor) proteins are involved in almost all intracellular trafficking steps and exocytosis. As SNAREs can bind arachidonic acid, they could be the effectors of the secretagogue effect of prolactin in MESCs. Indeed, some SNAREs have been observed between secretory vesicles and lipid droplets suggesting that these proteins could not only orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of milk components but also act as key regulators for both the coupling and coordination of milk product secretion in response to hormones.

  11. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, A R; Thampi, P; Yadav, S; Rawal, U M

    1993-12-01

    The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium) and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium). In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium) and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium). From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  12. Induction of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Affects the Ruminal Microbiome and Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Joshua C.; Luan, Shaoyu; Cardoso, Felipe C.; Derakhshani, Hooman; Khafipour, Ehsan; Loor, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) negatively impacts the dairy industry by decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, profitability, and increasing culling rate and death loss. Six ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated incomplete Latin square design to determine the effects of SARA induction on the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. Experimental periods were 10 days with days 1–3 for ad libitum intake of control diet, followed by 50% feed restriction on day 4, and ad libitum access on day 5 to the basal diet or the basal diet with an additional 10% of a 50:50 wheat/barley pellet. Based on subsequent ruminal pH, cows were grouped (SARA grouping; SG) as Non-SARA or SARA based on time <5.6 pH (0 and 3.4 h, respectively). Ruminal samples were collected on days 1 and 6 of each period prior to feeding and separated into liquid and solid fractions. Microbial DNA was extracted for bacterial analysis using 16S rRNA gene paired-end sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ruminal epithelium biopsies were taken on days 1 and 6 before feeding. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression in rumen epithelium. Bray–Curtis similarity indicated samples within the liquid fraction separated by day and coincided with an increased relative abundance of genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus on day 6 (P < 0.06). Although Firmicutes was the predominant phyla in the solid fraction, a SG × day interaction (P < 0.01) indicated a decrease on day 6 for SARA cows. In contrast, phylum Bacteroidetes increased on day 6 (P < 0.01) for SARA cows driven by greater genera Prevotella and YRC22 (P < 0.01). Streptococcus bovis and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens populations tended to increase on day 6 but were not affected by SG. In ruminal epithelium, CLDN1 and CLDN4 expression increased on day 6 (P < 0.03) 24 h after SARA induction and a tendency for a SG × day interaction (P < 0.10) was

  13. Markets, breastfeeding and trade in mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julie P

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue on the economics of breastfeeding draws attention to the lack of economic justice for women. Human milk is being bought and sold. Commodifying and marketing human milk and breastfeeding risk reinforcing social and gender economic inequities. Yet there are potential benefits for breastfeeding, and some of the world's poorest women might profit. How can we improve on the present situation where everyone except the woman who donates her milk benefits? Breastfeeding is a global food production system with unsurpassed capacity to promote children's food security and maternal and child health, but it is side-lined by trade negotiators who seek instead to expand world markets for cow's milk-based formula. Regulators focus on potential risks of feeding donated human milk, rather than on health risks of exposing infants and young children to highly processed bovine milk. Similarly, policymakers aspire to provide universal health care access that may be unaffordable when two thirds of the world's children are not optimally nourished in infancy, resulting in a global double burden of infectious and chronic disease. Universal breastfeeding requires greater commitment of resources, but such investment remains lacking despite the cost effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, support and promotion in and beyond health services. Women invest substantially in breastfeeding but current policy - epitomised by the G20 approach to the 'gender gap' - fails to acknowledge the economic value of this unpaid care work. Economic incentives for mothers to optimally breastfeed are dwarfed by health system and commercial incentives promoting formula feeding and by government fiscal policies which ignore the resulting economic costs. 'The market' fails to protect breastfeeding, because market prices give the wrong signals. An economic approach to the problem of premature weaning from optimal breastfeeding may help prioritise global maternity protection as

  14. The electrical potential profile of gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    van Os, C H; Slegers, J F

    1975-12-04

    In this study the relative ionic permeabilities of the cell membranes of Necturus gallbladder epithelium have been determined by means of simultaneous measurement of transmural and transmucosal membrane potential differences (PD) and by ionic substitution experiments with sodium, potassium and chloride ions. It is shown that the mucosal membrane is permeable to sodium and to potassium ions. The baso-lateral membrane PD is only sensitive to potassium ions. In both membranes chloride conductance is negligible or absent. The ratio of the resistances of the mucosal and baso-lateral membranes, RM/RS, increases upon reducing the sodium concentration in the mucosal solution. The same ratio decreases when sodium is replaced by potassium which implies a greater potassium than sodium conductance in the mucosal membrane. The relative permeability of the shunt for potassium, sodium and chloride ions is: PK/PNa/PCl=1.81:1.00:0.32. From the results obtained in this study a value for the PK/PNa ratio of the mucosal membrane could be evaluated. This ratio is 2.7. From the same data the magnitude of the electromotive forces generated across the cell membranes could be calculated. The EMF's are -15mV across the mucosal membrane and -81mV across the baso-lateral one. Due to the presence of the low resistance shunt the transmucosal membrane PD is -53.2mV (cell inside negative) and the transmural PD is +2.6mV (serosal side positive). The change in potential profile brought about by the low resistance shunt favors passive entry of Na ions into the cell across the mucosal membrane. Calculations show that this passive Na influx is maximally 64% of the net Na flux estimated from fluid transport measurements. The C-1 conductive of the baso-lateral membrane is too small to allow electrogenic coupling of C1 with Na transport across this membrane. Experiments with rabbit gallbladder epithelium indicate that the membrane properties in this tissue are qualitatively similar to those of Necturus

  15. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  16. Milk, revealed "silent" chemistry: new mode of cycloretinal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bench, Bennie J; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Watanabe, Coran M H

    2011-01-01

    Bovine milk is by far the most commonly consumed milk in the western world. The protein composition in milk consists of casein and whey proteins, of which β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the principal constituent of the latter. Here we provide biochemical evidence that this milk protein, in purified form and in pasteurized store-bought milk, promotes the formation of cycloretinal (all-trans retinal dimer), and a variety of other cycloterpenals of biological relevance [Fishkin et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2005, 102, 7091-7096; Fishkin et al., Chirality, 2004, 16, 637-641; Kim et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2007, 104, 19273-19278]. Cycloretinal is an eye metabolite and among several toxic byproducts of the visual cycle firmly established to cause age-related macular degeneration. Experiments in rabbits further demonstrate that BLG/milk can survive the digestive system and promote this reaction in vivo [Caillard et al., Am. J. Physiol., 1994, 266(6), G1053-G1059]. Proteomic studies on age-related macular degeneration patients have detected BLG in the eye of these patients further suggesting that this milk protein could contribute to disease progression [Crabb et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2002, 99(23), 14682-14687].

  17. Canonical Wnt Signaling Drives Tumor-Like Lesions from Sox2-Positive Precursors of the Murine Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Nils W.; Neumann, Julia E.; Ahlfeld, Julia; Wefers, Annika K.; Merk, Daniel J.; Ohli, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is known to promote proliferation of olfactory stem cells. In order to investigate the effects of a constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in Sox2-positive precursor cells of the olfactory epithelium, we used transgenic mice that allowed an inducible deletion of exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene, which is responsible for the phosphorylation and degradation of Ctnnb1 protein. After induction of aberrant Wnt activation by Ctnnb1 deletion at embryonic day 14, such mice developed tumor-like lesions in upper parts of the nasal cavity. We still observed areas of epithelial hyperplasia within the olfactory epithelium following early postnatal Wnt activation, but the olfactory epithelial architecture remained unaffected in most parts when Wnt was activated at postnatal day 21 or later. In summary, our results suggest an age-dependent tumorigenic potential of aberrant Wnt signaling in the olfactory epithelium of mice. PMID:27902722

  18. Prediction of Drug Transfer into Milk Considering Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP)-Mediated Transport.

    PubMed

    Ito, Naoki; Ito, Kousei; Ikebuchi, Yuki; Toyoda, Yu; Takada, Tappei; Hisaka, Akihiro; Oka, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Drug transfer into milk is of concern due to the unnecessary exposure of infants to drugs. Proposed prediction methods for such transfer assume only passive drug diffusion across the mammary epithelium. This study reorganized data from the literature to assess the contribution of carrier-mediated transport to drug transfer into milk, and to improve the predictability thereof. Milk-to-plasma drug concentration ratios (M/Ps) in humans were exhaustively collected from the literature and converted into observed unbound concentration ratios (M/Punbound,obs). The ratios were also predicted based on passive diffusion across the mammary epithelium (M/Punbound,pred). An in vitro transport assay was performed for selected drugs in breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-expressing cell monolayers. M/Punbound,obs and M/Punbound,pred values were compared for 166 drugs. M/Punbound,obs values were 1.5 times or more higher than M/Punbound,pred values for as many as 13 out of 16 known BCRP substrates, reconfirming BCRP as the predominant transporter contributing to secretory transfer of drugs into milk. Predictability of M/P values for selected BCRP substrates and non-substrates was improved by considering in vitro-evaluated BCRP-mediated transport relative to passive diffusion alone. The current analysis improved the predictability of drug transfer into milk, particularly for BCRP substrates, based on an exhaustive data overhaul followed by focused in vitro transport experimentation.

  19. Pigmentation of the Lacrimal Sac Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Stagner, Anna M; Sutula, Francis C; Freitag, Suzanne K; Yoon, Michael K

    To describe the patterns of the melanocytic populations of 3 cases of lacrimal sac benign melanosis and 1 of atypical primary-acquired sac melanosis with a melanomatous nodule secondary to spread of atypical conjunctival primary-acquired melanosis to the sac. Clinical records, photographs, and paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the Fontana reaction were critically reviewed. Additional sections were immunoreacted for melanoma antigen recognized by T cells and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Five nonpigmented pterygia and 4 nonpigmented lacrimal sacs served as controls. Three patients with obstructive dacryocystitis and benign melanosis were African-Americans whose sacs disclosed the presence of nonclustering, melanoma antigen recognized by T cells, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-positive intraepithelial dendritic melanocytes at all levels of the epithelium. The transferred melanin granules were concentrated in the adlumenal apical region of the epithelial cells. No fusiform melanocytes were found in the lamina propria. The fourth patient, a white, had atypical conjunctival and sac primary-acquired melanosis and conjunctival and sac melanomas. The intraepithelial sac melanocytes in this case were strikingly atypical and profusely distributed in a back to back fashion at all levels of a thickened epithelial layer focally approximating the appearance of a melanoma in situ. Five nonpigmented pterygia and 4 nonpigmented lacrimal sacs served as controls. Each displayed nonnesting dendritic melanocytes of various densities without back to back contact. Low densities of intraepithelial melanocytes were discovered in all controls and therefore represent a normal subpopulation within the conjunctival and lacrimal sacs. Due to the pseudostratification of the sac epithelium, melanocytes can move to higher levels without implying atypia. Benign melanosis is produced by small diffusely distributed individual

  20. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Vitamin content of camel milk.

    PubMed

    Farah, Z; Rettenmaier, R; Atkins, D

    1992-01-01

    The content of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and fat-soluble vitamins E and A in camel milk was studied. The milk samples were collected from 20 individual camels (Camelus dromedarius) in two different occasions. The study showed that camel milk contains considerably less vitamin A and B2 than cow milk while the content of vitamin E was about the same level. The level of vitamin C was in average three times higher than that of cow milk.

  2. Effect of milking pipeline height on machine milking efficiency and milk quality in sheep.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J R; Peris, C; Rodríguez, M; Molina, M P; Fernández, N

    2004-06-01

    This experiment studied the effect of milking pipeline height (mid- vs. low-level milking system) on milking efficiency and milk composition. The experiment was of 8 wk duration: 2 wk preexperimental period and 6 wk experimental, in crossover design (2 x 2). Ewes were milked in a 2 x 12 milking parlor with 2 milking pipelines set at a milking vacuum of 36 kPa with a pulsation rate of 180 cycle/min and ratio of 50%. Height of the milkline had no effect on yield of milk at the time of milking, yield after stripping, milk composition, SCC, and number of teatcup fall-offs. Nor did milkline height have any effect on milk lipolysis or on the distribution of fatty acids. The level of free fatty acids was higher in evening than in morning milk (60.5 vs. 25.6 mg/L). Likewise, the increase in the degree of lipolysis between the receiver (40.4 mg/L) and the refrigeration tank (45.8 mg/L) underlines the importance of the milk delivery line design. The parameters (time and flow rate) that define the first peak in the milk emission kinetics were statistically different between lines, so care must be taken when comparing milk emission curves from both types of pipeline.

  3. Effect of milking frequency and diet on milk production, energy balance, and reproduction in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, J; Kenny, D A; Mee, J F; O'Mara, F P; Wathes, D C; Cook, M; Murphy, J J

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency and increased dietary energy density in early lactation on milk production, energy balance, and subsequent fertility. Sixty-six spring-calving, multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: once-daily milking on a standard diet (1xST); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (3xST); and 3-times daily milking on a high-energy diet. Treatments were imposed for the first 28 d of lactation, after which all groups were milked twice daily and fed the standard diet. During the treatment period, the 1xST cows had 19.6% lower milk yield and higher milk fat and milk protein concentrations (15.7 and 10.2%, respectively) compared with 3xST. Dry matter (DM) intake was similar between 1xST and 3xST during the treatment period (12.64 vs. 13.25 kg/ d; SED = 0.82). Daily energy balance was less negative for 1xST compared with 3xST during wk 1 to 3 of lactation [-3.92 vs. -5.30 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d; SED = 0.65; 1 UFL is equal to the net energy for lactation of 1 kg of standard air-dry barley]. During the treatment period, the cows on the high-energy diet had 17% higher milk yield, higher DM intake (15.5 vs. 13.9 kg/d; SED = 0.71), and similar energy balance (-4.45 vs. -4.35 UFL/d; SED = 0.65) compared to 3xST. Diet had no significant effect on any of the fertility variables measured. The interval to first ovulation was shorter for 1xST than 3xST (18.3d vs. 28.6d; SED = 1.76). In conclusion, once-daily milking in early lactation may promote earlier resumption of ovarian cyclicity, mediated through improved nutritional status.

  4. Persistent disruption of ciliated epithelium following paediatric lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Biju; Aurora, Paul; Spencer, Helen; Elliott, Martin; Rutman, Andrew; Hirst, Robert A; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    It is unclear whether ciliary function following lung transplantation is normal or not. Our aim was to study the ciliary function and ultrastructure of epithelium above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of children following lung transplantation. We studied the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern, using high speed digital video imaging and ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy, of bronchial epithelium from above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of 10 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 10 non-suppurative lung disease (NSLD) paediatric lung transplant recipients. Compared to epithelium below the anastomosis, the epithelium above the anastomosis in the CF group showed reduced CBF (median (interquartile range): 10.5 (9.0-11.4) Hz versus 7.4 (6.4-9.2) Hz; p<0.01) and increased dyskinesia (median (IQR): 16.5 (12.9-28.2)% versus 42.2 (32.6-56.4)%; p<0.01). In both CF and NSLD groups, compared with epithelium above the anastomosis, the epithelium below the anastomosis showed marked ultrastructural abnormalities (median duration post-transplant 7-12 months). Ciliary dysfunction is a feature of native airway epithelium in paediatric CF lung transplant recipients. The epithelium below the airway anastomosis shows profound ultrastructural abnormalities in both CF and NSLD lung transplant recipients, many months after transplantation.

  5. Challenges and opportunities for tissue-engineering polarized epithelium.

    PubMed

    Paz, Ana C; Soleas, John; Poon, James C H; Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    The epithelium is one of the most important tissue types in the body and the specific organization of the epithelial cells in these tissues is important for achieving appropriate function. Since many tissues contain an epithelial component, engineering functional epithelium and understanding the factors that control epithelial maturation and organization are important for generating whole artificial organ replacements. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular organization leads to tissue malfunction and disease; therefore, engineered epithelium could provide a valuable in vitro model to study disease phenotypes. Despite the importance of epithelial tissues, a surprisingly limited amount of effort has been focused on organizing epithelial cells into artificial polarized epithelium with an appropriate structure that resembles that seen in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of epithelial tissue organization and highlight the importance of cell polarization to achieve appropriate epithelium function. We next describe the in vitro models that exist to create polarized epithelium and summarize attempts to engineer artificial epithelium for clinical use. Finally, we highlight the opportunities that exist to translate strategies from tissue engineering other tissues to generate polarized epithelium with a functional structure.

  6. A three-dimensional study of human fetal endocervix with special reference to its epithelium.

    PubMed

    Barberini, F; Makabe, S; Motta, P M

    1998-07-01

    between the ectocervical and endocervical epithelium, caused by tongue-like prolongations of squamous epithelium directed toward the endocervix, was found. Their tips consisted of elongated cells, rich only in short microvilli. Our data indicate that the features of the microvillous cells are an expression of a hormone-dependent differentiative process. Thus, their secretion might be stimulated by progesterone. Similarly microplicae on the ectocervical epithelium (a sign of squamous maturation) might be promoted by estrogens. Furthermore, two aspects were significative: 1) the finding--in an early phase only (18th week)--of endocervically-located squamous cells, although devoid of microplicae; and 2) the occurrence--in the latest phase (31st week)--of an indented squamo-columnar junction on the surface of the portio. These features are in agreement with the caudal shift of the squamo-columnar junction near the uterine cavity to the ectocervix after cervico-vaginal demarcation; the squamous metaplasia of this everted endocervical epithelium has been reported by some authors. It is likely that these processes, occurring in fetal life as well as in pregnant women, are related to a common hormonal background, arising from the mother to her fetus.

  7. [The new era of epithelium-targeted drug development].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yoshimi; Nagase, Shotaro; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    Epithelium plays pivotal roles in biological barrier separating the inside of body and the outside environment. Ninety percent of malignant tumors are derived from epithelium. Most pathological microorganisms invade into the body from mucosal epithelium. Thus, epithelium is potential targets for drug development. Claudins (CLs), a family of tetra-transmembrane protein consisting of over 20 members, are structural and functional components of tight junction-seals in epithelium. Modulation of CL-seals enhanced mucosal absorption of drugs. CLs are often over-expressed in malignant tumors. CL-4 expression is increased in the epithelial cells covering the mucosal immune tissues. Very recently, CLs are also expected to be targets for traumatic brain injury and regenerative therapy. In this review, we overview the past, the present and the future of CLs-targeted drug development.

  8. The minerals of milk.

    PubMed

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The salt of milk constitutes a small part of milk (8-9 g.L(-1)); this fraction contains calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium for the main cations and inorganic phosphate, citrate and chloride for the main anions. In milk, these ions are more or less associated between themselves and with proteins. Depending on the type of ion, they are diffusible (cases of sodium, potassium and chloride) or partially associated with casein molecules (cases of calcium, magnesium, phosphate and citrate), to form large colloidal particles called casein micelles. Today, our knowledge and understanding concerning this fraction is relatively complete. In this review, the different models explaining (i) the nature and distribution of these minerals (especially calcium phosphate) in both fractions of milk and (ii) their behaviour in different physico-chemical conditions, are discussed.

  9. Inductive differentiation of conjunctival goblet cells by γ-secretase inhibitor and construction of recombinant conjunctival epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tian, Le; Qu, Mingli; Wang, Yao; Duan, Haoyun; Di, Guohu; Xie, Lixin; Zhou, Qingjun

    2014-06-01

    γ-secretase inhibitor has been shown to promote intestinal goblet cell differentiation. We now demonstrated that the in vitro addition of γ-secretase inhibitor in the culture of human conjunctival epithelial cells significantly promoted the differentiation of conjunctival goblet cells with typical droplet-like phenotype, positive periodic acid-Schiff and goblet cell-specific Muc5Ac, cytokeratin 7 and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin staining. Moreover, topical application of γ-secretase inhibitor promoted the differentiation of mouse conjunctival goblet cells in vivo. Furthermore, the expression of Notch target gene HES-1 was down-regulated during the differentiation of conjunctival goblet cells. In addition, we found that the recombinant conjunctival epithelium on amniotic membrane showed less goblet cell density and abnormal location when compared with normal conjunctival epithelium, which were improved by the addition of γ-secretase inhibitor in the final induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abl suppresses cell extrusion and intercalation during epithelium folding

    PubMed Central

    Jodoin, Jeanne N.; Martin, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires control over cell shape changes and rearrangements. In the Drosophila mesoderm, linked epithelial cells apically constrict, without cell extrusion or intercalation, to fold the epithelium into a tube that will then undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Apical constriction drives tissue folding or cell extrusion in different contexts, but the mechanisms that dictate the specific outcomes are poorly understood. Using live imaging, we found that Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase depletion causes apically constricting cells to undergo aberrant basal cell extrusion and cell intercalation. abl depletion disrupted apical–basal polarity and adherens junction organization in mesoderm cells, suggesting that extruding cells undergo premature EMT. The polarity loss was associated with abnormal basolateral contractile actomyosin and Enabled (Ena) accumulation. Depletion of the Abl effector Enabled (Ena) in abl-depleted embryos suppressed the abl phenotype, consistent with cell extrusion resulting from misregulated ena. Our work provides new insight into how Abl loss and Ena misregulation promote cell extrusion and EMT. PMID:27440923

  11. Paraoxonase Enzyme Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Chlorpyrifos Insult

    PubMed Central

    Jasna, Jagan Mohan; Anandbabu, Kannadasan; Bharathi, Subramaniam Rajesh; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2014-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) provides nourishment and protection to the eye. RPE dysfunction due to oxidative stress and inflammation is one of the major reason for many of the retinal disorders. Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in the agricultural, industrial and household activities in India. However, their effects on the eye in the context of RPE has not been studied. In this study the defense of the ARPE19 cells exposed to Chlorpyrifos (1 nM to 100 µM) in terms of the enzyme paraoxonase (PON) was studied at 24 hr and 9 days of treatment. Chlorpyrifos was found to induce oxidative stress in the ARPE19 cells as seen by significant increase in ROS and decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels without causing cell death. Tissue resident Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) mRNA expression was elevated with chlorpyrifos exposure. The three enzymatic activities of PON namely, paraoxonase (PONase), arylesterase (PON AREase) and thiolactonase (PON HCTLase) were also found to be significantly altered to detoxify and as an antioxidant defense. Among the transcription factors regulating PON2 expression, SP1 was significantly increased with chlorpyrifos exposure. PON2 expression was found to be crucial as ARPE19 cells showed a significant loss in their ability to withstand oxidative stress when the cells were subjected to chlorpyrifos after silencing PON2 expression. Treatment with N-acetyl cysteine positively regulated the PON 2 expression, thus promoting the antioxidant defense put up by the cells in response to chlorpyrifos. PMID:24979751

  12. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  13. Ablation of beta1 integrin in mammary epithelium reveals a key role for integrin in glandular morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Matthew J; Li, Na; Cheung, Julia; Lowe, Emma T; Lambert, Elise; Marlow, Rebecca; Wang, Pengbo; Schatzmann, Franziska; Wintermantel, Timothy; Schüetz, Günther; Clarke, Alan R; Mueller, Ulrich; Hynes, Nancy E; Streuli, Charles H

    2005-11-21

    Integrin-mediated adhesion regulates the development and function of a range of tissues; however, little is known about its role in glandular epithelium. To assess the contribution of beta1 integrin, we conditionally deleted its gene in luminal epithelia during different stages of mouse mammary gland development and in cultured primary mammary epithelia. Loss of beta1 integrin in vivo resulted in impaired alveologenesis and lactation. Cultured beta1 integrin-null cells displayed abnormal focal adhesion function and signal transduction and could not form or maintain polarized acini. In vivo, epithelial cells became detached from the extracellular matrix but remained associated with each other and did not undergo overt apoptosis. beta1 integrin-null mammary epithelial cells did not differentiate in response to prolactin stimulation because of defective Stat5 activation. In mice where beta1 integrin was deleted after the initiation of differentiation, fewer defects in alveolar morphology occurred, yet major deficiencies were also observed in milk protein and milk fat production and Stat5 activation, indicating a permissive role for beta1 integrins in prolactin signaling. This study demonstrates that beta1 integrin is critical for the alveolar morphogenesis of a glandular epithelium and for maintenance of its differentiated function. Moreover, it provides genetic evidence for the cooperation between integrin and cytokine signaling pathways.

  14. Trachea Epithelium as a “Canary” for Cigarette Smoking-induced Biologic Phenotype of the Small Airway Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Turetz, Meredith L.; O’Connor, Timothy P.; Tilley, Ann E.; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Dang, David; Teater, Matthew; Mezey, Jason; Clark, Andrew G.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The initial site of smoking-induced lung disease is the small airway epithelium, which is difficult and time consuming to sample by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. We developed a rapid, office-based procedure to obtain trachea epithelium without conscious sedation from healthy nonsmokers (n=26) and healthy smokers (n=19, 27 ± 15 pack-yr). Gene expression differences (fold-change >1.5, p<0.01, Benjamini-Hochberg correction) were assessed with Affymetrix microarrays. 1,057 probe sets were differentially expressed in healthy smokers vs nonsmokers, representing >500 genes. Trachea gene expression was compared to an independent group of small airway epithelial samples (n=23 healthy nonsmokers, n=19 healthy smokers, 25 ± 12 pack-yr). The trachea epithelium is more sensitive to smoking, responding with 3-fold more differentially-expressed genes than small airway epithelium. The trachea transcriptome paralleled the small airway epithelium, with 156 of 167 (93%) genes that are significantly upand down-regulated by smoking in the small airway epithelium showing similar direction and magnitude of response to smoking in the trachea. Trachea epithelium can be obtained without conscious sedation, representing a less invasive surrogate “canary” for smoking-induced changes in the small airway epithelium. This should prove useful in epidemiologic studies correlating gene expression with clinical outcome in assessing smoking-induced lung disease. PMID:20443905

  15. The decrease in milk yield during once daily milking is due to regulation of synthetic activity rather than apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in goats.

    PubMed

    Ben Chedly, H; Lacasse, P; Marnet, P-G; Boutinaud, M

    2013-01-01

    Once daily milking (ODM) is a management practice that can improve working conditions and reduce production costs in dairy farming compared with twice daily milking (TDM). However, ODM is associated with a decrease in milk yield. Previous research indicated that disruption of tight junctions in the mammary gland may be one of the regulatory factors involved in the milk yield decrease observed during ODM. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of mammary epithelium disruption in the regulation of the activity and dynamics of mammary epithelial cells (MEC) during 5 weeks of ODM in goats. Twelve alpine goats (producing 3.67 ± 0.64 kg/day and 47 ± 1.6 days in milk) were assigned to two groups that were milked once or twice a day during 5 weeks and then switched back to TDM. Mammary biopsies were collected before and on days 2 and 16 of both ODM and TDM switchback periods. Milk purified epithelial cells were collected before and on days 1, 7, 21 and 28 during ODM as well on days 1 and 7 of the TDM switchback period. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the regulation of synthetic activity and apoptosis were analysed by RT-PCR in milk MEC and mammary biopsies. ODM decreased yields of milk (-23%), lactose (-23%) and casein (-16%). Lactose synthesis was regulated at the transcriptional level by downregulation of α-lactalbumin mRNA levels in both biopsy samples (-30%) and milk MEC (-74%). TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling) staining of mammary gland biopsies did not show any increase in cell apoptosis after 2 and 16 days of ODM (0.8% and 1%, respectively) despite upregulation of Bax mRNA levels in milk MEC. This suggests that the decrease in milk yield observed during ODM is attributable to a decrease in synthetic activity rather than to induction of MEC cell death. ODM induced the disruption of tight junctions in the mammary gland only on the first day of the treatment as indicated by increased blood

  16. Human milk banking guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  17. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H; Marnila, P; Gill, H S

    2000-11-01

    The importance of colostrum for the growth and health of newborn offspring is well known. In bovine colostrum, the antibody (immunoglobulin) complement system provides a major antimicrobial effect against a wide range of microbes and confers passive immunity until the calf's own immune system has matured. Bovine serum and lacteal secretions contain three major classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgM and IgA. The immunoglobulins are selectively transported from the serum into the mammary gland, as a result of which the first colostrum contains very high concentrations of immunoglobulins (40-200 mg/ml). IgG1 accounts for over 75 % of the immunoglobulins in colostral whey, followed by IgM, IgA and IgG2. All these immunoglobulins decrease within a few days to a total immunoglobulin concentration of 0.7-1.0 mg/ml, with IgG1 representing the major Ig class in milk throughout the lactation period. Together with the antibodies absorbed from colostrum after birth, the complement system plays a crucial role in the passive immunisation of the newborn calf. The occurrence of haemolytic or bactericidal complement activity in bovine colostrum and milk has been demonstrated in several studies. This review deals with the characteristics of bovine Igs and the complement system to be exploited as potential ingredients for health-promoting functional foods.

  18. Machine milking of Ostfriesian and Lacaune dairy sheep: udder anatomy, milk ejection and milking characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bruckmaier, R M; Paul, G; Mayer, H; Schams, D

    1997-05-01

    Mammary cistern anatomy derived from ultrasound measurement, milk ejection in response to exogenous oxytocin and oxytocin release and milking characteristics with and without manual prestimulation in early (months 2-4) and late (months 5-8) lactation were investigated in Lacaune and Ostfriesian dairy ewes. Vertical ultrasound cisternal cross sections of the cisternal cavities did not differ in the two breeds, whereas the cisternal area fraction located lower than the exit into the teat channel was larger in Ostfriesian than in Lacaune sheep. The cisternal area enlarged within 1 min in response to i.v. oxytocin injection, indicating milk ejection. During milking, oxytocin concentrations in Lacaune generally increased dramatically within 0.5 min from the start of prestimulation or milking, whereas only slight or no oxytocin release was detected during milking without prestimulation in Ostfriesian ewes. Prestimulation induced oxytocin release in Ostfriesian sheep within 1-2 min after the start of milking, indicating delayed response to stimulation. Two peaked milk flow curves were observed when oxytocin release and milk ejection occurred only after removal of cisternal milk. This type of milk flow was more frequent in Ostfriesian than in Lacaune ewes and was reduced in both breeds by prestimulation, while the frequency of one peaked milk flow curves increased. During the course of lactation, milk yield, main milk fraction and milk flow rates decreased, while stripping yield was almost unchanged. Although milk yield was similar in both breeds, milk flow was lower and stripping yield was higher in Ostfriesian than in Lacaune ewes. We conclude that milk ejection in ewes occurred in response to elevated oxytocin concentrations. In Ostfriesian ewes reduced and delayed oxytocin response to teat stimulation resulted in milk ejection only during stripping. Therefore, and probably because a larger volume of the cistern was located below the teat exit in the Ostfriesian breed

  19. Revisiting the human seminiferous epithelium cycle.

    PubMed

    Nihi, F; Gomes, M L M; Carvalho, F A R; Reis, A B; Martello, R; Melo, R C N; Almeida, F R C L; Chiarini-Garcia, H

    2017-06-01

    Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man. Morphological characterization of germ cells in human has been done decades ago with the use of conventional histological methods (formaldehyde-based fixative -Zenker-formal- and paraffin embedding). These early studies proposed a classification of the SEC in six stages. However, the use of stages as baseline for morphofunctional evaluations of testicular parenchyma has been difficult because of incomplete morphological identification of germ cells and their random distribution in the human SEC. Testicular tissue from adult and elderly donors with normal spermatogenesis according to Levin's, Johnsen's and Bergmann's scores were used to evaluate germ cell morphology and validate their distribution and frequency in stages throughout human spermatogenesis. Testicular tissue from patients diagnosed with congenital bilateral agenesis of vas deferens (n = 3 adults) or prostate cancer (n = 3 elderly) were fixed in glutaraldehyde and embedded in araldite epoxy resin. Morphological analyses were performed by both light and transmission electron microscopy. HRLM method enabled a reliable morphological identification of all germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids) based on high-resolution aspects of euchromatin, heterochromatin and nucleolus. Moreover, acrosomal development of spermatids was clearly revealed. Altogether, our data redefined the limits of each stage leading to a more reliable determination of the SEC in man. Occasionally, germ cells can be

  20. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Is cow's milk harmful to a child's health?

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Turck, Dominique

    2011-12-01

    Discussions and debates have recently emerged on the potential positive and negative effects of cow's milk in the paediatric community, also under the pressure of public opinion. The negative effects of cow's-milk consumption seem to be limited to iron status up to 9 to 12 months; then no negative effects are observed, provided that cow's milk, up to a maximum daily intake of 500 mL, is adequately complemented with iron-enriched foods. Lactose intolerance can be easily managed and up to 250 mL/day of milk can be consumed. Allergy to cow's-milk proteins is usually transient. Atopic children may independently be at risk for poor growth, and the contribution of dairy nutrients to their diet should be considered. The connection of cow's milk to autistic spectrum disorders is lacking, and even a cause-effect relation with type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been established because many factors may concur. Although it is true that cow's milk stimulates insulin-like growth factor-1 and may affect linear growth, association with chronic degenerative, noncommunicable diseases has not been established. Finally, fat-reduced milk, if needed, should be considered after 24 to 36 months. Cow's milk represents a major source of high nutritional quality protein as well as of calcium. Moreover, it has growth-promoting effects independent of specific compounds. Its protein and fat composition, together with the micronutrient content, is suggestive of a functional food, whose positive effects are emphasised by regular consumption, particularly under conditions of diets poor in some limiting nutrients, although in industrialised countries cow's milk's optimal daily intake should be around 500 mL, adequately complemented with other relevant nutrients.

  2. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling – Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk

    PubMed Central

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O.; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M.; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26858689

  3. Differential Effects of Camel Milk on Insulin Receptor Signaling - Toward Understanding the Insulin-Like Properties of Camel Milk.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Abdulrasheed O; Ismael, Mohammad A; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Rame, Christelle; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Dupont, Joëlle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) showed beneficial effects of its milk reported in diverse models of human diseases, including a substantial hypoglycemic activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in such effects remain completely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that camel milk may act at the level of human insulin receptor (hIR) and its related intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we examined the effect of camel milk on the activation of hIR transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology. BRET was used to assess, in live cells and real-time, the physical interaction between hIR and insulin receptor signaling proteins (IRS1) and the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2). Our data showed that camel milk did not promote any increase in the BRET signal between hIR and IRS1 or Grb2 in the absence of insulin stimulation. However, it significantly potentiated the maximal insulin-promoted BRET signal between hIR and Grb2 but not IRS1. Interestingly, camel milk appears to differentially impact the downstream signaling since it significantly activated ERK1/2 and potentiated the insulin-induced ERK1/2 but not Akt activation. These observations are to some extent consistent with the BRET data since ERK1/2 and Akt activation are known to reflect the engagement of Grb2 and IRS1 pathways, respectively. The preliminary fractionation of camel milk suggests the peptide/protein nature of the active component in camel milk. Together, our study demonstrates for the first time an allosteric effect of camel milk on insulin receptor conformation and activation with differential effects on its intracellular signaling. These findings should help to shed more light on the hypoglycemic activity of camel milk with potential therapeutic applications.

  4. [Influence of cancer chemotherapy on conjunctival epithelium and goblet cells].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Jurowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of different types of chemotherapy schemes administered in lung, breast and bowel cancer on conjunctival epithelium and goblet cells morphology. 36 patients (72 eyes) were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into three groups depending on type of cancer and chemotherapy: group I - patients diagnosed with non- small cells lung cancer treated with PE schema (cisplatin, etoposide), group II - with breast cancer treated with FAC schema (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide), group Ill - bowel cancer treated with FU/LV schema (fluorouracil, leucovorin). Examinations were performed before chemotherapy and after Il'th, IV'th, VI'th chemotherapy cycle. Conjuntival specimen were obtained with exfoliative cytology, stained with PAS and hematoxyline. Statistically significant deterioration of conjunctival epithelium and goblet cells in all the groups in each time of examination (p<0.001) was observed. Alterations were aggravated with duration of chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy all the patients had normal epithelium and goblet cells (grade 0 or 1 according to the Nelson's scale). Conjunctival cells status gradually deteriorated and altered from the normal glandular epithelium to the squamous cells epithelium through the process of squamous metaplasia. In further chemotherapy cycles each patient (1,0 fraction) had abnormal morphology of epithelium and goblet cells (grade 2 or 3 of Nelson's scale). Chemotherapy induces squamous metaplasia of epithelium and the reduction of number of conjunctival goblet cells. This abnormalities were time dependent and increased with duration of chemotherapy and were not depended on type of chemotherapy scheme.

  5. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  6. Milk Enhancements Improve Milk Consumption and Increase Meal Participation in the NSLP: The School Milk Pilot Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Karen; Zipay, Diane; Patey, Camellia; Meyer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of the School Milk Pilot Test and the Westside School Milk Pilot Study was to test the effect of a milk enhancement initiative to make milk more appealing and attractive to elementary and secondary school students and to improve milk consumption. Methods: 146 schools participated in the national School Milk Pilot…

  7. STUDIES ON SMALL INTESTINAL CRYPT EPITHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Trier, Jerry S.

    1963-01-01

    Small intestinal crypt epithelium obtained from normal fasting humans by peroral biopsy of the mucosa was studied with the electron microscope. Paneth cells were identified at the base of the crypts by their elaborate highly organized endoplasmic reticulum, large secretory granules, and small lysosome-like dense bodies within the cytoplasm. Undifferentiated cells were characterized by smaller cytoplasmic membrane-bounded granules which were presumed to be secretory in nature, a less elaborate endoplasmic reticulum, many unattached ribosomes and, in some cells, the presence of glycogen. Some undifferentiated cells at the base of the crypts contained lobulated nuclei and striking paranuclear accumulations of mitochondria. Membrane-bounded cytoplasmic fragments, probably originating from undifferentiated and Paneth cells, were frequently apparent within crypt lumina. Of the goblet cells, some were seen actively secreting mucus. In these, apical mucus appeared to exude into the crypt lumen between gaps in the microvilli. The membrane formerly surrounding the apical mucus appeared to fuse with and become part of the plasma membrane of the cell, suggesting a merocrine secretory mechanism. Enterochromaffin cells were identified by their location between the basal regions of other crypt cells and by their unique intracytoplasmic granules. PMID:14064112

  8. Biochemical studies of the tracheobronchial epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Mass, M.J.; Kaufman, D.G.

    1984-06-01

    Tracheobronchial epithelium has been a focus of intense investigation in the field of chemical carcinogenesis. We have reviewed some biochemical investigations that have evolved through linkage with carcinogenesis research. These areas of investigation have included kinetics of carcinogen metabolism, identification of carcinogen metabolites, levels of carcinogen binding to DNA, and analysis of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Such studies appear to have provided a reasonable explanation for the susceptibilities of the respiratory tracts of rats and hamsters to carcinogenesis by benzo(a)pyrene. Coinciding with the attempts to understand the initiation of carcinogenesis in the respiratory tract has also been a major thrust aimed at effecting its prevention both in humans and in animal models for human bronchogenic carcinoma. These studies have concerned the effects of derivatives of vitamin A (retinoids) and their influence on normal cell biology and biochemistry of this tissue. Recent investigations have included the effects of retinoid deficiency on the synthesis of RNA and the identification of RNA species associated with this biological state, and also have included the effects of retinoids on the synthesis of mucus-related glycoproteins. Tracheal organ cultures from retinoid-deficient hamsters have been used successfully to indicate the potency of synthetic retinoids by monitoring the reversal of squamous metaplasia. Techniques applied to this tissue have also served to elucidate features of the metabolism of retinoic acid using high pressure liquid chromatography. 94 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Neuropilins: expression and roles in the epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jonathan R L; Staton, Carolyn A; Chapple, Keith; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Initially found expressed in neuronal and then later in endothelial cells, it is well established that the transmembrane glycoproteins neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) play essential roles in axonal growth and guidance and in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Neuropilin expression and function in epithelial cells has received little attention when compared with neuronal and endothelial cells. Overexpression of NRPs is shown to enhance growth, correlate with invasion and is associated with poor prognosis in various tumour types, especially those of epithelial origin. The contribution of NRP and its ligands to tumour growth and metastasis has spurred a strong interest in NRPs as novel chemotherapy drug targets. Given NRP’s role as a multifunctional co-receptor with an ability to bind with disparate ligand families, this has sparked new areas of research implicating NRPs in diverse biological functions. Here, we review the growing body of research demonstrating NRP expression and role in the normal and neoplastic epithelium. PMID:22414290

  10. Stem cells of the skin epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Laura; Fuchs, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Tissue stem cells form the cellular base for organ homeostasis and repair. Stem cells have the unusual ability to renew themselves over the lifetime of the organ while producing daughter cells that differentiate into one or multiple lineages. Difficult to identify and characterize in any tissue, these cells are nonetheless hotly pursued because they hold the potential promise of therapeutic reprogramming to grow human tissue in vitro, for the treatment of human disease. The mammalian skin epithelium exhibits remarkable turnover, punctuated by periods of even more rapid production after injury due to burn or wounding. The stem cells responsible for supplying this tissue with cellular substrate are not yet easily distinguishable from neighboring cells. However, in recent years a significant body of work has begun to characterize the skin epithelial stem cells, both in tissue culture and in mouse and human skin. Some epithelial cells cultured from skin exhibit prodigious proliferative potential; in fact, for >20 years now, cultured human skin has been used as a source of new skin to engraft onto damaged areas of burn patients, representing one of the first therapeutic uses of stem cells. Cell fate choices, including both self-renewal and differentiation, are crucial biological features of stem cells that are still poorly understood. Skin epithelial stem cells represent a ripe target for research into the fundamental mechanisms underlying these important processes. PMID:12913119

  11. Culturing of retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Valtink, Monika; Engelmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells adjacent to the photoreceptors of the retina. It plays a crucial role in maintaining photoreceptor health and survival. Degeneration or dysfunction of the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration and as a consequence to visual impairment. The most common diseased state of the RPE becomes manifest in age-related macular degeneration, an increasing cause of blindness in the elderly. RPE cells are therefore of great interest to researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and cell transplantation. In fact, studies in animal models have proven that the transplantation of RPE cells can delay the course of photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Although first attempts to transplant RPE cells into the subretinal space in human individuals suffering from age-related macular degeneration were less successful, RPE cell transplantation is still favored as a future therapeutic option, and much work is done to develop and design cell transplants. Cell banking is a prerequisite to have well-differentiated and characterized cells at hand when needed for research purposes, but also for therapeutic approaches. In this chapter the authors will describe methods to isolate, culture and preserve adult human RPE cells for the purpose of RPE cell banking. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Human vomeronasal epithelium development: An immunohistochemical overview.

    PubMed

    Dénes, Lóránd; Pap, Zsuzsanna; Szántó, Annamária; Gergely, István; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2015-06-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the receptor structure of the vomeronasal system (VNS) in vertebrates. It is found bilaterally in the submucosa of the inferior part of the nasal septum. There are ongoing controversies regarding the functionality of this organ in humans. In this study we propose the immunohistochemical evaluation of changes in components of the human vomeronasal epithelium during foetal development. We used 45 foetuses of different age, which were included in three age groups. After VNO identification immunohistochemical reactions were performed using primary antibodies against the following: neuron specific enolase, calretinin, neurofilament, chromogranin, synaptophysin, cytokeratin 7, pan-cytokeratin and S100 protein. Digital slides were obtained and following colorimetric segmentation, surface area measurements were performed. The VNO was found in less than half of the studied specimens (42.2%). Neuron specific enolase and calretinin immunoexpression showed a decreasing trend with foetal age, while the other neural/neuroendocrine markers were negative in all specimens. Cytokeratin 7 expression increased with age, while Pan-Ctk had no significant variations. S100 protein immunoexpression also decreased around the VNO. The results of the present work uphold the theory of regression of the neuroepithelium that is present during initial stages of foetal development.

  13. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  14. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Castel, Pau; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Baselga, José; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis and stability are essential for normal development and organ homeostasis. The mouse neural plate is a cuboidal epithelium that remodels into a columnar pseudostratified epithelium over the course of 24 hr. Here we show that the transition to a columnar epithelium fails in mutant embryos that lack the tumor suppressor PTEN, although proliferation, patterning and apical-basal polarity markers are normal in the mutants. The Pten phenotype is mimicked by constitutive activation of PI3 kinase and is rescued by the removal of PDK1 (PDPK1), but does not depend on the downstream kinases AKT and mTORC1. High resolution imaging shows that PTEN is required for stabilization of planar cell packing in the neural plate and for the formation of stable apical-basal microtubule arrays. The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12034.001 PMID:26809587

  15. GRHL2 coordinates regeneration of a polarized mucociliary epithelium from basal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia; Bali, Aman S; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2015-11-09

    Pseudostratified airway epithelium of the lung is composed of polarized ciliated and secretory cells maintained by basal stem/progenitor cells. An important question is how lineage choice and differentiation are coordinated with apical-basal polarity and epithelial morphogenesis. Our previous studies indicated a key integrative role for the transcription factor Grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2). In this study, we present further evidence for this model using conditional gene deletion during the regeneration of airway epithelium and clonal organoid culture. We also use CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in primary human basal cells differentiating into organoids and mucociliary epithelium in vitro. Loss of Grhl2 inhibits organoid morphogenesis and the differentiation of ciliated cells and reduces the expression of both notch and ciliogenesis genes (Mcidas, Rfx2, and Myb) with distinct Grhl2 regulatory sites. The genome editing of other putative target genes reveals roles for zinc finger transcription factor Znf750 and small membrane adhesion glycoprotein in promoting ciliogenesis and barrier function as part of a network of genes coordinately regulated by Grhl2.

  16. Tissue specific DNA methylation in normal human breast epithelium and in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Ayelet; Cho, Sean Soonweng; Uhlmann, Ronit; Polak, Mia Leonov; Sandbank, Judith; Karni, Tami; Pappo, Itzhak; Halperin, Ruvit; Vaknin, Zvi; Sella, Avishay; Sukumar, Saraswati; Evron, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous and tissue-specific disease. Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific susceptibility and protective mechanisms against cancer. Here we studied breast specific methylation in purified normal epithelium and its reflection in breast cancers. We established genome wide methylation profiles of various normal epithelial tissues and identified 110 genes that were differentially methylated in normal breast epithelium. A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC), and showed that its promoter was hypo-methylated in normal breast epithelium and heavily methylated in other normal epithelial tissues. Moreover, in breast carcinomas methylation increased and expression decreased whereas the reverse was noted for multiple other carcinomas. Interestingly, TRIM29 regulation in breast tumors clustered according to the PAM50 classification. Thus, it was repressed in the estrogen receptor positive tumors, particularly in the more proliferative luminal B subtype. This goes in line with previous reports indicating tumor suppressive activity of TRIM29 in estrogen receptor positive luminal breast cells in contrast to oncogenic function in pancreatic and lung cancers. Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer.

  17. GRHL2 coordinates regeneration of a polarized mucociliary epithelium from basal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xia; Bali, Aman S.; Randell, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudostratified airway epithelium of the lung is composed of polarized ciliated and secretory cells maintained by basal stem/progenitor cells. An important question is how lineage choice and differentiation are coordinated with apical–basal polarity and epithelial morphogenesis. Our previous studies indicated a key integrative role for the transcription factor Grainyhead-like 2 (Grhl2). In this study, we present further evidence for this model using conditional gene deletion during the regeneration of airway epithelium and clonal organoid culture. We also use CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in primary human basal cells differentiating into organoids and mucociliary epithelium in vitro. Loss of Grhl2 inhibits organoid morphogenesis and the differentiation of ciliated cells and reduces the expression of both notch and ciliogenesis genes (Mcidas, Rfx2, and Myb) with distinct Grhl2 regulatory sites. The genome editing of other putative target genes reveals roles for zinc finger transcription factor Znf750 and small membrane adhesion glycoprotein in promoting ciliogenesis and barrier function as part of a network of genes coordinately regulated by Grhl2. PMID:26527742

  18. Keratin 8 Is Required for the Maintenance of Architectural Structure in Thymus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Chikako; Loranger, Anne; Takizawa, Kazuya; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J.; Murata, Shigeo; Inoko, Akihito; Inagaki, Masaki; Marceau, Normand

    2013-01-01

    Keratins (Ks), the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelia, are coordinately expressed as pairs in a cell-lineage and differentiation manner. Cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) predominantly express the simple epithelium keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) pair, whereas medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express the stratified epithelium K5/K14 pair, with TECs exhibiting K5 and K8 at the cortico-medullary junction in mature thymus. In the work reported here, we used wild-type (WT) and K8-knockout (K8-null) mice to address the contribution of K8/K18 IFs in the maintenance of the thymic epithelial structure. K8-null thymus maintained the differential cell segregation at the cortex versus the medulla observed in WT thymus, and the distribution of immature thymocytes at the cortex. The K8/K18 loss did not affect thymocyte development. However, it massively perturbed the TEC morphology both at the cortex and the medulla, along with a prominent depletion of cTECs. Such tissue alterations coincided with an increase in apoptosis and a reduced expression of Albatross (Fas-binding factor-1), also known for its capacity to bind K8/18 IFs. In addition, the K8/K18 loss affected the distribution of K5/K14-positive mTECs, but not their differentiation status. Together, the results indicate that K8/K18 IFs constitute key promoters of the thymic epithelium integrity. PMID:24086449

  19. Building and maintaining the epithelium of the lung.

    PubMed

    Rackley, Craig R; Stripp, Barry R

    2012-08-01

    Airspaces of the lung are lined by an epithelium whose cellular composition changes along the proximal-to-distal axis to meet local functional needs for mucociliary clearance, hydration, host defense, and gas exchange. Advances in cell isolation, in vitro culture techniques, and genetic manipulation of animal models have increased our understanding of the development and maintenance of the pulmonary epithelium. This review discusses basic cellular mechanisms that regulate establishment of the conducting airway and gas exchange systems as well as the functional maintenance of the epithelium during postnatal life.

  20. How to reintroduce cow's milk?

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    In a child that is allergic to milk, the natural next step, following the elimination diet, is the reintroduction of cow's milk. Several questions may arise. When feasible, this reintroduction has many benefits for the child and his family. However, the disease needs to be well defined by physicians and explained to parents. They need to understand that there are different types of allergy to cow's milk, specifically IgE- and non-IgE-mediated, and each of these may exhibit both a variable duration and frequently an incomplete recovery. Deciding where to first reintroduce cow's milk to a child who has previously followed a milk-free diet, whether it be at home or in a hospital, also frequently presents an issue. Following this first reintroduction, the progressive increase of milk into the diet needs to be managed properly, as not all children will go back to a normal dairy products intake. Recent studies show that most children with milk allergy tolerate products containing baked milk and that their consumption might speed up recovery. Hence, the purpose of the milk challenge in a child on a milk-free diet is becoming, even in a child still reactive to milk, the first step of gradual and individually adapted reintroduction of milk or dairy products. When reintroduction of cow's milk does not work, immunotherapy becomes an option, and this is carried out in specialized centers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human milk and related oligosaccharides as prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Barile, Daniela; Rastall, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are believed to have a range of biological activities beyond providing nutrition to the infant. Principal among these is that they may act as prebiotics. Prebiotics are dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides that provide a health benefit to the host mediated by the modulation of the human gut microbiota. While it is clear that such oligosaccharides may have potential applications in infants and adults alike, this potential is limited by the difficulties in manufacturing HMO. Consequently functional alternatives such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are under investigation. GOS are produced enzymatically from lactose for commercial use in food applications--including addition to infant formulae--as similar to breast milk oligosaccharides, they encourage a gut bacteria population that promotes health and reduces the incidence of intestinal infections. New methods for separation and concentration of complex, breast milk-like oligosaccharides from bovine milk industrial streams that contain only low amounts of these valuable oligosaccharides are providing the opportunity to investigate other viable sources of specific oligosaccharides for use as prebiotics in supplements or food products.

  2. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    PubMed

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-09-01

    Although pasteurization is recommended before distributing donor human milk in North America, limited data are available on its impact on metabolic hormones in milk. We aimed to investigate the effects of pasteurization on adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. The study investigates concentrations of components in donor human milk before and after Holder pasteurization. After the guidelines of the Human Milk Bank Association of North America, human milk samples were pooled to produce 17 distinct batches (4 individuals per batch) and pasteurized at 62.5°C for 30 min. Adiponectin, insulin, energy, fat, total protein, and glucose concentrations were measured pre- and postpasteurization. Pasteurization reduced milk adiponectin and insulin by 32.8 and 46.1%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Adiponectin and insulin were significantly correlated with energy and fat milk composition (r = 0.36-0.47; all p < 0.05). Pasteurization effects on milk hormone concentrations remained significant after adjusting for fat and energy (beta ± SEE: -4.11 ± 1.27, p = 0.003 for adiponectin; -70.0 ± 15.0, p < 0.0001 for insulin). Holder pasteurization reduced adiponectin and insulin concentrations in donor human milk. In view of emerging knowledge on the importance of milk components, continued work to find the optimal pasteurization process that mitigates risks but promotes retention of bioactive components is needed.

  4. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  17. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a) Description. Evaporated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water only from milk. It...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  19. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  1. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  2. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  5. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  6. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  7. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  9. 21 CFR 131.110 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Milk. 131.110 Section 131.110 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.110 Milk. (a) Description. Milk is the lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking...

  10. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  15. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. Prion protein in milk.

    PubMed

    Franscini, Nicola; El Gedaily, Ahmed; Matthey, Ulrich; Franitza, Susanne; Sy, Man-Sun; Bürkle, Alexander; Groschup, Martin; Braun, Ueli; Zahn, Ralph

    2006-12-20

    Prions are known to cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) after accumulation in the central nervous system. There is increasing evidence that prions are also present in body fluids and that prion infection by blood transmission is possible. The low concentration of the proteinaceous agent in body fluids and its long incubation time complicate epidemiologic analysis and estimation of spreading and thus the risk of human infection. This situation is particularly unsatisfactory for food and pharmaceutical industries, given the lack of sensitive tools for monitoring the infectious agent. We have developed an adsorption matrix, Alicon PrioTrap, which binds with high affinity and specificity to prion proteins. Thus we were able to identify prion protein (PrP(C))--the precursor of prions (PrP(Sc))--in milk from humans, cows, sheep, and goats. The absolute amount of PrP(C) differs between the species (from microg/l range in sheep to ng/l range in human milk). PrP(C) is also found in homogenised and pasteurised off-the-shelf milk, and even ultrahigh temperature treatment only partially diminishes endogenous PrP(C) concentration. In view of a recent study showing evidence of prion replication occurring in the mammary gland of scrapie infected sheep suffering from mastitis, the appearance of PrP(C) in milk implies the possibility that milk of TSE-infected animals serves as source for PrP(Sc).

  20. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  1. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 9 hours. DO NOT refreeze. DO NOT microwave breast milk. Overheating destroys nutrients, and "hot spots" ... burn your baby. Bottles may explode when you microwave them for too long. When leaving breast milk ...

  2. Regenerative Inflammation: Lessons from Drosophila Intestinal Epithelium in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panayidou, Stavria; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is widely recognized as a pivotal player in health and disease. Defined cytologically as the infiltration of leukocytes in the lamina propria layer of the intestine, it can damage the epithelium and, on a chronic basis, induce inflammatory bowel disease and potentially cancer. The current view thus dictates that blood cell infiltration is the instigator of intestinal inflammation and tumor-promoting inflammation. This is based partially on work in humans and mice showing that intestinal damage during microbially mediated inflammation activates phagocytic cells and lymphocytes that secrete inflammatory signals promoting tissue damage and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, extensive parallel work in the Drosophila midgut shows that intestinal epithelium damage induces inflammatory signals and growth factors acting mainly in a paracrine manner to induce intestinal stem cell proliferation and tumor formation when genetically predisposed. This is accomplished without any apparent need to involve Drosophila hemocytes. Therefore, recent work on Drosophila host defense to infection by expanding its main focus on systemic immunity signaling pathways to include the study of organ homeostasis in health and disease shapes a new notion that epithelially emanating cytokines and growth factors can directly act on the intestinal stem cell niche to promote “regenerative inflammation” and potentially cancer. PMID:25437036

  3. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy L.; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower-calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and selection was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk selection remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001) and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41). However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03), but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction). However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk selection, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices. PMID:26043033

  4. Milk cortisol concentration in automatic milking systems compared with auto-tandem milking parlors.

    PubMed

    Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2006-09-01

    Milk cortisol concentration was determined under routine management conditions on 4 farms with an auto-tandem milking parlor and 8 farms with 1 of 2 automatic milking systems (AMS). One of the AMS was a partially forced (AMSp) system, and the other was a free cow traffic (AMSf) system. Milk samples were collected for all the cows on a given farm (20 to 54 cows) for at least 1 d. Behavioral observations were made during the milking process for a subset of 16 to 20 cows per farm. Milk cortisol concentration was evaluated by milking system, time of day, behavior during milking, daily milk yield, and somatic cell count using linear mixed-effects models. Milk cortisol did not differ between systems (AMSp: 1.15 +/- 0.07; AMSf: 1.02 +/- 0.12; auto-tandem parlor: 1.01 +/- 0.16 nmol/L). Cortisol concentrations were lower in evening than in morning milkings (1.01 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.13 nmol/L). The daily periodicity of cortisol concentration was characterized by an early morning peak and a late afternoon elevation in AMSp. A bimodal pattern was not evident in AMSf. Finally, milk cortisol decreased by a factor of 0.915 in milking parlors, by 0.998 in AMSp, and increased by a factor of 1.161 in AMSf for each unit of ln(somatic cell count/1,000). We conclude that milking cows in milking parlors or AMS does not result in relevant stress differences as measured by milk cortisol concentrations. The biological relevance of the difference regarding the daily periodicity of milk cortisol concentrations observed between the AMSp and AMSf needs further investigation.

  5. Airway epithelium-derived relaxing factor: myth, reality, or naivety?

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-05-01

    The presence of a healthy epithelium can moderate the contraction of the underlying airway smooth muscle. This is, in part, because epithelial cells generate inhibitory messages, whether diffusible substances, electrophysiological signals, or both. The epithelium-dependent inhibitory effect can be tonic (basal), synergistic, or evoked. Rather than a unique epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF), several known endogenous bronchoactive mediators, including nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, contribute. The early concept that EpDRF diffuses all the way through the subepithelial layers to directly relax the airway smooth muscle appears unlikely. It is more plausible that the epithelial cells release true messenger molecules, which alter the production of endogenous substances (nitric oxide and/or metabolites of arachidonic acid) by the subepithelial layers. These substances then diffuse to the airway smooth muscle cells, conveying epithelium dependency.

  6. Influence of variable milk quality premiums on observed milk quality.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, C; Dhuyvetter, K; Mitchell, R; Schukken, Y

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a premium program for very high quality milk in a US cooperative. Data were available on a monthly basis from a large US milk cooperative from April 1998 through December 2005. The data set consisted of 36,930 observations representing producer-months. The actual amount of the low bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) premium varied from $0.15 per hundred pounds (cwt.) of milk to $1.00/cwt. with steps in between of $0.50 and $0.60 per cwt. of milk during the data collection period. Data analysis was done to evaluate the impact of the premium program on average BTSCC and on the probability of a producer to ship milk with <100,000 cells/mL in a given month. The results showed a strong effect of the premium program on both the average BTSCC and the probability of producing milk with very low BTSCC. On average, the BTSCC of all the milk in the cooperative was reduced by 22,000 cells during the high premium period. The probability of producing milk with BTSCC <100,000 doubled during some months of the high premium period from 4 to 8%, and an associated 10% increase in probability to produce milk below 200,000 cells/mL was observed. The data clearly indicate that premium offerings for very high quality milk affect the overall milk quality in the population affected by the premium. Producers responded to the high premiums and the overall impact on milk quality was substantial. We argue that the combination of a penalty program for high BTSCC milk with a premium program for very high quality milk (low BTSCC) provides a strong incentive for improvement of milk quality.

  7. Milk and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schrezenmeir, J; Jagla, A

    2000-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes is based on autoimmunity, and its development is in part determined by environmental factors. Among those, milk intake is discussed as playing a pathogenic role. Geographical and temporal relations between type 1 diabetes prevalence and cow's milk consumption have been found in ecological studies. Several case-control studies found a negative correlation between frequency and/or duration of breast-feeding and diabetes, but this was not confirmed by all authors. T-cell and humoral responses related to cow's milk proteins were suggested to trigger diabetes. The different findings of studies in animals and humans as well as the potential underlying mechanisms with regard to single milk proteins (bovine serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein) are discussed in this review. In contrast to type 1 diabetes, the etiology of type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance is still unclear. In a population with a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the Pima Indians, people who were exclusively breastfed had significantly lower rates of type 2 diabetes than those who were exclusively bottlefed. Studies in lactovegetarians imply that consumption of low fat dairy products is associated with lower incidence and mortality of diabetes and lower blood pressures. In contrast, preference for a diet high in animal fat could be a pathogenic factor, and milk and high fat dairy products contribute considerably to dietary fat intake. Concerning milk fat composition, the opposite effects of various fatty acids (saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid) in vitro, in animals and in humans have to be considered.

  8. Detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Levitzky, M J; Carr, R E

    1976-08-01

    Multiple vitelliform cysts of the retina, a disorder of unknown cause in which there are multiple detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium at the posterior pole, occurred in five patients. In four patients all lesions were located outside the parafoveal area while one patient showed bilateral foveal elevations associated with more eccentric detachments. Several patients showed slow resolution of some of the detachments with mild disturbances of the pigment epithelium.

  9. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank.

  10. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Drugs in breast milk.

    PubMed

    1974-03-15

    Data on the pharmacology of drugs in breast milk are incomplete. The concentration in milk of drugs present in maternal blood depends on the lipid solubility of the drug and its degree of ionization. The immature renal and hepatic functions in the nursing infant can delay excretion of drugs. There has been no documented harm to nursing infants due to maternal use of oral contraceptives although long-term studies are unavailalbe. Breast feeding is contraindicated if the mother uses therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine, is a severe chronic alcoholic, or takes corticosteroids, phenobarbitone, and anticancer drugs. During lactation, drugs should be avoided as much as possible.

  12. Formula milk feeding does not increase the release of the inflammatory marker calprotectin, compared to human milk.

    PubMed

    Rosti, L; Braga, M; Fulcieri, C; Sammarco, G; Manenti, B; Costa, E

    2011-01-01

    Calprotectin is a protein released into stools, used as a marker of inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases. We tested the hypothesis that cow's milk protein in formula milk may increase the intestinal release of calprotectin, as a consequence of a subclinical inflammatory reaction. At 12 weeks of age, we measured fecal calprotectin by an immunoenzyme assay (Calprest, Eurospital, Trieste, Italy), in 38 exclusively breastfed and in 32 exclusively formula-fed infants. Fecal calprotectin levels were not different in the two groups (p = 0.09), although a trend to higher values in infants with colic, or with family history of allergies was noted. This suggest that, in general, formula milk does not promote activation of an intestinal inflammatory reaction, compared to human milk, although a subclinical activation of the inflammatory response in infants at risk for allergic diseases may be present.

  13. Eya1 controls cell polarity, spindle orientation, cell fate and Notch signaling in distal embryonic lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    El-Hashash, Ahmed H K; Turcatel, Gianluca; Al Alam, Denise; Buckley, Sue; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Bellusci, Saverio; Warburton, David

    2011-04-01

    Cell polarity, mitotic spindle orientation and asymmetric division play a crucial role in the self-renewal/differentiation of epithelial cells, yet little is known about these processes and the molecular programs that control them in embryonic lung distal epithelium. Herein, we provide the first evidence that embryonic lung distal epithelium is polarized with characteristic perpendicular cell divisions. Consistent with these findings, spindle orientation-regulatory proteins Insc, LGN (Gpsm2) and NuMA, and the cell fate determinant Numb are asymmetrically localized in embryonic lung distal epithelium. Interfering with the function of these proteins in vitro randomizes spindle orientation and changes cell fate. We further show that Eya1 protein regulates cell polarity, spindle orientation and the localization of Numb, which inhibits Notch signaling. Hence, Eya1 promotes both perpendicular division as well as Numb asymmetric segregation to one daughter in mitotic distal lung epithelium, probably by controlling aPKCζ phosphorylation. Thus, epithelial cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation are defective after interfering with Eya1 function in vivo or in vitro. In addition, in Eya1(-/-) lungs, perpendicular division is not maintained and Numb is segregated to both daughter cells in mitotic epithelial cells, leading to inactivation of Notch signaling. As Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell identity at the expense of differentiated cell phenotypes, we test whether genetic activation of Notch could rescue the Eya1(-/-) lung phenotype, which is characterized by loss of epithelial progenitors, increased epithelial differentiation but reduced branching. Indeed, genetic activation of Notch partially rescues Eya1(-/-) lung epithelial defects. These findings uncover novel functions for Eya1 as a crucial regulator of the complex behavior of distal embryonic lung epithelium.

  14. Acidogenic potential of soy and bovine milk beverages.

    PubMed

    Dashper, S G; Saion, B N; Stacey, M A; Manton, D J; Cochrane, N J; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, E C

    2012-09-01

    Soy beverages are water extracts of whole soybeans and are often promoted as a healthy alternative to bovine milk. Little analysis has been carried out to determine the effects of soy beverages on oral health, especially their potential acidogenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the potential acidogenicity of a range of soy and bovine milk beverages. In vitro acid production by Streptococcus mutans was measured in soy and milk beverages at a constant pH of 6.5 or 5.5, as was the fall in pH over a 10 min period. The acid buffering capacity and calcium and phosphate concentrations (total and soluble) of the beverages were also determined. The rate of acid production by S. mutans in the milk beverages was five to six times lower at pH 6.5 than in the soy beverages and three to five times lower at pH 5.5. Whilst the pH fall in the presence of S. mutans over 10 min was negligible in the milk beverages there was a significant decrease in pH in the soy beverages. This was also reflected in the lower buffering capacity of the soy beverages. The levels of soluble calcium in the soy beverages were lower than those in the milk beverages although total calcium contents were similar. Soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk beverages. Patients consider soy beverages to be a healthy, low cariogenic alternative to other beverages, including bovine milk. This study shows that soy beverages have a higher potential acidogenicity than bovine milk and therefore may have a greater potential cariogenicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective responses to sublytic complement in the retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Xuan; Toops, Kimberly A.; Lakkaraju, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a key site of injury in inherited and age-related macular degenerations. Abnormal activation of the complement system is a feature of these blinding diseases, yet how the RPE combats complement attack is poorly understood. The complement cascade terminates in the cell-surface assembly of membrane attack complexes (MACs), which promote inflammation by causing aberrant signal transduction. Here, we investigated mechanisms crucial for limiting MAC assembly and preserving cellular integrity in the RPE and asked how these are compromised in models of macular degeneration. Using polarized primary RPE and the pigmented Abca4−/− Stargardt disease mouse model, we provide evidence for two protective responses occurring within minutes of complement attack, which are essential for maintaining mitochondrial health in the RPE. First, accelerated recycling of the membrane-bound complement regulator CD59 to the RPE cell surface inhibits MAC formation. Second, fusion of lysosomes with the RPE plasma membrane immediately after complement attack limits sustained elevations in intracellular calcium and prevents mitochondrial injury. Cholesterol accumulation in the RPE, induced by vitamin A dimers or oxidized LDL, inhibits these defense mechanisms by activating acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), which increases tubulin acetylation and derails organelle traffic. Defective CD59 recycling and lysosome exocytosis after complement attack lead to mitochondrial fragmentation and oxidative stress in the RPE. Drugs that stimulate cholesterol efflux or inhibit ASMase restore both these critical safeguards in the RPE and avert complement-induced mitochondrial injury in vitro and in Abca4−/− mice, indicating that they could be effective therapeutic approaches for macular degenerations. PMID:27432952

  16. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  17. Scanning electron microscopic studies of the surface morphology of the vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Wang, R T; Halpern, M

    1980-04-01

    Fixed vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia from normal adult garter snakes were microdissected, fractured, and examined with a scanning electron microscope. The method permits a detailed comparative study of the structural organization and morphological characteristics of the constituent cells of the vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia. Despite similarities in the nomenclature of the constituent cells in both epithelia, significant differences exist in their surface morphology. A unique columnar structure composed of non-neuronal elements is present in the vomeronasal epithelium. These columns house the bioplar neurons and undifferentiated cells. Such a columnar organization is absent in the olfactory epithelium. In vomeronasal epithelium the bipolar neurons possess microvillous terminals at their dendritic tips, while the dendritic tips of the bipolar neurons of the olfactory epithelium possess cilia. Vomeronasal supporting cells are covered with microvilli, while olfactory supporting cells are covered with cytoplasmic protuberances in addition to the microvilli. In the vomeronasal epithelium the pear-shaped neurons have a grossly smooth surface and are organized into clusters, while in the olfactory epithelium the elliptical bipolar neurons are spinous, aligned side-by-side and interdigitate. The basal (undifferentiated) cell layer in the vomeronasal epithelium has a high packing density and is composed of several layers of irregularly shaped cells. In the olfactory epithelium the basal cell layer is loosely organized and composed of a single layer of oval cells. This information on the three-dimensional cell structure of both epithelia provides a basis for experimental observations on changes in morphology of the bipolar neurons during genesis, development, maturation, degeneration, and regeneration in postnatal, adult animals.

  18. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels releasing stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha recruit MSC for corneal epithelium regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiaomei; Luo, Chenqi; Lu, Bing; Fu, Qiuli; Yin, Houfa; Qin, Zhenwei; Lyu, Danni; Zhang, Lifang; Fang, Zhi; Zhu, Yanan; Yao, Ke

    2017-10-01

    Corneal epithelium integrity depends on continuous self-renewing of epithelium and connections between adjacent cells or between the cells and the basement membrane. Self-renewing epithelium cells mainly arise from the continuous proliferation and differentiation of the basal layer and limbal stem cells. The aim of the present study was to generate a bioactive, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin hydrogel (CHI hydrogel) by incorporating exogenous recombinant human stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) for corneal epithelium regeneration. The exogenous SDF-1 alpha could enhance the stem cells proliferation, chemotaxis and migration, and the expression levels of related genes were significantly elevated in LESCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. Moreover, the MSCs promoted the proliferation and maintained the corneal fate of the LESCs. The rat alkali injury model was used for in vivo study. The injured eyes were covered with CHI hydrogel alone or rhSDF-1 alpha-loaded CHI hydrogel. All rats were followed for 13days. Histological examination showed that the SDF-1 alpha/CHI hydrogel complex group had a nearly normal thickness; moreover, it was also found that this group could upregulate the expression of some genes and had more ΔNp63-positive cells. The SDF-1 alpha/CHI hydrogel complex group had a more tightly arranged epithelium compared with the control group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism for this may have involved the activation of stem cell homing and the secretion of growth factors via the SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis. Therefore, SDF-1 alpha/CHI hydrogel complexes could provide a new idea for the clinical application. The clarity of cornea is important for normal vision. The loss or dysfunction of LESCs leads to the impairment of corneal epithelium. The complete regeneration of corneal epithelium has not been achieved. Our study demonstrated that the incorporation of rhSDF-1 alpha with CHI hydrogel accelerated corneal

  19. [Antioxidative properties of human milk].

    PubMed

    Szalagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zagierski, Maciej; Renke, Joanna; Korzon, Michał

    2004-01-01

    Human milk, despite numerous advantages, has also antioxidative properties. Oxidative stress is implicated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Therefore, the influence of human milk on oxidative stress intensity in breast-fed neonates and infants is a significant issue. The concentration of antioxidants in milk depends on mother's diet, vitamins supplementation during pregnancy and lactation and geographical area of domicile. Breast-fed children have higher antioxidative capacity in blood and lower oxidative stress intensity as compared to formula-fed children. Storage increases the antioxidative activity of human milk. Maternal smoking augments oxidative damage in children and lowers the antioxidative capacity of milk.

  20. Milk Lacking α-Casein Leads to Permanent Reduction in Body Size in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Andreas F.; Huber, Reinhard C.; Lillico, Simon G.; Carlisle, Ailsa; Robinson, Claire J.; Neil, Claire; Petrie, Linda; Sorensen, Dorte B.; Olsson, I. Anna S.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    The major physiological function of milk is the transport of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals to mammalian offspring. Caseins, the major milk proteins, are secreted in the form of a micelle consisting of protein and calcium-phosphate. We have analysed the role of the milk protein α-casein by inactivating the corresponding gene in mice. Absence of α-casein protein significantly curtails secretion of other milk proteins and calcium-phosphate, suggesting a role for α-casein in the establishment of casein micelles. In contrast, secretion of albumin, which is not synthesized in the mammary epithelium, into milk is not reduced. The absence of α-casein also significantly inhibits transcription of the other casein genes. α-Casein deficiency severely delays pup growth during lactation and results in a life-long body size reduction compared to control animals, but has only transient effects on physical and behavioural development of the pups. The data support a critical role for α-casein in casein micelle assembly. The results also confirm lactation as a critical window of metabolic programming and suggest milk protein concentration as a decisive factor in determining adult body weight. PMID:21789179

  1. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  2. Recombinant human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Human milk provides proteins that benefit newborn infants. They not only provide amino acids, but also facilitate the absorption of nutrients, stimulate growth and development of the intestine, modulate immune function, and aid in the digestion of other nutrients. Breastfed infants have a lower prevalence of infections than formula-fed infants. Since many women in industrialized countries choose not to breastfeed, and an increasing proportion of women in developing countries are advised not to breastfeed because of the risk of HIV transmission, incorporation of recombinant human milk proteins into infant foods is likely to be beneficial. We are expressing human milk proteins known to have anti-infective activity in rice. Since rice is a normal constituent of the diet of infants and children, limited purification of the proteins is required. Lactoferrin has antimicrobial and iron-binding activities. Lysozyme is an enzyme that is bactericidal and also acts synergistically with lactoferrin. These recombinant proteins have biological activities identical to their native counterparts. They are equally resistant to heat processing, which is necessary for food applications, and to acid and proteolytic enzymes which are needed to maintain their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. These recombinant human milk proteins may be incorporated into infant formulas, baby foods and complementary foods, and used with the goal to reduce infectious diseases.

  3. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. Microstructure of milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  6. A regulatory loop involving PAX6, MITF, and WNT signaling controls retinal pigment epithelium development.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Kapil; Gasper, Melanie; Ou, Jingxing; Brucato, Martha; Clore-Gronenborn, Katharina; Pickel, James; Arnheiter, Heinz

    2012-07-01

    The separation of the optic neuroepithelium into future retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a critical event in early eye development in vertebrates. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor PAX6, well-known for its retina-promoting activity, also plays a crucial role in early pigment epithelium development. This role is seen, however, only in a background genetically sensitized by mutations in the pigment cell transcription factor MITF. In fact, a reduction in Pax6 gene dose exacerbates the RPE-to-retina transdifferentiation seen in embryos homozygous for an Mitf null allele, and it induces such a transdifferentiation in embryos that are either heterozygous for the Mitf null allele or homozygous for an RPE-specific hypomorphic Mitf allele generated by targeted mutation. Conversely, an increase in Pax6 gene dose interferes with transdifferentiation even in homozygous Mitf null embryos. Gene expression analyses show that, together with MITF or its paralog TFEC, PAX6 suppresses the expression of Fgf15 and Dkk3. Explant culture experiments indicate that a combination of FGF and DKK3 promote retina formation by inhibiting canonical WNT signaling and stimulating the expression of retinogenic genes, including Six6 and Vsx2. Our results demonstrate that in conjunction with Mitf/Tfec Pax6 acts as an anti-retinogenic factor, whereas in conjunction with retinogenic genes it acts as a pro-retinogenic factor. The results suggest that careful manipulation of the Pax6 regulatory circuit may facilitate the generation of retinal and pigment epithelium cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells.

  7. Whole cow's milk in infancy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Sauve, Reginald S

    2003-09-01

    Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased renal solute load in healthy infants, feeding with whole cow's milk would narrow the margin of safety in situations that may lead to dehydration. Early exposure to cow's milk proteins increases the risk of developing allergy to milk proteins. Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow's milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow's milk and products containing intact cow's milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged in families with a strong history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow's milk be used during the first year of life.

  8. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  9. Transgenic Overexpression of cdx1b Induces Metaplastic Changes of Gene Expression in Zebrafish Esophageal Squamous Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Hao; Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Chengjin; Cole, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cdx2 has been suggested to play an important role in Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the esophagus. To investigate whether transgenic overexpression of cdx1b, the functional equivalent of mammalian Cdx2 in zebrafish, may lead to IM of zebrafish esophageal squamous epithelium, a transgenic zebrafish system was developed by expressing cdx1b gene under the control of zebrafish keratin 5 promoter (krt5p). Gene expression in the esophageal squamous epithelium of wild-type and transgenic zebrafish was analyzed by Affymetrix microarray and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Morphology, mucin expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining, Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) Alcian blue staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining, and TUNEL assay as well. cdx1b was found to be overexpressed in the nuclei of esophageal squamous epithelial cells of the transgenic zebrafish. Ectopic expression of cdx1b disturbed the development of this epithelium in larval zebrafish and induced metaplastic changes in gene expression in the esophageal squamous epithelial cells of adult zebrafish, that is, up-regulation of intestinal differentiation markers and down-regulation of squamous differentiation markers. However, cdx1b failed to induce histological IM, or to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the squamous epithelium of adult transgenic zebrafish. PMID:23672288

  10. Transgenic overexpression of cdx1b induces metaplastic changes of gene expression in zebrafish esophageal squamous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Hao; Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Chengjin; Cole, Gregory J; Lee, Ju-Ahng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2013-06-01

    Cdx2 has been suggested to play an important role in Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the esophagus. To investigate whether transgenic overexpression of cdx1b, the functional equivalent of mammalian Cdx2 in zebrafish, may lead to IM of zebrafish esophageal squamous epithelium, a transgenic zebrafish system was developed by expressing cdx1b gene under the control of zebrafish keratin 5 promoter (krt5p). Gene expression in the esophageal squamous epithelium of wild-type and transgenic zebrafish was analyzed by Affymetrix microarray and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Morphology, mucin expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining, Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) Alcian blue staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining, and TUNEL assay as well. cdx1b was found to be overexpressed in the nuclei of esophageal squamous epithelial cells of the transgenic zebrafish. Ectopic expression of cdx1b disturbed the development of this epithelium in larval zebrafish and induced metaplastic changes in gene expression in the esophageal squamous epithelial cells of adult zebrafish, that is, up-regulation of intestinal differentiation markers and down-regulation of squamous differentiation markers. However, cdx1b failed to induce histological IM, or to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the squamous epithelium of adult transgenic zebrafish.

  11. Cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium is controlled by antagonistic activities of Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Neben, Cynthia L.; Harfe, Brian D.; Linde, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between signaling pathways is a central question in the study of organogenesis. Using the developing murine tongue as a model, we uncovered unknown relationships between Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and retinoic acid (RA) signaling. Genetic loss of SHH signaling leads to enhanced RA activity subsequent to loss of SHH-dependent expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1. This causes a cell identity switch, prompting the epithelium of the tongue to form heterotopic minor salivary glands and to overproduce oversized taste buds. At developmental stages during which Wnt10b expression normally ceases and Shh becomes confined to taste bud cells, loss of SHH inputs causes the lingual epithelium to undergo an ectopic and anachronic expression of Shh and Wnt10b in the basal layer, specifying de novo taste placode induction. Surprisingly, in the absence of SHH signaling, lingual epithelial cells adopted a Merkel cell fate, but this was not caused by enhanced RA signaling. We show that RA promotes, whereas SHH, acting strictly within the lingual epithelium, inhibits taste placode and lingual gland formation by thwarting RA activity. These findings reveal key functions for SHH and RA in cell fate specification in the lingual epithelium and aid in deciphering the molecular mechanisms that assign cell identity. PMID:28715412

  12. Regulation of transepithelial ion transport and intracellular calcium by extracellular ATP in human normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, S. J.; Paradiso, A. M.; Boucher, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    1 The role of extracellular nucleotides in regulation of ion transport activities (short circuit current, Isc) of human respiratory epithelia was studied. 2 Application of nucleotides to the apical or basolateral membrane of human nasal epithelium induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc. 3 The rank order of potency of purine- or pyrimidine-induced changes in Isc of normal human nasal epithelium when applied to the apical membrane (UTP greater than or equal to ATP greater than ATP gamma S greater than 2MeSATP greater than ADP beta S much greater than beta gamma MeATP greater than or equal to alpha beta MeATP) or basolateral membrane (2MeSATP greater than UTP greater than ATP greater than ATP gamma S greater than alpha beta MeATP greater than beta gamma MeATP) is consistent with involvement of a P2 purinoceptor. A similar rank order of potencies was observed for nucleotide effects on intracellular calcium measured by Fura-2 fluorescence using microspectrofluorimetry. 4 Similar nucleotide potency in the regulation of ion transport and intracellular calcium in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelium (UTP greater than or equal to ATP) was observed, suggesting purinoceptors might be used to stimulate ion transport processes that would promote hydration of airway secretions and facilitate their clearance from CF lungs. 5 These data provide evidence for the regulation of ion transport by P2 purinoceptors in normal and cystic fibrosis human airway epithelium. PMID:1718521

  13. Human Milk Lipids.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Human milk lipids provide the infant with energy and essential vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive components. Adding complex lipids and milk fat globule membranes to vegetable oil-based infant formula has the potential to enhance infant development and reduce infections. Cholesterol provision with breastfeeding modulates infant sterol metabolism and may induce long-term benefits. Some 98-99% of milk lipids are comprised by triacylglycerols, whose properties depend on incorporated fatty acids. Attention has been devoted to the roles of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Recent studies on gene-diet interaction (Mendelian randomization) show that breastfeeding providing DHA and ARA improves cognitive development and reduces asthma risk at school age particularly in those children with a genetically determined lower activity of DHA and ARA synthesis. It appears prudent to follow the biological model of human milk in the design of infant formula as far as feasible, unless conclusive evidence for the suitability and safety of other choices is available. The recent European Union legislative stipulation of a high formula DHA content without required ARA deviates from this concept, and such a novel formula composition has not been adequately evaluated. Great future opportunities arise with significant methodological progress for example in lipidomic analyses and their bioinformatic evaluation, which should enhance understanding of the biology of human milk lipids. Such knowledge might lead to improved dietary advice to lactating mothers as well as to further opportunities to enhance infant formula composition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk.

    PubMed

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Zöller, Nadja; Kleemann, Johannes; Müller, Jutta; Kaufmann, Roland; Hofmann, Matthias; Bernd, August; Meissner, Markus; Valesky, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk) without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk) and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids.

  15. STAT6-Dependent Collagen Synthesis in Human Fibroblasts Is Induced by Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Zöller, Nadja; Kleemann, Johannes; Müller, Jutta; Kaufmann, Roland; Hofmann, Matthias; Bernd, August; Meissner, Markus; Valesky, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Since the domestication of the urus, 10.000 years ago, mankind utilizes bovine milk for different purposes. Besides usage as a nutrient also the external application of milk on skin has a long tradition going back to at least the ancient Aegypt with Cleopatra VII as a great exponent. In order to test whether milk has impact on skin physiology, cultures of human skin fibroblasts were exposed to commercial bovine milk. Our data show significant induction of proliferation by milk (max. 2,3-fold, EC50: 2,5% milk) without toxic effects. Surprisingly, bovine milk was identified as strong inducer of collagen 1A1 synthesis at both, the protein (4-fold, EC50: 0,09% milk) and promoter level. Regarding the underlying molecular pathways, we show functional activation of STAT6 in a p44/42 and p38-dependent manner. More upstream, we identified IGF-1 and insulin as key factors responsible for milk-induced collagen synthesis. These findings show that bovine milk contains bioactive molecules that act on human skin cells. Therefore, it is tempting to test the herein introduced concept in treatment of atrophic skin conditions induced e.g. by UV light or corticosteroids. PMID:26134630

  16. Signature microRNAs in human cornea limbal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yufei; Wong, Hoi Kin; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Jian Huan; Young, Alvin Lerrmann; Zhang, Mingzhi; Choy, Kwong Wai; Mehta, Jodhbir Singh; Pang, Chi Pui; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai

    2015-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify the signature microRNAs, which regulate the biological processes of corneal epithelial progenitor cell (CEPC) homeostasis and regulation through characterizing the differential expression profile of microRNAs in human limbal epithelium containing adult CEPC versus central corneal epithelium without CEPC. MicroRNA microarray had identified 37 microRNAs enriched in human corneal epithelium. Among them, nine were significantly upregulated in limbal epithelium and one in central corneal epithelium after validation by TaqMan® real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition to our previous finding of miR-143 and 145, the expression of miR-10b, 126, and 155 was localized in limbal epithelium (LE) (predominantly basal layers) by using locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization. Potential target genes were predicted by TargetScan Human v6.0 and compared to the reported human cornea epithelial gene profile GSE5543. Analyzed by web-based Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and DAVID Functional Annotation Bioinformatics Resources v6.7, the downregulated genes were involved in pathways of immune response and cellular protection, apoptosis, and cell movement whereas upregulated genes with cell survival, cell-matrix interaction, and cell-cell adhesion. We found a constant occurrence of miR-143, 145, and 155 in all KEGG pathways regulating limbal epithelial events. By Ingenuity Systems (IPA®) analysis, these microRNAs could cooperatively regulate cell growth and apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor activation and MYC repression. Our findings thus suggest a unique microRNA signature existing in human limbal epithelium and participating in CEPC homeostasis.

  17. Characterization of Side Population Cells from Human Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Shaheen, Furquan; Johnson, Andrew; Wadsworth, Samuel; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V.; Jacoby, David B.; Kicic, Anthony; Stick, Stephen M.; Knight, Darryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The airway epithelium is the first line of contact with the inhaled external environment and is continuously exposed to and injured by pollutants, allergens, and viruses. However, little is known about epithelial repair and in particular the identity and role of tissue resident stem/progenitor cells that may contribute to epithelial regeneration. The aims of the present study were to identify, isolate, and characterize side population (SP) cells in human tracheobronchial epithelium. Epithelial cells were obtained from seven nontransplantable healthy lungs and four asthmatic lungs by pronase digestion. SP cells were identified by verapamil-sensitive efflux of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Using flow cytometry, CD45− SP, CD45+ SP, and non-SP cells were isolated and sorted. CD45− SP cells made up 0.12% ± 0.01% of the total epithelial cell population in normal airway but 4.1% ± 0.06% of the epithelium in asthmatic airways. All CD45− SP cells showed positive staining for epithelial-specific markers cytokeratin-5, E-cadherin, ZO-1, and p63. CD45− SP cells exhibited stable telomere length and increased colony-forming and proliferative potential, undergoing population expansion for at least 16 consecutive passages. In contrast with non-SP cells, fewer than 100 CD45− SP cells were able to generate a multilayered and differentiated epithelium in air-liquid interface culture. SP cells are present in human tracheobronchial epithelium, exhibit both short- and longterm proliferative potential, and are capable of generation of differentiated epithelium in vitro. The number of SP cells is significantly greater in asthmatic airways, providing evidence of dysregulated resident SP cells in the asthmatic epithelium. PMID:18653771

  18. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of formaldehyde on normal xenotransplanted human tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Ura, H.; Nowak, P.; Litwin, S.; Watts, P.; Bonfil, R. D.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Epithelial cells obtained from autopsies of full-term fetuses or infants less than 1 year old were isolated, amplified in primary cultures and inoculated in deepithelialized rat tracheas. These tracheas were then sealed and transplanted subcutaneously into irradiated athymic nude mice. Four weeks after transplantation the tracheal lumen was completely covered by epithelium, most of which was of mucociliary respiratory type. At this stage, tracheal transplants containing tracheobronchial epithelium from 20 different donors were exposed to silastic devices containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg paraformaldehyde. The tracheal transplants were examined histologically at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after transplantation. Before sacrifice, all animals were injected with a single pulse of tritiated thymidine. Important epithelial alterations could be seen in the formaldehyde treated transplants with a maximum effect visible at 2 weeks after exposure. The highest dose of 2 mg produced, in most cases, numerous areas of epithelial erosion and inflammation whereas this effect was not as evident with the lower doses. All doses produced areas of hyperplastic epithelium alternating with areas of pleomorphic-atrophic epithelium. Although the differences in predominance of different types of epithelium was not clearly dose-dependent, the labeling index (LI) showed dose dependence between 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of exposure. The maximum mean LI was three to four times higher than normal, although in some focal hyperplastic-metaplastic lesions the LI was increased up to 20 times. These studies show that formaldehyde, although toxic at higher doses, is able to elicit at lower doses a proliferative response of the human respiratory epithelium that is not preceded by a massive toxic effect. This response is similar, although less intense than that of the rat respiratory epithelium in which formaldehyde proved to be a carcinogen. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:2913828

  20. Impact of the environment on the mammalian corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, Amund; Anderssen, Erlend; Kjønniksen, Inge

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate whether the content of ascorbic acid in the corneal epithelium and aqueous humor reflects seasonal fluctuations in parallel with environmental changes. Reindeer, cattle, rabbits, and humans were examined, to cover a broad spectrum of overlapping habitats. Ascorbic acid was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The thickness of the corneal epithelium was measured, and the number of cells was counted in the tissue sections. Three groups of reindeer eyes were used, two of them collected during summer, the third group during winter. Ascorbate content did not show seasonal variation in either the corneal epithelium or the aqueous humor, whereas epithelial thickness and number of cells decreased significantly from summer to winter. In cattle, ascorbate content, thickness of the epithelium, and number of cells were lower in animals tended indoors compared with those tended outdoors, whereas ascorbate level in the aqueous humor remained similar in both cases. The rabbit showed significantly reduced ascorbate content in the corneal epithelium but not in the aqueous humor in tarsorrhaphy-treated eyes. This procedure did not change epithelial thickness, but the number of cells was slightly increased. The mean epithelial thickness in human corneas successively decreased with increasing latitude and decreasing radiation exposure from the summer season in Oslo to the midnight sun, polar night, conditions in Tromsø, 10 degrees far north, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Ambient radiation is needed to sustain high ascorbic acid concentration in the corneal epithelium. Corneal epithelial thickness and number of cells are prone to seasonal fluctuations regulated by ambient radiation. In contrast, ascorbate content of the aqueous humor is uninfluenced by environmental change. It is suggested that seasonal adaptation of mammalian corneal epithelium in response to variation in ambient radiation may be nature's strategy for

  1. Apical electrolyte concentration modulates barrier function and tight junction protein localization in bovine mammary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Quesnell, Rebecca R; Erickson, Jamie; Schultz, Bruce D

    2007-01-01

    In vitro mammary epithelial cell models typically fail to form a consistently tight barrier that can effectively separate blood from milk. Our hypothesis was that mammary epithelial barrier function would be affected by changes in luminal ion concentration and inflammatory cytokines. Bovine mammary epithelial (BME-UV cell line) cells were grown to confluence on permeable supports with a standard basolateral medium and either high-electrolyte (H-elec) or low-electrolyte (L-elec) apical medium for 14 days. Apical media were changed to/from H-elec medium at predetermined times prior to assay. Transepithelial electrical resistance (R(te)) was highest in monolayers continuously exposed to apical L-elec. A time-dependent decline in R(te) began within 24 h of H-elec medium exposure. Change from H-elec medium to L-elec medium time-dependently increased R(te). Permeation by FITC-conjugated dextran was elevated across monolayers exposed to H-elec, suggesting compromise of a paracellular pathway. Significant alteration in occludin distribution was evident, concomitant with the changes in R(te), although total occludin was unchanged. Neither substitution of Na(+) with N-methyl-d-glucosamine (NMDG(+)) nor pharmacological inhibition of transcellular Na(+) transport pathways abrogated the effects of apical H-elec medium on R(te). Tumor necrosis factor alpha, but not interleukin-1beta nor interleukin-6, in the apical compartment caused a significant decrease in R(te) within 8 h. These results indicate that mammary epithelium is a dynamic barrier whose cell-cell contacts are acutely modulated by cytokines and luminal electrolyte environment. Results not only demonstrate that BME-UV cells are a model system representative of mammary epithelium but also provide critical information that can be applied to other mammary model systems to improve their physiological relevance.

  2. Nrf2 deficiency impairs the barrier function of mouse esophageal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Hu, Yuhui; Fang, Yu; Djukic, Zorka; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Orlando, Roy C.; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2013-01-01

    Objective As a major cellular defense mechanism, the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway regulates expression of genes involved in detoxification and stress response. Our previous study revealed activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway at the maturation phase during mouse esophageal development, suggesting a potential function in epithelial defense. Here we hypothesize that Nrf2 is involved in the barrier function of esophageal epithelium, and plays a protective role against gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Design Human esophageal biopsy samples, mouse surgical models and Nrf2-/- mice were used to assess the role of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway in esophageal mucosal barrier function. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured with mini-Ussing chambers. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine cell morphology, while gene microarray, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and ChIP analysis were used to assess the expression of pathway genes. Results Nrf2 was expressed in normal esophageal epithelium and activated in GERD of both humans and mice. Nrf2 deficiency and gastroesophageal reflux in mice, either alone or in combination, reduced TEER and increased intercellular space diameter in esophageal epithelium. Nrf2 target genes and gene sets associated with oxidoreductase activity, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production were down-regulated in the esophageal epithelium of Nrf2-/- mice. Consistent with the antioxidative function of Nrf2, a DNA oxidative damage marker (8OHdG) dramatically increased in esophageal epithelial cells of Nrf2-/- mice compared with those of wild-type mice. Interestingly, ATP biogenesis, Cox IV (a mitochondrial protein) and Claudin-4 (Cldn4) expression were down-regulated in the esophageal epithelium of Nrf2-/- mice, suggesting that energy-dependent tight junction integrity was subject to Nrf2 regulation. ChIP analysis confirmed the binding of Nrf2 to Cldn4 promoter. Conclusion Nrf2

  3. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  4. Human milk donation is an alternative to human milk bank.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ho-Torng; Fong, Tze-Vun; Hassan, Nurulhuda Mat; Wong, Hoi-Ling; Rai, Jasminder Kaur; Khalid, Zorina

    2012-04-01

    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community. We introduced human milk donation as an alternative to human milk banking based on Islamic principles. The suitable donor is a healthy rooming-in mother whose expressed breastmilk is in excess of her baby's demand. The milk is used after 72 hours of freezing at -20°C. The donor must fulfill the criteria for selection of donors and be nonreactive to human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis. Once the recipient's family and the donor state their desire for the human milk donation, a meeting with both parties is made. Unpasteurized frozen-thawed donor's milk will be provided to the recipient after written consents are obtained from both parties. This study was carried out in the Duchess of Kent Hospital (Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia) between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 48 babies received donated breastmilk. Forty-two infants were from the special care nursery, and the remaining six were from the pediatric ward. Eighty-eight percent of the donors and 77% of the recipients were Muslims. Sixty percent of the infants who received donated human milk were premature. Two infants died because of the underlying nature of their disease. Human milk donation is an option for hospitals without a human milk bank or in the Muslim community.

  5. Development and Characterization of Uterine Glandular Epithelium Specific Androgen Receptor Knockout Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung Peter; Zheng, Yu; Skulte, Katherine A; Handelsman, David J; Simanainen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    While estrogen action is the major driver of uterine development, androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) may also promote uterine growth as suggested by uterine phenotypes in global AR knockout (ARKO) female mice. Because AR is expressed in uterine endometrial glands, we generated (Cre/loxP) uterine gland epithelium-specific ARKO (ugeARKO) to determine the role of endometrial gland-specific androgen actions. However, AR in uterine gland epithelium may not be required for normal uterine development and function because ugeARKO females had normal uterine development and fertility. To determine if exogenous androgens acting via AR can fully support uterine growth in the absence of estrogens, the ARKO and ugeARKO females were ovariectomized and treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (nonaromatizable androgen). Both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone supported full uterine regrowth in wild-type females while ARKO females had no regrowth (comparable to ovariectomized only). These findings suggest that androgens acting via AR can promote full uterine regrowth in the absence of estrogens. The ugeARKO had 50% regrowth when compared to intact uterine glands, and histomorphologically, both the endometrial and myometrial areas were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, suggesting glandular epithelial AR located in the endometrium may indirectly modify myometrial development. Additionally, to confirm Cre function in endometrial glands, we generated uge-specific PTEN knockout mouse model. The ugePTEN knockout females developed severe endometrial hyperplasia and therefore present a novel model for future research.

  6. Meckel's diverticulum and ectopic epithelium: Evaluation of a complex relationship

    PubMed Central

    Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Khaing, Phue

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, for any incidentally discovered Meckel's diverticulum, the management approach is based on weighing the statistical odds of future complications against the risks of a diverticulectomy. Materials and Methods: The temporal relationship between age at Meckel's diverticulectomy and the presence of ectopic epithelium was evaluated in our series. A meta-analysis of all reported recent literature on this condition was subsequently performed to evaluate the strength of the relationship between ectopic epithelium and symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum. Results: There was a paucity of ectopic epithelium in Meckel's diverticulectomy specimens in infants operated on at less than 1 year of age. Having two or more ectopic epithelia in a diverticulum does not appear to carry an additive risk for complications. The meta-analysis confirmed that ectopic epithelium was the most significant factor that influenced surgical intervention in all series of Meckel's diverticulum. Conclusion: The relationship between ectopic epithelium and the development of symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum is complex. Further understanding of the development of ectopic rests in the diverticulum will facilitate elucidating the pathophysiology in symptomatic cases. PMID:24741211

  7. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  8. [Breast milk: its nutritional composition and functional properties].

    PubMed

    Tackoen, M

    2012-09-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid with thousands of components. The milk composition in the mammalian species is specific and adapted to the needs of the offspring. It contains macronutrients (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) and numerous biologically active substrates. Human milk not only covers the nutritional needs of the newborn but protects the baby against infection, inflammation and oxidative stress. It has immunomodulation properties and confers trophical protection to the intestinal mucosa. The newborn infant is particularly immature: innate immunity, adaptive immunity and intestinal immaturity. Human milk will offer this exogenous protective and immunomodulating source. The development of the composition of the intestinal microflora of the neonate will be impacted by pre- and probiotic components of human milk. Current scientific knowledge of human milk properties highlights interdependency of the different components, ontogeny of the intestinal function, development of the mucosal intestinal immune system, colonization by the intestinal microbiota and protection against pathogens. Quality of these interactions influences the newborn's short and long-term health status. The promotion of breastfeeding with the support of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) program and labeling has been shown to have positive impact in public health.

  9. Sterol oxidation in infant milk formulas and milk cereals.

    PubMed

    Zunin, P; Calcagno, C; Evangelisti, F

    1998-11-01

    7-Ketocholesterol and 7-ketositosterol were chosen as reliable markers of the oxidation of cholesterol and phytosterols in infant milk formulas and infant milk cereals. A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to measure them simultaneously in infant formulas. This method was then tested on a wide range of infant milk formulas and milk cereals on sale in Italy whose lipid composition is representative of the most common commercial formulas. The analytical results revealed no significant differences in the extent of oxidation of cholesterol and sitosterol. As the level of 7-ketocholesterol often followed the cholesterol level, a cholesterol content similar to that of human milk produced amounts of cholesterol oxides with possible negative effects on infant health. In contrast, the low cholesterol content of milk cereals never produced amounts of cholesterol oxides high enough to cause concern. The contents of phytosterols and hence their oxides were always low.

  10. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, Sundeep K; Bhat, Vidya S; Jodalli, Praveen S

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare the acidogenic potential of plain milk, milk with sugar, milk with cornflakes, and milk cornflakes with sugar by assessing the salivary pH. Materials and methods The study was carried out on 40 school children of 8 to 12 years; 20 boys and 20 girls were randomly selected. The salivary pH was assessed before and after the consumption of milk; milk and sugar; milk and cornflakes; and milk, sugar, and cornflakes. Baseline unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile plastic tube and the pH was recorded. The change in the salivary pH from the respective groups after consuming the test meal was recorded as follows: (1) after 5 minutes; (2) after 10 minutes; (3) after 15 minutes; (4) after 30 minutes; (5) 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 18.0 (SPSS). Results The average baseline salivary pH among all the groups was 7.26. A fall in pH at 5 minutes was seen in all the four groups. However, at different time intervals 5, 10, 15, 30, and 120 minutes, the pH values between the groups showed a significant difference at p < 00.7, 0.005, 0.001, 0.010, and 0.028 respectively. Conclusion The fall in pH in all the groups was not significant to a limit of critical pH. Milk when added with sugar and/or cornflakes as a meal did not pose a threat as there was not significant decrease in pH. How to cite this article Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Bhat VS, Ramya KM, Jodalli PS. Acidogenic Potential of Plain Milk, Milk with Sugar, Milk with Cornflakes, and Milk Cornflakes with Sugar: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):218-221. PMID:27843253

  11. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  12. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  13. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  14. 21 CFR 131.115 - Concentrated milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated milk. 131.115 Section 131.115 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.115 Concentrated milk. (a) Description. Concentrated milk is the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water...

  15. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails to...

  16. 7 CFR 58.136 - Rejected milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rejected milk. 58.136 Section 58.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.136 Rejected milk. A plant shall reject specific milk from a producer if the milk fails...

  17. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AND milk) AND (autism OR food allergy OR milk allergy OR children OR diarrhea.” The search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases (SID and Iranmedex) and international congresses were investigated. Full-text papers and abstracts on the topic of camel milk, evaluating nutritional value and medicinal properties, were included in this systematic review. Results Out of the 472 records found in the resources, 35 related studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that camel milk is highly nutritious and is safe for consumption by children. Conclusion It seems that many researchers did not follow a specific guideline for reporting and confirming the therapeutic properties of camel milk in children, but there is evidence denoting the importance, trials, and investigations of its usability and benefits. Camel milk as a supplemental treatment seems less invasive and costly than specialist care, medications, alternative treatments, and behavioral interventions. Based on our findings, camel milk is safer for children, effective in the treatment of autism, improves general well-being, promotes body natural defenses, is a good nutritional source, and can helps the daily nutritional needs of humans. PMID:26767108

  18. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa Al-Reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-11-01

    Camel milk is the closest to a human mother's milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. The search strategy of the current review is "(camel AND milk) AND (autism OR food allergy OR milk allergy OR children OR diarrhea." The search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases (SID and Iranmedex) and international congresses were investigated. Full-text papers and abstracts on the topic of camel milk, evaluating nutritional value and medicinal properties, were included in this systematic review. Out of the 472 records found in the resources, 35 related studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that camel milk is highly nutritious and is safe for consumption by children. It seems that many researchers did not follow a specific guideline for reporting and confirming the therapeutic properties of camel milk in children, but there is evidence denoting the importance, trials, and investigations of its usability and benefits. Camel milk as a supplemental treatment seems less invasive and costly than specialist care, medications, alternative treatments, and behavioral interventions. Based on our findings, camel milk is safer for children, effective in the treatment of autism, improves general well-being, promotes body natural defenses, is a good nutritional source, and can helps the daily nutritional needs of humans.

  19. Human milk and the nutritional needs of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Tudehope, David I

    2013-03-01

    Key principles underpinning feeding guidelines for preterm infants include support for developmental care, breastfeeding, milk expression, and creating feeding plans. Early trophic feeding with colostrum and transitional milk improves immune protection and promotes gut maturation. Studies of preterm infants demonstrate that feeding mother's milk (MM) decreases the incidence of infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and improves neurodevelopmental outcome but may decrease ponderal and linear growth. Standard practice in neonatal units is to promote mother's own milk as the feed of choice for all infants. However, it is not feasible or prudent to do so for all preterm infants. Mothers of preterm infants have lower rates of successful breastfeeding compared with those of term infants. MM can contain harmful bacterial or viral pathogens. Although preterm human milk (HM) contains higher concentrations of protein, sodium, zinc, and calcium than mature HM, it falls short of supplying adequate quantities of nutrients required by preterm infants. Therefore, HM supplemented with nutrients is recommended for all infants born before 32 weeks gestation and for certain infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation. HM is the preferred feed, but preterm formula is an appropriate option when there is an inadequate supply of MM.

  20. Analysis of the Storage Methods for Raw Human Milk from Mothers with Infants Admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, According to Brazilian Regulations.

    PubMed

    Grazziotin, Maria Celestina Bonzanini; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Freire, Marcia Helena de Souza; da Silva, Regina Paula Guimarães Vieira Cavalcante

    2016-08-01

    Milk safety is an important concern in neonatal units and human milk banks. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding raw milk handling and storage are needed to safely promote supplying hospitalized infants with their mother's own milk. To evaluate raw human milk storage methods according to Brazilian milk management regulations by investigating the effects of refrigeration (5°C) for 12 hours and freezing (-20°C) for 15 days on the acidity and energy content in a large number of raw milk samples. Expressed milk samples from 100 distinct donors were collected in glass bottles. Each sample was separated into 3 equal portions that were analyzed at room temperature and after either 12 hours of refrigeration or 15 days of freezing. Milk acidity and energy content were determined by Dornic titration and creamatocrit technique, respectively. All samples showed Dornic acidity values within the established acceptable limit (≤ 8°D), as required by Brazilian regulations. In addition, energy content did not significantly differ among fresh, refrigerated and frozen milk samples (median of ~50 kcal/100 mL for each). Most samples tested (> 80%) were considered top quality milk (< 4°D) based on acidity values, and milk energy content was preserved after storage. We conclude that the storage methods required by Brazilian regulations are suitable to ensure milk safety and energy content of stored milk when supplied to neonates. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. [Automatic milking systems--quality assurance of milk for drinking].

    PubMed

    Redetzky, R; Hamann, J

    2004-07-01

    German consumers trust the safety and the quality of milk and milk products. Compared with other animal products, e. g. meat and meat products, their confidence is justified in so far as milk and milk products cause only few foodborne diseases in Germany, although 80 percent of all German cows develop at least one case of mastitis per lactation. Due to financial reasons, more and more German dairy farmers are forced to initiate a time-saving rationalization of their workflow. Therefore, automatic milking systems (AMS) are used increasingly, even though the costs of purchase result in a slow pick-up in sales. Moreover, AMS do not comply with legal requirements. Thus, an additional regular, the so called "catalogue of measures", had to be enacted to ensure the hygienic harmlessness of milk produced by AMS. This is the first time, that udder health at individual cow level was related to milk quality beyond merely clinical signs. Together with technical innovations for an improved health monitoring at cow and herd level as well as the implementation of quality assurance programs based on prevention, this improvement offers good prospects to produce not only a hygienically harmless, but also a physiologically composed milk and therefore a qualitatively high-grade milk from healthy cows. Being the vehicle of the most recent improvements in technology, AMS do have the potential to make a crucial contribution to this development.

  2. The taming of the shrew milk teeth.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Elina; Välimäki, Kaisa; Pummila, Marja; Thesleff, Irma; Jernvall, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic feature of mammalian dentition is the evolutionary reduction of tooth number and replacement. Because mice do not replace teeth, here we used Sorex araneus, the common shrew, as a model to investigate the loss of tooth replacement. Historically, shrews have been reported to initiate the development of several, milk or deciduous teeth but these soon become rudimentary and only the replacement teeth erupt. Shrews thus offer a living example of a derived mammalian pattern where the deciduous tooth development is being suppressed. Based on histological and gene expression analyses of serial sections, we suggest that S. araneus has discernible tooth replacement only in the premolar 4 (P4) position. Both generations of teeth express Shh in the enamel knot and in the inner enamel epithelium. Nevertheless, the deciduous P4 (dP4) is reduced in size during embryogenesis and is eventually lost without becoming functional. Analysis of growth shows that P4 replaces the dP4 in a "double-wedge" pattern indicative of competitive replacement where the suppression of the deciduous tooth coincides with the initiation of its replacement. Because activator-inhibitor mechanisms have been implicated in adjacent mouse molars and in transgenic mice with continuous tooth budding, we suggest that evolutionary suppression of deciduous teeth may involve early activation of replacement teeth, which in turn begin to suppress their deciduous predecessors.

  3. Human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhuoteng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E; Newburg, David S

    2012-08-01

    Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogen binding to host receptors and their consumption by infants is associated with reduced risk of disease. Salmonella infection is more frequent among infants than among the general population, but the incidence is lower in breast-fed babies, suggesting that human milk could contain components that inhibit Salmonella. This study aimed to test whether human milk per se inhibits Salmonella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and, if so, to identify the milk components responsible for inhibition. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 (SL1344) invasion of FHs 74 Int and Caco-2 cells were the models of human intestinal epithelium infection. Internalization of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-labeled SL1344 into intestinal cells was measured by flow cytometry to quantify infection. Human milk and its fractions inhibited infection; the inhibitory activity localized to the high molecular weight glycans. Mucin 1 and mucin 4 were isolated to homogeneity. At 150 μg/L, a typical concentration in milk, human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibited SL1344 invasion of both target cell types. These mucins inhibited SL1344 invasion of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, mucins may prove useful as a basis for developing novel oral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that inhibit infant diseases caused by Salmonella and related pathogens.

  4. Chemical carcinogenesis in the tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Trump, B F; McDowell, E M; Harris, C C

    1984-01-01

    Some of the recent work in pulmonary carcinogenesis is briefly reviewed. Morphologic studies of neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the human bronchi are compared with similar studies of carcinogenesis and epithelial regeneration in the hamster trachea. These studies suggest that bronchogenic carcinomas are typically complex mixtures of three basic phenotypes, the epidermoid and the mucous and dense-core granulated (endocrine) phenotypes. Pure forms of these phenotypes are rare, as different cells and even individual cells in single tumors express more than one phenotype. The clinical significance of such phenotypic variability is not yet known. Bronchial cell types which retain the capacity to divide include the mucous cell, the basal cell and perhaps the dense-core granulated cell. Studies of epithelial regeneration and preneoplastic lesions suggest that the mucous cell may be pivotal both in the response to injury and in carcinogenesis. Cigarette smoking is believed to be the major etiologic factor in bronchogenic carcinoma. Cigarette smoke contains initiators of carcinogenesis, but it contains a plethora of probable promoters and cocarcinogens as well. It is hypothesized that cigarette smoke may both initiate bronchial cells and promote carcinogenesis in cells which have previously been initiated by smoke or other factors. It is further hypothesized that that mucous cell is the major target for initiation and subsequent tumorigenesis. The ultimate phenotype(s) displayed by the tumor is suggested to result from the effect of microenvironmental factors upon the initiated cell and its progeny. PMID:6376112

  5. Human milk and breastfeeding in surgical infants.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, Guglielmo; Foligno, Silvia; Occasi, Francesca; Pannone, Veronica; Valentini, Giovanni Benedetti; Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Bagolan, Pietro; Dotta, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Human milk and breastfeeding represent the nutritional normative standards for term and preterm newborns. With the term "surgical infants" we refer to all newborns who undergo surgery during the first days of life and who are assisted in the neonatal intensive care unit during the postoperative period and then in the neonatal surgery unit. There are many obstacles to breastfeeding these newborns. The "barriers" include the unstable clinical conditions before and after surgery, the period of separation between the mother and child, and often the lack of attention to breastfeeding. Few studies have assessed if newborns with surgical diseases are breastfeed and if human milk is beneficial for their outcome. We believe that the best option is to offer them their own mother's milk through the promotion and support of breastfeeding. A specific program focused on the needs of these vulnerable children should be created. Furthermore the surgical and pediatric staff of the neonatal surgery unit should be informed and trained to increase such a program's feasibility.

  6. Polyphemus, Odysseus and the ovine milk proteome.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Di Francesco, Antonella; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2017-01-30

    In the last years the amount of ovine milk production, mainly used to formulate a wide range of different and exclusive dairy products often categorized as gourmet food, has been progressively increasing. Taking also into account that sheep milk (SM) also appears to be potentially less allergenic than cow's one, an in-depth information about its protein composition is essential to improve the comprehension of its potential benefits for human consumption. The present work reports the results of an in-depth characterization of SM whey proteome, carried out by coupling the CPLL technology with SDS-PAGE and high resolution UPLC-nESI MS/MS analysis. This approach allowed the identification of 718 different protein components, 644 of which are from unique genes. Particularly, this identification has expanded literature data about sheep whey proteome by 193 novel proteins previously undetected, many of which are involved in the defence/immunity mechanisms or in the nutrient delivery system. A comparative analysis of SM proteome known to date with cow's milk proteome, evidenced that while about 29% of SM proteins are also present in CM, 71% of the identified components appear to be unique of SM proteome and include a heterogeneous group of components which seem to have health-promoting benefits. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier .

  7. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  8. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  9. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  10. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  11. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  12. Morphology of the epithelium of the lower rectum and the anal canal in the adult human.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Kaoruko; Akashi, Yuichi; Kawahara, Katsunobu; Shimada, Tatsuo

    2012-06-01

    The anal canal is an important body part clinically. However, there is no agreement about the epithelium of the anal canal, the anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium in particular. The aim of this study is to clarify the structure of the epithelium of the human lower rectum and anal canal. Intact rectum and anus obtained from patients who underwent surgery for rectal carcinoma were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (LM and SEM). By LM, three types of epithelium were observed in the anal canal: simple columnar epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium, and stratified columnar epithelium. The lower rectum was composed of simple columnar epithelium. SEM findings showed stratified squamous epithelium that consisted of squamous cells with microridges, changing to simple columnar epithelium consisting of columnar cells with short microvilli at the anorectal line. LM and SEM observations in a one-to-one ratio revealed that the area of stratified columnar epithelium based on LM corresponded to the anal crypt and sinus. In conclusion, the epithelium of the human anal canal was fundamentally composed of simple columnar epithelium and stratified squamous epithelium. We found no evidence of the ATZ.

  13. Abnormal Ion Permeation through Cystic Fibrosis Respiratory Epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, M. R.; Stutts, M. J.; Spock, A.; Fischer, N.; Gatzy, J. T.; Boucher, R. C.

    1983-09-01

    The epithelium of nasal tissue excised from subjects with cystic fibrosis exhibited higher voltage and lower conductance than tissue from control subjects. Basal sodium ion absorption by cystic fibrosis and normal nasal epithelia equaled the short-circuit current and was amiloride-sensitive. Amiloride induced chloride ion secretion in normal but not cystic fibrosis tissue and consequently was more effective in inhibiting the short-circuit current in cystic fibrosis epithelia. Chloride ion-free solution induced a smaller hyperpolarization of cystic fibrosis tissue. The increased voltage and amiloride efficacy in cystic fibrosis reflect absorption of sodium ions across an epithelium that is relatively impermeable to chloride ions.

  14. Ultrastructure of free-ending nerve fibres in oesophageal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Chillida, E M; Rodrigo, J; Mayo, I; Arnedo, A; Gómez, A

    1981-01-01

    For the first time, at the ultrastructural level, the existence of free-ending, intraepithelial nerve fibres has been demonstrated in the oesophagus wall of adult cats and monkeys. Their form, the way they penetrate the epithelium, their location within the epithelium and their relationships with neighbouring cells have been established. A sensory function is suggested for this type of ending. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Figs. 16-17 PMID:7333951

  15. Structural changes in rabbit oral epithelium caused by zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Joseph, C E; Ashrafi, S H; Waterhouse, J P

    1981-01-01

    We report the successful establishment of zinc deficiency in rabbits by dietary means. The soybean protein of a standard rabbit diet was replaced by egg albumin. Weanling, New Zealand white rabbits, were fed a low zinc diet containing 1.5 microgram Zn/g of diet. Zinc-deficient rabbits showed stunted growth, weight loss, altered posture, partial alopecia and crusting of skin. Structural alterations in oral epithelium of the zinc-deficient rabbits included in the tongue flattened filiform papillae showing parakeratosis, in the cheek parakeratosis of the normally nonkeratinized epithelium and hyperplasia of the lip epidermis.

  16. Innate Immunity and Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, Nicole Theresa; Lawrence, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a dynamic source of nutrients and bioactive factors; unique in providing for the human infant’s optimal growth and development. The growing infant’s immune system has a number of developmental immune deficiencies placing the infant at increased risk of infection. This review focuses on how human milk directly contributes to the infant’s innate immunity. Remarkable new findings clarify the multifunctional nature of human milk bioactive components. New research techniques have expanded our understanding of the potential for human milk’s effect on the infant that will never be possible with milk formulas. Human milk microbiome directly shapes the infant’s intestinal microbiome, while the human milk oligosaccharides drive the growth of these microbes within the gut. New techniques such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and glycomics are being used to describe this symbiotic relationship. An expanded role for antimicrobial proteins/peptides within human milk in innate immune protection is described. The unique milieu of enhanced immune protection with diminished inflammation results from a complex interaction of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors provided by human milk to the intestine. New data support the concept of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue and its contribution to the cellular content of human milk. Human milk stem cells (hMSCs) have recently been discovered. Their direct role in the infant for repair and regeneration is being investigated. The existence of these hMSCs could prove to be an easily harvested source of multilineage stem cells for the study of cancer and tissue regeneration. As the infant’s gastrointestinal tract and immune system develop, there is a comparable transition in human milk over time to provide fewer immune factors and more calories and nutrients for growth. Each of these new findings opens the door to future studies of human milk and its effect on the innate immune system and the developing

  17. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  18. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Cells of human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Witkowska-Zimny, Malgorzata; Kaminska-El-Hassan, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is a complex fluid that has developed to satisfy the nutritional requirements of infants. In addition to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other biologically active components, breast milk contains a diverse microbiome that is presumed to colonize the infant gastrointestinal tract and a heterogeneous population of cells with unclear physiological roles and health implications. Noteworthy cellular components of breast milk include progenitor/stem cells. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of breast milk cells, including leukocytes, epithelial cells, stem cells and potentially probiotic bacteria.

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 expression in the epithelium of inflammatory periapical lesions. An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, R; Perrotta, R E; Loreto, C; Musumeci, G; Crimi, S; Dos Santos, J N; Rusu, M C; Bufo, P; Barbato, E; Pannone, G

    2015-10-26

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease.

  1. Dual roles of hemidesmosomal proteins in the pancreatic epithelium: the phosphoinositide 3-kinase decides.

    PubMed

    Laval, S; Laklai, H; Fanjul, M; Pucelle, M; Laurell, H; Billon-Galés, A; Le Guellec, S; Delisle, M-B; Sonnenberg, A; Susini, C; Pyronnet, S; Bousquet, C

    2014-04-10

    Given the failure of chemo- and biotherapies to fight advanced pancreatic cancer, one major challenge is to identify critical events that initiate invasion. One priming step in epithelia carcinogenesis is the disruption of epithelial cell anchorage to the basement membrane which can be provided by hemidesmosomes (HDs). However, the existence of HDs in pancreatic ductal epithelium and their role in carcinogenesis remain unexplored. HDs have been explored in normal and cancer pancreatic cells, and patient samples. Unique cancer cell models where HD assembly can be pharmacologically manipulated by somatostatin/sst2 signaling have been then used to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms of dynamic HD during pancreatic carcinogenesis. We surprisingly report the presence of mature type-1 HDs comprising the integrin α6β4 and bullous pemphigoid antigen BP180 in the human pancreatic ductal epithelium. Importantly, HDs are shown to disassemble during pancreatic carcinogenesis. HD breakdown requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent induction of the matrix-metalloprotease MMP-9, which cleaves BP180. Consequently, integrin α6β4 delocalizes to the cell-leading edges where it paradoxically promotes cell migration and invasion through S100A4 activation. As S100A4 in turn stimulates MMP-9 expression, a vicious cycle maintains BP180 cleavage. Inactivation of this PI3K-MMP-9-S100A4 signaling loop conversely blocks BP180 cleavage, induces HD reassembly and inhibits cell invasion. We conclude that mature type-1 HDs are critical anchoring structures for the pancreatic ductal epithelium whose disruption, upon PI3K activation during carcinogenesis, provokes pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion.

  2. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  3. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival.

    PubMed

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants.

  4. The injury of serotonin on intestinal epithelium cell renewal of weaned diarrhoea mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Yang, C; Wang, Z; Qin, Z; Cao, J; Chen, Y

    2016-12-28

    Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT) in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg) via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR). Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg). The results demonstrated that compared with the control animals, diarrhoea appeared in weaned stress mice and the 5-HT content in the small intestine was significantly increased (P<0.05). Further, the caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis in the small intestine were significantly increased, but the VH (villus height), V/C (villus height /crypt depth), and PCNA-positive rate significantly decreased. Compared with the control animals, CH increased the intestinal 5-HT content, caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis but decreased the VH and V/C. Compared with both control and weaned stress animals, weaned stress animals that were pre-treated with CH showed higher 5-HT concentrations, positive caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis but lower VH, V/C and PCNA-positive rate. In vitro, a low concentration of 5-HT inhibit, IEC-6 cell line apoptosis but a higher concentration of 5-HT promoted it. Therefore, weaned stress diarrhoea mice were accompanied by a 5-HT increase in the small intestine and vice versa, and the increase in 5-HT induced by CH caused diarrhoea. In brief, 5-HT and diarrhoea slowed the intestinal epithelium cell renewal and injured the abortion function and mucosal barrier by decreasing VH, V/C and proliferation and increasing epithelium cell apoptosis.

  5. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in the Epithelium of Inflammatory Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Leonardi, R.; Perrotta, R.E.; Musumeci, G.; Crimi, S.; dos Santos, J.N.; Rusu, M.C.; Bufo, P.; Barbato, E.; Pannone, G.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are essential for the innate immune response against invading pathogens and have been described in immunocompetent cells of areas affected by periapical disease. Besides initiating the inflammatory response, they also directly regulate epithelial cell proliferation and survival in a variety of settings. This study evaluates the in situ expression of TLR4 in periapical granulomas (PG) and radicular cysts, focusing on the epithelial compartment. Twenty-one periapical cysts (PC) and 10 PG were analyzed; 7 dentigerous non-inflamed follicular cyst (DC) served as control. TLR4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. TLR4 immunoreaction products were detected in the epithelium of all specimens, with a higher percentage of immunostained cells in PG. Although TLR4 overexpression was detected in both PG and PC, there were differences that seemed to be related to the nature of the lesion, since in PG all epithelial cells of strands, islands and trabeculae were strongly immunoreactive for TLR4, whereas in PC only some areas of the basal and suprabasal epithelial layers were immunostained. This staining pattern is consistent with the action of TLR4: in PG it could promote formation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez and in epithelial strands and islands the enhancement of cell survival, proliferation and migration, whereas in PC TLR4 could protect the lining epithelium from extensive apoptosis. These findings go some way towards answering the intriguing question of why many epithelial strands or islands in PG and the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after non-surgical endodontic therapy, and suggest that TLR4 plays a key role in the pathobiology of the inflammatory process related to periapical disease. PMID:26708181

  6. Generation of tooth-periodontium complex structures using high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yancong; Li, Yongliang; Shi, Ruirui; Zhang, Siqi; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Yan; Cai, Jinglei; Pei, Duanqing; Wei, Shicheng

    2017-06-08

    A number of studies have shown that tooth-like structures can be regenerated using induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. However, few studies have reported the regeneration of tooth-periodontium complex structures, which are more suitable for clinical tooth transplantation. We established an optimized approach to induce high-odontogenic potential dental epithelium derived from mES cells by temporally controlling bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) function and regenerated tooth-periodontium complex structures in vivo. First, immunofluorescence and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the watershed of skin and the oral ectoderm. LDN193189 was then used to inhibit the BMP4 receptor around the watershed, followed by the addition of exogenous BMP4 to promote BMP4 function. The generated dental epithelium was confirmed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. The generated epithelium was ultimately combined with embryonic day 14.5 mouse mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. After 4 weeks, the tooth-periodontium complex structure was examined by micro-computed tomography (CT) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Our study found that the turning point of oral ectoderm differentiation occurred around day 3 after the embryoid body was transferred to a common culture plate. Ameloblastin-positive dental epithelial cells were detected following the temporal regulation of BMP4. Tooth-periodontium complex structures, which included teeth, a periodontal membrane, and alveolar bone, were formed when this epithelium was combined with mouse dental mesenchyme and transplanted into the renal capsules of nude mice. Micro-CT and H&E staining revealed that the generated tooth-periodontium complex structures shared a similar histological structure with normal mouse teeth. An optimized induction method was established to promote the differentiation of mES cells into dental

  7. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    , including a potential improvement in robot utilization, a reduction in unnecessary time spent off pasture by cows in the milking herd, promoting cow welfare through reducing the risk of lameness, and enhancing productivity. Targeting strategies to minimize queue length to less than the threshold length, which in this study was 20 cows, could result in reduced time spent in the premilking yard.

  8. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S K; Anurag, Rahul K

    2016-09-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow's milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.

  10. Effect of frequency of milking on yield, composition and processing quality of milk.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Bernadette; Ryan, Gerard; Meaney, William J; McDonagh, David; Kelly, Alan

    2002-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of once-daily milking (ODM) and omitting one evening milking each week (13TWM), in late lactation on milk production, composition and processability. Seventy-two cows were assigned to three treatments (ODM, 13TWM and twice-daily milking [TDM]) from 4 October to 12 December. Cows were on average 218 d into lactation at the start of the trial, and all cows were managed similarly throughout the trial. Milk yields and gross milk composition of cows on all treatments were measured, and milk samples for detailed compositional and processability analysis were collected from TDM and ODM treatments at two consecutive milkings and at one milking each week, respectively. Milk yield was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) and milk fat and protein concentrations were increased (P < 0.01) with ODM compared with TDM. Milk yield and fat and protein concentrations of milk from TDM and 13TWM herds were similar. Casein concentrations in ODM and TDM milks were similar, but ODM milk had a higher (P < 0.05) whey protein content. Somatic cell count of ODM and TDM milks was similar. Rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (A60) of milk were not affected by milking frequency. However, rate of curd aggregation (K20) of ODM milk was reduced (P < 0.05) compared with that of TDM milk. Plasmin activity in ODM milk was numerically higher than in TDM milk, but the effect was not significant. ODM milk had higher NAGase activity than TDM milk (P < 0.01). In conclusion, once daily milking reduced milk yield by 29% and did not adversely affect the processability of milk. Moreover, one evening milking per week could be eliminated without adverse effects on milk yield or composition.

  11. Immunodetection of added glycomacropeptide in milk formulas and milk powders.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Stoia, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed the detection of fraudulent manipulation of milk powder with a low cost component--whey powder, by applying the immunochromatographic assay to identify glycomacropeptide. Five commercial milk powder samples of various brands from the national market were analyzed: lactose enriched milk powder type 26, two whole milk powders, vitamin enriched milk powder and full cream milk powder. Our results showed additional whey (1-2%) in 60% of the selected samples after casein removal by precipitation with 20% trichloracetic acid. Another investigated sample--the enriched UHT milk for children aged 4-12 years--proved addition of whey. Other two commercial toddler formula milk powder samples of different brands were used for comparison for the presence of glycomacropeptide. The first sample which was regularly labeled as containing whey protein concentrate was found positive for glycomacropeptide in accordance with the label information, while the second one not containing whey proteins as specified by the product label, was found negative for glycomacropeptide, these two samples being in accordance with the actual legislation.

  12. Lead content of milk and infant formula

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.

    1980-03-01

    Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)

  13. Uptake and Function Studies of Maternal Milk-derived MicroRNAs*

    PubMed Central

    Title, Alexandra C.; Denzler, Rémy; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell-autonomous gene expression that influence many biological processes. They are also released from cells and are present in virtually all body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, sweat, and milk. The functional role of nutritionally obtained extracellular miRNAs is controversial, and irrefutable demonstration of exogenous miRNA uptake by cells and canonical miRNA function is still lacking. Here we show that miRNAs are present at high levels in the milk of lactating mice. To investigate intestinal uptake of miRNAs in newborn mice, we employed genetic models in which newborn miR-375 and miR-200c/141 knockout mice received milk from wild-type foster mothers. Analysis of the intestinal epithelium, blood, liver, and spleen revealed no evidence for miRNA uptake. miR-375 levels in hepatocytes were at the limit of detection and remained orders of magnitude below the threshold for target gene regulation (between 1000 and 10,000 copies/cell). Furthermore, our study revealed rapid degradation of milk miRNAs in intestinal fluid. Together, our results indicate a nutritional rather than gene-regulatory role of miRNAs in the milk of newborn mice. PMID:26240150

  14. Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulates corneal epithelium stratification via inhibition of Bmp4 during mouse development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Zhang, Suohui; Call, Mindy; Yuan, Yong; Yasunaga, Mayu; Kao, Winston W-Y; Liu, Chia-Yang

    2015-10-01

    The development of organs with an epithelial parenchyma relies on reciprocal mesenchymal-epithelial communication. Mouse corneal epithelium stratification is the consequence of a coordinated developmental process based on mesenchymal-epithelial interactions. The molecular mechanism underlying these interactions remains unclear. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in fundamental aspects of development through the regulation of various growth factors. Here, we show that conditional ablation of either β-catenin (Ctnnb1(cKO)) or co-receptors Lrp5/6 (Lrp5/6(cKO)) in corneal stromal cells results in precocious stratification of the corneal epithelium. By contrast, ectopic expression of a murine Ctnnb1 gain-of-function mutant (Ctnnb1(cGOF)) retards corneal epithelium stratification. We also discovered that Bmp4 is upregulated in the absence of β-catenin in keratocytes, which further triggers ERK1/2 (Mapk3/1) and Smad1/5 phosphorylation and enhances transcription factor p63 (Trp63) expression in mouse corneal basal epithelial cells and in a human corneal epithelial cell line (HTCE). Interestingly, mouse neonates given a subconjunctival BMP4 injection displayed a phenotype resembling that of Ctnnb1(cKO). Conditional ablation of Bmp4 eradicates the phenotype produced in Ctnnb1(cKO) mice. Furthermore, ChIP and promoter-luciferase assays show that β-catenin binds to and suppresses Bmp4 promoter activity. These data support the concept that cross-talk between the Wnt/β-catenin/Bmp4 axis (in the stromal mesenchyme) and Bmp4/p63 signaling (in the epithelium) plays a pivotal role in epithelial stratification during corneal morphogenesis.

  15. Relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle independent on functional epithelium cells induced by lidocaine, bupivacaine and isomers in rats.

    PubMed

    Lautner, Roberto Q; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Sudo, Roberto T

    2009-05-21

    Lidocaine is a local anesthetic which has been used to protect spasm reaction during tracheal intubation and bronchoscopy. We compared the potency of lidocaine, bupivacaine (RS(+/-)-bupivacaine) and isomers (S(-)-bupivacaine and R(+)-bupivacaine) to promote relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle. Relaxation of airways smooth muscle can be dependent on the release of relaxing factors by epithelium such as prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). Possible mechanisms involved in the tracheal smooth muscle relaxation induced by these local anesthetics were evaluated in preparation in which the epithelium layer was intact or denuded. Bupivacaine and its isomers were approximately six to eleven-fold more potent than lidocaine to promote relaxation on acetylcholine-induced contraction in tracheal rings. The concentration of lidocaine, RS(+/-)-bupivacaine, S(-)-bupivacaine and R(+)-bupivacaine necessary to produce a 50% reduction of maximal contraction to acetylcholine (IC(50)) in tracheal rings with intact epithelium was 1.25+/-0.01, 0.11+/-0.01, 0.15+/-0.01, 0.19+/-0.01 mM, respectively. Removal of epithelium or exposure to N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin did not alter the IC(50). However, calcium influx of depolarized tracheal smooth muscle was inhibited by lidocaine, bupivacaine and isomers. S(-)-bupivacaine reduced by 78.8+/-7.4% the calcium influx followed by RS(+/-)-bupivacaine (41.8+/-6.7%) and R(+)-bupivacaine (25.6+/-9.5%). In conclusion, local anesthetic action was stereoselective and partially dependent on blockade of Ca(2+) influx to muscular cells. The isomer S(-)-bupivacaine is more potent and less toxic which could represent a valuable clinical advantage to use as broncholitic agent.

  16. Milk proteins interact with goat Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins and decrease their binding to sperm.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Erika Bezerra; van Tilburg, Mauricio; Plante, Geneviève; de Oliveira, Rodrigo V; Moura, Arlindo A; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Seminal plasma Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins bind to sperm at ejaculation and promote capacitation. When in excess, however, BSP proteins damage the sperm membrane. It has been suggested that milk components of semen extenders associate with BSP proteins, potentially protecting sperm. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate if milk proteins interact with BSP proteins and reduce BSP binding to goat sperm. Using gel filtration chromatography, milk was incubated with goat seminal plasma proteins and loaded onto columns with and without calcium. Milk was also fractionated into parts containing mostly whey proteins or mostly caseins, incubated with seminal plasma proteins and subjected to gel filtration. Eluted fractions were evaluated by immunoblot using anti-goat BSP antibodies, confirming milk protein-BSP protein interactions. As determined by ELISA, milk proteins coated on polystyrene wells bound to increasing of goat BSP proteins. Far-western dot blots confirmed that BSP proteins bound to caseins and β-lactoglobulin in a concentration-dependent manner. Then, cauda epididymal sperm from five goats was incubated with seminal plasma; seminal plasma followed by milk; and milk followed by seminal plasma. Sperm membrane proteins were extracted and evaluated by immunoblotting. The pattern of BSP binding to sperm membrane proteins was reduced by 59.3 % when epididymal sperm were incubated with seminal plasma and then with skimmed milk (p < 0.05). When epididymal sperm were treated with milk followed by seminal plasma, coating of sperm with BSP proteins was not significantly reduced (57.6 %; p > 0.05). In conclusion, goat BSP proteins have an affinity for caseins and whey proteins. Milk reduces BSP binding to goat sperm, depending whether or not sperm had been previously exposed to seminal plasma. Such events may explain the protective effect of milk during goat sperm preservation.

  17. High Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) in the Non-Malignant Prostate Epithelium Predicts a Poor Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patient Managed by Watchful Waiting.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Hägglöf, Christina; Hammarsten, Peter; Thysell, Elin; Stattin, Pär; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Jernberg, Emma; Wikstrom, Pernilla; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) has been shown to both promote and suppress tumor progression, but its role in prostate cancer is largely unknown. LOX immunoreactivity was scored in prostate tumor epithelium, tumor stroma and in the tumor-adjacent non-malignant prostate epithelium and stroma. LOX scores in tumor and non-malignant prostate tissues were then examined for possible associations with clinical characteristics and survival in a historical cohort of men that were diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection and followed by watchful waiting. Men with a low LOX score in the non-malignant prostate epithelium had significantly longer cancer specific survival than men with a high score. Furthermore, LOX score in non-malignant prostate epithelium remained prognostic in a multivariable analysis including Gleason score. LOX score in prostate tumor epithelium positively correlated to Gleason score and metastases but was not associated with cancer survival. LOX score in tumor and non-malignant prostate stroma appeared unrelated to these tumor characteristics. In radical prostatectomy specimens, LOX immune-staining corresponded to LOX in-situ hybridization and LOX mRNA levels were found to be similar between tumor and adjacent non-malignant areas, but significantly increased in bone metastases samples. LOX levels both in tumors and in the surrounding tumor-bearing organ are apparently related to prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  18. Biotransformation enzyme expression in the nasal epithelium of woodrats.

    PubMed

    Skopec, Michele M; Hale, Andrew; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Dearing, M Denise

    2013-01-01

    When herbivores come in contact with volatile plant secondary compounds (PSC) that enter the nasal passages the only barrier between the nasal cavity and the brain is the nasal epithelium and the biotransformation enzymes present there. The expression of two biotransformation enzymes Cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was investigated in the nasal epithelia and livers of three populations of woodrats. One population of Neotoma albigula was fed juniper that contains volatile terpenes. Juniper caused upregulation of CYP2B and GST in the nasal epithelium and the expression of CYP2B and GST in the nasal epithelium was correlated to liver expression, showing that the nasal epithelia responds to PSC and the response is similar to the liver. Two populations of Neotoma bryanti were fed creosote that contains less volatile phenolics. The creosote naive animals upregulated CYP2B in their nasal epithelia while the creosote experienced animals upregulated GST. There was no correlation between CYP2B and GST expression in the nasal epithelia and livers of either population. The response of the nasal epithelium to PSC seems to be an evolved response that is PSC and experience dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  20. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  1. Posterior scleritis with retinal pigment epithelium rip: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Fiebai, Bassey; Padhi, Tapas Ranjan; Panda, Krushna Gopal; Modi, Rohit Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Posterior scleritis is a great mimicker and can cause irreversible visual loss because of late or misdiagnosis. We report a case of retinal pigment epithelial rip in the event of nodular posterior scleritis that is hardly reported in the literature. The authors hypothesize the rip to be a result of inflammation, exudation and continuing pressure by the fluid or granuloma on the pigment epithelium.

  2. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  3. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans.

  4. The multi-tasking gut epithelium of insects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Hsin; Jing, Xiangfeng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-12-01

    The insect gut epithelium plays a vital role in multiple processes, including nutrition, immunity and osmoregulation. Recent research is revealing the molecular and biochemical basis of these functions. For example, the pattern of nutrient acquisition by the gut epithelium is integrated into the overall regulation of nutrient allocation, as illustrated by evidence for systemic controls over expression of key genes coding digestive enzymes and transporters in carbohydrate acquisition; and the abundance and diversity of microorganisms in the gut lumen is regulated by multiple molecular properties of the gut epithelial cells, including the synthesis of enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species and anti-microbial peptides. These traits are underpinned by the function of the gut epithelium as a selective barrier which mediates the controlled movement of water, ions, metabolites and macromolecules between the gut lumen and insect tissues. Breakdown of the gut epithelial barrier has been implicated in muscle paralysis of insects at low temperatures (chill coma) and in aging. The key challenge for future research is to understand how the multiple functions of the insect gut epithelium are integrated by signaling interactions among epithelial cells, the gut microbiota and other insect organs.

  5. The Olfactory Neural Epithelium As a Tool in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Joëlle; Gassó Astorga, Patricia; Segal-Gavish, Hadar; Wu, YeeWen Candace; Chung, Youjin; Cascella, Nicola G; Sawa, Akira; Ishizuka, Koko

    2017-02-01

    Capturing both dynamic changes (state) and persistent signatures (trait) directly associated with disease at the molecular level is crucial in modern medicine. The olfactory neural epithelium, easily accessible in clinical settings, is a promising surrogate model in translational brain medicine, complementing the limitations in current engineered cell models.

  6. Increased expression of nestin in human pterygial epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dan; Wang, Hua; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM To investigate the distribution of nestin-positive cells in pterygium, as well as the relationship between nestin-positive cells and proliferative cells in the pathogenesis of pterygium. METHODS Nine pterygium specimens and 5 normal conjunctiva specimens were investigated. All explanted specimens were immediately immersed in 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine, and were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining, as well as immunostaining to detect nestin. RESULTS Small sub-populations of nestin-expressing cells in both normal and pterygial conjunctiva epithelium were found. These were located at the superficial layer of the epithelium, and were significantly increased (P=0.007) and spread out in the pterygial conjunctiva epithelium, even though these cells were mitotically quiescent. CONCLUSION In pterygium, more nestin-positive cells were present at the superficial layer of the epithelium. With growing scientific evidence that nestin plays an important role in defining various specialized cell types, such as stem cells, cancer cells and angiogenic cells, further investigations on the roles of nestin-expressing cells in pterygium may help to uncover the mechanisms of initiation, development and the prognosis of this disease. PMID:23826515

  7. Estimating efficiency in automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Castro, A; Pereira, J M; Amiama, C; Bueno, J

    2012-02-01

    Milking data of 34 single automatic milking system (AMS) units on 29 Galician dairy farms were analyzed to determine the system capacity in each farm under actual working conditions. Number of cows, milk yield, milkings per cow per day, actual milking time, rejected milking time, cleaning time, and machine downtime were used to determine the number of cows milked per AMS unit to obtain the optimal values of milkings per cow and milk production. Multiple linear regression data analysis was used to model the linear relationship between the dependent variable, milk yield per AMS per year, and the predictor variables: number of cows per AMS, milkings per cow per day, milk flow rate, and rejections per AMS per year. An AMS unit milked 52.7±9.0 cows daily at 2.69±0.28 milkings per cow, with a total milking downtime of 1,947±978 h/yr and a milk yield of 549,734±126,432 kg/yr. The predictor variables cow and milk flow rate had a greater level of influence on the milk yield per AMS than milkings per cow and rejections, and explained the 87% of the variation. The AMS in Galician dairy farms could facilitate an increase of 16±8.5 cows per AMS without impairing milking performance; in this way, the quantity of milk obtained per robot annually could be increased (185,460±137,460 kg). This would make it possible to recoup the cost of the system earlier. In the present situation, the daily milking throughput could be maximized at 2.4 to 2.6 milkings per cow.

  8. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated.

  9. Ependymal epithelium disruption after vanadium pentoxide inhalation. A mice experimental model.

    PubMed

    Avila-Costa, María Rosa; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Antuna, Silvia B; Saldivar O, Liliana; Espejel-Maya, Guadalupe; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; del Carmen Avila-Casado, Maria; Reyes-Olivera, Alfonso; Anaya-Martinez, Veronica; Fortoul, Teresa I

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the CNS against chemical insults. Regulation of blood-brain tissue exchange is accomplished by ependymal cells, which possess intercellular tight junctions. Loss of BBB function is an etiologic component of many neurological disorders. Vanadium (V) is a metalloid widely distributed in the environment and exerts potent toxic effects on a wide variety of biological systems. The current study examines the effects of Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) inhalation in mice ependymal epithelium, through the analysis of the brain metal concentrations and the morphological modifications in the ependymal cells identified by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after 8 weeks of inhalation, in order to obtain a possible explanation about the mechanisms that V uses to enter and alter the CNS. Our results showed that V2O5 concentrations increase from the first week of study, stabilizing its values during the rest of the experiment. The morphological effects included cilia loss, cell sloughing and ependymal cell layer detachment. This damage can allow toxicants to modify the permeability of the epithelium and promote access of inflammatory mediators to the underlying neuronal tissue causing injury and neuronal death. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption would allow planning strategies to protect the brain from toxicants such as metals, which have increased in the atmosphere during the last decades and constitute an important health problem.

  10. Mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition in airway epithelium protects against allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sebag, Sara C.; Koval, Olha M.; Paschke, John D.; Winters, Christopher J.; Jaffer, Omar A.; Dworski, Ryszard; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Anderson, Mark E.; Grumbach, Isabella M.

    2017-01-01

    Excessive ROS promote allergic asthma, a condition characterized by airway inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation, and increased airway hyperreactivity (AHR). The mechanisms by which airway ROS are increased and the relationship between increased airway ROS and disease phenotypes are incompletely defined. Mitochondria are an important source of cellular ROS production, and our group discovered that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is present in mitochondria and activated by oxidation. Furthermore, mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant therapy reduced the severity of allergic asthma in a mouse model. Based on these findings, we developed a mouse model of CaMKII inhibition targeted to mitochondria in airway epithelium. We challenged these mice with OVA or Aspergillus fumigatus. Mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition abrogated AHR, inflammation, and eosinophilia following OVA and A. fumigatus challenge. Mitochondrial ROS were decreased after agonist stimulation in the presence of mitochondrial CaMKII inhibition. This correlated with blunted induction of NF-κB, the NLRP3 inflammasome, and eosinophilia in transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for mitochondrial CaMKII in airway epithelium in mitochondrial ROS generation, eosinophilic inflammation, and AHR, providing insights into how mitochondrial ROS mediate features of allergic asthma. PMID:28194433

  11. A Rotating Bioreactor for Scalable Culture and Differentiation of Respiratory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Calle, Elizabeth A; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory epithelium is difficult to grow in vitro, as it requires a well-maintained polarizing air-liquid interface (ALI) to maintain differentiation. Traditional methods rely on permeable membrane culture inserts, which are difficult to work with and are ill-suited for the production of large numbers of cells, such as the quantities required for cell-based clinical therapies. Herein, we investigate an alternative form of culture in which the cells are placed on a porous substrate that is continuously rolled, such that the monolayer of cells is alternately submerged in media or apically exposed to air. Our prototype bioreactor is reliable for up to 21 days of continuous culture and is designed for scale-up for large-scale cell culture with continuous medium and gas exchange. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on an absorbent substrate in the reactor for periods of 7, 14, and 21 days and were compared to static controls that were submerged in media. Quantification by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR of markers specific to differentiated respiratory epithelium indicated increased cilia, mucous production, and tight junction formation in the rolled cultures, compared to static. Together with scanning electron microscopy and paraffin histology, the data indicate that the intermittent ALI provided by the rolling bioreactor promotes a polarized epithelial phenotype over a period of 21 days.

  12. A Rotating Bioreactor for Scalable Culture and Differentiation of Respiratory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Calle, Elizabeth A.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory epithelium is difficult to grow in vitro, as it requires a well-maintained polarizing air–liquid interface (ALI) to maintain differentiation. Traditional methods rely on permeable membrane culture inserts, which are difficult to work with and are ill-suited for the production of large numbers of cells, such as the quantities required for cell-based clinical therapies. Herein, we investigate an alternative form of culture in which the cells are placed on a porous substrate that is continuously rolled, such that the monolayer of cells is alternately submerged in media or apically exposed to air. Our prototype bioreactor is reliable for up to 21 days of continuous culture and is designed for scale-up for large-scale cell culture with continuous medium and gas exchange. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on an absorbent substrate in the reactor for periods of 7, 14, and 21 days and were compared to static controls that were submerged in media. Quantification by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR of markers specific to differentiated respiratory epithelium indicated increased cilia, mucous production, and tight junction formation in the rolled cultures, compared to static. Together with scanning electron microscopy and paraffin histology, the data indicate that the intermittent ALI provided by the rolling bioreactor promotes a polarized epithelial phenotype over a period of 21 days. PMID:26858899

  13. The effects of coronavirus on human nasal ciliated respiratory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chilvers, M A; McKean, M; Rutman, A; Myint, B S; Silverman, M; O'Callaghan, C

    2001-12-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) accounts for 15-30% of common colds, but only one case report has described the effect of a coronavirus infection, that was asymptomatic, on human respiratory epithelium. The authors examined the effects of infection with HCoV on ciliary structure and function in healthy volunteers infected by intranasal inoculation with HCoV 229E. A further four volunteers were sham infected with ultraviolet-inactivated virus. Immediately before inoculation (day 0) and 3 days later (day 3), ciliated epithelium was obtained by brushing the inferior nasal turbinate. Ciliary beat frequency was determined and beat pattern analysed for evidence of dyskinesia (0=normal, 3=severely dyskinetic) using digital high-speed video photography. Ciliary ultrastructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Symptom diaries were kept for the duration of the study. All subjects inoculated with HCoV, including the three who did not develop symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection, had disruption of their respiratory epithelium on day 3. Although there was no difference in the mean ciliary beat frequency between day 0 (11.3 Hz (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-14.0) and day 3 (9.4 Hz (95% CI 7.2-11.6)), there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the ciliary dyskinesia score between day 0 (0.2 (95% CI 0-0.5)) and day 3 (1.1 (95% CI 0.5-1.7). In sham-infected subjects, no differences in epithelial integrity, or ciliary structure and function were found between day 0 and day 3. Inoculation of healthy volunteers with human coronavirus caused disruption of the ciliated epithelium and ciliary dyskinesia. This is likely to impair mucociliary clearance. Damage to the respiratory epithelium, due to human coronavirus infection, may occur without overt clinical symptoms.

  14. Transcriptomic profiles differentiate normal rectal epithelium and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J; Dejulius, K; Liu, X; Coffey, J C; Kalady, M F

    2015-05-01

    Adenocarcinoma is a histologic diagnosis based on subjective findings. Transcriptional profiles have been used to differentiate normal tissue from disease and could provide a means of identifying malignancy. The goal of this study was to generate and test transcriptomic profiles that differentiate normal from adenocarcinomatous rectum. Comparisons were made between cDNA microarrays derived from normal epithelium and rectal adenocarcinoma. Results were filtered according to standard deviation to retain only highly dysregulated genes. Genes differentially expressed between cancer and normal tissue on two-groups t test (P < 0.05, Bonferroni P value adjustment) were further analyzed. Genes were rank ordered in terms of descending fold change. For each comparison (tumor versus normal epithelium), those 5 genes with the greatest positive fold change were grouped in a classifier. Five separate tests were applied to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of each classifier. Genetic classifiers derived comparing normal epithelium with malignant rectal epithelium from pooled stages had a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.6% and 98.2%, respectively. The classifiers derived from comparing normal and stage I cancer had comparable mean sensitivities and specificities (97% and 98%, respectively). Areas under the summary receiver-operator characteristic curves for each classifier were 0.981 and 0.972, respectively. One gene was common to both classifiers. Classifiers were tested in an independent Gene Expression Omnibus-derived dataset. Both classifiers retained their predictive properties. Transcriptomic profiles comprising as few as 5 genes are highly accurate in differentiating normal from adenocarcinomatous rectal epithelium, including early-stage disease.

  15. Effects of ozone and endotoxin coexposure on rat airway epithelium: potentiation of toxicant-induced alterations.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, J G; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R

    2001-01-01

    of these results indicates that epithelial and inflammatory responses to coexposure of these two pollutants are greater than those elicited by either agent alone. Interestingly, each toxicant enhances the epithelial alterations induced by the other. Furthermore, the synergistic effects elicited by coexposure to ozone and endotoxin are mediated partly by neutrophils. These studies provided some new insights into how inhaled co-pollutants interact to initiate and promote alterations of airway epithelium. Further studies with these and other air pollutants will help define their true risk to human health. PMID:11544169

  16. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  17. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  18. Implementation of a human milk management center.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Diane L; Schmidt, Katherine J; Kinzler, Sue

    2014-08-01

    Current hospital practices surrounding the use of human milk and fortification are suboptimal. Safety of milk preparation should be a priority, as should optimization of the milk to meet the nutritional needs of hospitalized infants. This article describes the implementation of a human milk management center (HMMC) at a children's hospital. This centralized center allows for milk to be safely prepared under aseptic technique. In addition, the HMMC staff can analyze milk composition. The widely variable nutrient composition of human milk has been well established and, therefore, should be considered when fortifying human milk. The HMMC staff have the ability to perform creamatocrits on milk, conduct human milk nutrient analysis, and make skim milk for infants. The processes for developing an HMMC are also detailed in this article.

  19. [Medical application of breast milk banks].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Hong; Ding, Zong-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The history of breast milk banks is over 100 years. Most of the milk banks were closed because of HIV in the 80's. But more and more milk banks are re-opening and new ones are being established as the composition and superiority of breast milk are recognized again. The Human Milk Banking Association of North America and European Milk Bank Association have been set up and they have established and revised the standards and guidelines of breast milk banks. There is no doubt of the clinical effects of donor human milk on preterm infants worldwide. The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommended that the preterm infants should use donor human milk when their own mothers' milk is not enough. The first breast milk bank was set up in China in 2013, and its clinical and social significance is worthy of further study.

  20. Cytokines in human milk.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M D; Srivastava, A; Brouhard, B; Saneto, R; Groh-Wargo, S; Kubit, J

    1996-09-01

    Breast feeding improves the health of children. The greatest significance is to host defense, prevention of autoimmunity, and development of the digestive system; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not well understood. Based on recent evidence that cytokines might be important in these processes, we have used ELISA to quantitate the cytokines in human colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from mothers delivering preterm or at term. We also used reverse transcription PCR to test breast milk cells for the production of cytokine mRNA. No significant (< 10 pg/ml) GM-CSF, SCF, LIF, MIP-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-11, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, sIL-2R, or IFN-gamma was detected. And, in contrast to earlier studies using bioassays or RIA, no significant IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-6 was present; nor was IL-10, which had been tested using less specific antibodies. We did confirm the presence of high levels of M-CSF, which remained high throughout lactation. Human milk contained latent, but not free, TGF-beta 1, and especially TGF-beta 2, both of which may be activated by gastric acid pH. High levels of IL-1RA were detected, and like activated TGF-beta, may protect against autoimmunity. Chemokines, particularly GRO-alpha and MCP-1, but also RANTES and IL-8, were present and could protect against infection. Maternal cells in breast milk expressed mRNA for MCP-1 (20/20), IL-8 (14/20), TGF-beta 1 (14/16), TGF-beta 2 (4/6), M-CSF (9/12), IL-6 (6/12) and IL-1 beta (7/12), and may be a source of these cytokines. mRNA for IL-2, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha was not detected and only weak expression was found for RANTES (1/18). There was considerable variability between individual women, and women delivering preterm had lower levels of several cytokines in colostrum than women delivering at term. Yet, cytokine levels remained high months to years into lactation, providing immunological benefit to the breastfed infant/child.

  1. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk.

  2. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  3. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health.

  4. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    PubMed

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi

    2017-07-01

    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  5. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Hee; Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan; Yoon, Sung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder.

  6. Galactooligosaccharide and Sialyllactose Content in Commercial Lactose Powders from Goat and Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used infant formulas contain lactose originating from cow milk. Goat milk has recently been claimed to be nutritionally more effective for infants than other milks. In baby foods, much emphasis is placed on the concentrations of intestinal microflora-promoting oligosaccharides, which are generally transferred into lactose from milk during crystallization process. Here we show that higher level of free sialic acid is present in goat lactose powder compared to cow lactose powder. Without proteinase K treatment, the amount of 3-sialyllactose and 6-sialyllactose were similar in goat and cow lactose powders. However, after proteolysis, 6-sialyllactose was present at higher levels in goat than in cow lactose powder. Galactooligosaccharides, a group of prebiotics, are present in milk in the form of glycoproteins. Galactooligosaccharide content was also higher in goat lactose powder than in cow lactose powder. PMID:26761881

  7. Milk prevents the degradation of daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) isothiocyanate and enhances its absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Epidemiological and experimental researches show that isothiocyanate (ITC), a class of phytochemical compounds that imparts a characteristic biting taste and pungent odour to cruciferous vegetables, such as daikon (Japanese white radish, Raphanus sativus L. Daikon Group), broccoli, cabbage, and Chinese cabbage, possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The concentration of daikon ITC, which degrades in aqueous solution, was measured in mixtures of daikon juice and water, corn oil, or milk. Daikon juice mixed with corn oil or milk showed a higher concentration (1.4-fold) of daikon ITC than that in mixture with water; thus, corn oil and milk prevent the degradation of daikon ITC. Moreover, orally administered daikon juice with milk increased daikon ITC absorption in rats. Therefore, dishes or drinks that include raw daikon with corn oil or milk may promote the possible health benefits of daikon ITC by preventing ITC degradation and enhancing its absorption in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  9. Recombinant human factor IX produced from transgenic porcine milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  10. Donor human milk in preterm infant feeding: evidence and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Moro, Guido E

    2010-07-01

    In preterm infants, feeding with human milk (HM) is a very effective intervention for the prevention of infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and for potentially improved neurocognitive and cardiovascular outcomes in the long-term. Hospitals and physicians are advised to recommend HM for preterm and other high-risk infants either by direct breastfeeding and/or using the mother's own expressed milk. Donor HM is the preferred feeding when the mother's own milk is not available in sufficient quantity. While in some countries donor HM has been considered an effective tool in the delivery of health care to infants, skepticism regarding its nutritional and immunological quality has limited its distribution in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the clinical benefits of donor HM in preterm infants, and to discuss common concerns limiting its distribution as standard care. Clinically, the use of donor HM has been shown to prevent NEC, reduce feeding intolerance and improve long-term outcomes in premature infants. Common concerns, such as slow growth and loss of important biological components of donor HM due to storage and pasteurization, should not be a reason for denial of donor milk. Optimization of banking procedures and of HM fortification is available and should be applied. Banked donor milk should be promoted as standard component of health care for premature infants.

  11. Do milking practices influence the bacterial diversity of raw milk?

    PubMed

    Verdier-Metz, Isabelle; Michel, Valérie; Delbès, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-05-01

    The link between milk production practices and bacterial diversity of 67 raw milks from dairy farms in the Savoie and Haute-Savoie regions of France was studied by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The milking practices and the cleanliness of different parts of the cow housing were evaluated. The SSCP bacterial profiles allow to classify the 67 milks into three groups: group A was characterised by a majority of Gram-positive non-lactic acid bacteria (Corynebacterineae and Micrococcaceae) and a high level of hygiene in milking practices. The SSCP profiles of groups B and C were close but different from those of group A: they were both dominated by lactic acid bacteria and by a less intensive hygiene practices. The group B milks were characterised by the dominance of Gram-negative bacteria and Lactococcus lactis species while those of group C were dominated by Brevibacterium linens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The variation of balance between bacterial populations can be associated with differences in hygienic milking production practices.

  12. High milk lipase activity associated with breast milk jaundice.

    PubMed

    Poland, R L; Schultz, G E; Garg, G

    1980-12-01

    Human milk samples that inhibit bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity in vitro have been associated with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in newborn infants. We measured the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (total and individual fatty acids), total fat and protein, and lipase activities (with and without bile salt stimulation) in milk samples from two groups of women. Women whose infants had prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and whose milk inhibited the activity of UDPGT were in the first group (N = 9). Volunteers with healthy infants acted as controls. Inhibitory milk contained significantly more nonesterified fatty acids (total, palmitic, and oleic) than did controls. Fat and protein concentrations and bile salt-stimulated lipase activities were similar in the two groups. Unstimulated lipase activity was higher in the inhibitory milks (11.9 +/- 0.8 mM x min-1 x ml-1) than in the controls (6.0 +/- 0.1 mM x min-1 x ml-1) (P less than 0.01). The specific activity (mM x min-1 x mg protein) of unstimulated lipase was also significantly higher in the inhibitory milks (P less than 0.0001). The high nonesterified fatty acid levels in inhibitory milks is accounted for by the elevated unstimulated lipase activities. How these circumstances lead to jaundice in the infants remains to be shown.

  13. Dietary baked-milk accelerates resolution of cow's milk allergy in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jennifer S.; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority (∼75%) of cow's milk-allergic children tolerate extensively heated-(baked-) milk products. Long-term effects of inclusion of dietary baked-milk have not been reported. Objective We report on the outcomes of children who incorporated baked-milk products into their diets. Methods Children evaluated for tolerance to baked-milk (muffin) underwent sequential food challenges to baked-cheese (pizza) followed by unheated-milk. Immunologic parameters were measured at challenge visits. The comparison group were matched to active subjects (using age, sex, and baseline milk-specific IgE) to evaluate the natural history of tolerance development. Results Over a median of 37 months (range 8-75 months), 88 children underwent challenges at varying intervals (range 6-54 months). Among 65 subjects initially tolerant to baked-milk, 39 (60%) now tolerate unheated-milk, 18 (28%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese and 8 (12%) chose to avoid milk strictly. Among the baked-milk-reactive subgroup (n=23), 2 (9%) tolerate unheated-milk, 3 (13%) tolerate baked-milk/baked-cheese, while the majority (78%) avoid milk strictly. Subjects who were initially tolerant to baked-milk were 28 times more likely to become unheated-milk-tolerant compared to baked-milk-reactive subjects (P<.001). Subjects who incorporated dietary baked-milk were 16 times more likely than the comparison group to become unheated-milk-tolerant (P<.001). Median casein IgG4 levels in the baked-milk-tolerant group increased significantly (P<.001); median milk IgE values did not change significantly. Conclusions Tolerance of baked-milk is a marker of transient IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy whereas reactivity to baked-milk portends a more persistent phenotype. The addition of baked-milk to the diet of children tolerating such foods appears to accelerate development of unheated-milk tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Clinical implications Addition of dietary baked-milk is safe, convenient, and well

  14. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with

  15. Amiata Donkey Milk Chain: Animal Health Evaluation and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ragona, Giuseppe; Corrias, Franco; Benedetti, Martina; Paladini, Maria; Salari, Federica; Altomonte, lolanda; Martini, Mina

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.) and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1). In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis-causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27853717

  16. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products.

  17. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of...

  19. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136....

  20. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  1. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements...

  2. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  3. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this...

  5. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...

  6. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...

  7. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  8. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136. Unless...

  9. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  10. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  12. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  14. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements as...

  15. 7 CFR 58.233 - Skim milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Skim milk. 58.233 Section 58.233 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.233 Skim milk. The skim milk shall be separated from whole milk meeting the requirements as...

  16. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  18. 7 CFR 58.936 - Milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk. 58.936 Section 58.936 Agriculture Regulations of... Official Identification § 58.936 Milk. To process and package evaporated and condensed milk of ultra... Shield the raw incoming milk shall meet the requirements as outlined in §§ 58.132 through 58.136. Unless...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  20. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...