Science.gov

Sample records for epoxy compounds

  1. Occupational skin diseases from epoxy compounds. Epoxy resin compounds, epoxy acrylates and 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R

    1991-01-01

    Of a total of 3731 patients investigated between 1974 and 1990, 1844 (49.4%) had an occupational skin disease. Of them 142 (7.7%) had an occupational skin disease caused by epoxy compounds--135 patients (95%) had allergic contact dermatitis, five had irritant contact dermatitis, and two had contact urticaria. Apart from dermatoses, two patients had IgE-mediated asthma from exposure to DGEBA epoxy resins. Thus epoxy compounds are one of the main causes of occupational allergic contact dermatoses and can be considered potential causes of occupational asthma. The most frequent causes were epoxy resin compounds, which together induced 93% (132 cases) of all epoxy compound dermatoses. The three most common causative products were epoxy paints and their raw materials (31%, 41 cases), epoxy resin compounds used in electrical insulation (29%, 38 cases) and epoxy glues (18%, 24 cases). Fewer cases were caused by products containing epoxy acrylate and EPTMAC. The present study found that, in addition to contact allergy to DGEBA epoxy resins, contact allergy to epoxy hardeners, non-DGEBA resins and reactive diluents is common. Polyamine hardeners, most frequently MDA, DETA and TETA, rarely IPDA, tris-DMP, EDA, TMD and XDA, were the second commonest causes of contact allergy induced by epoxy resin compounds, after DGEBA epoxy resins. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and other non-DGEBA epoxy resins, including heterocyclic dimethyl hydantoin, phenol novolak and brominated epoxy resins, were the third commonest causes, and reactive diluents the fourth commonest cause of allergic dermatitis due to epoxy resin compounds. Most patients sensitized to reactive diluents were allergic to PGE, ortho-CGE, HDDGE and BDDGE, whereas fewer patients were sensitized to AGE, NPGDGE and BGE. Cross-sensitization between reactive diluents was common. Cardura E 10 and Epoxide 8 provoked no reactions. The present study also indicated that DGEBA epoxy resins with a high average MW ought to be regarded as

  2. The study on the epoxy resin compound x-ray refractive lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jingqiu; Le, Zichun; Peng, Liangqiang; Wang, Weibiao; Yi, Futing; Quan, Bisheng; Yao, Jingsong; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Wen; Xuan, Ming

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report their resent results of the study on the epoxy resin compound X-ray refractive lens. At the first, the theoretical results of the structure parameters for such a device are given. Then, the fabrication technologies are presented. They are deep soft X-ray lithography, mold-manufacturing and molding. The material of X-ray photoresist is PMMA, the mold is made of silicone rubber, and the material of the lens is epoxy resin. Some measured results by means of optical microscope and SEM are also shown. The structure height of the epoxy resin compound lens is measured to be 500 micrometers.

  3. Development of Highly Thermoconductive Epoxy Molding Compounds and its Heat Dissipation Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagiri, Jun'ichi; Obata, Kohji; Matsunaga, Toshihiro; Takezawa, Yoshitaka

    Epoxy resins with controlled high-order structure have higher thermal conductivities than conventional ones, because the crystal-like domains, self-arranged ‘mesogen’ groups of the epoxy monomers, promote smooth phonon transportation. Although thermal conductivities of these epoxy resins are 1.0 W/m·K at a maximum, these are not enough to apply to electric devices which require high heat dissipation efficiency. In this paper, we composed these resins and alumina fillers, to accomplish the epoxy resin composites which have both isotropic high thermal conductivities and electrical insulation. Though these epoxy monomers are difficult to handle because of their crystallinity and poor solubility in solvents, we conclude that the conventional forming process for thermosetting resins such as transfer molding are applicable to these composites by optimizing the molecular architectures of hardeners. Both high thermal conductivity as 5 W/m·K and excellent flow property were accomplished for molding compounds using developed composites. And developed molding compounds were applied to the plastic ball grid array (P-BGA) semiconductor packages and the bobbins for concentrated winding motors, then good heat dissipation properties were shown for both applications. We conclude that developed molding compounds are effective for thermal management of electric and electronic devices.

  4. Effects of polymer networks on physical properties of epoxy molding compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Eguchi, S.; Nagai, A.; Ishii, T.

    1996-10-01

    IC and LSI plastic packages are being changed from pin insertion to surface mounting types with increasing bit density. In their surface mounting technology, the most significant subject is preventing package cracks which occur when soldering temperatures are from 215 to 260{degrees}C. Effects of Polymer networks on physical properties of epoxy molding compounds are examined to improve the resistance to package cracks in the soldering process. Lowering the moisture absorption of compounds and increasing their adhesion are identified as effective methods. Since resins with a low moisture absorption and a high adhesion tend to have a low crosslinking density, the resin with a relatively low crosslinking density is chosen as a candidate for the encapsulating compound. The new epoxy molding compounds, while providing a high cohesive energy and a bulky structure inside the resin, can have a higher glass transition temperature in the relatively low crosslinking density.

  5. Epoxy Coenzyme A Thioester Pathways for Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gescher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic compounds (biogenic and anthropogenic) are abundant in the biosphere. Some of them are well-known environmental pollutants. Although the aromatic nucleus is relatively recalcitrant, microorganisms have developed various catabolic routes that enable complete biodegradation of aromatic compounds. The adopted degradation pathways depend on the availability of oxygen. Under oxic conditions, microorganisms utilize oxygen as a cosubstrate to activate and cleave the aromatic ring. In contrast, under anoxic conditions, the aromatic compounds are transformed to coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters followed by energy-consuming reduction of the ring. Eventually, the dearomatized ring is opened via a hydrolytic mechanism. Recently, novel catabolic pathways for the aerobic degradation of aromatic compounds were elucidated that differ significantly from the established catabolic routes. The new pathways were investigated in detail for the aerobic bacterial degradation of benzoate and phenylacetate. In both cases, the pathway is initiated by transforming the substrate to a CoA thioester and all the intermediates are bound by CoA. The subsequent reactions involve epoxidation of the aromatic ring followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage. Here we discuss the novel pathways, with a particular focus on their unique features and occurrence as well as ecological significance. PMID:22582071

  6. Comparison of corrosion protection provided by a non-volatile organic compound epoxy and a marine epoxy primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kendig, M.W.; Ryang, H.S.; Liao, T.L.; Jeanjaquet, S.L.

    1999-03-01

    An epoxy resin formulation completely free of organic solvent was applied to carbon steel coupons using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as the volatile solvent. Steel coupons coated in this manner were compared to coupons coated with a standard military specification marine primer (MIL-P-24441) during exposure to aerated 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl). The solvent-free coating protected the steel from corrosion in this environment as well, if not better than, the solvent-based primer.

  7. Radiation curing of epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.; Singh, Ajit

    The literature on radiation polymerization of epoxy compounds has been reviewed to assess the potential use of radiation for curing these industrially important monomers. Chemical curing of epoxies may proceed by either cationic or anionic mechanisms depending on the nature of the curing agent, but most epoxies polymerize by cationic mechanisms under the influence of high-energy radiation. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of epoxy compounds is inhibited by trace quantities of water because of proton transfer from the chain-propagating epoxy cation to water. Several different methods with potential for obtaining high molecular weight polymers by curing epoxies with high-energy radiation have been studied. Polymeric products with epoxy-like properties have been produced by radiation curing of epoxy oligomers with terminal acrylate groups and mixtures of epoxies with vinyl monomers. Both of these types of resin have good potential for industrial-scale curing by radiation treatment.

  8. Microautoradiography of Water-Soluble Compounds in Plant Tissue after Freeze-Drying and Pressure Infiltration with Epoxy Resin

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Dickson, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    It is difficult to retain and localize radioactive, water-soluble compounds within plant cells. Existing techniques retain water-soluble compounds with varying rates of efficiency and are limited to processing only a few samples at one time. We developed a modified pressure infiltration technique for the preparation of microautoradiographs of 14C-labeled, water-soluble compounds in plant tissue. Samples from cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) labeled with 14C were excised, quick frozen in liquid N2, freeze-dried at −50°C, and pressure-infiltrated with epoxy resin without intermediate solvents or prolonged incubation times. The technique facilitates the mass processing of samples for microautoradiography, gives good cellular retention of labeled water-soluble compounds, and is highly reproducible. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662542

  9. Determination of Hydrophobic Contact Angle of Epoxy Resin Compound Silicon Rubber and Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syakur, Abdul; Hermawan; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-04-01

    Epoxy resin is a thermosetting polymeric material which is very good for application of high voltage outdoor insulator in electrical power system. This material has several advantages, i.e. high dielectric strength, light weight, high mechanical strength, easy to blend with additive, and easy maintenance if compared to that of porcelain and glass outdoor insulators which are commonly used. However, this material also has several disadvantages, i.e. hydrophilic property, very sensitive to aging and easily degraded when there is a flow of contaminants on its surface. The research towards improving the performance of epoxy resin insulation materials were carried out to obtain epoxy resin insulating material with high water repellent properties and high surface tracking to aging. In this work, insulating material was made at room temperature vulcanization, with material composition: Diglycidyl Ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA), Metaphenylene Diamine (MPDA) as hardener with stoichiometric value of unity, and nanosilica mixed with Silicon Rubber (SiR) with 10% (RTV21), 20% (RTV22), 30% (RTV23), 40% (RTV24) and 50% (RTV25) variation. The usage of nanosilica and Silicon Rubber (SIR) as filler was expected to provide hydrophobic properties and was able to increase the value of surface tracking of materials. The performance of the insulator observed were contact angle of hydrophobic surface materials. Tests carried out using Inclined Plane Tracking procedure according to IEC 60-587: 1984 with Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) as contaminants flowed using peristaltic pumps. The results show that hydrophobic contact angle can be determined from each sample, and RTV25 has maximum contact angle among others.

  10. Effect of vertical stacking dies on flow behavior of epoxy molding compound during encapsulation of stacked-chip scale packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, C. Y.; Abdullah, M. K.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Abdul Mujeebu, M.; Ramdan, D.; Majid, M. F. M. A.; Ariff, Z. M.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents three dimensional (3D) simulation of flow visualization in the encapsulation of stacked-chip scales packages (S-CSP), using finite volume method. The S-CSP model is constructed using GAMBIT and simulated using FLUENT CFD software. The epoxy molding compound is Hitachi CEL-9200 XU (LF) and its flow is assumed laminar and incompressible. Cross viscosity model and volume of fluid technique are applied for flow front tracking of the encapsulant. The meshing is performed using tetrahedral elements and the discretization is done by first order upwind scheme. SIMPLE algorithm is selected for solving the governing equations. The top view and 3D view of simulation flow front profiles in the encapsulation process are presented. The percentage of filled volume versus filling time, viscosity versus shear rate and number of voids versus rows of stacked die are plotted. The temperature and pressure distributions within the mold cavity during the encapsulation process are also observed. Further, the possibility and cause of void formation during the encapsulation process are analyzed and discussed in detail. The number of vertical stacking dies and horizontal rows of packages are found to be crucial in the void formation. The numerical results are compared with previous experimental results and found in good conformity.

  11. Process for epoxy foam production

    DOEpatents

    Celina, Mathias C.

    2011-08-23

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 60 wt % and 90 wt %, a maleic anhydride of between approximately 1 wt % and approximately 30 wt %, and an imidazole catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt % where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-30 wt % maleic anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the maleic anhydride compound molten, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  12. An investigation of the use of cerium and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes for the protection of polymeric epoxy compounds in the low Earth orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piness, Jessica Miriam

    with the epoxy-amine matrix. A sedimented layer of the most incompatible POSS moiety was observed at the bottom of bars at the highest loading level of 5 wt% POSS. It was concluded that POSS could form a sedimented layer in this epoxy during cure. Epoxy amine materials containing POSS derivatives were tested by exposure to atomic oxygen at NASA Glenn Research Center with each POSS derivative present in separate samples at 2.5 wt% loading levels. Mass loss did not decrease against an unfilled control and glassification was not observed, leading to the conclusion that POSS could not be effectively concentrated at a surface to reduce degradation given the methods used. Taking this into account, the study transitioned into seeking ways to integrate highly UV absorbent cerium compounds with POSS. This part of the study is reported in Chapter IV. It was anticipated that POSS with a polar pendant group would interact through intermolecular forces with cerium (IV) oxide and produce a suspension that could be cured at the surface of polymers. However, in every experiment, the cerium (IV) oxide was not dispersed. However, a homogeneous dispersion of a cerium-containing compound was achieved by combining trisilanol phenyl POSS with cerium (III) nitrate hexahydrate. NMR and mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of Cerium nitrate and trisilanol phenyl POSS did not result in the formation of a chemical compound but FTIR studies indicated the presence of hydrogen bonding between the POSS silanols and cerium-associated water. The resulting material was termed "CePOSS". CePOSS was more UV absorbent in the UVc region than POSS or other cerium compounds as measured by solution UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, CePOSS could be mixed into a POSS-epoxy coating, after pre-blending with poly(ethylene glycol) POSS, to produce films that were essentially opaque in the UV region below a wavelength of about 300 nm, and transparent in the visible region above 300 nm. The discovery of a 'window

  13. Contact allergy to epoxy hardeners.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2014-09-01

    Diglycidylether of bisphenol A resin is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients develop concomitant or solitary contact allergy to epoxy hardeners. At the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, several in-house test substances of epoxy hardeners have been tested in a special epoxy compound patch test series. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy hardeners. Test files (January 1991 to March 2013) were screened for contact allergy to different epoxy hardeners, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. The most commonly positive epoxy hardeners were m-xylylenediamine (n = 24), 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP; n = 14), isophorone-diamine (n = 12), and diethylenetriamine (n = 9). Trimethylhexamethylenediamine (n = 7), tetraethylenepentamine (n = 4), and triethylenetetramine (n = 2) elicited some reactions, although most patients were found to have no specific exposure. Allergic reactions to hexamethylenetetramine, dimethylaminopropylamine and ethylenediamine dihydrochloride were not related to epoxy products. Tris-DMP is an important sensitizer in epoxy hardeners, and should be included in the patch test series of epoxy chemicals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Epoxy Molding Compound with Low Storage Modulus at High Temperature and Low Glass-Transition Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hui-wang; Li, Dong-sheng; Fan, Qiong

    2012-09-01

    Epoxy molding compound (EMC) has been widely used as a main material for encapsulation and protection of semiconductor packages because of its low cost, high moisture resistance, high heat resistance, and good mechanical performance. Due to the extensive application of lead-free solder in place of Sn-Pb, soldering temperature is higher than before; this demands that EMC, which is usually used for lead-free solder, should have extremely low thermal stress and excellent stability at elevated temperatures. In this work, 1,3-propanediol bis(4-aminobenzoate) (PBA) was added to an EMC product to form a novel epoxy molding compound (FEMC). PBA had very limited effect on the process feasibility of EMC, and caused reduction of the storage modulus by 40% to 50% at high temperatures and reduction of the glass-transition temperature by more than 10°C, which are very helpful to reduce thermal stress buildup during high-temperature soldering processes. The increases of the tab pull force of copper- and silver-plated lead frames within EMC due to PBA were up to 58% and 117%, respectively. With increasing PBA content in the EMC, water absorption increased in a linear fashion, so the amount of PBA added to the EMC should be limited, preferably to not more than 1%.

  16. A study of the adsorption of selected organic molecules to model the adhesion of epoxy resins: thermal desorption of glycidyl and phenoxy compounds from gold, iron oxide and zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Makoto; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1993-08-01

    The adsorption of oligomeric model compounds of the bis-phenol A epoxy resin was studied on gold, zinc oxide and iron oxide by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) in order to elucidate the relative importance of the four possible adsorption sites. Glycidyl 2-methylphenyl ether and 2-phenoxy ethanol were selected as the model compounds. It was found that the interactions of the model compounds with gold was primarily via the benzene ring, and the heat of desorption was 100-110 kJ/mol. On iron oxide, the model compounds dissociated by C-O bond and O-H bond scission. The surface interactions were via the phenoxy and hydroxyl oxygens, and the heat of desorption was 130-140 kJ/mol. On zinc oxide, the heats of adsorption were somewhat less than on iron oxide. Glycidyl 2-methylphenyl ether interacted mainly via the benzene ring and partly via the epoxy ring while 2-phenoxy ethanol interacted via phenoxy and hydroxyl oxygens. Their heats of desorption were 70-100 and 120 kJ/mol, respectively. Based on these results, an adhesion mechanism of the epoxy resin was suggested.

  17. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  18. Process for Preparing Epoxy-Reinforced Silica Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    One-pot reaction process for preparing epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogels comprising the reaction of at least one silicon compound selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilanes, orthosilicates and combination thereof in any ratio with effective amounts of an epoxy monomer and an aminoalkoxy silane to obtain an epoxy monomer-silica sol in solution, subsequently preparing an epoxy-monomer silica gel from said silica sol solution followed by initiating polymerization of the epoxy monomer to obtain the epoxy-reinforced monolithic silica aerogel.

  19. Stress Concentration in Glass-Epoxy Composite Plates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES, * GLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS, *STRESS CONCENTRATION, STRESS STRAIN RELATIONS, LOAD DISTRIBUTION, FIBERGLASS , MANUFACTURING, THESES, HOLES(OPENINGS), STRAIN GAGES, EPOXY COMPOUNDS, WEAR RESISTANCE.

  20. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  1. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  2. Epoxy resin

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Glenn R.; Salyer, Ival O.; Ball, III, George L.

    1976-07-13

    By mixing one part of a prepolymer containing a polyamine partially polymerized with an organic epoxide and subsequently reacted with a fatty acid containing from 8 to 32 carbon atoms, and then reacting this prepolymer mixture with 3 parts of an organic epoxide, a composition was obtained which made a gas frothable, shear-stable, room temperature curing, low density foam. A particularly advantageous prepolymer was prepared using a polyamine selected from the group consisting of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, and tetraethylenepentamine, partially polymerized with an organic epoxide having an average molecular weight of about 350 and having an epoxide equivalent of 185 to 192, and reacted with 2-10 weight percent linoleic acid. When one part of this prepolymer was reacted with about three parts of epoxy, and frothed by whipping in air or nitrogen an epoxy foam was produced which could be troweled onto surfaces and into corners or crevices, and subsequently cured, at near ambient temperature, to a strong dimensionally stable foam product.

  3. Phthalocyanine Tetraamine Epoxy-Curing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohlen, G. M.; Achar, B. N.; Parker, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Tough fire- and chemical-resistant epoxies produced by using metalphthalocyanine tetraamines (MPT's) of copper, cobalt, or nickel as curing agents. Synthesis of MPT's commercially realizable and gives pure compounds with almost 90-percent yield. Synthesis applicable for metals with atomic radii of about 1.35 angstroms, including Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pt, Al, and V. Possible to use metal phthalocyanines to cure epoxy resins in homogeneous reaction.

  4. Poly(arylene ether-co-imidazole)s as toughness modifiers for epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, Patricia D. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A toughened epoxy was prepared by reacting an epoxy resin with a poly(arylene ether-co-imidazole)s (PAEI). The epoxy resin comprises N,N,N',N'tetraglycidyl-4,4'- methylenebisbenzenamine and 4-aminophenyl sulfone. The PAEI was prepared by reacting an aromatic bisphenol, a bisphenol imidazole, and an activated aromatic dihalide or dinitro compound in the presence of potassium carbonate in a polar aprotic solvent at an elevated temperature. The epoxies which were modified with these particular PAEI's showed a significant increase in toughness with only a 10 weight percent loading of the PAEI into the epoxy. These toughened epoxies were used to prepare composites and molded parts.

  5. High performance UV and thermal cure hybrid epoxy adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. F.; Iwasaki, S.; Kanari, M.; Li, B.; Wang, C.; Lu, D. Q.

    2017-06-01

    New type one component UV and thermal curable hybrid epoxy adhesive was successfully developed. The hybrid epoxy adhesive is complete initiator free composition. Neither photo-initiator nor thermal initiator is contained. The hybrid adhesive is mainly composed of special designed liquid bismaleimide, partially acrylated epoxy resin, acrylic monomer, epoxy resin and latent curing agent. Its UV light and thermal cure behavior was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Adhesive samples cured at UV only, thermal only and UV + thermal cure conditions were investigated. By calculated conversion rate of double bond in both acrylic component and maleimide compound, satisfactory light curability of the hybrid epoxy adhesive was confirmed quantitatively. The investigation results also showed that its UV cure components, acrylic and bismalimide, possess good thermal curability too. The initiator free hybrid epoxy adhesive showed satisfactory UV curability, good thermal curability and high adhesion performance.

  6. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  7. Assessment of cross-reactivity of new less sensitizing epoxy resin monomers in epoxy resin-allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Niklasson, Ida B; Rudbäck, Johanna; O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Eva; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2016-09-01

    Measures to prevent occupational exposure to epoxy resins, including education, medical examination, and voluntary agreements between employers and workers, have not been effective enough to protect against skin sensitization. Therefore, alternatives to the major epoxy resin haptens that have been found to be less sensitizing in the local lymph node assay have been developed. To study the cross-reactivity of two newly designed epoxy resin monomers, with decreased skin-sensitizing potency and good technical properties as compared with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), in subjects with known contact allergy to epoxy resin of DGEBA type. Eleven individuals with previous positive patch test reactions to epoxy resin of DGEBA participated in the study. The two alternative epoxy resin monomers were synthesized and patch tested in dilution series in parallel with epoxy resin of DGEBA from the baseline series (containing 92% DGEBA). All participants reacted to epoxy resin of DGEBA on retesting. Three participants reacted to monomer 1. No reactions were seen to monomer 2. The alternative monomers studied showed little or no cross-reactivity with epoxy resin of DGEBA. Decreasing the risk of sensitization by using less sensitizing compounds is important, as contact allergy to epoxy resins is common in spite of thorough preventive measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Epoxy/Fluoroether Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Taylor, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Composite materials made from unfilled and glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy toughened by copolymerization with elastomeric prepolymers of perfluoroalkyl ether diacyl fluoride (EDAF). Improved properties due to hydrogen bonding between rubber phase and epoxy matrix, plus formation of rubberlike phase domains that molecularly interpenetrate with epoxy matrix. With optimum rubber content, particle size, and particle shape, entire molecular structure reinforced and toughened. Improved composites also show increased failure strength, stiffness, glass-transition temperature, and resistance to water.

  9. Epoxy/Fluoroether Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Taylor, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Composite materials made from unfilled and glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy toughened by copolymerization with elastomeric prepolymers of perfluoroalkyl ether diacyl fluoride (EDAF). Improved properties due to hydrogen bonding between rubber phase and epoxy matrix, plus formation of rubberlike phase domains that molecularly interpenetrate with epoxy matrix. With optimum rubber content, particle size, and particle shape, entire molecular structure reinforced and toughened. Improved composites also show increased failure strength, stiffness, glass-transition temperature, and resistance to water.

  10. Epoxy + liquid crystalline epoxy coreacted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punchaipetch, Prakaipetch

    2000-10-01

    Molecular reinforcement through in-situ polymerization of liquid crystalline epoxies (LCEs) and a non-liquid crystalline epoxy has been investigated. Three LCEs: diglycidyl ether of 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenol (DGE-DHBP) and digylcidyl ether of 4-hydroxyphenyl-4″-hydroxybiphenyl-4 '-carboxylate (DGE-HHC), were synthesized and blended with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBP-F) and subsequently cured with anhydride and amine curing agents. Curing kinetics were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Parameters for autocatalytic curing kinetics of both pure monomers and blended systems were determined. The extent of cure for both monomers was monitored by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The glass transitions were evaluated as a function of composition using DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results show that the LC constituent affects the curing kinetics of the epoxy resin and that the systems are highly miscible. The effects of molecular reinforcement of DGEBP-F by DGE-DHBP and DGE-HHC were investigated. The concentration of the liquid crystalline moiety affects mechanical properties. Tensile, impact and fracture toughness tests results are evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces shows changes in failure mechanisms compared to the pure components. Results indicate that mechanical properties of the blended samples are improved already at low concentration by weight of the LCE added into epoxy resin. The improvement in mechanical properties was found to occur irrespective of the absence of liquid crystallinity in the blended networks. The mechanism of crack study indicates that crack deflection and crack bridging are the mechanisms in case of LC epoxy. In case of LC modified epoxy, the crack deflection is the main mechanism. Moreover, the effect of coreacting an epoxy with a reactive monomer liquid crystalline epoxy as a matrix for glass fiber composites was investigated. Mechanical

  11. Study of the relaxation behaviour of a tri-epoxy compound in the supercooled and glassy state by broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisignano, D.; Capaccioli, S.; Casalini, R.; Lucchesi, M.; Rolla, P. A.; Justl, A.; Rössler, E.

    2001-05-01

    The dynamics of the glass-forming tri-epoxy triphenylolmethane triglycidyl ether (TPMTGE) was investigated in the supercooled and glassy state by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Measurements were performed in a frequency range between 10-2 Hz and 1010 Hz for temperatures in the range between 120 and 350 K. The dielectric response revealed the existence of two relaxation processes: the lower frequency one (α-relaxation) slows down very rapidly on cooling the system and leaves the experimental window on approaching the glass transition temperature Tg; the higher frequency one (β-relaxation) is observable both above and below Tg. The β-relaxation is comparatively quite fast, thus a large separation between the main and the secondary peaks is observed, and no complete merging of the α- and the β-process is found within the experimental window even at the highest temperatures. Besides, a third relaxation (β'), very weak indeed, was observed in the glassy state. The detailed analysis performed on the experimental data indicated that a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation well describes the change of the α-relaxation time in the entire temperature interval. In the same temperature range, the conductivity and the α-relaxation time are related to each other by a fractional Debye-Stokes-Einstein law. Moreover, our results confirmed the proportionality between the β-activation energy and the glass-transition temperature, which was found in other systems. As observed in previous experiments, both the shape parameters and the relaxation strength of β-relaxation are strongly affected by the transition from liquid to glassy state.

  12. Method for epoxy foam production using a liquid anhydride

    DOEpatents

    Celina, Mathias [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-05

    An epoxy resin mixture with at least one epoxy resin of between approximately 50 wt % and 100 wt %, an anhydride cure agent of between approximately 0 wt % and approximately 50 wt %, a tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride foaming agent of between proximately 0.1-20 wt %, a surfactant and an imidazole or similar catalyst of less than approximately 2 wt %, where the resin mixture is formed from at least one epoxy resin with a 1-10 wt % tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride compound and an imidazole catalyst at a temperature sufficient to keep the resin in a suitable viscosity range, the resin mixture reacting to form a foaming resin which in the presence of an epoxy curative can then be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form an epoxy foam.

  13. Rubberized, Brominated Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W.; Kourtides, D.; Parker, J.; Nir, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy composite materials made with resins containing bromine and rubber additives. New composites tougher and more resistant to fire. Flame resistance increased by introducing bromine via commercial brominated flame-retartant polymeric additives.

  14. EPOXI Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    Michael A'Hearn, EPOXI Principal Investigator, University of Maryland, holds a plastic bottle containing ice to illustrate a point during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  15. 3,7,10,14,15-pentaacetyl-5-butanoyl-13,17-epoxy-8-myrsinene a novel compound isolated from Pycnocycla spinosa extract with potent anti-spasmodic and antidiarrheal properties

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Ghanadian, M.; Asghari, G.; Sharifian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay monitoring of hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial part of Pyconcycla spinosa revealed that it contains components with spasmolytic activity in vitro. In addition, P. spinosa extract at oral dose of 1-5 mg/kg inhibits diarrhoea in animal models. Pharmacological screening of pure compounds isolated from P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract led to the identification of 3,7,10,14,15-pentaacetyl-5-butanoyl-13,17-epoxy-8-myrsinene (PABEM) which is a new diterpene. In this research, we have investigated antispasmodic and antidiarrheal effects of PABEM for comparison with P. spinosa extract. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. For antispasmodic studies, rat isolated ileum was suspended in Tyrode's solution in an organ bath. The ileum was contracted by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5 μM), serotonin (5-HT, 5 μM) or electrical field stimulation (EFS). P. spinosa extract in a concentration dependent manner (10-640 μg/ml) inhibited ileum contractions induced by ACh, 5-HT or EFS. The new compound isolated form P. spinosa extract “PABEM” in a similar manner inhibited the contractile response to ACh, 5-HT and EFS. However, the inhibitory effects of PABEM were observed at much lower bath concentrations. The relaxation effect of PABEM was started at 40 ng/ml bath concentration and with 2.5 μg/ml PABEM in the bath, the contractile responses of ileum were completely abolished. Both hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa and PABEM reduced intestinal meal transit and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrhoea in mice. However, PABEM was about 10 times more potent than its parent extract. This research shows that PABEM is probably the main component responsible for antispasmodic and antidiarrheal actions of P. spinosa extract. PMID:26430457

  16. Cobalt ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Varying concentrations of an organometallic cobalt complex were added to an epoxy system currently used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin. Methods for combining cobalt (III) acetylacetonate with a tetraglycidyl 4,4 prime - diaminodiphenylmethane-based epoxy were investigated. The effects of increasing cobalt ion concentration on the epoxy cure were demonstrated by epoxy gel times and differential scanning calorimetry cure exotherms. Analysis on cured cobalt-containing epoxy castings included determination of glass transition temperatures by thermomechanical analysis, thermooxidative stabilities by thermogravimetric analysis, and densities in a density gradient column. Flexural strength and stiffness were also measured on the neat resin castings.

  17. An investigation of chemically-induced improvement in saturation moisture characteristics of epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    MY-720/DDS epoxy samples were treated with three selected chemical compounds to render the active H-sites inactive for moisture absorption. Treating the epoxy castings with acetyl chloride and dichlorodimethyl silane leads only to surface changes indicating that these molecules are too large to penetrate the epoxy castings. Boron trifluoride, on the other hand, does penetrate the epoxy chain as is indicated by the formation of green domains in the interior of the castings. However, the process of saturating the specimens with moisture appears to leach out the chemical additives--thereby nullifying their possible ameliorative effects.

  18. EPOXI Mission Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science, NASA Headquarters, at podium, speaks during a press conference, Thursday, Nov. 18, 2010, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The press conference was held to discuss the Nov. 4 successful flyby of Comet Hartley 2 by NASA's EPOXI Mission Spacecraft. Images from the flyby provided scientists the most extensive observations of a comet in history. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  19. Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzumura, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu3SbSe4, Cu2Se, and Cu2SnSe3 have attracted much attention because of their high thermoelectric performance and their common feature of very low thermal conductivity. However, for practical use, materials without toxic elements such as selenium are preferable. In this paper, we report Se-free Cu3SbS4 thermoelectric material and improvement of its figure of merit ( ZT) by chemical substitutions. Substitutions of 3 at.% Ag for Cu and 2 at.% Ge for Sb lead to significant reductions in the thermal conductivity by 37% and 22%, respectively. These substitutions do not sacrifice the power factor, thus resulting in enhancement of the ZT value. The sensitivity of the thermal conductivity to chemical substitutions in these compounds is discussed in terms of the calculated phonon dispersion and previously proposed models for Cu-based chalcogenides. To improve the power factor, we optimize the hole carrier concentration by substitution of Ge for Sb, achieving a power factor of 16 μW/cm K2 at 573 K, which is better than the best reported for Se-based Cu3SbSe4 compounds.

  20. Metal ion-containing epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of metallic and organometallic complexes to be used as potential additives for an epoxy used by the aerospace industry as a composite matrix resin were investigated. A total of 9 complexes were screened for compatibility and for their ability to accelerate or inhibit the cure of a highly crosslinkable epoxy resin. Methods for combining the metallic complexes with the resin were investigated, gel times recorded, and cure exotherms studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Glass transition temperatures of cured metal ion containing epoxy castings were determined by thermomechanical analysis. Thermal stabilities of the castings were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Mechanical strength and stiffness of these doped epoxies were also measured.

  1. Bio-Based Aromatic Epoxy Monomers for Thermoset Materials.

    PubMed

    Ng, Feifei; Couture, Guillaume; Philippe, Coralie; Boutevin, Bernard; Caillol, Sylvain

    2017-01-18

    The synthesis of polymers from renewable resources is a burning issue that is actively investigated. Polyepoxide networks constitute a major class of thermosetting polymers and are extensively used as coatings, electronic materials, adhesives. Owing to their outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, chemical resistance, adhesion, and minimal shrinkage after curing, they are used in structural applications as well. Most of these thermosets are industrially manufactured from bisphenol A (BPA), a substance that was initially synthesized as a chemical estrogen. The awareness on BPA toxicity combined with the limited availability and volatile cost of fossil resources and the non-recyclability of thermosets implies necessary changes in the field of epoxy networks. Thus, substitution of BPA has witnessed an increasing number of studies both from the academic and industrial sides. This review proposes to give an overview of the reported aromatic multifunctional epoxide building blocks synthesized from biomass or from molecules that could be obtained from transformed biomass. After a reminder of the main glycidylation routes and mechanisms and the recent knowledge on BPA toxicity and legal issues, this review will provide a brief description of the main natural sources of aromatic molecules. The different epoxy prepolymers will then be organized from simple, mono-aromatic di-epoxy, to mono-aromatic poly-epoxy, to di-aromatic di-epoxy compounds, and finally to derivatives possessing numerous aromatic rings and epoxy groups.

  2. Introducing cellulose nanocrystals in sheet molding compounds (SMC)

    Treesearch

    Amir Asadi; Mark Miller; Sanzida Sultana; Robert J. Moon; Kyriaki Kalaitzidou

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of short glass fiber/epoxy composites containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) made using sheet molding compound (SMC) manufacturing method as well as the rheological and thermomechanical properties of the CNC-epoxy composites were investigated as a function of the CNC content. CNC up to 1.4 wt% were dispersed in the epoxy to produce the resin...

  3. Finite-element analysis of an epoxy-curing process

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D K; Hickox, C E; Nunziato, J W

    1983-01-01

    A finite element numerical procedure is used to study the curing of an epoxy compound. The problem involves the gelation of an incompressible liquid due to an exothermic chemical reaction. Nonuniform temperature fields produce buoyancy-driven fluid motions that interact with the solidifying material. The numerical simulations provide temperature histories and the progression of the gel front that are compared with experimental data.

  4. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  5. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  6. Thermophysical and flammability characterization of phosphorylated epoxy adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Giants, T. W.; Bilow, N.; Hsu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the thermophysical and flammability properties of a phosphorylated epoxy adhesive, which has potential applications in aircraft interior panels, are described. The adhesive consists of stoichiometric ratios of bis(3-glycidyloxphenyl)methylphosphine oxide and bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide containing approximately 7.5% phosphorus. Preliminary data are presented from adhesive bonding studies conducted utilizing this adhesive with polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) film and phenolic-glass laminates. Limiting oxygen index and smoke density data are presented and compared with those of the tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline epoxy resin-adhesive system currently used in aircraft interiors. Initial results indicate that the phosphorylated epoxy compound has excellent adhesive properties when used with PVF film and that desirable fire-resistant properties are maintained.

  7. Thermophysical and flammability characterization of phosphorylated epoxy adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Giants, T. W.; Bilow, N.; Hsu, M.-T.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the thermophysical and flammability properties of a phosphorylated epoxy adhesive, which has potential applications in aircraft interior panels, are described. The adhesive consists of stoichiometric ratios of bis(3-glycidyloxphenyl)methylphosphine oxide and bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide containing approximately 7.5% phosphorus. Preliminary data are presented from adhesive bonding studies conducted utilizing this adhesive with polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) film and phenolic-glass laminates. Limiting oxygen index and smoke density data are presented and compared with those of the tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline epoxy resin-adhesive system currently used in aircraft interiors. Initial results indicate that the phosphorylated epoxy compound has excellent adhesive properties when used with PVF film and that desirable fire-resistant properties are maintained.

  8. New energetic epoxy binders

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.R.; Amanulla, S.

    1996-07-01

    A new class of epoxy resins having N{single_bond}N bonds in the backbone has been synthesized with a view to explore their properties as energetic binders. The N-epoxidation of bis-dicarbonylhydrazones of adipic, azelaic and sebacic dihydrazides results in the formation of viscous resins having epoxide end groups. The resins have been characterized by the elemental and end group analyses, IR and NMR spectra. Relevant properties for their use as binders in solid propellants, such as thermal stability, heat of combustion, burn rate and performance parameters of AP-based propellant systems, have been evaluated. A significant increase in the burn rate of AP-based propellants noticed, is perhaps related to the exothermicity of the binder decomposition and the reactivity of N{single_bond}N bonds with perchloric acid formed during the combustion of AP.

  9. Aging Tests on Epoxy Insulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Toshiharu

    Recently, electric power equipments insulated by epoxy resins have been accident-filled, so that we have been interested in the degradation character of epoxy resin insulations at normal temperature to estimate their life. Thus the aging tests on epoxy insulations were accomplished, and then resistive leakage current on their insulations kept in a glass state at 90 and 80°C was measured by the method canceling capacitive current which was applied to degradation estimation of ZnO varistors. Results of reduced resistive leakage current were led to evaporation and migration of hydrogen ions in epoxy insulations, which are compared between new ones and used ones and applied to estimation of aging degradation in this paper.

  10. Cross-reactivity among epoxy acrylates and bisphenol F epoxy resins in patients with bisphenol A epoxy resin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han N; Pokorny, Christopher D; Law, Sandra; Pratt, Melanie; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J

    2002-09-01

    The study's objective was 2-fold: first, to evaluate the potential cross-reactivity between Bis-A epoxy resins and epoxy acrylates and second, to study the cross reactivity between Bis-A epoxy resins and newer Bis-F epoxy resins in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resins and had positive patch test to the standard epoxy resin based on bisphenol A. Forty-one patients were patch tested to 23 chemicals including epoxy acrylates, Bis-A epoxy resins, and Bis-F epoxy resins, as well as reactive diluents and nonbisphenol epoxy resins. Questions concerning exposure to epoxy resins, occupational history, and problems with dental work were completed. All patients included in the study had positive reactions to the standard Bis-A epoxy resin. Twenty percent (8 of 41) of the patients reacted to at least one of the epoxy acrylates; the most common reaction was to Bis-GMA. Five of 8 patients who reacted to the epoxy acrylates had dental work, but only one patient had problems from her dental work. Six of 8 patients (75%) who reacted to epoxy resins and epoxy acrylates did not react to aliphatic acrylates. Thirty-two percent (13 of 41) reacted to tosylamide epoxy resin, and none reacted to triglycidyl isocyanurate resin. In addition, all patients (100%) had positive reactions to at least one of the Bis-F epoxy resins that were tested. Most patients with sensitivity to Bis-A epoxy resins do not cross-react with epoxy acrylates. Patients with positive patch test reactions to epoxy acrylates used in dentistry usually do not have symptoms from their dental work. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of patients with sensitivity to the standard Bis-A epoxy resin that have been patch tested with the more recently introduced Bis-F epoxy resins. There is significant cross-reactivity between Bis-A and Bis-F epoxy resins, which can be explained by their structural similarity. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  11. Contact allergy to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-06-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most common sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients also develop contact allergy to reactive diluents. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins. Test files (January 1991 to June 2014) were screened, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. A total of 67 patients reacted to at least one of the compounds. The largest numbers of allergic reactions were to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE; n = 41), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE; n = 34), and p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether (PTBPGE; n = 19). Ten of the patients did not have contact allergy to DGEBA-R. The reactions of 5 of these were related to the use of BDDGE-containing products. We found no significant exposure to PGE or PTBPGE in patients sensitized to them, but some of the patients had used cresyl glycidyl ether-containing products. Allergic reactions to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins usually occurred together with reactions to DGEBA-R. BDDGE was the clinically most significant compound, and was the sole cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 3 patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  13. A study of friction wear behaviour of nano-ferite modified epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteniţă, C.; Eni, C.; Graur, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Bodor, M.

    2017-02-01

    Ferrites are generally used to obtain soft magnets for domestic or industrial applications but their use in this direction had generated an increasing interest in modifying the polymer properties by dispersing in their volume certain amounts of these ceramic compounds. The current study focused friction wear behaviour induced by the presence of nano-sized strontium ferrite and barium ferrite in an epoxy matrix. The wear behaviour of nanoferite modified epoxy resins tests were conducted on a pin-on-disc geometry. Three types of epoxy resins had been used with 5% weight ratio of each type of ferrite and 10% weight ratio when both ferrites were used.

  14. Multifunctional epoxy composites with natural Moroccan clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsif, M.; Zerouale, A.; Kandri, N. Idrissi; Allali, F.; Sgarbossa, P.; Bartolozzi, A.; Tamburini, S.; Bertani, R.

    2016-05-01

    Two natural Moroccan clays, here firstly completely characterized, have been used as fillers without modification in epoxy composites. Mechanical properties resulted to be improved and a significant antibacterial activity is exhibited by the epoxy composite containing the C2 clay.

  15. Are epoxy-wood bonds durable enough?

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of any adhesive bond is that the bond maintains its integrity during its end use. Epoxies form highly durable bonds with many substrates but are usually not considered capable of forming completely durable bonds with wood by standard accelerated tests. However, epoxies are sold for wood boat construction, and some data have indicated that epoxies...

  16. Epoxy resin monomers with reduced skin sensitizing potency.

    PubMed

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Ida B; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali R; Delaine, Tamara; Holmberg, Krister; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-06-16

    Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs), especially diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and F (DGEBA and DGEBF), are extensively used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers. However, they are known to commonly cause skin allergy. This research describes a number of alternative ERMs, designed with the aim of reducing the skin sensitizing potency while maintaining the ability to form thermosetting polymers. The compounds were designed, synthesized, and assessed for sensitizing potency using the in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). All six epoxy resin monomers had decreased sensitizing potencies compared to those of DGEBA and DGEBF. With respect to the LLNA EC3 value, the best of the alternative monomers had a value approximately 2.5 times higher than those of DGEBA and DGEBF. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the polymers formed were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four out of the six alternative ERMs gave polymers with a thermal stability comparable to that obtained with DGEBA and DGEBF. The use of improved epoxy resin monomers with less skin sensitizing effects is a direct way to tackle the problem of contact allergy to epoxy resin systems, particularly in occupational settings, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis.

  17. Chromatographic assessment of two hybrid monoliths prepared via epoxy-amine ring-opening polymerization and methacrylate-based free radical polymerization using methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane as functional monomer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zhongshan; Huang, Guang; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-11-07

    Two kinds of hybrid monolithic columns were prepared by using methacrylate epoxy cyclosiloxane (epoxy-MA) as functional monomer, containing three epoxy moieties and one methacrylate group. One column was in situ fabricated by ring-opening polymerization of epoxy-MA and 1,10-diaminodecane (DAD) using a porogenic system consisting of isopropanol (IPA), H2O and ethanol at 65°C for 12h. The other was prepared by free radical polymerization of epoxy-MA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) using 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol as the porogenic solvents at 60°C for 12h. Two hybrid monoliths were investigated on the morphology and chromatographic assessment. Although two kinds of monolithic columns were prepared with epoxy-MA, their morphologies looked rather different. It could be found that the epoxy-MA-DAD monolith possessed higher column efficiencies (25,000-34,000plates/m) for the separation of alkylbenzenes than the epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith (12,000-13,000plates/m) in reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). Depending on the remaining epoxy or methacrylate groups on the surface of two pristine monoliths, the epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith could be easily modified with 1-octadecylamine (ODA) via ring-opening reaction, while the epoxy-MA-DAD monolith could be modified with stearyl methacrylate (SMA) via free radical reaction. The chromatographic performance for the separation of alkylbenzenes on SMA-modified epoxy-MA-DAD monolith was remarkably improved (42,000-54,000 plates/m) when compared with that on pristine epoxy-MA-DAD monolith, while it was not obviously enhanced on ODA-modified epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith when compared with that on pristine epoxy-MA-EDMA monolith. The enhancement of the column efficiency of epoxy-MA-DAD monolith after modification might be ascribed to the decreased mass-transfer resistence. The two kinds of hybrid monoliths were also applied for separations of six phenols and seven basic compounds in nano-LC.

  18. Epoxy Grout With Silica Thickener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Grout cures quickly, even in presence of hydraulic oil. Grout is mixture of aggregate particles, finely-divided silica, epoxy resin, and triethylenetetramine curing agent, with mixture containing about 85 percent silica and aggregate particle sand 15 percent resin and curing agent. Silica is thickening agent and keeps grout from sagging.

  19. Epoxy Grout With Silica Thickener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Grout cures quickly, even in presence of hydraulic oil. Grout is mixture of aggregate particles, finely-divided silica, epoxy resin, and triethylenetetramine curing agent, with mixture containing about 85 percent silica and aggregate particle sand 15 percent resin and curing agent. Silica is thickening agent and keeps grout from sagging.

  20. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  1. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from a nonbisphenol A epoxy in a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G

    1987-09-01

    An employee of the Composites Division of an aircraft engine manufacturing firm developed dermatitis associated with the handling of a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate (epoxy prepreg). Patch test investigation demonstrated that the responsible causal agent was the nonbisphenol A epoxy binder, 4-glycidyloxy-N, N-diglycidylaniline. A patch test with bisphenol A epoxy from a standard patch test screening series was negative. Subsequent interviews with employees of the Composites Division suggested that a relative lack of awareness of the cutaneous hazards of fiber reinforced epoxy laminates, compared with liquid epoxy resin systems, may be an important risk factor for allergic sensitization to these composite materials.

  3. Preparation and cured properties of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Tokizawa, Makoto; Okada, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Nobukatsu; Kimura, Tomiaki . Research Center)

    1993-10-20

    Preparation and characterization of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, which are derived from octadienyl compounds, were studied. From a model peracetic acid epoxidation reaction using 2,7-octadienyl acetate-1, the structure of the liquid resins is estimated to be mainly terminal epoxides and some amount of inner epoxide depending on the epoxide content. The epoxy resins offer lower toxicity and lower vapor pressure. The reactivity of the resin with acid anhydrides is moderate but faster than that of traditional cyclohexane epoxide-type resins and slower than that of the glycidyl ester-type resins. This reactivity was also examined using model compounds. The heat deflection temperature of the hexahydro-phthalic anhydride-cured resins is shown to be directly proportional to the number of epoxy groups in the molecules. The flexural strength of the cured resins is nearly equivalent to that of the commercial resins, although the flexural elongation of the resins is larger than that of the rigid cyclohexane epoxide-type resins. The thermal stability of the cured resins is compared to typical rigid cycloaliphatic resins; furthermore, high water resistance of the cured resins is suggested to be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the C[sub 8] chain by cross-linking.

  4. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  5. Evaluation of experimental epoxy monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.; Pratt, J. R.; Ficklin, R.

    1985-01-01

    Future generation aircraft need higher performance polymer matrices to fully achieve the weight savings possible with composite materials. New resins are being formulated in an effort to understand basic polymer behavior and to develop improved resins. Some polymer/curing agent combinations that could be useful are difficult to process. In the area of epoxies, a major problem is that some components have physical properties which make them difficult to utilize as matrix resins. A previous study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy can be advantageous in the mixing of curing agents into a standard epoxy resin, such as MY 720 (Ciba-Geigy designation). This work is expanded to include three novel epoxides.

  6. Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Simcha, Shelly; Dotan, Ana; Kenig, Samuel; Dodiuk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained.

  7. EPOXI Trajectory and Maneuver Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.; Bhaskaran, Shyamkumar; Chesley, Steven R.; Halsell, C. Allen; Helfrich, Clifford E.; Jefferson, David C.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Rush, Brian P.; Wang, Tseng-Chan M.; Yen, Chen-wan L.

    2011-01-01

    The EPOXI mission is a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity combining two separate investigations: Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization (EPOCh) and Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI). Both investigations reused the DI instruments and spacecraft that successfully flew by the comet Tempel-1 (4 July 2005). For EPOCh, the goal was to find exoplanets with the high resolution imager, while for DIXI it was to fly by the comet Hartley 2 (4 Nov 2010). This paper documents the navigation experience of the earlier ma-neuver analyses critical for the EPOXI mission including statistical ?V analyses and other useful analyses in designing maneuvers. It also recounts the trajectory design leading up to the final reference trajectory to Hartley 2.

  8. Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Finck, Henry

    1960-01-01

    A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed. PMID:13822825

  9. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  10. Epoxy resins in the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Spee, Ton; Van Duivenbooden, Cor; Terwoert, Jeroen

    2006-09-01

    Epoxy resins are used as coatings, adhesives, and in wood and concrete repair. However, epoxy resins can be highly irritating to the skin and are strong sensitizers. Some hardeners are carcinogenic. Based on the results of earlier Dutch studies, an international project on "best practices,"--Epoxy Code--with epoxy products was started. Partners were from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. The "Code" deals with substitution, safe working procedures, safer tools, and skin protection. The feasibility of an internationally agreed "ranking system" for the health risks of epoxy products was studied. Such a ranking system should inform the user of the harmfulness of different epoxies and stimulate research on less harmful products by product developers.

  11. Epoxy-Resin Cable Terminations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-03

    of epoxy- resin terminations , or end -fittings, to small diameter cables. Test samples were made using steel, titanium, and amorphous metal cable...15 vi NSWC TR 88-400 CHAITER 1 INTROIDUCTION The general function of end fittings, also referred to as terminations , is to allow the attachment of...instructions require that the termination body (henceforth referred to as’body’) be slipped over the end of the cable which is then unlaid and cleaned

  12. High char imide-modified epoxy matrix resins. [for graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of a class of bis(imide-amine) curing agents for epoxy matrix resins is discussed. Glass transition temperatures and char yield data of an epoxy cured with various bis(imide-amines) are presented. The room temperature and 350 F mechanical properties, and char yields of unidirectional graphite fiber laminates prepared with conventional epoxy and imide-modified epoxy resins are presented.

  13. Lightweight Forms for Epoxy/Aramid Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mix, E. W.; Anderson, A. N.; Bedford, Donald L., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Aluminum mandrels easy to remove. Lightweight aluminum mandrel for shaping epoxy/aramid ducts simplifies and speeds production. In new process, glass-reinforced epoxy/aramid cloth wrapped on aluminum mandrel. Stainless-steel flanges and other hardware fitted on duct and held by simple tooling. Entire assembly placed in oven to cure epoxy. After curing, assembly placed in alkaline bath dissolves aluminum mandrel in about 4 hours. Epoxy/aramid shell ready for use as duct. Aluminum mandrel used to make ducts of various inside diameters up to 6 in. Standard aluminum forms used. Conventional tube-bending equipment produces requisite curves in mandrels.

  14. Nonmetallic materials handbook. Volume 1: Epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlaseck, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermochemical and other properties data is presented for the following types of epoxy materials: adhesives, coatings finishes, inks, electrical insulation, encapsulants, sealants, composite laminates, tapes, and thermal insulators.

  15. Influence of reaction condition on viscosity of polyurethane modified epoxy based on glycerol monooleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triwulandari, Evi; Ramadhan, Mohammad Kemilau; Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Polyurethane modified epoxy based on glycerol monooleate (PME-GMO) was synthesized. GMO as polyol for synthesis of PME-GMO was synthesized via Fisher Esterification between oleic acid from palm oil and glycerol by using sulfuric acid as catalyst with time variation i.e. 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours at 160°C. Characterizations of GMO were carried out by analysis of acid number, hydroxyl value and FTIR. The data show that the conversion of oleic acid to ester compound is directly proportional with the increasing of reaction time but the enhancement is not significant after 3 hours. Furthermore, GMO product was used as polyol for modification of epoxy with polyurethane. Modification of epoxy with polyurethane was performed by reacted epoxy, tolonate and GMO simultaneously in one step. In this research, the reaction condition was varied i.e. time reaction (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5 hours), composition of polyurethane used (10%, 20% toward epoxy) and rasio of tolonate and GMO (NCO/OH ratio) as component of polyurethane (1.5 and 2.5). Characterization of polyurethane modified epoxy based on glycerol (PME-GMO) was conducted by viscosity and FTIR analysis. The viscosity of PME-GMO increased with increasing of reaction time, polyurethane composition and NCO/OH ratio.

  16. Synthesis of cuprous oxide epoxy nanocomposite as an environmentally antimicrobial coating.

    PubMed

    M El Saeed, Ashraf; Abd El-Fattah, M; Azzam, Ahmed M; Dardir, M M; Bader, Magd M

    2016-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment; paint manufacturers begin to employ cuprous oxide as booster biocides in their formulations, to replace the banned organotins as the principal antifouling compounds. Epoxy coating was reinforced with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O NPs). The antibacterial as well as antifungal activity of Cu2O epoxy nanocomposite (Cu2O EN) coating films was investigated. Cu2O NPs were also experimented for antibiofilm and time-kill assay. The thermal stability and the mechanical properties of Cu2O EN coating films were also investigated. The antimicrobial activity results showed slowdown, the growth of organisms on the Cu2O EN coating surface. TGA results showed that incorporating Cu2O NPs into epoxy coating considerably enhanced the thermal stability and increased the char residue. The addition of Cu2O NPs at lower concentration into epoxy coating also led to an improvement in the mechanical resistance such as scratch and abrasion. Cu2O NPs purity was confirmed by XRD. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the synthesized Cu2O NPs were of cubic shape and the average diameter of the crystals was around 25nm. The resulting perfect dispersion of Cu2O NPs in epoxy coating revealed by SEM ensured white particles embedded in the epoxy matrix.

  17. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by aniline epoxy resins in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri; Jolanki, Riitta; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Valtanen, Ilona; Alanko, Kristiina

    2015-08-01

    Tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylenedianiline (TGMDA) is an aniline epoxy resin used in, for example, resin systems of pre-impregnated composite materials (prepregs) of the aircraft industry. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by TGMDA in prepregs has been described previously. To report on 9 patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by TGMDA in epoxy glues used in helicopter assembly. The patients were examined with patch testing at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 2004-2009. The first patient was diagnosed by testing both components of two epoxy glues from the workplace, and was also tested with glue ingredients, including TGMDA. The following patients were tested with the glues and TGMDA. The resin parts of the glues were analysed for their epoxy compounds, including TGMDA. All of the patients had a patch test reaction to one or both of the resin parts of the TGMDA-containing glues. Eight of them had a strong allergic reaction to TGMDA, and one had a doubtful reaction to TGMDA. Two of the patients also had an allergic reaction to triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP), another aniline epoxy resin, which was not present in the TGMDA-containing glues. In aircraft industry workers with suspected occupational dermatitis, aniline epoxy resins should be considered and patch tested as possible contact allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Treatment of high-latency microcapsules containing an aluminium complex with an epoxy-functionalised trialkoxysilane.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    Some aluminium complexes are excellent catalysts of cationic polymerisation and are used for low-temperature and fast-curing adhesive, used in electronic part mounting. Microencapsulation is a suitable technique for getting high latency of the catalysts and long shelf life of the adhesives. For the higher latency in a cycloaliphatic epoxy compound, the microcapsule surface which retained small amount of aluminium complex was coated with epoxy polymer and the effect was examined. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results, the surface was recognised to be sufficiently coated and the differential scanning calorimetric analyses showed that the coating did not significantly affect the low-temperature and fast-curing properties of adhesive. After storing the mixture of cycloaliphatic epoxy compound, coated microcapsules, triphenylsilanol and silane coupling agent for 48 h at room temperature, the increase in viscosity was only 0.01 Pa s, resulting in the excellent shelf life.

  19. Comparative properties of optically clear epoxy encapsulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maury; Zhou, Yan

    2001-12-01

    Three epoxy systems were evaluated for physical dn optical properties. The three systems chosen for the study were selected on the basis of their optical clarity, color and chemistry. Three distinctly different chemistries were chosen, aromatic epoxy-amine cured. Aromatic epoxy- anhydride cured and cycloaliphatic epoxy-anhydride cured. All three systems remained optically clear and water-white after full cure. The three selected systems were tested for physical properties, adhesion and light transmission properties. Light transmission was measured after thermal and humidity exposure. Adhesion was measured after humidity exposure only. Both of the epoxy-anhydride systems performed well in optical properties but poorer in adhesion as compared to the epoxy-amine system. The aromatic epoxy- amine system discolored badly during thermal exposure at 100 C. Data generated from this work will be used in selecting clear encapsulating materials for photonics applications. No single system offers optimal performance in all areas. The best compromise material is the aromatic epoxy-anhydride system.

  20. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    East, Anthony; Jaffe, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Catalani, Luiz H

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  1. Curing of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    365-371 (1973). 21. Pappalardo , L. T., "DSC Evaluation of B-Stage Epoxy-Glass Prepregs For Multilayer Boards," SPE Technical Papers, 20, 13-16 (1974...Kamal, M. R., "Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Epoxy Cure: Isothermal Cure Kinetics," Thermochimica Acta, 14, 41-59 (1976). 24. Pappalardo , L. T

  2. Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    the cure cycle. Two approaches were tested to obtain a homogeneous mixture of the curing agent and MY 720 epoxy resin. One involved the use of acetone...before exposure to any of the cure cycles. This was indicated by the solubility test and the IR spectra of the solventless resin mixtures. More evidence...muffle furnace at 800’C. The results of the tests listed in Table 22 show that about all IME systems exhibit good char forming capabilities, with IME-l and

  3. EPOXI at Comet Hartley 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Delamere, W. Alan; Feaga, Lori M.; Hampton, Donald; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; McFadden, Jessica M.; Meech, Karen J.; Melosh, H. Jay; Schultz, Peter H.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Veverka, Joseph; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Yeomans, Donald K.; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Bowling, Timothy J.; Carcish, Brian T.; Collins, Steven M.; Farnham, Tony F.; Groussin, Oliver; Hermalyn, Brendan; Kelley, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how comets work, i,e., what drives their activity, is crucial to using comets to study the early solar system. EPOXI flew past comet 103P/Hartley 2, one with an unusually small but very active nucleus. taking both images and spectra. Unlike large, relatively inactive nuclei, this nncleus is outgassing primarily due to CO2, which drags chnnks of ice out of the nnclens. It also shows significant differences in the relative abundance of volatiles from various parts of the nucleus.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Determinations of Structure and Reaction Kinetics of Epoxy/Amine Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-31

    bisphenol A ( DGEBA ), and two model compounds, a secondary amine nitroxide and a tertiary amine nitroxide. The rate constants for both reactions (kl, k2...EPR EXPERIMENTS ON EPOXY RESINS ....................................... 4 2.1 Nitroxide- DGEBA Kinetics ......................................... 4 2.2...dependence of the rate constants for METAMIN and DIMETAMIN reactions with DGEBA ...................................... 14 11. EPR spectra observed at 299

  5. [Contact allergy to epoxy resins plastics based on materials collected by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2003-01-01

    Of the 5604 patients examined in 1984-2001 for suspected occupational dermatitis, 160 persons (2.8%) showed allergy to epoxy resins plastics. Allergy was more frequent in men (4.9%) than in women (1.2%); in 154 persons, allergy was of occupational etiology (in a group of 160 patients with allergy to epoxy resins, the following proportions were observed: bricklayers, platelayers--17.5%; fitters, turners, machinist millers--13.8%; plastics molders--13.1%; laminators--11.3%; electrical equipment assemblers--10.6%; painters--10.0%). Having compared the frequency of allergy to components of epoxy resins in the years 1984-1993 and 1994-2001, it was found that allergy to resin, reactive diluents and plasticizers was on increase, whereas allergy to amines and acid anhydrides hardeners was on decrease. In a group of 13 chemical compounds entering into the composition of epoxy resins, epoxy resin contributed to the largest number of positive patch tests (77.5% of epoxy-allergic persons). This was followed by triethylenetetramine (23.1%), ethylenediamine (13.1%), phthalic anhydride (8.1%), diethylenetetramine (6.9%) and phenylglycidylether (6.2%). In addition, three patients reacted to both epoxy resin and cycloaliphatic resin.

  6. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  7. Identification of non-heme diiron proteins that catalyze triple bond and epoxy group formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Lenman, M; Banaś, A; Bafor, M; Singh, S; Schweizer, M; Nilsson, R; Liljenberg, C; Dahlqvist, A; Gummeson, P O; Sjödahl, S; Green, A; Stymne, S

    1998-05-08

    Acetylenic bonds are present in more than 600 naturally occurring compounds. Plant enzymes that catalyze the formation of the Delta12 acetylenic bond in 9-octadecen-12-ynoic acid and the Delta12 epoxy group in 12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid were characterized, and two genes, similar in sequence, were cloned. When these complementary DNAs were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the content of acetylenic or epoxidated fatty acids in the seeds increased from 0 to 25 or 15 percent, respectively. Both enzymes have characteristics similar to the membrane proteins containing non-heme iron that have histidine-rich motifs.

  8. Epoxy-acetogenins and other polyketide epoxy derivatives as inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Tormo, J R; Zafra-Polo, M C; Serrano, A; Estornell, E; Cortes, D

    2000-05-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACG), an extensive group of cytotoxic natural products, are antitumor agents whose main mode of action is inhibition of the mammalian mitochondrial complex I. Herein we describe the importance of the different chemical groups along the alkyl chain for optimal inhibitory potency, discussing the structurally relevant factors present in these compounds. For this purpose, a series of epoxide derivatives from alpha-linolenic acid were prepared and their activity compared with that of epoxy-acetogenins and tetrahydrofuranic (THF) acetogenins isolated from Rollinia membranacea.

  9. Recognition of epoxy with phage displayed peptides.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2013-07-01

    The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of epoxy could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Epoxy shows unique electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological compatibility and has been widely used for fabricating a variety of devices. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to epoxy via comprehensively screened phage displayed peptides. Our results show that the epoxy can be selectively recognized with peptide-displaying phages. Further, along with the development of epoxy-based microstructures; recognition of the epoxy with phage displayed peptides can be specifically localized in these microstructures. We anticipate that these results could open up exciting opportunities in the use of peptide-recognized epoxy in fundamental biochemical recognition studies, as well as in applications ranging from analytical devices, hybrid materials, surface and interface, to cell biology.

  10. Drinking water contaminants from epoxy resin-coated pipes: A field study.

    PubMed

    Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Pernica, Marek; Kuta, Jan; Lašňák, Jonáš; Šimek, Zdenĕk; Bláha, Luděk

    2016-10-15

    Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries. BPA leaching has been demonstrated in laboratory studies but the behavior and ageing process of epoxy lining in situ is not well known. In this study 6 locations with different age epoxy linings of drinking water pipes done using two distinct technologies were studied. While bisphenol F, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol were rarely found and in trace concentrations, BPA was detected in majority of samples. Pipes lined with the older technology (LSE) leached more BPA than those with more recent technology (DonPro): maxima in cold water were 0.25 μg/L and 10 ng/L, respectively. Incubation of water in pipes 8-10 h prior to sampling increased BPA concentration in cold water 1.1-43-fold. Hot water temperature caused even more BPA leaching - at maximum 23.5 μg/L. The influence of ageing of epoxy lining on BPA leaching on could be shown in case of LSE technology: locations with 8-9 years old lining leached 4-20-fold more BPA compared to a location with 2-year-old lining. Analysis of metals showed that epoxy lining can reduce especially iron concentration in water. No significant burden to water could be shown by the analyzed 72 volatile organic compounds, including epichlorhydrin, precursor used in epoxy resin. Estrogenicity was detected in water samples with the highest BPA loads. Comparable responses of two yeast bioreporters (estrogen receptor α and BPA-targeted) indicated that bisphenol-like compounds were the main cause of estrogenicity

  11. Mechanical behaviors of hyberbranched epoxy toughened bisphenol F epoxy resin for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwen; Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Chuanjun; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy resins have been widely employed in cryogenic engineering fields. In this work, bisphenol F epoxy resin was modified by an aromatic polyester hyperbranched epoxy resin (HTDE-2). Mechanical behaviors of the modified epoxy resins in terms of tensile properties and impact property were studied at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Moreover, the toughening mechanism was discussed by fracture surface morphology analysis. The results demonstrated that, the mechanical properties of composites initially increased until reaches the maximum value with increasing the mass content of the HTDE-2, and then decreased at both room temperature (RT) and 77K. Especially, the impact strength at 77 K was improved 40.7% compared with the pure epoxy matrix when 10 wt% HTDE-2 was introduced. The findings suggest that the HTDE-2 will be an effective toughener for the brittle bisphenol F epoxy resin for cryogenic applications.

  12. Comparative study regarding friction coefficient for three epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihu, G.; Mihalache, I.; Graur, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Bria, V.

    2017-02-01

    Three commercial epoxy diglycidylether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) were used in this study namely Epiphen RE4020-DE 4020 (Bostik), Epoxy Resin C (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch), and Epoxy Resin HT-2 (R&G Gmbh Waldenbuch). Epoxy resins are often used for the friction purpose but their friction resistance is quite low and it is thus necessary to enhance their friction resistance. In this paper it is shown how load, sliding velocity, and distance affect friction coefficient of epoxy resins.

  13. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  14. Effect of interfacial chemical bonding and surface topography on adhesion in carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Drzal, L.T.; Sugiura, N.; Hook, D. |

    1994-12-31

    A series of PAN-based IM6 carbon fibers having varying amounts of surface treatment were, pretreated with compounds representing the constituents encountered in epoxy composites to pre-react any groups on the fiber surface before composite fabrication in order to determine the effect of chemical bonding on fiber-matrix adhesion. Chemical bonding was quantified using XPS. Chemical bonding between reactive groups in amine cured epoxy matrices and the surface groups present on IN46 carbon fibers as a result of commercial surface treatments has been detected although the absolute amount of chemical bonding is low (1-3%). It was found that reaction with monofunctional epoxy groups having hydrocarbon functionalities blocked the surface from further reaction and reduced the adhesion that could be attained to its lowest value. Prereaction with difunctional amines had little effect on adhesion when compared to normal composite fabrication procedures. Prereaction with difunctional epoxy groups did enhance adhesion levels over the level attained in normal composite fabrication methods. These results showed that chemical bonding between epoxy and the carbon fiber surface could increases the adhesion between fiber and matrix about 25% while between the amino group and the carbon fiber surface about 15%. Quantitative measurements of the fiber surface microtopography were made with scanning tunneling microscopy. An increase in roughness was detected with increasing surface treatment. It was concluded that surface roughness also accounted for a significant increase in fiber-matrix adhesion.

  15. Synthesis of 19-oxygenated 4beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione as mechanistic and catalytic probes for aromatase reaction.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A

    2000-09-01

    4Beta,5beta-epoxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (2), one of the natural substrates for aromatase, and its 19-oxygenated compounds 4 and 5 were synthesized as mechanistic and catalytic probes for the enzyme reaction. Treatment of 16alpha-bromoandrostenedione (13) or its 19-hydroxy analog 19 which was prepared from 3beta-hydroxy-19-(tert-butyldimethylsiloxy)androst-5-en-17-one (16) in three steps, with H2O2 and NaOH followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH in aqueous pyridine stereospecifically yielded 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-ol 15 or 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha,19-diol 22, respectively. Oxidation of 16beta-bromo-4beta,5beta-epoxy-19-ol 21 with pyridinium dichromate followed by controlled alkaline hydrolysis produced 4beta,5beta-epoxy-16alpha-hydroxy-19-al 24.

  16. Quantitative characterization of solid epoxy resins using comprehensive two dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Julka, Samir; Cortes, Hernan; Harfmann, Robert; Bell, Bruce; Schweizer-Theobaldt, Andreas; Pursch, Matthias; Mondello, Luigi; Maynard, Shawn; West, David

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive multidimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (LCxLC-ESI-MS) was developed for detailed characterization and quantitation of solid epoxy resin components. The two orthogonal modes of separation selected were size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in the first dimension and liquid chromatography at critical conditions (LCCC) in the second dimension. Different components present in the solid epoxy resins were separated and quantitated for the first time based on the functional groups and molecular weight heterogeneity. Coupling LCxLC separations with mass spectrometry enabled the identification of components resolved in the two-dimensional space. Several different functional group families of compounds were separated and identified, including epoxy-epoxy and epoxy-alpha-glycol functional oligomers, and their individual molecular weight ranges were determined. Repeatability obtained ranged from 0.5% for the main product to 21% for oligomers at the 0.4% concentration level.

  17. Tensile properties of epoxy encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Wischmann, K.B.; Stavig, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile properties were measured for nineteen different formulations of epoxy encapsulating materials. Formulations were of different combinations of two neat resins (Epon 828 and Epon 826, with and without CTBN modification), three fillers (ALOX, GNM and mica) and four hardeners (Z, DEA, DETDA-SA and ANH-2). Five of the formulations were tested at -55, -20, 20 and 60C, one formulation at -55, 20 and 71C; and the remaining formulations at 20C. Complete stress-strain curves are presented along with tables of tensile strength, initial modulus and Poisson's ratio. The stress-strain responses are nonlinear and are temperature dependent. The reported data provide information for comparing the mechanical properties of encapsulants containing the suspected carcinogen Shell Z with the properties of encapsulants containing noncarcinogenic hardeners. Also, calculated shear moduli, based on measured tensile moduli and Poisson's ratio, are in very good agreement with reported shear moduli from experimental torsional pendulum tests.

  18. Tensile properties of epoxy encapsulants

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.; Wischmann, K.B.; Stavig, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile properties were measured for nineteen different formulations of epoxy encapsulating materials. Formulations were of different combinations of two neat resins (Epon 828 and Epon 826, with and without CTBN modification), three fillers (ALOX, GNM and mica) and four hardeners (Z, DEA, DETDA-SA and ANH-2). Five of the formulations were tested at -55, -20, 20 and 60C, one formulation at -55, 20 and 71C; and the remaining formulations at 20C. Complete stress-strain curves are presented along with tables of tensile strength, initial modulus and Poisson`s ratio. The stress-strain responses are nonlinear and are temperature dependent. The reported data provide information for comparing the mechanical properties of encapsulants containing the suspected carcinogen Shell Z with the properties of encapsulants containing noncarcinogenic hardeners. Also, calculated shear moduli, based on measured tensile moduli and Poisson`s ratio, are in very good agreement with reported shear moduli from experimental torsional pendulum tests.

  19. Structural/Radiation-Shielding Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Hinkley, Jeffrey; Blattnig, Steve; Delozier, Donavon M.; Watson, Kent A.; Ghose, Sayata

    2009-01-01

    A development effort was directed toward formulating epoxy resins that are useful both as structural materials and as shielding against heavy-ion radiation. Hydrogen is recognized as the best element for absorbing heavy-ion radiation, and high-hydrogen-content polymers are now in use as shielding materials. However, high-hydrogen-content polymers (e.g. polyethylene) are typically not good structural materials. In contrast, aromatic polymers, which contain smaller amounts of hydrogen, often have the strength necessary for structural materials. Accordingly, the present development effort is based on the concept that an ideal structural/ heavy-ion-radiation-shielding material would be a polymer that contains sufficient hydrogen (e.g., in the form of aliphatic molecular groups) for radiation shielding and has sufficient aromatic content for structural integrity.

  20. Breakdown properties of epoxy nanodielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Cantoni, Claudia; More, Karren Leslie; James, David Randy; Polyzos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in polymeric dielectric nanocomposites have shown that these novel materials can improve design of high voltage (hv) components and systems. Some of the improvements can be listed as reduction in size (compact hv systems), better reliability, high energy density, voltage endurance, and multifunctionality. Nanodielectric systems demonstrated specific improvements that have been published in the literature by different groups working with electrical insulation materials. In this paper we focus on the influence of in-situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the dielectric breakdown characteristics of an epoxy-based nanocomposite system. The in-situ synthesis of the particles creates small nanoparticles on the order of 10 nm with narrow size distribution and uniform particle dispersion in the matrix. The breakdown strength of the nanocomposite was studied as a function of TiO{sub 2} concentration at cryogenic temperatures. It was observed that between 2 and 6wt% yields high breakdown values for the nanodielectric.

  1. Physical aging in graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Sub-Tg annealing has been found to affect the properties of graphite/epoxy composites. The network epoxy studied was based on the chemistry of tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl methane (TGDDM) crosslinked by 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS). Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal mechanical analysis, and solid-state cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been utilized in order to characterize this process of recovery towards thermodynamic equilibrium. The volume and enthalpy recovery as well as the 'thermoreversibility' aspects of the physical aging are discussed. This nonequilibrium and time-dependent behavior of network epoxies are considered in view of the increasingly wide applications of TGDDM-DDS epoxies as matrix materials of structural composites in the aerospace industry.

  2. Physical aging in graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Sub-Tg annealing has been found to affect the properties of graphite/epoxy composites. The network epoxy studied was based on the chemistry of tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl methane (TGDDM) crosslinked by 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS). Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal mechanical analysis, and solid-state cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been utilized in order to characterize this process of recovery towards thermodynamic equilibrium. The volume and enthalpy recovery as well as the 'thermoreversibility' aspects of the physical aging are discussed. This nonequilibrium and time-dependent behavior of network epoxies are considered in view of the increasingly wide applications of TGDDM-DDS epoxies as matrix materials of structural composites in the aerospace industry.

  3. Postbuckling behavior of graphite-epoxy panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, J. H., Jr.; Dickson, J. N.; Rouse, M.

    1984-01-01

    Structurally efficient fuselage panels are often designed to allow buckling to occur at applied loads below ultimate. Interest in applying graphite-epoxy materials to fuselage primary structure led to several studies of the post-buckling behavior of graphite-epoxy structural components. Studies of the postbuckling behavior of flat and curved, unstiffened and stiffened graphite-epoxy panels loaded in compression and shear were summarized. The response and failure characteristics of specimens studied experimentally were described, and analytical and experimental results were compared. The specimens tested in the studies described were fabricated from commercially available 0.005-inch-thick unidirectional graphite-fiber tapes preimpregnated with 350 F cure thermosetting epoxy resins.

  4. Structure Property Relationships of Biobased Epoxy Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorana, Anthony Surraht

    The thesis is about the synthesis, characterization, development, and application of epoxy resins derived from sustainable feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose, plant oils, and other non-food feedstocks. The thesis can be divided into two main topics 1) the synthesis and structure property relationship investigation of new biobased epoxy resin families and 2) mixing epoxy resins with reactive diluents, nanoparticles, toughening agents, and understanding co-curing reactions, filler/matrix interactions, and cured epoxy resin thermomechanical, viscoelastic, and dielectric properties. The thesis seeks to bridge the gap between new epoxy resin development, application for composites and advanced materials, processing and manufacturing, and end of life of thermoset polymers. The structures of uncured epoxy resins are characterized through traditional small molecule techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of epoxy resin monomers are further understood through the process of curing the resins and cured resins' properties through rheology, chemorheology, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, fracture toughness, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and notched izod impact testing. It was found that diphenolate esters are viable alternatives to bisphenol A and that the structure of the ester side chain can have signifi-cant effects on monomer viscosity. The structure of the cured diphenolate based epoxy resins also influence glass transition temperature and dielectric properties. Incorporation of reactive diluents and flexible resins can lower viscosity, extend gel time, and enable processing of high filler content composites and increase fracture toughness. Incorpora-tion of high elastic modulus nanoparticles such as graphene can provide increases in physical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The synthesis

  5. Impregnating magnetic components with MDA free epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.O.; Domeier, L.; Gunewardena, S.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes the use of {open_quotes}Formula 456{close_quotes} an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA.

  6. Electrical properties of epoxies and film resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergent, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The reliability of hybrid microcircuits has been enhanced in recent years by the use of organic adhesives as a replacement for solder and eutectics. The epoxies have been the most effective and widely used material for this application. Methods for measuring the electrical and mechanical properties of epoxies are developed. Data are given for selected conductive adhesives at high and low frequencies. The temperature coefficients of resistance of thick film resistors are presented.

  7. Cavitation in block copolymer modified epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declet-Perez, Carmelo; Francis, Lorraine; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Today, brittleness in epoxy networks limits most commercial applications. Significant toughness can be imparted by adding small amounts of micelle forming block copolymers (BCP) without compromising critical properties such as high use temperature and modulus. Curing the network locks in the self-assembled BCP micellar structures formed in the monomer resin providing control of the resulting morphology. Despite significant research over the last decade, a complete description of the parameters influencing toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies is still lacking. In this presentation we compare the ultimate mechanical behavior of epoxies modified with spherical micelle forming BCP's containing rubbery and glassy cores using real-time in-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) performed during tensile deformation. Striking differences in the 2D SAXS patterns were documented for epoxies modified with rubbery (PEP) versus glassy (PS) micelle cores. Rubbery cores dilate by 100% in volume upon specimen yielding, while the glassy micelle cores deform at approximately constant volume. These results provide direct evidence of a cavitation mediated mechanism for toughness in block copolymer modified epoxies. We further interpret characteristic butterfly features in the 2D SAXS patterns in terms of epoxy network deformation. Support was provided by the NSF sponsored MRSEC at the University of Minnesota

  8. Improved gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analytical method for the analysis of epoxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mubiru, Edward; Shrestha, Kshitij; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2013-11-29

    In this study an improved method for analysis of epoxy fatty acids is reported. Data obtained from analysis of polar fatty acids has previously been presented, but due to the high number of compounds that co-elute in the polar fraction, the resultant chromatograms are complex which may lead to compromising the accuracy of the data. A three steps separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on a silica gel column to remove hydroxy fatty acid interferences was proposed. This approach is opposed to a two step separation procedure that has been often used to prevent analytical interferences caused by non-altered fatty acids. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with a polar CP-Sil 88™ column was used. Quantification was based on the use of methyl nonadecanoate (C19:0), as an internal standard. Individual mono epoxy fatty acids were well separated without co-eluting compounds. The optimized method was finally applied to screen epoxy fatty acids in 37 fresh oil samples. Results obtained for the total epoxy fatty acids were in the range 0.03-2mgg(-1) of oil with repeatability coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 2.8 to 9.9% for duplicate analysis showing that the results obtained are repeatable.

  9. A novel polishing technology for epoxy resin based on 355 nm UV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xinling; Tao, Luqi; Liu, Zhaolin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tianling

    2017-06-01

    The electromagnetic shielding film has drawn much attention due to its wide applications in the integrated circuit package, which demands a high surface quality of epoxy resin. However, gaseous Cu will splash and adhere to epoxy resin surface when the Cu layer in PCB receives enough energy in the process of laser cutting, which has a negative effect on the quality of the shielding film. Laser polishing technology can solve this problem and it can effectively improve the quality of epoxy resin surface. The paper studies the mechanism of Cu powder spraying on the compound surface by 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, including the parameters of laser polishing process and the remains of Cu content on compound surface. The results show that minimal Cu content can be realized with a scanning speed of 700 mm/s, a laser frequency of 50 kHz and the distance between laser focus and product top surface of -1.3 mm. This result is important to obtain an epoxy resin surface with high quality. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61574083, 61434001), the National Basic Research Program (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002), the Special Fund for Agroscientic Research in the Public Interest of China (No 201303107), the support of the Independent Research Program of Tsinghua University (No. 2014Z01006), and Advanced Sensor and Integrated System Lab of Tsinghua University Graduate School at Shenzhen (No. ZDSYS20140509172959969).

  10. New epoxy/episulfide resin system for electronic and coating applications: Curing mechanisms and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchida, Katsuyuki

    This work involves research on a new resin system useful for printed circuit board and protective coating applications. The system provides excellent adhesion to copper and corrosion resistance for copper. The research involved detailed studies of the reaction mechanisms, and correlation of these mechanisms with the observed properties. The epoxy/episulfide system, when used with a dicyandiamide (DICY) curing agent, exhibits better adhesion to copper substrate, a better pot life and prepreg storage life, a lower thermal expansion coefficient, a lower heat of reaction, a lower degradation temperature, and higher water absorption as compared with the standard epoxy system. From model compound studies, the sulfur of the opened episulfide ring reacts with copper, resulting in a durable bond between the copper and matrix resin even after water boiling. Since the S- formed by the reaction of the episulfide with the curing agent easily reacts with both the episulfide and the epoxy, a C-S-C bond is formed and more unreacted curing agent remains as compared to the standard epoxy system. The new bond formation causes a lower thermal expansion coefficient and somewhat lower degradation temperature. The unreacted curing agent causes slightly higher water absorption. Since the episulfide ring has less stress than the epoxy ring the epoxy/episulfide system shows lower heat of reaction, i.e., a lower exotherm. and lower shrinkage. The epoxy/episuffide system, when used with a polyamide curing agent, exhibits better corrosion protection for copper substrates, a lower thermal expansion coefficient and a lower degradation temperature. From model compound studies, the curing reactions are changed by changing curing temperature and the presence of copper: the episulfide homopolymerization and the S--epoxy reactions increase in the case of room temperature curing or in the presence of copper. In the presence of copper, the sulfur of the episulfide also reacts with copper, although the

  11. Physical aging and its influence on the reliability of network epoxies and epoxy-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1983-01-01

    The matrix-dominated physical and mechanical properties of a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite and a neat epoxy resin were found to be affected by sub-Tg annealing in nitrogen and dark atmosphere. Postcured specimens of Thornel 300 carbon-fiber/Fiberite 934 epoxy as well as Fiberite 934 epoxy resin were quenched from above Tg and given annealing at 140 C, 110 C, or 80 C, for time up to one-hundred thousand minutes. No weight loss was observed during annealing at these temperatures. Significant variations were found in density, modulus, hardness, damping, moisture absorption ability, thermal expansivity. Moisture-epoxy interactious were also studied. The kinetics of aging as well as the molecular aggregation during this densification process were monitored by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, density gradient column, microhardness tester, Instron, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  12. Effects of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Sn-58Bi Epoxy Solder on ENEPIG-Surface-Finished PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were evaluated by low-speed shear testing as functions of aging time and temperature. To determine the effects of epoxy, the interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of both Sn-58Bi and Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were investigated after aging treatment. The chemical composition and growth kinetics of the intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the interface between Sn-58Bi solder and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish were analyzed. Sn-58Bi solder paste was applied by stencil-printing on flame retardant-4 substrate, then reflowed. Reflowed samples were aged at 85°C, 95°C, 105°C, and 115°C for up to 1000 h. (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC formed between Sn-58Bi solder and ENEPIG surface finish after reflow. Ni3Sn4 and Ni3P IMCs formed at the interface between (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC and ENEPIG surface finish after aging at 115°C for 300 h. The overall IMC growth rate of Sn-58Bi solder joint was higher than that of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder joint during aging. The shear strength of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder was about 2.4 times higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder due to the blocking effect of epoxy, and the shear strength decreased with increasing aging time.

  13. Cure of epoxy resins determined by simple tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladaki, M.; Nigh, W. G.

    1968-01-01

    Rapid visual and simple quantitative tests indicate the degree of cure of particular epoxy resin binders in prepreg stock. It is possible that these tests may be extended to a number of different epoxy formulations.

  14. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  15. Electrical properties of epoxies used in hybrid microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical properties and basic characteristics of the structure of conductive epoxies were studied. The results of the experimental work performed to measure the electrical properties of epoxies are presented.

  16. Testing Tensile and Shear Epoxy Strength at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, S. J.; Doehne, C. J.; Johnson, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper covers cryogenic, tensile testing and research completed on a number of epoxies used in cryogenic applications. Epoxies are used in many different applications; however, this research focused on the use of epoxy used to bond MLI standoffs to cryogenic storage tanks and the loads imparted to the tank through the MLI. To conduct testing, samples were made from bare stainless steel, aluminum and primed aluminum. Testing involved slowly cooling test samples with liquid nitrogen then applying gradually increasing tensile loads to the epoxy. The testing evaluated the strength and durability of epoxies at cryogenic temperatures and serves as a base for future testing. The results of the tests showed that some epoxies withstood the harsh conditions while others failed. The two epoxies yielding the best results were Masterbond EP29LPSP and Scotch Weld 2216. For all metal surfaces tested, both epoxies had zero failures for up to 11.81 kg of mass.

  17. Wet air oxidation of epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoxia; Liu, Zhengqian; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Beiping

    2010-06-15

    Epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater contained highly concentrated and toxic organic compounds. The wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were used to eliminate pollutants in order to examine the feasibility of the WAO/CWAO as a pre-treatment method for the industrial wastewater. The results showed that in the WAO 63% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 41% total organic carbon (TOC) removals were achieved and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5))/COD ratio increased from 0.13 to 0.72 after 3h reaction at 250 degrees C, 3.5MPa and the initial concentration of 100g(COD)/L. Among homogenous catalysts (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) salts), Cu(2+) salt exhibited better performance. CuO catalyst was used in the CWAO of the wastewater, COD and TOC conversion were 77 and 54%, and good biodegradability was achieved. The results proved that the CWAO was an effective pre-treatment method for the epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater.

  18. The toughening mechanisms in epoxy-silica nanocomposites and hybrid epoxy-silica-rubber nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yi-Ling

    In order to improve the crack resistance of epoxy resins, either soft, micron size rubber particles or rigid, micron size spheres are commonly added as toughening agents. The toughening mechanisms induced by soft rubber particles and rigid spheres are different. The fracture behavior of toughened epoxy resins usually show a peak or plateau when the fraction of toughening agent reaches certain level. Therefore, epoxy resins modified by the incorporation of two types of toughening agents can be developed known as the hybrid composites with toughness greater than that when only one type toughening agent is used. Recently, a well dispersed, nanometer size silica spheres produced by sol-gel technology have been added into epoxy resin. The toughening behavior of the epoxy-silica nanocomposite (ESNs) is very interesting since it contradicts many conventional predictions. Moreover, a significant improvement of fracture behavior has been reported in hybrid epoxy-silica-rubber nanocomposite (HESRNs) when a small amount of nanosilica is used. However the toughening mechanisms in ESNs and HESRNs are not clear. The focus of this study is to understand the effect of nanosilica size as well as the nanosilica dispersion on the toughening behavior in ESNs and HESRNs. In addition, a system of hybrid epoxy-rubber?rubber blends (HERRBs) is developed to further elucidate the role of nanosilica in toughening mechanisms of ESNs, HESRNs.

  19. Evaluation of epoxy systems for use in SBASI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coultas, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the performance of different epoxy systems as replacements for existing epoxy systems in the SBASI. The three areas of investigation were the connector shell potting, the epoxy tape under the charge cup, and the epoxy impregnated fiberglass over the output charge. Factors considered, in addition to performance, were availability, shelf life, pot life, and effect on producibility and cost.

  20. Influence of Expanding Monomer on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    copolymerize. Embedded single filament tensile test results were compared for samples containing DGEBA -epoxy cured with m-phenylene (mPDA) wi_% those for...stage before the DNSOC begins to copolymerize. Embedded single filament tensile test results were compared for samples containing DGEBA -epoxy cured...Dr. Piggott incorporated DNSOC into DGEBA (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) type epoxies and found that epoxy susceptibility to water was reduced

  1. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  2. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  3. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  4. Hygrothermal expansion of Kevlar 49/epoxy and S2-glass/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, S.Y.; Hahn, H.T.

    1982-11-01

    Ply failure occurred during preconditioning at 75/sup 0/C of (0/90)/sub 2S/ S2-glass/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy laminates. Wet specimens showed different thermal expansion beavior near and above the glass transition temperature. Various available theories can be used to predict the thermal expansion coefficients. Stress analysis showed that the compressive normal stress at the interface in Kevlar 49/epoxy after cure is very small compared with those in other composites. Significant and rapid changes in the transverse coefficient of thermal expansion occurs in the T/sub g/ region. The two-phase diffusion model is a good representation of the diffusion behavior. Desorption process reveals a higher diffusion coefficient than absorption. S2-glass/epoxy was found to be unstable under the conditions applied, with cracking and losses during desorption. Maximum moisture contents were approx. 0.31% at 75/sup 0/C/75% RH and approx. 0.412% at 75/sup 0/C/water. The composite swelled transversely up to about 0.11 and 0.16%. Kevlar 49/epoxy was more stable than S2-glass/epoxy; max moisture contents were approx. 2.47% at 75/sup 0/C/75% RH and approx. 5.5% at 75/sup 0/C/water. The composite swelled transversely up to 1.0 and 2.23%. Results indicate that Kevlar 49 fibers swell radially. Relation between swelling strain and moisture content undergoes hysteresis during moisture cycling. Relation between swelling strain and moisture concentration is fairly linear for S2-glass/epoxy, Kevlar 49/epoxy and AS 3501/5 graphite/epoxy and only weakly depends on the material system. The equilibrium moisture content in (+-45)/sub 2S/ laminate is higher than in unidirectional lamina. The equilibrium thickness swelling strain can be predicted by laminated plate theory.

  5. Food contamination from epoxy resins and organosols used as can coatings: analysis by gradient NPLC.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K

    1998-07-01

    Normal phase LC with gradient elution enabled the analysis of a broadened range of oligomers of BADGE (Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether) and Novolak compounds in canned foods, such as sea foods in oil, meat products and soups. A major component released from Bisphenol-A resins was identified as the cyclo-(Bisphenol-A monoglycidyl ether) dimer and was commonly present in foods at concentrations of around 1 mg/kg. For the epoxy Novolaks, concentrations of the three- to six-ring compounds often far exceeded those of BFDGE (Bisphenol-F diglycidyl ether) and reached 20 mg/kg in foods. A two-step acylation is proposed for the detection of epoxy components.

  6. Effects of epoxy/hardener stoichiometry on structures and properties of a diethanolamine-cured epoxy encapsulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. F.; Xiao, M. Z.; Wu, Z.; Peng, K.; Han, C. M.; Xiang, W.; Dai, J. Y.

    2016-07-01

    For the epoxy encapsulant cured by diethanolamine, optimal epoxy/hardener stoichiometry could hardly be predicted due to the complex curing mechanisms. In this paper, the influences of stoichiometry were investigated by FTIR, DMA and tensile testing. The results showed that stoichiometry has a dominating effect on both Tg and tensile properties of the cured epoxy. The largest Tg , highest crosslink density as well as excellent ductility appeared in epoxy encapsulant cured with 14 wt% diethanolmine. When the content of diethanolamine was lower than 14 wt%, epoxy encapsulants showed smaller glycidyl conversion even with long-duration post-cure. Larger tensile strength and modulus were also observed in the glycidyl-rich epoxies, which could be explained by anti-plasticization effect. The amine-rich epoxy, however, had extremely high glycidyl conversion and presented brittle tensile behavior. A diethanolamine content of 12-14 wt% for the epoxy encapsulant is suggested to obtain optimal thermal and tensile properties.

  7. Biodegradable Epoxy Networks Cured with Polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shigeo; Kramer, Edward J.

    2006-03-01

    Epoxy resins are used widely for adhesives as well as coatings. However, once cured they are usually highly cross-linked and are not biodegradable. To obtain potentially biodegradable polypeptides that can cure with epoxy resins and achieve as good properties as the conventional phenol novolac hardeners, poly(succinimide-co-tyrosine) was synthesized by thermal polycondensation of L-aspartic acid and L-tyrosine with phosphoric acid under reduced pressure. The tyrosine/succinimide ratio in the polypeptide was always lower than the tyrosine/(aspartic acid) feed ratio and was influenced by the synthesis conditions. Poly(succinimide-tyrosine- phenylalanine) was also synthesized from L-aspartic acid, L- tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. The thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy resins cured with these polypeptides are comparable to those of similar resins cured with conventional hardeners. In addition, enzymatic degradability tests showed that Chymotrypsin or Subtilisin A could cleave cured films in an alkaline borate buffer.

  8. Physical aging in graphite epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The matrix dominated mechanical behavior of a graphite epoxy composite was found to be affected by sub Tg annealing. Postcured + or - 45 deg 4S specimens of Thornel 300 graphite/Narmco 5208 epoxy were quenched from above Tg and given a sub Tg annealing at 140 C for times up to 10 to the 5th power min. The ultimate tensile strength, strain to break, and toughness of the composite material were found to decrease as functions of sub Tg annealing time. No weight loss was observed during the sub Tg annealing. The time dependent change in mechanical behavior is explained on the basis of free volume changes that are related to the physical aging of the nonequilibrium glassy network epoxy. The results imply possible changes in composite properties with service time.

  9. Free-volume characteristics of epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Shultz, William J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to measure free-volume characteristics of selected epoxies. Fluorene resins, a new family of high-temperature thermosetting resins, were selected as the test medium. Experimental results indicate that the free-volume cell size V sub f varies with the molecular weight between the cross-links M sub c according to an equation of the form V sub f = AM sub c sup B, where A and B are structural constants. In two of the samples, the concentration of bulky fluorene groups was increased in the network backbone by replacement of some of the conventional bisphenol A epoxy resin with fluorene-derived epoxy resin. This resulted in an increase in their glass transition temperature for a given level of cross-linking. It was found that in these samples, the Doppler broadening of the annihilation peak decreases with the increasing fluorene content, presumably due to enhanced damping of the chain motions.

  10. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E

    2008-05-30

    Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

  11. A new epoxy embedment for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    FREEMAN, J A; SPURLOCK, B O

    1962-06-01

    A new epoxy embedding mixture has been developed utilizing Maraglas 655 and Cardolite NC-513 with benzyldimethylamine (BDMA) as a curing agent. This epoxy mixture permits cellular preservation comparable to that obtained with Epon 812, ease of preparation of tissues, a wide range of miscibility, low viscosity, and, most important, ease of sectioning on a Porter-Blum microtome. In contrast to Epon-812-embedded tissues, Maraglas-Cardolite-embedded tissues can be sectioned in large dimensions with ease and consistent results without "chatter." No background granularity is detectable with high magnification study of Maraglas-Cardolite-embedded tissues. This epoxy is readily stained with lead hydroxide and is relatively stable in the electron beam.

  12. A NEW EPOXY EMBEDMENT FOR ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, James A.; Spurlock, Ben O.

    1962-01-01

    A new epoxy embedding mixture has been developed utilizing Maraglas 655 and Cardolite NC-513 with benzyldimethylamine (BDMA) as a curing agent. This epoxy mixture permits cellular preservation comparable to that obtained with Epon 812, ease of preparation of tissues, a wide range of miscibility, low viscosity, and, most important, ease of sectioning on a Porter-Blum microtome. In contrast to Epon-812-embedded tissues, Maraglas-Cardolite-embedded tissues can be sectioned in large dimensions with ease and consistent results without "chatter." No background granularity is detectable with high magnification study of Maraglas-Cardolite-embedded tissues. This epoxy is readily stained with lead hydroxide and is relatively stable in the electron beam. PMID:13894888

  13. Epoxy coated reinforcement in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, J.

    A review was conducted of methods relating to the use of epoxy coated reinforcing bars for bridge decks and their potential for use in the United Kingdom. A survey of work carried out in the USA was carried out and the analysis used in a preliminary cost study. The options of having either a hot rolled asphalt surfacing or a permanently exposed concrete wearing surface were considered. It was concluded that epoxy coating of the top steel in addition to current waterproofing practice would provide, at relatively little extra cost, additional assurance that the reinforcement would be adequately protected throughout the life of a bridge. Current design rules do not permit decks with permanently exposed concrete wearing surface without waterproofing. Epoxy coating may afford a means of introducing such decks but before a positive recommendation to delete waterproofing can be made further studies would have to be undertaken.

  14. Unanticipated Effects of Epoxy Impregnating Transformers

    SciTech Connect

    SANCHEZ,ROBERT O.; ARCHER,WENDEL E.

    2000-08-23

    Many Sandia components for military applications are designed for a 20-year life. In order to determine if magnetic components meet that requirement, the parts are subjected to selected destructive tests. This paper reviews the re-design of a power transformer and the tests required to prove-in the re-design. The re-design included replacing the Epon 828/Mica/methylenedianiline (curing agent Z) epoxy encapsulant with a recent Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) developed epoxy encapsulant. The new encapsulant reduces the Environmental Safety and Health (ES and H) hazards. Life testing of this re-designed transformer generated failures; an open secondary winding. An experimental program to determine the cause of the broken wires and an improved design to eliminate the problem was executed. This design weakness was corrected by reverting to the hazardous epoxy system.

  15. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. Atomistic modeling of thermomechanical properties of SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasanella, Nicholas; Sundararaghavan, Veera

    2015-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to compute thermomechanical properties of cured epoxy resins reinforced with pristine and covalently functionalized carbon nanotubes. A DGEBA-DDS epoxy network was built using the ‘dendrimer’ growth approach where 75% of available epoxy sites were cross-linked. The epoxy model is verified through comparisons to experiments, and simulations are performed on nanotube reinforced cross-linked epoxy matrix using the CVFF force field in LAMMPS. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors are obtained for the nanocomposite. Large increases in stiffness and large decreases in thermal expansion were seen along the direction of the nanotube for both nanocomposite systems when compared to neat epoxy. The direction transverse to nanotube saw a 40% increase in stiffness due to covalent functionalization over neat epoxy at 1 K whereas the pristine nanotube system only saw a 7% increase due to van der Waals effects. The functionalized SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite showed an additional 42% decrease in thermal expansion along the nanotube direction when compared to the pristine SWNT/epoxy nanocomposite. The stiffness matrices are rotated over every possible orientation to simulate the effects of an isotropic system of randomly oriented nanotubes in the epoxy. The randomly oriented covalently functionalized SWNT/Epoxy nanocomposites showed substantial improvements over the plain epoxy in terms of higher stiffness (200% increase) and lower thermal expansion (32% reduction). Through MD simulations, we develop means to build simulation cells, perform annealing to reach correct densities, compute thermomechanical properties and compare with experiments.

  17. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  2. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10113 - Thioether epoxy (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thioether epoxy (generic). 721.10113... Substances § 721.10113 Thioether epoxy (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as thioether epoxy (PMN P-04-547) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  6. Epoxy-coated containers easily opened by wire band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Coy, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Epoxy coating reduces punctures, abrasions, and contamination of synthetic cellular containers used for shipping and storing fragile goods and equipment. A wire band is wound around the closure joint, followed by the epoxy coating. The container can then be easily opened by pulling the wire through the epoxy around the joint.

  7. Kevlar 49/Epoxy COPV Aging Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, James K.; Salem, Jonathan L.; Thesken, John C.; Russell, Richard W.; Littell, Justin; Ruggeri, Charles; Leifeste, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA initiated an effort to determine if the aging of Kevlar 49/Epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) affected their performance. This study briefly reviews the history and certification of composite pressure vessels employed on NASA Orbiters. Tests to evaluate overwrap tensile strength changes compared 30 year old samples from Orbiter vessels to new Kevlar/Epoxy pressure vessel materials. Other tests include transverse compression and thermal analyses (glass transition and moduli). Results from these tests do not indicate a noticeable effect due to aging of the overwrap materials.

  8. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Lee, Elizabeth; Kallam, Alekhya; Majumdar, Partha; Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J.; Celina, Mathias C.; Bahr, James; Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  9. Interphase tailoring in graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, R. V.; Sanadi, A. R.; Crasto, A. S.

    1988-01-01

    The fiber-matrix interphase in graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites is presently modified through the electrodeposition of a coating of the polymer poly(styrene-comaleic anhydride), or 'SMA' on the graphite fibers; optimum conditions have been established for the achievement of the requisite thin, uniform coatings, as verified by SEM. A single-fiber composite test has shown the SMA coating to result in an interfacial shear strength to improve by 50 percent over commercially treated fibers without sacrifice in impact strength. It is suggested that the epoxy resin's superior penetration into the SMA interphase results in a tougher fiber/matrix interface which possesses intrinsic energy-absorbing mechanisms.

  10. Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Nanocomposites Affected by MWCNTs Functionalization: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Bakhshandeh, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Mäder, Edith; Scheffler, Christina; Heinrich, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview to emphasize the role of functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in manipulating cure kinetics of epoxy nanocomposites, which itself determines ultimate properties of the resulting compound. In this regard, the most commonly used functionalization schemes, that is, carboxylation and amidation, are thoroughly surveyed to highlight the role of functionalized nanotubes in controlling the rate of autocatalytic and vitrification kinetics. The current literature elucidates that the mechanism of curing in epoxy/MWCNTs nanocomposites remains almost unaffected by the functionalization of carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, early stage facilitation of autocatalytic reactions in the presence of MWCNTs bearing amine groups has been addressed by several researchers. When carboxylated nanotubes were used to modify MWCNTs, the rate of such reactions diminished as a consequence of heterogeneous dispersion within the epoxy matrix. At later stages of curing, however, the prolonged vitrification was seen to be dominant. Thus, the type of functional groups covalently located on the surface of MWCNTs directly affects the degree of polymer-nanotube interaction followed by enhancement of curing reaction. Our survey demonstrated that most widespread efforts ever made to represent multifarious surface-treated MWCNTs have not been directed towards preparation of epoxy nanocomposites, but they could result in property synergism. PMID:24348181

  11. Recent developments in the production of spin-cast epoxy mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodhacker, K. Lisa; Ritter, Joe; La Croix, Andrew; Holenstein, Bruce; Genet, Russell M.

    2014-03-01

    NASA is currently developing optical communications to use with its spacecraft—both in earth-orbit and in deep space. This may allow spacecraft to use small, pencil-beam telescopes instead of large, wide-beam microwave antennas, potentially saving weight, reducing transmission power, and increasing communications bandwidth. The Earth side of such communications links will require a network of low cost, ground-based telescopes. The ground support mission mentioned above would benefit from the development of lightweight, low cost, 1 to 2 meter aperture telescopes. The key is the development of low cost, diffraction limited mirrors that cost orders of magnitude less than NASA's current telescope mirrors, have a drastically reduced manufacturing time, with significant weight reduction (low areal density). Spin-cast epoxy mirrors do not require any grinding, polishing, or figuring and therefore have the potential for low cost, short production time, and light weight. The specially-formulated thin epoxy described here naturally forms a parabolic surface when spun at constant velocity and once it hardens, the mirror surface is ready for use except for a reflective coating. A recently produced 50cm diameter f/2 spin-cast epoxy mirror has been measured to have a 6-8 micron RMS surface figure deviation and approximately 1 nm microroughness. Other advances include the synthesis and co-polymerization of spiro orthocarbonate compounds (SOCs) to reduce chemical shrinkage and the engineering of a stiff mold to hold the curing epoxy as it spins.

  12. Preparation of well-controlled three-dimensional skeletal hybrid monoliths via thiol-epoxy click polymerization for highly efficient separation of small molecules in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Chen, Lianfang; Ou, Junjie; Liu, Zhongshan; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-10-16

    Two kinds of hybrid monoliths were first prepared via thiol-epoxy click polymerization using a multi-epoxy monomer, octaglycidyldimethylsilyl POSS (POSS-epoxy), and two multi-thiols, trimethylolpropanetris(3-mercaptopropionate) (TPTM) and pentaerythritoltetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PTM), respectively, as the precursors. The resulting two hybrid monoliths (assigned as POSS-epoxy-TPTM and POSS-epoxy-PTM) not only possessed high thermal, mechanical and chemical stabilities, but also exhibited well-controlled 3D skeletal microstructure and high efficiency in capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) separation of small molecules. The highest column efficiency reached 182,700N/m (for butylbenzene) on the monolith POSS-epoxy-PTM at the velocity of 0.75mm/s. Furthermore, the hybrid monolith POSS-epoxy-PTM was successfully applied for cLC separations of various samples, not only standard compounds such as alkylbenzenes, PAHs, phenols and dipeptides, as well as intact proteins, but also complex samples of EPA 610 and BSA digest.

  13. Pretreatment of Kapton-coated cable for epoxy adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    A new system to protect bonded strain gages that will be attached to the MFTF magnets was tested and indicated falling electrical resistance to ground, which is attributed to the infiltration of moisture. The most likely infiltration route seemed to be along the Kapton lead cable, which has an outer space of FEP fluorocarbon resin. The treated ends are embedded in the epoxy sealant, Hysol EA 934, a compound containing 70 wt % of asbestos. The tensile shear stresses required to pull the wires out of these embedments were measured. It is shown that the three levels of treatment are equally effective in raising the bond strength from 377 psi for the untreated cable to about twice that, 763 psi. It appears that the 40-s exposure to Tetra-Etch has penetrated the 0.5 mil fluorocarbon coating and attacks the Kapton film and the conductor coatings inside it.

  14. Characterization of Epoxy Functionalized Graphite Nanoparticles and the Physical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Bauer, Jonathan L.; Maryanski, Michael J.; Heimann, Paula J.; Barlow, Jeremy P.; Gosau, Jan-Michael; Allred, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to the functionalization of graphite nanoparticles. The technique provides a mechanism for covalent bonding between the filler and matrix, with minimal disruption to the sp2 hybridization of the pristine graphene sheet. Functionalization proceeded by covalently bonding an epoxy monomer to the surface of expanded graphite, via a coupling agent, such that the epoxy concentration was measured as approximately 4 wt.%. The impact of dispersing this material into an epoxy resin was evaluated with respect to the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the graphite-epoxy nanocomposite. At a loading as low as 0.5 wt.%, the electrical conductivity was increased by five orders of magnitude relative to the base resin. The material yield strength was increased by 30% and Young s modulus by 50%. These results were realized without compromise to the resin toughness.

  15. Effect of Liquid-Crystalline Epoxy Backbone Structure on Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy-Alumina Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, Thanhkieu; Kim, Jinhwan

    2017-01-01

    In a series of papers published recently, we clearly demonstrated that the most important factor governing the thermal conductivity of epoxy-Al2O3 composites is the backbone structure of the epoxy. In this study, three more epoxies based on diglycidyl ester-terminated liquid-crystalline epoxy (LCE) have been synthesized to draw conclusions regarding the effect of the epoxy backbone structure on the thermal conductivity of epoxy-alumina composites. The synthesized structures were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and optical microscopy were also employed to examine the thermal and optical properties of the synthesized LCEs and the cured composites. All three LCE resins exhibited typical liquid-crystalline behaviors: clear solid crystalline state below the melting temperature ( T m), sharp crystalline melting at T m, and transition to nematic phase above T m with consequent isotropic phase above the isotropic temperature ( T i). The LCE resins displayed distinct nematic liquid-crystalline phase over a wide temperature range and retained liquid-crystalline phase after curing, with high thermal conductivity of the resulting composite. The thermal conductivity values ranged from 3.09 W/m-K to 3.89 W/m-K for LCE-Al2O3 composites with 50 vol.% filler loading. The steric effect played a governing role in the difference. The neat epoxy resin thermal conductivity was obtained as 0.35 W/m-K to 0.49 W/m-K based on analysis using the Agari-Uno model. The results clearly support the objective of this study in that the thermal conductivity of the LCE-containing networks strongly depended on the epoxy backbone structure and the degree of ordering in the cured network.

  16. Thermal expansion and swelling of cured epoxy resin used in graphite/epoxy composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents results of experiments in which the thermal expansion and swelling behavior of an epoxy resin system and two graphite/epoxy composite systems exposed to water were measured. It was found that the cured epoxy resin swells by an amount slightly less than the volume of the absorbed water and that the swelling efficiency of the water varies with the moisture content of the polymer. Additionally, the thermal expansion of cured epoxy resin that is saturated with water is observed to be more than twice that of dry resin. Results also indicate that cured resin that is saturated with 7.1% water at 95 C will rapidly increase in moisture content to 8.5% when placed in 1 C water. The mechanism for this phenomenon, termed reverse thermal effect, is described in terms of a slightly modified free-volume theory in conjunction with the theory of polar molecule interaction. Nearly identical behavior was observed in two graphite/epoxy composite systems, thus establishing that this behavior may be common to all cured epoxy resins.

  17. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  18. Thermal modeling of an epoxy encapsulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, R.G.; Schutt, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The encapsulation of components is a widely used process at Sandia National Laboratories for packaging components to withstand structural loads. Epoxy encapsulants are also used for their outstanding dielectric strength characteristics. The production of high voltage assemblies requires the encapsulation of ceramic and electrical components (such as transformers). Separation of the encapsulant from internal contact surfaces or voids within the encapsulant itself in regions near the mold base have caused high voltage breakdown failures during production testing. In order to understand the failure mechanisms, a methodology was developed to predict both the thermal response and gel front progression of the epoxy the encapsulation process. A thermal model constructed with PATRAN Plus (1) and solved with the P/THERMAL (2) analysis system was used to predict the thermal response of the encapsulant. This paper discusses the incorporation of an Arrhenius kinetics model into Q/TRAN (2) to model the complex volumetric heat generation of the epoxy during the encapsulation process. As the epoxy begins to cure, it generates heat and shrinks. The total cure time of the encapsulant (transformation from a viscous liquid to solid) is dependent on both the initial temperature and the entire temperature history. Because the rate of cure is temperature dependent, the cure rate accelerates with a temperature increase and, likewise, the cure rate is quenched if the temperature is reduced. The temperature and conversion predictions compared well against experimental data. The thermal simulation results were used to modify the temperature cure process of the encapsulant and improve production yields.

  19. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  20. Microcracking in Graphite-Epoxy Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    ply Pabric 350 -100 to -320 Kirlin/ Pynchon GY 70/X30 (0/45190/135)s 250 -170 General Dynamics/Convair Division CY 70/934 0. 350 -16 Aerospace...and Glass Matrices," J. Mat. Sci. 7, 676-681 (1972). 17. R. L. Kirlin and G. E. Pynchon , "Dimensional Stability Investigation - Graphite/Epoxy Truss

  1. Atmospheric corrosion and epoxy-coated reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, H.G.

    1998-12-31

    Atmospheric corrosion can have a tremendous effect on the ability of epoxy-coated reinforcement to maintain its effectiveness. Corrosive conditions can result in the coating becoming brittle and more susceptible to damage from handling. Atmospheric conditions can also enhance localized corrosion at holidays on the bars. Efforts to minimize these effects will be discussed.

  2. Lightweight sheet molding compound (SMC) composites containing cellulose nanocrystals

    Treesearch

    Amir Asadi; Mark Miller; Arjun V. Singh; Robert J. Moon; Kyriaki Kalaitzidou

    2017-01-01

    A scalable technique was introduced to produce high volume lightweight composites using sheet molding compound (SMC) manufacturing method by replacing 10 wt% glass fibers (GF) with a small amount of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The incorporation of 1 and 1.5 wt% CNC by dispersing in the epoxy matrix of short GF/epoxy SMC composites with 25 wt% GF content (25GF/CNC-...

  3. Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus-Containing Flame Retardant Curing Agent and Its Application in Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkun; Xu, Miaojun; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A novel phosphorus-containing compound diphenyl-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phosphine oxide defined as DPDHPPO was synthesized and used as flame retardant and curing agent for epoxy resins (EP). The chemical structure was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H, 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The flame retardant properties, combusting performances and thermal degradation behaviors of the cured epoxy resins were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning tests (UL-94), cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests. The morphologies and chemical compositions of char residues for cured epoxy resins were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The water resistant properties were evaluated by putting the samples into distilled water at 70 degrees C for 168 h. The results revealed that the EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets successfully passed UL-94 V-0 flammability rating and the LOI value was as high as 31.9%. The cone tests results revealed that the incorporation of DPDHPPO efficiently reduced the combustion parameters of epoxy resins thermosets, such as heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR) and so on. The TGA results indicated that the introduction of DPDHPPO promoted epoxy resins matrix decomposed ahead of time compared with that of pure EP and led to a higher char yield and thermal stability at high temperature. The morphological structures and analysis of XPS of char residues revealed that DPDHPPO benefited to the formation of a sufficient, compact and homogeneous char layer with rich flame retardant elements on the epoxy resins materials surface during combustion. After water resistance tests, EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets still remained excellent flame retardancy, the moisture absorption of epoxy resins thermosets decreased with the increase of DPDHPPO contents in the thermosets due to the existing

  4. Reduced sensitizing capacity of epoxy resin systems: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Ida B; Broo, Kerstin; Jonsson, Charlotte; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2009-11-01

    Epoxy resins can be prepared from numerous chemical compositions. Until recently, alternatives to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A (DGEBA) or bisphenol F (DGEBF) monomers have not received commercial interest, but are presently doing so, as epoxy resins with various properties are desired. Epoxy resin systems are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis because of contents of uncured monomers, reactive diluents, and hardeners. Reactive diluents, for example, glycidyl ethers, which also contain epoxide moieties, are added to reduce viscosity and improve polymerization. We have investigated the contact allergenic properties of a series of six analogues to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE), all with similar basic structures but with varying carbon chain lengths and degrees of saturation. The chemical reactivity of the compounds in the test series toward the hexapeptide H-Pro-His-Cys-Lys-Arg-Met-OH was investigated. All epoxides were shown to bind covalently to both cysteine and proline residues. The percent depletion of nonreacted peptide was also studied resulting in 88% depletion when using PGE and 46% when using butyl glycidyl ether (5) at the same time point, thus revealing a large difference between the fastest and the slowest reacting epoxide. The skin sensitization potencies of the epoxides using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) were evaluated in relation to the observed physicochemical and reactivity properties. To enable determination of statistical significance between structurally closely related compounds, a nonpooled LLNA was performed. It was found that the compounds investigated ranged from strong to weak sensitizers, congruent with the reactivity data, indicating that even small changes in chemical structure result in significant differences in sensitizing capacity.

  5. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents. Part 1: Solvent degradation of amine cured epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheineck, A. E.; Heskin, R. A.; Hill, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    The solubility and/or swelling of cured epoxy resins was studied using the solubility parameter method. Determination of solubility parameters were found in order to select solvents for solvent-assisted degradation of cured epoxy polymers used in spacecraft. A method for improving recovery of seeded spores is suggested for assay of buried contaminants. Three commercial epoxy resins were cured using four different alkyl amines. For each resin-amine combination, three levels of amine were used, corresponding to 1/3, 2/3, and all of the amine required to react with the oxirane groups of the resin. The solubility parameters of the 36 resulting model compounds were determined in poorly and moderately hydrogen-bonded solvents. No strongly hydrogen-bonded solvents caused dissolution or swelling. The tolerance of cured resins is discussed in terms of polymer structure.

  6. New structure of diamine curing agent for epoxy resins with self-restoration ability: Synthesis and spectroscopy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata; Naddeo, Carlo; Longo, Pasquale; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Agovino, Anna

    2017-02-01

    The development of smart materials in aeronautical structures consisting of compounds based on epoxy resins having self-repair capability has been hampered by some criticalities. One of the main critical points is related to the impossibility to use primary amines (e.g.: 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS) as hardeners, because they can poison the catalyst responsible for the healing mechanisms. In this paper, the synthesis, characterization and some tests of applicability of a new hardener, the tetramethylated diaminodiphenyl sulfone (tm-DDS), are shown. The tm-DDS is able to rapidly react with epoxy resin, giving a composite material having some characteristics significantly better than composites hardened with different tertiary amines. The new hardener is able to increase the glass transition temperature (Tg) of about 90 °C with respect to the more common hardener, ancamine K54, already used in self-healing epoxy formulations.

  7. Sensitization to reactive diluents and hardeners in epoxy resin systems. IVDK data 2002-2011. Part I: reaction frequencies.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Hillen, Uwe; Skudlik, Christoph; Jappe, Uta

    2016-02-01

    Epoxy resin systems (ERSs), consisting of resins, reactive diluents, and hardeners, are indispensable in many branches of industry. In order to develop less sensitizing ERS formulations, knowledge of the sensitizing properties of single components is mandatory. To analyse the frequency of sensitization in the patients concerned, as one integral part of a research project on the sensitizing potency of epoxy resin compounds (FP-0324). A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 2002-2011, and a comparison of reaction frequencies with (surrogate) exposure data, were performed. Almost half of the patients sensitized to epoxy resin were additionally sensitized to reactive diluents or hardeners. Among the reactive diluents, 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether was the most frequent allergen, followed by 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, phenyl glycidyl ether, and p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether. Among the hardeners, m-xylylene diamine (MXDA) and isophorone diamine (IPDA) were the most frequent allergens. According to the calculated exposure-related frequency of sensitization, MXDA seems to be a far more important sensitizer than IPDA. Up to 60% of the patients sensitized to hardeners and 15-20% of those sensitized to reactive diluents do not react to epoxy resin. In cases of suspected contact allergy to an ERS, a complete epoxy resin series must be patch tested from the start. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Contact allergy to epoxy resin: risk occupations and consequences.

    PubMed

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Veien, Niels Kren; Laurberg, Grete; Kaaber, Knud; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Bo Lasthein; Danielsen, Anne; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Ove; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-08-01

    Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis patients patch tested during 2005-2009. All patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test were sent a questionnaire. A positive patch test reaction to epoxy resin was found in 275 patients (1.3%), with a higher proportion in men (1.9%) than in women (1.0%). The prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resin remained stable over the study period. Of the patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test, 71% returned a questionnaire; 95 patients had worked with epoxy resin in the occupational setting, and, of these, one-third did not use protective gloves and only 50.5% (48) had participated in an educational programme. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Investigations of toughening mechanisms of epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, T.

    1986-01-01

    Composite material technology was applied to the solid rocket booster by the development of a carbon filament-epoxy resin case which yields a net increase of 4000 lbs. in payload in the shuttle. The question of reusability of the new composite tanks has not yet been answered and will depend on the toughness of the matrix resin. The present study was aimed at providing conditions whereby test specimens of the epoxy resin (EPON/85) and curing agents of systematically varied structures could be produced in a controlled manner. Three sets of conditions were found that might allow the isolation of the structural effects on toughness from the cure effects. The kinetic methods leading to the determination of these conditions are described.

  10. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L

    2002-04-05

    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were <0.8%. Speed and simplicity are important advantages of the coating procedure compared to other published coating methods.

  11. Microwave limb sounder, graphite epoxy support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pynchon, G.

    1980-01-01

    The manufacturing and processing procedures which were used to fabricate a precision graphite/epoxy support structure for a spherical microwave reflecting surface are described. The structure was made fromm GY-70/930 ultra high modulus graphite prepreg, laminated to achieve an isotropic in plane thermal expansion of less than + or - 0.1 PPM/F. The structure was hand assembled to match the interface of the reflective surface, which was an array of 18 flexure supported, aluminum, spherically contoured tiles. Structural adhesives were used in the final assembly to bond the elements into their final configuration. A eutectic metal coating was applied to the composite surface to reduce dimensional instabilities arising from changes in the composite epoxy moisture content due to environmental effects. Basic materials properties data are reported and the results of a finite element structural analysis are referenced.

  12. Permeability measurement and control for epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsun-Hsu; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Wong, Wei-Syuan; Chen, Yen-Ren; Chao, Hsien-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The coupling of the electric and magnetic fields leads to a strong interplay in materials' permittivity and permeability. Here, we proposed a specially designed cavity, called the mu cavity. The mu cavity, consisting of a mushroom structure inside a cylindrical resonator, is exclusively sensitive to permeability, but not to permittivity. It decouples materials' electromagnetic properties and allows an accurate measurement of the permeability. With the help of an epsilon cavity, these two cavities jointly determine the complex permeability and permittivity of the materials at microwave frequencies. Homemade epoxy-based composite materials were prepared and tested. Measurement and manipulation of the permeability and permittivity of the epoxy composites will be shown. The results will be compared with the effective medium theories.

  13. Mechanism of fatigue failure of clay-epoxy nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Juwono, Ariadne; Edward, Graham

    2006-12-01

    This work investigates the fatigue behaviour and the mechanism of fatigue failure of an epoxy resin with a dispersion of modified layered silicates in the polymer matrix. The fatigue properties are very important for structural application of nanocomposite materials. Clay-epoxy nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with a commercially available 1-Methylimidazole curing agent. The XRD and TEM findings demonstrated a pattern of clay morphology typically found in nanocomposite systems. The fatigue performance and fatigue failure mechanism of the clay-epoxy materials were studied under repetitive bending loads. The results showed that the fatigue life of filled epoxy improved significantly at strain amplitudes below a threshold value. The E-SEM observations of the epoxy and the clay-epoxy fracture surfaces showed different patterns. In conclusion, the addition of silicate strongly determines the fracture mechanism and enhances the fatigue performance.

  14. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  15. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules.

  16. Morphology development of rubber-modified epoxy thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, O.; Ward, T.C.

    1996-12-31

    Epoxy thermosets have been widely used as high performance adhesives and matrix resins for composites due to their outstanding mechanical and thermal properties, such as high modulus and tensile strength, high glass transition temperature, high thermal stability, and moisture resistance. Incorporation of a secondary rubbery phase into the glassy epoxy matrix can improve impact and fracture toughness of epoxy thermosets without sacrificing the other desirable properties of the neat epoxy thermoset. During the curing process, the initial homogeneous solution of epoxy resin-curing agent-rubber generally forms rubber-rich and epoxy-rich phases by a phase separation process which is arrested by gelation or vitrification. The final morphology developed by the cure depends on relative rates of cure reaction and phase separation. Cure conditions and the initial rubber composition control the morphology of the system and thus control the mechanical properties of the system.

  17. High Temperature Epoxy Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-10

    weak molecular interaction between non-polar alkyl chain of ammonium modified clay and polar group of epoxy resin. This was confirmed by the X- ray...polymer matrix. Several functionalized imidazolium clays , functionalized anionic clays , and silylated apophylites were synthesized and characterized by...XRD and TGA. Thermal studies of functionalized clay have shown that the onset decomposition temperature of imidazolium functionalized clay (>325oC

  18. Solvent Based Self Healing Epoxy Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    healing in an epoxy resin required high temperature conditions for healing to occur. 2 This observed healing after fracture of the virgin material was...as hydrogen bond donors. NMP Chlorobenzene Hexanes Toluene Formamide THF CH2Cl2 Nitrobenzene DMA DMF DMSO CH3CN Butanol Ethanol Water Xylenes 0...thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments of these capsules after several weeks of storage. (a) (b) Figure 2 . ESEM images of an

  19. Metallic Coatings for Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Aero Structures Dept -. Radomes Section B-2 DISTRIBUTION (cont.)K COPIES * U. S. Army Air Mobility R&D Laboratory 1II 1Fort Eustis, VA ATTN: SAVDL-EU...for graphite/epoxy laminated aircraft structures were developed to provide protection against moisture penetration, electro’)- magnetic interference...performance * aircraft. Utilization of advanced composite structures to their design limits neces- sitates the protection of these structures against

  20. Glass/Epoxy Door Panel for Automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L. JR.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight panel cost-effective. Integrally-molded intrusion strap key feature of composite outer door panel. Strap replaces bulky and heavy steel instrusion beam of conventional door. Standard steel inner panel used for demonstration purposes. Door redesigned to exploit advantages of composite outer panel thinner. Outer panel for automobilie door, made of glass/epoxy composite material, lighter than conventional steel door panel, meets same strength requirements, and less expensive.

  1. Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

  2. Method for Improving Acoustic Impedance of Epoxy Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    include neoprene, ethylene propylene diene monomer ( EPDM ) and polyurethane rubbers . Typical applications of these materials encapsulate and protect...a different material (e.g., rubber ) cannot be used. Thus, a hard, strong and acoustically transparent material is needed. Suitable high modulus...an epoxy resin. In this method, an epoxy resin component is mixed with a rubber component. The epoxy resin component is preferably a bisphenol A

  3. Method for Improving Acoustic Impedance of Epoxy Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    neoprene, ethylene propylene diene monomer ( EPDM ) and polyurethane rubbers . Typical applications of these materials encapsulate and protect acoustic...different material (e.g., rubber ) cannot be used. Thus, a hard, strong and acoustically transparent material is needed. Suitable high modulus...epoxy resin. In this method, an epoxy resin component is mixed with a rubber component. The epoxy resin component is preferably a bisphenol A

  4. Evaluation of Coatings for FR-4 Fiberglass Epoxy Composite Probes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    FR-4 fiberglass epoxy composite. In an effort to protect the probe from the damaging effects of abrasive components in soil, three commercial epoxy...coatings were evaluated for abrasion resistance. This report focuses on the application and performance properties of coatings applied to the FR-4...fiberglass epoxy composite material. The Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser (ASTM D4060-10) was used

  5. Selective Clay Placement Within a Silicate-Clay Epoxy Blend Nanocomposite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A clay-epoxy nanocomposite may be prepared by dispersing a layered clay in an alkoxy epoxy, such as a polypropylene oxide based epoxide before combining the mixture with an aromatic epoxy to improve the nanocomposite's thermal and mechanical properties.

  6. Rate dependent response and failure of a ductile epoxy and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric N; Rae, Philip J; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Stahl, David B

    2010-01-01

    An extensive characterization suite has been performed on the response and failure of a ductile epoxy 55A and uniaxial carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite of IM7 fibers in 55A resin from the quasistatic to shock regime. The quasistatic and intermediate strain rate response, including elastic modulus, yield and failure have are characterized by quasistatic, SHPB, and DMA measurements as a function of fiber orientation and temperature. The high strain rate shock effect of fiber orientation in the composite and response of the pure resin are presented for plate impact experiments. It has previously been shown that at lower impact velocities the shock velocity is strongly dependent on fiber orientation but at higher impact velocity the in-plane and through thickness Hugoniots converge. The current results are compared with previous studies of the shock response of carbon fiber composites with more conventional brittle epoxy matrices. The spall response of the composite is measured and compared with quasistatic fracture toughness measurements.

  7. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  8. Toughened epoxy resin system and a method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1998-03-10

    Mixtures of epoxy resins with cationic initiators are curable under high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam radiation, X-ray radiation, and gamma radiation. The composition of this process consists of an epoxy resin, a cationic initiator such as a diaryliodonium or triarylsulfonium salt of specific anions, and a toughening agent such as a thermoplastic, hydroxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, epoxy-containing thermoplastic oligomer, reactive flexibilizer, rubber, elastomer, or mixture thereof. Cured compositions have high glass transition temperatures, good mechanical properties, and good toughness. These properties are comparable to those of similar thermally cured epoxies.

  9. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  10. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  11. Persistent photosensitivity after allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Tiffany; Rosen, Cheryl F; Storrs, Frances J; Lobel, Edmund; DeKoven, Joel G

    2013-01-01

    Persistent photosensitivity after allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to epoxy resin has rarely been described. The aim of this study was to create awareness that ACD to epoxy may be a trigger for persistent photosensitivity. We present a series of 5 patients who developed ACD to epoxy resin and later a photodistributed eczematous eruption when exposed to sunlight, with a documented decrease in minimal erythema dose to UVA and UVB. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 71 years, and there were 3 men and 2 women. Each patient had occupational exposure to epoxy. Symptoms of epoxy ACD preceded photosensitivity by 5 months to 12 years in 3 cases and occurred simultaneously in 2 cases. Patch testing to epoxy resin was positive in all patients. Phototesting revealed a decreased minimal erythema dose to UVA and UVB in each of the 3 patients who were phototested. Photopatch testing was positive for epoxy resin in 1 of the 2 patients tested. All patients remained photosensitive for at least 2 years after diagnosis, with only 1 case of photosensitivity resolving with extended avoidance of epoxy. There is an association between ACD to epoxy resin and development of persistent photosensitivity. Possible mechanisms to explain the relationship between the 2 phenomena are discussed.

  12. Antidiarrheal Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina glabrata. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 10-Benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol Isobutyrate.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Brito, Celia; Vázquez-Heredia, Valeria J; Calzada, Fernando; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian; Calderón, José S; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Esquivel, Baldomero; García-Hernández, Normand; Quijano, Leovigildo

    2016-09-12

    Chemical investigation of the leaves from Ageratina glabrata yielded four new thymol derivatives, namely: 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydro-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (4), 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-dehydrothymol (5), 10-benzoyloxythymol (6) and 10-benzoyloxy-6,8-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryl-oxythymol (7). In addition, (8S)-10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-hydroxythymol isobutyrate (1), together with other two already known thymol derivatives identified as 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxy-6-methoxythymol isobutyrate (2) and 10-benzoyloxy-8,9-epoxythymol isobutyrate (3) were also obtained. In this paper, we report the structures and complete assignments of the ¹H and (13)C-NMR data of compounds 1-7, and the absolute configuration for compound 1, unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and evaluation of the Flack parameter. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that compound 1 and its derivative 1a were the most potent antiamoebic and antigiardial compounds. Both compounds showed selectivity and good antiamoebic activity comparable to emetine and metronidazole, respectively, two antiprotozoal drugs used as positive controls. In relation to anti-propulsive effect, compound 1 and 1a showed inhibitory activity, with activities comparable to quercetin and compound 9, two natural antipropulsive compounds used as positive controls. These data suggest that compound 1 may play an important role in antidiarrheal properties of Ageratina glabrata.

  13. Space environmental effects on graphite-epoxy compressive properties and epoxy tensile properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Derek J.; Sykes, George F., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the effects of electron radiation and temperature on a graphite-epoxy composite material. Compressive properties of the T300/934 material system were obtained at -250 F (-157 C), room temperature, and 250 F (121 C). Tensile specimens of the Fiberite 934 epoxy resin were fabricated and tested at room temperature and 250 F (121 C). Testing was conducted in the baseline (nonirradiated) and irradiated conditions. The radiation exposure was designed to simulate 30 year, worst-case exposure in geosynchronous Earth orbit. Mechanical properties tended to degrade at elevated temperature and improve at cryogenic temperature. Irradiation generally degraded properties at all temperatures.

  14. Organo-modified bentonites as new flame retardant fillers in epoxy resin nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benelli, Tiziana; D'Angelo, Emanuele; Mazzocchetti, Laura; Saraga, Federico; Sambri, Letizia; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Giorgini, Loris

    2016-05-01

    The present work deals with two organophilic bentonites, based on nitrogen-containing compounds: these organoclays were synthesized via an ion exchange process starting from pristine bentonite with 6-(4-butylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (BFTDA) and 11-amino-N-(pyridine-2yl)undecanamide (APUA) and then used for the production of epoxy-based flame retardant nanocomposites. The amount of organic modifier in the organoclays Bento-BFTDA and Bento-APUA was determined with a TGA analysis and is around 0.4mmol/g for both samples. The effect of the organoclays on a commercial epoxy resin nanocomposite's thermo-mechanical and flammability properties was investigated. Composites containing 3wt% and 5wt% of the nanofillers were prepared by solventless addition of each organoclay to the epoxy resin, followed by further addition of the hardener component. For the sake of comparison a similar nanocomposite with the plain unmodified bentonite was produced in similar condition. The nanocomposites's thermo-mechanical properties of all the produced samples were measured and they resulted slightly improved or practically unaffected. On the contrary, when the flame behaviour was assessed in the cone-calorimeter, an encouraging decrease of 17% in the peak heat released rate (pHRR) was obtained at 3wt% loading level with Bento-APUA. This is a promising result, assessing that the APUA modified organoclay might act as flame retardant.

  15. The aba mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is impaired in epoxy-carotenoid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1991-09-01

    The three mutant alleles of the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana result in plants that are deficient in the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). The authors have used {sup 18}O{sub 2} to label ABA in water-stressed leaves of mutant and wild-type Arabidopsis. Analysis by selected ion monitoring and tandem mass spectrometry of ({sup 18}O)ABA and its catabolites, phaseic acid and ABA-glucose ester ({beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate), indicates that the aba genotypes are impaired in ABA biosynthesis and have a small ABA precursor pool of compounds that contain oxygens on the rings, presumably oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls). Quantitation of the carotenoids form mutant and wild-type leaves establishes that the aba alleles cause a deficiency of the epoxy-carotenoids violaxanthin and neoxanthin and an accumulation of their biosynthetic precursor, zeaxanthin. These results provide evidence that ABA is synthesized by oxidative cleavage of epoxy-carotenoids (the indirect pathway). Furthermore the carotenoid mutant they describe undergoes normal greening. Thus the aba alleles provide an opportunity to study the physiological roles of epoxy-carotenoids in photosynthesis in a higher plants.

  16. Optical characteristics of the Eu 3+- β-diketonate complex doped into epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Duclerc F.; Mucciolo, Adriana; Brito, Hermi F.; Thompson, Larry C.

    2003-02-01

    Preparation of epoxy resins doped with triaquatris(acetylacetonate)europium(III) [Eu(ACAC) 3(H 2O) 3] at 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% and their luminescent properties in the solid state are reported. In addition, the catalytic properties of samples doped with [Eu(TTA) 3(H 2O) 2] (I) and [Eu(ACAC) 3(H 2O) 3] (II) have been compared to that of a physical mixture of epoxy resin containing dicyandiamide (III) in the DSC curing process under heating. It was verified that the product (I) was cured under the same conditions as (III), but that product (II) was not cured. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+-ACAC complex doped in the epoxy resin recorded at 298 and 77 K exhibited the characteristic bands arising from the 5D0→ 7FJ transitions ( J=0-4). The experimental intensity parameter, Ω 2, indicated that the Eu 3+ ion in the precursor complex is in a more polarizable chemical environment than in the doped system. The emitter 5D0 level lifetimes for doped samples (1%, 5%, 10% and 15%) show the luminescence decay curve profiles as single exponentials. The Eu-doped system containing the TTA ligand presented a higher emission quantum efficiency than that with ACAC. The emission quantum efficiencies ( η) are also discussed.

  17. The fabrication, testing and delivery of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards which were fabricated, tested and delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Detailed design drawings of the standards are included to show the general structures and the types and location of simulated defects built into the panels. The panels were laminates with plies laid up in the 0 deg, + or - 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations and containing either titanium substrates or interlayered titanium perforated shims. Panel thickness was incrementally stepped from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) for the graphite/epoxy standards, and from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) for the boron/epoxy standards except for the panels with interlayered shims which were 2.9 mm (0.113 in.) maximum thickness. The panel internal conditions included defect free regions, resin variations, density/porosity variations, cure variations, delaminations/disbonds at substrate bondlines and between layers, inclusions, and interlayered shims. Ultrasonic pulse echo C-scan and low-kilovoltage X-ray techniques were used to evaluate and verify the internal conditions of the panels.

  18. Thermal Expansion and Swelling of Cured Epoxy Resin Used in Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal expansion and swelling of resin material as influenced by variations in temperature during moisture absorption is discussed. Comparison measurements using composites constructed of graphite fibers and each of two epoxy resin matrices are included. Polymer theory relative to these findings is discussed and modifications are proposed.

  19. Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer for Ground and Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DOCUMENT Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer for Ground and Air Vehicles Monthly Technical Report for the Period: January 20, 2017...Objective: To further develop the Aluminum Rich Epoxy Primer systems for Air and Ground Vehicles while addressing the objective requirements...outlined within the BAA. Development Work: This past month has been spent evaluating different thixotrope systems for the Aluminum Rich

  20. Respiratory effects of exposure of shipyard workers to epoxy paints.

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, D; Jones, J; Atterbury, M; Balmes, J

    1991-01-01

    Epoxy resin systems have been associated with occupational asthma in several case reports, but medical publications contain little on the potential adverse respiratory effects of these chemicals in exposed worker populations. To further evaluate the association of workplace exposure to epoxy paints and respiratory dysfunction, the cross workshift changes in pulmonary function and symptoms of 32 shipyard painters exposed to epoxy paints were compared with 28 shipyard painters not exposed to epoxy paints. The prevalence of lower respiratory tract symptoms was significantly higher among painters exposed to epoxy paints compared with controls. Among exposed painters the mean cross workshift change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-3.4%) was greater than the decrement in the non-exposed group (-1.4%). A significant linear relation was seen between % decrement in FEV1 and hours of exposure to epoxy paints. This study suggests that epoxy resin coatings as used by shipyard painters are associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms and acute decrements in FEV1. Adequate respiratory protection and medical surveillance programmes should be established in workplaces where exposure to epoxy resin systems occurs. PMID:1954156

  1. Compressive response of Kevlar/epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.R.; Teply, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model is developed from the principle of minimum potential energy to determine the longitudinal compressive response of unidirectional fiber composites. A theoretical study based on this model is conducted to assess the influence of local fiber misalignment and the nonlinear shear deformation of the matrix. Numerical results are compared with experiments to verify this study; it appears that the predicted compressive response coincides well with experimental results. It is also shown that the compressive strength of Kevlar/epoxy is dominated by local shear failure. 12 references.

  2. Large fracture toughness boron-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    The high tensile strengths of strong interfacial bonding may be combined with the large fracture toughness of weak interfacial bonding in brittle fiber/brittle matrix composites by intermittently coating the filaments before layup so as to have random alternate weak and strong regions. Appropriate coating materials enable Cook-Gordon Mode I interfacial debonding to take place, which produces very long pull-out lengths with an associated large contribution to toughness. Unidirectional boron-epoxy composites have been so made which have toughnesses greater than 200 kJ/sq m while retaining rule of mixtures tensile strengths. Similar trends have been observed for crossply layups.

  3. Drilling Holes in Graphite/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minlionica, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Relatively long-lived bit produces high-quality holes. Effective combination of cutting-tool design, feed, and speed determined for drilling 3/16-and-1/4-in. (0.48-and 0.65-cm) diameter holes in 0.18 in. (0.46cm) thick GM3013A or equivalent graphite/epoxy corrugated spar without backup material and without coolant. Developed to produce holes in blind areas, optimal techniques yielded holes of high quality, with minimal or acceptable delamination and/or fiber extension on drill-exit side.

  4. Epoxy resin cure. [Phenyl glycidyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Woodburn, G.L.

    1986-07-01

    The reactions that occur between the model epoxy, phenyl glycidyl ether, and the cure agent dicyandiamide (DICY) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. It is shown that the reaction at 130/sup 0/C requires 90 min for completion when catalyzed by boron trifluoride monoethyl amine (BF/sub 3/-MEA). At least three major products are formed. The identity of these products is based on previously published spectroscopic data. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Nanotube Alignment And Dispersion In Epoxy Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewels, C. P.; Désarmot, G.; Foutel-Richard, A.; Martin, F.

    2003-10-01

    To date theoretically predicted enhancements of Youngs' Modulus, failure strength, and other mechanical properties of nanotube-composite materials have not been experimentally realised. We discuss the reasons for this and using short fibre composite theory suggest that nanotube straightness is a crucial factor. We examine single walled nanotube — epoxy resin (LY556) composites using microindentation, 3-point bending, electrical resistivity and various microscopy techniques. We test extrusion as a method for aligning the nanotubes, and the use of gum arabic for tube dispersion, straightening and separation.

  6. A self-crosslinking thermosetting monomer with both epoxy and anhydride groups derived from Tung oil fatty acids: Synthesis and properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A self-crosslinking compound with epoxy groups and anhydride groups (GEMA) has been successfully synthesized from Tung oil fatty acid by reacting with maleic anhydride via the Diels-Alder reaction. GEMA has very good storage stability and can be cured with trace amounts of tertiary amine. This advan...

  7. A self-crosslinking thermosetting monomer with both epoxy and anhydride groups derived from tung oil fatty acids: Synthesis and properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A self-crosslinking compound with epoxy groups and anhydride groups (GEMA) has been successfully synthesized from tung oil fatty acid by reacting with maleic anhydride via the Diels-Alder reaction. GEMA has very good storage stability and could be cured with trace amounts of tertiary amine. This ad...

  8. Insights into Epoxy Network Nanostructural Heterogeneity Using AFM-IR.

    PubMed

    Morsch, Suzanne; Liu, Yanwen; Lyon, Stuart B; Gibbon, Simon R

    2016-01-13

    The first direct observation of a chemically heterogeneous nanostructure within an epoxy resin is reported. Epoxy resins comprise the matrix component of many high performance composites, coatings and adhesives, yet the molecular network structure that underpins the performance of these industrially essential materials is not well understood. Internal nodular morphologies have repeatedly been reported for epoxy resins analyzed using SEM or AFM, yet the origin of these features remains a contentious subject, and epoxies are still commonly assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Uniquely, in this contribution we use the recently developed AFM-IR technique to eliminate previous differences in interpretation, and establish that nodule features correspond to heterogeneous network connectivity within an epoxy phenolic formulation.

  9. Designing of epoxy resin systems for cryogenic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, T.; Nishijima, S.; Izumi, Y.

    2005-02-01

    The mechanical and thermal properties of several types of epoxy systems were designed based on the chemical structure, network structure and morphology aiming at cryogenic application. In this research di-epoxies or multifunctional epoxies were cured by several kinds of hardeners such as anhydride, amine or phenol and were blended with polycarbonate, carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer or phenoxy. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of these cured epoxies were measured at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. It was found that the two-dimensional network structured linear polymer shows high performance even at cryogenic temperature. It was concluded that the controls of the structures are very important to optimize epoxy systems for cryogenic application.

  10. Cationic cure kinetics of a polyoxometalate loaded epoxy nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Benjamin J.

    2012-08-06

    The reaction cure kinetics of a novel polyoxometalate (POM) loaded epoxy nanocomposite is described. The POM is dispersed in the epoxy resin up to volume fractions of 0.1. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements show the cure of the epoxy resin to be sensitive to the POM loading. A kinetics study of the cure exotherm confirms that POM acts as a catalyst promoting cationic homopolymerization of the epoxy resin. The cure reaction is shown to propagate through two cure regimes. A fast cure at short time is shown to be propagation by the activated chain end (ACE) mechanism. A slow cure at long time is shown to be propagation by the activated monomer (AM) mechanism. The activation energies for the fast and slow cure regimes agree well with other epoxy based systems that have been confirmed to propagate by the ACE and AM mechanisms.

  11. Biobased Epoxy Resins from Deconstructed Native Softwood Lignin.

    PubMed

    van de Pas, Daniel J; Torr, Kirk M

    2017-08-14

    The synthesis of novel epoxy resins from lignin hydrogenolysis products is reported. Native lignin in pine wood was depolymerized by mild hydrogenolysis to give an oil product that was reacted with epichlorohydrin to give epoxy prepolymers. These were blended with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether or glycerol diglycidyl ether and cured with diethylenetriamine or isophorone diamine. The key novelty of this work lies in using the inherent properties of the native lignin in preparing new biobased epoxy resins. The lignin-derived epoxy prepolymers could be used to replace 25-75% of the bisphenol A diglycidyl ether equivalent, leading to increases of up to 52% in the flexural modulus and up to 38% in the flexural strength. Improvements in the flexural strength were attributed to the oligomeric products present in the lignin hydrogenolysis oil. These results indicate lignin hydrogenolysis products have potential as sustainable biobased polyols in the synthesis of high performance epoxy resins.

  12. Room Temperature Curing Epoxy Resin Compositions High Temperature Service Capability for Fiber Reinforced Structures, Adhesives and Sealants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    long chain high molecular weight polyamide , and c) an imidazole compound such as 2 ethyl, 4 methyl imidazole; 2 methyl imidazole or the like. The...aliphatic polyamine was triethylene tetramine and the polyamide General Mills Versamid 840 (see Table 2). A sub- stantial amount of experimental work has...capability of such epoxy resin composi- tions while products such as the aliphatic polyamide can contribute to tough- ness. Also alternatively flexible

  13. Determination of interlaminar shear strength for glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy laminates at impact rates of strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, J.; Li, Y. L.

    A new technique is proposed for determining the interlaminar shear strength of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites using a double-lap shear specimen in which failure occurs on a predetermined plane. by using different ply layups in the double-lap shear specimen, the effect of loading rate on the interfacial shear strength is determined for (1) two plain-weave carbon/epoxy plies, (2) two plain-weave glass/epoxy plies, and (3) a plain-weave carbon/epoxy ply and a plain-weave carbon/epoxy ply and a plain-weave glass/epoxy ply. An increase in loading rate of about six orders of magnitude is found to raise the average value of the shear stress on the failure plane by about 70 percent for the carbon/carbon and glass/glass interfaces and by about 50 percent for the hybrid carbon/glass interface.

  14. Electrical properties of epoxy/silver nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Boudefel, A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of nanocomposites made of epoxy resin filled with 70-nm-sized silver particles. These composites were studied for the fabrication of integrated capacitors in electronics packaging. The dc conductivity was studied as a function of the filler concentration and as a function of temperature. We also studied the ac conductivity and the permittivity in the 10-1-105 Hz range as a function of the filler concentration. Experimental properties were analyzed using standard percolation theories. The dc conductivity varies as (φ-φc)t, where φ is the filler concentration, φc is the percolation threshold, and t is the dc critical exponent. A very low percolation threshold is obtained (φc=1%) which is believed to be related to a segregated distribution of the fillers in the epoxy matrix. We also measured a very high dc critical exponent (t=5) probably related to the interparticle electrical contact. A universal scaling law is observed for σ(ω) and ɛ(ω). Above a cutoff frequency (ωc, which scales with the dc conductivity as ωc~σdcq) the conductivity and the permittivity follow the universal power laws (σ~ωu and V~ω-v) with critical exponents taking nonstandard values (q=0.83-0.98, u=0.79, and v=0.03).

  15. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  16. Ultrasonic mixing of epoxy curing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for mixing solid curing agents into liquid epoxy resins using ultrasonic energy was developed. This procedure allows standard curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents such as 4,4 prime-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS) and its 3,3 prime-isomer, (3,3 prime-DDS) to be mixed without prior melting of the curing agent. It also allows curing agents with very high melt temperatures such as 4,4 prime-diaminobenzophenone (4,4 prime-DABP) (242 C) to be mixed without premature curing. Four aromatic diamines were ultrasonically blended into MY-720 epoxy resin. These were 4,4 prime-DDS; 3,3 prime-DDA; 4,4 prime-DABP and 3,3 prime-DABP. Unfilled moldings were cast and cured for each system and their physical and mechanical properties compared.

  17. Bolted joints in graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    All-graphite/epoxy laminates and hybrid graphite-glass/epoxy laminates were tested. The tests encompassed a range of geometries for each laminate pattern to cover the three basic failure modes - net section tension failure through the bolt hole, bearing and shearout. Static tensile and compressive loads were applied. A constant bolt diameter of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) was used in the tests. The interaction of stress concentrations associated with multi-row bolted joints was investigated by testing single- and double-row bolted joints and open-hole specimens in tension. For tension loading, linear interaction was found to exist between the bearing stress reacted at a given bolt hole and the remaining tension stress running by that hole to be reacted elsewhere. The interaction under compressive loading was found to be non-linear. Comparative tests were run using single-lap bolted joints and double-lap joints with pin connection. Both of these joint types exhibited lower strengths than were demonstrated by the corresponding double-lap joints. The analysis methods developed here for single bolt joints are shown to be capable of predicting the behavior of multi-row joints.

  18. Epoxy Crosslinked Silica Aerogels (X-Aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    fabrizio, Eve; Ilhan, Faysal; Meador, Mary Ann; Johnston, Chris; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    NASA is interested in the development of strong lightweight materials for the dual role of thermal insulator and structural component for space vehicles; freeing more weight for useful payloads. Aerogels are very-low density materials (0.010 to 0.5 g/cc) that, due to high porosity (meso- and microporosity), can be, depending on the chemical nature of the network, ideal thermal insulators (thermal conductivity approx. 15 mW/mK). However, aerogels are extremely fragile. For practical application of aerogels, one must increase strength without compromising the physical properties attributed to low density. This has been achieved by templated growth of an epoxy polymer layer that crosslinks the "pearl necklace" network of nanoparticles: the framework of a typical silica aerogel. The requirement for conformal accumulation of the epoxy crosslinker is reaction both with the surface of silica and with itself. After cross-linking, the strength of a typical aerogel monolith increases by a factor of 200, in the expense of only a 2-fold increase in density. Strength is increased further by coupling residual unreacted epoxides with diamine.

  19. Biaryl synthesis by ring-opening Friedel-Crafts arylation of 1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalenes catalyzed by iron trichloride.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Asai, Shota; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-01-26

    Biaryl and heterobiaryl compounds are important frameworks across a range of fields including pharmaceutical and functional material chemistries. We have accomplished the efficient synthesis of various naphthalene-linked arenes and heteroarenes as biaryls and heterobiaryls by the FeCl3 -catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reactions accompanied by the ring-opening of the 1,4-epoxy moiety of 1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalenes. Especially, it is noteworthy that 1-silylated substrates were regioselectively transformed to the 3-aryl-1-silylnaphthalenes and the double Friedel-Crafts reactions using thiophene derivatives could directly produce the corresponding bis-naphthlated thiophene derivatives.

  20. Epoxy-α-lapachone has in vitro and in vivo anti-leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis effects and inhibits serine proteinase activity in this parasite.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Franklin; Bourguignon, Saulo Cabral; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; de Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Finkelstein, Lea Cysne; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira; Caffarena, Ernesto Raul; Alves, Carlos Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is a protozoan that causes infections with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The currently available chemotherapeutic treatments present many problems, such as several adverse side effects and the development of resistant strains. Natural compounds have been investigated as potential antileishmanial agents, and the effects of epoxy-α-lapachone on L. (L.) amazonensis were analyzed in the present study. This compound was able to cause measurable effects on promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite, affecting plasma membrane organization and leading to death after 3 h of exposure. This compound also had an effect in experimentally infected BALB/c mice, causing reductions in paw lesions 6 weeks after treatment with 0.44 mM epoxy-α-lapachone (mean lesion area, 24.9 ± 2.0 mm(2)), compared to untreated animals (mean lesion area, 30.8 ± 2.6 mm(2)) or animals treated with Glucantime (mean lesion area, 28.3 ± 1.5 mm(2)). In addition, the effects of this compound on the serine proteinase activities of the parasite were evaluated. Serine proteinase-enriched fractions were extracted from both promastigotes and amastigotes and were shown to act on specific serine proteinase substrates and to be sensitive to classic serine proteinase inhibitors (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, aprotinin, and antipain). These fractions were also affected by epoxy-α-lapachone. Furthermore, in silico simulations indicated that epoxy-α-lapachone can bind to oligopeptidase B (OPB) of L. (L.) amazonensis, a serine proteinase, in a manner similar to that of antipain, interacting with an S1 binding site. This evidence suggests that OPB may be a potential target for epoxy-α-lapachone and, as such, may be related to the compound's effects on the parasite. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Epoxy-α-Lapachone Has In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Effects and Inhibits Serine Proteinase Activity in This Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Silva, Franklin; Bourguignon, Saulo Cabral; Pereira, Bernardo Acácio Santini; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; de Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Finkelstein, Lea Cysne; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira; Caffarena, Ernesto Raul

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis is a protozoan that causes infections with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The currently available chemotherapeutic treatments present many problems, such as several adverse side effects and the development of resistant strains. Natural compounds have been investigated as potential antileishmanial agents, and the effects of epoxy-α-lapachone on L. (L.) amazonensis were analyzed in the present study. This compound was able to cause measurable effects on promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite, affecting plasma membrane organization and leading to death after 3 h of exposure. This compound also had an effect in experimentally infected BALB/c mice, causing reductions in paw lesions 6 weeks after treatment with 0.44 mM epoxy-α-lapachone (mean lesion area, 24.9 ± 2.0 mm2), compared to untreated animals (mean lesion area, 30.8 ± 2.6 mm2) or animals treated with Glucantime (mean lesion area, 28.3 ± 1.5 mm2). In addition, the effects of this compound on the serine proteinase activities of the parasite were evaluated. Serine proteinase-enriched fractions were extracted from both promastigotes and amastigotes and were shown to act on specific serine proteinase substrates and to be sensitive to classic serine proteinase inhibitors (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, aprotinin, and antipain). These fractions were also affected by epoxy-α-lapachone. Furthermore, in silico simulations indicated that epoxy-α-lapachone can bind to oligopeptidase B (OPB) of L. (L.) amazonensis, a serine proteinase, in a manner similar to that of antipain, interacting with an S1 binding site. This evidence suggests that OPB may be a potential target for epoxy-α-lapachone and, as such, may be related to the compound's effects on the parasite. PMID:25583728

  2. Fracture behavior of nano-scale rubber-modified epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacigalupo, Lauren N.

    The primary focus of the first portion of this study is to compare physical and mechanical properties of a model epoxy that has been toughened with one of three different types of rubber-based modifier: a traditional telechelic oligomer (phase separates into micro-size particles), a core-shell latex particle (preformed nano-scale particles) and a triblock copolymer (self-assembles into nano-scale particles). The effect of modifier content on the physical properties of the matrix was determined using several thermal analysis methods, which provided insight into any inherent alterations of the epoxy matrix. Although the primary objective is to study the role of particle size on the fracture toughness, stiffness and strength were also determined since these properties are often reduced in rubber-toughened epoxies. It was found that since the CSR- and SBM-modified epoxies are composed of less rubber, thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy were better maintained. In order to better understand the fracture behavior and mechanisms of the three types of rubber particles utilized in this study, extensive microscopy analysis was conducted. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to quantify the volume fraction of particles, transmission optical microscopy (TOM) was used to determine plastic damage zone size, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess void growth in the plastic zone after fracture. By quantifying these characteristics, it was then possible to model the plastic damage zone size as well as the fracture toughness to elucidate the behavior of the rubber-modified epoxies. It was found that localized shear yielding and matrix void growth are the active toughening mechanisms in all rubber-modified epoxies in this study, however, matrix void growth was more prevalent. The second portion of this study investigated the use of three acrylate-based triblocks and four acrylate-based diblocks to modify a model epoxy system. By

  3. Progress toward Making Epoxy/Carbon-Nanotube Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiano, Thomas; Roylance, Margaret; Gassner, John; Kyle, William

    2008-01-01

    A modicum of progress has been made in an effort to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes as fibers in epoxy-matrix/fiber composite materials. Two main obstacles to such use of carbon nanotubes are the following: (1) bare nanotubes are not soluble in epoxy resins and so they tend to agglomerate instead of becoming dispersed as desired; and (2) because of lack of affinity between nanotubes and epoxy matrices, there is insufficient transfer of mechanical loads between the nanotubes and the matrices. Part of the effort reported here was oriented toward (1) functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with methyl methacrylate (MMA) to increase their dispersability in epoxy resins and increase transfer of mechanical loads and (2) ultrasonic dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in tetrahydrofuran, which was used as an auxiliary solvent to aid in dispersing the functionalized nanotubes into a epoxy resin. In another part of this effort, poly(styrene sulfonic acid) was used as the dispersant and water as the auxiliary solvent. In one experiment, the strength of composite of epoxy with MMA-functionalized-nanotubes was found to be 29 percent greater than that of a similar composite of epoxy with the same proportion of untreated nanotubes.

  4. Effect of epoxy exposure on the electronic properties of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Md Ahsan; Zhu, Yihao; Singh, Amol; Li, Hongmei; Sayful Islam, Md; Koley, Goutam

    2016-11-01

    The effect of epoxy exposure and its curing agent (trimethyl-1, 6-hexanediamine), widely used for the biocompatible packaging of graphene-based devices, on the electrical characteristics of a graphene field effect transistor is investigated in this work. Upon 5 min of the epoxy curing agent exposure, the Dirac point shifted from 60 to 13 V, while for 15 min of the epoxy curing agent exposure, the Dirac point changed more than 130 V, from 63 to  -68 V, completely changing the doping of graphene from strong p-type to strong n-type due to the electron donating nature of the adsorbed molecules. Additionally, due to exposure, the hole mobility was found to reduce from 1243 to 401 cm2 V-1 s-1, indicating the strong impact of ionized impurity scattering. The temperature-dependent Hall measurement of single layer graphene before and after the epoxy curing agent exposure also exhibited a change in the dominant scattering mechanism from surface optical phonon scattering to Coulomb scattering near room temperature due to epoxy exposure. Reduction of initial p-type doping in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene after epoxy exposure is also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. We found that the Dirac point recovered very slowly upon storage of the epoxy (or curing agent) exposed devices, changing by only ~11 V after 4 months without significant change in carrier mobility.

  5. Tension fatigue of glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy tapered laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Obrien, T. Kevin; Salpekar, Satish A.

    1990-01-01

    Symmetric tapered laminates with internally dropped plies were tested with two different layups and two materials, S2/SP250 glass/epoxy and IM6/1827I graphite/epoxy. The specimens were loaded in cyclic tension until they delaminated unstably. Each combination of material and layup had a unique failure mode. Calculated values of strain energy release rate, G, from a finite element analysis model of delamination along the taper, and for delamination from a matrix ply crack, were used with mode I fatigue characterization data from tests of the tested materials to calculate expected delamination onset loads. Calculated values were compared to the experimental results. The comparison showed that when the calculated G was chosen according to the observed delamination failures, the agreement between the calculated and measured delamination onset loads was reasonable for each combination of layup and material.

  6. Experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear/inelastic response under inplane shear of a large variety of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle-ply laminates was tested. Their strength allowables were obtained and the mechanisms which govern their mode of failure were determined. Two types of specimens for the program were chosen, tested, and evaluated: shear panels stabilized by an aluminum honeycomb core and shear tubes. A modified biaxially compression/tension loaded picture frame was designed and utilized in the test program with the shear panels. The results obtained with this test technique categorically prefer the shear panels, rather than the tubes, for adequate and satisfactory experimental definition of the objectives. Test results indicate the existence of a so-called core-effect which ought to be considered when reducing experimental data for weak in shear laminates.

  7. Measurement of residual strains in boron-epoxy and glass-epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.; Chamis, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    Embedded-strain-gage techniques were developed and used for measuring strains in composite angle-ply laminates during curing and thermal cycling. The specimens were 2.54 by 22.9 cm eight-ply boron-epoxy and S-glass-epoxy laminates. Unidirectional specimens were used for control purposes. Strain readings were corrected for the purely thermal output of the gages obtained from an instrument quartz reference specimen. The strains measured during the cooling part of the curing cycle were in agreement with those recorded during subsequent thermal cycling, indicating that residual stresses induced during curing are primarily caused by differential thermal expansions of the various plies. Restraint strains were computed for the 0-deg and 45-deg plies of the angle-ply laminates tested, and the residual stresses obtained using the anisotropic constitutive relations and taking into account the temperature dependence of stiffnesses and strains.

  8. Viscoelastic Characterization of a Nonlinear, Glass/Epoxy Composite Including the Effects of Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    Schapery Isothermal creep and recovery tests were conducted on an epoxy resin and a glass fiber-reiiforced composite made from the same bulk resin ...Contracted Notations ... ......... ... 43 2 Ingredients of Shell 58-68R Epoxy Resin [181]. . 9 3 Fiber Content of S-901 Glass/Shell 58-68R Epoxy Resin ...Epoxy Resin .......... ................... 154 i0 Shift Factors, aT, for Shell 58-68R Epoxy Resin .......... ................... 164 11 Shell 58-68R

  9. Temperature dependence of helium diffusion through common epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovinger, D. J.; Hallock, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    Helium gas at room temperature is known to diffuse through the epoxies commonly used in various low temperature applications, which can complicate leak detection. The helium flux typically decreases with decreasing temperature. We have measured the flux of helium that passes though thin sections of as-cast clear Stycast 1266, Stycast 2850FT (black) and TRA-BOND 2151 (blue) epoxies as a function of temperature in the range 130K < T < 300K. We analyze the data to create normalized (to constant sample thickness and pressure differential) data for comparison. We report the preliminary temperature-dependent fluxes we have measured, which show significant differences among the epoxies studied.

  10. Wear behaviour of epoxy resin filled with hard powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Minutolo, F. Capece; Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Langella, A.

    2016-10-01

    The development of high performance materials based on epoxy resin finds a growing number of applications in which high wear resistance is required. One major drawback in many of these applications is the relatively poor wear resistance of the epoxy resin. Therefore, in order to investigate on the possibility of increasing wear resistance of thermoset polymers filled with hard powders, sliding tests are carried out by means of a pin on disc apparatus. In particular, composite resins, constituted by an epoxy resin filled with different contents and sizes of Silicon Carbide powder, are analyzed; the wear resistance, in terms of volume loss, is measured for different abrasive counterfaces and loads.

  11. Cure-dependent Viscoelastic Poisson’s Ratio of Epoxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-26

    Faivre S, Roy LE, Trotignon JP, Verdu J (1996) Mechanical properties of thermosets. Part I. Tensile properties of an anhydride cured epoxy . J Mater...Experimental Mechanics (2007) 47: 237–249 DOI 10.1007/s11340-006-9013-9 Cure -dependent Viscoelastic Poisson’s Ratio of Epoxy D.J. O’Brien · N.R...Abstract The evolution of the lateral contraction ratio of two commercial (high and low temperature cure ) epoxy resins is studied in uniaxial tension

  12. Epoxy coatings over latex block fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1997-12-01

    Failures of polymerized epoxy coatings applied over latex/acrylic block fillers continue to plague owners of commercial buildings, particularly those with high architectural content such as condominiums, high rise offices, etc. Water treatment facilities in paper mills are especially prone to this problem. The types of failures include delamination of the topcoats, blisters in both the block fillers and the topcoats and disintegration of the block filler itself. While the problem is well known, the approach to a solution is not. A study of several coatings manufacturer`s Product Data Sheets shows a wide variance in the recommendations for what are purportedly generically equivalent block fillers. While one manufacturer might take an essentially architectural approach, another will take a heavy-duty industrial approach. To the specifying architect or engineer who has little training in the complexities of protective coating systems, this presents a dilemma. Who does he believe? What does he specify? To whom can he turn for independent advice?

  13. Measurement of damping of graphite epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an experiment to measure the damping of a cylindrical graphite-epoxy specimen with a three point support and a knife edge support is described as well as equipment used in tests conducted to determine the influence of the support at the two ends of the specimen and to simulate an idealized free-free boundary condition at the two edges. A curve fitting technique is being used to process the frequency response data obtained. Experiments conducted on the thin plate specimen also reveal the influence of the end support condition on the damping ratio of the specimen. The damping ratio values measured for both specimens appear to be strongly influenced by the shape of the specimen and appear to depend on length and fiber orientation as well as the presence of discontinuities such as sharp bends, corners, and notches.

  14. Cryogenic evaluation of epoxy bond strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, N.; Young, W.

    The purpose of the work presented here was to determine methods of optimizing the adhesion of a particular epoxy (CTD-101K, Composite Technology Development Inc.) to a particular nickel-based alloy substrate (Incoloy ® 908, Inco Alloys International) for cryogenic applications. Initial efforts were focused on surface preparation of the substrate material via various mechanical and chemical cleaning techniques. Test samples, fabricated to simulate the conduit-to-insulation interface, were put through a mock heat treat and vacuum/pressure impregnation process. Samples were compression/shear load tested to compare the bond strengths at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. The resulting data indicate that acid etching creates a higher bond strength than the other tested techniques and that the bond formed is stronger at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. A description of the experiment along with the resulting data is presented here.

  15. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Weckwerth, Mark V.; Baca, Wes E.

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  16. Cellulose whisker/epoxy resin nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liming; Weder, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    New nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofibers or "whiskers" and an epoxy resin were prepared. Cellulose whiskers with aspect ratios of approximately 10 and approximately 84 were isolated from cotton and sea animals called tunicates, respectively. Suspensions of these whiskers in dimethylformamide were combined with an oligomeric difunctional diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with an epoxide equivalent weight of 185-192 and a diethyl toluenediamine-based curing agent. Thin films were produced by casting these mixtures and subsequent curing. The whisker content was systematically varied between 4 and 24% v/v. Electron microscopy studies suggest that the whiskers are evenly dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis revealed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the materials was not significantly influenced by the incorporation of the cellulose filler. Between room temperature and 150 degrees C, i.e., below T(g), the tensile storage moduli (E') of the nanocomposites increased modestly, for example from 1.6 GPa for the neat polymer to 4.9 and 3.6 GPa for nanocomposites comprising 16% v/v tunicate or cotton whiskers. The relative reinforcement was more significant at 185 degrees C (i.e., above T(g)), where E' was increased from approximately 16 MPa (neat polymer) to approximately 1.6 GPa (tunicate) or approximately 215 MPa (cotton). The mechanical properties of the new materials are well-described by the percolation model and are the result of the formation of a percolating whisker network in which stress transfer is facilitated by strong interactions between the whiskers.

  17. Neuroinhibitory meroterpenoid compounds from Cordia oncocalyx.

    PubMed

    Matos, Taynara S; Silva, Ana Karine O; Quintela, Amanda L; Francisco das Chagas Pinto, L; Canuto, Kirley M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Fonseca, Maria Júlia S; Luna-Costa, Angélica Maria; Paz, Iury A; Nascimento, Nilberto Robson F; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia L

    2017-09-28

    Five new meroterpenoid compounds designed as rel-10β,11β-epoxy-2,11-dimethoxy-8α-hydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5α,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracendione (1), rel-10β,11β-epoxy-8α,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-5,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro -1.4-anthracendione (2), rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-furanyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8, 8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthracenone (3), rel-10α,11α-epoxy-8α,11β-dihydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5β,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracenediol (4) and rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-carboxyethyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthra-cenone (5), besides seven (6-12) known compounds were isolated from the heartwood and sapwood ethanol extracts of Cordia oncocalyx. Moreover, the main isolated compounds were screened using the electrically driven mice vas deferens bioassay, which has a rich pharmacological receptors diversity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Toughening of Epoxy Adhesives by Combined Interaction of Carbon Nanotubes and Silsesquioxanes.

    PubMed

    Barra, Giuseppina; Vertuccio, Luigi; Vietri, Umberto; Naddeo, Carlo; Hadavinia, Homayoun; Guadagno, Liberata

    2017-09-25

    The extensive use of adhesives in many structural applications in the transport industry and particularly in the aeronautic field is due to numerous advantages of bonded joints. However, still many researchers are working to enhance the mechanical properties and rheological performance of adhesives by using nanoadditives. In this study the effect of the addition of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) compounds, either Glycidyl Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (GPOSS) or DodecaPhenyl Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (DPHPOSS) to Tetraglycidyl Methylene Dianiline (TGMDA) epoxy formulation, was investigated. The formulations contain neither a tougher matrix such as elastomers nor other additives typically used to provide a closer match in the coefficient of thermal expansion in order to discriminate only the effect of the addition of the above-mentioned components. Bonded aluminium single lap joints were made using both untreated and Chromic Acid Anodisation (CAA)-treated aluminium alloy T2024 adherends. The effects of the different chemical functionalities of POSS compounds, as well as the synergistic effect between the MWCNT and POSS combination on adhesion strength, were evaluated by viscosity measurement, tensile tests, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), single lap joint shear strength tests, and morphological investigation. The best performance in the Lap Shear Strength (LSS) of the manufactured joints has been found for treated adherends bonded with epoxy adhesive containing MWCNTs and GPOSS. Carbon nanotubes have been found to play a very effective bridging function across the fracture surface of the bonded joints.

  19. Autonomic healing of carbon fiber/epoxy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda R; Cintora, Alicia; White, Scott R; Sottos, Nancy R

    2014-05-14

    A maximum of 91% recovery of interfacial shear strength (IFSS) is achieved for carbon fiber/epoxy interfaces functionalized with capsules containing reactive epoxy resin and ethyl phenyl acetate (EPA). We find a binder is necessary to improve the retention of capsules on the carbon fiber surface. Two different methods for applying the binder to the carbon fiber surface are investigated. Healing efficiency is assessed by recovery of IFSS of a single functionalized fiber embedded in a microdroplet of epoxy. Debonding of the fiber/matrix interface ruptures the capsules, releasing resin and EPA solvent into the crack plane. The solvent swells the matrix, initiating transport of residual amine functionality from the matrix for further curing with the epoxy resin delivered to the crack plane. The two binder protocols produce comparable results, both yielding higher recovery of IFSS than samples prepared without a binder.

  20. Aging and quality assurance of Kevlar 49-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.J.

    1981-05-15

    The aging of Kevlar 49-epoxy composites under the service environment conditions expected by ESA will be insignificant to the best of our knowledge at this time. However, certain precautions in materials acceptance criteria and composite fabrication should be followed.

  1. Method of making superhydrophobic/superoleophilic paints, epoxies, and composites

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2016-05-10

    Superhydrophobic paints and epoxies comprising superoleophilic particles and surfaces and methods of making the same are described. The superoleophilic particles can include porous particles having a hydrophobic coating layer deposited thereon. superoleophilic particles.

  2. Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics of Epoxy-Nanoclay Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyun-Ji; Nam, Sung-Pill; Lee, Sung-Gap; Ahn, Byeong-Lib; Won, Woo-Sik; Woo, Hyoung-Gwan; Park, Sang-Man

    In this study, we investigated the effects of nanoclay additives on the electrical and mechanical properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were synthesized using organically modified two montmorillonite clays (MMT) with different interlamellar spacing (31.5 Å and 18.5 Å). The electrical and mechanical properties of epoxy-clay nanocopomosites were measured with variation of the amount and type of clay. The nanocomposites were found to be homogenous materials although the nanocomposites still have clay aggregates with increasing nanoclay contents. The dielectric constant showed between 3.2 ~ 3.5 and the dielectric loss showed between 3.2 ~ 5.7% in all nanocoposites. The dielectric strength and tensile strength of the 5 wt% Cloisite 15A added epoxy-oclay nanocomposite were 23.9 kV/mm and 86.7 MPa, respectively.

  3. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Su, Haibin

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local Density Approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which is generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  4. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local density approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which are generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  5. Improvement of fracture toughness of epoxy resins at cryogenic temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, S.; Yamada, K.; Hussain, M.; Honda, Y.

    1997-06-01

    The improvement of the fracture toughness of epoxy resin has been tried to perform from the molecular level with an aim to improve the cryogenic properties of GFRP and/or the stability of superconducting magnets. The ceramic filler, which was formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide, was dispersed in the epoxy and cured. A coupling agent was also used to crosslink the filler and epoxy molecules. The positron annihilation lifetime was measured and the molecular state of the epoxies were evaluated. The thermal contraction and Vickers hardness were also measured. The thermal contraction and hardness were confirmed to reflect the molecular state as evaluated by positron annihilation lifetime. The fracture toughness was also measured down to cryogenic temperatures. It was found that the improvement of the fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures is possible.

  6. Morphology development of layered silicate epoxy based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson Tolle, Tia

    2005-07-01

    Nanotailoring of polymeric materials offers significant benefits in terms of new and improved properties or new property trade spaces. Significant improvements to thermoplastics have been demonstrated over the past decade stimulated by the pioneering work of Kojima, Usuki, and Okada. The ability to nanotailor epoxy-based composites could have significant payoffs to aerospace and non-aerospace applications. However the dynamic nature of a crosslinking system such as epoxies poses unique challenges to the development of controlled morphologies. Before ultimate control of morphology and material design towards property enhancements can occur, fundamental understanding of how morphologies of various scales develop with processing parameters must be developed. This dissertation summarizes the effects of various processing variables on the development of morphology within organically modified layered silicate-epoxy-amine materials. The effect of various morphologies on fracture behavior is also examined, and suggests that ordered morphologies on the nanoscale can provide for effective toughening of epoxies.

  7. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Nickel-Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M.; Hanagud, S.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2006-07-01

    Epoxy-based composites reinforced with micron-sized Ni and micron or nano-sized Al powders were fabricated by casting/curing. The mechanical behavior of the composites was evaluated using elastic and plastic property measurements performed on rod-shaped samples. Dynamic reverse Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests gave qualitative and quantitative information about the transient deformation and failure response of the composites. The composite containing 20wt% epoxy and nano-sized Al powder showed the most superior mechanical properties in terms of elastic modulus, static compressive strength, and dynamic incremental areal and axial strains, as compared to the other cast materials. The results illustrate that nano-sized Al particles alter the deformation response of the composite and provide significant enhancement to the strength by dispersing in the epoxy and generating a nano Al-containing epoxy matrix with embedded Ni particles.

  8. Epoxy injection repairs to concrete in 225-B Building

    SciTech Connect

    Vollert, F.R.

    1996-09-19

    In 1982, the damaged anchor areas (67 total) in the Operating Gallery and cold manipulator shop ceiling reinforced concrete slabs were epoxy injection repaired by Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL), Portland Cement Association. The through depth vertical cracks (10 total) in the ceiling slabs in the galleries and manipulator shops were sealed and structurally repaired using epoxy injection procedures. The details of the epoxy reRair are reported. Sonic nondestructive (NDT) testing before and after the epoxy injection repairs were made by CTL to confirm that the repairs are structurally effective. CTL recommended to expedite the installation of lateral bracing for the manipulator monorail in order to avoid re-darnage to the repaired anchor areas.

  9. Design and evaluation of a compound acoustic lens for photoacoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shirui; Qin, Wei; Guo, Heng; Jin, Tian; Huang, Na; He, Ming; Xi, Lei

    2017-05-01

    In photoacoustic computed tomography, the limited directivity of the detectors may cause deformation of off-center targets and lead to an imbalanced resolution in the imaging area. To improve the directivity of the acoustic detectors, several negative acoustic lenses have been proposed. In this study, we develop a new compound acoustic lens fabricated by integrating a concave polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lens and a convex epoxy lens. Both theoretical simulations and experimental evaluations demonstrate that the compound lens provides a larger directivity compared to single lenses made of PDMS, epoxy, and liquid. The measured acceptance angles of a 6-mm piezoelectric acoustic transducer equipped with the compound, epoxy, liquid, and PDMS lenses are 55°, 36°, 25°, and 20°, respectively. No deformation is observed in the off-center targets by using compound lens. However, serious deformation appears in the cases using single lenses.

  10. Medium temperature epoxy resin for immunocytochemistry: Quetol 651 with water.

    PubMed

    Abad, A R

    1992-02-01

    The addition of 1% water to the epoxy resin Quetol increased the labeling intensity of the sample. The significant decrease of the curing temperature of the epoxy resin may assist in preservation of antigens. Water may also reduce the cross-linkage of the resin allowing more antigen to be available to the antibodies. The modified Quetol resin is an option for use in immunocytochemistry studies.

  11. Exit Presentation: Infrared Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comeaux, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reports on the internship project that was accomplished during the summer of 2010. The objectives of the project were to: (1) Simulate Flash Thermography on Graphite/Epoxy Flat Bottom hole Specimen and thin void specimens, (2) Obtain Flash Thermography data on Graphite/Epoxy flat bottom hole specimens, (3) Compare experimental results with simulation results, Compare Flat Bottom Hole Simulation with Thin Void Simulation to create a graph to determine size of IR Thermography detected defects

  12. Epoxy Nanocomposites - Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-06-02

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  13. Epoxy Nanocomposites—Curing Rheokinetics, Wetting and Adhesion to Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, S. O.; Kotomin, S. V.; Kulichikhin, V. G.

    2010-06-01

    Epoxy nanocomposites considered as challenging polymeric matrix for advanced reinforced plastics. Nanofillers change rheokinetics of epoxy resin curing, affect wetting and adhesion to aramid and carbon fibers. In all cases extreme dependence of adhesive strength vs filler content in the binder was observed. New experimental techniques were developed to study wettability and fiber-matrix adhesion interaction, using yarn penetration path length, aramid fiber knot pull-up test and electrical admittance of the fracture surface of CFRP.

  14. Fiber/epoxy filament-wound vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.T.; Moore, R.L.

    1986-08-14

    The present investigation has provided a valuable insight into the design, fabrication and performance of filament-wound pressure vessels. The long-term stress rupture data generated under the contract is perhaps the only available lifetime data of its kind for Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels. Now, it is clear that Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels can be made to last at least 9 years at 50% of the static burst pressure.

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy Study of the SP-250 Epoxy Resin System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    It necessary and identify by block nambo,) Epoxy resins Dicyandiamide 4 Curing agents Infrared spectroscopy Monuron 20. ABSTRACT (Crntimse on revse...investigation, the mixtures containing Monuron were cured at 130 0 C and those con- sisting of dicyandiamide and having "no Monuron" were hardened at 2000...uncured specimens were meas- ured from 4000 cm- 1 to 400 cm- I . DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The accelerated cure of dicyandiamide (Dicy)-containing epoxy resins

  16. Filament-wound graphite/epoxy rocket motor case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, W. D.; Schmidt, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication procedures are described for a filament-wound rocket motor case, approximately 56 cm long x 71 cm diameter, utilizing high tensile strength graphite fibers. The process utilized Fiberite Hy-E-1330B prepreg tape which consists of Courtaulds HTS fibers in a temperature-sensitive epoxy matrix. This fabrication effort, with resultant design, material and process recommendations, substantiates the manufacturing feasibility of graphite/epoxy rocket motor cases in the 56 cm x 71 cm size range.

  17. Fabrication of graphite/epoxy cases for orbit insertion motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, W. W.

    1973-01-01

    The fabrication procedures are described for filament-wound rocket motor cases, approximately 26.25 inches long by 25.50 inches diameter, utilizing graphite fibers. The process utilized prepreg tape which consists of Fortafil 4-R fibers in the E-759 epoxy resin matrix. This fabrication effect demonstrated an ability to fabricate high quality graphite/epoxy rocket motor cases in the 26.25 inch by 25.50 inch size range.

  18. Investigation of waterborne epoxies for E-glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Robert Eric

    Research is presented which encompasses a study of epoxies based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) cured with 2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (EMI-24) in the presence of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100. Interest in this epoxy system is due partially to the potential application as a waterborne replacement for solvent cast epoxies in E-glass laminated printed circuit boards. This research has revealed that the viscoelastic behavior of the cured epoxy is altered when serving as the matrix in a glass composite. The additional constraining and coupling of the E-glass fibers to the segmental motion of the epoxy matrix results in an increased level of viscoelastic cooperativity. Current research has determined that the cooperativity of an epoxy/E-glass composite is also sensitive to the surface chemistry of the glass fibers. Model single-ply epoxy/E-glass laminates were constructed in which the glass was pretreated with either 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) or 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPS) coupling agents. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was then used to create master curves of the storage modulus (E') in the frequency domain. The frequency range of the master curves and resulting cooperativity plots clearly varied depending on the surface treatment of the glass fibers. It was determined that the surfactant has surprisingly little effect in the observed trends in cooperativity of the composites. However, the changes in cooperativity due to the surface pretreatment of the glass were lessened by the aqueous phase of the waterborne resin. Moisture uptake experiments were also performed on epoxy samples that were filled with spherical glass beads as well as multi-ply laminated composites. No increases in the diffusion constant could be attributed to the surfactant. However, the surfactant did enhance the final equilibrium moisture uptake levels. These equilibrium moisture uptake levels were also sensitive to the surface pretreatment of the E-glass.

  19. Thermo-curable epoxy systems for nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Lien-Chung Hsu, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have used solvent-free thermo-curable epoxy systems for low-pressure and moderate-temperature nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The curing kinetic parameters and conversion of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin with different ambient-cure 930 and 954 hardeners were studied by the isothermal DSC technique. They are useful for the study of epoxy resins in the imprinting application. The DGEBA/930 and DGEBA/954 epoxy resists can be imprinted to obtain high-density nano- and micro-scale patterns on a flexible indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (ITO/PET) substrate. The DGEBA/930 epoxy resin is not only suitable for resist material, but also for plastic mold material. Highly dense nanometer patterns can be successfully imprinted using a UV-curable resist from the DGEBA/930 epoxy mold. Using the replicated DGEBA/930 epoxy mold instead of the expensive master can prevent brittle failure of the silicon molds in the NIL.

  20. Investigations on different epoxies for electrical insulation of microflex structures.

    PubMed

    Cvancara, P; Lauser, S; Rudmann, L; Stieglitz, T

    2016-08-01

    The microflex interconnection (MFI) technique is often used to connect electrically and mechanically thin film ribbons or electrodes with a solid substrate like screen printed ceramics. For stabilization reasons epoxy is used to fix the MFI structure. As epoxy tends to form cracks when surrounded by water or electrolytes we are eager to find an epoxy which provides sufficient insulation between the single channels of the MFI structure also in a moist surrounding. Therefore we designed a device to investigate the insulating properties of different epoxies (Uhu Plus Endfest 300, Epo-Tek 353ND and 353ND-T) immersed in saline solution. For comparison reasons we use as well only silicone rubber (Nusil MED-1000) instead of epoxy. We performed the experiment for 23 weeks at 60 °C, which corresponds to 26 months at body temperature. The epoxy of preference is the Epo-Tek 353ND-T as it develops no failures and insulates all channel pairs of the MFI structures electrically over the whole period of experiment.

  1. Hygrothermal aging effects on buried molecular structures at epoxy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Myers, John N; Zhang, Chi; Lee, Kang-Wook; Williamson, Jaimal; Chen, Zhan

    2014-01-14

    Interfacial properties such as adhesion are determined by interfacial molecular structures. Adhesive interfaces in microelectronic packages that include organic polymers such as epoxy are susceptible to delamination during accelerated stress testing. Infrared-visible sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to study molecular structures at buried epoxy interfaces during hygrothermal aging to relate molecular structural changes at buried interfaces to decreases in macroscopic adhesion strength. SFG peaks associated with strongly hydrogen bonded water were detected at hydrophilic epoxy interfaces. Ordered interfacial water was also correlated to large decreases in interfacial adhesion strength that occurred as a result of hygrothermal aging, which suggests that water diffused to the interface and replaced original hydrogen bond networks. No water peaks were observed at hydrophobic epoxy interfaces, which was correlated with a much smaller decrease in adhesion strength from the same aging process. ATR-FTIR water signals observed in the epoxy bulk were mainly contributed by relatively weakly hydrogen bonded water molecules, which suggests that the bulk and interfacial water structure was different. Changes in interfacial methyl structures were observed regardless of the interfacial hydrophobicity which could be due to water acting as a plasticizer that restructured both the bulk and interfacial molecular structure. This research demonstrates that SFG studies of molecular structural changes at buried epoxy interfaces during hygrothermal aging can contribute to the understanding of moisture-induced failure mechanisms in electronic packages that contain organic adhesives.

  2. Investigation of the effects of cobalt ions on epoxy properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Co(acac)sub x complexes on MY-720 epoxy properties have been investigated. It appears that Co2(+) ions form antibonding or nonbonding orbitals which increase the free volume and also reduce the cohesiveness of the host epoxy. The effects of Co2(+) ions, on the other hand, seem to result in increased Cohesiveness of the epoxy. The experimental values of magnetic moments of both types of ions in MY-720 suggest that the orbital momentum contributions of the (3d) electrons are partially conserved, though the effect is more pronounced for Co2(+) ions. The coordination environment of the cobalt ions in the host epoxy does not appear to be uniquely defined. These results indicate that the effects of metal ions on resin properties cannot be easily predicted on the basis of ligand field theory argument alone. Complex interactions between metal ions and host epoxy molecular structure suggest the desirability of parallel experimental investigations of electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of metal ion-containing epoxy samples for comparison with theory.

  3. Theoretical studies of radiation effects in composite materials for space use. [graphite-epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. K.; Kamaratos, E.

    1982-01-01

    Tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane epoxy cured with diamino diphenyl sulfone was used as a model compound. Computer programs were developed to calculate (1) energy deposition coefficients of protons and electrons of various energies at different depths of the material; (2) ranges of protons and electrons of various energies in the material; and (3) cumulative doses received by the composite in different geometric shapes placed in orbits of various altitudes and inclination. A preliminary study on accelerated testing was conducted and it was found that an elliptical equitorial orbit of 300 km perigee by 2750 km apogee can accumulate, in 2 years or less, enough radiation dose comparable to geosynchronous environment for 30 years. The local plasma model calculated the mean excitation energies for covalent and ionic compounds. Longitudinal and lateral distributions of excited species by electron and proton impact as well as the probability of overlapping of two tracks due to two charged particles within various time intervals were studied.

  4. Effect of carbon nanotube addition on the wear behavior of basalt/epoxy woven composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, M T; Rhee, K Y; Lee, B H; Kim, C J

    2013-08-01

    The effect of acid-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on the wear and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites was investigated in this study. Basalt/CNT/epoxy composites were fabricated by impregnating woven basalt fibers into epoxy resin mixed with 1 wt% CNTs which were acid-treated. Wear and DMA (dynamic mechanical analyzer) tests were performed on basalt/epoxy composites and basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The results showed that the addition of the acid-treated CNTs improved the wear properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites. Specifically, the friction coefficient of the basalt/epoxy composite was stabilized in the range of 0.5-0.6 while it fell in the range of 0.3-0.4 for basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The wear volume loss of the basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was approximately 68% lower than that of the basalt/epoxy composites. The results also showed that the glass transition temperature of basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was higher than that of basalt/epoxy composites. The improvement of wear properties of basalt/epoxy composites by the addition of acid-treated CNTs was caused by the homogeneous load transfer between basalt fibers and epoxy matrix due to the reinforcement of CNTs.

  5. Shock Equation of State of Multi-Phase Epoxy-Based Composite (Al-MnO2-Epoxy)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    There are several studies in the literature regarding the equation of state of alumina-epoxy composites. Although these single component systems...paper presents the shock equation of state results on a multi-phase composite Al-MnO2-epoxy. Equation of state experiments were conducted using three...The experimental equation of state data is compared to volume averaged and mesoscale mixture models.

  6. Design and Analysis of Drive Shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Gobinath, R.; Kumar, L. Ajith; Jenish, D. Xavier

    2017-05-01

    In automobile industry drive shaft is one of the most important components to transmit power form the engine to rear wheel through the differential gear. Generally steel drive shaft is used in automobile industry, nowadays they are more interested to replace steel drive shaft with that of composite drive shaft. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the composite drive shaft using to find out the best replacement for conventional steel drive shaft. The uses of advanced composite materials such as Kevlar, Graphite, Carbon and Glass with proper resins ware resulted in remarkable achievements in automobile industry because of its greater specific strength and specific modulus, improved fatigue and corrosion resistances and reduction in energy requirements due to reduction in weight as compared to steel shaft. This paper is to presents, the modeling and analysis of drive shaft using Kevlar/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy as a composite material and to find best replacement for conventional steel drive shafts with an Kevlar/epoxy or Glass/Epoxy resin composite drive shaft. Modeling is done using CATIA software and Analysis is carried out by using ANSYS 10.0 software for easy understanding. The composite drive shaft reduces the weight by 81.67 % for Kevlar/Epoxy and 72.66% for Glass/Epoxy when compared with conventional steel drive shaft.

  7. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes.

  8. Viscoelastic properties of graphene-based epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Rosolia, Salvatore; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the viscoelastic properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated in the liquid state, before curing, by means of a rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel plate geometry. Exfoliated graphite was prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The percentage of exfoliated graphite was found to be 56%. The epoxy matrix was prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), was added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behaviour while, at 3 wt % pEG content, the complex viscosity of the nanocomposite clearly shows a shear thinning behaviour with η* values much higher at the lower frequencies. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of the partially exfoliated graphite content was mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures were cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage was carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour while the second isothermal stage was performed at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The mechanical properties of the cured nanocomposites show high values in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature.

  9. Composite Bombcase Program: Static tests on Kevlar/epoxy and graphite/epoxy plates and rings

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.

    1986-10-01

    An experimental study supporting the Composite Bombcase Program is described. The purpose of the study was to generate mechanical properties and structural response data on composite plates and cylinders. This data base is now available to assist in the evaluation of composite materials for bombcase applications. Two composites, Kevlar 49/epoxy and IM6 graphite/epoxy, were chosen for testing. The mechanical properties from flat unidirectional specimens were used to predict the elastic response of thick quasi-isotropic laminates in four-point bending and the elastic response of 18.0 inch diameter quasi-isotropic rings to diametral compressive loading. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental values of elastic response was obtained for both geometries. Load-deflection and load-strain curves in the elastic, post-yield, and failure regions were obtained for composite and aluminum rings. Delamination between plies was the principal failure mode in the QI composite plate and ring specimens. Even with many delaminations at large deflections, composite rings continued to carry load and retain some structural integrity.

  10. Toughening Mechanisms in Silica-Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Epoxies are widely used as underfill resins throughout the microelectronics industry to mechanically couple and protect various components of flip-chip assemblies. Generally rigid materials largely surround underfill resins. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins to better match those of their rigid counterparts can help extend the service lifetime of flip-chip assemblies. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that silica nanoparticles are effective toughening agents for lightly-crosslinked epoxies. Improvements in the fracture toughness of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites have primarily been attributed to two toughening mechanisms: particle debonding with subsequent void growth and matrix shear banding. Various attempts have been made to model the contribution of these toughening mechanisms to the overall fracture energy observed in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. However, disparities still exist between experimental and modeled fracture energy results. In this dissertation, the thermal, rheological and mechanical behavior of eight different types of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Each nanocomposite consisted of up to 10 vol% of silica nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm, with a variety of surface treatments and particle structures. Fractographical analysis was conducted with new experimental approaches in order to accurately identify morphological evidence for each proposed toughening mechanism. Overall, three major insights into the fracture behavior of real world silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites were established. First, microcracking was observed as an essential toughening mechanism in silica-filled epoxy nanocomposites. Microcracking was observed on the surface and subsurface of fractured samples in each type of silica-filled epoxy nanocomposite. The additional toughening contribution of microcracking to overall fracture energy yielded excellent agreement between experimental

  11. Homogeneous Liquid Phase Transfer of Graphene Oxide into Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Amirova, Lyaysan; Surnova, Albina; Balkaev, Dinar; Musin, Delus; Amirov, Rustem; Dimiev, Ayrat M

    2017-04-05

    The quality of polymer composite materials depends on the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix. Due to the presence of the oxygen functional groups, graphene oxide (GO) has a strong affinity to epoxy resins, providing potential opportunity for the uniform distribution of GO sheets in the matrix. Another advantage of GO over its nonoxidized counterpart is its ability to exfoliate to single-atomic-layer sheets in water and in some organic solvents. However, these advantages of GO have not yet been fully realized due to the lack of the methods efficiently introducing GO into the epoxy resin. Here we develop a novel homogeneous liquid phase transfer method that affords uniform distribution, and fully exfoliated condition of GO in the polymer matrix. The most pronounced alteration of properties of the cured composites is registered at the 0.10%-0.15% GO content. Addition of as little as 0.10% GO leads to the increase of the Young's modulus by 48%. Moreover, we demonstrate successful introduction of GO into the epoxy matrix containing an active diluent-modifier; this opens new venues for fabrication of improved GO-epoxy-modifier composites with a broad range of predesigned properties. The experiments done on reproducing the two literature methods, using alternative GO introduction techniques, lead to either decrease or insignificant increase of the Young's modulus of the resulting GO-epoxy composites.

  12. Void-free epoxy castings for cryogenic insulators and seals

    SciTech Connect

    Quirk, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Westinghouse Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Large Coil Program (LCP) incorporates a main lead bushing which transmits heat-leak loads by conduction to the supercritical helium stream. The bushing, which consists of epoxy resin cast about a copper conductor, must be electrically insulated, vacuum tight and be capable of withstanding the stresses encountered in cryognic service. The seal design of the bushing is especially important; leakage from either the helium system or the external environment into the vacuum will cause the magnet to quench. Additionally, the epoxy-resin casting must resist mechanical loads caused by the weight of leads attached to the bushing and thermal stresses transmitted to the epoxy via the conductor. The epoxy resin is cast about the conductor in such a way as to provide the required vacuum tight seal. The technique by which this is accomplished is reviewed. Equally important is the elimination of voids in the epoxy which will act as stress-concentrating discontinuities during cooling to or warming from 4K. The types of voids that could be expected and their causes are described. The paper reviews techniques employed to eliminate voids within the cast-resin portion of the bushing.

  13. High-performance fiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiao, T. T.; Hamstad, M. A.; Jessop, E. S.; Toland, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Activities described include: (1) determining the applicability of an ultrahigh-strength graphite fiber to composite pressure vessels; (2) defining the fatigue performance of thin-titanium-lined, high-strength graphite/epoxy pressure vessel; (3) selecting epoxy resin systems suitable for filament winding; (4) studying the fatigue life potential of Kevlar 49/epoxy pressure vessels; and (5) developing polymer liners for composite pressure vessels. Kevlar 49/epoxy and graphite fiber/epoxy pressure vessels, 10.2 cm in diameter, some with aluminum liners and some with alternation layers of rubber and polymer were fabricated. To determine liner performance, vessels were subjected to gas permeation tests, fatigue cycling, and burst tests, measuring composite performance, fatigue life, and leak rates. Both the metal and the rubber/polymer liner performed well. Proportionately larger pressure vessels (20.3 and 38 cm in diameter) were made and subjected to the same tests. In these larger vessels, line leakage problems with both liners developed the causes of the leaks were identified and some solutions to such liner problems are recommended.

  14. Fiber-Reinforced Reactive Nano-Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene/ matrix interface based on the fabrication of a reactive nano-epoxy matrix with lower surface energy has been improved. Enhanced mechanical properties versus pure epoxy on a three-point bend test include: strength (25 percent), modulus (20 percent), and toughness (30 percent). Increased thermal properties include higher Tg (glass transition temperature) and stable CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). Improved processability for manufacturing composites includes faster wetting rates on macro-fiber surfaces, lower viscosity, better resin infusion rates, and improved rheological properties. Improved interfacial adhesion properties with Spectra fibers by pullout tests include initial debonding force of 35 percent, a maximum pullout force of 25 percent, and energy to debond at 65 percent. Improved mechanical properties of Spectra fiber composites (tensile) aging resistance properties include hygrothermal effects. With this innovation, high-performance composites have been created, including carbon fibers/nano-epoxy, glass fibers/nano-epoxy, aramid fibers/ nano-epoxy, and ultra-high-molecularweight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE).

  15. Epoxy resin/carbon black composites below the percolation threshold.

    PubMed

    Macutkevic, J; Kuzhir, P; Paddubskaya, A; Maksimenko, S; Banys, J; Celzard, A; Fierro, V; Stefanutti, E; Cataldo, A; Micciulla, F; Bellucci, S

    2013-08-01

    A set of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt.% of commercially available ENSACO carbon black (CB) of high and low surface area (CBH and CBL respectively) has been produced. The results of broadband dielectric spectroscopy of manufactured CB/epoxy below the percolation threshold in broad temperature (200 K to 450 K) and frequency (20 Hz to 1 MHz) ranges are reported. The dielectric properties of composites below the percolation threshold are mostly determined by alpha relaxation in pure polymer matrix. The glass transition temperature for CB/epoxy decreases in comparison with neat epoxy resin due to the extra free volume at the polymer-filler interface. At room temperature, the dielectric permittivity is higher for epoxy loaded with CBH additives. In contrast, at high temperature, the electrical conductivity was found to be higher for composites with CBL embedded. The established influence of the CB surface area on the broadband dielectric characteristics can be exploited for the production of effective low-cost antistatic paints and coatings working at different temperatures.

  16. Electron beam curing of epoxy resins by cationic polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Havens, S.J.; Lopata, V.J.

    1995-10-01

    Preliminary investigations have determined that conventional epoxy resins can be cured at selectable temperatures with high glass transition temperatures (essentially the same as with thermal curing), while still exhibiting equivalent or comparable mechanical properties. A cationic photoinitiator at a concentration of 1--3 parts per hundred of the epoxy resin is required for this process. Gamma cell screening of cationic photoinitiators with bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and cycloaliphatic epoxies demonstrated that diaryliodonium salts of weakly nucleophilic anions such as hexafluoroantimonate are most effective. Diaryliodonium salts were also found to be most effective initiators for the cationic polymerization of epoxy resins when a high energy/power electron beam accelerator was used as the source of ionizing radiation. For example Dow Tactix 123 (bisphenol A epoxy) containing 3 phr (4-octyloxyphenyl)phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate was irradiated at a total dosage of 100 kGy. Glass transition temperature (tan delta) of the cured material as determined by dynamic mechanical analysis was 182 C as compared to 165 C thermally cured material.

  17. Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yun-Yuan; Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Su, Wei-Fang; Chen, Min-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Novel liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced polymerization shrinkage and effectively bond to tooth structures, can be applied in esthetic dentistry, including core and post systems, direct and indirect restorations, and dental brackets. The purposes of this study were to investigate the properties of liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites including biocompatibility, microhardness, and frictional forces of bracket-like blocks with different filler contents for further clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials that exhibited various filler contents, by assessing their cell activity performance using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and their microhardness with or without thermocycling. We also evaluated the frictional force between bracket-like duplicates and commercially available esthetic bracket systems using Instron 5566. The liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials showed good biocompatibility. The materials having high filler content demonstrated greater microhardness compared with commercially available bracket materials, before and after the thermocycling treatment. Thus, manufacturing processes are important to reduce frictional force experienced by orthodontic brackets. The microhardness of the bracket-like blocks made by our new material is superior to the commercially available brackets, even after thermocycling. Our results indicate that the evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials are of an appropriate quality for application in dental core and post systems and in various restorations. By applying technology to refine manufacturing processes, these new materials could also be used to fabricate esthetic brackets for orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Nickel-Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Morgana; Hanagud, Sathyanaraya; Thadhani, Naresh

    2005-07-01

    Epoxy-based composites reinforced with a mixture of micron-sized Ni and micron or nano-sized Al powders were fabricated as bulk materials by cast/curing. The structural/mechanical behavior of these materials was evaluated using elastic and plastic property measurements via static and dynamic compression tests performed on rod shaped samples. Reverse Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests combined with velocity interferometry gave qualitative and quantitative information about the transient deformation and failure response of the composites. The material containing 20wt% epoxy and nano-sized Al powder showed the most superior mechanical properties in terms of elastic modulus, and static and dynamic compressive strength, and strain before fracture, as compared to the other reinforced cast materials. The results illustrate that nano-sized Al particles provide significant enhancement to strength of epoxy composites by dispersing in the epoxy and generating a nano-Al containing epoxy matrix with embedded Ni particles. Funding for this research was provided by AFOSR/MURI Grant No. F49620-02-1-0382.

  19. Toughened epoxy resins: Preformed particles as tougheners for adhesives and matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Riew, C.K.; Siebert, A.R.; Smith, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    Free-flowing,preformed,rigid,multilayer acrylic core-shell polymers were used to enhance the toughness of epoxy resins. The glass transition temperatures of the cured epoxys were over 190 degrees centigrade.

  20. Statistical analysis of Kevlar 49/epoxy composite stress-rupture data

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    Statistical analyses are presented for LLNL stress-rupture data sets involving kevlar 49/epoxy strands and NASA Kevlar 49/epoxy spherical pressure vessels subjected to sustained loading. Raw data, summarized inferences, and figures are included.

  1. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  2. Catalytic diastereoselective reduction of α,β-epoxy and α,β-aziridinyl ynones.

    PubMed

    Druais, Valérie; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2012-01-20

    The Noyori transfer hydrogenation of α,β-epoxy and α,β-aziridinyl ynones leads to the corresponding α,β-epoxy or α,β-aziridinyl propargylic alcohols with high reagent-controlled diastereoselectivity.

  3. Engineering the magnetic properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon by epoxy chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, H. H.; Rhim, S. H.; Gajdardziksa-Josifovska, M.; Hirschmugl, C. J.; Weinert, M.; Chen, J. H.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oxidized by either two single epoxy or one epoxy pair chains were investigated here. The results show that the epoxy pair chain essentially produces finite spin moment for both the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) coupling between the ribbon edges, while the two single epoxy chains oxidized ZGNR and pure ZGNR show the trivial moment for the AFM coupling. The total spin moment has a weak dependence on the position of single epoxy and epoxy pair chains inside the ZGNR and on the width of ZGNR. In addition, the ZGNR oxidized by one epoxy pair chain transitions from a half metal to a semiconductor via tuning the Fermi level when the chain shifts inwards from the ribbon edge. Our results suggest the potential for designing graphene-based spintronics by introducing epoxy pair chains.

  4. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  5. Curing and toughening of epoxy resins with phosphorus containing monomers and polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.R.; Park, I.Y.; Yoon, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    Epoxy resins have been utilized in many areas, from house holds to airplanes, for the past several decades due to some exceptional properties such as low cost, good mechanical properties and excellent adhesive properties. However, low fracture toughness and flame resistance of epoxy resins have limited their applicability. Therefore, enhancing those properties have been of great interest to many researchers and scientists. As introduced by McGrath and co-workers in 1980s, the reactive thermoplastic polymers have proven to be an excellent toughener for improving not only fracture toughness but also adhesive properties without sacrificing thermo-mechanical properties and chemical resistance. Flame retardency could be improved by adding flame retardent additives which are divided into two groups; additives and reactives. However, among the additives, halogen compounds are known to be toxic gas generator and ozone depleter. Moreover, additives could be potentially leached out of the material, while reactives are inferior to additives. Recently, a reactive type phosphine oxide containing flame retardants have been introduced by McGrath and co-workers and proven to be an excellent flame retardant. In this paper, phospine oxide containing monomers were prepared and utilized as curing agents for expoxy resins, and starting materials for the polymers.

  6. Epoxy ceriporic acid produced by selective lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Setogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Takahito; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a selective white rot basidiomycete which degrades lignin in wood at a distance far from enzymes. Low molecular mass metabolites play a central role in the oxidative degradation of lignin. To understand the unique wood-decaying mechanism, we surveyed the oxidized derivatives of ceriporic acids (alk(en)ylitaconic acids) produced by C. subvermispora using high-resolution liquid chromatography multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HR-LC/MS(n)). The analysis of the precursor and product ions from the extract suggested that an epoxidized derivative of ceriporic acid is produced by the fungus. To identify the new metabolite, an authentic compound of ceriporic acid epoxide was synthesized in vitro by reacting (R)-3-[(Z)-hexadec-7-enyl]-itaconic acid (ceriporic acid C) with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. The precursor and product ions from the natural metabolite and authentic epoxide were identical and distinguishable from those of hydroxy and hydroperoxy derivatives after reduction with NaBD(4). Feeding experiments with [U-(13)C]-glucose, 99% and the subsequent analyses of the first and second generation product ions demonstrated that the oxidized ceriporic acid was (R)-3-(7,8-epoxy-hexadecyl)-itaconic acid. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report that natural alkylitaconic acid bears an epoxy group on its side chain.

  7. Viscoelasticity of Epoxy nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Nanocomposites have been modeled in a multiscale covering from molecular scale (e.g., molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo), microscale (e.g., Brownian dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, lattice Boltzmann, time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau method, dynamic density functional theory method) to mesoscale and macroscale (e.g., micromechanics, equivalent-continuum and self-similar approaches, finite element method) The presence of layered silicates in nonaqueous polymers changes the viscoelastic behavior of the unfilled matrix from liquid-like to solid-like because of the formation of a three-dimensional percolating network of exfoliated or intercalated stacks. This gel-like behavior is a direct consequence of the highly anisotropic nature of the nanoclays which prevents their free rotation and the dissipation of stress. Particle to particle interactions is the dominant mechanism in fumed silica nanocomposites whereas particle to polymer interaction is the dominant one in colloidal silica nanocomposites at identical filler concentrations. These interactions are balanced in each nanocomposite systems by the silica surface treatments (chain grafting, silane modification) and the molecular weight of the matrix. Two different types of nanocomposite structures exist namely, intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the layers can be considered individually but remain more or less dispersed in the polymer matrix. Yield stress from Carreau-Yasuda model has been correlated to exfoliation. Also, equilibrium modulus and zero shear rate viscosity has been used to analyze percolation threshold and sol-gel transition. Nano clays organically functionalized were mixed with Epoxy in a high shear mixer.

  8. Degradation of epoxy coatings under gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouani, F.; Zahra, Y.; Fayolle, B.; Kuntz, M.; Verdu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy networks based on Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and cured with Jeffamine® (POPA) or polyamidoamine (PAA) were gamma irradiated at 25 °C in air. Dose rates of 50, 200 or 2000 Gy h-1 for doses up 100 kGy were used. Structural changes were monitored by IR spectrophotometry, DSC and sol-gel analysis. Both networks display some common features: for I≥200 Gy h-1, reaction products grow proportionally to time and the rate is a decreasing function of dose rate. The simplest explanation is that peroxy radicals are the main precursors of these products (in the dose rate domain under study), through a unimolecular rearrangement of which an hypothetical mechanism is proposed. DGEBA-POPA are more reactive then DGEBA-PAA networks (according to IR criteria), that can be attributed to the high reactivity of tertiary CH bands in polyoxypropylene segments. The oxidation of these sites leads to methyl ketones. A simple kinetic model in which methyl ketones result from rearrangements of tertiary peroxyls and from tertiary alkoxyls was proposed. It leads to an expression of the radiochemical yield of methyl ketones (G(MK)) of the form G(MK)=a+bI where a and b are parameters depending of elementary rate constants. Experimental G(MK) values are reasonably well fitted by this equation. In DGEBA-PAA networks, a wide variety of oxidation products, among which amides predominate, can be observed. In these networks, chain scissions predominate over crosslinking, whereas a slight predominance of crosslinking was observed, at least for the lowest dose rate, in DGEBA-POPA.

  9. Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

    Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  10. Synthesis of iso-epoxy-amphidinolide N and des-epoxy-caribenolide I structures. Revised strategy and final stages.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Bulger, Paul G; Brenzovich, William E

    2006-06-07

    A general and highly convergent synthetic route to the macrocyclic core structures of the antitumour agents amphidinolide N (1) and caribenolide I (2) has been developed, and the total synthesis of iso-epoxy-amphidinolide N and des-epoxy-caribenolide I structures is described. Central to the revised strategy was the use of a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination between beta-ketophosphonate 51 and aldehyde 14 to construct the C1-C13 sector common to both 1 and 2. Stereoselective alkylation of hydrazone 11 with iodide 65 and then with bromide 56 allowed for the rapid assembly of the complete caribenolide I carbon skeleton. Key steps in the completion of the synthesis of des-epoxy-caribenolide I structure 78 included hydrolysis of a sensitive methyl ester using Me(3)SnOH, followed by regioselective macrolactonisation of the resulting diol seco-acid and global deprotection. Coupling of hydrazone 11, bromide 56 and iodide 64 was followed by an analogous sequence of late-stage manoeuvres to arrive at the fully deprotected des-epoxy-amphidinolide N framework, obtained as a mixture of hemiacetal and bicyclic acetal 84. Regio- and diastereo-selective epoxidation of the C6 methylene group in bicyclic acetal 84 provided access to iso-epoxy-amphidinolide N stereoisomer 89.

  11. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  12. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Norshamira, A. Mariatti, M.

    2015-07-22

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  13. Dielectric properties of inorganic fillers filled epoxy thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norshamira, A.; Mariatti, M.

    2015-07-01

    The demand on the small size and high performance electronics has driven changes in the electronic packaging requirements from discrete capacitor to embedded capacitor. Embedded capacitor can improve electrical performance compared with discrete capacitor. This study aimed to achieve high dielectric of epoxy thin film composite that were targeted for application as embedded capacitor. In this study, inorganic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate (CCTO), Iron(III) Oxide (Fe2O3) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) were loaded in epoxy system at 5 and 20vol%. Morphology and dielectric properties were investigated to identify the effect of fillers loading and types of fillers on the properties of epoxy thin film composite. Based on the study, CCTO with 20vol% loading was found to have good dielectric properties compared to other type of fillers.

  14. Modeling epoxy foams exposed to fire-like heat fluxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2004-11-01

    A decomposition chemistry and heat transfer model to predict the response of removable epoxy foam (REF) exposed to fire-like heat fluxes is described. The epoxy foam was created using a perfluorohexane blowing agent with a surfactant. The model includes desorption of the blowing agent and surfactant, thermal degradation of the epoxy polymer, polymer fragment transport, and vapor-liquid equilibrium. An effective thermal conductivity model describes changes in thermal conductivity with reaction extent. Pressurization is modeled assuming: (1) no strain in the condensed-phase, (2) no resistance to gas-phase transport, (3) spatially uniform stress fields, and (4) no mass loss from the system due to venting. The model has been used to predict mass loss, pressure rise, and decomposition front locations for various small-scale and large-scale experiments performed by others. The framework of the model is suitable for polymeric foams with absorbed gases.

  15. On sample preparation and dielectric breakdown in nanostructured epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, M.; Xu, Z.; Vaughan, A. S.; Lewin, P. L.

    2011-08-01

    There are many methods available to achieve a good dispersion of fillers within a polymeric matrix. This investigation considered several methods of dispersing three chosen fillers within an epoxy resin; the same processes were also performed on unfilled materials to investigate any effects they may have on the host material. For this investigation, the epoxy system (EP) was combined with sodium montmorillonite (MMT), micrometric silicon dioxide (SD) or nanometric silicon dioxide (NSD) as fillers. The effect of the different sample preparation routes on breakdown behaviour was then evaluated. While more thorough mixing protocols were found to lead to improved breakdown behaviour in the case of the various filled systems, surprisingly, an entirely equivalent form of behaviour was also seen in the unfilled epoxy. The influence of changes in sample geometry on the breakdown strength was established.

  16. Interfacial Strength and Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene - Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Heimann, Paula; Scheiman, Daniel; Adamson, Douglas H.; Aksay, Iihan A.; Prud'homme, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    The toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of a series of functionalized graphene sheet - epoxy nanocomposites are investigated. Functionalized graphene sheets are produced by splitting graphite oxide into single graphene sheets through a rapid thermal expansion process. These graphene sheets contain approx. 10% oxygen due to the presence of hydroxide, epoxide, and carboxyl functional groups which assist in chemical bond formation with the epoxy matrix. Intrinsic surface functionality is used to graft alkyl amine chains on the graphene sheets, and the addition of excess hardener insures covalent bonding between the epoxide matrix and graphene sheets. Considerable improvement in the epoxy dimensional stability is obtained. An increase in nanocomposite toughness is observed in some cases.

  17. DEGRADATION OF MAGNET EPOXY AT NSLS X-RAY RING.

    SciTech Connect

    HU,J.P.; ZHONG,Z.; HAAS,E.; HULBERT,S.; HUBBARD,R.

    2004-05-24

    Epoxy resin degradation was analyzed for NSLS X-ring magnets after two decades of 2.58-2.8 GeV continuous electron-beam operation, based on results obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeters irradiated along the NSLS ring and epoxy samples irradiated at the beamline target location. A Monte Carlo-based particle transport code, MCNP, was utilized to verify the dose from synchrotron radiation distributed along the axial- and transverse-direction in a ring model, which simulates the geometry of a ring quadrupole magnet and its central vacuum chamber downstream of the bending-magnet photon ports. The actual life expectancy of thoroughly vacuum baked-and-cured epoxy resin was estimated from radiation tests on similar polymeric materials using a radiation source developed for electrical insulation and mechanical structure studies.

  18. Epoxy foams using multiple resins and curing agents

    DOEpatents

    Russick, Edward M.; Rand, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    An epoxy foam comprising a plurality of resins, a plurality of curing agents, at least one blowing agent, at least one surfactant and optionally at least one filler and the process for making. Preferred is an epoxy foam comprising two resins of different reactivities, two curing agents, a blowing agent, a surfactant, and a filler. According to the present invention, an epoxy foam is prepared with tailorable reactivity, exotherm, and pore size by a process of admixing a plurality of resins with a plurality of curing agents, a surfactant and blowing agent, whereby a foamable mixture is formed and heating said foamable mixture at a temperature greater than the boiling temperature of the blowing agent whereby said mixture is foamed and cured.

  19. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-27

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  20. Health Problems of Epoxy Resins and Amine-curing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.; Alberman, K. B.

    1959-01-01

    Epoxy resins were first introduced about 10 years ago. Toxic effects, particularly dermatitis, have been frequently described. An investigation into the possible causes of pathological sequelae following the use of epoxy resin/amine mixtures has been undertaken. The cause of most cases of dermatitis and sensitization appears to be uncombined amine which is present in recent mixtures and persists in hardened resin for long periods. The results of experiments with two of the most commonly used resin/amine mixtures confirm this. Cold-cured resins are more dangerous and remain so even when hardened. A simple theory is suggested for the mechanism of the reaction between epoxy resins, amines, and biological systems. This theory leads logically to the handling precautions outlined. Images PMID:13651551

  1. Research on fracture performance of epoxy asphalt concrete based on double-K fracture criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Qian, Z. D.; Xue, Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    After cracks appear on steel bridge deck epoxy asphalt concrete pavement, cracks propagate fast under vehicle load. This paper studied the fracture performance of epoxy asphalt concrete, utilized single edge notched beam (SEB) three-point bending test, measured the load (P) exerted on epoxy asphalt SEB; utilized digital camera to record the fracture process of epoxy asphalt SEB, extracted the images according to the required sampling frequency and utilized Image-Pro Plus to measure the crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) of epoxy asphalt SEB on the extracted images; calculated the double-K fracture parameters according to the P-CMOD curve. Results indicate that of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.11 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 2.31 MPa at -15°C of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.02 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.83 MPa at -5°C of epoxy asphalt concrete is 0.77 MPa and of epoxy asphalt concrete is 1.82 MPa at 5°C. The double-K fracture parameters of epoxy asphalt concrete increase slightly when the temperature decreases at the scope of -15°C to 5°C. The relation of and is .

  2. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9270 - Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of epoxy with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9270 Reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and... substance identified generically as reaction product of epoxy with anhydride and glycerol and glycol (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... epoxy adduct. 721.1850 Section 721.1850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under...

  8. Thermoset Blends of an Epoxy Resin and Polydicyclopentadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Brian J.; Le, Kim Mai; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan L.

    2016-12-13

    The mechanical properties of two chemically distinct and complementary thermoset polymers were manipulated through development of thermoset blends. The thermoset blend system was composed of an anhydride-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin, contributing high tensile strength and modulus, and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD), which has a higher toughness and impact strength as compared to other thermoset polymers. Ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis explored the morphology of concurrently cured thermoset blends, revealing a macroscopically phase separated system with a surface fractal structure across blended systems of varying composition. The epoxy resin rich and PDCPD rich phases exhibited distinct glass transitions (Tg’s): the Tg observed at higher temperature was associated with the epoxy resin rich phase and was largely unaffected by the presence of PDCPD, whereas the PDCPD rich phase Tg systematically decreased with increasing epoxy resin content due to inhibition of dicyclopentadiene ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The mechanical properties of these phase-separated blends were in reasonable agreement with predictions by the rule of mixtures for the blend tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the tensile and fracture specimen fracture surfaces showed an increase in energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crazing, shear banding, and surface roughness, as the fraction of the more ductile component, PDPCD, increased. These results present a facile method to tune the mechanical properties of a toughened thermoset network, in which the high modulus and tensile strength of the epoxy resin can be largely retained at high epoxy resin content in the blend, while increasing the fracture toughness.

  9. Understanding the strength of epoxy/polyimide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoontrakul, Patraporn

    Polyimides are commonly used as organic passivation layers for microelectronic devices due to their unique combination of low dielectric constant, high thermal stability, and excellent mechanical properties. Polyimides are well known to have poor adhesion to epoxy resins. Many surface treatment methods have been developed to increase epoxy-polyimide adhesion. These include various ion beam and plasma treatments as well as wet chemical methods. Our research goal is to understand the strength of epoxy-polyimide interfaces by studying the effect of polyimide chemical structure on epoxy-polyimide adhesion. Four polyimides that were chosen in this study were commonly used in microelectronic industries: poly (pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydianiline [PMDA-ODA], poly (3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride-phenylene diamine [BPDA-PDA], poly (hexafluoroisopropylidene-diphthalic anhydride-oxydianiline) [6FDA-ODA], and 5(6)-Amino-1-(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,3, trimethylindanbenzophenonetetacarboxylic dianhydride copolymer [BTDA-DAPI). The adhesive strengths between an epoxy resin and these various polyimides were characterized using interfacial fracture mechanics and the critical interfacial strain energy release rates were found to be in the range of 20 J/m 2 to 179 J/m2. The locus of failure for fractured epoxy-polyimide interfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and found to be at the interphase region for all four interfaces. The surface reactivity was analyzed using flow microcalorimetry (FMC), FT-IR, and the contact angles. Interestingly, the strength of the interfaces appeared to be related to the predicted interfacial widths from solubility parameter theory.

  10. Toughening mechanism in elastomer-modified epoxy resins, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, A. F.; Pearson, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The role of matrix ductility on the toughenability and toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified DGEBRA epoxies was investigated. Matrix ductility was varied by using epoxide resins of varying epoxide monomer molecular weights. These epoxide resins were cured using 4,4' diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) and, in some cases, modified with 10% HYCAR(r)CTBN 1300X8. Fracture roughness values for the neat epoxies were found to be almost independent on the monomer molecular weight of the epoxide resin used. However, it was found that the fracture toughness of the elastomer-modified epoxies was very dependent upon the epoxide monomer molecular weight. Tensile dilatometry indicated that the toughening mechanism, when present, is similar to the mechanisms found for the piperidine cured epoxies in Part 1. SEM and OM corroborate this finding. Dynamic mechanical studies were conducted to shed light on the toughenability of the epoxies. The time-dependent small strain behavior of these epoxies were separated into their bulk and shear components. The bulk component is related to brittle fracture, whereas the shear component is related to yielding. It can be shown that the rates of shear and bulk strain energy buildup for a given stress are uniquely determined by the values of Poisson's ratio, nu. It was found that nu increases as the monomer molecular weight of the epoxide resin used increases. This increase in nu can be associated with the low temperature beta relaxation. The effect of increasing cross-link density is to shift the beta relaxation to higher temperatures and to decrease the magnitude of the beta relaxation. Thus, increasing cross-link density decreases nu and increases the tendency towards brittle fracture.

  11. Education and Public Outreach for NASA's EPOXI Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Crow, C. A.; Behne, J.; Brown, R. N.; Counley, J.; Livengood, T. A.; Ristvey, J. D.; Warner, E. M.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission is reusing the Deep Impact (DI) flyby spacecraft to study comets and extra-solar planets around other stars. During the Extrasolar Planetary Observations and Characterization (EPOCh) phase of the mission extrasolar planets transiting their parent stars were observed to gain further knowledge and understanding of planetary systems. Observations of Earth also allowed for characterization of Earth as an extrasolar planet. A movie of a lunar transit of the Earth created from EPOCh images and links to existing planet finding activities from other NASA missions are available on the EPOXI website. The Deep Impact Extended Investigation (DIXI) continues the Deep Impact theme of investigating comet properties and formation by observing comet Hartley 2 in November 2010. The EPOXI Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program is both creating new materials and updating and modifying existing Deep Impact materials based on DI mission results. Comparing Comets is a new educational activity under development that will guide students in conducting analyses of comet surface features similar to those the DIXI scientists will perform after observing comet Hartley 2. A new story designed to stimulate student creativity was developed in alignment with national educational standards. EPOXI E/PO also funded Family Science Night (FSN), a program bringing together students, families, and educators for an evening at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. FSN events include time for families to explore the museum, a presentation by a space scientist, and an astronomy themed IMAX film. Nine events were held during the 2008-2009 school year with a total attendance of 3,145 (attendance since inception reached 44,732). Half of attendance is reserved for schools with high percentages of underrepresented minorities. EPOXI additionally offers a bi-monthly newsletter to keep the public, teachers, and space enthusiasts updated on current mission activities. For more

  12. Rheological and morphological properties of graphene-epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Lafdi, Khalid; Guadagno, Liberata

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the rheological and morphological properties of an epoxy resin filled with graphene-based nanoparticles have been investigated. Two samples of partially exfoliated graphite (pEG) and carboxylated partially exfoliated graphite (CpEG), differing essentially for the content of carboxylated groups, are used. The percentage of exfoliated graphite is slightly different for the two samples: 56% for pEG and and 60% for CpEG. Exfoliated graphite is prepared using traditional acid intercalation followed by a sudden treatment at high temperature (900°C). The epoxy matrix is prepared by mixing a tetrafunctional precursor with a reactive diluent which produces a significant decrease in the viscosity of the epoxy precursor so that the dispersion step of nanofillers in the matrix can easily occur. The hardener agent, the 4,4-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is added at a stoichiometric concentration with respect to all the epoxy rings. The inclusion of the pEG and CpEG samples in the formulated epoxy mixture significantly modifies the rheological behaviour of the mixture itself. The epoxy mixture, indeed, shows a Newtonian behavior; on the contrary the complex viscosity of the nanocomposites clearly shows a shear thinning behavior at 3 wt % of pEG content and at 0.75 wt% of CpEG content. The increase in complex viscosity with the increasing of pEG and CpEG content is mostly caused by a dramatic increase in the storage modulus of the nanocomposites. All the graphene-based epoxy mixtures are cured by a two-stage curing cycles: a first isothermal stage is carried out at the lower temperature of 125°C for 1 hour and, then, a second isothermal stage at the higher temperature of 200°C for 3 hours. The different morphology shown by the two pEG and CpEG samples is consistent with the difference in the percentage of exfoliation degree and well correlates with the rheological behavior of investigated graphene-epoxy nanocomposites.

  13. Fracture behavior of silica nanoparticle filled epoxy resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittanet, Peerapan

    This dissertation involves the addition of silica nanoparticles to a lightly crosslinked, model epoxy resin and investigates the effect of nanosilica content and particle size on glass transition temperature (Tg), coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young's modulus (E), yield stress, and fracture toughness. This study aims to understand the influence of silica nanoparticle size, bimodal particle size distribution and silica content on the toughening behavior. The toughening mechanisms were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and transmission optical microscopy (TOM). The approach identifies toughening mechanisms and develops a toughening model from unimodal-particle size systems first, then extends these concepts to various mixtures micron- and nanometer-size particles in a similar model epoxy. The experimental results revealed that the addition of nanosilica did not have a significant effect on Tg or the yield stress of epoxy resin, i.e. the yield stress and Tg remained constant regardless of nanosilica particle size. As expected, the addition of nanosilica had a significant impact on CTE, modulus and fracture toughness. The CTE values of nanosilica-filled epoxies were found to decrease with increasing nanosilica content, which can be attributed to the much lower CTE of the nanosilica fillers. Interestingly, the decreases in CTE showed strong particle size dependence. The Young's modulus was also found to significantly improve with addition of nanosilica and increase with increasing filler content. However, the particle size did not exhibit any effect on the Young's modulus. Finally, the fracture toughness and fracture energy showed significant improvements with the addition of nanosilica, and increased with increasing filler content. The effect of particle size on fracture toughness was negligible. Observation of the fracture surfaces using SEM and TOM showed evidence of debonding of nanosilica particles

  14. Development of quality assurance methods for epoxy graphite prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. S.; Hunter, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Quality assurance methods for graphite epoxy/prepregs were developed. Liquid chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, and gel permeation chromatography were investigated. These methods were applied to a second prepreg system. The resin matrix formulation was correlated with mechanical properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis and fracture toughness methods were investigated. The chromatography and calorimetry techniques were all successfully developed as quality assurance methods for graphite epoxy prepregs. The liquid chromatography method was the most sensitive to changes in resin formulation. The were also successfully applied to the second prepreg system.

  15. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmetli, Gulnare; Gungor, Ahmet; Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-01

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  16. The radiation resistance of thermoset plastics—V. Epoxy plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfrich, H.-P.; Wilski, H.

    Flexural strength, impact strength and dielectric properties of an epoxy plastic (bispherol A-based epoxy resin cured with aromatic diamines) with inorganic fillers remained unchanged after irradiation at high dose rate up to 10 MGy. Measurements of heat deflection temperature and sol fraction indicated, however, a deterioration of the resin. The same results were obtained after irradiation in the presence of air at extremely low dose rate (irradiation time: 10 years). Electrical surface resistance and tracking resistance worsened after irradiation. In addition, both of these surface-dependent properties were markedly influenced by the dose rate.

  17. Mechanism of Monuron-Accelerated Dicyandiamide Cure of Epoxy Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    ÜBBSBBffl^w^r’r^^—. ■ «Mmfifißmwww-tr- oo o m* AMMRC TR 81-34 AD MECHANISM OF < MONURON-ACCELERATED ^ DICYANDIAMIDE CURE OF...REPORT NJJMMR RC-TR-81-34 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 4. TITLE fand Submit) AV-A/^if^ , MECHANISM OF MONURON-ACCELERATED DICYANDIAMIDE CURE OF EPOXY...4-chJqTophenyl)-tI,,N,-dimethylurea, >is the ability of this class of aryl ureas to accelerate the dicyandiamide (Dicy) cure of epoxy resins

  18. Glass Fibre/Epoxy Resin Interface Life-Time Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    RD-Ai32 26 GLASS FIBRE /POXY RESIN INTERFACE LIFE-TIME PREDICTION 1/1 (U) BRISTOL UNIV (ENGLAND) H H WILLS PHYSICS LAB K H RSHBEE ET AL. APR 83...D 3005-MS GLASS FIBRE /EPOXY RESIN INTERFACE LIFE-TIME PREDICTION - Final Report by K H G Ashbee, Principal Investigator R Ho~l J P Sargent Elizabeth...REPORT h PERIOD COVERED. Glass Fibre /Epoxy Resin Interface Life-time F-inal Technical 11’ port PreictonApril 1981 - A:’ril 1983 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  19. Two Electrical Switching Phenomena In A Silver-Filled Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid

    1996-01-01

    Two distinct electrical switching phenomena observed in experiments on commercial silver-filled epoxy: Depending on geometry of epoxy layer or strip and of metal electrical contacts, either transition from "off" (high-resistance) state at low applied electric field to "on" (low-resistance) state at high applied electric field; or transition from "on" (low resistance) at low applied electric field to "off" (high resistance) at high applied electric field. Improved understanding of phenomena leads to design of new and improved surge arrestors.

  20. Impact penetration studies of graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, G. F.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide an initial insight into the role of the matrix in impact energy absorption of graphite/epoxy laminates. A single epoxy system, NARMCO 5208, in both composite and cured neat-resin form was studied with a constant velocity impact test apparatus. The parameters investigated include resin cure temperature, fiber type, ply thickness and orientation, and impact velocity. The results from the study show that matrix chemistry, as obtained by cure temperature changes, has a significant effect upon the failure mode and energy absorption during impact.

  1. Adhesion between Epoxy-Polysulfone Blends and Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantseva, T. V.; Gorbatkina, Yu. A.; Kerber, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    The adhesive strength of a fiber-polymer interface is determined, where epoxy resin blends and linear heat-resistant thermoplastics - polysulfone (PSF) and polyetherimide (Ultem) - are used as matrices. Steel wire and polyamide (nylon-6) fibers are taken as reinforcing fillers. It is shown that the addition of PSF to epoxy resin results in a maximum on the concentration curve corresponding to a 10% PSF content. It is also found that the adhesive strength of the ED-20+Ultem-steel wire interface is practically independent of the modifier content under low (up to 10%) Ultem concentrations.

  2. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  3. Influence of physical aging on the time-dependent properties of network epoxies and epoxy-matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, E. S. W.

    1983-01-01

    The matrix-dominated properties of a network epoxy and its carbon fiber-reinforced composite are noted to be affected by sub-glass transition temperature T(g) annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere. The damping behavior, stress relaxation rate, and enthalpic state of the matrix material were found to decrease as functions of sub-T(g) annealing time. This time-dependent change in physical properties is explained on the basis of a free-volume collapse which is related to the recovery process of the nonequilibrium glassy network of the epoxy. The physical aging in network epoxies has been demonstrated to be thermoreversible. Aging kinetics are studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, stress relaxation tests, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermomechanical analysis.

  4. Stimuli-responsive cellulose modified by epoxy-functionalized polymer nanoparticles with photochromic and solvatochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Amin; Rad, Jaber Keyvan; Mahdavian, Ali Reza

    2016-10-05

    Photoresponsive papers are among the fast and simple tools for detection of polarity by solvatochromic and photochromic behaviors upon UV irradiation. Here, a new, green and facile modification strategy was employed to prepare novel stimuli-responsive cellulose materials containing spiropyran by mixing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), as a model compound, with epoxy-functionalized photochromic latex. FTIR analysis, thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were used to confirm the microstructral properties. Crystallographic analysis revealed a decrease in crystallinity of cellulose matrix and approved the incorporation of photochromic copolymer. Then stimuli-responsive papers were prepared by using pulp paper as the cellulosic matrix and their smart characteristics were studied under UV irradiation while dried or immersed into some polar and non-polar solvents. Different color changes were observed and investigated by solid-state UV-vis spectroscopy. These significant results were attributed to the efficient chemical modification and confirmed by SEM, EDX and nitrogen mapping analyses.

  5. Aerobic granular sludge inoculated microbial fuel cells for enhanced epoxy reactive diluent wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai; Hu, Jingping; Hou, Huijie; Liu, Bingchuan; Chen, Qin; Pan, Keliang; Pu, Wenhong; Yang, Jiakuan; Wu, Xu; Yang, Changzhu

    2017-04-01

    Microbial consortiums aggregated on the anode surface of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are critical factors for electricity generation as well as biodegradation efficiencies of organic compounds. Here in this study, aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was assembled on the surface of the MFC anode to form an AGS-MFC system with superior performance on epoxy reactive diluent (ERD) wastewater treatment. AGS-MFCs successfully shortened the startup time from 13d to 7d compared to the ones inoculated with domestic wastewater. Enhanced toxicity tolerance as well as higher COD removal (77.8% vs. 63.6%) were achieved. The higher ERD wastewater treatment efficiency of AGS-MFC is possibly attributed to the diverse microbial population on MFC biofilm, as well as the synergic degradation of contaminants by both the MFC anode biofilm and AGS granules.

  6. Effect of tannin from Rhizophora apiculate as corrosion inhibitor for epoxy paint on mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idora, M. S. Noor; Quen, L. K.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-09-01

    There is a great concern to protect the steel surfaces from corrosion phenomenon in seawater environment. Several approaches have been proposed to introduce alternative new compounds in the paint which are green sources that can reduce environmental risks. The aim of this investigation was to enhance the protection properties of epoxy paint by providing an anticorrosive inhibitor for the paint. In this approach, the abilities of mangrove tannins, extracted from Rhizophora apiculata bark were studied. The inhibitive properties of mangrove tannins were evaluated by weight loss measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results shows the addition of mangrove tannin in the coating boosted the anticorrosive properties of the paint and represents valuable environmentally friendly of inhibitor.

  7. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  8. Analytical and experimental studies of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates in compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, T.

    1977-01-01

    The applicability and adequacy of several computer techniques in predicting satisfactorily the nonlinear/inelastic response of angle ply laminates were evaluated. The analytical predictions were correlated with the results of a test program on the inelastic response under axial compression of a large variety of graphite-epoxy and boron-epoxy angle ply laminates. These comparison studies indicate that neither of the abovementioned analyses can satisfactorily predict either the mode of response or the ultimate stress value corresponding to a particular angle ply laminate configuration. Consequently, also the simple failure mechanisms assumed in the analytical models were not verified.

  9. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantayat, S.; Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  10. Structural and electrical properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composite

    SciTech Connect

    Gantayat, S. Rout, D.; Swain, S. K.

    2016-05-23

    The effect of the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube on the structure and electrical properties of composites was investigated. Samples based on epoxy resin with different weight percentage of MWCNTs were prepared and characterized. The interaction between MWCNT & epoxy resin was noticed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structure of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) reinforced epoxy composite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The dispersion of f-MWCNT in epoxy resin was evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Electrical properties of epoxy/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were measured & the result indicated that the conductivity increased with increasing concentration of f-MWCNTs.

  11. Antibacterial activities effectuated by co-continuous epoxy-based polymer materials.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Yasuda, Koji; Tominaga, Yuichi; Otsuka, Koji; Hosoya, Ken

    2013-07-01

    We report antibacterial activities of the epoxy-resin-based monolithic media (epoxy monoliths) having macroporous co-continuous structure as well as hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic surface. Utilizing epoxy monoliths containing ammonium groups, the antibacterial experiments were examined using Escherichia coli. As the results, the monolithic media prepared with an epoxy monomer having nitrogen atoms clearly showed antibacterial activities, while those prepared using the monomer without nitrogen atom showed less antibacterial activities. Additionally, the quaternization of the epoxy polymers were expressed significant antibacterial activities. Further studies elucidated that the observed antibacterial activities involved the steep effect based on pH changing of solution and hydrophobic interactions by the quaternary ammonium.

  12. Epoxyalkenal-trapping ability of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Aguilar, Isabel; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2017-12-15

    Lipid oxidation products have been shown to produce changes in food quality and safety as a consequence of carbonyl-amine reactions. Some of these reactions can be prevented by the use of phenolics, although the lipid-derived carbonyl trapping ability of phenolics is still poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this gap, the reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-hexenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, with 2-methylresorcinol and 2,5-dimethylresorcinol were studied. These reactions produced diverse 1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-c]chromene-2,7-diols and 3,4,4a,9a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]benzofuran-3,7-diols, which were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The produced epoxyalkenal-phenol reaction was characterized and carbonyl-phenol adducts were produced firstly by epoxide-ring opening initiated by the attack of one phenolic hydroxyl group and, then, by addition of one aromatic phenol carbon to the carbon-carbon double bond of the epoxyalkenal. This reaction rapidly deactivated the most important reactive groups of epoxyalkenals, decreasing in this way their ability to modify amino compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can simultaneous contact allergies to phenyl glycidyl ether and epoxy resins of the bisphenol A/F-types be explained by contamination of the epoxy resins?

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Simultaneous contact allergies to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-R) or epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) have been reported. The reason might be cross-reactivity, exposure to an epoxy resin system with PGE as a component, or contamination by PGE in the epoxy resin. To study contamination by PGE, 20 commercial epoxy resins were analysed for the presence of PGE. To study contact allergy to PGE and its relation to epoxy resins by inserting PGE in the standard series. Among 2227 patients, 7 reacted to PGE. Of 23 (30%) patients, 7 with contact allergy to DGEBA-R and 7/19 (37%) with contact allergy to an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type reacted to PGE. All 7 patients with contact allergy to PGE reacted both to the DGEBA-R and to the epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type. PGE was found in 90% of the investigated resins. The amounts of PGE ranged between 0.004% w/w and 0.18% w/w. Most probably, the presence of PGE as a contaminant in epoxy resins is of minor importance for the sensitization, but possibly the contamination of PGE might elicit contact dermatitis in individuals with a high reactivity to PGE.

  14. Epoxy-acrylic core-shell particles by seeded emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Hong, Liang; Lin, Jui-Ching; Meyers, Greg; Harris, Joseph; Radler, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We developed a novel method for synthesizing epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of high molecular weight solid epoxy prepolymers using a mechanical dispersion process at elevated temperatures, and we subsequently used the epoxy dispersion as a seed in the emulsion polymerization of acrylic monomers comprising methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Advanced analytical techniques, such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PFT-AFM), have elucidated a unique core-shell morphology of the epoxy-acrylic hybrid particles. Moreover, the formation of the core-shell morphology in the seeded emulsion polymerization process is primarily attributed to kinetic trapping of the acrylic phase at the exterior of the epoxy particles. By this new method, we are able to design the epoxy and acrylic polymers in two separate steps, and we can potentially synthesize epoxy-acrylic hybrid latexes with a broad range of compositions.

  15. Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Polymer Composites Based on Epoxy Resin, Aluminium Nanopowders and Boric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Melnikova, T. V.; Visakh, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The epoxy polymers are characterized by low thermal stability and high flammability. Nanoparticles are considered to be effective fillers of polymer composites for improving their thermal and functional properties. In this work, the epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, aluminum nanopowder and boric acid fine powder as flame-retardant filler. The thermal characteristics of the obtained samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical characteristics of epoxy composites were also studied. It was found that an addition of all fillers enhances the thermal stability and mechanical characteristics of the epoxy composites. The best thermal stability showed the epoxy composite filled with boric acid. The highest flexural properties showed the epoxy composite based on the combination of boric acid and aluminum nanopowder.

  16. Effect of fluorination on the mechanical behavior and electromagnetic interference shielding of MWCNT/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Si-Eun; Lee, Man Young; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeong, Euigyung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2016-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy composites were prepared using MWCNT fluorinated to different extents. The mechanical properties, fracture surface morphologies and electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI-SE) of these composites were evaluated for epoxy matrices containing MWCNT with degrees of fluorination. The tensile strengths of the MWCNT/epoxy composites improved by 31% with treated MWCNT compared to that of the epoxy composites with untreated MWCNT. The EMI-SE values of the fluorinated MWCNT/epoxy composites improved up to 26% with increasing fluorination extent. The mechanical and electrical properties enhancement of the composites were attributed to the fluorinated MWCNT, which improved both the dispersion of the MWCNT in epoxy matrix and interfacial interactions between the MWCNT and the epoxy matrix.

  17. Tailored SWCNT functionalization optimized for compatibility with epoxy matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Rubi, Y.; Gonzalez-Dominguez, J. M.; Ansón-Casaos, A.; Kingston, C. T.; Daroszewska, M.; Barnes, M.; Hubert, P.; Cattin, C.; Martinez, M. T.; Simard, B.

    2012-07-01

    We have modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with well defined matrix-based architectures to improve interface interaction in SWCNT/epoxy composites. The hardener and two pre-synthesized oligomers containing epoxy and hardener moieties were covalently attached to the SWCNT walls by in situ diazonium or carboxylic coupling reactions. In this way, SWCNTs bearing amine or epoxide-terminated fragments of different molecular weights, which resemble the chemical structure of the cured resin, were synthesized. A combination of characterization techniques such as Raman and infrared absorption (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis and coupled thermogravimetry-FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify both the functional groups and degree of functionalization of SWCNTs synthesized by the laser ablation and arc-discharge methods. Depending on the type of reaction employed for the chemical functionalization and the molecular weight of the attached fragment, it was possible to control the degree of functionalization and the electronic properties of the functionalized SWCNTs. Improved dispersion of SWCNTs in the epoxy matrix was achieved by direct integration without using solvents, as observed from optical microscopy and rheology measurements of the SWCNT/epoxy mixtures. Composite materials using these fillers are expected to exhibit improved properties while preserving the thermosetting architecture.

  18. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  19. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  20. Dielectric response of epoxy-amine compositions during isothermal curing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodin, D. L.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Yablokova, M. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The change in electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity during the curing of epoxy-amine compositions in a mixture with the thermoplastic Ultem 1000 polyetherimide at 180°C is studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. TGDDM epoxy resin and DADPS, MDEA, and MIPA amine curing agents are used as the epoxy-amine composition. The times of the gel and glass transition are determined from the time and frequency dependences of the dielectric response of the investigated mixtures. At a certain step of curing of epoxy-amine compositions, the separation of a new phase enriched with the thermoplastic is detected. This separation is accompanied by charge accumulation along the phase boundary and its interaction with the external electric field. In the dielectric spectrum, this effect of phase separation appears as an individual relaxation process with characteristic parameters of dielectric relaxation. It is found that at the final step of isothermal curing, there is a glass transition of the polymer, leading to a sharp drop in the reaction rate and stabilization of the dielectric response with respect to time. The detected steps of the reaction and the corresponding changes in the structure and rheology of the investigated polymer systems are characterized and confirmed by methods of viscometry and optical microscopy.

  1. Environmental Testing of Glass-Fiber/Epoxy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Pair of reports discusses long-term environmental tests of glassfiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels. Strength diminishes during long exposure to environment. Since such data necessary for accurate design of long-life structures such as pressure vessels, NASA Lewis Research Center built outdoor test stand in 1973. Test stand maintains system under constant pressure loading without frequent intervention of personnel.

  2. Functionalizing CNTs for Making Epoxy/CNT Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Rajagopal, Ramasubramaniam

    2009-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with linear molecular side chains of polyphenylene ether (PPE) has been shown to be effective in solubilizing the CNTs in the solvent components of solutions that are cast to make epoxy/CNT composite films. (In the absence of solubilization, the CNTs tend to clump together instead of becoming dispersed in solution as needed to impart, to the films, the desired CNT properties of electrical conductivity and mechanical strength.) Because the PPE functionalizes the CNTs in a noncovalent manner, the functionalization does not damage the CNTs. The functionalization can also be exploited to improve the interactions between CNTs and epoxy matrices to enhance the properties of the resulting composite films. In addition to the CNTs, solvent, epoxy resin, epoxy hardener, and PPE, a properly formulated solution also includes a small amount of polycarbonate, which serves to fill voids that, if allowed to remain, would degrade the performance of the film. To form the film, the solution is drop-cast or spin-cast, then the solvent is allowed to evaporate.

  3. New hybrid thermosets based on epoxy resins and benzocylobutenes

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D.J.; White, J.E.; Burks, B.T.

    1995-12-31

    A series of new, one component thermosets have been prepared by combining Dow`s epoxy resin and benzo-cyclobutene (BCB) technologies. The hybrid epoxy/BCB thermosetting monomers are prepared in the melt by reactions of amine-, phenol-, and carboxyl-functionalized benzocyclobutenes with epoxy-containing species such as bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether, chain-extended bisphenol-A epoxy resins, 9,9-bis(4-glycidyloxy-phenyl)fluorene, and epichlorohydrin. The monomers have outstanding processing characteristics, potentially long shelf life, and the convenience of an uncatalyzed, thermally cured, one component system. The resins are cured at >170{degrees}C (T{sub max}=260{degrees}C) and exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg) of 85 to over 250{degrees}C. The examples shown below (n=0, 1, and 3.5) were prepared as part of this work. The chain extended species (n=3.5) is an extraordinarily tough thermoset, with a fracture toughness (K{sub Ic}) of over 3,000 psi-in{sup 0.5}.

  4. Wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mal, A. K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanics of wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites is examined in order to facilitate interpretation of the wave amplitudes recorded in ultrasonic experiments. The values of a small number of parameters are determined through comparison between calculated and measured waveforms for four specimens. The agreement between the measured and calculated waveforms are shown to be excellent in all four cases.

  5. Modes of vibration on sqaure fiberglass epoxy composite thick plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Marques, E. R. C.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The frequencies and nodal patterns of a square thick plate of unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite are measured experimentally. The constituent material is transversely isotropic. The plate is transversely excited at the center of the upper face, its resonant frequencies in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 21.73 kHz are detected and the measured nodal patterns are sketched.

  6. Resistance of Plastics to Outdoor Weathering. Glass Filament Wound Epoxies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents results on the aging and natural weathering of filament-wound, glass -reinforced epoxy resin systems for use as engineering...materials for Army rocket motor cases. Specimens (cylinders 9 inches long and 3 inches in diameter, using either E or S glass with various resin systems

  7. Synchrotron Radiation Investigation in Epoxy Resin Modified with Polysiloxane System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Wenjun; Li, Weizhen; Ding, Jindian; Gu, Xiaodan; Wang, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Epoxy resins are one of the most important classes of thermosetting polymers. Epoxy resin modified with polysiloxane is expected that the siloxane moiety may exert its qualities of thermal stability, impact toughness and surface-modification properties. Our group tried to introduce polysiloxane into epoxy resin by blending diglycidyl-ether of bisphenol-A with epoxypropoxypropyl terminated polydimethyl-siloxane and polyetherimide-siloxane in different proportion. These polysiloxane modified epoxy resins have been investigated using a combination of small- and wide angle X-ray scatterings (SAXS and WAXS) and scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM). Nano- to micro-scale domain size, distribution and chemical composition were observed with spatial and spectroscopic sensitivities offered by both hard and soft x-ray scattering/microscopy. In-situ SAXS experiments were performed to understand the mechanism of microphase separation and dynamics of nanostructure evolution. Acknowledgment: The authors thank Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Overseas Visiting Scholar Program 2012) and Shanghai University of Engineering Science (2011xz04) for financial supports.

  8. Viscoelastic Properties of Alkoxy Silane-Epoxy Interpenetrating Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    Owens Corning Fiberglass for supply of the epoxy film former emulsion used in the model silane formulation. The authors also wish to acknowledge the...inclusion filled composite µm- powderproperties 4 triblock copolymer surfactant. The Owens Corning Company generously provided the film former emulsion

  9. Novel Epoxy Activated Hydrogels for Solving Lactose Intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Elnashar, Magdy M. M.; Hassan, Mohamed E.

    2014-01-01

    “Lactose intolerance” is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5–10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's –SH, –NH, and –OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's –NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel. PMID:25013804

  10. Degradation free epoxy impregnation of REBCO coils and cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Bagrets, N.; Weiss, K.-P.; Bayer, C. M.; Bast, T.

    2013-05-01

    In applications utilizing high-temperature superconductors (HTS) under high mechanical loads as high-field magnets or rotors of generators and motors, the rare-earth-barium-copper-oxide (REBCO) tapes have to be stabilized mechanically. This is achieved using support structures of structural materials and filling the voids in the support through the impregnation of the tapes. The impregnation prevents movement of the tapes and distributes mechanical loads evenly. With high mechanical strengths and low sensitivities to rapid temperature changes, epoxy resins are desired materials for the impregnation of superconductor tapes. However, a strong decrease of the current-carrying capabilities was observed in previous epoxy-impregnated REBCO coils. In this work the thermal expansion mismatches between epoxy resins and REBCO tapes are identified as the cause of these degradations. Fillers are used to reduce the thermal expansions of glues and resins. Mixtures with varying filler contents are analyzed systematically. Their thermal expansions and the corresponding degradations of short REBCO tape samples are measured. A mixture of epoxy resin and filler is found which allows degradation-free impregnation of REBCO tapes. This mixture is validated on a 1.2 m long 15 × 5 Roebel-assembled-coated-conductor (RACC) cable from Industrial Research Limited (IRL).

  11. Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners

    Treesearch

    Shane X. Peng; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable, sustainable, and abundant nanomaterial widely used as reinforcing fillers in the field of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, two-part epoxy systems with CNC-enhanced hardeners were fabricated. Three types of hardeners, Jeffamine D400 (JD400), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and (±)-trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane (DACH), were...

  12. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  13. Thermal expansion of an epoxy-glass microsphere composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal expansion of a composite of epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and solid glass microspheres was investigated. The microspheres had surfaces which were either untreated or treated with a silicone release agent, an epoxy coupling agent, or a general purpose silane coupling agent. Both room temperature (about 300 K) and elevated temperature (about 475 K) cures were used for the epoxy. Two microsphere size ranges were used, about 50 microns, which is applicable in filled moldings, and about 125 microns, which is applicable as bond line spacers. The thermal expansion of the composites was measured from 300 to 350 K or from 300 to 500 K, depending on the epoxy cure temperature. Measurements were made on composites containing up to .6 volume fraction microspheres. Two predictive models, which required only the values of thermal expansion of the polymer and glass and their specific gravities, were tested against the experimental data. A finite element analysis was made of the thermal strain of a composite cell containing a single microsphere surrounded by a finite-thickness interface.

  14. Novel epoxy activated hydrogels for solving lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, Magdy M M; Hassan, Mohamed E

    2014-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance" is a medical problem for almost 70% of the world population. Milk and dairy products contain 5-10% w/v lactose. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized lactase is an industrial solution. In this work, we succeeded to increase the lactase loading capacity to more than 3-fold to 36.3 U/g gel using epoxy activated hydrogels compared to 11 U/g gel using aldehyde activated carrageenan. The hydrogel's mode of interaction was proven by FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The high activity of the epoxy group was regarded to its ability to attach to the enzyme's -SH, -NH, and -OH groups, whereas the aldehyde group could only bind to the enzyme's -NH2 group. The optimum conditions for immobilization such as epoxy chain length and enzyme concentration have been studied. Furthermore, the optimum enzyme conditions were also deliberated and showed better stability for the immobilized enzyme and the Michaelis constants, K m and V max, were doubled. Results revealed also that both free and immobilized enzymes reached their maximum rate of lactose conversion after 2 h, albeit, the aldehyde activated hydrogel could only reach 63% of the free enzyme. In brief, the epoxy activated hydrogels are more efficient in immobilizing more enzymes than the aldehyde activated hydrogel.

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Graphite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-09

    Resin Epoxies”, American Society for Composites 30th Technical Conference...Crosslinked High-Temperature Bismaleimide Resins : Matrimid- 5292”, 31st American Society of Composites Technical Conference, Williamsburg, VA, September...Compare the Mechanical Response of Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-functional Resin Epoxies", American Society for Composites 30th Technical Conference;

  16. Impedance characterization of epoxy composite containing conductive hybrid carbon fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Raja Nor; Tawil, Siti Nooraya; Zailan, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Epoxy composites containg carbon fillers are prepared in this work with an intention to characterise their electrical properties. The performance of electrical conductivity of epoxy composites is assessed by adding various loadings of conductive carbon fillers into the neat epoxy. First, Carbon Black (CB) was incorporated within epoxy matrix at several loadings. The increase in the specific conductivity of more than five orders of magnitude was observed between 3 wt. % and 4 wt.% CB loading, recorded at 10 kHz frequency. As such, the critical percolation loading, pc was recorded in between 3 wt.% and 4 wt.%. For the samples containing CB at loading 4 wt.% and above, the conductivity remains independent of the frequency, indicating a purely ohmic behaviour. It is also observed that the specific conductivity values can be altered by increasing the hardener stirring time up to 15 minutes, where the pc was successfully lowered down to < 3 wt. % It was further intended to study the hybrid effects by adding CNT to the composites. The conductivity data showed that the composite becomes frequency independent, even at 2 wt. % carbon loading (1 wt. % CB + 1 wt. % CNT), demonstrating the roles contributed by high aspect ratio conductive CNT in enhancing the formation of percolated path at much lower loading.

  17. Tribological behaviour of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Y.; De Baets, P.

    2017-02-01

    Tribological behaviour of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites containing 42wt.% (CU42) and 52wt.% (CU52) carbon fibres fabricated by moulding technique was investigated on a pin-on-flat plate configuration. It is the first time to measure static and dynamic coefficient of frictions and wear rates of epoxy composites under heavy loading conditions. Microstructures of composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated the carbon fiber improved the tribological properties of thermoset epoxy by reducing wear rate, but increased the coefficient of friction. At higher load, average wear rates were about 10.8x10-5 mm3/N.m for composites while it was about 38.20x10-5 mm3/N.m for epoxy resin. The wear rate decreased with decreasing load while friction coefficient increased with decreasing load. Moreover, friction coefficient of composites of CU42 tested at 90 N load was measured to be in the range 0.35 and 0.13 for static and dynamic component, respectively.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Adhesion at Epoxy Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Clancy, Thomas C.; Hinkley, J. A.; Gates. T. S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of moisture on adhesives used in aerospace applications can be modeled with chemically specific techniques such as molecular dynamics simulation. In the present study, the surface energy and work of adhesion are calculated for epoxy surfaces and interfaces, respectively, by using molecular dynamics simulation. Modifications are made to current theory to calculate the work of adhesion at the epoxy-epoxy interface with and without water. Quantitative agreement with experimental values is obtained for the surface energy and work of adhesion at the interface without water. The work of adhesion agrees qualitatively with the experimental values for the interface with water: the magnitude is reduced 15% with respect to the value for the interface without water. A variation of 26% in the magnitude is observed depending on the water configuration at a concentration of 1.6 wt%. The methods and modifications to the method that are employed to obtain these values are expected to be applicable for other epoxy adhesives to determine the effects of moisture uptake on their work of adhesion.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasanella, Nicholas A.

    Epoxy-composites are widely used in the aerospace industry. In order to improve upon stiffness and thermal conductivity; carbon nanotube additives to epoxies are being explored. This dissertation presents multiscale modeling techniques to study the engineering properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-epoxy nanocomposites, consisting of pristine and covalently functionalized systems. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD), thermomechanical properties were calculated for a representative polymer unit cell. Finite Element (FE) and orientation distribution function (ODF) based methods were used in a multiscale framework to obtain macroscale properties. An epoxy network was built using the dendrimer growth approach. The epoxy model was verified by matching the experimental glass transition temperature, density, and dilatation. MD, via the constant valence force field (CVFF), was used to explore the mechanical and dilatometric effects of adding pristine and functionalized SWNTs to epoxy. Full stiffness matrices and linear coefficient of thermal expansion vectors were obtained. The Green-Kubo method was used to investigate the thermal conductivity as a function of temperature for the various nanocomposites. Inefficient phonon transport at the ends of nanotubes is an important factor in the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites, and for this reason discontinuous nanotubes were modeled in addition to long nanotubes. To obtain continuum-scale elastic properties from the MD data, multiscale modeling was considered to give better control over the volume fraction of nanotubes, and investigate the effects of nanotube alignment. Two methods were considered; an FE based method, and an ODF based method. The FE method probabilistically assigned elastic properties of elements from the MD lattice results based on the desired volume fraction and alignment of the nanotubes. For the ODF method, a distribution function was generated based on the desired amount of nanotube alignment

  20. Nonlinear Inelastic Mechanical Behavior Of Epoxy Resin Polymeric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yekani Fard, Masoud

    Polymer and polymer matrix composites (PMCs) materials are being used extensively in different civil and mechanical engineering applications. The behavior of the epoxy resin polymers under different types of loading conditions has to be understood before the mechanical behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) can be accurately predicted. In many structural applications, PMC structures are subjected to large flexural loadings, examples include repair of structures against earthquake and engine fan cases. Therefore it is important to characterize and model the flexural mechanical behavior of epoxy resin materials. In this thesis, a comprehensive research effort was undertaken combining experiments and theoretical modeling to investigate the mechanical behavior of epoxy resins subject to different loading conditions. Epoxy resin E 863 was tested at different strain rates. Samples with dog-bone geometry were used in the tension tests. Small sized cubic, prismatic, and cylindrical samples were used in compression tests. Flexural tests were conducted on samples with different sizes and loading conditions. Strains were measured using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique, extensometers, strain gauges, and actuators. Effects of triaxiality state of stress were studied. Cubic, prismatic, and cylindrical compression samples undergo stress drop at yield, but it was found that only cubic samples experience strain hardening before failure. Characteristic points of tensile and compressive stress strain relation and load deflection curve in flexure were measured and their variations with strain rate studied. Two different stress strain models were used to investigate the effect of out-of-plane loading on the uniaxial stress strain response of the epoxy resin material. The first model is a strain softening with plastic flow for tension and compression. The influence of softening localization on material behavior was investigated using the DIC system. It was found that

  1. Impact of a heteroatom in a structure-activity relationship study on analogues of phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) from epoxy resin systems.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Ida B; Delaine, Tamara; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2011-04-18

    Epoxy resins are among the most common causes of occupational contact dermatitis. They are normally used in so-called epoxy resin systems (ERS). These commercial products are combinations of epoxy resins, curing agents, modifiers, and reactive diluents. The most frequently used resins are diglycidyl ethers based on bisphenol A (DGEBA) and bisphenol F (DGEBF). In this study, we have investigated the contact allergenic properties of a series of analogues to the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE), all with similar basic structures but with varying heteroatoms or with no heteroatom present. The chemical reactivity of the compounds in the test series toward the hexapeptide H-Pro-His-Cys-Lys-Arg-Met-OH was investigated. All epoxides were shown to bind covalently to both cysteine and proline residues. The percent depletion of nonreacted peptide was also studied resulting in ca. 60% depletion when using either PGE, phenyl 2,3-epoxypropyl sulfide (2), or N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)aniline (3), and only 15% when using 1,2-epoxy-4-phenylbutane (4) at the same time point. The skin sensitization potencies of the epoxides using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) were evaluated in relation to the observed physicochemical and reactivity properties. To enable determination of statistical significance between structurally closely related compounds, a nonpooled LLNA was performed. It was found that all investigated compounds containing a heteroatom in the α-position to the epoxide were strong sensitizers, congruent with the reactivity data, indicating that the impact of a heteroatom is crucial for the sensitizing capacity for this type of epoxides.

  2. Preparation and Various Characteristics of Epoxy/Alumina Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozako, Masahiro; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kohtoh, Masanori; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    Epoxy/ alumina nanocomposites were newly prepared by dispersing 3, 5, 7, and 10 weight (wt) % boehmite alumina nanofillers in a bisphenol-A epoxy resin using a special two-stage direct mixing method. It was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging that the nanofillers were homogeneously dispersed in the epoxy matrix. Dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties were investigated. It was elucidated that nanofillers affects various characteristics of epoxy resins, when they are nanostructrued. Such nano-effects we obtained are summarized as follows. Partial discharge resistance increases as the filler content increases; e.g. 7 wt% nanofiller content creates a 60 % decrease in depth of PD-caused erosion. Weibull analysis shows that short-time electrical treeing breakdown time is prolonged to 265 % by 5 wt% addition of nanofillers. But there was more data scatter in nanocomposites than in pure epoxy. Permittivity tends to increase from 3.7 to 4.0 by 5 wt% nanofiller addition as opposed to what was newly found in the recent past. Glass transition temperature remains unchanged as 109 °C. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength and flexural modulus increase; e.g. flexural strength and flexural modulus are improved by 5 % and 8 % with 5 wt% content, respectively. Excess addition causes a reverse effect. It is concluded from permittivity and glass transition temperature characteristics that interfacial bonding seems to be more or less weak in the nanocomposite specimens prepared this time, even though mechanical strengths increase. There is a possibility that the nanocomposites specimens will be improved in interfacial quality.

  3. Education And Public Outreach For NASA's EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Warner, E. M.; Crow, C. A.; Ristvey, J. D.; Counley, J.

    2008-09-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission has two scientific objectives in using the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft for further studies of comets and adding studies of extra-solar planets around other stars. During the Extrasolar Planetary Observations and Characterization (EPOCh) phase of the mission, observations of extrasolar planets transiting their parent stars are observed to further knowledge and understanding of planetary systems. Observations of Earth allow for comparison with Earth-like planets around other stars. A movie of Earth during a day when the Moon passed between Earth and the spacecraft is an educational highlight with scientific significance. The Deep Impact Extended Investigation (DIXI) continues the Deep Impact theme of investigating comets with a flyby of comet Hartley 2 in November 2010 to further explore the properties of comets and their formation. The EPOXI Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program builds upon existing materials related to exploring comets and the Deep Impact mission, updating and modifying activities based on results from Deep Impact. An educational activity called Comparing Comets is under development that will guide students in conducting analyses similar to those that DIXI scientists will perform after observing comet Hartley 2. Existing educational materials related to planet finding from other NASA programs are linked from EPOXI's web page. Journey Through the Universe at the National Air and Space Museum encourages education in family and community groups and reaches out to underrepresented minorities. EPOXI's E/PO program additionally offers a newsletter to keep the public, teachers, and space enthusiasts apprised of mission activities. For more information visit: http://epoxi.umd.edu.

  4. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance.

  5. TRIFLUOROMETHYL COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLUORIDES, *GERMANIUM COMPOUNDS, *HALIDES, *ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, CHEMICAL BONDS, CHEMICAL REACTIONS ...CHLORIDES, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, HYDROLYSIS, IODIDES, METHYL RADICALS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, PYROLYSIS, STABILITY, SYNTHESIS, TIN COMPOUNDS.

  6. New antitumor compounds from Carya cathayensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Bi, Xiu-Li; Cao, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Kai-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2012-03-01

    A new lignan (7R,8S,8'R)-4,4',9-trihydroxy-7,9'-epoxy-8,8'-lignan, and three new phenolics, carayensin-A, carayensin-B, and carayensin-C, together with 13 known compounds were isolated from the shells of Carya cathayensis. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against several human tumor types including human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29), human lung cancer cell line (A549), and human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The compounds 1, 5, 6, and 16 are considered to be potential as antitumor agents, which could significantly inhibit the cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Cure reaction of epoxy resins catalyzed by graphite-based nanofiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Acocella, Maria Rosaria; Giuri, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-12-01

    A significant effort was directed to the synthesis of graphene stacks/epoxy nanocomposites and to the analysis of the effect of a graphene precursor on cure reaction of a model epoxy matrix. A comparative thermal analysis of epoxy resins filled with an exfoliated graphite oxide eGO were conducted. The main aim was to understand the molecular origin of the influence of eGO on the Tg of epoxy resins. The higher Tg values previously observed for low curing temperatures, for epoxy resins with graphite-based nanofillers, were easily rationalized by a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the reaction between the epoxy and amine groups of the resin, which leads to higher crosslinking density in milder conditions. A kinetic analysis of the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin associated to the catalytical activity of the graphite based filler was performed by isothermal DSC measurements. The DSC results showed that the addition of graphite based filler greatly increased the enthalpy of epoxy reaction and the reaction rate, confirming the presence of a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the crosslinking reaction between the epoxy resin components (epoxide oligomer and di-amine). A kinetic modelling analysis, arising from an auto-catalyzed reaction mechanism, was finally applied to isothermal DSC data, in order to predict the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin in presence of the graphite based nanofiller.

  8. Thermal degradation of new and aged urethane foam and epon 826 epoxy.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Mills, Bernice E.

    2013-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the decomposition as a function of temperature for the foam and epoxy as a function of temperature in the range of 60C to 170C. Samples were studied with one day holds at each of the studied temperatures. Both new (FoamN and EpoxyN) and aged (FoamP and EpoxyP) samples were studied. During these ~10 day experiments, the foam samples lost 11 to 13% of their weight and the EpoxyN lost 10% of its weight. The amount of weight lost was difficult to quantify for EpoxyP because of its inert filler. The onset of the appearance of organic degradation products from FoamP began at 110C. Similar products did not appear until 120C for FoamN, suggesting some effect of the previous decades of storage for FoamP. In the case of the epoxies, the corresponding temperatures were 120C for EpoxyP and 110C for EpoxyN. Suggestions for why the aged epoxy seems more stable than newer sample include the possibility of incomplete curing or differences in composition. Recommendation to limit use temperature to 90-100C for both epoxy and foam.

  9. Coadsorption of water and selected aromatic molecules to model the adhesion of epoxy resins on hydrated surfaces of zinc oxide and iron oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Makoto; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1995-03-01

    The coadsorption of heavy water and some aromatic molecules was studied on zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) in order to elucidate the role of water at the polymer/oxide interface at a molecular level. Glycidyl 2-methylphenyl ether and 2-phenoxy ethanol were selected as the model compounds of epoxy resins and were used as adsorbates in addition to some simpler substituted benzenes. It was found that on zinc oxide, water was adsorbed coordinatively on zinc sites and the heat of adsorption was 89 kJ/mol while on iron oxide, water was adsorbed physically and the heat of adsorption was 55 kJ/mol. On zinc oxide, the adsorption of benzene, toluene and α,α,α-trifluorotoluene was interfered with water while the adsorption of phenol and the epoxy model compounds was not affected by water. On iron oxide, none of these organic molecules were replaced by water. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the adhesion mechanism of the epoxy resin proposed in the previous paper holds even when the oxide surfaces are covered with water. Namely, the adhesion is due to the chemical bond formed by CO bond dissociation to form surface phenoxy species.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cross-Linking Strategy of a Quercetin-Based Epoxidized Monomer as a Naturally-Derived Replacement for BPA in Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Kristufek, Samantha L; Yang, Guozhen; Link, Lauren A; Rohde, Brian J; Robertson, Megan L; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-08-23

    The natural polyphenolic compound quercetin was functionalized and cross-linked to afford a robust epoxy network. Quercetin was selectively methylated and functionalized with glycidyl ether moieties using a microwave-assisted reaction on a gram scale to afford the desired monomer (Q). This quercetin-derived monomer was treated with nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) to obtain a cross-linked network (Q-NMA). The thermal and mechanical properties of this naturally derived network were compared to those of a conventional diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-derived counterpart (DGEBA-NMA). Q-NMA had similar thermal properties [i.e., glass transition (Tg ) and decomposition (Td ) temperatures] and comparable mechanical properties (i.e., Young's Modulus, storage modulus) to that of DGEBA-NMA. However, it had a lower tensile strength and higher flexural modulus at elevated temperatures. The application of naturally derived, sustainable compounds for the replacement of commercially available petrochemical-based epoxies is of great interest to reduce the environmental impact of these materials. Q-NMA is an attractive candidate for the replacement of bisphenol A-based epoxies in various specialty engineering applications.

  11. Green Preparation of Epoxy/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Using a Glycidylamine Epoxy Resin as the Surface Modifier and Phase Transfer Agent of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinlei; Zhou, Yang; Peng, Mao

    2016-01-27

    In studies of epoxy/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites, organic solvents are commonly used to disperse GO, and vigorous mechanical processes and complicated modification of GO are usually required, increasing the cost and hindering the development and application of epoxy nanocomposites. Here, we report a green, facile, and efficient method of preparing epoxy/GO nanocomposites. When triglycidyl para-aminophenol (TGPAP), a commercially available glycidyl amine epoxy resin with one tertiary amine group per molecule, is used as both the surface modifier and phase transfer agent of GO, GO can be directly and rapidly transferred from water to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and other types of epoxy resins by manual stirring under ambient conditions, whereas GO cannot be transferred to these epoxy resins in the absence of TGPAP. The interaction between TGPAP and GO and the effect of the TGPAP content on the dispersion of GO in the epoxy matrix were investigated systematically. Superior dispersion and exfoliation of GO nanosheets and remarkably improved mechanical properties, including tensile and flexural properties, toughness, storage modulus, and microhardness, of the epoxy/GO nanocomposites with a suitable amount of TGPAP were demonstrated. This method is organic-solvent-free and technically feasible for large-scale preparation of high-performance nanocomposites; it opens up new opportunities for exploiting the unique properties of graphene or even other nanofillers for a wide range of applications.

  12. Fracture behavior of block copolymer and graphene nanoplatelet modified epoxy and fiber reinforced/epoxy polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamar, Nicholas T.

    Glass and carbon fiber reinforced/epoxy polymer composites (GFRPs and CFRPs) have high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. Thus, GFRPs and CFRPs are used to lightweight aircraft, marine and ground vehicles to reduce transportation energy utilization and cost. However, GFRP and CFRP matrices have a low resistance to crack initiation and propagation; i.e. they have low fracture toughness. Current methods to increase fracture toughness of epoxy and corresponding GFRP and CFRPs often reduce composite mechanical and thermomechanical properties. With the advent of nanotechnology, new methods to improve the fracture toughness and impact properties of composites are now available. The goal of this research is to identify the fracture behavior and toughening mechanisms of nanoparticle modified epoxy, GFRPs and CFRPs utilizing the triblock copolymer poly(styrene)-block-poly(butadiene)-block-poly(methylmethacrylate) (SBM) and graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) as toughening agents. The triblock copolymer SBM was used to toughen the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) resin cured with m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) and corresponding AS4-12k CFRPs. SBM self assembled in epoxy to form nanostructured domains leading to larger increases in fracture toughness, KQ (MPa*m 1/2) than the traditional, phase separating carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber. Additionally, SBM increased the mode-I fracture toughness, GIc (J/m2) of CFRPs without corresponding reductions in composite three-point flexural properties and glass transition temperature (Tg). Fractography of SBM modified epoxy and CFRPs via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that sub 100 nm spherical micelles cavitated to induce void growth and matrix shear yielding toughening mechanisms. Furthermore, SBM did not suppress epoxy Tg, while CTBN decreased Tg with both increasing concentration and acrylonitrile content. Graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) consist of a few layers of graphene sheets, which

  13. Study made to control depth of potting compound for honeycomb sandwich fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J.

    1966-01-01

    Study determines optimum fastener insert size and shape, type of embedding cement, diameter, undercut and depth control by fiber glass plug in a honeycomb structure for maximum tensile strength The best potting compound is 5-5-1 weight mixture of epoxy resin, curing agent, and milled glass fibers.

  14. Discrimination of Epoxy Curing by High Lamb Modes Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Camille; Leduc, Damien; Galy, Jocelyne; Elkettani, Mounsif Echherif; Izbicki, Jean-Louis

    This work is a contribution to the non destructive testing of structural adhesive bonding by ultrasonic methods. The aim of this paper is to link acoustic behaviors of epoxy bulk samples to their level of cure, quantified by a partial or a total epoxy conversion. The bulk longitudinal and shear waves velocities are measured for each sample. They are used to determine the theoretical dispersion curves of Lamb waves. Theoretical results predict a high sensitivity of some high order Lamb modes to the cure level by the variation of their wavenumber, for a given mode and for the same frequency range. In parallel, an experimental study is conducted to determine the experimental dispersion curves. The experimental results and the predicted ones are in a good agreement.

  15. Formulation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Copolymer for Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Maximum char yield was obtained with a copolymer containing 25% mol fraction DGEBE and 75% mol fraction DGEBA (Epon 828). To achieve the high values (above 40%), a large quantity of catalyst (trimethoxyboroxine) was necessary. Although a graphite laminate 1/8" thick was successfully fabricated, the limited life of the catalyzed epoxy copolymer system precludes commercial application. Char yields of 45% can be achieved with phenolic cured epoxy systems as indicated by data generated under NAS2-10207 contract. A graphite laminate using this type of resin system was fabricated for comparison purposes. The resultant laminate was easier to process and because the graphite prepreg is more stable, the fabrication process could readily be adapted to commercial applications.

  16. Bending response of Kevlar 49/epoxy beams and rings

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Guess, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy laminates often exhibit substantial material nonlinearity when subjected to bending. A unidirectionally reinforced Kevlar 49 lamina is nearly linear elastic to failure in tension, however, in fiber-directed compression, it responds in a perfectly plastic-like manner once a compressive strength of roughly 20% of its tensile ultimate strength is exceeded. This combined linear tensile/nonlinear compressive behavior is the source of Kevlar 49/epoxy's flexural nonlinearity. Since Kevlar 49 reinforced laminates can often carry bending loads well above those needed to cause initial compressive yield, it is desirable to be able to predict the post-yield flexural response. In this presentation, analyses that utilize a simple idealization of compressive yielding are described and calculated results for Kevlar 49 reinforced beams and rings are compared with available data. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Tensile stress acoustic constants of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, the stress acoustic constants (SACs) of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites were measured to determine the nonlinear moduli of this material. These measurements were made under compressive loading in order to obtain the sufficient number of values needed to calculate these moduli. However, because their strength in tension along fiber directions can be several times greater, most composites are used under tensile loading. Thus, it is important to characterize the nonlinear properties of these materials in tension as well. The SACs which are defined as the slope of the normalized change in ultrasonic 'natural' velocity as a function of stress were measured in a unidirectional laminate of T300/5208 graphite/epoxy. Tensile load was applied along the fiber axis with the ultrasonic waves propagating perpendicular to the fiber direction. Changes in velocity were measured using a pulsed phase locked loop ultrasonic interferometer with the nominal frequency of the ultrasonic waves being 2.25 MHz.

  18. Tensile Stress Acoustic Constants of Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, the stress acoustic constants (SAC's) of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites were measured to determine the nonlinear moduli of this material. These measurements were made under compressive loading in order to obtain the sufficient number of values needed to calculate these moduli. However, because their strength in tension along fiber directions can be several times greater, most composites are used under tensile loading. Thus, it is important to characterize the nonlinear properties of these materials in tension as well. The SAC's which are defined as the slope of the normalized change in ultrasonic "natural" velocity as a function of stress were measured in a unidirectional laminate of T300/5208 graphite/epoxy. Tensile load was applied along the fiber axis with the ultrasonic waves propagating perpendicular to the fiber direction. Changes in velocity were measured using a pulsed phase locked loop ultrasonic interferometer with the nominal frequency of the ultrasonic waves being 2.25 MHz.

  19. Development of failure criterion for Kevlar-epoxy fabric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Elliott, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the tensor polynomial failure criterion for composite laminate analysis is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to the fabrication and testing of Kevlar-49 fabric (Style 285)/Narmco 5208 Epoxy. The quadratic-failure criterion with F(12)=0 provides accurate estimates of failure stresses for the Kevlar/Epoxy investigated. The cubic failure criterion was re-cast into an operationally easier form, providing the engineer with design curves that can be applied to laminates fabricated from unidirectional prepregs. In the form presented no interaction strength tests are required, although recourse to the quadratic model and the principal strength parameters is necessary. However, insufficient test data exists at present to generalize this approach for all undirectional prepregs and its use must be restricted to the generic materials investigated to-date.

  20. Pyrolysis of epoxies used for thermal-battery headers

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Thornberg, S.M.; Campbell-Domme, B.

    1995-08-01

    Thermally activated batteries use an epoxy for encapsulation of the electrical feedthroughs in the header of the battery. When the thermal battery is thermally abused, the encapsulant can pyrolyze and generate large internal pressures. This causes the battery to vent in extreme cases. The nature of these gases has never been adequately documented. Therefore, a study was undertaken to address this deficiency. The pyrolysis of various encapsulants that have been used, or are being considered for use, in thermally activated batteries was studied over a temperature range of 155 to 455 C. The composition of the pyrolysis decomposition products was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GS/MS). This determination is helpful in assessing the potential environmental and health effect for personnel exposed to such gases. In addition, the thermal stability of the various epoxies was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  1. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kanimozhi, K; Sethuraman, K; Selvaraj, V; Alagar, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix.

  2. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Kanimozhi; Sethuraman, K.; V, Selvaraj; Alagar, Muthukaruppan

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix.

  3. Epoxy composites based on inexpensive tire waste filler

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmetli, Gulnare Gungor, Ahmet Kocaman, Suheyla

    2014-05-15

    Tire waste (TW) was recycled as raw material for the preparation of DGEBA-type epoxy composite materials. The effects of filler amount and epoxy type on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the composites with NPEL were generally higher than composites with NPEF. The appropriate mass level for TW in both type composites was found to be 20 wt%. The equilibrium water sorption of NPEL/TW and NPEF/TW composites for 14-day immersion was determined as 0.10 % and 0.21 %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of the composites.

  4. Dielectric properties of epoxy resin fly ash composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, A.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Samal, S. K.; Behera, A.; Mishra, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Epoxy resin is widely used as an insulating material in high voltage applications. Ceramic fillers are always added to the polymer matrix to enhance its mechanical properties. But at the same time, filler materials decreases the electrical properties. So while making the fly ash epoxy composite, it is obvious to detect the effect of fly ash reinforcement on the dielectric nature of the material. In the present research work, fly ash is added to four different weight percentages compositions and post-curing has been done in the atmospheric condition, normal oven and micro oven. Tests were carried out on the developed polymer composite to measure its dielectric permittivity and tan delta value in a frequency range of 1 Hz - 1 MHz. The space charge behaviours were also observed by using the pulse electroacoustic (PEA) technique. The dielectric strength and losses are compared for different conditions.

  5. Laser machining of graphite-, Kevlar- and glass-reinforced epoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, K.; Khan, P. A. A.; Cherif, M.

    1990-12-01

    Laser machining of graphite-, Kevlar- and glass-fiber reinforced epoxy composites were investigated with particular emphasis on laser parameters, cutting speed, quality of cut, gas emission and thermal damage. A computer numerically controlled CNC stage and a 2.8 KW, RF excited, carbon dioxide laser were used for the study. It is shown that glass and Kevlar reinforced composites can be successfully machined by a high-energy laser process. However, because of the large thermal anisotropy of the graphite fibers along with the high ablation temperature of graphite, thermal processing of graphite/epoxy composite is presently not achievable. The role of thermal anisotropy in laser machining is discussed and a mathematical model for the evaluation of the longitudinal versus transverse thermal conductivity has been developed. Effects of cover gas on the volatile emissions were studied and results are presented. Results of a preliminary investigation of mechanical properties of laser machined samples are also reported.

  6. Study on voids of epoxy matrix composites sandwich structure parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Simin; Wen, Youyi; Yu, Wenjun; Liu, Hong; Yue, Cheng; Bao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Void is the most common tiny defect of composite materials. Porosity is closely related to composite structure property. The voids forming behaviour in the composites sandwich structural parts with the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins was researched by adjusting the manufacturing process parameters. The composites laminate with different porosities were prepared with the different process parameter. The ultrasonic non-destructive measurement method for the porosity was developed and verified through microscopic examination. The analysis results show that compaction pressure during the manufacturing process had influence on the porosity in the laminate area. Increasing the compaction pressure and compaction time will reduce the porosity of the laminates. The bond-line between honeycomb core and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins were also analyzed through microscopic examination. The mechanical properties of sandwich structure composites were studied. The optimization process parameters and porosity ultrasonic measurement method for composites sandwich structure have been applied to the production of the composite parts.

  7. Autonomic Healing of Epoxy Using Micro-Encapsulated Dicyclopentadiene

    SciTech Connect

    THOMA, STEVEN G.; GIUNTA, RACHEL K.; STAVIG, MARK E.; EMERSON, JOHN A.; MORALES, ALFREDO M.

    2003-05-01

    The autonomic healing ability of an epoxy adhesive containing micro-encapsulated dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) was evaluated. The epoxy resin used was Epon 828 cured with either Versamid 140 or diethylenetriamine (DETA). Variables included total weight percent of microcapsules (MCs) and catalyst, as well as the catalyst to DCPD ratio. The degree of healing was determined by the fracture toughness before and after ''healing'' using double-cantilever beam analysis. It was found that the degree of self-healing was most directly related to the contact area (i.e. crack width) during healing. Temperature also played a significant role. Observed differences between the results of this study and those in literature are discussed.

  8. Development of ricehusk ash reinforced bismaleimide toughened epoxy nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Kanimozhi, K.; Sethuraman, K.; Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent past decades have witnessed remarkable advances in composites with potential applications in biomedical devices, aerospace, textiles, civil engineering, energy, electronic engineering, and household products. Thermoset polymer composites have further enhanced and broadened the area of applications of composites. In the present work epoxy-BMI toughened-silica hybrid (RHA/DGEBA-BMI) was prepared using bismaleimide as toughener, bisphenol-A as matrix and a silica precursor derived from rice husk ash as reinforcement with glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent. Differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and goniometry were used to characterize RHA/DGEBA-BMI composites developed in the present work. Tensile, impact and flexural strength, tensile and flexural modulus, hardness, dielectric properties were also studied and discussed. The hybrid nanocomposites possess the higher values of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties than those of neat epoxy matrix. PMID:25279372

  9. Degradation of graphite-epoxy due to electron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Fox, D. J.; Sykes, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental results are presented showing that electron irradiation has a variable effect on the properties of graphite-epoxy depending upon the test temperature and the property of interest. In general, compression properties are improved at cold temperature and degraded at elevated temperature. With the exception of some moduli, tensile and shear properties are degraded at both cold and elevated temperatures. Electron irradiation lowers the glass transition temperature of graphite/epoxy significantly. Property degradation of irradiated materials at the elevated temperature is associated with the reduction in Tg. It is shown that a (0) compression-strength test is the most sensitive test for exhibiting the effects of electron irradiation. Results from tests on neat resin also show that the bulk matrix is degraded after irradiation, and that the correlation between resin and composite response is good.

  10. Sliding wear resistance of epoxy polymers against stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Spinks, G.M.; Dimovski, L.; Samandi, M.

    1993-12-31

    The wear mechanisms occurring during sliding contact between epoxy resins and a smooth steel counterface have been investigated. The samples were prepared from a commercial diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy and cured with various hardeners. The cured resins displayed a wide range of mechanical properties (particularly fracture toughness), and crosslink densities. The wear rates of the samples were found to vary by up to four orders of magnitude. It was found that the wear rates correlated to the inverse of the fracture toughness, which was in accord with previous studies on the wear of plastics by Omar et al. The mechanism was found to involve an ``adhesive/fatigue`` process, as proposed by Omar. Additionally, it was found that the addition of a rubber toughening agent had no effect on the wear rate, whilst sliding contact between polymer and polymer resulted in a much higher rate of wear. Possible explanations for this behavior are given.

  11. Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.

    The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Nanoporous Gyroid-Structured Epoxy from Block Copolymer Templates for High Protein Adsorbability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Bo; Lin, Tze-Chung; Hsueh, Han-Yu; Lin, Shih-Chieh; He, Xiao-Dong; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Nanoporous epoxy with gyroid texture is fabricated by using a nanoporous polymer with gyroid-forming nanochannels as a template for polymerization of epoxy. The nanoporous polymer template is obtained from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by hydrolysis of PLLA blocks. Templated polymerization can be conducted under ambient conditions to create well-defined, bicontinuous epoxy networks in a PS matrix. By taking advantage of multistep curing of epoxy, well-ordered robust nanoporous epoxy can be obtained after removal of PS template, giving robust porous materials. The through-hole nanoporous epoxy in the film state can be used as a coated layer to enhance the adsorbability for both lysozyme and bovine serum albumin.

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. T.; Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Chandran, C. S.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy polymer after exposure to different doses of electron beam irradiation. The epoxy polymer was prepared using epoxy-diane resin ED-20 cured by polyethylenepolyamine. The irradiation of the samples was carried out with doses of 30, 100 and 300 kGy. The effects of doses on thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy polymer were investigated by the methods of thermal gravimetric analysis, tensile test, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal properties of the epoxy polymer slightly increased after irradiation at the heating in air. The tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the epoxy polymer increased by the action of electron beam up to dose of 100 kGy and then decreased. The elongation at break decreased with increasing the irradiation dose.

  14. Mechanical and Thermoviscoelastic Behavior of Clay/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    hydrophilic inorganic host surface into a hydrophobic host requires ion exchanging the hydrated inorganic gallery cations with cationic organic surfactants ...specimens sweeping across a temperature range of 30-200 2C and for a single frequency (1 Hz). The storage and loss moduli and the glass transition...of Nanomer nanocomposites approaches the behavior of pure epoxy while Cloisite nanocompositcs show a stronger behavior. Their elastic moduli increase

  15. Fabrication and evaluation of uniform and gradient density epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Domeier, L.A.; Skala, D.M.; Goods, S.H.

    1997-11-01

    Filled epoxy materials which vary in density in a designed manner have been fabricated and their mechanical properties evaluated. Density variations were produced by incorporating different volume fractions of either glass microballoons (GMB) or alumina. Several different sample types were evaluated including uniform density (0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}) samples and gradient density samples (GMB only, 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} < {rho} < 1.2 g/cm{sup 3}). The uniform density specimens were evaluated for the effects of filler type and concentration on modulus and toughness. Results indicated that addition of alumina filler significantly increased the resulting modulus while addition of GMB had little measurable effect. These differences could be understood in terms of the differing moduli of the additives relative to that of the epoxy matrix. In the former case the alumina particulates had a modulus much greater than that of the epoxy while in the latter case, the modulus of the GMB additive was only slightly greater than that of the matrix. Addition of either filler significantly degraded the toughness of the composite specimens and precluded the use of gradients to enhance toughness performance. Discontinuous {open_quotes}block{close_quotes} gradients used for testing were fabricated by simple sequential pours of formulations with different GMB loadings and were evaluated for modulus, strength and ductility. Continuous gradients were fabricated in process studies by programmed shifts in the peristaltic pumping/mixing ratio of epoxies filled with either alumina or GMB. None of the continuous gradient materials were mechanically tested. These results suggest that applications utilizing gradient materials containing alumina and similar high modulus fillers to provide designed stiffness rather than improved toughness are the most appropriate targets for future investigation.

  16. Pulsed NMR study of the curing process of epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Hiroki; Tanaka, Chikako; Yaginuma, Michiko; Shinohara, Emi; Asano, Atsushi; Kurotsu, Takuzo

    2008-07-01

    To analyze a curing process of epoxy resin in terms of molecular motion, we adapted a pulsed NMR method. Three kinds of (1)H spin-spin relaxation times (T(2L) (long), T(2S) (short) and T(2M) (intermediate)) were estimated from observed solid echo train signals as the curing process proceeded. A short T(2S) value below 20 micros suggests the existence of a motion-restricted chain, that is, cured elements of resin, and its fraction, P(S), sigmoidally increased with the curing time. On the other hand, the fraction of T(2L), P(L), decreased with the reaction time reciprocally against P(S), suggesting the disappearance of highly mobile molecules raised from pre-cured resin. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T(1), was also measured to check another aspect of molecular motion in the process. T(1) of the mixed epoxy resin and curing agent gradually increased just after mixing both of them. This corresponds to an increment of a less-mobile fraction, of which the correction time is more than 10(-6) s, and also means that the occurrence of a network structure whose mobility is strongly restricted by chemically bonded bridges between the epoxy resin and curing agent. The time courses of these parameters coincided with those of IR peaks pertinent to the curing reaction. Therefore, pulsed NMR is a useful tool to monitor the hardening process of epoxy resin in real time non-distractively in terms of the molecular motion of protons.

  17. Fracto-emission from graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Fracto-emission (FE) is the emission of particles and photons during and following crack propagation. Electrons (EE), positive ions (PIE), and excited and ground state neutrals (NE) were observed. Results of a number of experiments involving principally graphite/epoxy composites and Kevlar single fibers are presented. The physical processes responsible for EE and PIE are discussed as well as FE from fiber- and particulate-reinforced composites.

  18. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E; Eric Skidmore, E

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy Savannah River Site vitrifies nuclear waste incident to defense programs through its Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The piping in the DWPF seal pot jumper configuration must withstand the stresses during an unlikely but potential deflagration event, and maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites (CFR) were proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event. The proposed CFR materials have been ASME-approved (Section XI, Code Case N-589-1) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. The proposed carbon fiber/epoxy composite reinforcement system was originally developed for pipeline rehabilitation and post-construction maintenance in petrochemical, refineries, DOT applications and other industries. The effects of ionizing radiation on polymers and organic materials have been studied for many years. The majority of available data are based on traditional exposures to gamma irradiation at high dose rates ({approx}10,000 Gy/hr) allowing high total dose within reasonable test periods and general comparison of different materials exposed at such conditions. However, studies in recent years have shown that degradation of many polymers are sensitive to dose rate, with more severe degradation often observed at similar or even lower total doses when exposed to lower dose rates. This behavior has been primarily attributed to diffusion-limited oxidation which is minimized during very high dose rate exposures. Most test standards for accelerated aging and nuclear qualification of components acknowledge these limitations. The results of testing to determine the radiation resistance and microstructural effects of gamma irradiation exposure on a bisphenol-A based epoxy matrix composite reinforced with carbon fibers are presented. This work provides a foundation for a more extensive evaluation of dose rate effects on advanced epoxy

  19. Healing efficiency of epoxy-based materials for structural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a self-healing composite exhibiting high levels of healing efficiency under working conditions typical of aeronautic applications. The self-healing material is composed of a thermosetting epoxy matrix in which a catalyst of Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) and nanocapsules are dispersed. The nanocapsules contain a monomer able to polymerize via ROMP. The preliminary results demonstrate an efficient self-repair function which is also active at very low temperatures.

  20. Model Adherend Surface Effects on Epoxy Cure Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    of X-ray photoelectro spectroscopy and reflection absorption infrarcd spectroscopy. They concluded that the catalytic action of the acidic hydroxyl...that an acidic carbon surface (produced by oxidation) resulted in selective amine adsorption and the catalytic acceleration of its reaction with the...subject of this report. EXPERIMENTAL The epoxy resins used in this study consisted of Epon 826, a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A ( DGEBA ) resin (Shell

  1. Bonding and impedance matching of acoustic transducers using silver epoxy.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyu Tak; Lee, Chin C

    2012-04-01

    Silver epoxy was selected to bond transducer plates on glass substrates. The properties and thickness of the bonding medium affect the electrical input impedance of the transducer. Thus, the thickness of the silver epoxy bonding layer was used as a design parameter to optimize the structure for the transducer input impedance to match the 50 Ω output impedance of most radio frequency (RF) generators. Simulation and experimental results show that nearly perfect matching is achieved without using any matching circuit. At the matching condition, the transducer operates at a frequency band a little bit below the half-wavelength resonant frequency of the piezoelectric plate. In experiments, lead titanate (PT) piezoelectric plates were employed. Both full-size, 11.5 mm × 2 mm × 0.4 mm, and half-size, 5.75 mm × 2 mm × 0.4 mm, can be well matched using optimal silver epoxy thickness. The transducer assemblies demonstrate high efficiency. The conversion loss from electrical power to acoustic power in soda-lime glass is 4.3 dB. This loss is low considering the fact that the transducers operate at off-resonance by 12%. With proper choice of silver epoxy thickness, the transducer can be matched at the fundamental, the 3rd and 5th harmonic frequencies. This leads to the possible realization of triple-band transducers. Reliability was assessed with thermal cycling test according to Telcordia GR-468-Core recommendation. Of the 30 transducer assemblies tested, none broke until 2900 cycles and 27 have sustained beyond 4050 cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Static and dynamic response of graphite-epoxy curved frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. S.; Johnson, E. R.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional static and vibratory response of two graphite-epoxy, thin-walled, open section frames. The frames are semicircular with a radius of three feet. One specimen had an I cross section and the other had a channel cross section. The experimental data is used to evaluate a mixed finite element model of the frames that is based on Vlasov-type, thin-walled, open section curved beam theory.

  3. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the precure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  4. Toughening reinforced epoxy composites with brominated polymeric additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z. (Inventor); Gilwee, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polyfunctional epoxy resins including tris(hydroxyphenyl)methane triglycidyl ether are toughened by addition of polybrominated polymeric additives having an EE below 1500 to the pre-cure composition. Carboxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber is optionally present in the pre-cure mixture as such or as a pre-formed copolymer with other reactants. Reinforced composites, particularly carbon-reinforced composites, of these resins are disclosed and shown to have improved toughness.

  5. MICROMECHANICS IN CONTINOUS GRAPHITE FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES DURING CREEP

    SciTech Connect

    C. ZHOU; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Micro Raman spectroscopy and classic composite shear-lag models were used to analyze the evolution with time of fiber and matrix strain/stress around fiber breaks in planar model graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composites. Impressive agreements were found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The local matrix creep leads to an increase in the load transfer length around the break under a constant load. This increases the chance of fiber breakage in the neighboring intact fibers.

  6. Interdiffusion at the interface between poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, H.T.; Wightman, J.P.; Lesko, J.J.; Reifsnider, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The study of polymer-polymer interfaces is recently attracting great interest. So far, most studies have focused on the interface between thermoplastic polymers, even though the interface between thermoplastic and thermoset polymers is also very important in numerous areas such as adhesion and composites. In the present study, bilayer films of thermoplastic poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and a thermoset epoxy were prepared and their compositional profiles at the interface were examined by electron microprobe analysis.

  7. Tensile Properties of Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Continuous PALF Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glória, Gabriel O.; Altoé, Giulio R.; Moraes, Ygor M.; Loyola, Rômulo L.; Margem, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Sergio N.

    The tensile properties of DGEBA/TETA epoxy matrix composites reinforced with different amounts of PALF fibers were evaluated. Composites reinforced with up to 30% in volume of long, continuous and aligned PALF fibers were tested in an Instron machine at room temperature. The fracture was analyzed by SEM. This one revealed a weak fiber/matrix interface, which could be responsible for the performance of some properties. The results showed significant changes in the mechanical properties with the amount of PALF fibers.

  8. Mechanical properties of henequen fibre/epoxy resin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Murillo, C.; Ansell, M. P.

    2009-07-01

    By using surface-treated and untreated henequen fibres and an epoxy resin, composites were made by compression moulding, and their mechanical properties and failure modes were determined experimentally in tension, bending, and impact loading. The results obtained show that the treatment of fibre surface does not improve the bond between the fibres and the resin matrix, and the general mechanical properties of the composites are similar.

  9. Durability of Intercalated Graphite Epoxy Composites in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Davidson, Michelle L.; Shively, Rhonda

    1996-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphite epoxy composites can be substantially increased by intercalating (inserting guest atoms or molecules between the graphene planes) the graphite fibers before composite formation. The resulting high strength, low density, electrically conducting composites have been proposed for EMI shielding in spacecraft. Questions have been raised, however, about their durability in the space environment, especially with respect to outgassing of the intercalates, which are corrosive species such as bromine. To answer those concerns, six samples of bromine intercalated graphite epoxy composites were included in the third Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) experiment flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-46). Changes in electrical conductivity, optical reflectance, surface texture, and mass loss for SiO2 protected and unprotected samples were measured after being exposed to the LEO environment for 42 hours. SiO2 protected samples showed no degradation, verifying conventional protection strategies are applicable to bromine intercalated composites. The unprotected samples showed that bromine intercalation does not alter the degradation of graphite-epoxy composites. No bromine was detected to have been released by the fibers allaying fears that outgassing could be disruptive to the sensitive electronics the EMI shield is meant to protect.

  10. Preparation and Insulation Properties of Epoxy-Layered Silicate Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Takahiro; Sawa, Fumio; Ozaki, Tamon; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshio; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo

    Recent rapid progress in nanotechnology has focused research and development efforts on new high performance materials. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials such as nylon-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted special interest and various studies continue to be conducted on thermoplastic resins. In this study, we found out the best organic modifier of layered silicate that contributed to an affinity for epoxy resin (thermosetting resin), and succeeded in creating an intercalated-type epoxy-layered silicate nanocomposite. This nanocomposite realized some improvements by the addition of 5 or 6 weight percentage of organically modified layered silicates, which have 20oC higher thermal resistance, 60% higher fracture toughness, 19% higher flexural strength and 10% higher insulation breakdown strength than these of an epoxy resin without layered silicate fillers. An electrical treeing growth was observed in the nanocomposite. The electrical treeing progress with many branches in the nanocomposite seemed to result in an increase in the insulation breakdown strength. These results suggest the possibility of practical use as an insulating material in heavy apparatuses.

  11. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Spera, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. ); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  12. Novel epoxy formulations for high energy radiation curable composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadaro, G.; Calderaro, E.; Tomarchio, E.; Dispenza, C.

    2005-03-01

    It has been widely recognised that high energy radiation can be effectively applied to the cure of epoxy resins in applications as composite matrices or structural adhesives with improvements in product quality and/or reduction in production costs. In the presence of suitable initiators, polymerisation of epoxies occurs via cationic mechanism, thus restricting the choice of the resin system components to species which do not contain electron donor groups. The present investigation is aimed to identify suitable co-monomers to be formulated with an epoxy resin, resulting in different cure reaction kinetics and application properties of the cured resin. In particular, four different anhydride types, three dicarboxylic and one tetracarboxylic, have been formulated at the same weight ratio with a diglydilether of bisphenol F and a photo-initiator. Resin samples, irradiated at different integrated doses, have been characterised with solubility tests, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis and three point flexural tests, showing a response which is strongly affected by the specific chemical structure of the anhydride co-monomer. Post-irradiation thermal treatments carried out on samples irradiated at the lower dose suggest different reaction patterns, with different controlling factors depending on the activation mechanism (temperature or γ-rays).

  13. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  14. Epoxy-bonded La-Fe-Co-Si magnetocaloric plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulko, Barbara; Tušek, Jaka; Moore, James D.; Weise, Bruno; Skokov, Konstantin; Mityashkin, Oleg; Kitanovski, Andrej; Favero, Chiara; Fajfar, Peter; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Waske, Anja; Poredoš, Alojz

    2015-02-01

    We report the processing, analysis and testing of magnetocaloric composite materials consisting of La-Fe-Co-Si particles of various size fractions and a polymer matrix. All of the composites have working temperatures close to room temperature. The composites were pressed into thin plates, a geometry favorable for testing the composites in an active magnetic regenerator (AMR). In order to investigate the influence of particle size and binder type (epoxy), eight different epoxy-bonded La-Fe-Co-Si plates were made and analyzed. We found that the higher filling factor that can be achieved by using a mixture of several particle size fractions has beneficial influence on the thermal conductivity. Tests in the AMR revealed that a maximum temperature span of approximately ΔT=10 K under magnetic field change of μ0H=1.15 T can be obtained at no cooling load conditions. The stability of the measured ΔT values and the mechanical integrity of sample after cyclic application of a magnetic field have been monitored for 90,000 cycles and showed no significant changes. We therefore conclude that epoxy-bonded La-Fe-Co-Si magnetocaloric composites have good magnetocaloric properties at low material-processing costs and hence represent a competitive way to produce magnetocaloric materials to be used in AMR.

  15. Latent Hardeners for the Assembly of Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmieri, Frank; Wohl, Christopher J.; Connell, John W.; Mercado, Zoar; Galloway, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale composite structures are commonly joined by secondary bonding of molded-and-cured thermoset components. This approach may result in unpredictable joint strengths. In contrast, assemblies made by co-curing, although limited in size by the mold, result in stable structures, and are certifiable for commercial aviation because of structural continuity through the joints. Multifunctional epoxy resins were prepared that should produce fully-cured subcomponents with uncured joining surfaces, enabling them to be assembled by co-curing in a subsequent out-of-autoclave process. Aromatic diamines were protected by condensation with a ketone or aldehyde to form imines. Properties of the amine-cured epoxy were compared with those of commercially available thermosetting epoxy resins and rheology and thermal analysis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of imine protection. Optimum conditions to reverse the protecting chemistry in the solid state using moisture and acid catalysis were determined. Alternative chemistries were also investigated. For example, chain reaction depolymerization and photoinitiated catalysts would be expected to minimize liberation of volatile organic content upon deprotection and avoid residual reactive species that could damage the resin. Results from the analysis of protected and deprotected resins will be presented.

  16. Study of electron beam curing process using epoxy resin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitsuji, Delmo A.; Marinucci, Gerson; Evora, Maria C.; de Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G.

    2007-12-01

    Polymeric matrix composite (PMC) has been used in engineering applications instead of metal in the last few years, due to its corrosion resistance and excellent relation between tensile strength/density and elastic modulus/density. However, PMC materials cured by thermal process require high temperature and are time-consuming. The electron beam (EB) curing technology allows its use at room temperature and reduced curing times, and this is one of the main advantages over thermal technology. The aim of this work is to investigate electron beam curable epoxy formulations to use in filament winding processes to produce composite material with similar or better properties than thermal curable composites. The study has been made with commercial epoxy resins and cationic initiators. The epoxy resin samples were irradiated for few minutes with total dose of 150 kGy. The glass transition temperatures ( Tg) were determined by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and the result was 137 °C. The thermal process was carried out in a furnace following three steps: 4 h at 90 °C, increasing temperature from 90 °C to 130 °C during 4 h and 12 h at 130 °C. The total process time was 20 h. The Tg of this sample was 102 °C.

  17. The Modification of a Tetrafunctional Epoxy and Its Curing Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingming; Feng, Bin; Xie, Wang; Fang, Lin; Li, Hong; Liu, Liqi; Ren, Musu; Sun, Jinliang; Zhang, Jiabao; Hu, Hefeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental results showed that the Tg of cured resin scarcely decreased and the impact strength of resins increased by over 50% when a tetrafunctional epoxy named N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (TGDDE) was introduced to an appropriate flexible chain from a dimer fatty acid (DFA). In order to understand the reason for this phenomenon, the modification and the chemical structure of the prepolymer together with the curing reaction and the viscoelasticity of the cured resins were studied in detail in the present work. The results indicated that the modification would help the prepolymer improve its molecular mobility. As a result, the resins could be further cured, resulting in the cross-linking density increasing. This is because the curing efficiency was increased, but the tetrafunctional epoxy was not cured completely due to its large steric hindrance. Moreover, the flexibility of some parts of the networks was improved, which was beneficial for the toughness of the cured resins. Therefore, the toughness of the tetrafunctional resin was improved with little influence on the thermal properties when the epoxies were modified with an appropriate content of DFA.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Triaxial Braided Carbon/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, C. L.; Roberts, G. D.; Braley, M. S.; Xie, M.; Booker, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    In an on-going effort to increase the safety and efficiency of turbine engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is exploring lightweight alternatives to the metal containment structures that currently encase commercial jet engines. Epoxy reinforced with braided carbon fibers is a candidate structural material which may be suitable for an engine case. This paper reports flat-coupon mechanical-property experiments performed to compliment previously reported subcomponent impact testing and analytical simulation of containment structures. Triaxial-braid T700/5208 epoxy and triaxial-braid T700/M36 toughened epoxy composites were evaluated. Also, two triaxial-braid architectures (0 +/- 60 deg., 0 +/- 45 deg.) with the M36 resin were evaluated through tension, compression, and shear testing. Tensile behavior was compared between standard straight-sided specimens (ASTM D3039) and bowtie specimens. Both double-notch shear (ASTM D3846) and Iosepescu (ASTM D5379) tests were performed as well. The M36/0 +/- 45 deg. configuration yield the best response when measurements were made parallel to the axial tows. Conversely, the M36/0 +/- 60 deg. configuration was best when measurements were made perpendicular to the axial tows. The results were used to identify critical properties and to augment the analysis of impact experiments.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Triaxial Braided Carbon/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, C. L.; Roberts, G. D.; Braley, M. S.; Xie, M.; Booker, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    In an on-going effort to increase the safety and efficiency of turbine engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is exploring lightweight alternatives to the metal containment structures that currently encase commercial jet engines. Epoxy reinforced with braided carbon fibers is a candidate structural material which may be suitable for an engine case. This paper reports flat-coupon mechanical-property experiments performed to compliment previously reported subcomponent impact testing and analytical simulation of containment structures. Triaxial-braid T700/5208 epoxy and triaxial-braid T700h436 toughened epoxy composites were evaluated. Also, two triaxial-braid architectures (0 degrees plus or minus 60 degrees, and 0 degrees plus or minus 45 degrees) with the M36 resin were evaluated through tension, compression, and shear testing. Tensile behavior was compared between standard straight-sided specimens (ASTM D3039) and bow-tie specimens. Both double-notch shear (ASTM D3846) and Iosepescu (ASTM D5379) tests were performed as well. The M36/O degrees plus or minus 45 degrees configuration yield the best response when measurements were made parallel to the axial tows. Conversely, the M36/0 degrees plus or minus 60 degrees configuration was best when measurements were made perpendicular to the axial tows. The results were used to identify critical properties and to augment the analysis of impact experiments.

  20. Mechanical behavior of Kenaf/Epoxy corrugated sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, S.; Hassan, M. Z.; Daud, Y.; Sarip, S.; Rahman, N.; Ismail, Z.; Aziz, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the response of kenaf/epoxy corrugated sandwich structure during quasi-static test. Force-displacements curves have been deducted to determine the deformation pattern and collapse behavior of the structure. Kenaf/epoxy sandwich structures skins fabricated by using hand layup technique and the corrugated core were moulded by using steel mould. Different thicknesses of corrugated core web with two sizes of kenaf fibers were used. The corrugated core is then bonded with the skins by using poly-epoxy resin and has been cut into different number of cells. The specimens then tested under tensile and compression at different constant speeds until the specimens fully crushed. Tensile tests data showed the structure can be considered brittle when it breaking point strain, ε less than 0.025. In compression test, the specimens fail due to dominated by stress concentration that initiated by prior cracks. Also, the specimens with more number of cells and thicker core web have higher strength and the ability to absorb higher energy.

  1. Modeling Strategy for Networks with Both Stepwise and Chainwise Mechanisms: Amine-Epoxy Chemistry with Etherification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    epoxides and carboxylic acids , isocyanates and alcohols, isocyanates and amines. 3 - CHEMISTRY Any model for network growth is only as good as the...is the initial recipe ratio, that is, the number of amino groups to the epoxy groups in the initial recipe. Ma and Me are the molecular weights of...where networks are produced under either of the above mentioned conditions. There is a commercial epoxy resin using an excess of epoxies ( DGEBA ) with a

  2. Processing of Clay/Epoxy Nanocomposites with a Three-Roll Mill Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured with methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride hardener from Vantico was used as the matrix. 1...temperature and curing agent [4]. The commonly used techniques to process clay- epoxy nanocomposites are: direct mixing and solution mixing [4-71...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014247 TITLE: Processing of Clay/ Epoxy Nanocomposites with a Three-Roll

  3. Microencapsulation of Polyfunctional Amines for Self-Healing of Epoxy-Based Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    MICROENCAPSULATION OF POLYFUNCTIONAL AMINES FOR SELF-HEALING OF EPOXY-BASED COMPOSITES David A. McIlroy*§, Ben J. Blaiszik,¥ Paul V. Braun... microcapsules containing an amine hardener (DEH-52, Dow Chemical) for use as the hardener in a 2-part epoxy healing system consisting of epoxy...microscope. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on a Philips XL30 ESEM-FEG instrument. Microencapsulation Procedure. 10 g of a 2:1 v/v

  4. Comparison of micromechanical models for elastic properties. [for unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1992-01-01

    Results for the predicted effective elastic properties of unidirectional composites are presented for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy using eight different models. A brief review of each of the models is given along with the final equations in most cases. It is shown that there is wide variation in some predictions for glass/epoxy and that the upper and lower composite cylinder assemblage bounds do not always fall close together for this material.

  5. Investigation of the effect of resin material on impact damage to graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental program are described which establishes the feasibility and guide lines for resin development. The objective was to identify the basic epoxy neat resin properties that improve low velocity impact resistance and toughness to graphite-epoxy laminates and at the same time maintain useful structural laminate mechanical properties. Materials tests from twenty-three toughened epoxy resin matrix systems are included.

  6. Studies on adhesion characteristics and corrosion behaviour of vinyltriethoxysilane/epoxy coating protective system on aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajat, Jelena B.; Milošev, Ingrid; Jovanović, Željka; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna B.

    2010-03-01

    The corrosion stability of vinyltriethoxysilane/epoxy coating protective system on aluminium is strongly related to the strength of bonds forming at the metal/organic coating interface. This article is a study of adhesion, composition, electrochemical and transport properties of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on bare aluminium and aluminium pretreated by vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) during exposure to 3% NaCl. The VTES film was deposited on aluminium surface from 2% vinyltriethoxysilane solution during 30 s. From the values of adhesion strength (pull-off test), time dependence of pore resistance and coating capacitance of epoxy coating (impedance measurements) and diffusion coefficient of water through epoxy coating (gravimetric liquid sorption measurements), the influence of VTES sublayer on the corrosion stability of the electrodeposited epoxy coating was shown. The work discusses the role of the VTES pretreatment in the enhanced adhesion and corrosion stability of epoxy cataphoretic coating. The electrochemical results showed that the aluminium pretreatment by VTES film improved barrier properties of epoxy coating (greater pore resistance and lower coating capacitance). The lower value of diffusion coefficient of water through epoxy coating indicates the lower porosity, while the smaller adhesion reduction points to better adhesion of epoxy coating on aluminium pretreated by VTES film. The composition of the deposited coatings investigated by XPS enabled the clarification of the bonding mechanism.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler.

    PubMed

    Yemam, Dinberu Molla; Kim, Baek-Joong; Moon, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Chongku

    2017-02-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0-20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increase in epoxy and filler content. Modulus of elasticity also linearly increased with the increase in filler content, but the use of epoxy content beyond 20 wt. % decreased the modulus of elasticity of the mortar. For epoxy content at 10 wt. %, poor bond strength lower than 0.8 MPa was observed, and adding filler at 20 wt. % adversely affected the bond strength, in contrast to the mortars containing epoxy at 15, 20, 25 wt. %. The results indicate that the sand washing waste can be used as potential filler for epoxy resin mortar to obtain better mechanical properties by adding the optimum level of sand washing waste filler.

  8. Effect of Montmorillonite Nanogel Composite Fillers on the Protection Performance of Epoxy Coatings on Steel Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Wahby, Mohamed

    2017-06-02

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clay mineral is widely used as filler for several organic coatings. Its activity is increased by exfoliation via chemical modification to produce nanomaterials. In the present work, the modification of MMT to form nanogel composites is proposed to increase the dispersion of MMT into epoxy matrices used to fill cracks and holes produced by the curing exotherms of epoxy resins. The dispersion of MMT in epoxy improved both the mechanical and anti-corrosion performance of epoxy coatings in aggressive marine environments. In this respect, the MMT surfaces were chemically modified with different types of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) nanogels using a surfactant-free dispersion polymerization technique. The effect of the chemical structure, nanogel content and the interaction with MMT surfaces on the surface morphology, surface charges and dispersion in the epoxy matrix were investigated for use as nano-filler for epoxy coatings. The modified MMT nanogel epoxy composites showed excellent resistance to mechanical damage and salt spray resistance up to 1000 h. The interaction of MMT nanogel composites with the epoxy matrix and good response of AMPS nanogel to sea water improve their ability to act as self-healing materials for epoxy coatings for steel.

  9. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  10. Structure within thin epoxy films revealed by solvent swelling: A neutron reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect

    KENT,MICHAEL S.; YIM,HYUN; MCNAMARA,WILLIAM FRERE; IVKOV,R.; SATIJA,S.; MAJEWSKI,J.

    2000-03-02

    The focus of this work is the structure within highly crosslinked, two component epoxy films. The authors examine variations in crosslink density within thin epoxy films on silicon substrates by solvent swelling. The method is based on the fact that the equilibrium volume fraction of a swelling solvent is strongly dependent upon the local crosslink density. The authors examine the volume fraction profile of the good solvent nitrobenzene through the epoxy films by neutron reflection. Isotopic substitution is used to provide contrast between the epoxy matrix and the swelling solvent.

  11. Effects of colloidal nanosilica on the rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Huong; Song, Gwang Seok; Lee, Dai Soo

    2011-05-01

    The rheological properties of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal nanosilica were investigated by employing a parallel plate rheometer in flow mode at 25 degrees C. Shear thickening and shear thinning behaviors were observed in the epoxy resins filled with a mixture of organoclay and colloidal nanosilica. Minima were observed in the relaxation time of the systems consisting of epoxy resins filled with organoclay and colloidal silica as the content of colloidal nanosilica was increased. It seems that the colloidal nanosilica increased the mobility of the filled epoxy resins and reduced the interactions between the silicate layers in the systems.

  12. Cross‐Sectional Study of Respiratory Symptoms, Spirometry, and Immunologic Sensitivity in Epoxy Resin Workers

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Elizabeth A.; Robinson, Maura; Knight, Vijaya; Gaitens, Joanna; Sills, Michael; Duvall, Kirby; Rose, Cecile S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives An epoxy resin worker developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis requiring lung transplantation and had an abnormal blood lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) to an epoxy hardener. We assessed the prevalence of symptoms, abnormal spirometry, and abnormal epoxy resin LPT results in epoxy resin workers compared to unexposed workers. Methods Participants completed questionnaires and underwent spirometry. We collected blood for epoxy resin LPT and calculated stimulation indices for five epoxy resin products. Results We compared 38 exposed to 32 unexposed workers. Higher exposed workers were more likely to report cough (OR 10.86, [1.23‐infinity], p = 0.030) or wheeze (OR 4.44, [1.00‐22.25], p = 0.049) than unexposed workers, even controlling for smoking. Higher exposed workers were more likely to have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers (OR 10.51, [0.86‐589.9], p = 0.071), although not statistically significant when adjusted for smoking. There were no differences in proportion of abnormal epoxy resin system LPTs between exposed and unexposed workers. Conclusions In summary, workers exposed to epoxy resin system chemicals were more likely to report respiratory symptoms and have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers. Use of epoxy resin LPT was not helpful as a biomarker of exposure and sensitization. PMID:26553118

  13. Mechanical, morphological and structural properties of cellulose nanofibers reinforced epoxy composites.

    PubMed

    Saba, N; Mohammad, F; Pervaiz, M; Jawaid, M; Alothman, O Y; Sain, M

    2017-04-01

    Present study, deals about isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from the Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft (NBSK) pulp, fabrication by hand lay-up technique and characterization of fabricated epoxy nanocomposites at different filler loadings (0.5%, 0.75%, 1% by wt.). The effect of CNFs loading on mechanical (tensile, impact and flexural), morphological (scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope) and structural (XRD and FTIR) properties of epoxy composites were investigated. FTIR analysis confirms the introduction of CNFs into the epoxy matrix while no considerable change in the crystallinity and diffraction peaks of epoxy composites were observed by the XRD patterns. Additions of CNFs considerably enhance the mechanical properties of epoxy composites but a remarkable improvement is observed for 0.75% CNFs as compared to the rest epoxy nanocomposites. In addition, the electron micrographs revealed the perfect distribution and dispersion of CNFs in the epoxy matrix for the 0.75% CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites, while the existence of voids and agglomerations were observed beyond 0.75% CNFs filler loadings. Overall results analysis clearly revealed that the 0.75% CNFs filler loading is best and effective with respect to rest to enhance the mechanical and structural properties of the epoxy composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-Sectional Study of Respiratory Symptoms, Spirometry, and Immunologic Sensitivity in Epoxy Resin Workers.

    PubMed

    Hines, Stella E; Barker, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Maura; Knight, Vijaya; Gaitens, Joanna; Sills, Michael; Duvall, Kirby; Rose, Cecile S

    2015-12-01

    An epoxy resin worker developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis requiring lung transplantation and had an abnormal blood lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) to an epoxy hardener. We assessed the prevalence of symptoms, abnormal spirometry, and abnormal epoxy resin LPT results in epoxy resin workers compared to unexposed workers. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent spirometry. We collected blood for epoxy resin LPT and calculated stimulation indices for five epoxy resin products. We compared 38 exposed to 32 unexposed workers. Higher exposed workers were more likely to report cough (OR 10.86, [1.23-infinity], p = 0.030) or wheeze (OR 4.44, [1.00-22.25], p = 0.049) than unexposed workers, even controlling for smoking. Higher exposed workers were more likely to have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers (OR 10.51, [0.86-589.9], p = 0.071), although not statistically significant when adjusted for smoking. There were no differences in proportion of abnormal epoxy resin system LPTs between exposed and unexposed workers. In summary, workers exposed to epoxy resin system chemicals were more likely to report respiratory symptoms and have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers. Use of epoxy resin LPT was not helpful as a biomarker of exposure and sensitization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Risk of contact allergy and dermatitis at a wind turbine plant using epoxy resin-based plastics.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Pontén, A; Gruvberger, B; Isaksson, M; Bruze, M

    2005-04-01

    To identify workplace and individual risk factors for occupational contact allergy and dermatitis. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an international company producing wind turbine systems in Denmark. A cohort of 724 production workers at four facilities was highly exposed to epoxy resin as well as other chemicals. A screening questionnaire (participation rate 84.7%) was followed by an interview by an occupational physician and a dermatological examination, including patch testing, for a comprehensive list of potential workplace sensitizers. Clinically diagnosed dermatitis was found among 214 workers (35.8%) and contact allergy to materials used in the workplace was found in 66 workers (10.9% of the total population and 20.3% of those who underwent patch testing). Of the 66 workers with a work-related allergy, 40 (60.6%) were allergic to epoxy compounds, 25 (37.9%) to hardeners and ten (15.2%) to other workplace materials, where one person showed an allergy only to these materials. Experiencing contact allergy was related to older age and longer employment in the workplace-however, neither of these risk factors was significant. The main risk factor for current dermatitis was contact allergy to materials used in the workplace, determined by patch testing, OR=5.4 (95% CI 3.9-9.9). Fewer days of absence from work was also related to current dermatitis, OR=2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.5). In a cohort of workers with extensive exposure to chemicals related to epoxy-resin systems, contact dermatitis and allergy was prevalent. Older age and longer duration of employment at the workplace were individual risk factors for allergy to workplace materials, whilst work-related allergies and longer duration of employment at the workplace were significant risk factors for current dermatitis.

  16. New Insights of Comets from the EPOXI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen J.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Comet missions are changing the paradigm for understanding comet activity, composition, and the formation of planetesimals in the protoplanetary disk. Each encounter has shown the diversity of surface morphologies and new insights into comet chemistry, formation scenarios, activity mechanisms and geology. Prior to the comet 103P/Hartley 2 EPOXI encounter, the prevailing view was that H 2O-ice sublimation controlled most comet activity. Differences in the amounts of minor parent/daughter photodissociation species are attributed to differences in formation location, temperature and disk chemistry. However, reconstructing the protoplanetary disk dynamics and chemistry consistent with observations hasn’t yet been achieved. The EPOXI mission flew past the nucleus of comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 11/4/2010. This small nucleus was known to be exceptionally active prior to the encounter, by virtue of a very large water production rate relative to its surface area. EPOXI provided stunning images of a small nucleus with strong chemical heterogeneity and a swarm of large icy chunks driven from the nucleus by CO2 jets. The EPOXI ground-based campaign provided a long-term baseline of observations of the pre-perihelion brightening of the comet which also showed that comet Hartley 2’s perihelion activity was dominated by sub-surface CO2 outgassing. The nucleus morphology was different from that of other nuclei visited by spacecraft; some rough topographic regions showed visible surface ice. Because the Earth’s atmosphere is opaque at the wavelengths for CO2 emission, there is only a little information about CO2 abundance in comets (primarily from space missions), yet CO, CO2 and H2O are likely key tracers of the chemistry in the protoplanetary disk. EPOXI has shown the crucial role that CO2 plays in comet activity. Further, CO2 abundance does not appear to be correlated with other parent volatiles, nor with dynamical classes suggesting that we need to revise our understanding of

  17. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Peng

    Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities

  18. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  19. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John R; Peterson, Eric S; Orme, Christopher J; Jones, Michael G; Wertsching, Alan K; Luther, Thomas A; Trowbridge, Tammy L

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  20. A new triterpenoid compound from stems and leaves of American ginseng.

    PubMed

    Han, Liu; Li, Zhuo; Zheng, Qian; Liu, Jin-Ping; Li, Ping-Ya

    2016-01-01

    A new dammarane-type triterpenoid compound was isolated from stems and leaves of American ginseng. The structure of the new sapogenin was elucidated by the combined analysis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS as dammar-20S, 25S-epoxy-3β, 12β, 26-triol (1). Compound 1 showed cytotoxic effect on human SM7721 and human Hela cells in vitro.

  1. Behaviour of hybrid jute-glass/epoxy composite tubes subjected to lateral loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental work on hybrid and non-hybrid composite tubes subjected to lateral loading has been carried out using jute, glass and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. Tubes of 200 mm length with 110 mm inner diameter were fabricated by hand lay-up method to investigate the effect of material used and the number of layers on lateral-load-displacement relations and on the failure mode. Crush force efficiency and the specific energy absorption of the composite tubes were calculated. Results show that the six layers glass/epoxy tubes supported load higher 10.6% than that of hybrid jute-glass/ epoxy made of two layers of jute/epoxy four layers of glass/epoxy. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the glass/epoxy tubes is found higher respectively 11.6% and 46% than hybrid jute-glass/epoxy and jute/epoxy tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to six increases the maximum lateral load from 0.53KN to 1.22 KN for jute/epoxy and from 1.35 KN to 3.87 KN for the glass/epoxy tubes. The stacking sequence of the hybrid tubes influenced on the maximum lateral load and the absorbed energy. The maximum load obtained for the six layers jute-glass/epoxy tubes of different staking sequence varies between 1.88 KN to 3.46 KN. Failure mechanisms of the laterally loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  2. Rodent Biocompatibility Test Using the NASA Foodbar and Epoxy EP21LV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, J.; Steele, M.; Dumars, P.; Vasques, M.; Girten, B.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Epoxy has been used successfully to affix NASA foodbars to the inner walls of the Animal Enclosure Module for past space flight experiments utilizing rodents. The epoxy used on past missions was discontinued, making it necessary to identify a new epoxy for use on the STS-108 and STS-107 missions. This experiment was designed to test the basic biocompatibility of epoxy EP21LV with male rats (Sprague Dawley) and mice (Swiss Webster) when applied to NASA foodbars. For each species, the test was conducted with a control group fed untreated foodbars and an experimental group fed foodbars applied with EP21LV. For each species, there were no group differences in animal health and no statistical differences (P<0.05) in body weights throughout the study. In mice, there was a 16% increase in heart weight in the epoxy group; this result was not found in rats. For both species, there were no statistical differences found in other organ weights measured. In rats, blood glucose levels were 15% higher and both total protein and globulin were 10% lower in the epoxy group. Statistical differences in these parameters were not found in mice. For both species, no statistical differences were found in other blood parameters tested. Food consumption was not different in rats but water consumption was significantly decreased 10 to 15% in the epoxy group. The difference in water consumption is likely due to an increased water content of the epoxy-treated foodbars. Finally, both species avoided consumption of the epoxy material. Based on the global analysis of the results, the few parameters found to be statistically different do not appear to be a physiologically relevant effect of the epoxy material, We conclude that the EP21LV epoxy is biocompatible with rodents.

  3. Determinants of epoxy allergy in the construction industry: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Spee, Ton; Timmerman, Johan G; Rühl, Reinhold; Kersting, Klaus; Heederik, Dick J J; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2016-05-01

    Workers exposed to epoxy products are at risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis. To compare workers throughout the German construction industry with and without skin allergy to epoxy resins, hardeners, and/or reactive diluents, and to investigate which determinants are related to the development of epoxy allergy. A questionnaire was completed by 179 epoxy allergy cases, and 151 epoxy workers as controls. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by the use of backwards stepwise logistic regression analysis. A multiple imputation approach was used to deal with missing data. Epoxy allergy was associated with an unusually high level of exposure to epoxy products [OR 2.13 (95%CI: 1.01-4.51)], wearing short sleeves or short trousers [OR 2.38 (95%CI: 1.03-5.52)], and not always using the correct type of gloves [OR 2.12 (95%CI: 1.12-4.01)]. A monotonic increasing risk was found with increasing exposure hours per week [OR 1.72 (95%CI: 1.39-2.14)]. Not using skin cream was inversely associated with epoxy allergy [OR 0.22 (95%CI: 0.08-0.59)]. Years working with epoxy products were inversely associated with epoxy allergy [OR 0.41 (95%CI: 0.27-0.61) per 10-year increase], suggesting a healthy worker survivor effect. Occupational epoxy allergy may be prevented by improving occupational hygiene behaviour and personal protection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rodent Biocompatibility Test Using the NASA Foodbar and Epoxy EP21LV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillman, J.; Steele, M.; Dumars, P.; Vasques, M.; Girten, B.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Epoxy has been used successfully to affix NASA foodbars to the inner walls of the Animal Enclosure Module for past space flight experiments utilizing rodents. The epoxy used on past missions was discontinued, making it necessary to identify a new epoxy for use on the STS-108 and STS-107 missions. This experiment was designed to test the basic biocompatibility of epoxy EP21LV with male rats (Sprague Dawley) and mice (Swiss Webster) when applied to NASA foodbars. For each species, the test was conducted with a control group fed untreated foodbars and an experimental group fed foodbars applied with EP21LV. For each species, there were no group differences in animal health and no statistical differences (P<0.05) in body weights throughout the study. In mice, there was a 16% increase in heart weight in the epoxy group; this result was not found in rats. For both species, there were no statistical differences found in other organ weights measured. In rats, blood glucose levels were 15% higher and both total protein and globulin were 10% lower in the epoxy group. Statistical differences in these parameters were not found in mice. For both species, no statistical differences were found in other blood parameters tested. Food consumption was not different in rats but water consumption was significantly decreased 10 to 15% in the epoxy group. The difference in water consumption is likely due to an increased water content of the epoxy-treated foodbars. Finally, both species avoided consumption of the epoxy material. Based on the global analysis of the results, the few parameters found to be statistically different do not appear to be a physiologically relevant effect of the epoxy material, We conclude that the EP21LV epoxy is biocompatible with rodents.

  5. Determination of Young's modulus of epoxy coated polyethylene micro-cantilever using phase-shift shadow moiré method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J. H.; Ratnam, M. M.; Azid, I. A.; Mutharasu, D.

    2011-11-01

    Young's moduli of various epoxy coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) micro-cantilevers were determined from the deflection results obtained using the phase-shift shadow moiré (PSSM) method. The filler materials for epoxy coatings were aluminum and graphite powders that were mixed with epoxy at various percentages. Young's moduli were calculated from theory based on the deflection results. The PET micro-cantilever coated with aluminum-epoxy coating showed increasing value of Young's modulus when the ratios of the aluminum-epoxy were increased. The graphite-epoxy coating on the PET micro-cantilever also showed the same trend. The experimental results also show that Young's modulus of the graphite-epoxy coating is higher than aluminum-epoxy coating in comparison at the same mixing ratio.

  6. Highly Conducting Graphite Epoxy Composite Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Weight savings as high as 80 percent could be achieved if graphite polymer composites could replace aluminum in structures such as electromagnetic interference shielding covers and grounding planes. This could result in significant cost savings, especially for the mobile electronics found in spacecraft, aircraft, automobiles, and hand-held consumer electronics. However, such composites had not yet been fabricated with conductivity sufficient to enable these applications. To address this lack, a partnership of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Manchester College, and Applied Sciences, Inc., fabricated nonmetallic composites with unprecedented electrical conductivity. For these composites, heat-treated, vapor-grown graphite fibers were selected which have a resistivity of about 80 mW-cm, more than 20 times more conductive than typical carbon fibers. These fibers were then intercalated with iodine bromide (IBr). Intercalation is the insertion of guest atoms or molecules between the carbon planes of the graphite fibers. Since the carbon planes are not highly distorted in the process, intercalation has little effect on mechanical and thermal properties. Intercalation does, however, lower the carbon fiber resistivity to less than 10 mW-cm, which is comparable to that of metal fibers. Scaleup of the reaction was required since the initial intercalation experiments would be carried out on 20-mg quantities of fibers, and tens of grams of intercalated fibers would be needed to fabricate even small demonstration composites. The reaction was first optimized through a time and temperature study that yielded fibers with a resistivity of 8.7 2 mW-cm when exposed to IBr vapor at 114 C for 24 hours. Stability studies indicated that the intercalated fibers rapidly lost their conductivity when exposed to temperatures as low as 40 C in air. They were not, however, susceptible to degradation by water vapor in the manner of most graphite intercalation compounds. The 1000-fold scaleup

  7. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10603 - Epoxy modified alkyd resin, partially neutralized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralized (generic). 721.10603 Section 721.10603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10603 Epoxy modified alkyd resin, partially neutralized (generic). (a... generically as epoxy modified alkyd resin, partially neutralized (PMN P-11-280) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10603 - Epoxy modified alkyd resin, partially neutralized (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralized (generic). 721.10603 Section 721.10603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10603 Epoxy modified alkyd resin, partially neutralized (generic). (a... generically as epoxy modified alkyd resin, partially neutralized (PMN P-11-280) is subject to reporting under...

  10. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOEpatents

    Janke, Christopher J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Havens, Stephen J.; Dorsey, George F.; Moulton, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites.

    PubMed

    Rubab, Zakya; Afzal, Adeel; Siddiqi, Humaira M; Saeed, Shaukat

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites. First, submicron titania particles are prepared via surfactant-free sol-gel method using TiCl₄ as precursor. These particles are subsequently used as inorganic fillers (or reinforcement) for thermally cured epoxy polymers. Epoxy-titania composites are prepared via mechanical mixing of titania particles with liquid epoxy resin and subsequently curing the mixture with an aliphatic diamine. The amount of titania particles integrated into epoxy matrix is varied between 2.5 and 10.0 wt.% to investigate the effect of sub-micron titania particles on thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites. These composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG), and mechanical analyses. It is found that sub-micron titania particles significantly enhance the glass transition temperature (>6.7%), thermal oxidative stability (>12.0%), tensile strength (>21.8%), and Young's modulus (>16.8%) of epoxy polymers. Epoxy-titania composites with 5.0 wt.% sub-micron titania particles perform best at elevated temperatures as well as under high stress.

  12. Thermal properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M. T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research study was to fabricate nano oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and to make comparative study on the thermal properties of nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites with the montmorillonite (MMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and organically modified MMT (OMMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. Epoxy based kenaf hybrid nanocomposites was prepared by dispersing the nano filler (nano OPEFB filler, MMT, OMMT) at 3% loading through high speed mechanical stirrer followed by hand lay-up technique. Thermal properties of hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed through thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Obtained results specified that addition of nano OPEFB filler improves the thermal stability and char yield of kenaf/epoxy composites. Furthermore, the increase in decomposition temperature by the nano OPEFB filler was quite comparable to the MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively less than OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. We concluded from overall consequences that the nano OPEFB filler can be used as the promising and innovative alternative of existing expensive nano filler, with relatively lesser impact on the environment having marked pronounced impact on the construction, automotive, aerospace, electronics and semiconducting sectors as future industries based on bio-wastes with satisfactory light weight and thermal stability on other side.

  13. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOEpatents

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  14. Equation of State of Aluminum-Iron Oxide-Epoxy Composite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    We report on the measurements of the shock equation of state (Hugoniot) of an Al/Fe2O3/epoxy composite, prepared by epoxy cast curing of powder...corresponding shock propagation velocity. The results of the Hugoniot equation of state are compared with mesoscale finite-element simulations, which show good agreement.

  15. Shock Equation of State of Single Constituent and Multi-Constituent Epoxy-Based Particulate Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    There are several studies in the literature regarding the equation of state of alumina-epoxy composites. Although this single component system...paper presents a review of shock loading studies on epoxy-based particulate composites. The relationship between equation of state parameters and

  16. Flame Retardancy of Chemically Modified Lignin as Functional Additive to Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Treesearch

    John A. Howarter; Gamini P. Mendis; Alex N. Bruce; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Mark A. Dietenberger; Laura Hasburgh

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy printed circuit boards are used in a variety of electronics applications as rigid, thermally stable substrates. Due to the propensity of components on the boards, such as batteries and interconnects, to fail and ignite the epoxy, flame retardant additives are required to minimize fire risk. Currently, industry uses brominated flame retardants, such as TBBPA, to...

  17. Effect of Hygrothermal Aging on the Mechanical Properties of Fluorinated and Nonfluorinated Clay-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Hamim, Salah U.; Singh, Raman P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrophilic nature of epoxy polymers can lead to both reversible and irreversible/permanent changes in epoxy upon moisture absorption. The permanent changes leading to the degradation of mechanical properties due to combined effect of moisture and elevated temperature on EPON 862, Nanomer I.28E, and Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites are investigated in this study. The extent of permanent degradation on fracture and flexural properties due to the hygrothermal aging is determined by drying the epoxy and their clay-epoxy nanocomposites after moisture absorption. Significant permanent damage is observed for fracture toughness and flexural modulus, while the extent of permanent damage is less significant for flexural strength. It is also observed that permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy nanocomposites is higher compared to Nanomer I.28E clay-epoxy nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that both clays retained their original chemical structure after the absorption-desorption cycle without undergoing significant changes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the fracture surfaces provide evidence that Somasif MAE clay particles offered very little resistance to crack propagation in case of redried specimens when compared to Nanomer I.28E counterpart. The reason for the observed higher extent of permanent degradation in Somasif MAE clay-epoxy system has been attributed to the weakening of the filler-matrix interface. PMID:27379285

  18. Epoxy-resin patterns speed shell-molding of aluminum parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Half patterns cast from commercial epoxy resin containing aluminum powder are used for shell-molding of aluminum parts. The half patterns are cast in plastic molds of the original wooden pattern. Ten serviceable sand resin molds are made from each epoxy pattern.

  19. 78 FR 4792 - Epoxy Polymer; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Epoxy Polymer; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of polymers of one or more diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A...- cyclohexane-dicarboxylic anhydride and 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride; also referred to as epoxy...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1850 - Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1850 Toluene sulfonamide bis-phe-nol A epoxy adduct. (a) Chemical... as toluene sulfonamide bisphenol A epoxy adduct (PMN P-90-113) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. Synthesis and properties of transparent cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins for opto-electronic devices packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Nan; Liu, WeiQu; Yan, ZhenLong; Wang, ZhengFang

    2013-01-01

    Cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were successfully synthesized through a two-step reaction route: (і) hydrosilylation of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) and 1,2-epoxy-4-vinyl-cyclohexane (VCMX), (іі) blocking of unreacted Sisbnd H in (і) with n-butanol. The molecular structures of the cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 29Si NMR). High grafting efficiencies of epoxy groups were confirmed by 1H NMR combined with weighting results, indicating over 90 mol% of cycloaliphatic epoxy were grafted on the silicone resins. Subsequently, Sisbnd H groups from TMCTS were almost totally consumed after the blocking reactions. In comparison with commercial available cycloaliphatic epoxy resin 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ERL-4221) cured by MHHPA, the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins exhibited better thermal stability, lower water absorption and higher UV/thermal resistance. Moreover, the characteristics of transmittance (>90%, 800 nm), 5 wt.% mass loss temperature (>330 °C) and no yellowing during thermal aging at 120 °C or UV aging for 288 h of the cured cycloaliphatic epoxy-silicone resins, made them possible for power light-emitting diode (LED) encapsulants, or other packaging materials, like optical lenses, and electronic sealings.

  5. New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Caroline; Fontaine, Gaëlle; Bourbigot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered. PMID:28883337

  6. Preparation, Characterization, and Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Titania Composites

    PubMed Central

    Rubab, Zakya; Siddiqi, Humaira M.; Saeed, Shaukat

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites. First, submicron titania particles are prepared via surfactant-free sol-gel method using TiCl4 as precursor. These particles are subsequently used as inorganic fillers (or reinforcement) for thermally cured epoxy polymers. Epoxy-titania composites are prepared via mechanical mixing of titania particles with liquid epoxy resin and subsequently curing the mixture with an aliphatic diamine. The amount of titania particles integrated into epoxy matrix is varied between 2.5 and 10.0 wt.% to investigate the effect of sub-micron titania particles on thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy-titania composites. These composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG), and mechanical analyses. It is found that sub-micron titania particles significantly enhance the glass transition temperature (>6.7%), thermal oxidative stability (>12.0%), tensile strength (>21.8%), and Young's modulus (>16.8%) of epoxy polymers. Epoxy-titania composites with 5.0 wt.% sub-micron titania particles perform best at elevated temperatures as well as under high stress. PMID:24578638

  7. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  8. Influences of Expanding Monomer on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    incorporating DNSOC ................................... 9 li 2. Tensile pro~perties of the neat r...s...........n...... 9 3. Mechanical properties ( carbon fiber composites )......................... 10...MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Carbon Fiber Composites Test Epoxy n 5% DNSOC-epoxy n FVF 67.9% FVF 58.6% (SD +1.5%) (.D +1.8%) KSI + SD KSI + SD (MPa + SD

  9. Properties of two composite materials made of toughened epoxy resin and high-strain graphite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, Marvin B.; Smith, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental evaluation of IM7/8551-7 and IM6/18081, two new toughened epoxy resin, high strain graphite fiber composite materials. Data include ply-level strengths and moduli, notched tension and compression strengths and compression-after-impact assessments. The measured properties are compared with those of other graphite-epoxy materials.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... thermo-setting epoxy resins. 177.2280 Section 177.2280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins. 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlo-rohydrin thermosetting epoxy resins may be safely used as articles or components...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... thermo-setting epoxy resins. 177.2280 Section 177.2280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins. 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlo-rohydrin thermosetting epoxy resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10209 - Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed... Epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of phenol-formaldehyde resin (generic... identified generically as epoxy terminated, hydrolyzed trialkoxysilane and glycidyl ether of...

  18. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... thermo-setting epoxy resins. 177.2280 Section 177.2280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins. 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlo-rohydrin thermosetting epoxy resins may be safely used as articles or components...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1283 - (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (Disparlure); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1283 (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane... is established for residues of (Z)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane on all food and feed crops that...