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Sample records for epp moks inga

  1. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  2. Direct EPP Affects on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant direct constituent changes in the mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HOx increases result in direct ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The NOx family has a considerably longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone directly, if produced in the stratosphere. Ozone decreases from the EPPs lead to a reduction in atmospheric heating and, subsequent atmospheric cooling. Conversely, EPPs can cause direct atmospheric heating through Joule heating. Measured HOx constituents OH and HO2 showed increases due to solar protons. Observed NOx constituents NO and NO2 were enhanced due to both solar protons and precipitating electrons. Other hydrogen- and nitrogen-ocntaining constituents were also measured to be directly influenced by EPPs, including N2O, HNO3, HO2NO2, N2OS, H2O2, ClONO2, HCl, and HOCl. Observed constituents ClO and CO were directly affected by EPPs as well. Many measurements indicated significant direct ozone decreases. A significant number of satellites housed instruments, which observed direct EPP-caused atmospheric effects, including Nimbus 4 (BUV), Nimbus 7 (SBUV), several NOAA platforms (SBUV/2), SME, UARS (HALOE, CLAES), SCISAT-1 (ACE-FTS), Odin (OSIRIS), Envisat-l (GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY), and Aura (MLS). Measurements by rockets and ground-based radar also indicated EPP direct

  3. Nuclear structure studies with INGA coupled to a fast DDAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, R.

    2014-08-14

    Studies of different types of nuclear excitation and isomers remain the main thrust area of the last experimental campaign using INGA at TIFR-BARC Pelletron Linac Facility at Mumbai. A digital data acquisition system has been coupled with the INGA which has improved the data throughput and better gain stability. About forty experiments that have been proposed in this experimental campaign. Selected results from these experiments will be discussed.

  4. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  5. INGAS: Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System for radioxenon measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost-Mohammadi, V.; Afarideh, H.; Etaati, G. R.; Safari, M. J.; Rouhi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) will be introduced. This system is based on beta-gamma coincidence technique and consists of a well-type NaI(Tl) as gamma or X radiation detector and a cylindrical plastic scintillator to detect beta or conversion electron. Standard NIM modules were utilized to detect coincidence events of detectors. Both the beta and gamma detectors were appropriately calibrated. The efficiency curve of gamma detector for volume geometry was obtained by comparing the results of gamma point sources measurements and simulations of GATE V7.0 Monte Carlo code. The performance of detection system was checked by injection of 222Rn and 131mXe gaseous source in the detection cell. The minimum detectable activity of the system for 133Xe is 1.240±0.024 mBq for 24 h measurement time.

  6. Factor Pattern Comparisons of EPPS Scales of High School, College, and Innovative College Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Paul W.; Ahern, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    EPPS scores from 167 high school seniors (Study 1, S1), 137 introductory psychology students (S2), and students from an innovative college program (S3) were compared using analysis of variance, image analysis, and factor pattern comparison. (Editor)

  7. 75 FR 20981 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program...

  8. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  9. Biology and occurrence of Inga Busk species (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) on Cerrado host plants.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Ivone R; Bernardes, Carolina; Rodovalho, Sheila; Morais, Helena C

    2007-01-01

    We sampled Inga Busk species caterpillars weekly in the cerrado on 15 plants of Diospyros burchellii Hern. (Ebenaceae) from January 2002 to December 2003, on 30 plants of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) from July 2003 to June 2004, and since 1991 on several other plant species. In total we found 15 species of Inga on cerrado host plants. Nine species were very rare, with only one to five adults reared. The other six species occurred throughout the year, with higher abundance during the dry season, from May to July, coinciding with overall peaks of caterpillar abundance in the cerrado. Caterpillars of the genus Inga build shelters by tying and lining two mature or old leaves with silk and frass, where they rest and develop (a common habit found in Oecophorinae). The final instar builds a special envelope inside the leaf shelter, where it will complete the larval stage and pupate. The species are very difficult to distinguish in the immature stages. External features were useful in identifying only four species: I. haemataula (Meyrick), I. phaecrossa (Meyrick), I. ancorata (Walsingham), and I. corystes (Meyrick). These four species are polyphagous and have wide geographical distributions. In this paper we provide information on the natural history and host plants of six Inga species common on cerrado host plants, for which there are no reports in the literature.

  10. Lutein epoxide cycle, light harvesting and photoprotection in species of the tropical tree genus Inga.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, G Heinrich; Seltmann, Martin; Virgo, Aurelio; Kursar, Thomas A; Jahns, Peter; Winter, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Dynamics and possible function of the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle, that is, the reversible conversion of Lx to lutein (L) in the light-harvesting antennae, were investigated in leaves of tropical tree species. Photosynthetic pigments were quantified in nine Inga species and species from three other genera. In Inga, Lx levels were high in shade leaves (mostly above 20 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll) and low in sun leaves. In Virola surinamensis, both sun and shade leaves exhibited very high Lx contents (about 60 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll). In Inga marginata grown under high irradiance, Lx slowly accumulated within several days upon transfer to deep shade. When shade leaves of I. marginata were briefly exposed to the sunlight, both violaxanthin and Lx were quickly de-epoxidized. Subsequently, overnight recovery occurred only for violaxanthin, not for Lx. In such leaves, containing reduced levels of Lx and increased levels of L, chlorophyll fluorescence induction showed significantly slower reduction of the photosystem II electron acceptor, Q(A), and faster formation as well as a higher level of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate that slow Lx accumulation in Inga leaves may improve light harvesting under limiting light, while quick de-epoxidation of Lx to L in response to excess light may enhance photoprotection.

  11. Entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS).

    PubMed

    Raymer, M G; Marcus, Andrew H; Widom, Julia R; Vitullo, Dashiell L P

    2013-12-12

    We introduce a new method, called entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS), to sensitively probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method incorporates a separated two-photon ('Franson') interferometer, which generates time-frequency-entangled photon pairs, into the framework of a fluorescence-detected 2D optical spectroscopic experiment. The entangled photons are temporally shaped and phase-modulated in the interferometer, and are used to excite a two-photon-absorbing (TPA) sample, whose excited-state population is selectively detected by simultaneously monitoring the sample fluorescence and the exciting fields. In comparison to 'classical' 2DFS techniques, major advantages of this scheme are the suppression of uncorrelated background signals, the enhancement of simultaneous time-and-frequency resolution, the suppression of diagonal 2D spectral features, and the enhancement and narrowing of off-diagonal spectral cross-peaks that contain information about electronic couplings. These effects are a consequence of the pure-state field properties unique to a parametric down-conversion light source, which must be included in the quantum mechanical description of the composite field-molecule system. We numerically simulate the EPP-2DFS observable for the case of an electronically coupled molecular dimer. The EPP-2DFS spectrum is greatly simplified in comparison to its classical 2D counterpart. Our results indicate that EPP-2DFS can provide previously unattainable resolution to extract model Hamiltonian parameters from electronically coupled molecular dimers.

  12. Intraspecific and interspecific polyploidy of Brazilian species of the genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, M F; Bruno, R L A; Barros e Silva, A E; Nascimento, S; Oliveira, I G; Felix, L P

    2014-04-29

    We investigated the karyotypes of 13 species of six sections of the genus Inga (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Brazil. We used conventional Giemsa staining to identify numerical chromosomal variations and looked for karyotypic evolutionary patterns. The karyotypes generally had small chromosomes, varying from metacentric to submetacentric, with a basic number x=13. Nine of the species showed 2n=2x=26 (I. thibaudiana, I. cayennensis, I. ingoides, I. edulis, I. vera, I. subnuda, I. striata, I. bollandii, and Inga sp), while 2n=4x=52 was seen in a population of Inga cylindrical and of I. capitata, and in five populations of I. laurina. Additionally, 2n=8x=104 was observed in a population of I. cayennensis. Eight of these counts were new, while the counts of 2n=52 for I. laurina and 2n=26 for I. marginata, I. vera, I. subnuda, and I. edulis confirmed previous studies. We did not find cytological stability among the sections studied, with occurrence of significant intra- and inter-specific numerical variations. We conclude that polyploidy has played a significant role in karyotypic evolution in this group and that it occurred independently in several sections of the genus.

  13. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri

    PubMed Central

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  14. Comprehensive Report For Proposed Elevated Temperature Elastic Perfectly Plastic (EPP) Code Cases Representative Example Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, Greg L.

    2014-06-01

    Background: The current rules in the nuclear section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code , Section III, Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200F (650C)1. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature 2, 3, and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. The revised code cases have been developed. Task Objectives: The goal of the Sample Problem task is to exercise these code cases through example problems to demonstrate their feasibility and, also, to identify potential corrections and improvements should problems be encountered. This will provide input to the development of technical background documents for consideration by the applicable B&PV committees considering these code cases for approval. This task has been performed by Hollinger and Pease of Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Nuclear Services Division and a report detailing the results of the E-PP analyses conducted on example problems per the procedures of the E-PP strain limits and creep-fatigue draft code cases is enclosed as Enclosure 1. Conclusions: The feasibility of the application of the E-PP code cases has been demonstrated through example problems that consist of realistic geometry (a nozzle attached to a semi-hemispheric shell with a circumferential weld) and load (pressure; pipe reaction load applied at the end of the nozzle, including axial and shear forces, bending and torsional moments; through-wall transient temperature gradient) and design and operating conditions (Levels A, B and C).

  15. FY16 Status Report on Development of Integrated EPP and SMT Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, R. I.; Sham, T. -L.; Wang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the Elastic-Perfectly Plastic (EPP) combined integrated creep-fatigue damage evaluation approach is to incorporate a Simplified Model Test (SMT) data based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid the separate evaluation of creep and fatigue damage and eliminate the requirement for stress classification in current methods; thus greatly simplifying evaluation of elevated temperature cyclic service. The EPP methodology is based on the idea that creep damage and strain accumulation can be bounded by a properly chosen “pseudo” yield strength used in an elastic-perfectly plastic analysis, thus avoiding the need for stress classification. The original SMT approach is based on the use of elastic analysis. The experimental data, cycles to failure, is correlated using the elastically calculated strain range in the test specimen and the corresponding component strain is also calculated elastically. The advantage of this approach is that it is no longer necessary to use the damage interaction, or D-diagram, because the damage due to the combined effects of creep and fatigue are accounted in the test data by means of a specimen that is designed to replicate or bound the stress and strain redistribution that occurs in actual components when loaded in the creep regime. The reference approach to combining the two methodologies and the corresponding uncertainties and validation plans are presented. Results from recent key feature tests are discussed to illustrate the applicability of the EPP methodology and the behavior of materials at elevated temperature when undergoing stress and strain redistribution due to plasticity and creep.

  16. Modeling the ferrochelatase c.315-48C modifier mutation for erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bansode, Vijay B.; Koentgen, Frank; Trüb, Judith; Pelczar, Pawel; Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; Minder, Elisabeth I.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), which incorporates iron into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to form heme. Excitation of accumulated PPIX by light generates oxygen radicals that evoke excessive pain and, after longer light exposure, cause ulcerations in exposed skin areas of individuals with EPP. Moreover, ∼5% of the patients develop a liver dysfunction as a result of PPIX accumulation. Most patients (∼97%) have a severe FECH mutation (Mut) in trans to an intronic polymorphism (c.315-48C), which reduces ferrochelatase synthesis by stimulating the use of an aberrant 3′ splice site 63 nt upstream of the normal site for exon 4. In contrast, with the predominant c.315-48T allele, the correct splice site is mostly used, and individuals with a T/Mut genotype do not develop EPP symptoms. Thus, the C allele is a potential target for therapeutic approaches that modify this splicing decision. To provide a model for pre-clinical studies of such approaches, we engineered a mouse containing a partly humanized Fech gene with the c.315-48C polymorphism. F1 hybrids obtained by crossing these mice with another inbred line carrying a severe Fech mutation (named m1Pas) show a very strong EPP phenotype that includes elevated PPIX in the blood, enlargement of liver and spleen, anemia, as well as strong pain reactions and skin lesions after a short period of light exposure. In addition to the expected use of the aberrant splice site, the mice also show a strong skipping of the partly humanized exon 3. This will limit the use of this model for certain applications and illustrates that engineering of a hybrid gene may have unforeseeable consequences on its splicing. PMID:28093505

  17. A simple microstructure return model explaining microstructure noise and Epps effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel simple microstructure model of financial returns that combines (i) the well-known ARFIMA process applied to tick-by-tick returns, (ii) the bid-ask bounce effect, (iii) the fat tail structure of the distribution of returns and (iv) the non-Poissonian statistics of inter-trade intervals. This model allows us to explain both qualitatively and quantitatively important stylized facts observed in the statistics of both microstructure and macrostructure returns, including the short-ranged correlation of returns, the long-ranged correlations of absolute returns, the microstructure noise and Epps effects. According to the microstructure noise effect, volatility is a decreasing function of the time-scale used to estimate it. The Epps effect states that cross correlations between asset returns are increasing functions of the time-scale at which the returns are estimated. The microstructure noise is explained as the result of the negative return correlations inherent in the definition of the bid-ask bounce component (ii). In the presence of a genuine correlation between the returns of two assets, the Epps effect is due to an average statistical overlap of the momentum of the returns of the two assets defined over a finite time-scale in the presence of the long memory process (i).

  18. EMG and EPP-integrated human-machine interface between the paralyzed and rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue H; Fan, Yuan J; Xu, Li D

    2012-07-01

    Although a lower extremity exoskeleton shows great prospect in the rehabilitation of the lower limb, it has not yet been widely applied to the clinical rehabilitation of the paralyzed. This is partly caused by insufficient information interactions between the paralyzed and existing exoskeleton that cannot meet the requirements of harmonious control. In this research, a bidirectional human-machine interface including a neurofuzzy controller and an extended physiological proprioception (EPP) feedback system is developed by imitating the biological closed-loop control system of human body. The neurofuzzy controller is built to decode human motion in advance by the fusion of the fuzzy electromyographic signals reflecting human motion intention and the precise proprioception providing joint angular feedback information. It transmits control information from human to exoskeleton, while the EPP feedback system based on haptic stimuli transmits motion information of the exoskeleton back to the human. Joint angle and torque information are transmitted in the form of air pressure to the human body. The real-time bidirectional human-machine interface can help a patient with lower limb paralysis to control the exoskeleton with his/her healthy side and simultaneously perceive motion on the paralyzed side by EPP. The interface rebuilds a closed-loop motion control system for paralyzed patients and realizes harmonious control of the human-machine system.

  19. Preliminary test results in support of integrated EPP and SMT design methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Sham, T. -L.

    2016-02-09

    The proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology consists of incorporating a SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid using the creep-fatigue interaction diagram (the D diagram) and to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed code rules and to verify their applicability, a series of thermomechanical tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The second test concept is the two-bar thermal ratcheting tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. This report summaries the previous SMT results on Alloy 617, SS316H and SS304H and presents the recent development on SMT approach on Alloy 617. These SMT specimen data are also representative of component loading conditions and have been used as part of the verification of the proposed integrated EPP and SMT design methods development. The previous two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on Alloy 617 and SS316H are also summarized and the new results from two bar thermal ratcheting tests on SS316H at a lower temperature range are reported.

  20. The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

    2015-05-01

    Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators.

  1. Ingasaponin, a complex triterpenoid saponin with immunological adjuvant activity from Inga laurina.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria de Fátima Simão Jucá; Pereira, Gabriela Moysés; Ribeiro, Marcela Gonçalves; da Silva, Ari Miranda; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2016-02-01

    As part of our search of bioactive saponins from Brazilian plants, phytochemical study of the seeds of Inga laurina led to the isolation of a new complex triterpenoid saponin, named ingasaponin. It is the first saponin isolated from a species of Inga genus. It was isolated by using chromatographic methods and its structural elucidation was performed using detailed analyses of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques and chemical conversions. Its structure was established as 21-[[(2E,6S)-6-[[6-deoxy-4-O-[(2E,6S)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]oxy]-16-hydroxy-3-[[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β,16α,21β)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1). The hemolytic potential of 1 was evaluated using in vitro assays, and its adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen was investigated using in vivo models.

  2. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, James A.; Pennington, R. Toby; Koenen, Erik J. M.; Hughes, Colin E.; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G.; Stone, Graham N.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2–10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  3. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  4. Elucidation of the structure of the oligosaccharide from wild type Moraxella bovis Epp63 lipooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Cristina; Grice, I Darren; Daal, Terese-Marie; Peak, Ian R; Molinaro, Antonio; Wilson, Jennifer C

    2014-03-31

    Moraxella bovis is a Gram-negative microorganism that causes Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), colloquially known as 'Pink eye' in cattle worldwide. Lipopolysaccharides/lipooligosaccharides are the predominant glycans on the surface of Gram-negative microorganisms. Structural elucidation of the oligosaccharide structure of the rough phenotype of Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined using GC-MS, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide is a branched structure that comprises 10 sugars in addition to KDO. The unusual features of this oligosaccharide include the fact that the oligosaccharide is devoid of heptose. The KDO residue is directly attached to a (→4,6)-branched glucose and additionally contains a terminal open chain acetal-linked N-acetylgalactosamine, (1S)-GalaNAc residue →4,6-linked to a sub-terminal galactose residue.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of ILTI, a Kunitz-Type Trypsin Inhibitor from Inga laurina (SW.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Taveira, Gabriel B; Gomes, Valdirene M; de Barros, Karina M C A; Maria-Neto, Simone

    2016-05-01

    Over the last few years, a growing number of proteinase inhibitors have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds and have shown antimicrobial activity. A 20,000 Da serine peptidase inhibitor, named ILTI, was isolated from Inga laurina seeds and showed potent inhibitory enzymatic activity against trypsin. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ILTI on the growth of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. We observed that ILTI strongly inhibited in particular the growth of Candida tropicalis and Candida buinensis, inducing cellular agglomeration. However, it was ineffective against human pathogenic bacteria. We also investigated the potential of ILTI to permeabilize the plasma membrane of yeast cells. C. tropicalis and C. buinensis were incubated for 24 h with the ILTI at different concentrations, which showed that this inhibitor induced changes in the membranes of yeast cells, leading to their permeabilization. Interestingly, ILTI induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. tropicalis and C. buinensis cells. Finally, ILTI was coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and subsequent treatment of C. tropicalis and C. buinensis with DAPI revealed the presence of the labeled protein in the intracellular spaces. In conclusion, our results indicated the ability of peptidase inhibitors to induce microbial inhibition; therefore, they might offer templates for the design of new antifungal agents.

  6. FY16 Progress Report on Test Results In Support Of Integrated EPP and SMT Design Methods Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Sham, T. -L.

    2016-08-08

    The proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology consists of incorporating an SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid using the creep-fatigue interaction diagram (the D diagram) and to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed code rules and to verify their applicability, a series of thermomechanical tests have been initiated. This report presents the recent test results for Type 2 SMT specimens on Alloy 617, Pressurization SMT on Alloy 617, Type 1 SMT on Gr. 91, and two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on Alloy 617 with a new thermal loading profile.

  7. Observation of 27 day solar cycles in the production and mesospheric descent of EPP-produced NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, K.; Megner, L.; Gumbel, J.; Siskind, D. E.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Tyssøy, H. Nesse; Hervig, M.

    2015-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region, and during the polar winter, NO can descend to stratospheric altitudes where it destroys ozone. In this paper, we study the general scenario, as opposed to a case study, of NO production in the thermosphere due to energetic particles in the auroral region. We first investigate the relationship between NO production and two geomagnetic indices. The analysis indicates that the auroral electrojet index is a more suitable proxy for EPP-produced NO than the typically used midlatitude Ap index. In order to study the production and downward transport of NO from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere, we perform superposed epoch analyses on NO observations made by the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment instrument on board the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite. The epoch analysis clearly shows the impact of the 27 day solar cycle on NO production. The effect is observed down to an altitude range of about 50 km to 65 km, depending on the hemisphere and the occurrence of stratospheric warmings. Initially, a rapid downward transport is noted during the first 10 days after EPP onset to an altitude of about 80-85 km, which is then followed by a slower downward transport of approximately 1-1.2 km/d to lower mesospheric altitudes in the order of 30 days.

  8. Dependence of the photoluminescence of Tl 2InGaS 4 layered crystal on temperature and excitation intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.; Serpengüzel, A.; Gürlü, O.; Aydınlı, A.; Yılmaz, İ.

    1998-10-01

    The emission band spectra of Tl 2InGaS 4 layered crystals were investigated in the 10-120 K temperature range and in the 540-860 nm wavelength range using photoluminescence (PL). The peak energy position of the emission band is located at 1.754 eV (707 nm) at 10 K. The emission band has a half-width of 0.28 eV and an asymmetric Gaussian lineshape. The increase of the half-width of the emission band, the blue shift of the emission band peak energy and the quenching of the PL with increasing temperature is explained using the configuration coordinate model. The blue shift of the emission band peak energy and the sublinear increase of the emission band intensity with increasing excitation intensity is explained using the inhomogenously spaced donor-acceptor pair recombination model.

  9. The foreign exchange market: return distributions, multifractality, anomalous multifractality and the Epps effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Rak, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    We present a systematic study of various statistical characteristics of high-frequency returns from the foreign exchange market. This study is based on six exchange rates forming two triangles: EUR-GBP-USD and GBP-CHF-JPY. It is shown that the exchange rate return fluctuations for all of the pairs considered are well described by the non-extensive statistics in terms of q-Gaussians. There exist some small quantitative variations in the non-extensivity q-parameter values for different exchange rates (which depend also on the time scales studied), and this can be related to the importance of a given exchange rate in the world's currency trade. Temporal correlations organize the series of returns such that they develop the multifractal characteristics for all of the exchange rates, with a varying degree of symmetry of the singularity spectrum f(α), however. The most symmetric spectrum is identified for the GBP/USD. We also form time series of triangular residual returns and find that the distributions of their fluctuations develop disproportionately heavier tails as compared to small fluctuations, which excludes description in terms of q-Gaussians. The multifractal characteristics of these residual returns reveal such anomalous properties as negative singularity exponents and even negative singularity spectra. Such anomalous multifractal measures have so far been considered in the literature in connection with diffusion-limited aggregation and with turbulence. Studying the cross-correlations among different exchange rates, we found that market inefficiency on short time scales leads to the occurrence of the Epps effect on much longer time scales, but comparable to the ones for the stock market. Although the currency market is much more liquid than the stock markets and has a much greater transaction frequency, the building up of correlations takes up to several hours—a duration that does not differ much from what is observed in the stock markets. This may suggest

  10. Rapid and sustained cognitive recovery in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by co-administration of EPPS and donepezil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin Vincent; Lee, Dongkeun K.; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Kim, YoungSoo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by sequential progression of pathological events, such as aggregation of amyloid-β proteins, followed by outward symptoms of cognitive impairments. Given that a combination of different therapeutic strategies often provides more rapid and effective outcomes in diverse areas of clinical treatment, we hypothesized that administration of anti-amyloid drugs with cognitive enhancers would result in synergistic effects in AD treatment. Here, we co-administered 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropane-sulphonic acid (EPPS), an amyloid-clearing chemical, and donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, to determine whether they could serve complementary roles for each other in regards to AD treatment. We found that oral administration of these two molecules led to a rapid and consistent cognitive improvement in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Although there was no evidence for synergistic effects, our results indicated that EPPS and donepezil function complementary to each other without altering their individual effects. Thus, the combined use of disease-modifying and symptomatic relief drugs may be a promising approach in the treatment of AD. PMID:27796293

  11. HEPPA-II model-measurement intercomparison project: EPP indirect effects during the dynamically perturbed NH winter 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Bernd; Ball, William; Bender, Stefan; Gardini, Angela; Harvey, V. Lynn; Lambert, Alyn; López-Puertas, Manuel; Marsh, Daniel R.; Meraner, Katharina; Nieder, Holger; Päivärinta, Sanna-Mari; Pérot, Kristell; Randall, Cora E.; Reddmann, Thomas; Rozanov, Eugene; Schmidt, Hauke; Seppälä, Annika; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Sukhodolov, Timofei; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Tsvetkova, Natalia D.; Verronen, Pekka T.; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Walker, Kaley A.; Yushkov, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    We compare simulations from three high-top (with upper lid above 120 km) and five medium-top (with upper lid around 80 km) atmospheric models with observations of odd nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2), temperature, and carbon monoxide from seven satellite instruments (ACE-FTS on SciSat, GOMOS, MIPAS, and SCIAMACHY on Envisat, MLS on Aura, SABER on TIMED, and SMR on Odin) during the Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar winter 2008/2009. The models included in the comparison are the 3-D chemistry transport model 3dCTM, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the modelling tools for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and CAO-SOCOL), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The comparison focuses on the energetic particle precipitation (EPP) indirect effect, that is, the polar winter descent of NOx largely produced by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A particular emphasis is given to the impact of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in January 2009 and the subsequent elevated stratopause (ES) event associated with enhanced descent of mesospheric air. The chemistry climate model simulations have been nudged toward reanalysis data in the troposphere and stratosphere while being unconstrained above. An odd nitrogen upper boundary condition obtained from MIPAS observations has further been applied to medium-top models. Most models provide a good representation of the mesospheric tracer descent in general, and the EPP indirect effect in particular, during the unperturbed (pre-SSW) period of the NH winter 2008/2009. The observed NOx descent into the lower mesosphere and stratosphere is generally reproduced within 20 %. Larger discrepancies of a few model simulations could be traced back either to the impact of the models' gravity wave drag scheme on the polar wintertime meridional circulation or

  12. The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) Project: A Longitudinal Study Funded by the DfEE, 1997-2003. Technical Papers 1-6a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    This document is comprised of six technical reports detailing the methods and findings of the first major study in the United Kingdom to focus on the effectiveness of early years education. The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education Project (EPPE) studies the progress and development of 3,000 children in various types of preschool and…

  13. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  14. Updates to the Spectrum/Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) model to estimate HIV trends for adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Stover, John; Brown, Tim; Marston, Milly

    2012-01-01

    Background The Spectrum and Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) programs are used to estimate key HIV indicators based on HIV surveillance and surveys, programme statistics and epidemic patterns. These indicators include the number of people living with HIV, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, the number of adults and children needing treatment, the need for preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and the impact of antiretroviral treatment on survival. Methods The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) Reference Group on Estimates, Models and Projections regularly reviews new data and information needs and recommends updates to the methodology and assumptions used in Spectrum. The latest updates described here were used in the 2011 round of global estimates. Results Spectrum and EPP have now been combined into one software package to enhance ease of use and ensure consistent data and assumptions for the curve fitting and indicator estimations. Major enhancements to the methods include a new adult model that tracks the HIV+ population by CD4 count; new patterns describing child survival by time of infection (perinatally, <6 months, 7–12 months and 12+ months after birth); a more detailed estimate of mother-to-child transmission that includes differential transmission rates by CD4 count of the mother, the effects of incident infections and new prophylaxis options; and new procedures to estimate uncertainty ranges around regional estimates. Conclusions The revised model and software facilitate the preparation of new HIV estimates and use new data to address emerging needs for better information on need for treatment among adults and children. PMID:23172341

  15. Growth responses and accumulation of soluble sugars in Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) subjected to flooding under contrasting light conditions.

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Capellesso, E S; Lottici, M E; Sentkovski, J; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Rosa, L M G; Sausen, T L

    2016-08-15

    Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.

  16. Seasonal variation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabiana B; de Aquino, Francisco J T; Nascimento, Evandro A; de M Martins, Carla; de Morais, Sérgio A L; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C S; Leandro, Luís F; Martins, Carlos H G; Martins, Mário M; da Silva, Claudio V; Machado, Fabrício C; de Oliveira, Alberto

    2014-04-11

    The seasonal chemical composition of essential oils from Inga laurina was determined by GC/MS. In the stem bark's essential oil extracted during the dry season, the presence of terpenoids (30.05%) stood out, and phytol (9.76%) was the major compound identified. For the stem bark oil obtained during the rainy season, in addition to terpenoids (26.63%), a large amount of fatty acids (46.84%) were identified, in particular palmitic acid (25.40%). Regarding the leaves' essential oil obtained in the dry season, esters (42.35%) were the main components. The main ester present was (Z)-hex-3-enyl benzoate (10.15%) and the major compound of this oil was (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (14.23%). Terpenoids (33.84%), long-chain alkanes (27.04%) and fatty acids (21.72%) were the main components of the essential oil from leaves in the rainy season. Phytol (33.21%), nonacosane (21.95%) and palmitic acid (15.20%) were the major compounds identified. The antimicrobial activity against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated by the microdilution broth method and cytotoxic activity was carried out with Vero cells. The essential oils from the rainy season showed a better inhibition of the bacterial growth with Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values of 25 or 50 µg·mL⁻¹ for aerobic bacteria, and high selectivity against bacteria was observed. The large amount of fatty acids in rainy season oils may be related to the better inhibitory effects observed.

  17. Genetic and Ecological Outcomes of Inga vera Subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) Tree Plantations in a Fragmented Tropical Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V.; Twyford, Alex D.; Neaves, Linda E.; Pennington, R. Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V.

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = −0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing. PMID:24932729

  18. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    PubMed

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  19. How detrimental are seed galls to their hosts? Plant performance, germination, developmental instability and tolerance to herbivory in Inga laurina, a leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Santos, J C; de Araujo, N A V; Venâncio, H; Andrade, J F; Alves-Silva, E; Almeida, W R; Carmo-Oliveira, R

    2016-11-01

    Gall inducers use these structures as shelters and sources of nutrition. Consequently, they cause multiple physiological changes in host plants. We studied the impact caused by seed coat galls of a braconid wasp on the performance of fruits, seeds and seedlings of tree Inga laurina. We tested whether these seed galls are 'nutrient sinks' with respect to the fruit/seed of host plant, and so constrain the reproductive ability and reduce seedling longevity. We measured the influence of such galls on the secondary compounds, fruit and seed parameters, seed viability and germination and seedling performance. Inga laurina has indehiscent legumes with polyembryonic seeds surrounded by a fleshy sarcotesta rich in sugars. The galls formed inside the seed coat and galled tissues presented higher phenol concentrations, around 7-fold that of ungalled tissues. Galls caused a significant reduction in parameters such as fruit and seed size, seed weight and the number of embryos. Fluctuating asymmetry (a stress indicator) was 31% higher in leaves of galled seed plants in comparison to ungalled seed plants. However, the negative effects on fruit and seed parameters were not sufficient to reduce seed germination (except the synchronization index) or seedling performance (except leaf area and chlorophyll content). We attributed these results to the ability of I. laurina to tolerate gall attack on seeds without a marked influence on seedling performance. Moreover, because of the intensity of seed galling on host plant, we suggest that polyembryony may play a role in I. laurina reproduction increasing tolerance to seed damage.

  20. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment.

  1. Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) or Protoporphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin may appear during or after exposure to sunlight, including sunlight that passes through window glass. This can cause ... who will be affected). Treatment and Management 1. Sunlight protection Protection from sunlight is the mainstay of ...

  2. Inga Fischer-Hjalmars (1918-2008): Swedish Pharmacist, Humanist, and Pioneer Quantum Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Adam Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of questions can be asked about the molecules that compose the physical reality around us and constitute biological life. Some of these questions are answered by the science called biology, others find their answer in chemistry, whereas the answers to the most fundamental questions are only to be found in the theories of physics.…

  3. 78 FR 27188 - Proposed Information Collection-Renewal; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... support of the scholarship application by academic professors/advisors. NOAA OEd student scholar alumni... Number of Respondents: 3,004. Estimated Time per Response: Student and Performance Measures Tracking... become a matter of public record. Dated: May 3, 2013. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst, Office of...

  4. Active and Progressive Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Using Multisource Information Fusion From EMG and Force-Position EPP.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanjie; Yin, Yuehong

    2013-12-01

    Although exoskeletons have received enormous attention and have been widely used in gait training and walking assistance in recent years, few reports addressed their application during early poststroke rehabilitation. This paper presents a healthcare technology for active and progressive early rehabilitation using multisource information fusion from surface electromyography and force-position extended physiological proprioception. The active-compliance control based on interaction force between patient and exoskeleton is applied to accelerate the recovery of the neuromuscular function, whereby progressive treatment through timely evaluation contributes to an effective and appropriate physical rehabilitation. Moreover, a clinic-oriented rehabilitation system, wherein a lower extremity exoskeleton with active compliance is mounted on a standing bed, is designed to ensure comfortable and secure rehabilitation according to the structure and control requirements. Preliminary experiments and clinical trial demonstrate valuable information on the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the progressive exoskeleton-assisted training.

  5. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinícius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  6. Antimicrobial Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF) Containing Biocellulose Membranes as Promising Biomaterial for Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Barud, Hernane da Silva; de Araújo Júnior, Adalberto Miguel; Saska, Sybele; Mestieri, Letícia Boldrin; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Gaspar, Ana Maria Minarelli; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Among remarkable discoveries concerning propolis, such as antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, its anti-inflammatory, and mainly its antibacterial, properties deserve special attention when skin wound healing is concerned. Based on this and knowing the distinctive performance of bacterial (BC) membranes on wound healing, in this work it is proposed to demonstrate the potent antimicrobial activity and wound healing properties of a novel propolis containing biocellulose membrane. The obtained propolis/BC membrane was able to adsorb propolis not only on the surface, but also in its interstices demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravidimetric assays. Additionally, the polyphenolic compounds determination and the prominent antibacterial activity in the membrane are demonstrated to be dose dependent, supporting the possibility of obtaining propolis/BC membranes at the desired concentrations, taking into consideration its application and its skin residence time. Finally, it could be suggested that propolis/BC membrane may favor tissue repair in less time and more effectively in contaminated wounds.

  7. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-09-03

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients' full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs.

  8. Antimicrobial Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF) Containing Biocellulose Membranes as Promising Biomaterial for Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Barud, Hernane da Silva; de Araújo Júnior, Adalberto Miguel; Saska, Sybele; Mestieri, Letícia Boldrin; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Gaspar, Ana Maria Minarelli; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima

    2013-01-01

    Among remarkable discoveries concerning propolis, such as antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, its anti-inflammatory, and mainly its antibacterial, properties deserve special attention when skin wound healing is concerned. Based on this and knowing the distinctive performance of bacterial (BC) membranes on wound healing, in this work it is proposed to demonstrate the potent antimicrobial activity and wound healing properties of a novel propolis containing biocellulose membrane. The obtained propolis/BC membrane was able to adsorb propolis not only on the surface, but also in its interstices demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravidimetric assays. Additionally, the polyphenolic compounds determination and the prominent antibacterial activity in the membrane are demonstrated to be dose dependent, supporting the possibility of obtaining propolis/BC membranes at the desired concentrations, taking into consideration its application and its skin residence time. Finally, it could be suggested that propolis/BC membrane may favor tissue repair in less time and more effectively in contaminated wounds. PMID:23840264

  9. 78 FR 48417 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP), Ernest F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing... Clearance Officer, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC...

  10. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  11. Band-Gap Design of Quaternary (In,Ga) (As,Sb) Semiconductors via the Inverse-Band-Structure Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Piquini, P.; Graf, P. A.; Zunger. A.

    2008-01-01

    Quaternary systems illustrated by (Ga,In)(As,Sb) manifest a huge configurational space, offering in principle the possibility of designing structures that are lattice matched to a given substrate and have given electronic properties (e.g., band gap) at more than one composition. Such specific configurations were however, hitherto, unidentified. We show here that using a genetic-algorithm search with a pseudopotential Inverse-band-structure (IBS) approach it is possible to identify those configurations that are naturally lattice matching (to GaSb) and have a specific band gap (310 meV) at more than one composition. This is done by deviating from randomness, allowing the IBS to find a partial atomic ordering. This illustrates multitarget design of the electronic structure of multinary systems.

  12. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  13. American Porphyria Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make things better gives you peace of mind, makes you realize we are not alone in this world." ~ Drew Garrett, EPP "APF has helped me to further understand EPP as well as invested time in my situation through their clinical studies." ~ Arthur Shull, EPP "The APF has been an ...

  14. Good Afternoon, Sunshine! Protecting Children from Ultraviolet Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certo, Delaine

    1996-01-01

    Notes caregivers' responsibility to protect children from too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the potential for melanoma. Provides suggestions on how to prevent children from sunburn and skin cancer, including the proper way to apply sunscreen. (MOK)

  15. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  16. Erikson and Early Childhood Educators: Looking at Ourselves and Our Profession Developmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Erikson's theory of developmentally appropriate curriculum and the eight stages of the life cycle. Provides brief descriptions of these stages and some possible professional applications that early childhood educators can use in pursuing professional development. (MOK)

  17. On Blocks and Broccoli: How to Organize Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Compares the organization of supermarkets to classroom environments. Emphasizes the efficient use of space with the use of containers, keeping materials in place, and grouping objects together. Provides suggestions on the use of color and adding storage space. (MOK)

  18. Electromagnetic Analysis For The Design Of ITER Diagnostic Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y

    2014-03-03

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to plasma. The design of diagnotic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate response of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs). Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  19. Erythropoietic protoporphyria without skin symptoms-you do not always see what they feel

    PubMed Central

    Lecluse, Anne L. Y.; van Weelden, Huib; Sigurdsson, Vigfus; Russel, Ingrid M.; Frank, Jorge; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of the porphyrin metabolism that often remains undiagnosed in children. We report on a 4-year-old girl who had been suffering for 1 year from recurrent painful crises affecting her hands, feet, and nose following sun exposure. Objective skin lesions were absent until the age of 6. Porphyrin analysis revealed elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels confirming the diagnosis of EPP. This illustrates that skin lesions might be completely absent in children affected with EPP, a fact that has only been reported once previously. Because EPP can manifest with few and unspecific cutaneous symptoms or no skin lesions at all, like in this patient, the diagnosis of EPP might be delayed or missed. EPP should be excluded in all photosensitive children, especially when discomfort is disproportionate to the extent of the cutaneous lesions. The clinic, pathophysiology, diagnosis, complications, and therapy of EPP are discussed. PMID:17710435

  20. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees.

  1. Cleaning Products Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 1997 case study documents a three-year effort to identify and compare environmentally preferable commercial cleaning products and to implement the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP).

  2. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  3. The Teaching of the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educator Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Marvin; Thompson, J. Ray; Templeton, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative research study was to answer three basic informational questions: (1) To what extent ethics training, as stipulated in Texas Administrative Code Chapter 247, was included in the EPP curriculum; (2) To what extent Texas public universities with approved EPP programs provided faculty opportunities for…

  4. Educational Partnerships Program: Analysis of Project Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzberger, Jacqueline P.

    An eight-part descriptive analysis is presented of the 18 projects funded through OERI's Educational Partnerships Program (EPP) in September of 1990. The EPP supports alliances between public schools and/or higher education and the private sector to encourage excellence in education. The 18 projects include: Anchorage Vocational Academic Institute…

  5. Systematic analysis of molecular defects in the ferrochelatase gene from patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed Central

    Rüfenacht, U B; Gouya, L; Schneider-Yin, X; Puy, H; Schäfer, B W; Aquaron, R; Nordmann, Y; Minder, E I; Deybach, J C

    1998-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP; MIM 177000) is an inherited disorder caused by partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), the last enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. In EPP patients, the FECH deficiency causes accumulation of free protoporphyrin in the erythron, associated with a painful skin photosensitivity. In rare cases, the massive accumulation of protoporphyrin in hepatocytes may lead to a rapidly progressive liver failure. The mode of inheritance in EPP is complex and can be either autosomal dominant with low clinical penetrance, as it is in most cases, or autosomal recessive. To acquire an in-depth knowledge of the genetic basis of EPP, we conducted a systematic mutation analysis of the FECH gene, following a procedure that combines the exon-by-exon denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis screening of the FECH genomic DNA and direct sequencing. Twenty different mutations, 15 of which are newly described here, have been characterized in 26 of 29 EPP patients of Swiss and French origin. All the EPP patients, including those with liver complications, were heterozygous for the mutations identified in the FECH gene. The deleterious effect of all missense mutations has been assessed by bacterial expression of the respective FECH cDNAs generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutations leading to a null allele were a common feature among three EPP pedigrees with liver complications. Our systematic molecular study has resulted in a significant enlargement of the mutation repertoire in the FECH gene and has shed new light on the hereditary behavior of EPP. PMID:9585598

  6. The Dependency Axiom and the Relation between Agreement and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares Scarcerieau, Carlo Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Agreement and movement go hand in hand in a number of constructions across languages, and this correlation has played an important role in syntactic theory. The current standard approach to this "movement-agreement connection" is the Agree+EPP model, whose EPP component has often been questioned on conceptual grounds. The goal of this…

  7. Early Identification of Special Educational Needs and the Definition of "At Risk": The Early Years Transition and Special Educational Needs (EYTSEN) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Brenda; Sammons, Pam; Smees, Rebecca; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Elliot, Karen; Lunt, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    Education in the early years is a key element in the Government's current strategy. Recently, the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) funded a major study of Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE). The Early Years Transition and Special Educational Needs (EYTSEN) Project developed from the EPPE research and was also funded by…

  8. Extrapair paternity rates vary with latitude and elevation in emberizid sparrows.

    PubMed

    Bonier, Frances; Eikenaar, Cas; Martin, Paul R; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems can vary among species and populations and thus influence evolutionary trajectories, ecological traits, and population demography. The siring of offspring by an extrapair male, or extrapair paternity (EPP), is a widespread and varied phenomenon in all vertebrate classes. However, we do not understand all of the factors associated with variation in EPP rates. The breeding synchrony hypothesis suggests that EPP rates should increase with latitude and elevation, whereas the paternal care hypothesis predicts that EPP rates should decrease with elevation. To address these hypotheses, we investigated how population EPP rates vary over elevation and latitude in emberizid sparrows. In comparative analyses including the effects of phylogeny, the relationship between EPP rates and elevation depended on latitude. EPP rates were greater in higher-latitude populations. But within higher-latitude populations, EPP rates decreased with increasing elevation. These findings provide support for both the breeding synchrony and paternal care hypotheses, suggesting that in lower-latitude, higher-elevation populations, the need for male parental care does not outweigh the benefits of seeking extrapair fertilizations in populations with relatively synchronous breeding. In contrast, at higher-latitude, higher-elevation sites, the need for male parental care is greater and might drive lower rates of extrapair mating despite highly synchronous breeding.

  9. USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 3199): A Legal Analysis of the Conference Bill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-17

    and international commerce in three methamphetamine precursor chemicals: ephedrine , pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine (EPP); increased...defines a “scheduled listed chemicals product” as one “that contains ephedrine , pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine” and “may be marketed or...of cold remedies containing ephedrine , pseudoephedrine or phenlypropanolamine (EPP) — methamphetamine precursors — in packages containing less than 3

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of E-Learning and Traditional Pedagogical Process Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavpotic, Damjan; Zvanut, Bostjan; Trobec, Irena

    2013-01-01

    In modern pedagogical processes various teaching methods and approaches (elements of the pedagogical process -- EPPs) are used ranging from traditional ones (e.g., lectures, books) to more recent ones (e.g., e-discussion boards, e-quizzes). Different models for evaluation of the appropriateness of EPPs have been proposed in the past. However, the…

  11. Ear Playing and Aural Development in the Instrumental Lesson: Results from a "Case-Control" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David; Green, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a case-control experiment that was conducted in 2012 as part of the Ear Playing Project (EPP) at the Institute of Education, University of London. The EPP developed from the "informal learning" strand of Musical Futures and engaged instrumental students in the UK in learning from specially-created audio recordings…

  12. Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro; Funke, Bernd; Santee, Michelle L.; Cordero, Raul R.; Watanabe, Shingo

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic activity is thought to affect ozone and, possibly, climate in polar regions via energetic particle precipitation (EPP) but observational evidence of its importance in the seasonal stratospheric ozone variation on long time scales is still lacking. Here we fill this gap by showing that at high southern latitudes, late winter ozone series, covering the 1979-2014 period, exhibit an average stratospheric depletion of about 10-15% on a monthly basis caused by EPP. Daily observations indicate that every austral winter EPP-induced low ozone concentrations appear at about 45 km in late June and descend later to 30 km, before disappearing by September. Such stratospheric variations are coupled with mesospheric ozone changes also driven by EPP. No significant correlation between these ozone variations and solar ultraviolet irradiance has been found. This suggests the need of including the EPP forcing in both ozone model simulations and trend analysis.

  13. Glutamic acid promotes monacolin K production and monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Chai, Shiyuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l(-1), monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction. Our findings demonstrated that mokA was not a key gene responsible for the quantity of monacolin K production in the presence of glutamic acid. Observation of Monascus mycelium morphology using Scanning Electron Microscope showed glutamic acid significantly increased the content of Monascus mycelium, altered the permeability of Monascus mycelium, enhanced secretion of monacolin K from the cell, and reduced the monacolin K content in Monascus mycelium, thereby enhancing monacolin K production.

  14. Development of microsatellite markers of vandaceous orchids for species and variety identification.

    PubMed

    Peyachoknagul, S; Nettuwakul, C; Phuekvilai, P; Wannapinpong, S; Srikulnath, K

    2014-07-24

    Vandaceous orchids are a group of orchid genera in the subfamily Vandoideae. Among this group, Mokara, Phalaenopsis, and Vanda are the most popular and commercially important orchids in Thailand. Novel microsatellite markers were developed from Mokara, the intergeneric hybrid from 3 genera Vanda, Ascocentrum, and Arachnis by using enriched method. Six primers from this study plus one primer previously developed from Vanda genome, a total of 7 markers, were selected to characterize 4 orchid genera (Mokara, Vanda, Rhynchostylis, and Ascocenda). The observed and expected heterozygosities varied in the 4 genera from 0.0000-1.0000 and 0.0000-0.8765, respectively. The transferability of these primers was also investigated in 76 vandaceous orchids from 12 genera. Three primer pairs, MOK26, MOK29, and MOK62, could successfully amplify the DNA of all samples, while MOK103 could be used with most of the samples. The total number of alleles from 76 samples ranged from 3 to 19 alleles per locus, with an average of 8.5714. Therefore, these markers could be used for variety/ species identification, certification and protection, genetic diversity, and evolutionary studies.

  15. Quality Assurance in Private Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The economic modernization drive of the 21st century has not only fostered the growth of a market economy but has also created the need for a structural change in education (Zha, 2006). Mok (2009) explains that when the Chinese government realized that the state alone could not keep up with the increasing demand for higher education, it allowed…

  16. A Rite of Passage Approach Designed to Preserve the Families of Substance-Abusing African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitier, Vanesta L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a rite-of-passage approach to the treatment of addicted African American women drawn from traditional African culture. Claims that the best way to work with families to recover sobriety and cultural knowledge is through value orientations drawn from African wisdom. (MOK)

  17. A Note on "The Longitudinal Structure of Earnings Losses among Work-Limited Disabled Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Wallace K. C.; Meyer, Bruce D.; Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Achen, Alexandra C.

    2008-01-01

    Charles (2003) examines the dynamic effects of disability, finding a small decline in earnings and hours following disability onset, even for those who have positive disability reports for each of the next ten years. These outcomes also rebound quickly after the onset of disability. In recent work, Meyer and Mok (2006), find a much larger loss in…

  18. 75 FR 36516 - Addition and Removal of Certain Persons on the Entity List: Addition of Persons Acting Contrary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... (ROIC) wafers to Electronic Components Industries (ECI) of Iran. Fang Yu and Xi'an Xiangyu Aviation.... Sdn Bhd; Austral Aviation Corp.; Jimmy Tok; Mok Chin Fan, a.k.a., Chong Chen Fah; Leigh Michau; Q-SPD...., Chuangye Building 7/1F, 1197 Bin'An Road, Binjiang, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310052, China; and (3) Xi'an...

  19. Preparing Your Classroom for a Great Fall!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dora

    1996-01-01

    Suggests a timeline and activities for early childhood educators to plan for a new school year. Provides a sample meeting agenda, teacher to-do list, classroom readiness checklist, a rules and expectations list for students, a substitute teacher packet checklist, and a list of things to do for the first week of class. (MOK)

  20. Hundreds of Ladybugs, Thousands of Ladybugs, Millions and Billions and Trillions of Ladybugs--and a Couple of Roaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Kelly

    1996-01-01

    Claims that children have a natural curiosity for their environment. Describes children's interaction and involvement in an activity with different kinds of insects in a Head Start classroom. Encourages parents to allow children to investigate without being too preoccupied with concerns for order or cleanliness. (MOK)

  1. Evidence that Bacterial ABC-Type Transporter Imports Free EDTA for Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Herman, Jacob P.; Bolton, Harvey; Zhang, Zhicheng; Clark, Sue B.; Xun, Luying

    2007-11-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common chelating agent, is becoming a major organic pollutant in the form of metal-EDTA complexes in surface waters, partly due to its recalcitrance to biodegradation. Even an EDTA-degrading bacterium BNC1 does not degrade stable metal-EDTA complexes. An ABC-type transporter was identified for possible uptake of EDTA because the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene were expressed in a single operon in BNC1. The ABC-type transporter had a periplasmic binding protein (EppA) that should confer the substrate specificity for the transporter; therefore, EppA was produced in Escherichia coli,purified, and characterized. EppA was shown to bind free EDTA with a dissociation constant as low as 25 nM by using isothermal titration calorimetry. When unstable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. MgEDTA2-, were added to the EppA solution, binding was also observed. However, experimental data and theoretical analysis only supported EppA binding of free EDTA. When stable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. CuEDTA2-, are titrated into the EppA solution, no binding was observed. Since EDTA monooxygenase in the cytoplasm uses some of the stable metal-EDTA complexes as substrates, we suggest that the lack of EppA binding and EDTA uptake are responsible for the failure of BNC1 cells to degrade the stable complexes.

  2. Energetic particle precipitation effects on the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere observed by LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, L.; Funke, B.; Stiller, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the upper atmosphere contributes to polar stratospheric enhancements of NOx. The first experimental evidence of this emerged when the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) observed stratospheric NOx enhancements during the Arctic winter of 1978/79. Such enhancements have since been observed on numerous occasions, but until recently were much less obvious in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. It is now understood that the magnitude of these stratospheric NOx enhancements depends on both the level of EPP and dynamical conditions. Three out of the last six Arctic winters have seen much larger than average polar stratospheric NOx enhancements due to EPP that have been attributed to extraordinary meteorological events. These are unique events on record and affirm that even with low levels of EPP, the stratosphere can still be influenced to a large degree by EPP. In this study, data from the LIMS instrument is revisited in order to understand the NOx enhancement it observed with respect to meteorological conditions and EPP activity. The temporal evolution of NOx in the polar vortex as measured by LIMS is compared to more recent satellite data, including the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument. Preliminary results indicate that the enhancements are caused neither by elevated EPP nor unusual dynamical conditions, but rather are seen because of the ability of LIMS to observe in the polar night.

  3. Tests of spatial and temporal factors influencing extra-pair paternity in red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Westneat, David F; Mays, Herman L

    2005-06-01

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is a widespread and highly variable reproductive phenomenon in birds. We tested the effects of habitat, spatial factors, and timing of breeding on the occurrence of EPP in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). We used PCR-amplified microsatellites to assess the paternity of 1479 nestlings from 537 broods on 235 territories over four breeding seasons. Over 4 years, 40% of nestlings were extra-pair. At least 27% of actual sires were non-neighbours, suggesting that males or females interacted over longer distances than in other populations of red-winged blackbirds. The level of EPP was significantly clumped within broods and males but not within females across broods. EPP was negatively related to the area of a male's territory. The spatial proximity of a female's nest to the territory boundary had no effect on total EPP, but tended to increase the probability of an EPP by a nearby male. We found no influence on EPP of the type of habitat on the territory or the level of nesting activity nearby. The time in the season when a nest was started and the synchrony of breeding also had no significant effect on the level of EPP. The age of the male, the age of his neighbours, and the interaction between the two had no effect on total EPP. However, older males were less likely to have an offspring sired by a neighbour on their territory. Males with older neighbours were also less likely to have offspring sired by a neighbour, particularly if they were new territory owners. The high variability in who gained and lost paternity, and the limited impact of spatial and temporal factors influencing it, have some interesting implications for theories seeking to explain mating patterns.

  4. A fast one-chip event-preprocessor and sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present an FPGA-based digital camera electronics consisting of an Event-Preprocessor (EPP) for on-board data preprocessing and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout of the detector. The device has been originally designed for the Simbol-X low energy detector (LED). The EPP operates on 64×64 pixel images and has a real-time processing capability of more than 8000 frames per second. The already working releases of the EPP and the SEQ are now combined into one Digital-Camera-Controller-Chip (D3C).

  5. Inhibition of Xenobiotic-Degrading Hydrolases by Organophosphinates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    of malathion hydrolysis and the effect of EPP was performed with rabbit liver oligomeric carboxylesterase (from A. R. Main). After 10 min incubation...of 7.6x10- mM carboxylesterase with 0.067 mM EPP, malathion was added to a final concentration of 0.82 mM. The buffer was 0.10 M MOPS, pH 7.5, and the...water pumped at 1.0 ml/min. Malathion and EPP were detected at 205 nm by the Micro- meritics 788 variable wavelength ultraviolet detector and the chromato

  6. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well.

  7. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breathe. Fast treatment with a medicine called epinephrine (say: "epp-in-eff-rin") can save your ... your doctor might give you a prescription for epinephrine self-injection pens. Your doctor can show you ...

  8. 75 FR 69160 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Rachel Bonnet Servane Michele Borer Robert Chamberlain Bourguignon Monique J. Bourguignon Patrick H... Edward Engle Colin Mckinley ] Epp Matthias Epstein Joshua P. Eslampour Robert Esterhuizen Femmy W... Joseph Robert Gonzales Marc Daniel Goodman Jeffrey H. Graebert Astric Laurence Graziano Mylene...

  9. Qualitative Measurement of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Among Federal Employees in 2000

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) program is mandated by Executive Order 13101 to green the federal government. This was a study to determine federal attitudes.

  10. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA. Because the Colombia FTA construction threshold of $7,777,000... ``Colombia FTA, Chile FTA,'' and adding ``Chile FTA, Colombia FTA,'' in its place. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  11. The Personnel Assessment Center: An Aid in the Selection of Personnel for Cross Cultural Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    75 1. Culture Shock ----------------------------- 76 a. Cultural Self-Awareness --------------- 79 b. Cultura " Sensitivity...instruments reviewed by Pfeiffer and Heslin is the Edwards ?ersonal Preference Schedule (EPPS) which measures fifteen primary need scales. Of the EPPS the...had absent fathers. Fi 159 • k -- rvL. . r i . n . . ~ ~ - - -rz r.’.. Taylor , 1968. Population: New Zealand volunteers serving abroad (613). Criteria

  12. Molecular detection of common intestinal parasites: a performance evaluation of the BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel.

    PubMed

    Batra, R; Judd, E; Eling, J; Newsholme, W; Goldenberg, S D

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) with microscopy for the detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in stool samples. A total of 372 stool samples (partly collected on the basis of positive microscopy and partly unselected, consecutive sample submitted for parasite investigation) were tested with EPP according to manufacturer's instructions and also using microscopy according to standard techniques. Discrepant samples were further tested using PCR by the National Parasitology reference laboratory. Levels of agreement and laboratory turnaround times were measured and compared. Overall, positive and negative percent agreement was high between the two methods. However, microscopy resulted in four false positives and one false negative for G. duodenalis and two false positives for Cryptosporidium. Additionally, microscopy could not differentiate between E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Median laboratory turnaround time was 65 hours for microscopy; results from EPP could be available after four hours. Blastocycstis hominis was detected by microscopy in one sample and would have been missed if only EPP was performed. The EPP was a good alternative to microscopy, detecting a small number of additional positives that were missed by microscopy. The assay is significantly faster than microscopy and allows laboratory workflows to be streamlined. The risk of missing parasites that are not included in the EPP appears to be minimal in the studied population; however, there may be certain patient groups who would benefit from microscopic examination of stools.

  13. PICKLE is a repressor in seedling de-etiolation pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanjun; Lin, Rongcheng

    2013-08-01

    Light plays a vital role in seedling de-etiolation during which it remarkably inhibits hypocotyl growth and promotes cotyledon opening and the synthesis of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. After light perception, photoreceptors act to repress two main branches of the light signaling, PIFs and COP1-HY5. We recently identified PKL/EPP1, a chromatin remodeling factor, as a new component in regulating light-mediated hypocotyl growth. In this study, we found that EPP1 acts additively with SPA1 to repress seedling de-etiolation. Moreover, the expression of EPP1 is downregulated specifically in the hypocotyl region of the cop1 mutant compared with that of the wild type. We further found that EPP1 drastically inhibits both the protein and transcript levels of HY5, but not vice versa, indicating that HY5 acts downstream of EPP1. We thus propose a model in which EPP1 defines a new repressor and mediates a distinct signaling pathway of photomorphogenesis.

  14. Dynamics of adsorbed polymers on attractive homogeneous surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Hui; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic behaviors of polymer chains adsorbed on an attractive, homogeneous surface are studied by using dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. The translational diffusion coefficient Dxy parallel to the surface decreases as the intra-polymer attraction strength EPP or the polymer-surface attraction strength EPS increases. The rotational relaxation time τR increases with EPS, but the dependence of τR on EPP is dependent on the adsorption state of the polymer. We find that τR decreases with increasing EPP for a partially adsorbed polymer but it increases with EPP for a fully adsorbed polymer. Scaling relations Dxy ~ N−α and τR ~ Nβ are found for long polymers. The scaling exponent α is independent of EPS for long polymers but increases with EPP from α = 1.06 at EPP = 0. While β ≈ 2.7 is also roughly independent of EPS for the adsorbed polymer at EPP = 0, but β increases with EPS at EPP > 0. Moreover, we find that β always decreases with increasing EPP. Our results reveal different effects of the attractive surface on the diffusion and rotation of adsorbed polymers. PMID:27849002

  15. Dispersal assembly of rain forest tree communities across the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Kyle G; Lavin, Mathew; Torke, Benjamin M; Twyford, Alex D; Kursar, Thomas A; Coley, Phyllis D; Drake, Camila; Hollands, Ruth; Pennington, R Toby

    2017-02-17

    We investigate patterns of historical assembly of tree communities across Amazonia using a newly developed phylogeny for the species-rich neotropical tree genus Inga We compare our results with those for three other ecologically important, diverse, and abundant Amazonian tree lineages, Swartzia, Protieae, and Guatteria Our analyses using phylogenetic diversity metrics demonstrate a clear lack of geographic phylogenetic structure, and show that local communities of Inga and regional communities of all four lineages are assembled by dispersal across Amazonia. The importance of dispersal in the biogeography of Inga and other tree genera in Amazonian and Guianan rain forests suggests that speciation is not driven by vicariance, and that allopatric isolation following dispersal may be involved in the speciation process. A clear implication of these results is that over evolutionary timescales, the metacommunity for any local or regional tree community in the Amazon is the entire Amazon basin.

  16. A semi-empirical model for mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Bernd; López-Puertas, Manuel; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The MIPAS Fourier transform spectrometer on board Envisat has measured global distributions of the six principal reactive nitrogen (NOy) compounds (HNO3, NO2, NO, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4) during 2002-2012. These observations were used previously to detect regular polar winter descent of reactive nitrogen produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) down to the lower stratosphere, often called the EPP indirect effect. It has further been shown that the observed fraction of NOy produced by EPP (EPP-NOy) has a nearly linear relationship with the geomagnetic Ap index when taking into account the time lag introduced by transport. Here we exploit these results in a semi-empirical model for computation of EPP-modulated NOy densities and wintertime downward fluxes through stratospheric and mesospheric pressure levels. Since the Ap dependence of EPP-NOy is distorted during episodes of strong descent in Arctic winters associated with elevated stratopause events, a specific parameterization has been developed for these episodes. This model accurately reproduces the observations from MIPAS and is also consistent with estimates from other satellite instruments. Since stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions lead to changes in stratospheric ozone with possible implications for climate, the model presented here can be utilized in climate simulations without the need to incorporate many thermospheric and upper mesospheric processes. By employing historical geomagnetic indices, the model also allows for reconstruction of the EPP indirect effect since 1850. We found secular variations of solar cycle-averaged stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions on the order of 1 GM. In particular, we model a reduction of the EPP-NOy deposition rate during the last 3 decades, related to the coincident decline of geomagnetic activity that corresponds to 1.8 % of the NOy production rate by N2O oxidation. As the decline of the geomagnetic activity level is expected to continue in the coming decades, this is

  17. Risk for Sporadic Breast Cancer in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygotes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    4) have not been determined. pression has been found in tumors of breast, neuroblastoma, lung, esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, ovary, ependymoma ...Birrell, G.W.,Filippovich, L, Sorokina, N.,Arnold, J.,Mould, bladder, ovary, ependymoma , hepatocellular carcinoma, and M. A., Wright, K., Walsh, M., Mok...70% of cases in one cohort] [72-74], ependymoma [74], liver cancer [77,77], cholangiocellular carcinoma [78], CML blast crisis and acute myelogenous

  18. Products of Photodegradation for Coumarin Laser Dyes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-31

    WORDS (CM0110m.em ote. Side U m....*0 mid 140蔾OF WeeMok mINIINI) C.~. coumarin laser dyes ,.laser dye photodegradation , dye photolysis mechanisms...oŕ PRODUCTS OF PHOTODEGRADATION FOR COUMI3N LASER DYES Guil ord Jones, I ,* W. R. Berguark, and W. R. Jacokson Department of Chemistry...documented.’ The products of photodegradation for a single coumarin dye have been identified in the early report of Winters. Handel- berg, and Mohr

  19. Focusing of Dispersive Targets Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Williams 1030 S Hwy AlA Patrick AFB OH 32925-3002 Distribution (cont’d) Phillips Lab Attn PL/WSR C Baum Attn PL/WSR J Berger Attn PL/WSR S A Blocher...Electrd Engrg Dept/WR1 Attn D M Bolle Attn S U Pillai 6 Metrotech Center Brooklyn NY 11201 Polytechnic Univ WRI & Dept of Physics Attn Mok-Ming Leung

  20. Laboratory for Computer Science Progress Report 16, 1 July 1978 - 30 June 1979,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    this series were Ruth M. Davis (Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Department of Defense), Lewis M. Branscomb (Vice...unnecessary. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS GROUP Academic Staff W. A. Martin, Group Leader Research Staff G. P. Brown V.E. Lewis G. Burke G R. Ruth L. B. Hawkinson...Gula E. Strovink R. Halstead T. Teixeira A. Mok C. Terman A, Reuveni Underaraduate Students J. Arnold R. McLellan 0. Goddeau J. Mogul T. Hayes S

  1. LGBTQ Inclusion in Educator Preparation: Getting Ready for Gender and Sexual Diversity in Secondary School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelscher, Mary Helen

    While many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students are able to resiliently navigate their public school education many others experience harsh school climates and negative health and educational outcomes. Harassment and bullying of LGBTQ students in school environments have been linked to numerous negative psychological and academic outcomes for students diverse in sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Preparing teacher candidates (TCs) to respond effectively to harassment and bullying of students and to create inclusive curriculum has been recommended to improve outcomes for students. Yet the development of these teaching practices has not been pursued broadly in educator preparation programs (EPPs) or specifically in science EPPs (SEPPs). This dissertation broadens the notion of diversity traditionally attended to in EPPs through three studies. The first study is a holistic single-case study of an LGBTQ-inclusive EPP. It focused on the following three research questions: What were the contextual features that surrounded the LGBTQ-inclusive EPP? What were the specific elements of LGBTQ inclusion in the EPP? And, what were the strengths and weaknesses of the LGBTQ-inclusive EPP? This study drew primarily from data collected from interviews with faculty and administrators in a large post-baccalaureate 5th year preparation for licensure program. Document analysis was used to triangulate and expand upon the data collected during the interviews. A framework for analyzing LGBTQ inclusion across the components of an EPP was developed as part of this study. This study has direct implications for the particular EPP, but also clarifies research needs around LGBTQ inclusion in secondary EPPs. While little has research exists about LGBTQ inclusion in EPPs, far less has been attempted and understood in the discipline of secondary life science. The second study thus narrows its focus from the particulars of LGBTQ inclusion in an EPP to the

  2. Royal Naval nursing: 'testing but worth it'.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2014-08-19

    Inga Kennedy is the most senior nurse in the Royal Navy. She enjoys the commitment and discipline required by a career in the armed forces and says the work offers great opportunities for nurses. Her career highlights have included checking that injured personnel in Afghanistan were receiving the best care possible.

  3. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  4. Description of a new species of Neoparaphytoseius Chant and McMurtry (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) from Peru, with a redefinition of the genus.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sofía; McMurtry, James A; De Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-07-25

    Neoparaphytoseius charapa n. sp. is described, based on the morphology of adult females and males collected on Inga edulis (Mart.) (Fabaceae) in northeastern Peru. Neoparaphytoseius Chant & McMurtry is redefined on the basis of the new species and re-examination of its type species N. sooretamus Chant & McMurtry. 

  5. 77 FR 65463 - Filing of Privileged Materials and Answers to Motions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... landowner lists, certain cultural resources and liquefied natural gas facility (LNG) information, and... (EPSA), Interstate Natural Gas Association (INGA), International Transmission Co. (ITC), MidAmerican..., this could be a particular burden in Natural Gas Act cases which must be decided within 30 days....

  6. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  7. 78 FR 68019 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Offices (OASCR, OCE, OC, OCFO, OCR, OGC and NAD) Bange, Gerald A.; Baumes, Harry S.; Bender, Stuart; Bice, Donald; Black, David O. ; Brady, Terence M.; Brewer, John; Bumbary-Langston, Inga P.; Chasteen, G. Taylor...; Shearer, David P.; Shorter, Malcom; Speed, Randy L.; Turner, Calvin; Vos, John P.; Wallace, Charles;...

  8. 77 FR 62490 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ..., Stuart; Bice, Donald; Black, David O.; Brady, Terence M.; Brewer, John; Bumbary-Langston, Inga P...; Shearer, David P.; Speed, Randy L.; Turner, Calvin; Vos, John P.; Wallace, Charles; Walsh, Thomas M.; Watts, Michael; White, John S.; White, Sharmian L.; Wilburn, Curtis; Wilusz, Lisa; Young,...

  9. Progress and challenges in modelling country-level HIV/AIDS epidemics: the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package 2007.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Salomon, J A; Alkema, L; Raftery, A E; Gouws, E

    2008-08-01

    The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) was developed to aid in country-level estimation and short-term projection of HIV/AIDS epidemics. This paper describes advances reflected in the most recent update of this tool (EPP 2007), and identifies key issues that remain to be addressed in future versions. The major change to EPP 2007 is the addition of uncertainty estimation for generalised epidemics using the technique of Bayesian melding, but many additional changes have been made to improve the user interface and efficiency of the package. This paper describes the interface for uncertainty analysis, changes to the user interface for calibration procedures and other user interface changes to improve EPP's utility in different settings. While formal uncertainty assessment remains an unresolved challenge in low-level and concentrated epidemics, the Bayesian melding approach has been applied to provide analysts in these settings with a visual depiction of the range of models that may be consistent with their data. In fitting the model to countries with longer-running epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, a number of limitations have been identified in the current model with respect to accommodating behaviour change and accurately replicating certain observed epidemic patterns. This paper discusses these issues along with their implications for future changes to EPP and to the underlying UNAIDS Reference Group model.

  10. Correlation between mesospheric ozone and Energetic Particle Precipitation over Troll, Antarctica in the years 2008 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daae, M.; Espy, P. J.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Newnham, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The British Antarctic Survey radiometer stationed at Troll, Antarctica (72S, 2.5E, L=4.76) measured ozone in the lower mesosphere and upper stratosphere from February 2008 until February 2010. By looking at anomalies in the polar-winter nighttime ozone, we are able to quantify the influence of Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) on ozone during these two years. Time-lagged correlations between geomagnetic indices (AE, Kp and Dst) and ozone anomalies as a function of height have been calculated to quantify which of the indices best accounts for the variability in the ozone. In addition, the MEPED instruments aboard the NOAA satellites have been used to quantify the EPP flux precipitating over Troll. Since the solar activity in 2008 undergoes a strong periodicity, which is linked to rotating coronal holes, this periodicity is also manifested in the EPP and the geomagnetic indices. A correlation analysis between the ozone over Troll and the periodic solar activity that is reflected in the EPP is also carried out, resulting in a statistical quantification of the EPP effects on mesospheric ozone as measured over Troll, Antarctica.

  11. Relativistic dynamics of electrons around impurities in high-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douis, Said; Meftah, Mohammed Tayeb

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we focus our attention on the dynamic properties of relativistic electrons moving around an impurity in a plasma. This led us, in the first place, to compute the effective plasma potential (EPP) in which the electrons move. The EPP is built up as a sum of three contributions. These include the potential created by the impurity, the potential due to the ions assumed to form a uniform background of positive electric charges and the potential due to all the electrons. It turns out that the last potential depends on an integral of a function of the EPP in question. This then leads to a nonlinear integral equation where the EPP is the main quantity to compute. Thanks to the EPP, we derive the electron trajectories and compute their total electric field (microfield) at the impurity. According to different plasma conditions, two dynamical properties are then calculated: the time auto-correlation function of this microfield and the dielectric constant. These properties are calculated for both the relativistic case and non-relativistic (classical) case. The comparison between the relativistic and the classical results are also done for the different plasma conditions.

  12. Surgical Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Impact of Surgery on Survival and Quality of Life—Relation to Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyros, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer arising from pleural mesothelium. Surgery aims to either cure the disease or control the symptoms. Two surgical procedures exist: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). In this systematic review we assess current evidence on safety and efficacy of surgery. Methods. Five electronic databases were reviewed from January 1990 to January 2013. Studies were selected according to a predefined protocol. Primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included quality of life, disease-free survival, disease recurrence, morbidity, and length of hospital stay. Results. Sixteen studies were included. Median survival ranged from 8.1 to 32 months for P/D and from 6.9 to 46.9 months for EPP. Perioperative mortality was 0%–9.8% and 3.2%–12.5%, respectively. Perioperative morbidity was 5.9%–55% for P/D and 10%–82.6% for EPP. Average length of stay was 7 days for P/D and 9 days for EPP. Conclusion. Current evidence cannot definitively answer which procedure (EPP or P/D) is more beneficial in terms of survival and operative risks. This systematic review suggests that surgery in the context of trimodality therapy offers acceptable perioperative outcomes and long-term survival. Centres specialising in MPM management have better results. PMID:24624305

  13. An unsuspected ecdysteroid/steroid phosphatase activity in the key T-cell regulator, Sts-1: surprising relationship to insect ecdysteroid phosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Davies, Lyndsay; Anderson, Ian P; Turner, Philip C; Shirras, Alan D; Rees, Huw H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2007-05-15

    The insect enzyme ecdysteroid phosphate phosphatase (EPP) mobilizes active ecdysteroids from an inactive phosphorylated pool. Previously assigned to a novel class, it is shown here that it resides in the large histidine phosphatase superfamily related to cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase, a superfamily housing notably diverse catalytic activities. Molecular modeling reveals a plausible substrate-binding mode for EPP. Analysis of genomic and transcript data for a number of insect species shows that EPP may exist in both the single domain form previously characterized and in a longer, multidomain form. This latter form bears a quite unexpected relationship in sequence and domain architecture to vertebrate proteins, including Sts-1, characterized as a key regulator of T-cell activity. Long form Drosophila melanogaster EPP, human Sts-1, and a related protein from Caenorhabditis elegans have all been cloned, assayed, and shown to catalyse the hydrolysis of ecdysteroid and steroid phosphates. The surprising relationship described and explored here between EPP and Sts-1 has implications for our understanding of the function(s) of both.

  14. Pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms involved in tetanic fade induced by pancuronium in the isolated rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Gallacci, M; Oliveira, A C

    1994-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the fade of the tetanic contraction induced by pancuronium were studied in vitro by means of myographical and electrophysiological techniques in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat. Pancuronium (0.5 mumol/l) induced a complete fade of the tetanic contraction while leaving the twitch unaffected. At the same concentration it decreased the amplitude and increased the tetanic rundown of trains of endplate potentials (e.p.ps) evoked in the frequency of 50 Hz. The electrophysiological changes induced by pancuronium were due to decreases in both quantal sizes and quantal contents of the e.p.ps. The former effect was the result of a postsynaptic competitive action and the latter of a presynaptic inhibitory action of that compound. The decrease in quantal content affected the e.p.ps starting from the first in the train and became larger during the generation of the sequence of e.p.ps. This intensified their tetanic rundown. It is concluded that the fade of the tetanic contraction induced by pancuronium is due to a summation of pre- and postsynaptic actions and, therefore, not only to an increase in the tetanic rundown of e.p.ps. Possible explanations for the distinct abilities of neuromuscular blockers in affecting tetani and twitches in a differential manner are also discussed.

  15. Surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing for high Nb-TiAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Wanyuan; Hao, Guojian; Liang, Yongfeng; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiao; Lin, Junpin

    2016-12-01

    Metal surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) is an innovative treatment widely commonly applied to material processing and pretreatment process of coating and galvanization. EPP involves complex processes and a great deal of parameters, such as preset voltage, current, solution temperature and processing time. Several characterization methods are presented in this paper for evaluating the micro-structure surfaces of Ti45Al8Nb alloys: SEM, EDS, XRD and 3D topography. The results showed that the oxide scale and other contaminants on the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys can be effectively removed via EPP. The typical micro-crater structure of the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys were observed by 3D topography after EPP to find that the mean diameter of the surface structure and roughness value can be effectively controlled by altering the processing parameters. The mechanical properties of the surface according to nanomechanical probe testing exhibited slight decrease in microhardness and elastic modulus after EPP, but a dramatic increase in surface roughness, which is beneficial for further processing or coating.

  16. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations.

  17. Refined hyperentanglement purification of two-photon systems for high-capacity quantum communication with cavity-assisted interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-12-01

    Hyperentanglement, defined as the entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a photonic quantum system, has attracted much attention recently as it can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a refined hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for two-photon systems in mixed hyperentangled states in both the spatial-mode and polarization DOFs, assisted by cavity quantum electrodynamics. By means of the spatial (polarization) quantum state transfer process, the quantum states that are discarded in the previous hyper-EPPs can be preserved. That is, the spatial (polarization) state of a four-photon system with high fidelity can be transformed into another four-photon system with low fidelity, not disturbing its polarization (spatial) state, which makes this hyper-EPP take the advantage of possessing a higher efficiency.

  18. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  19. Surgical options in malignant pleural mesothelioma: extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication.

    PubMed

    Flores, Raja M

    2009-01-01

    Two operations have evolved for the surgical treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM): extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). The goal of surgery in the multimodality treatment approach is to achieve a macroscopic complete resection, with adjuvant therapies directed at residual microscopic disease. Overall survival reported in a recent multicenter analysis of these two operations supports the use of P/D for early stage MPM provided that a complete resection is feasible; otherwise EPP will confer a survival advantage. For stage II disease, however, EPP demonstrates a possible advantage. The focus in stage III disease should remain on the ability to achieve macroscopic complete resection, rather than N2 disease. Patients with stage IV cancers have better survival if the lung is left in place.

  20. Glaucoma expert patient programme and ocular hypotensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Amro, Raed; Cox, Carol L; Waddington, Kathryn; Siriwardena, Dilani

    Expert patient programmes (EPPs) are becoming an increasingly important aspect of chronic disease management, resulting in improved health outcomes for patients. Patients with chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) require lifelong therapy. However, to date, no EPPs have been designed specifically for patients with chronic eye conditions like COAG. This article describes the development and implementation of the Glaucoma Expert Patient Programme (GEPP), a glaucoma-specific educational self-management programme which aims to improve glaucoma patients' knowledge, self-management skills, expectations and adherence to treatment. A review of theoretical frameworks and models which underpin the design, use and conduct of EPPs was undertaken, and the GEPP was designed based on the model by Kate Lorig (2003). The result is an educational programme which offers COAG patients a different perspective on their condition and supports them with knowledge, skills and strategies to better manage their condition on a daily basis.

  1. Transitioning from traditional to green cleaners: an analysis of custodian and manager focus groups.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy; Wakai, Sara; Welsh, Loyola; Westinghouse, Carol; Morse, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Custodians represent one of the largest occupational groups using cleaning agents, and yet their voices are infrequently heard in relation to the introduction of "green" cleaners and the laws regarding environmentally preferable products (EPP). This study reflects worker voices on use and effectiveness of chemicals, as well as incentives and obstacles for green cleaning programs. Sixty-four custodians and staff participated in 10 focus groups. Data were entered into Atlas Ti and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to identify themes. Themes included satisfaction in a "well-done" job, more effort required for job, lack of involvement in EPP selection process, EPP's ease of use for workers with English as a Second Language (ESL), misuse of disinfectants, health complaints, and need for training. This study shows that custodians have a voice, and that improved communication and feedback among all the stakeholders are needed to make the transition to green cleaning more effective.

  2. A computer system for real-time data acquisition and analysis of biopotentials and quantal content at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Kim, Y I

    1983-06-01

    A computerized data acquisition system for on-line analysis of the parameters of neuromuscular transmission is described. Both hardware usage and software methodologies are discussed with regard to sampling in real-time and analyzing miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs), end-plate potentials (EPPs) and quantal content of the evoked transmitter release. Significant features of the program include: (1) automatic threshold determination for MEPP detection; (2) the use of a circular buffer to give pre-trigger information; (3) real-time noise spike rejection; (4) an automatic procedure for EPP failure detection; (5) rapid quantal content determinations by several methods as well as complete MEPP and EPP waveform analysis. The system has proven both accurate and reliable during more than two years of use. Advantages of the system over conventional methods include: (1) increased accuracy and efficiency in data analysis; (2) immediate availability of results; (3) conventional data storage; (4) flexibility to meet changing requirements.

  3. How female reed buntings benefit from extra-pair mating behaviour: testing hypotheses through patterns of paternity in sequential broods.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Karen M; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2006-08-01

    Extra-pair paternity is an important aspect of reproductive strategies in many species of birds. Given that in most species females control whether fertilization occurs, they are expected to benefit in some way from the extra-pair matings. In this study we use patterns of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in broods of individual reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), both within and between seasons, to test four hypothesized female benefits: (1) assessing potential future partners and seeking (2) genetic diversity (3) good genes, or (4) compatible genes. Reed buntings are socially monogamous, multibrooded passerines with extremely high levels of extra-pair paternity. We studied a population of reed buntings in the Netherlands in 2002 and 2003; 51% of offspring in 74% of nests were extra-pair. We showed that patterns of EPP did not support the first and second hypotheses, since females did not form a pair with previous extra-pair partners, EPP was not evenly distributed among broods and more broods than expected were sired by a single male. Furthermore, there was no relation between a male's within- and extra-pair fertilization success, no consistency in EPP between breeding attempts, no effect of parental relatedness on EPP and several cases of reciprocal paternity. These patterns do not support the good genes hypothesis and are most consistent with the genetic compatibility hypothesis. However, our previous finding that older males are more successful in gaining EPP, suggests some effect of good genes. These hypotheses need not be mutually exclusive, as females may select compatible males above a certain quality threshold (e.g. old males).

  4. Advances in the management of erythropoietic protoporphyria – role of afamelanotide

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Ashley M; McKay, Jerome T; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and the phenotypically similar disease X-linked protoporphyria (XLPP) are inherited cutaneous porphyrias characterized clinically by acute non-blistering photosensitivity, intolerance to sunlight, and significantly reduced quality of life. They are due to marked overproduction of protoporphyrin (PP) chiefly by erythroblasts and reticulocytes. In EPP, the underlying genetic defect is in the ferrochelatase gene, which encodes the final enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway. In XLPP, the genetic defect is a gain-of-function mutation, usually a four-base deletion, in the gene that encodes the enzyme 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-2, the first and rate-controlling enzyme of heme synthesis in developing red blood cells. The excess PP causes acute and painful photosensitivity, being activated by light in the long ultraviolet to blue spectrum (380–420 nm, the Soret band). Although several treatments have been proposed, presently no very effective treatment exists for EPP or XLPP. Afamelanotide (Scenesse®) is a first-in-class synthetic analog of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Afamelanotide mimics the naturally occurring hormone to increase skin pigmentation by increasing melanin production in melanocytes, resulting in increased sunlight tolerance in those with EPP/XLPP. Afamelanotide is currently approved for use in the European Union and Switzerland, and it is under review in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with EPP/XLPP. This paper provides a review of the clinical characteristics and current therapies for EPP/XLPP. We discuss the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of afamelanotide and summarize the results of several key Phase II and III clinical trials. These data indicate that afamelanotide is a promising therapy for those with these debilitating diseases. PMID:28003770

  5. Degradation of polyphenols (catechin and tannic acid) in the rat intestinal tract. Effect on colonic fermentation and faecal output.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L; Abia, R; Eastwood, M A; Saura-Calixto, F

    1994-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-molecular-weight polyphenols are usually extracted by using different solvents (e.g. water, methanol, aqueous acetone). The aim of the present work was to study the possible effects of some extractable polyphenols (EPP) on fat and protein digestibilities and on the colonic microflora. Degradability of these compounds through the intestinal tract was also studied. Catechin and tannic acid (TA) were chosen as representatives of the most common basic structures of EPP (flavonoids and gallic acid respectively). Three groups of eight male Wistar rats were given either a control diet free of EPP, or diets containing 20 g/kg dry matter of catechin and TA. Body-weight and food intake were monitored during a 3-week experimental period. Faeces and urine were collected daily during the third experimental week. EPP and fat were determined in faeces, and N in both urine and faeces. Only 3.1 and 4.6% of the ingested catechin and TA respectively were excreted in faeces, indicating that absorption and/or degradation of these EPP had occurred. HPLC analysis of the polyphenolic content of faeces showed qualitative differences between groups. A significant increase of total faecal weight as well as water, fat and N excretion was produced by TA. Catechin only caused an increase in fat excretion. In vitro fermentation assays were also performed to study the effect of EPP on the colonic microflora. Both catechin and TA affected the yield of end-products of fermentation, and were also degraded during the fermentation process.

  6. New support for an old hypothesis: density affects extra-pair paternity

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christian; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Density has been suggested to affect variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) in avian mating systems, because increasing density promotes encounter rates and thus mating opportunities. However, the significance of density affecting EPP variation in intra- and interspecific comparisons has remained controversial, with more support from intraspecific comparisons. Neither experimental nor empirical studies have consistently provided support for the density hypothesis. Testing the density hypothesis is challenging because density measures may not necessarily reflect extra-pair mating opportunities, mate guarding efforts may covary with density, populations studied may differ in migratory behavior and/or climatic conditions, and variation in density may be insufficient. Accounting for these potentially confounding factors, we tested whether EPP rates within and among subpopulations of the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) were related to density. Our analyses were based on data from 13 subpopulations studied over 4 years. Overall, 56.4% of totally 181 broods contained at least one extra-pair young (EPY) and 37.1% of totally 669 young were of extra-pair origin. Roughly 90% of the extra-pair fathers were from the adjacent territory or from the territory after the next one. Within subpopulations, the proportion of EPY in broods was positively related to local breeding density. Similarly, among subpopulations, proportion of EPY was positively associated with population density. EPP was absent in subpopulations consisting of single breeding pairs, that is, without extra-pair mating opportunities. Our study confirms that density is an important biological factor, which significantly influences the amount of EPP within and among subpopulations, but also suggests that other mechanisms influence EPP beyond the variation explained by density. PMID:23533071

  7. Odin/SMR nitric oxide observations and its contribution to a better understanding of energetic particle precipitation indirect effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, Kristell; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal

    The Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board the Odin platform, launched in 2001, is a limb emission sounder measuring trace gases in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), Finland (TEKES), and France (CNES), with support by the 3rd party mission programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) refers to the process by which energetic protons and electrons affect the Earth’s middle atmosphere. The precipitation of magnetospheric electrons into the polar atmosphere during geomagnetic perturbations leads to nitric oxide (NO) formation in the polar upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). During polar winter, EPP-generated NO can be transported downward into the stratosphere by the meridional circulation, where it can affect the ozone concentration. This important solar-terrestrial coupling mechanism is called the EPP indirect effect (EPP IE). Odin/SMR supplies the scientific community with a 10 year NO data set, and measurements of several other related species. The analysis of these long term observations shows that EPP IE is strongly dependent on dynamical activity. Very strong NO downward transport events are observed during most of the winters characterized by a major midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW). SMR is involved in the SPARC project HEPPA-MMI (High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere - Model-Measurement Inter-comparison). The goal of this international working group is to get a better understanding of EPP-induced middle atmospheric changes, and to assess the ability of current models to reproduce those phenomena. The work is based on inter-comparisons between measurements from several instruments and results from different models, focusing on the 2008/2009 northern hemisphere polar winter. This period was characterized by peculiar dynamical conditions, with a particularly strong SSW

  8. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the

  9. DESIGN NOTE: An enhanced parallel port interface for controlling and monitoring experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celso Viscovini, Ronaldo; Scalabrin, Artemio; Pereira, Daniel

    2000-02-01

    In this paper we present a circuit for enhanced parallel port (EPP) interfacing that is of low cost and great versatility for general use for data communication in research laboratories. The communication is bi-directional and its speed is higher than 500 Kbytes s-1 . This circuit has an address decoder, which permits individual communication with eight items of equipment of 8 and 16 bits, with an extra status bit. The addressing system also allows insertion of up to 16 such interfacing circuits into the same computer EPP output, each of which can be independently reached.

  10. De Novo RNA Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis of Monascus purpureus and Analysis of Key Genes Involved in Monacolin K Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-01-01

    Monascus purpureus is an important medicinal and edible microbial resource. To facilitate biological, biochemical, and molecular research on medicinal components of M. purpureus, we investigated the M. purpureus transcriptome by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). An RNA-seq library was created using RNA extracted from a mixed sample of M. purpureus expressing different levels of monacolin K output. In total 29,713 unigenes were assembled from more than 60 million high-quality short reads. A BLAST search revealed hits for 21,331 unigenes in at least one of the protein or nucleotide databases used in this study. The 22,365 unigenes were categorized into 48 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification. Owing to the economic and medicinal importance of M. purpureus, most studies on this organism have focused on the pharmacological activity of chemical components and the molecular function of genes involved in their biogenesis. In this study, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to detect the expression of genes related to monacolin K (mokA-mokI) at different phases (2, 5, 8, and 12 days) of M. purpureus M1 and M1-36. Our study found that mokF modulates monacolin K biogenesis in M. purpureus. Nine genes were suggested to be associated with the monacolin K biosynthesis. Studies on these genes could provide useful information on secondary metabolic processes in M. purpureus. These results indicate a detailed resource through genetic engineering of monacolin K biosynthesis in M. purpureus and related species. PMID:28114365

  11. National Dam Safety Program. Otisco Lake Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 753), Oswego River Basin, Onondaga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-23

    ona Dam Safety Program Oswego River Basin, Onondaga County,.NY 6. PERFORam0G OG. Re.PoRT Nu EaRB.’ Inventory No . NY00753 7- AU MOK&PS OTRC RGAN U~R...PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAN SAFETY PROGRAM OTISCO LAKE DAN I.D. NO . NY-753 DEC #73B-2751A OSWEGO RIVER BASIN ONONDAGA...COUNTY TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO . ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW PHOTOGRAPH 1 PROJECT INFORMATION 1 1.1 GENERAL 1 1.2 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT 1 1.3 PERTINENT DATA 2 2

  12. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  13. 48 CFR 970.2301-1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 970.2301-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy... http://www.hss.energy.gov/pp/epp. Contractors operating DOE facilities shall comply with...

  14. Reducing Uncertainties of Hydrologic Model Predictions Using a New Ensemble Pre-Processing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajehei, S.; Moradkhani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) was developed to characterize the uncertainty in hydrologic predictions. However, ESP outputs are still prone to bias due to the uncertainty in the forcing data, initial condition, and model structure. Among these, uncertainty in forcing data has a major impact on the reliability of hydrologic simulations/forecasts. Major steps have been taken in generating less uncertain precipitation forecasts such as the Ensemble Pre-Processing (EPP) to achieve this goal. EPP is introduced as a statistical procedure based on the bivariate joint distribution between observation and forecast to generate ensemble climatologic forecast from single-value forecast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of pre-processed ensemble precipitation forecast in generating ensemble streamflow predictions. Copula functions used in EPP, model the multivariate joint distribution between univariate variables with any level of dependency. Accordingly, ESP is generated by employing both raw ensemble precipitation forecast as well as pre-processed ensemble precipitation. The ensemble precipitation forecast is taken from Climate Forecast System (CFS) generated by National Weather Service's (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) models. Study is conducted using the precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) over two basins in the Pacific Northwest USA for the period of 1979 to 2013. Results reveal that applying this new EPP will lead to reduction of uncertainty and overall improvement in the ESP.

  15. Department of Defense: Further Actions Needed to Institutionalize Key Business System Modernization Management Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    reported that the pace of DOD’s efforts in defining and implementing key institutional modernization management controls had slowed compared with...Carl Barden, Shaun Byrnes, Debra Conner, Elena Epps, Rebecca Eyler, Nancy Glover, Neelaxi Lakhmani (Assistant Director), Anh Le, Lori Martinez

  16. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  17. Noninvasive Respiratory Management for Patients with Spinal Cord Injury and Neuromuscular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakshiyev, Raisa; Hon, Alice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe noninvasive respiratory management for patients with neuromuscular respiratory muscle dysfunction (NMD) and spinal cord injury (SCI) and the role of electrophrenic pacing (EPP) and diaphragm pacing (DP) in this respect. Long term outcomes will be reviewed and the use of noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV), MAC, and EPP/DP to prevent pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, to facilitate extubation, and to avoid tracheotomy will be evaluated. Although ventilator dependent patients with most NMDs and high level SCI can be indefinitely managed noninvasively, most ALS patients can be managed for a limited time by continuous NIV before tracheostomy is necessary for survival. Glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) can be learned by patients without any autonomous breathing ability and used by them in the event of ventilator/EPP/DP failure or loss of interface access. EPP/DP can maintain alveolar ventilation for high level SCI patients when they cannot grab a mouth piece to use NIV. PMID:25191394

  18. Evaluation of Educators and Educator Preparation Programs: Models and Systems in Theory and Practice. WCER Working Paper No. 2014-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert; Pyatigorsky, Mikhail; Rice, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Student growth measures are increasingly common in K-12 school and teacher accountability policy in the United States. At this time, it is still rare for educator preparation programs (EPPs) to be evaluated by similar measures for either low stakes program improvement or higher stakes accreditation processes. Growth in student achievement reflects…

  19. Applying Multimedia Learning Theories to the Redesign of Residence Life Online Training Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliher, Licinia Barrueco

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is to develop a model for improving the online training modules utilized by a mid-Atlantic Residence Life department. The complexity of the Residence Life staff positions, coupled with demands from other university departments and the need to provide as much information as possible, resulted in an…

  20. Current Work in Linguistics. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 4, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Alexis, Ed.; Lee, Hikyoung, Ed.; Siegel, Laura, Ed.; Surek-Clark, Clarissa, Ed.; Williams, Alexander, Ed.

    This issue contains the following articles: "Was Mir Wisse: A Review of the Literature on the Languages of the Pennsylvania Germans" (David Bowie); "Tigrinya Root Consonants and the OCP" (Eugene Buckley); "Duration of Onset Consonants in Gay Male Stereotyped Speech" (Sean Crist); "PRO, the EPP and Nominative…

  1. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  2. Interleukin-1β-Targeted Vaccine Improves Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in a Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jun; Chi, Xiao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Xiang-Meng; Liu, Dong-Qun; Zhu, Jie; Ji, Hui; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated as a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pancreatic islet inflammation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Excess IL-1β impairs islet function by inducing insulin resistance and β-cell apoptosis. Therefore, specifically reducing IL-1β activity provides a therapeutic improvement for T2DM by sustaining the inhibition of IL-1β-mediated islet inflammation. In this study, we developed an IL-1β-targeted epitope peptide vaccine adjuvanted with polylactic acid microparticles (1βEPP) and applied it to a diabetic KK-Ay mouse model. Results showed that the 1βEPP elicited high antibody responses, which neutralized the biological activity of IL-1β, and induced barely detectable inflammatory activity. 1βEPP immunization reduced body weight gain, protected KK-Ay mice from hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and decreased the serum levels of free fatty acids, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Moreover, 1βEPP restored β-cell mass; inhibited β-cell apoptosis; decreased the expression of IL-1β; and interrupted NF-κB activation by reducing IKKβ and pRelA levels. These studies indicated that the IL-1β-targeted vaccine may be a promising immunotherapeutic for T2DM treatment.

  3. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Risk, Benjamin B.; Webster, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability—one key aspect of habitat quality—on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  4. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  5. The influence of nonrandom extra‐pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Josh A.; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Santure, Anna W.; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness among individuals through observation. However, extra‐pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with EPP and the accuracy of heritability estimates for such traits remains unexplored. We show analytically how nonrandom pedigree errors can influence heritability estimates. Then, combining empirical data from a large great tit (Parus major) pedigree with simulations, we assess how heritability estimates derived from social pedigrees change depending on the mode of the relationship between EPP and the focal trait. We show that the magnitude of the underestimation is typically small (<15%). Hence, our analyses suggest that quantitative genetic inference from pedigrees derived from observations of social relationships is relatively robust; our approach also provides a widely applicable method for assessing the consequences of nonrandom EPP. PMID:25800997

  6. The Role of International School Counselors in U.S. College Recruitment Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Amy Greenwald

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware has embraced a global admissions initiative with minimal experience in international endeavors and a limited budget for international recruitment. This EPP serves as exploratory research for improving our understanding of the international student market in Latin America and working more effectively with international…

  7. "Would You Like to Tidy up Now?" An Analysis of Adult Questioning in the English Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Manni, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an extension of analysis concerned with adult questioning carried out in the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years (REPEY) study. The REPEY study drew on robust quantitative data provided by the Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) project to identify the particular pedagogical strategies being applied…

  8. The vertical propagation and extent of stratospheric temperature and wind anomalies related to enhanced geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A. M.; Baumgaertner, A. J.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M.

    2010-12-01

    Model studies have suggested that Odd Nitrogen, NOx, created by Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) and the consequent ozone loss through catalytic loss cycles could have an effect on stratospheric and tropospheric (e.g. surface level) temperatures. These effects can potentially be comparable to the effects induced by the solar cycle at high latitudes. Significant mesospheric and stratospheric NOx enhancements have been observed during times of high solar activity (e.g. during Solar Proton Events). NOx can also be, through dynamics, transported from high altitudes (mesosphere-lower thermosphere), where it's created by EPP, down to the stratosphere. Once the NOx reaches the the stratosphere, ozone loss reactions involving NOx provide a link to the general stratospheric ozone balance. Surface temperature effects similar to those reported in the model studies were recently found in re-analysis meteorological data sets, but the mechanism connecting the high altitude NOx production to the surface level remained unclear. In this work, using meteorological re-analysis and operational data sets from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast and the UK Met Office from 1957 to 2009, we examine the vertical propagation and extent, particularly in the stratosphere, of temperature and wind anomalies related to enhanced geomagnetic activity (i.e. enhanced EPP into the atmosphere), to provide better understanding of the linking mechanism. Furthermore we discuss results from the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy, which provides a more comprehensive view of the variation in atmospheric parameters as a result of varying EPP input.

  9. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase I. Tactical Air Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Training-. ( ASPT ) located at Williams AFB (Faconti, Mortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Knoop, 1973; Faconti & Epps, 1975; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980). The ASPT ...1tomated performance measurement system. Notwithstanding the apparent training potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found

  10. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success.

  11. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. Representative Personality Dimensions Characteristic of Different Occupational Choice in the Paramedical Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Priscilla Bernadette

    To ascertain differences in the area of non-intellectual characteristics among senior students and successful practitioners in four paramedical groups, data collected by administering the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) were statistically analyzed. This test, measuring the relative strength of 15 personality needs, was given to 396…

  13. Using Data to Drive Success in Educator Prep: Massachusetts and Endicott College Collaborate for Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    For educator preparation programs (EPPs) to produce effective teachers, they must engage in a process of continuous improvement using timely, high-quality information about the performance of their respective graduates in the classroom as measured by student outcomes. While states have the capacity to provide this information through their…

  14. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  15. On Social Psychology and Human Nature: An Interview with Roy Baumeister

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Natalie Kerr

    2008-01-01

    Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…

  16. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged…

  17. 77 FR 27847 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... left eye, 20/20. Following an examination in 2012, his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Ellis demonstrates.... Following an examination in 2012, his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Epps has sufficient visiual stability to... in his left eye, 20/20. Following an examination in 2012, his optometrist noted, ``In my...

  18. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  19. Authentic Field-Based Learning Experiences for EdD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Jane Boag

    2009-01-01

    This EPP examines the problem of EdD coursework not having sufficient connection to the work that EdD students will eventually assume as leaders of school districts or other educational systems. It reviews literature critical of EdD programs and websites of educational administration professional organizations with recommended curriculum for EdD…

  20. Teacher Attitudes and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) were administered to 183 undergraduate students enrolled in teacher education courses. The MTAI was compared with each of the two personality instruments by canonical analysis. Concludes that teacher's…

  1. 78 FR 80381 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-72; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80381-80382] [FR Doc No: 2013-31152] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... rule adopts, without change, an interim rule which was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 37686...-wide Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-31152 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  2. 78 FR 80379 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80379-80381] [FR Doc No: 2013-31151] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... (78 FR 76700), the United States Trade Representative published new procurement thresholds. The United... and Remedies (DEC 2013) * * * * * [FR Doc. 2013-31151 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  3. USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-21

    Act contains subtitles concerning regulation of domestic and international commerce in three methamphetamine (meth) precursor chemicals: ephedrine ...197 The bill defines a “scheduled listed chemicals product” as one “that contains ephedrine , (continued...) The degree of regulatory scrutiny...over-the-counter sale, without regulatory complications, of cold remedies containing ephedrine , pseudoephedrine or phenlypropanolamine (EPP

  4. Arabidopsis chromatin remodeling factor PICKLE interacts with transcription factor HY5 to regulate hypocotyl cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanjun; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Xin; Tang, Weijiang; Wang, Wanqing; Huai, Junling; Xu, Gang; Chen, Dongqin; Li, Yunliang; Lin, Rongcheng

    2013-01-01

    Photomorphogenesis is a critical plant developmental process that involves light-mediated transcriptome changes, histone modifications, and inhibition of hypocotyl growth. However, the chromatin-based regulatory mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here, we identify ENHANCED PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (EPP1), previously known as PICKLE (PKL), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor of the chromodomain/helicase/DNA binding family, as a repressor of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that PKL/EPP1 expression is repressed by light in the hypocotyls in a photoreceptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, we reveal that the transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) binds to the promoters of cell elongation-related genes and recruits PKL/EPP1 through their physical interaction. PKL/EPP1 in turn negatively regulates HY5 by repressing trimethylation of histone H3 Lys 27 at the target loci, thereby regulating the expression of these genes and, thus, hypocotyl elongation. We also show that HY5 possesses transcriptional repression activity. Our study reveals a crucial role for a chromatin remodeling factor in repressing photomorphogenesis and demonstrates that transcription factor-mediated recruitment of chromatin-remodeling machinery is important for plant development in response to changing light environments.

  5. Learning Conversations and Listening Pedagogy: The Relationship in Student Teachers' Developing Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in early childhood education in the UK and other parts of Europe have emphasised the importance of dialogue between adults and children. In the UK, the EPPE project paid particular attention to the role of extended child-centred conversations ("sustained shared thinking"--Sylva et al. 2003) as an important element or…

  6. Erythropoietic porphyrias: animal models and update in gene-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Richard, Emmanuel; Robert-Richard, Elodie; Ged, Cécile; Moreau-Gaudry, François; de Verneuil, Hubert

    2008-06-01

    The inherited porphyrias are inborn errors of haem biosynthesis, each resulting from the deficient activity of a specific enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are divided into erythropoietic and hepatic according to the predominant porphyrin-accumulating tissue. Three different erythropoietic porphyrias (EP) have been described: erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP, MIM 177000) the most frequent, congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP, MIM 263700), and the very rare hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP, MIM 176100). Bone marrow transplantation is considered as the only curative treatment for severe cases of erythropoietic porphyria (especially CEP), if donors are available. Some EPP patients who undergo liver failure may require hepatic transplantation. Murine models of EPP and CEP have been developed and mimic most of the human disease features. These models allow a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in EP as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies. The restoration of deficient enzymatic activity in the bone marrow compartment following gene therapy has been extensively studied. Murine oncoretroviral, and recently, lentiviral vectors have been successfully used to transduce hematopoietic stem cells, allowing full metabolic and phenotypic correction of both EPP and CEP mice. In CEP, a selective survival advantage of corrected cells was demonstrated in mice, reinforcing the arguments for a gene therapy approach in the human disease. These successful results form the basis for gene therapy clinical trials in severe forms of erythropoietic porphyrias.

  7. Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal "inks" for printable photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Panthani, Matthew G; Akhavan, Vahid; Goodfellow, Brian; Schmidtke, Johanna P; Dunn, Lawrence; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Barbara, Paul F; Korgel, Brian A

    2008-12-10

    Chalcopyrite copper indium sulfide (CuInS2) and copper indium gallium selenide (Cu(InxGa(1-x))-Se2; CIGS) nanocrystals ranging from approximately 5 to approximately 25 nm in diameter were synthesized by arrested precipitation in solution. The In/Ga ratio in the CIGS nanocrystals could be controlled by varying the In/Ga reactant ratio in the reaction, and the optical properties of the CulnS2 and CIGS nanocrystals correspond to those of the respective bulk materials. Using methods developed to produce uniform, crack-free micrometer-thick films, CulnSe2 nanocrystals were tested in prototype photovoltaic devices. As a proof-of-concept, the nanocrystal-based devices exhibited a reproducible photovoltaic response.

  8. Growth and electrical properties of high-quality InGaAsBi thin films using gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuxing; Qi, Ming; Ai, Likun; Wang, Shumin; Xu, Anhuai; Guo, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The effects of Bi flux and In/Ga ratio on Bi incorporation and electrical properties of InGaAsBi grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy were systematically studied. It is found that use of a low In/Ga ratio has an enhancement effect on the incorporation of Bi and its content increases linearly with Bi flux until reach a saturation. Incorporation of Bi induces p-type dopant that compensates the background electron concentration but does not degrade the electron mobility for the Bi content up to 6.2%. Up to 7.5% of Bi incorporation has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and a maximum electron mobility of 5600 cm2·V‑1·s‑1 at room temperature was achieved in InGaAsBi with x Bi = 6.2%, which is the highest value reported in InGaAsBi with x Bi > 5%.

  9. Rust fungi causing galls, witches' brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José R; Hennen, Joe F

    2003-01-01

    Conspicuous galls and witches' brooms frequently are symptoms of rust infections on plant hosts in the ecologically diverse northwestern region of Argentina. These symptoms are caused by systemic or locally systemic spermogonial-aecial infections, although uredinial and telial infections also might be involved. Sixteen species of rust fungi are treated in this paper, most of which cause a plant response that results in enlarged growth. Ypsilospora tucumanensis J.R. Hern. & J.F. Hennen on Inga edulis is described as a species new to science. Puccinia cordiae Arthur is cited as a new record for Argentina. These rusts also are included: Chaconia ingae, Gerwasia imperialis, Kuehneola loeseneriana, Prospodium appendiculatum, Prospodium elegans, Prospodium perornatum, Puccinia bougainvilleae, Puccinia pampeana, Ravenelia argentinica, Ravenelia hieronymi, Ravenelia papillosa, Ravenelia spegazziniana, Uromyces cestri and Uropyxis rickiana. For some of the scientific names, lectotype specimens have been designated.

  10. Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin

    2014-09-07

    Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

  11. Effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure grown with very thin spacer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on self-assembled InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dot samples having very thin barrier thickness (7.5-8.5 nm). In/Ga interdiffusion in the samples due to annealing is presumed to be controlled by the vertical strain coupling from the seed dots in bilayer heterostructure. Strain coupling from embedded seed QD layer maintains a strain relaxed state in active top islands of the bilayer quantum dot sample grown with comparatively thick spacer layer (8.5 nm). This results in minimum In/Ga interdiffusion. However controlled interdiffusion across the interface between dots and GaAs barrier, noticeably enhances the emission efficiency in such bilayer quantum dot heterostructure on annealing up to 700 {sup o}C.

  12. Assessing Physical Therapy Students' Performance during Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sue; Dalton, Megan; Dawes, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Évaluer la faisabilité d'utiliser les instruments d'évaluation de la pratique de la physiothérapie (EPP) et leur accessibilité afin d'évaluer les compétences cliniques des étudiants en physiothérapie. Méthodes : Un échantillon de commodité constitué de formateurs cliniciens (FC) et d'étudiants de l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique (UCB) à Vancouver, au Canada, a rempli l'instrument utilisé actuellement, soit l'Instrument d'évaluation du rendement clinique des physiothérapeutes (ERC-PT) et l'EPP. On a réalisé, de 2011 à 2012, un sondage transversal auprès de formateurs cliniciens et d'étudiants en physiothérapie qui comportait des questions visant à réunir des opinions sur les deux instruments utilisés dans l'environnement clinique avec des étudiants à différents stades de la formation. Les questions portaient sur divers aspects des instruments, y compris la facilité d'utilisation, la formulation de commentaires et le temps nécessaire pour y répondre. Résultats : On a analysé des données provenant de 63 formateurs cliniciens de toutes sortes de contextes et 71 formulaires d'ERC-PT et d'EPP d'étudiants contenaient suffisamment de données. Une comparaison des cotes entre l'instrument ERC-PT et l'EPP a démontré une équivalence des normes au niveau débutant. Il a fallu en moyenne 80 (ET 53) minutes pour remplir l'ERC-PT et 23 (13) minutes pour répondre à l'EPP. La différence moyenne s'est établie à 57 (IC à 95%, 39 à 75). Les étudiants préféreraient (82%) qu'on utilise l'EPP pour formuler des commentaires et évaluer leur rendement au cours des stages cliniques. Conclusions : Il est possible et acceptable d'utiliser l'EPP pour évaluer les compétences cliniques des étudiants en physiothérapie à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of group III Rich In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian; Clemens, Jonathon B.; Chagarov, Evgueni A.; Feldwinn, Darby L.; Melitz, Wilhelm; Song, Tao; Bishop, Sarah R.; Kummel, Andrew C.; Droopad, Ravi

    2010-09-01

    The structural and electronic properties of group III rich In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001) have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). At room temperature (300 K), STM images show that the In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) reconstruction is comprised of undimerized In/Ga atoms in the top layer. Quantitative comparison of the In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) and InAs(001)-(4 × 2) shows the reconstructions are almost identical, but In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) has at least a 4× higher surface defect density even on the best samples. At low temperature (77 K), STM images show that the most probable In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001) reconstruction is comprised of one In/Ga dimer and two undimerized In/Ga atoms in the top layer in a double (4 × 2) unit cell. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations at elevated temperature are consistent with the experimentally observed 300 K structure being a thermal superposition of three structures. DFT molecular dynamics (MD) show the row dimer formation and breaking is facilitated by the very large motions of tricoodinated row edge As atoms and z motion of In/Ga row atoms induced changes in As-In/Ga-As bond angles at elevated temperature. STS results show there is a surface dipole or the pinning states near the valence band (VB) for 300 K In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) surface consistent with DFT calculations. DFT calculations of the band-decomposed charge density indicate that the strained unbuckled trough dimers being responsible for the surface pinning.

  14. The quantal nature of transmission and spontaneous potentials at the Torpedo electromotor junction.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, L

    1985-01-01

    Miniature and stimulus evoked electroplaque potentials (mEpPs and EpPs) were recorded in Torpedo electrocytes intracellularly and extracellularly. The quantal release parameters of EpPs and the time course of quantal EpCs were estimated in normal and low Ca2+-high Mg2+ solutions. Amplitude-frequency distribution of mEpPs showed Gaussian or uneven character with an average mean value of 0.3 +/- 0.08 mV (S.D.). The mean coefficient of variation of mEpPs was 26.8 +/- 7.2% (n = 6). Tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked the stimulus evoked EpP but hardly influenced the amplitude-frequency histogram of spontaneous EpPs in 10(-8)-10(-6) M concentration. The quantum content of stimulus evoked EpPs varied between 100-400 in normal solution which decreased in low Ca2+-high Mg2+ solution and the quantal release conformed to binomial statistics and allowed determination of the parameters p and n. Frequency of the spontaneous discharges varied highly from electrocyte to electrocyte but an analysis of the time intervals showed randomness for the events. The decay phase of quantal current composed of non-exponential and exponential sections which was characteristic with 0.75 +/- 0.16 msec (mean, S.D., at 20 degrees C) time constant of exponential decay. Although, two types of mEpCs could be differentiated having significantly slower and faster time courses. Neostigmine prolonged the time constant of decay of mEpCs in dose-dependent manner with a factor of 2 in 10(-6) M and of 4 in 10(-5) M concentrations (at about 20 degrees C).

  15. The UK Expert Patients Program: lessons learned and implications for cancer survivors' self-care support programs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patricia M

    2008-03-01

    Globally, the enablement of self-care is increasingly being recognised as an essential component of chronic disease management. Within the UK a key self-care policy initiative is the Expert Patients Program. Developed from the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, this is a 6 week self-management education program for people with different chronic diseases, facilitated by lay volunteers. As an example of a major public health initiative designed to enhance self-management in long-term conditions, this paper draws on evaluations of the EPP and CDSMP and analyzes the implications for the development of similar programs for cancer survivors. There are a number of evaluations of the CDSMP which suggest significant improvement in participants' chronic disease management self-efficacy and some evidence of healthcare utilization reduction. However, whilst the national evaluation of the EPP demonstrated similar improvements in self-efficacy and health status, there was no significant effect on healthcare utilization. Trials of such programs need to be treated with some caution as participants are often not typical of the general population, and as a complex intervention effectiveness is inherently difficult to assess. Qualitative evaluations revealed that the EPP's strength was derived mainly through peer support and learning. Nevertheless, a number of contextual problems were identified including recruitment, clinicians' lack of engagement with the program and inflexible course materials. Lay-led self-care support programs such as the EPP have a significantly positive effect on self-efficacy which could be of benefit to cancer survivors. However, a number of lessons should be learned from the EPP when developing similar initiatives for cancer survivors.

  16. Comparison of treadmill and cycle ergometer measurements of force-velocity relationships and power output.

    PubMed

    Jaskólska, A; Goossens, P; Veenstra, B; Jaskólski, A; Skinner, J S

    1999-04-01

    Since body balance and weight-bearing factors present while running on the treadmill might cause additional muscle recruitment and thus could influence the force-velocity relationship and power, the present study was undertaken to find out whether the F-V and F-P relationships measured while running on the treadmill are different from the respective indices measured during cycling. On two separate occasions, 32 male subjects were tested using a series of 5 sec, all-out sprints against different braking forces on the Gymrol Sprint treadmill and on the Monark ergometer. The maximal peak power (PPmax) and maximal mean power (MPmax) were measured. The equation: EP = 0.5 maximal force (Fo) x0.5 maximal velocity (Vo) was used to calculate the estimated values of peak power (EPP) and mean power (EMP). The F-V relationship was linear in both cycle ergometer and treadmill measurements. PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP values on the treadmill were lower than the respective values on the ergometer. EPP on the ergometer and on the treadmill, as well as EMP values on the ergometer, were slightly higher than the corresponding measured values of PPmax and MPmax. The levels of braking force at which PP, MP, PPmax, and MPmax were obtained were lower on the ergometer than on the treadmill. High correlation coefficients were found between PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP measured on the ergometer and on the treadmill (r = 0.86, r = 0.84, r = 0.71, r = 0.78, respectively, P<0.01). In both tests, significant relationships between PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP were observed. It is concluded that independent of the type of ergometry the force-velocity relationship is similar in the measured range of velocities which suggests that the number of muscle groups and joints engaged in movement are more important than body balance and weight-bearing factors present while running on a treadmill.

  17. Extra-pair paternity and egg dumping in birds: life history, parental care and the risk of retaliation.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Owens, Ian P F

    2002-01-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed striking variation among bird species in the rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) and intraspecific brood parasitism (IBP). In terms of the proportion of broods affected, rates of EPP and IBP vary across species from 0-95% and 0-50%, respectively. Despite a plethora of hypotheses and several careful comparative analyses, few robust correlates of this interspecific variation have been identified. One explanation for this shortfall is that most comparative studies have tended to focus on contemporary ecological factors and ignored fundamental differences in reproductive biology that evolved millions of years ago. We show that, for both EPP and IBP, over 50% of interspecific variation is due to differences among taxonomic families and orders. Therefore, we test hypotheses that predict interspecific variation in the rate of alternative reproductive strategies should be associated with differences in life history and the form of parental care. Our analyses largely support these predictions, with high rates of reproductive cheating being associated with 'fast' life histories. High EPP rates are associated with high rates of adult mortality and reduced paternal care. High IBP rates are associated with high-fecundity rates. These patterns remain intact whether we use species as independent data points or evolutionary contrasts based on either molecular or morphological phylogenies. These results are interpreted as supporting the idea that alternative reproductive strategies are most common in taxa in which the risks of retaliation are low. We suggest a hierarchical explanation for interspecific variation in the incidence of alternative reproductive strategies. Variation between major avian lineages in the EPP and IBP rates are determined by fundamental differences in life history and parental care that evolved many millions of years ago. Variation between populations or individuals of the same species, however, are more likely to be

  18. High frequency of extra-pair paternity in an urban population of Cooper's Hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Stout, William C.; Talbot, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Raptors exhibit some of the highest rates of intra-pair copulations among birds, perhaps in an attempt by males to reduce the risk of being cuckolded. Indeed, the frequency of extra-pair fertilizations reported in studies of raptors to date is relatively low (0-11.2%). Socially monogamous Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) exhibit one of the highest copulation rates among birds, yet there are no published accounts of extra-pair copulations (or paternity). We studied a population of Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during three breeding seasons (2003, 2004, and 2007), examining the possible effects of age (1 yr old vs. ≥ 2 yr old), adult mass, and brood size on the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that 19.3% of nestlings (N = 27/140) were extra-pair young (EPY), and 34% of all broods (N = 15/44) had at least one EPY. The sires of the EPY in our study were identified for only two broods, suggesting that floater males may have engaged in extra-pair copulations with territorial females. We found that brood size was a good predictor of the occurrence of EPP (EPP) in nests, but adult mass and female age were not. To our knowledge, these possible correlates of the occurrence of EPP in raptors had not previously been investigated. Male Cooper's Hawks provide food for females during the pre-nesting period, and delivery of food is, in contrast to other raptor species, typically followed by copulation. Thus, one possible explanation of the relatively high rates of EPP in our study is that females might accept or even solicit extra-pair copulations from males other than their mates as a means of maximizing energy intake for egg production. Such behavior might be particularly likely in our study area, i.e., a food-rich urban setting with a high breeding density of Cooper's Hawks.

  19. Atmospheric Effects of Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Arctic Winter 1978-1979 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (approximately 2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003 2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  20. Atmospheric effects of energetic particle precipitation in the Arctic winter 1978-1979 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (˜2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003-2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  1. Antisense oligonucleotide-based therapy in human erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Oustric, Vincent; Manceau, Hana; Ducamp, Sarah; Soaid, Rima; Karim, Zoubida; Schmitt, Caroline; Mirmiran, Arienne; Peoc'h, Katell; Grandchamp, Bernard; Beaumont, Carole; Lyoumi, Said; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Guyonnet-Dupérat, Véronique; de Verneuil, Hubert; Marie, Joëlle; Puy, Herve; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent

    2014-04-03

    In 90% of people with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), the disease results from the inheritance of a common hypomorphic FECH allele, encoding ferrochelatase, in trans to a private deleterious FECH mutation. The activity of the resulting FECH enzyme falls below the critical threshold of 35%, leading to the accumulation of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in bone marrow erythroblasts and in red cells. The mechanism of low expression involves a biallelic polymorphism (c.315-48T>C) localized in intron 3. The 315-48C allele increases usage of the 3' cryptic splice site between exons 3 and 4, resulting in the transcription of an unstable mRNA with a premature stop codon, reducing the abundance of wild-type FECH mRNA, and finally reducing FECH activity. Through a candidate-sequence approach and an antisense-oligonucleotide-tiling method, we identified a sequence that, when targeted by an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-V1), prevented usage of the cryptic splice site. In lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from symptomatic EPP subjects, transfection of ASO-V1 reduced the usage of the cryptic splice site and efficiently redirected the splicing of intron 3 toward the physiological acceptor site, thereby increasing the amount of functional FECH mRNA. Moreover, the administration of ASO-V1 into developing human erythroblasts from an overtly EPP subject markedly increased the production of WT FECH mRNA and reduced the accumulation of PPIX to a level similar to that measured in asymptomatic EPP subjects. Thus, EPP is a paradigmatic Mendelian disease in which the in vivo correction of a common single splicing defect would improve the condition of most affected individuals.

  2. Antisense Oligonucleotide-Based Therapy in Human Erythropoietic Protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Oustric, Vincent; Manceau, Hana; Ducamp, Sarah; Soaid, Rima; Karim, Zoubida; Schmitt, Caroline; Mirmiran, Arienne; Peoc’h, Katell; Grandchamp, Bernard; Beaumont, Carole; Lyoumi, Said; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Guyonnet-Dupérat, Véronique; de Verneuil, Hubert; Marie, Joëlle; Puy, Herve; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In 90% of people with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), the disease results from the inheritance of a common hypomorphic FECH allele, encoding ferrochelatase, in trans to a private deleterious FECH mutation. The activity of the resulting FECH enzyme falls below the critical threshold of 35%, leading to the accumulation of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in bone marrow erythroblasts and in red cells. The mechanism of low expression involves a biallelic polymorphism (c.315−48T>C) localized in intron 3. The 315−48C allele increases usage of the 3′ cryptic splice site between exons 3 and 4, resulting in the transcription of an unstable mRNA with a premature stop codon, reducing the abundance of wild-type FECH mRNA, and finally reducing FECH activity. Through a candidate-sequence approach and an antisense-oligonucleotide-tiling method, we identified a sequence that, when targeted by an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-V1), prevented usage of the cryptic splice site. In lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from symptomatic EPP subjects, transfection of ASO-V1 reduced the usage of the cryptic splice site and efficiently redirected the splicing of intron 3 toward the physiological acceptor site, thereby increasing the amount of functional FECH mRNA. Moreover, the administration of ASO-V1 into developing human erythroblasts from an overtly EPP subject markedly increased the production of WT FECH mRNA and reduced the accumulation of PPIX to a level similar to that measured in asymptomatic EPP subjects. Thus, EPP is a paradigmatic Mendelian disease in which the in vivo correction of a common single splicing defect would improve the condition of most affected individuals. PMID:24680888

  3. Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Medical Data: Improved Self-Adaptive Niche Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Jing; Yan, Molei; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical technology, more and more parameters are produced to describe the human physiological condition, forming high-dimensional clinical datasets. In clinical analysis, data are commonly utilized to establish mathematical models and carry out classification. High-dimensional clinical data will increase the complexity of classification, which is often utilized in the models, and thus reduce efficiency. The Niche Genetic Algorithm (NGA) is an excellent algorithm for dimensionality reduction. However, in the conventional NGA, the niche distance parameter is set in advance, which prevents it from adjusting to the environment. In this paper, an Improved Niche Genetic Algorithm (INGA) is introduced. It employs a self-adaptive niche-culling operation in the construction of the niche environment to improve the population diversity and prevent local optimal solutions. The INGA was verified in a stratification model for sepsis patients. The results show that, by applying INGA, the feature dimensionality of datasets was reduced from 77 to 10 and that the model achieved an accuracy of 92% in predicting 28-day death in sepsis patients, which is significantly higher than other methods.

  4. Morphology, structure, and properties of Cu-poor and Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films partially selenized using H2Se gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anjun; Huang, Yongliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Xian, Wang; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Zhengxin

    2016-11-01

    Cu-poor and Cu-rich metallic precursors were prepared by cosputtering from In and Cu-Ga alloy targets and then partially selenized using H2Se gas. The properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films are comparatively studied and the phase transition process is analyzed. The cosputtered metallic precursor has a rough morphology mostly covered by large In-rich nodules. After selenization, a large number of crumblike InSe grains were formed from the nodules on the surface of the Cu-rich film, whereas the Cu-poor film shows a dense surface. The selenized films comprise CIGS, Cu9(In,Ga)4 intermetallic, and the InSe phases. The proportion of the Cu9(In,Ga)4 phase in the Cu-rich film is more than that in the Cu-poor film. After annealing, the residual Cu9(In,Ga)4 of the Cu-poor film is eliminated. A negligible effect of Cu/(In+Ga) on the grain size can be observed. The CIGS solar cell with an efficiency of 15.1% was prepared by this method.

  5. Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Medical Data: Improved Self-Adaptive Niche Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Jing; Yan, Molei; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical technology, more and more parameters are produced to describe the human physiological condition, forming high-dimensional clinical datasets. In clinical analysis, data are commonly utilized to establish mathematical models and carry out classification. High-dimensional clinical data will increase the complexity of classification, which is often utilized in the models, and thus reduce efficiency. The Niche Genetic Algorithm (NGA) is an excellent algorithm for dimensionality reduction. However, in the conventional NGA, the niche distance parameter is set in advance, which prevents it from adjusting to the environment. In this paper, an Improved Niche Genetic Algorithm (INGA) is introduced. It employs a self-adaptive niche-culling operation in the construction of the niche environment to improve the population diversity and prevent local optimal solutions. The INGA was verified in a stratification model for sepsis patients. The results show that, by applying INGA, the feature dimensionality of datasets was reduced from 77 to 10 and that the model achieved an accuracy of 92% in predicting 28-day death in sepsis patients, which is significantly higher than other methods. PMID:26649071

  6. Historical effects on beta diversity and community assembly in Amazonian trees.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Kyle G; Terborgh, John W; Cunningham, Clifford W

    2012-05-15

    We present a unique perspective on the role of historical processes in community assembly by synthesizing analyses of species turnover among communities with environmental data and independent, population genetic-derived estimates of among-community dispersal. We sampled floodplain and terra firme communities of the diverse tree genus Inga (Fabaceae) across a 250-km transect in Amazonian Peru and found patterns of distance-decay in compositional similarity in both habitat types. However, conventional analyses of distance-decay masked a zone of increased species turnover present in the middle of the transect. We estimated past seed dispersal among the same communities by examining geographic plastid DNA variation for eight widespread Inga species and uncovered a population genetic break in the majority of species that is geographically coincident with the zone of increased species turnover. Analyses of these and 12 additional Inga species shared between two communities located on opposite sides of the zone showed that the populations experienced divergence 42,000-612,000 y ago. Our results suggest that the observed distance decay is the result not of environmental gradients or dispersal limitation coupled with ecological drift--as conventionally interpreted under neutral ecological theory--but rather of secondary contact between historically separated communities. Thus, even at this small spatial scale, historical processes seem to significantly impact species' distributions and community assembly. Other documented zones of increased species turnover found in the western Amazon basin or elsewhere may be related to similar historical processes.

  7. Creating a More Inclusive Talent Pool for the GeoSciences in NOAA Mission Fields:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J.; Trotman, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) is recognized as a model federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, (STEM) education investment. The EPP has a premier goal of increasing the numbers of students, especially from underrepresented communities, who are trained and awarded degrees in NOAA mission-relevant STEM fields. This goal is being achieved through awards to support undergraduate and graduate level student scholarships and to enhance NOAA mission-relevant education, research and internships at EPP Cooperative Science Centers located at MSIs. The internships allow undergraduate students to gain technical experience in STEM fields while gaining an understanding of a science mission agency such as NOAA. EPP has built evidence supporting the value of internships with its Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP). Program metrics are used to refine and improve the internship to ensure student success. Scholarships are competitively awarded and requires applicants to submit a personal statement detailing the NOAA-relevant professional experience the applicant seeks to acquire, and gauges the depth of understanding of the work of NOAA.A focus is the EPP USP Student Internship at NOAA, which has two training phases. The first occurs at NOAA HQ in Maryland and incorporates exposure to NOAA professional culture including mentoring and professional development for scholarship recipients. The second occurs at NOAA facilities in the 50 states and US Territories. The internship projects are conducted under the supervision of a NOAA mentor and allow the scholars to: acquire increased science and technology skills: be attached to a research group and participate in a research activity as part of the team; and, acquire practical experience and knowledge of the day-to-day work of the NOAA facility. EPP has recently initiated the Experiential Research and Training

  8. The role of thoracic surgery in the management of mesothelioma: an expert opinion on the limited evidence.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Pietro; Waller, David A

    2016-06-01

    Surgery has a key role at different points in the management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Diagnosis with video assisted thoracoscopy offers excellent sensitivity and specificity and a direct view of the pleural cavity to verify the extent of the tumor. Nodal involvement can be assessed by mediastinoscopy and either talc pleurodesis or partial pleurectomy can be used for symptom control in advanced stage disease. Extra Pleural Pneumonectomy (EPP) and Extended Pleurectomy Decortication (EPD) are used to prolong survival although the benefit of radical surgery has not has been fully clarified; EPP failed to show its benefit in the MARS trial and EPD is currently under investigation in the MARS2 trial. More randomized prospective trial data are needed to fully understand the role of radical surgery in the treatment of pleural mesothelioma.

  9. Energetic Particle Influence on the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, Irina A.; Aplin, Karen L.; Arnold, Frank; Bazilevskaya, Galina A.; Harrison, R. Giles; Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Turunen, Esa; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript gives an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) onto the whole atmosphere, from the lower thermosphere/mesosphere through the stratosphere and troposphere, to the surface. The paper summarizes the different sources and energies of particles, principally galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles (SEPs) and energetic electron precipitation (EEP). All the proposed mechanisms by which EPP can affect the atmosphere are discussed, including chemical changes in the upper atmosphere and lower thermosphere, chemistry-dynamics feedbacks, the global electric circuit and cloud formation. The role of energetic particles in Earth's atmosphere is a multi-disciplinary problem that requires expertise from a range of scientific backgrounds. To assist with this synergy, summary tables are provided, which are intended to evaluate the level of current knowledge of the effects of energetic particles on processes in the entire atmosphere.

  10. Personality characteristics in heroin addicts and nonaddicted prisoners using the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule.

    PubMed

    Reith, G; Crockett, D; Craig, K

    1975-01-01

    The present study compares the self-reported personality characteristics of heroin addict and nonaddict prisoners using the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS) which was corrected for social desirability. Seventy pairs of addicted and nonaddicted criminal offenders were matched for age, education, intelligence, and home environment. The addicted offenders were identified by the pattern of their response to the EPPS as reflected by the significant multivariate results. In addition, significant univariate differences consistent with those previously reported were found. Addicted criminals had stronger succorance, heterosexuality, and aggression needs and less abasement and endurance needs than nonaddicted offenders. Age, educational achievment, intelligence,and home environment had little influence on the prisoners' response to this self-report personality inventory.

  11. Filamentous-haemagglutinin-like protein genes encoded on a plasmid of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Tsutomu; Sarataphan, Nopporn; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Takai, Shinji

    2006-11-26

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid, pMBO-1, from Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined. We identified 30 open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by the 44,215bp molecule. Two large ORFs, flpA and flpB, encoding proteins with similarity to Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), were identified on the same plasmid. The gene for a specific accessory protein (Fap), which may play a role in the secretion of Flp protein, was also identified. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from M. bovis Epp63 indicated that the flpA, flpB, and fap genes are all transcribed. Southern blot analysis indicated that the flp and fap genes are present in other clinical isolates of geographically diverse M. bovis.

  12. Effects of energetic particles precipitation on stratospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zossi de Artigas, Marta; Zotto, Elda M.; Mansilla, Gustavo A.; Fernandez de Campra, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    Measurements from TOMS and UARS-HALOE are used to estimate the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) over the stratosphere during two geomagnetic storms occurred in November of the years 2003 and 2004. The EPP couples the solar wind to the Earth's atmosphere and indirectly to the Earth's climate. Due to particle precipitation, the ionization and dissociation increase, and create odd nitrogen (NOx) and odd hydrogen (HOx) in the upper atmosphere, which can affect ozone chemistry. In this paper, statistically significant variation in total ozone content at middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is observed. The variations depend on the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the geomagnetic longitude. A significant variation in NOx concentration at altitudes from 30 to 50 km is observed from the profiles analysis.

  13. Insights into public export promotion programs in an emerging economy: the case of Malaysian SMEs.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Abu H; Freixanet, Joan

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of public export promotion programs (EPPs) among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Three indicators, level of awareness, frequency of use, and perception of usefulness, were examined according to a firm's export status. The global evaluation suggests that exporters are more frequent users of EPPs and perceive them to be more useful than non-exporters. Nonetheless, both groups demonstrate higher levels of awareness, are frequent users, and perceive the programs relating to export info/knowledge are more usefulness than programs relating to financial assistance. Further analysis also reveals that the frequency of use and the perception of usefulness for most programs are positively related to export experience, but not to export turnover. This study offers insights into the effectiveness of export programs for encouraging export initiation and expansion in an emerging economy.

  14. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: Case report of three cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pickardt syndrome (Pickardt-Fahlbusch syndrome) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by tertiary hypothyroidism caused by the interruption of the portal veins between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis. Typical features of this syndrome are tertiary hypothyroidism with low thyroid stimulating hormone, hyperprolactinemia and other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is characterized by a triad of thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, aplasia or hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a congenital anomaly of pituitary whose exact prevalence is unknown. In some cases, it is restricted to EPP or pituitary stalk interruption. We are presenting the case history along with MRI finding of three children's who presented with short stature and delayed puberty. PMID:25250085

  15. An Overview of the Impact of Energetic Particle Precipitation on the Mesosphere and Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HO, increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx,-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The HOx,-caused ozone depletion has been observed during several solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 40 years. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in the past solar cycle. A number of modeling studies have been undertaken over this time period that show predictions of enhanced HO, accompanied by decreased ozone due to energetic particles. The NO, family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the 1ow.er thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events, and SPEs have been measured and/or modeled for decades Only a small number of SPEs (less than 10) in each solar cycle have sufficient flux of high energy protons (greater than 30 MeV) to produce a significant amount of NOx directly in the stratosphere to cause a measurable ozone destruction. Very high energy electrons (greater than 1500 keV) during REP events can also produce NOx directly in the stratosphere, however, the frequency and intensity of these

  16. Nurse Educator Pathway Project: a competency-based intersectoral curriculum.

    PubMed

    Young, Lynne; Frost, Linda J; Bigl, Julie; Clauson, Marion; McRae, Cora; Scarborough, Kathy S; Murphy, Sue; Jillings, Carol; Gillespie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), an education infrastructure that was developed in response to emerging critical nursing workplace issues, and the related demand for enhanced workplace education. We then describe the EPP competency-based curriculum designed to prepare nurses as preceptors, mentors, and educators to lead learning with diverse learner groups. This competency-based curriculum was developed through a collaboration of nurse leaders across practice, academic, and union sectors and drew from a widely embraced curriculum development model (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyzyn, 2005). The goal of the curriculum was to prepare nurses through a four-level career pathway model that contextualized practice and education theory to various education-related roles and levels of experience within the practice setting. Over 1,100 nurses participated in this innovative intersectoral nursing initiative.

  17. New developments in erythropoietic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Darwich, E; Herrero, C

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, important advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics of porphyrias, particularly with respect to erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), 2 forms of erythropoietic porphyria no longer considered to be monogenic. The identification of mutations in genes not previously associated with these disorders as causative factors or modulators of severity has helped to explain the presence of genotypic and phenotypic differences between patients carrying the same mutations. These advances have also led to the identification of causative genetic defects in patients who, based on molecular studies, had no mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene UROS (in CEP) or in the ferrochelatase gene FECH (in EPP). Better understanding and characterization of the genetics of porphyrias will allow us to determine genotypic and phenotypic correlations and improve the molecular classification of these diseases, which will have both practical and prognostic implications.

  18. An Investigation on Low Velocity Impact Response of Multilayer Sandwich Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Jedari Salami, S.; Sadighi, M.; Shakeri, M.; Moeinfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  19. Noninvasive respiratory management and diaphragm and electrophrenic pacing in neuromuscular disease and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to describe noninvasive management of respiratory muscle weakness/paralysis for patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) assists and supports inspiratory muscles, whereas mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) simulates an effective cough. Long-term outcomes will be reviewed as well as the use of NIV, MAC, and electrophrenic pacing (EPP) and diaphragm pacing (DP) to facilitate extubation and decannulation. Although EPP and DP can facilitate decannulation and maintain alveolar ventilation for high-level SCI patients when they cannot use NIV because of lack of access to oral interfaces, there is no evidence that they have any place in the management of NMD.

  20. Effect of prolonged inactivity on skeletal motor nerve terminals during aestivation in the burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Choy, Peng T; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the effect of prolonged inactivity, associated with aestivation, on neuromuscular transmission in the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. We compared the structure and function of the neuromuscular junctions on the iliofibularis muscle from active C. alboguttata and from C. alboguttata that had been aestivating for 6 months. Despite the prolonged period of immobility, there was no significant difference in the shape of the terminals (primary, secondary or tertiary branches) or the length of primary terminal branches between aestivators and non-aestivators. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the membrane potentials of muscle fibres or in miniature end plate potential (EPP) frequency and amplitude. However, there was a significant decrease in evoked transmitter release characterised by a 56% decrease in mean EPP amplitude, and a 29% increase in the failure rate of nerve terminal action potentials to evoke transmitter release. The impact of this suite of neuromuscular characteristics on the locomotor performance of emergent frogs is discussed.

  1. Gene Therapy of Breast Cancer: Studies of Selection Promoter/Enhancer-Modified Vectors to Deliver Suicide Genes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    carcinoembryonic antigen - expressing tumor cells in bone 21 "DAMD17-94-J-4394 DONALD W. KUFE, M.D. marrow aspirates by polymerase chain reaction . J. Clin. Oncol...1992. Detection of tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with primary breast cancer: a prognostic factor for distant metastasis. J. Clin. Oncol. 10...Vachula, M. J. Kennedy, H. Kaizer, J. S. Coon, R. Ghalie, S. Williams, and D. Van Epps. 1995.

  2. Oxaliplatin induces hyperexcitability at motor and autonomic neuromuscular junctions through effects on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard G; Brain, Keith L; Wilson, Richard H; Grem, Jean L; Vincent, Angela

    2005-12-01

    Oxaliplatin, an effective cytotoxic treatment in combination with 5-fluorouracil for colorectal cancer, is associated with sensory, motor and autonomic neurotoxicity. Motor symptoms include hyperexcitability while autonomic effects include urinary retention, but the cause of these side-effects is unknown. We examined the effects on motor nerve function in the mouse hemidiaphragm and on the autonomic system in the vas deferens. In the mouse diaphragm, oxaliplatin (0.5 mM) induced multiple endplate potentials (EPPs) following a single stimulus, and was associated with an increase in spontaneous miniature EPP frequency. In the vas deferens, spontaneous excitatory junction potential frequency was increased after 30 min exposure to oxaliplatin; no changes in resting Ca(2+) concentration in nerve terminal varicosities were observed, and recovery after stimuli trains was unaffected. In both tissues, an oxaliplatin-induced increase in spontaneous activity was prevented by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Carbamazepine (0.3 mM) also prevented multiple EPPs and the increase in spontaneous activity in both tissues. In diaphragm, beta-pompilidotoxin (100 microM), which slows Na(+) channel inactivation, induced multiple EPPs similar to oxaliplatin's effect. By contrast, blockers of K(+) channels (4-aminopyridine and apamin) did not replicate oxaliplatin-induced hyperexcitability in the diaphragm. The prevention of hyperexcitability by TTX blockade implies that oxaliplatin acts on nerve conduction rather than by effecting repolarisation. The similarity between beta-pompilidotoxin and oxaliplatin suggests that alteration of voltage-gated Na(+) channel kinetics is likely to underlie the acute neurotoxic actions of oxaliplatin.

  3. Towards an improved ensemble precipitation forecast: A probabilistic post-processing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajehei, Sepideh; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Recently, ensemble post-processing (EPP) has become a commonly used approach for reducing the uncertainty in forcing data and hence hydrologic simulation. The procedure was introduced to build ensemble precipitation forecasts based on the statistical relationship between observations and forecasts. More specifically, the approach relies on a transfer function that is developed based on a bivariate joint distribution between the observations and the simulations in the historical period. The transfer function is used to post-process the forecast. In this study, we propose a Bayesian EPP approach based on copula functions (COP-EPP) to improve the reliability of the precipitation ensemble forecast. Evaluation of the copula-based method is carried out by comparing the performance of the generated ensemble precipitation with the outputs from an existing procedure, i.e. mixed type meta-Gaussian distribution. Monthly precipitation from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFS) and gridded observation from Parameter-Elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) have been employed to generate the post-processed ensemble precipitation. Deterministic and probabilistic verification frameworks are utilized in order to evaluate the outputs from the proposed technique. Distribution of seasonal precipitation for the generated ensemble from the copula-based technique is compared to the observation and raw forecasts for three sub-basins located in the Western United States. Results show that both techniques are successful in producing reliable and unbiased ensemble forecast, however, the COP-EPP demonstrates considerable improvement in the ensemble forecast in both deterministic and probabilistic verification, in particular in characterizing the extreme events in wet seasons.

  4. Analysis of Performance Resulting from the Design of Selected Hand-Held Input Control Devices and Visual Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    Model Builder (GFLMBJ (Software Manual). Guelph, Ontario: University of Guelph. Thomas, B., Tyerman, S., and Grimmer , K. (1998). Evaluation of Text ... text selection task. Epps (1986) compared six commonly used cursor devices to determine which were best on target acquisition, text editing and...characteristics, analysis of the user performance, and the subjective data will be used to develop pointing device guidelines that best support the

  5. Neurotransmitter release evoked by nerve impulses without Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels in frog motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E M; Watanabe, M; Redman, R S; Qiu, R; Hirsh, J K; Hunt, J M; Solsona, C S; Alford, S; MacDonald, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. The requirement for extracellular Ca2+ in the process of evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release by nerve impulses was tested at endplates in frog skeletal muscle. Ca(2+)-containing lipid vesicles (Ca2+ liposomes) were used to elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations under conditions in which Ca2+ entry from the extracellular fluid was prevented. 2. In an extracellular solution containing no added Ca2+ and 1 mM Mg2+ ('Ca(2+)-free' solution), Ca2+ liposomes promoted the synchronous release of ACh quanta, reflected electrophysiologically as endplate potentials (EPPs), in response to temporally isolated nerve impulses. 3. Motor nerve stimulation generated EPPs during superfusion with Ca2+ liposomes in Ca(2+)-free solutions containing the Ca2+ channel blocker Co2+ (1 mM), and the Ca2+ chelator EGTA (2 mM). As a physiological control for Ca2+ leakage from the liposomes to the extracellular fluid, the effect of Ca2+ liposomes on asynchronous evoked ACh release mediated by Ba2+ was examined. In contrast to the effects of 0.2-0.3 mM extracellular Ca2+, which generated EPPs but antagonized Ba(2+)-mediated asynchronous ACh release, Ca2+ liposomes generated EPPs but did not reduce asynchronous release mediated by Ba2+. The effects of Ca2+ liposomes were thus not due to leakage of Ca2+ from the liposome to the extracellular fluid. 4. Morphological studies using fluorescently labelled liposomes in conjunction with a confocal microscope demonstrate that lipid is transferred from the liposomes to nerve endings and liposomal contents are delivered to the nerve terminal cytoplasm. 5. The results suggest that when intracellular Ca2+ is elevated using liposomes as a vehicle, evoked ACh release can occur in the absence of Ca2+ entry via Ca2+ channels. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7738845

  6. Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Ruth E; Moores, Thomas S; Morris, Neil P; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2004-12-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05-0.5 mM), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25-150 nM) and Penitrem A (100 nM), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-microM 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05-1 microM. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ.

  7. Functionally Graded Shape Memory Alloy Composites Optimized for Passive Vibration Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-20

    Nitinol , it is anticipated that the wire can only experience an incomplete hysteresis. 2.1. SMA wires in sleeves continuously bonded to the plate...Gilheany, J. 1995. Control of the natural frequencies of nitinol -reinforced composite beams, Journal of Sound and Vibrations, Vol. 185, 171-185. 3 Ro...J., and Baz, A., 1995. Nitinol -reinforced plates: Part III, Dynamic characteristics, Composites Engineering, Vol. 5, 91-106. 4 Epps, J and Chandra

  8. Development of buffers for fast semidry transfer of proteins.

    PubMed

    Garić, Dušan; Humbert, Laure; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Korah, Juliana; Zarfabian, Yasaman; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2013-10-15

    Western blot is an extensively used method for protein detection in cell biology. To optimize this procedure, here we examined a panel of buffers for their ability to efficiently transfer proteins from SDS-polyacrylamide gels onto nitrocellulose membranes in a short 12-min period, designated here as fast semidry transfer. Our results show for the first time that HEPES- and HEPPS/EPPS-based buffers represent the most efficient buffers for fast semidry transfer.

  9. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase 4. Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the automated instructional system on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams AF8, Arizona (Faconti & Epps, 1975; Faconti...Nortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980; Knoop, 1973). The ASPT is a sophisticated research device that incorporates advanced visual and...potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found that SIs tended to use the device in a fairly conventional manner. with few

  10. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  11. Extracts from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants ameliorate cellular and animal models of neurodegenerative proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Michelle; Ghio, Stephanie; Neuner, Johanna; Gauci, Alison J; Cacciottolo, Rebecca; Marchal, Christelle; Caruana, Mario; Cullin, Christophe; Vassallo, Neville; Cauchi, Ruben J

    2017-01-18

    A signature feature of age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the misfolding and aggregation of proteins, typically amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD), into soluble oligomeric structures that are highly neurotoxic. Cellular and animal models that faithfully replicate the hallmark features of these disorders are being increasing exploited to identify disease-modifying compounds. Natural compounds have been identified as a useful source of bioactive molecules with promising neuroprotective capabilities. In the present report, we investigated whether extracts derived from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants namely, the prickly pear Opuntia ficus-indica (EOFI) and the brown alga Padina pavonica (EPP) alleviate neurodegenerative phenotypes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fly (Drosophila melanogaster) models of AD and PD. Pre-treatment with EPP or EOFI in the culture medium significantly improved the viability of yeast expressing the Arctic Aβ42 (E22G) mutant. Supplementing food with EOFI or EPP dramatically ameliorated lifespan and behavioural signs of flies with brain-specific expression of wild-type Aβ42 (model of late-onset AD) or the Arctic Aβ42 variant (model of early-onset AD). Additionally, we show that either extract prolonged the survival of a PD fly model based on transgenic expression of the human α-syn A53T mutant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the plant-derived extracts interfere with shared mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD and PD. This notion is strengthened by evidence demonstrating that EOFI and to a greater extent EPP, while strongly inhibiting the fibrillogenesis of both Aβ42 and α-syn, accumulate remodelled oligomeric aggregates that are less effective at disrupting lipid membrane integrity. Our work therefore opens new avenues for developing therapeutic applications of these natural plant extracts in the treatment of amyloidogenic

  12. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying; Bolton, Jr., Harvey

    2002-06-01

    This project, by Dr. Xun, supports work at PNNL (Bolton) regarding plutonium mobility in the subsurface. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is a chelating agent that can increase the mobility of radionuclides and heavy metals in groundwater. Biodegradation of EDTA can decrease the enhanced mobility. The overall objective is to understand how microbial degradation affects Plutonium-EDTA transport in the environment and the specific objective of this component is to understand how microorganisms degrade EDTA. A chelating degrading bacterium BNC1 can use EDTA and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. A gene cluster responsible for both EDTA and NTA degradation has been cloned and characterized (1,2). The same enzymes are used to degrade both compounds except that additional enzymes are required for EDTA degradation. Since the enzymes are located inside cells, EDTA and NTA must be transported into cells for degradation. For the first funding year, we have focused on how EDTA and NTA are transported into BNC1 cells. The EDTA-degrading gene cluster also contains genes encoding a hypothetical ABC-type transporter. We first demonstrated that the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene (emoA) were co-transcribed by RT-PCR, suggesting that the genes are involved in EDTA transport. We then characterized one of the gene product EppA. Using recombinant EppA purified from Escherichia coli, we have shown that EppA binds several metal:EDTA complexes by fluorescence techniques. In addition, EppA is shown to bind Mg:NTA, Ca:NTA and Fe(III):NTA but not free NTA.

  13. Influence of Radiotherapy Technique and Dose on Patterns of Failure for Mesothelioma Patients After Extrapleural Pneumonectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. . E-mail: aallen@lroc.harvard.edu; Den, Robert; Wong, Julia S.; Zurakowski, David; Soto, Ricardo; Jaenne, Pasi A.; Zellos, Lambros; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David J.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is an effective treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We compared the outcomes after moderate-dose hemithoracic radiotherapy (MDRT) and high-dose hemithoracic RT (HDRT) after EPP for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods and Materials: Between July 1994 and April 2004, 39 patients underwent EPP and adjuvant RT at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital. Between 1994 and 2002, MDRT, including 30 Gy to the hemithorax, 40 Gy to the mediastinum, and boosts to positive margins or nodes to 54 Gy, was given, generally with concurrent chemotherapy. In 2003, HDRT to 54 Gy with a matched photon/electron technique was given, with sequential chemotherapy. Results: A total of 39 patients underwent RT after EPP. The median age was 59 years (range, 44-77). The histologic type was epithelial in 25 patients (64%) and mixed or sarcomatoid in 14 patients (36%). Of the 39 patients, 24 underwent MDRT and 15 (39%) HDRT. The median follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-71). The median overall survival was 19 months (95% confidence interval, 14-24). The median time to distant failure (DF) and local failure (LF) was 20 months (95% confidence interval, 14-26) and 26 months (95% confidence interval, 16-36), respectively. On univariate and multivariate analyses, only a mixed histologic type was predictive of inferior DF (p <0.006) and overall survival (p <0.004). The RT technique was not predictive of LF, DF, or overall survival. The LF rate was 50% (12 of 24) after MDRT and 27% (4 of 15) after HDRT (p = NS). Four patients who had undergone HDRT were alive and without evidence of disease at the last follow-up. Conclusions: High-dose hemithoracic RT appears to limit in-field LF compared with MDRT. However, DF remains a significant challenge, with one-half of our patients experiencing DF.

  14. On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

  15. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  16. Investigation on the Use of Equivalency Factors for the Design and Evaluation of Flexible Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Operations on Alternate Launch and Recovery Surfaces (No. ESL -TR-83-46). Tyndall Air Force Base, FL: Air Force Engineering and Services Center. U.S...Little, D. N., Thompson, M. R., Terrell, R. L., Epps, J. A., & Barenberg, E. J. (1987). Soil Stabilization for Roadways and Airfields (No. ESL -TR...Alternate Launch and Recovery Surfaces (No. ESL -TR-83-46). Tyndall Air Force Base, FL: Air Force Engineering and Services Center. U.S. Army Corps of

  17. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Elaish, M; Kang, K I; Xia, M; Ali, A; Shany, S A S; Wang, L; Jiang, X; Lee, C W

    2015-09-11

    The ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved across strains and has been shown to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine in the mouse model. In this study, we tested immune response and protective efficacy of a chimeric norovirus P particle containing the avian M2e protein against challenges with three avian influenza (AI) viruses (H5N2, H6N2, H7N2) in chickens. Two-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were vaccinated 3 times with an M2e-P particle (M2e-PP) vaccine via the subcutaneous (SQ) route with oil adjuvant, and transmucosal routes (intranasal, IN; eye drop, ED; microspray, MS) without adjuvant. M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route induced significant IgG antibody responses which were increased by each booster vaccination. In groups vaccinated via IN, ED or MS, neither IgG nor IgA responses were detected from sera or nasal washes of immunized birds. The M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route significantly reduced the virus shedding in the trachea and the cloaca for all three challenge viruses. Despite the absence of detectable IgG and IgA responses in birds vaccinated with the M2e-PP via intranasal routes, a similar level of reduction in virus shedding was observed in the IN group compared to the SQ group. Our results supports that the universal vaccine approach using M2e-based vaccine can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses among different HA subtypes although the efficacy of the vaccine should be enhanced further to be practical. Better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of an M2e-based vaccine in chickens.

  18. The mechanism of monensin-mediated cation exchange based on real time measurements.

    PubMed

    Nachliel, E; Finkelstein, Y; Gutman, M

    1996-12-04

    Monensin is an ionophore that supports an electroneutral ion exchange across the lipid bilayer. Because of this, under steady-state conditions, no electric signals accompany its reactions. Using the Laser Induced Proton Pulse as a synchronizing event we selectively acidify one face of a black lipid membrane impregnated by monensin. The short perturbation temporarily upsets the acid-base equilibrium on one face of the membrane, causing a transient cycle of ion exchange. Under such conditions the molecular events could be discerned as a transient electric polarization of the membrane lasting approx. 200 microseconds. The proton-driven chemical reactions that lead to the electric signals had been reconstructed by numeric integration of differential rate equations which constitute a maximalistic description of the multi equilibria nature of the system (Gutman, M. and Nachliel, E. (1989) Electrochim. Acta 34, 1801-1806). The analysis of the reactions reveals that the ionic selectivity of the monensin (H+ > Na+ > K+) is due to more than one term. Besides the well established different affinity for the various cations, the selectivity is also derived from a large difference in the rates of cross membranal diffusivities (MoH > MoNa > MoK), which have never been detected before. (v) Quantitative analysis of the membrane's crossing rates of the three neutral complexes reveals a major role of the membranal dipolar field in regulating ion transport. The diffusion of MoH, which has no dipole moment, is hindered only by the viscose drag. On the other hand, the dipolar complexes (MoNa and MoK) are delayed by dipole-dipole interaction with the membrane. (vi) Comparison of the calculated dipoles with those estimated for the crystalline conformation of the [MoNa(H2O)2] and [MoK(H2O)2] complexes reveals that the MoNa may exist in the membrane at its crystal configuration, while the MoK definitely attains a structure having a dipole moment larger than in the crystal.

  19. Pilin Processing Follows a Different Temporal Route than That of Archaellins in Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Divya B.; Jarrell, Ken F.

    2015-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis has two different surface appendages: type IV-like pili and archaella. Both structures are believed to be assembled using a bacterial type IV pilus mechanism. Each structure is composed of multiple subunits, either pilins or archaellins. Both pilins and archaellins are made initially as preproteins with type IV pilin-like signal peptides, which must be removed by a prepilin peptidase-like enzyme. This enzyme is FlaK for archaellins and EppA for pilins. In addition, both pilins and archaellins are modified with N-linked glycans. The archaellins possess an N-linked tetrasaccharide while the pilins have a pentasaccharide which consists of the archaellin tetrasaccharide but with an additional sugar, an unidentified hexose, attached to the linking sugar. In this report, we show that archaellins can be processed by FlaK in the absence of N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation can occur on archaellins that still retain their signal peptides. In contrast, pilins are not glycosylated unless they have been acted on by EppA to have the signal peptide removed. However, EppA can still remove signal peptides from non-glycosylated pilins. These findings indicate that there is a difference in the order of the posttranslational modifications of pilins and archaellins even though both are type IV pilin-like proteins. PMID:25569238

  20. The structure of the Eysenck Personality Profiler.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C J; Furnham, A; Forde, L; Cotter, T

    2000-05-01

    The dominant issue in personality research over the last decade has been concerned with the fundamental structure of personality and the best measures of that structure. Exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate possible three- and five-factor solutions to the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; Eysenck, Barrett, Wilson, & Jackson, 1992) which consists of 21 primary scales categorized under three super-factors. Little evidence was found to support Costa and McCrae's (1995) unequivocal comment that a five-factor solution fitted the data well. Confirmatory factor analysis was also used, by means of structural equation modelling, to estimate the goodness of fit of three- and five-factor models and little evidence was found to favour one solution over the other. A shorter version of the EPP, which consists of just nine scales, seemed to favour a three-factor solution. Various criticisms of the EPP are also made: some scales have relatively low alpha, there seem to be too many neuroticism scales and the three category response scales seem less than ideal.

  1. Introduction to the eastern Arctic Marine Environmental Studies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterlin, N.; Snow, N.

    1982-01-01

    Main problems are formulated and a study technique is characterized for the environmental protection program (EPP) of the eastern marine area of the Canadian Arctic in the area of physical-geographical (oceanography, meteorology, geomorphology) and biological sciences (microbiology, phytoand zooplankton, benthos, fish, birds and mammals, including white bear) which will be implemented in relation to realization of the extensive plans examined by the Canadian government back in 1977 for development of the large oil and gas resources of this part of the country. With regard for the severity of the ice and climate situation, it is planned to conduct studies of the EPP in the Canadian Arctic with the use of the entire modern scientific and technical potential, from ships and radar units to Earth satellites. Financing and supervision of the research on the EPP come from the government of the country, academic organizations and private firms. The research results will be published by the company Petro-Canada under the title ''Arctic.''

  2. Efficacy of Propolis on the Denture Stomatitis Treatment in Older Adults: A Multicentric Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Gisela de M. S.; Lia, Erica N.; Berretta, Andresa A.; Nascimento, Andresa P.; Torres, Elina C.; Buszinski, Andrei F. M.; de Campos, Tatiana A.; Martins, Vicente de P.

    2017-01-01

    Our hypothesis tested the efficacy and safety of a mucoadhesive oral gel formulation of Brazilian propolis extract compared to miconazole oral gel for the treatment of denture stomatitis due to Candida spp. infection in older adults. Forty patients were randomly allocated in a noninferiority clinical trial into two groups. The control group (MIC) received 20 mg/g miconazole oral gel and the study group (PROP) received mucoadhesive formulation containing standardized extract of 2% (20 mg/g) propolis (EPP-AF®) during 14 days. Patients were examined on days 1, 7, and 14. The Newton's score was used to classify the severity of denture stomatitis. The colony forming unity count (CFU/mL) was quantified and identified (CHROMagar Candida®) before and after the treatment. Baseline characteristics did not differ between groups. Both treatments reduced Newton's score (P < 0.0001), indicating a clinical improvement of the symptoms of candidiasis with a clinical cure rate of 70%. The microbiological cure with significant reduction in fungal burden on T14 was 70% in the miconazole group and 25% in the EPP-AF group. The EPP-AF appears to be noninferior to miconazole considering the clinical cure rate and could be recommended as an alternative treatment in older patients.

  3. Sa-am Five-element Acupuncture and Hwangyeon- haedoktang Pharmacopuncture Treatment for an Essential Tremor: Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Jin; Sun, Seung-Ho

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the effect of a combination of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (EPP) for the treatment of an essential tremor (ET). This study reviewed the medical records treated at OO Korean medical hospital for ET by using diverse types of acupuncture without herbal medicine, other types of physical therapy, and western medication related ET or Parkinson's disease and was performed after the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). The three cases that were finally selected were then extracted and reviewed. The three cases that were finally selected involved three women in their 70s to 80s. The evaluation of the progress was made by using the numeric rating scale. A combined treatment, the method of liver excess (), from amongSa-am five-element acupuncture, and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP at CV23 and CV17, was applied to all cases. In all three cases, the ET was improved, and recurred ETs improved with the same treatment. The results suggest that the combined treatment of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP may be effective for treating an ET, even though this conclusion is based on only three cases.

  4. The evolution of the diminishing role of extrapleural pneumonectomy in the surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Azzouqa, Abdel-Ghani; Stevenson, James P

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon and aggressive thoracic malignancy that is rarely curable, even when multimodality therapy is used. Systemic chemotherapy is the primary treatment for the majority of patients with this disease; however, surgical resection may benefit a subset of patients with early-stage disease. The surgical approach that offers the best outcomes remains an area of controversy, with data from retrospective comparisons being the only guide. Historically, extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) has been the standard procedure, carrying with it a cost of significant morbidity and impact on quality of life that has raised questions regarding its routine application. Over the past two decades as surgical techniques have been refined and survival data with EPP in large case series have been reported, the paradigm has evolved toward the use of lung-sparing pleural resections such as pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) and extended P/D. The identification of patients who may benefit from EPP over pleurectomy has proven problematic, and the larger question regarding the impact of any type of surgical intervention on outcomes for pleural mesothelioma patients is still an area of investigation. Uniform treatment approaches have been difficult to develop due to the relatively small numbers of patients with this disease, the use of a staging system that does not readily identify those who may benefit from more aggressive therapy, and the institutional biases that have resulted from the growth of multimodality centers of excellence. PMID:27932892

  5. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy. PMID:24648230

  6. A fast event preprocessor for the Simbol-X Low-Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Simbol-X1 Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128 × 128 pixel DEPFET array, will be read out very fast (8000 frames/second). This requires a very fast onboard data preprocessing of the raw data. We present an FPGA based Event Preprocessor (EPP) which can fulfill this requirements. The design is developed in the hardware description language VHDL and can be later ported on an ASIC technology. The EPP performs a pixel related offset correction and can apply different energy thresholds to each pixel of the frame. It also provides a line related common-mode correction to reduce noise that is unavoidably caused by the analog readout chip of the DEPFET. An integrated pattern detector can block all invalid pixel patterns. The EPP has an internal pipeline structure and can perform all operation in realtime (< 2 μs per line of 64 pixel) with a base clock frequency of 100 MHz. It is utilizing a fast median-value detection algorithm for common-mode correction and a new pattern scanning algorithm to select only valid events. Both new algorithms were developed during the last year at our institute.

  7. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-05-07

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy.

  8. Selective depolarization of the muscle membrane in frog nerve-muscle preparations by a chromatographically purified extract of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Frédéric A; Mercado, José A; Molgó, Jordi; Tosteson, Thomas R; Escalona de Motta, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    The actions of a chromatographically identified extract of the marine dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis, named ostreotoxin-3 (OTX-3), were studied on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations. OTX-3 (1–10 μg ml−1) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations depolarized skeletal muscle fibres and caused spontaneous contractions. The depolarization was neither reversed by prolonged washing nor by (+)-tubocurarine. OTX-3 decreased the amplitude of miniature end plate potentials (m.e.p.ps) but did not affect their frequency. Extracellular recording of compound action potentials revealed that OTX-3 affected neither excitability nor conduction along intramuscular nerve branches. End-plate potentials (e.p.ps) elicited by nerve stimulation were reduced in amplitude by OTX-3 and even showed reversed polarity in junctions deeply depolarized by the toxin. Membrane depolarization induced by OTX-3 was decreased about 70% in muscles pretreated for 30 min with 10 μM tetrodotoxin. In contrast, muscles pretreated with 5 μM μ-conotoxin GIIIA were completely insensitive to OTX-3-induced depolarization. OTX-3 did not affect e.p.p. amplitude and the quantal content of e.p.ps in junctions in which muscle depolarization was abolished by μ-conotoxin GIIIA. OTX-3 is a novel type of sodium-channel activating toxin that discriminates between nerve and skeletal muscle membranes. PMID:9249261

  9. Identification of FECH gene multiple variations in two Chinese patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria and a review* #

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zhang-biao; Wang, Yong-wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Gang; Du, Ya-li; Nie, Guang-jun; Chang, Yan-zhong; Han, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), an autosomal dominant disease, is caused by partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), which catalyzes the terminal step of heme biosynthesis because of loss-of-function mutations in the FECH gene. To date, only a few cases have been described in Asia. In this study, we describe the clinical features of two Chinese patients with EPP, with diagnosis confirmed by the increase of free protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, detection of plasma fluorescence peak at 630–634 nm, and analysis of FECH gene mutations. Using gene scanning, we identified a small deletion in the FECH gene (c.973 delA) in one proband (patient A) and a pathogenic FECH mutation (c.1232 G>T) in the other (patient B) and also observed some nucleotide variations (c.798 C>G, c.921 A>G, IVS1−23 C>T, IVS3+23 A>G, IVS9+35 C>T, and IVS3−48 T>C) in these patients. The family pedigree of patient A was then established by characterization of the genotype of the patient’s relatives. We also analyzed the potential perniciousness of the missense mutation with bioinformatic software, Polyphen and Sift. In summary, Chinese EPP patients have similar manifestations to those of Caucasians, and identification of the Chinese FECH gene mutations expands the FECH genotypic spectrum and may contribute to genetic counseling. PMID:27704751

  10. Hyperentanglement purification for two-photon six-qubit quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Recently, two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states were produced in experiment and they can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a scheme for the hyperentanglement purification of nonlocal two-photon systems in three degrees of freedom (DOFs), including the polarization, the first-longitudinal-momentum, and the second-longitudinal-momentum DOFs. Our hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) is constructed with two steps resorting to parity-check quantum nondemolition measurement on the three DOFs and swap gates, respectively. With these two steps, the bit-flip errors in the three DOFs can be corrected efficiently. Also, we show that using swap gates is a universal method for hyper-EPP in the polarization DOF and multiple-longitudinal-momentum DOFs. The implementation of our hyper-EPP is assisted by nitrogen-vacancy centers in optical microcavities, which could be achieved with current techniques. It is useful for long-distance high-capacity quantum communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentanglement.

  11. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments.

  12. Evaluation of Physicians’ Awareness of Pediatric Diseases in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Mirminachi, Babak; Daryabeigi, Maedeh; Agharahimi, Zahra; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Rabbani, Ali; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Physicians’ awareness about pediatric health problems is very important in health system. This has not been investigated in Iran as yet. Therefore this study was conducted to characterize the knowledge of the Iranian physicians which has direct association with health status of children. Methods: One hundred and four physicians, mainly pediatric specialists (58.6%) working in the state hospitals (45.1%) were enrolled. They filled a valid and reliable questionnaire, containing 26 questions about basic and important pediatric issues before and after an educational pediatric program (EPP). Findings : Thirty nine (37.5%) physicians answered correctly more than 2/3 of all questions (passed the examination) before EPP, which increased to 42.3% after EEP. Subgroup analysis showed that the total scores of general practitioners (P=0.007) was significantly increased after the EPP. Moreover, physicians with shorter practicing time (P=0.006) and those with shorter time past graduation (P=0.01) had a significant improvement in their total scores after the program. The best scores of educational issues were documented in growth and development (16.0%; P=0.04), followed by dermatology (9.2%, P=0.04), urology (9.1%; P=0.04), and asthma and allergy (9.0%, P=0.04). Conclusion: This study revealed that there are gaps in the knowledge of professionals about the pediatric issues. PMID:25793051

  13. An assessment strategy for proposals of engineering projects in the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering Curriculum at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Villa, N; Jiménez-González, A; Ortiz-Posadas, M R

    2015-08-01

    Since 1974, the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering Program (BBME) is offered at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, in Mexico City. By design, it must be completed in four years (12 trimesters) and, in the latter three, the senior students work on a BME project, which is done by completing three modules: Project Seminar (PS), Project on BME I and Project on BME II. In the PS module, the student must find a problem of interest in the BME field and suggest a solution through the development of an Engineering Project Proposal (EPP). Currently, the module is being taught by two faculty members of the BBME, who instruct students on how to develop their EPPs and evaluate their progress by reviewing a number of EPPs during the trimester. This generates a huge workload for the module instructors, which makes it necessary to involve more faculty members trimester-to-trimester (i.e. every 12 weeks) and, therefore, to create a set of systematic guidelines that ease the evaluation process for new instructors. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present an assessment strategy (in the form of an assessment matrix) for the PS module as well as some preliminary results after two trimesters of its implementation.

  14. Development of small centrifugal pumps for an electric propellant pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Göran; Bigert, Mikael

    Small centrifugal pumps with low specific speeds have been designed, manufactured and performance tested at Volvo Flygmotor AB under a contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) over the period mid-1985 to mid-1988. The development of the pumps is a part of the work carried out to develop an Electric Propellant Pump System (EPPS) for the storable propellant monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetraoxide (NTO). Supporting technology development has been funded by the Swedish Delegation for Space Activities (DFR) and Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) together with Volvo Flygmotor. The main advantages of a typical EPPS communication satellite application are weight and volume reduction of the propellant system compared with a pressure-fed system. Active engine mixture ratio control and improved propellant utilization are also possible. Refuelling in space is another potential application where EPPS can be used. The development work was focused on communication satellite apogee propulsion and used the MBB 3 kN engine as reference. This paper presents the pump design and analyses and the results from the test campaigns of three different pump configurations, carried out with water as test liquid. The head rise, efficiency and suction performance together with other characteristics are also given. The planned next development step is to demonstrate pump performance in the propellants and primarily in NTO. The step is funded by (DFR)/(SSC) together with Volvo Flygmotor.

  15. Investigation of cell proliferative activity on the surface of the nanocomposite material produced by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbina, N. N.; Kurilova, U. E.; Ickitidze, L. P.; Podgaetsky, V. M.; Selishchev, S. V.; Suetina, I. A.; Mezentseva, M. V.; Eganova, E. M.; Pavlov, A. A.; Gerasimenko, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    A new method for the formation of composite nanomaterials based on multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) on a silicon substrate has been developed. Formation is carried out by ultrasound coating of a silicon substrate by homogenous dispersion of CNTs in the albumin matrix and further irradiation with the continuous laser beam with a wavelength of 810 nm and power of 5.5 watts. The high electrical conductivity of CNTs provides its structuring under the influence of the laser radiation electric field. The result is a scaffold that provides high mechanical strength of nanocomposite material (250 MPa). For in vitro studies of materials biocompatibility a method of cell growth microscopic analysis was developed. Human embryonic fibroblasts (EPP) were used as biological cells. Investigation of the interaction between nanocomposite material and cells was carried out by optical and atomic force microscopy depending on the time of cells incubation. The study showed that after 3 hours incubation EPP were fixed on the substrate surface, avoiding the surface of the composite material. However, after 24 hours of incubation EPP fix on the sample surface and then begin to grow and divide. After 72 hours of incubation, the cells completely fill the sample surface of nanocomposite material. Thus, a nanocomposite material based on CNTs in albumin matrix does not inhibit cell growth on its surface, and favours their growth. The nanocomposite material can be used for creating soft tissue implants

  16. Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP grown on Ge substrate and their effects on the ordering of InGaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tsai, Shi-Jane; Ho, Hao-I.; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2016-03-01

    We report on the Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP epilayer with Cu-Pt ordering grown on 4-in. Ge substrate. Ge profiles determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that the Ge out-diffusion depth is within 100 nm. However, the edge of the wafer suffers from stronger Ge gas-phase auto-doping than the center, leading to ordering deterioration in the InGaP epilayer. In the edge, we observed a residual Cu-Pt ordering layer left beneath the surface, suggesting that the ordering deterioration takes place after the deposition rather than during the deposition and In/Ga inter-diffusion enhanced by Ge vapor-phase auto-doping is responsible for the deterioration. We thus propose a di-vacancy diffusion model, in which the amphoteric Ge increases the di-vacancy density, resulting in a Ge density dependent diffusion. In the model, the In/Ga inter-diffusion and Ge out-diffusion are realized by the random hopping of In/Ga host atoms and Ge atoms to di-vacancies, respectively. Simulation based on this model well fits the Ge out-diffusion profiles, suggesting its validity. By comparing the Ge diffusion coefficient obtained from the fitting and the characteristic time constant of ordering deterioration estimated from the residual ordering layer, we found that the hopping rates of Ge and the host atoms are in the same order of magnitude, indicating that di-vacancies are bound in the vicinity of Ge atoms.

  17. Solar cells based on InP/GaP/Si structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitsiani, O.; Laperashvil, D.; Laperashvili, T.; Mikelashvili, V.

    2016-10-01

    Solar cells (SCs) based on III-V semiconductors are reviewed. Presented work emphases on the Solar Cells containing Quantum Dots (QDs) for next-generation photovoltaics. In this work the method of fabrication of InP QDs on III-V semiconductors is investigated. The original method of electrochemical deposition of metals: indium (In), gallium (Ga) and of alloys (InGa) on the surface of gallium phosphide (GaP), and mechanism of formation of InP QDs on GaP surface is presented. The possibilities of application of InP/GaP/Si structure as SC are discussed, and the challenges arising is also considered.

  18. Investigation of chirality in the case of 102Rh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavahchova, M. S.; Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; de Angelis, G.; Petkov, P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, R.; Raju, M. Kumar; Kaur, J.; Mahanto, G.; Singh, A.; Kaur, N.; Garg, R.; Sukla, A.; Marinov, Ts. K.; Mateeva, R. R.; Brant, S.

    2016-06-01

    Excited states in 102Rh were populated in the fusion-evaporation reaction 94Zr(11B, 3n)102Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the gamma-ray transitions observed were investigated in details. A new chiral candidate sister band was found. Lifetimes of exited states in 102Rh were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation technique and the derived reduced transition probabilities are compared to the predictions of the Two Quasiparticles Plus Triaxial Rotor model.

  19. Selective area growth and characterization of InGaN nanocolumns for phosphor-free white light emission

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-03-21

    This work reports on the morphology and light emission characteristics of ordered InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 Degree-Sign C, the In incorporation can be modified either by the growth temperature, the In/Ga ratio, or the III/V ratio, following different mechanisms. Control of these factors allows the optimization of the InGaN nanocolumns light emission wavelength and line-shape. Furthermore, yellow-white emission is obtained at room temperature from nanostructures with a composition-graded active InGaN region obtained by temperature gradients during growth.

  20. External Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Eggs and First Instar of Prepona Laertes Laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with Notes on Host Plant use and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2011-01-01

    The external morphology and the tegument ultra-structure of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) eggs and first instar larvae feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae) in a forest fragment in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. Descriptions of the morphology with illustrations are presented, based upon observations through scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to a camera lucida. Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed. PMID:22208698

  1. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  2. Experimental study of upper sd shell nuclei and evolution of sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha

    2012-06-27

    The intruder orbitals from the fp shell play important role in the structure of nuclei around the line of stability in the upper sd shell. Experimentally we have studied {sup 35}Cl, {sup 30}P, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Ar and {sup 34}Cl in this mass region using the INGA setup. Large basis cross-shell shell model calculations have indicated the need for change of the sd-fp energy gap for reliable reproduction of negative parity and high spin positive parity states. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. Theoretical interpretation of these states has been discussed.

  3. Shape evolution at high spin states in Kr and Br isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, T.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Jain, H. C.; Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Pancholi, S. C.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Yang, Y.-C.; Sun, Y.; Sheikh, J. A.; Raja, M. K.; Kumar, S.; Choudhury, D.; Jain, A. K.; Mehrotra, I.

    2014-08-14

    The high spin states in A = 75, Kr and Br isotopes have been populated via fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 90 MeV. The de-exciting γ-rays were detected utilizing the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Lifetime of these excited high spin states were determined by Doppler-shift attenuation method. Experimental results obtained from lifetime measurement are interpreted in the frame work of projected shell-model to get better insight into the evolution of collectivity. Comparison of the calculations of the model with transitional quadrupole moments Q{sub t} of the positive and negative parity bands firmly established their configurations.

  4. Growth of crystals for synchrotron radiation Mössbauer investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrbova, M.; Hejduk, J.; Malnev, V. V.; Seleznev, V. N.; Yagupov, S. V.; Andronova, N. V.; Chechin, A. I.; Mikhailov, A. Yu.

    1991-10-01

    Iron borate crystals (FeBO 3) were flux grown at the Physical Institute (Prague) and at Simferopol State University. During the crystal growth procedure the temperature regime was held constant to 0.1°C accuracy. Crystals were investigated with the help of a double crystal X-ray diffractometer DRON-2 (SiO 2(30 overline33)FeBO 3(444), MoK α 1 radiation). The rocking curve measurements were carried out in a constant magnetic field of 1kG. Most of the crystal surface has a rocking curve 10″-15″ wide. Some parts of some crystals with the area 1 × 1 mm 2 have rocking curves of 3″-4″ width and can be considered ideal.

  5. A new species of chondracanthid copepod parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes (Myxiniformes: Myxinidae) from off Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Rong; Luo, Hao-Yuan; Dai, Chang-Feng; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A new species of Acanthochondria Oakley, 1927 (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Chondracanthidae), parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes Eptatretus burgeri (Girard), E. sheni (Kuo, Huang & Mok) and E. yangi (Teng), from off Taiwan is described and illustrated. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the neck region longer than wide (about 2-3 times as long as wide), the moderately long protopod of leg 2 (Type E), the endopod of leg 2 as large as exopod, the cephalosome wider than long, the armature formula of antennule (1, 1, 2, 2, 9), the relatively long trunk (6.7 mm) and egg-sacs (14.4 mm). This is the first record of a parasitic chondracanthid from hagfishes. The findings may provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships and interactions among chondracanthids, hagfishes and demersal fishes, but call for further molecular studies.

  6. Phelps-Collins, Alpena, Michigan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-19

    964.0 967 96.7 96.8 96.9 96.9 9609 96.9 97.2 9 (> 200 ’ 82.9 86.6 92*2 9497 95.1 96.8 97.2 97.2 97.9 98.2 98.2 98.2 98.2 98.4 98.4 4 f 8z2 8 a17I 6 9qo...97.1l 9?61 98.0 906 98.1 U41.U USAF ETAC 0Z O.4-5 (01 A) owi moks op se po m m .- ~II~OII. 4,. 4 -- t-- I I*gq I S - ~ ~ ~ ~ IA -M~ nb aw.--- .-. I

  7. Utilization of monensin for detection of microdomains in cholesterol containing membrane.

    PubMed

    Bransburg-Zabary, S; Nachliel, E; Gutman, M

    1996-12-04

    The effect of cholesterol on the monensin mediated proton-cation exchange reaction was measured in the time-resolved domain. The experimental system consisted of a black lipid membrane equilibrated with monensin (Nachliel, E., Finkelstein, Y. and Gutman, M. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1285, 131-145). The membrane separated two compartments containing electrolyte solutions and pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene 1,3,6-trisulfonate) was added on to one side of the membrane. A short laser pulse was used to cause a brief transient acidification of the pyranine-containing solution and the resulting electric signal, derived from proton-cation exchange, was measured in the microsecond time domain. Incorporation of cholesterol had a clear effect on the electric transients as measured with Na+ or K+ as transportable cations. The measured transients were subjected to rigorous analysis based on numeric integration of coupled, non-linear, differential rate equations which correspond with the perturbed multi-equilibria state between all reactants present in the system. The various kinetic parameters of the reaction and their dependence on the cholesterol content had been determined. On the basis of these observations we can draw the following conclusions: (1) Cholesterol perturbed the homogeneity of the membrane and microdomains were formed, having a composition that differed from the average value. The ionophore was found in domains which were practically depleted of phosphatidylserine. (2) The diffusivity of the protonated monensin (MoH) was not affected by the presence of cholesterol, indicating that the viscosity of the central layer of the membrane was unaltered. (3) The diffusivity of the monensin metal complexes (MoNa and MoK) was significantly increased upon addition of cholesterol. As the viscosity along the cross membranal diffusion route is unchanged, the enhanced motion of the MoNa and MoK is attributed to variations of the electrostatic potential within the domains.

  8. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs.

  9. Vertically aligned InGaN nanowires with engineered axial In composition for highly efficient visible light emission

    PubMed Central

    Ebaid, Mohamed; Kang, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Lim, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of novel InGaN nanowires (NWs) with improved crystalline quality and high radiative efficiency for applications as nanoscale visible light emitters. Pristine InGaN NWs grown under a uniform In/Ga molar flow ratio (UIF) exhibited multi-peak white-like emission and a high density of dislocation-like defects. A phase separation and broad emission with non-uniform luminescent clusters were also observed for a single UIF NW investigated by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence. Hence, we proposed a simple approach based on engineering the axial In content by increasing the In/Ga molar flow ratio at the end of NW growth. This new approach yielded samples with a high luminescence intensity, a narrow emission spectrum, and enhanced crystalline quality. Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the UIF NWs exhibited a long radiative recombination time (τr) and low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) due to strong exciton localization and carrier trapping in defect states. In contrast, NWs with engineered In content demonstrated three times higher IQE and a much shorter τr due to mitigated In fluctuation and improved crystal quality. PMID:26585509

  10. Predictors of leafhopper abundance and richness in a coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burdine, Justin D; Domínguez Martínez, Gabriel H; Philpott, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Coffee agroecosystems with a vegetatively complex shade canopy contain high levels of biodiversity. However, as coffee management is intensified, diversity may be lost. Most biodiversity studies in coffee agroecosystems have examined predators and not herbivores, despite their importance as potential coffee pests and coffee disease vectors. We sampled one abundant herbivore group of leafhoppers on an organic coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico. We sampled leafhoppers with elevated pan traps in high- and moderate-shade coffee during the dry and wet seasons of 2011. The two major objectives were to 1) compare leafhopper abundance and richness during the wet and dry seasons and 2) examine the correlations between habitat characteristics (e.g., vegetation, elevation, and presence of aggressive ants) and leafhopper richness and abundance. We collected 2,351 leafhoppers, representing eight tribes and 64 morphospecies. Leafhopper abundance was higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Likewise, leafhopper richness was higher in the dry season. Several vegetation and other habitat characteristics correlated with abundance and richness of leafhoppers. The number of Inga trees positively correlated with leafhopper abundance, and other significant correlates of abundance included vegetation complexity. Leafhopper richness was correlated with the number of Inga trees. As leafhoppers transmit important coffee diseases, understanding the specific habitat factors correlating with changes in abundance and richness may help predict future disease outbreaks.

  11. Dual innervation of end-plate sites and its consequences for neuromuscular transmission in muscles of adult Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Angaut-Petit, D; Mallart, A

    1979-01-01

    1. Electrophysiological study of dually innervated end-plate sites was carried out in Xenopus laevis pectoral muscle fibres. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) and miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) have been recorded in Mg-blocked preparations. 2. The mean quantal content (m) of each e.p.p. at dually innervated end-plates was significantly smaller than the corresponding values obtained at singly innervated ones. At a given doubly innervated end-plate site the values of m tended to be inversely related, so that the compound value of m (obtained by adding them) was in the same range as that found in singly innervated junctions. These findings were taken to suggest the existence of an upper limit in the average amount of transmitter released at a synaptic site. 3. It was found that neither intermittent presynaptic conduction block, nor particular muscle fibre properties could account for the low values of m in dual end plates. The small size of the nerve terminals appears to be the most likely explanation. 4. The sensitivity to acetylcholine and muscle fibre electrical properties were investigated; no differences were found between fibres with sub- or suprathreshold e.p.p.s. 5. The nature of the factors responsible for this presumed small size of the nerve endings (competition between nerve endings for a limited synaptic space on the muscle membrane or reciprocal interaction between closely located terminals) as well as the possible origins of polyinnervation are discussed. PMID:222897

  12. Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of dairy calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Mani, Rinosh; Breshears, Melanie A; Gilmour, Margi; Taylor, Jared D; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture. RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK.

  13. Multicenter Evaluation of BD Max Enteric Parasite Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Madison-Antenucci, S; Relich, R F; Doyle, L; Espina, N; Fuller, D; Karchmer, T; Lainesse, A; Mortensen, J E; Pancholi, P; Veros, W; Harrington, S M

    2016-11-01

    Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time-consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) stains have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay. We performed a clinical evaluation of a multiplex PCR panel, the enteric parasite panel (EPP), for the detection of these common parasites using the BD Max instrument, which performs automated extraction and amplification. A total of 2,495 compliant specimens were enrolled, including 2,104 (84%) specimens collected prospectively and 391 (16%) specimens collected retrospectively. Approximately equal numbers were received in 10% formalin (1,273 specimens) and unpreserved (1,222 specimens). The results from the EPP were compared to those from alternate PCR and bidirectional sequencing (APCR), as well as DFA (G. duodenalis and C. parvum or C. hominis) or trichrome stain (E. histolytica). The sensitivity and specificity for prospective and retrospective specimens combined were 98.2% and 99.5% for G. duodenalis, 95.5% and 99.6 for C. parvum or C. hominis, and 100% and 100% for E. histolytica, respectively. The performance of the FDA-approved BD Max EPP compared well to the reference methods and may be an appropriate substitute for microscopic examination or immunoassays.

  14. Impaired Synaptic Development, Maintenance, and Neuromuscular Transmission in LRP4 Myasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Selcen, Duygu; Ohkawara, Bisei; Shen, Xin-Ming; McEvoy, Kathleen; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders. Defining the phenotypic features, genetic basis, and pathomechanisms of a CMS is relevant to prognosis, genetic counseling, and therapy. OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical, structural, electrophysiologic, and genetic features of a CMS and search for optimal therapy. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Two sisters, 34 and 20 years of age suffering from a CMS affecting the limb-girdle muscles were investigated at an academic medical center by clinical observation, in vitro analysis of neuromuscular transmission, cytochemical and electron microscopy studies of the neuromuscular junction, exome sequencing, expression studies in HEK293 and COS-7 cells, and for response to therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We identified the disease gene and mutation, confirmed pathogenicity of the mutation by expression studies, and instituted optimal pharmacotherapy. RESULTS Intercostal muscle endplates (EPs) were abnormally small with attenuated reactivities for the acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine esterase. Most EPs had poorly differentiated or degenerate junctional folds and some appeared denuded of nerve terminals. The amplitude of the EP potential (EPP), the miniature EPP, and the quantal content of the EPP were all markedly reduced. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous p.Glu1233Ala mutation in LRP4, a coreceptor for agrin to activate MuSK, required for EP development and maintenance. Expression studies indicate the mutation compromises ability of LRP4 to bind to, phosphorylate, and activate MuSK. Albuterol improved the patients’ symptoms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We identify a second CMS kinship harboring mutations in LRP4, identify the mechanisms that impair neuromuscular transmission, and mitigate the disease by appropriate therapy. PMID:26052878

  15. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion.

  16. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  17. Multicenter Evaluation of BD Max Enteric Parasite Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Relich, R. F.; Doyle, L.; Espina, N.; Fuller, D.; Karchmer, T.; Lainesse, A.; Mortensen, J. E.; Pancholi, P.; Veros, W.; Harrington, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis. Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time-consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) stains have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay. We performed a clinical evaluation of a multiplex PCR panel, the enteric parasite panel (EPP), for the detection of these common parasites using the BD Max instrument, which performs automated extraction and amplification. A total of 2,495 compliant specimens were enrolled, including 2,104 (84%) specimens collected prospectively and 391 (16%) specimens collected retrospectively. Approximately equal numbers were received in 10% formalin (1,273 specimens) and unpreserved (1,222 specimens). The results from the EPP were compared to those from alternate PCR and bidirectional sequencing (APCR), as well as DFA (G. duodenalis and C. parvum or C. hominis) or trichrome stain (E. histolytica). The sensitivity and specificity for prospective and retrospective specimens combined were 98.2% and 99.5% for G. duodenalis, 95.5% and 99.6 for C. parvum or C. hominis, and 100% and 100% for E. histolytica, respectively. The performance of the FDA-approved BD Max EPP compared well to the reference methods and may be an appropriate substitute for microscopic examination or immunoassays. PMID:27535690

  18. WACCM-D—Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. E.; Verronen, P. T.; Marsh, D. R.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2016-09-01

    Observations have shown that a number of neutral minor species are affected by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and ion chemistry (IC) in the polar regions. However, to date the complexity of the ion chemistry below the mesopause (i.e., in the D region ionosphere) has restricted global models to simplified EEP/IC parameterizations which are unable to reproduce some important effects, e.g., the increase of mesospheric nitric acid (HNO3). Here we use WACCM-D, a variant of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model which includes a selected set of D region ion chemistry designed to produce the observed effects of EPP/IC. We evaluate the performance of EPP/IC modeling by comparing WACCM-D results for the January 2005 solar proton event (SPE) to those from the standard WACCM and Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and SCISAT/Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) observations. The results indicate that WACCM-D improves the modeling of HNO3, HCl, ClO, OH, and NOx during the SPE. Northern Hemispheric HNO3 from WACCM-D shows an increase by 2 orders of magnitude at 40-70 km compared to WACCM, reaching 2.6 ppbv, in agreement with the observations. For HCl and ClO, the improvement is most pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere at 40-50 km where WACCM-D predicts a decrease of HCl and increase of ClO by 1.6% and 10%, respectively, similar to MLS data. Compared to WACCM, WACCM-D produces 25-50% less OH and 30-130% more NOx at 70-85 km which leads to better agreement with the observations. Although not addressed here, longer-term NOx impact of ion chemistry could be important for polar stratospheric ozone and middle atmospheric dynamics.

  19. Sexual Conflict Arising from Extrapair Matings in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Chaine, Alexis S.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. PMID:25605708

  20. Pitfalls in Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Measurement for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Protoporphyrias

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Eric W.; Balwani, Manisha; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Bloomer, Joseph R.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Desnick, Robert J.; Naik, Hetanshi; Phillips, John D.; Singal, Ashwani K.; Wang, Bruce; Keel, Sioban; Anderson, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laboratory diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) requires a marked increase in total erythrocyte protoporphyrin (300–5000 µg/dL erythrocytes, reference interval <80 µg/dL) and a predominance (85%–100%) of metal-free protoporphyrin [normal, mostly zinc protoporphyrin (reference intervals for the zinc protoporphyrin proportion have not been established)]; plasma porphyrins are not always increased. X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) causes a similar increase in total erythrocyte protoporphyrin with a lower fraction of metal-free protoporphyrin (50%–85% of the total). CONTENT In studying more than 180 patients with EPP and XLP, the Porphyrias Consortium found that erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations for some patients were much higher (4.3- to 46.7-fold) than indicated by previous reports provided by these patients. The discrepant earlier reports, which sometimes caused the diagnosis to be missed initially, were from laboratories that measure protoporphyrin only by hematofluorometry, which is intended primarily to screen for lead poisoning. However, the instrument can calculate results on the basis of assumed hematocrits and reports results as “free” and “zinc” protoporphyrin (with different reference intervals), implying separate measurements of metal-free and zinc protoporphyrin. Such misleading reports impair diagnosis and monitoring of patients with protoporphyria. SUMMARY We suggest that laboratories should prioritize testing for EPP and XLP, because accurate measurement of erythrocyte total and metal-free protoporphyrin is essential for diagnosis and monitoring of these conditions, but less important for other disorders. Terms and abbreviations used in reporting erythrocyte protoporphyrin results should be accurately defined. PMID:26482161

  1. Neuromuscular transmission in the athymic nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Schofield, G G; Marshall, I G

    1980-10-01

    No major differences were observed in the mechanical properties of diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from athymic nude and control mice. Denervated soleus muscles from nudes and controls showed no significant differences in their sensitivities to the cholinoceptor agonists acetylcholine and carbachol, either in the absence or presence of the anticholinesterase, physostigmine, suggesting that postjunctional receptor function is essentially normal. Phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations from nudes were less sensitive to the twitch-augmenting effects of neostigmine. No difference in the time course of endplate potentials (epps) between nudes and controls was seen either in the absence or presence of neostigmine. Hence the observed differences in twitch augmentation are unlikely to be due to differences in acetylcholinesterase activity in the two muscles. In normal mice miniature endplate potential (mepp) amplitude decreased and mepp frequency increased with age. These changes were associated with an increase in muscle fibre diameter and a concomitant decrease in membrane resistance. Such changes did not occur in nude mice; thus mepp amplitude remained, high as in young normal muscle. It is suggested that the thymus may play a role in muscle development and that the effects on neuromuscular transmission are secondary to changes in development. In cut diaphragm muscles transmitter reversal potentials in nudes and controls were not different. Although there was no difference in the amplitude of the first epp of a train, or in the immediately releasable acetylcholine store, the quantal content of the first epp, the probability of transmitter release, the total nerve terminal acetylcholine store and the transmitter mobilization rate were all reduced. It is considered probable that all the measurable differences in transmitter release can be explained in terms of the nude muscle fibre diameter being small and being associated with a small nerve terminal

  2. Inclusive fitness of 'kissing cousins': new evidence of a role for kin selection in the evolution of extra-pair mating in birds.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kevin P

    2011-07-01

    Social monogamy is nearly ubiquitous across avian taxa,but evidence from a proliferation of studies utilizing molecular paternity analysis suggests that sexual monogamy is the rare exception rather than the rule (Griffith et al. 2002). Efforts to explain the prevalence of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have largely focused on the potential fitness benefits for offspring genetic quality, as females are less likely to benefit directly from seeking extra-pair mates. In particular, there has been considerable interest in the degree to which EPP may represent an adaptive female strategy to avoid inbreeding (or outbreeding)depression when paired with a highly related (or unrelated)social mate (Kempenaers 2007). Others have argued that, because relatives share many genes identical by descent,females might increase their own inclusive fitness by providing additional breeding opportunities to genetically related males (Waser et al. 1986; Kokko & Ots 2006). Thus, in the absence of significant inbreeding depression, pursuing EPP with relatives should be favoured by kin selection, although there exist few unambiguous empirical examples of such preferences in the literature. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Wang &Lu (2011) present an analysis of mating patterns with respect to genetic relatedness of social and extra-pair partners in the ground tit (Parus humilis), a facultative cooperative breeder in which socially monogamous pairs occasionally form cooperative groups with unpaired helper males (Fig. 1). Consistent with the predictions of the kin-selection hypothesis, females in both bi-parental and cooperative groups preferentially engaged in extra-pair matings with relatives, irrespective of relatedness to their social mates, and while suffering no apparent costs of inbreeding depression in their progeny. These finding shave several exciting implications for our understanding of avian mating system diversity and the evolution of cooperative breeding.

  3. 24S-Hydroxycholesterol enhances synaptic vesicle cycling in the mouse neuromuscular junction: Implication of glutamate NMDA receptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kasimov, M R; Fatkhrakhmanova, M R; Mukhutdinova, K A; Petrov, A M

    2017-01-31

    24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC) is a brain-derived product of lipid metabolism present in the systemic circulation, where its level can change significantly in response to physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, using electrophysiological and optical approaches, we have found a high sensitivity to 24S-HC of the synaptic vesicle cycle at the mouse neuromuscular junctions. Treatment with 24S-HC increased the end plate potential amplitude (EPP) in response to a single stimulus and attenuated the EPP amplitude rundown during high frequency (HF) activity but had no influence on miniature EPP amplitude or frequency. The effects on evoked responses were associated with enhanced FM1-43 dye loading and unloading by endo- and exocytosis. Comparison of electrophysiological and optical data revealed an increase in the rate of vesicular cycling. The impact of 24S-HC was abolished or potentiated by stimulation or inhibition of NMDA-receptors respectively. Moreover, 24S-HC, acting in the same manner as the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor cavtratin, suppressed an increase in NO-sensitive dye fluorescence during HF stimulation, while l-glutamate had the opposite effect. Inhibitors of NOS (l-NAME and cavtratin, but not the neuronal NOS inhibitor TRIM), a scavenger of extracellular NO and a protein kinase G blocker all had stimulatory effects, similar to those of 24S-HC, on exocytosis induced by HF activity and completely masked the effect of 24S-HC. The data suggest that 24S-HC enhances synaptic vesicle cycling due to an attenuation of retrograde NO signaling that depends on eNOS. In this regard, 24S-HC counteracts the effects of NMDA-receptor stimulation at mouse neuromuscular junctions.

  4. Incident Energy Focused Design and Validation for the Floating Potential Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing the spacecraft shadowing and incident energy analysis capabilities of the NASA Glenn Research Center Power and Propulsion Office's SPACE System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) computer code, this paper documents the analyses for various International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potential Probe (EPP) preliminary design options. These options include various solar panel orientations and configurations as well as deployment locations on the ISS. The incident energy for the final selected option is characterized. A good correlation between the predicted data and on-orbit operational telemetry is demonstrated. Minor deviations are postulated to be induced by degradation or sensor drift.

  5. Aedes Hartwellianae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, William Henry

    2014-02-01

    1. Details respecting the parish and manor of Hartwell: locality, geology, produce, and general statistics; 2. The successive lords of the manor of Hartwell, from the Conquest to the present time: Peverel, De Hertewell, Luton, Hampden, and Lee; 3. Particulars respecting Hartwell House: its appartments, paintings, library, museum, numismata, and Egyptian antiquities; 4. Origin of the Hartwell Observatory. The transit-room. The equatorial tower. Mr Epps's meridional observations. The double-stars measured by Captain Smyth. Encke's comet. The meteorological department; Appendix; Index.

  6. History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Yoon-Young; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period

  7. A Fast Event Preprocessor and Sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-11

    The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128x128 pixel DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) array, will be read out at a very high rate (8000 frames/second) and, therefore, requires a very fast on board electronics. We present an FPGA-based LED camera electronics consisting of an Event Preprocessor (EPP) for on board data preprocessing and filtering of the Simbol-X low-energy detector and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout.

  8. The action of aminopyridine on the electromotor synapse of Torpedo marmorata.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, L

    1983-09-09

    An investigation of the action of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on Torpedo electromotor synapses was performed using the microelectrode technique. 4-AP in concentrations of 1--10 micrometers increased the peak amplitude (p) and half-decay time (t 1/2) of the intracellularly recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EEP), independent of alterations in miniature EPPs or membrane potential. 4-AP also increased the amplitude and time constant of decay (tau) of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPC). Analysis of the results supports potentiated transmitter release and accumulation of the transmitter in the synaptic cleft as the mechanism by which 4-AP produces its effect.

  9. Buffers more than buffering agent: introducing a new class of stabilizers for the protein BSA.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhupender S; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-14

    In this study, we have analyzed the influence of four biological buffers on the thermal stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The investigated buffers include 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-propanesulfonic acid (EPPS), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (HEPES-Na), and 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MOPS-Na). These buffers behave as a potential stabilizer for the native structure of BSA against thermal denaturation. The stabilization tendency follows the order of MOPS-Na > HEPES-Na > HEPES ≫ EPPS. To obtain an insight into the role of hydration layers and peptide backbone in the stabilization of BSA by these buffers, we have also explored the phase transition of a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM)), a model compound for protein, in aqueous solutions of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffers at different concentrations. It was found that the lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of PNIPAM in the aqueous buffer solutions substantially decrease with increase in buffer concentration. The mechanism of interactions between these buffers and protein BSA was probed by various techniques, including UV-visible, fluorescence, and FTIR. The results of this series of studies reveal that the interactions are mainly governed by the influence of the buffers on the hydration layers surrounding the protein. We have also explored the possible binding sites of BSA with these buffers using a molecular docking technique. Moreover, the activities of an industrially important enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) in 0.05 M, 0.5 M, and 1.0 M of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffer solutions were analyzed at pH = 8.0 and T = 25 °C. Interestingly, the activities of α-CT were found to be enhanced in the aqueous solutions of these investigated buffers. Based upon the Jones-Dole viscosity parameters, the

  10. A Fast Event Preprocessor and Sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128×128 pixel DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) array, will be read out at a very high rate (8000 frames/second) and, therefore, requires a very fast on board electronics. We present an FPGA-based LED camera electronics consisting of an Event Preprocessor (EPP) for on board data preprocessing and filtering of the Simbol-X low-energy detector and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout.

  11. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, William W.; Rice, David C.; Allen, Pamela K.; Tsao, Anne S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W.; Mehran, Reza J.; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  12. Predicting Subsequent Service Potential for Former Army Prisoners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-25

    Esteem Scale, and Hudson’s (1974) Index of Self - Esteem , fou9d significant d_ e.re.e beteen-gr duates-and-non-gj The results of the two studies are...a greater need for autonomy, on the EPPS, and less self - esteem , on the Rosenberg (1965) scale. 400 Table 1 Predicting Graduation/Discharge from...Acceptance (CPI) .588 Education Completed .410 Socialization (CPI) -.445 Highest Pay Grade -.388 Social Presence (CPI) -.443 Marital Status .388 Self - Esteem (Rosenberg

  13. Fatal pneumonitis associated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. . E-mail: aallen@lroc.harvard.edu; Czerminska, Maria; Jaenne, Pasi A.; Sugarbaker, David J.; Bueno, Raphael; Harris, Jay R.; Court, Laurence; Baldini, Elizabeth H.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the initial experience at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as adjuvant therapy after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The medical records of patients treated with IMRT after EPP and adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. IMRT was given to a dose of 54 Gy to the clinical target volume in 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Treatment was delivered with a dynamic multileaf collimator using a sliding window technique. Eleven of 13 patients received heated intraoperative cisplatin chemotherapy (225 mg/m{sup 2}). Two patients received neoadjuvant intravenous cisplatin/pemetrexed, and 10 patients received adjuvant cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy after EPP but before radiation therapy. All patients received at least 2 cycles of intravenous chemotherapy. The contralateral lung was limited to a V20 (volume of lung receiving 20 Gy or more) of 20% and a mean lung dose (MLD) of 15 Gy. All patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for staging, and any FDG-avid areas in the hemithorax were given a simultaneous boost of radiotherapy to 60 Gy. Statistical comparisons were done using two-sided t test. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with IMRT from December 2004 to September 2005. Six patients developed fatal pneumonitis after treatment. The median time from completion of IMRT to the onset of radiation pneumonitis was 30 days (range 5-57 days). Thirty percent of patients (4 of 13) developed acute Grade 3 nausea and vomiting. One patient developed acute Grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The median V20, MLD, and V5 (volume of lung receiving 5 Gy or more) for the patients who developed pneumonitis was 17.6% (range, 15.3-22.3%), 15.2 Gy (range, 13.3-17 Gy), and 98.6% (range, 81-100%), respectively, as compared with 10.9% (range, 5.5-24.7%) (p = 0.08), 12.9 Gy (range, 8.7-16.9 Gy) (p = 0.07), and 90% (range

  14. Value of Undergraduate Internship Experiences at NOAA: Analysis of Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will examine survey data from over 500 undergraduates who participated in summer internships at NOAA facilities as Ernest F. Hollings Scholars and Educational Partnership Program (EPP) Undergraduate Scholars. NOAA selects over 100 students per year to receive academic support in their junior and senior years and a paid summer internship at any NOAA facility in the country. Scholars are hosted by NOAA mentors who actively oversee summer research activities. Analysis of survey results identified six thematic impacts from the internship experience (McIntosh and Baek, 2013).

  15. Impacts of Energetic Electron Precipitation on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Ethan D.

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) can have profound impacts on the middle atmosphere. NOx produced by EPP in the thermosphere and mesosphere can descend into the stratosphere during polar night; after being sequestered by the polar vortex until spring, NOx can destroy stratospheric O3 (>25 km) in a catalytic cycle. Changes to O 3 can change local temperatures and in turn zonal wind through thermal wind balance. This work seeks to understand the impacts of medium energy electrons (MEE) (25 keV - 2 MeV), a subset of EPP, on the middle atmosphere. Data from the Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector (MEPED) is assimilated into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). This is accomplished in three steps: (1) examine the response of WACCM to solar cycle; (2) improve and prepare MEPED data for use in WACCM; and (3) simulate MEE precipitation in WACCM. WACCM is able to simulate solar cycle impacts in general agreement with observations and reanalysis. Auroral EPP (10% more O3 in solar maximum simulations than solar minimum simulations. Temperature and zonal wind results match reanalysis in the northern hemisphere (NH), but not in the southern hemisphere (SH). Disagreements are likely caused by the Antarctic "cold-pole problem.". This work removes proton contamination from MEPED electron channels and outputs spectral count flux for protons and electrons by using an inversion technique with a combination of best fit spectra. Results are in agreement with the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) Instrument for Detecting Particles (IDP). MEE spectral flux is converted into precipitating flux and assimilated into specified dynamics WACCM (SD-WACCM). Production by MEE is large (>100 ppbv at 80 km). MEE NOx production is too high below 80 km, and too low above 80 km. SD-WACCM is also found to have too strong winter polar descent. MEE precipitation is believed to be capable of producing NO x to match observations

  16. Race Relations Equal Opportunity Case Studies for Judge Advocates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    PROBLEMS IN AMERICA. Wiley Press, 1972 (464 pages). 1 10-1 10. Cahn, Edgar S. OUR BROTHER’S KEEPER: THE INDIAN 0 IN WHITE AMERICA. New Community Press...USAGE IN THE UNITED STATES.ý Random House, 1972 (361 pages). 17. Epps, Edgar G. RACE RELATIONS: CURRENT PERSPEC- TIVES. Winthrop Publisher, 1973 (235...Brown, 1971 (489 pages). 10-3 34. Morin , Raul. AMONG THE VALIANT: MEXICAN AMERI- 0 CANS IN WW II AND KOREA. Borden, 1963 (290 pages). 35. Moskos, Charles

  17. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  18. Messenger Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, M.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14.2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER'S Magnetometer (MAG) (2.3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury.

  19. Impact of the tick-size on financial returns and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate that the lowest possible price change (tick-size) has a large impact on the structure of financial return distributions. It induces a microstructure as well as possibly altering the tail behavior. On small return intervals, the tick-size can distort the calculation of correlations. This especially occurs on small return intervals and thus contributes to the decay of the correlation coefficient towards smaller return intervals (Epps effect). We study this behavior within a model and identify the effect in market data. Furthermore, we present a method to compensate this purely statistical error.

  20. Spatially-Resolved System for Polarimetric Measurements at Subwavelength Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    8217 Cj>a:: .. nao .-. ic lie "•eepe no.eve-t ippei :can-«i see be c.-. \\ stepoe: TOIO- :Uje j-" rr-lri-je. Elecii ca conntctor: seep 32’ \\ ::eppe...involve performing near-field tomographic reconstruction, measuring low refractive index contrast materials , measuring the polarimetric response of...field tomography: The fields from an NSOM scan penetrate a finite depth into the material , giving one the ability to see structures below the surface of

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae), a critically endangered aquatic plant endemic to Japan, and implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takashi; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae) is a critically endangered freshwater macrophyte indigenous to central Japan, with only four small extant populations represented across its entire range. We investigated the genotypic and genetic diversity as well as the genetic structure of all extant individuals of N. submersa based on analysis of 15 microsatellite loci. Among 278 individual ramets, 52 multilocus genotypes were detected: 30 genotypes in Nikko City (NIK), 18 in Nasukarasuyama City (NAS), 3 in Mooka City (MOK), and 1 in Sakura City (SAK). The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.20 to 1.93, whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.33 and from 0.10 to 0.24, respectively. With the exception of SAK, all populations contained multiple clones, but our results indicated low levels of within-population genetic diversity. The populations NIK and NAS comprised few large or middle-sized genets and many small genets. The populations NIK and NAS were suggested to comprise large old, old fragmented, and/or young small genets resulting from seedling establishment. All four populations were differentiated, and gene flow between the populations was restricted (average level of gene flow (Nm) = 0.122, G' ST  = 0.639). Of the total genetic diversity, 67.20 and 9.13% were attributable to inter- and intra-population diversity, respectively. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two or three well-differentiated groups of populations. Cluster I comprised one population (NIK) and cluster II comprised the remaining populations at K = 2. The populations NIK, NAS, and the remaining populations were assigned to clusters I, II, and III, respectively, at K = 3. For conservation practices, we recommend that each cluster be regarded as a different management unit. We further suggest that artificial gene flow among MOK and SAK populations is an appropriate option, whereas NIK should not be reinforced with genotypes from the remaining populations.

  2. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferation effects of extractable and nonextractable polyphenols isolated from apple waste using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Tow, Wei Wei; Premier, Robert; Jing, Hao; Ajlouni, Said

    2011-09-01

    Fruits and vegetables waste byproducts could be utilized as a good source of cheap antioxidants for improving human health and reducing the risks of some chronic diseases. Results from examining industrial apple waste revealed that the total polyphenolic content in nonextractable polyphenols (NEPPs) reached 539.84 ± 8.90 mg as gallic acid equivalents/1 g of dry wt. in comparison to 77.26 ± 11.53 mg dry wt. of extractable polyphenols (EPPs). The antioxidant activities of NEPPs reported as percentage reduction in 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2'.2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt were 89.76 ± 0.93% and 99.78 ± 0.38%, respectively. In addition, the antiproliferation study on human HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29 cancer cells showed that NEPPs at the concentration of 1 mg/mL had significant inhibitory effects against all tested cancer cells (46.2% to 95%), where EPP showed lower effect (3.9% to 22.2%). These results clearly indicated that NEPPs from industrial apple waste could be a good source of natural antioxidants with significant antiproliferation efficacy against human cancer cells.

  4. Optimizing Eco-Efficiency Across the Procurement Portfolio.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Rylie E O; Li, Mo; Smith, Timothy M; Lyon, Thomas P

    2016-06-07

    Manufacturing organizations' environmental impacts are often attributable to processes in the firm's upstream supply chain. Environmentally preferable procurement (EPP) and the establishment of environmental purchasing criteria can potentially reduce these indirect impacts. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can help identify the purchasing criteria that are most effective in reducing environmental impacts. However, the high costs of LCA and the problems associated with the comparability of results have limited efforts to integrate procurement performance with quantitative organizational environmental performance targets. Moreover, environmental purchasing criteria, when implemented, are often established on a product-by-product basis without consideration of other products in the procurement portfolio. We develop an approach that utilizes streamlined LCA methods, together with linear programming, to determine optimal portfolios of product impact-reduction opportunities under budget constraints. The approach is illustrated through a simulated breakfast cereal manufacturing firm procuring grain, containerboard boxes, plastic packaging, electricity, and industrial cleaning solutions. Results suggest that extending EPP decisions and resources to the portfolio level, recently made feasible through the methods illustrated herein, can provide substantially greater CO2e and water-depletion reductions per dollar spend than a product-by-product approach, creating opportunities for procurement organizations to participate in firm-wide environmental impact reduction targets.

  5. Current Issues in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon disease most often associated with occupational asbestos exposure and is steadily increasing in worldwide incidence. Patients typically present at an older age, with advanced clinical stage and other medical comorbidities, making management quite challenging. Despite great efforts, the prognosis of MPM remains poor, especially at progression after initial treatment. Macroscopic complete resection of MPM can be achieved through extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended (ie, radical) pleurectomy (e-P/D) in selected patients and can result in prolonged survival when incorporated into a multimodality approach. Given the morbidity associated with surgical resection of MPM, optimizing identification of appropriate patients is essential. Unfortunately, most patients are not candidates for EPP or e-P/D due to advanced stage, age, and/or medical comorbidity. Pemetrexed and platinum combination chemotherapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for patients with unresectable disease because the combination is associated with improved survival and quality of life in treated patients. However, MPM eventually becomes resistant to initial therapy, and benefit to further lines of therapy has not been substantiated in randomized clinical trials. Translational research has provided exciting insights into tumorigenesis, biomarkers, and immune response in MPM, leading to the development of multiple novel therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials. These advances hold the promise of a new era in the treatment of MPM and suggest that this disease will not be left behind in the war on cancer. PMID:25061089

  6. Outstanding student paper awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Atmospheric Sciences Section presented the following outstanding student paper awards at the AGU 1997 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December. James Corbett presented a poster on “Nitrogen and Sulfur Emissions From Oceangoing Ships.” James is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. He has been awarded a M.S. degree in EPP and recently completed the M.S. requirements in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He graduated in 1985 with a degree in marine engineering technology from the California Maritime Academy and holds a California Professional Engineering License (Mechanical). He joined the doctoral program in engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University in August 1995. In 1997, he was selected for a U.S. EPA STAR Fellowship. His research focuses on international maritime transportation and pollution issues, particularly air emissions from ship propulsion. James has developed the first global geographic characterization of air emissions from international maritime transport. As recently published in Science (Corbett and Fischbeck, 1997), his work estimates the global annual nitrogen and sulfur emissions from ships to be 3.08 terragrams (Tg) N and 4.24 Tg S, respectively.

  7. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  8. Developing interdisciplinary environmental frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Petri; Willamo, Risto

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review interdisciplinary systemic frameworks of environmental protection and evaluate their use as tools, educational policymaking and education. We analyze the pressures-state-responses (PSR) framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the drivers-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework developed in the European Environment Agency and a later environmental political dynamics framework developed by Schroll and Staerdahl. We then continue the discussion by introducing a comprehensive model, labeled as the environmental protection process (EPP) framework that can be used to analyze and teach why there are environmental problems, what are their characteristics, and in which ways they can be mitigated. The EPP model is used for classifying measures of coping with environmental problems. Finally, a submodel of individual and societal factors affecting human action is formed. Environmental issues of transport are used as an illustrative example. We hope to contribute a relevant way to outline a wide interdisciplinary picture of environmental problems and solutions.

  9. Rationality, rhetoric, and religiosity in health care: the case of England's Expert Patients Programme.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Bury, Michael; Kennedy, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Policymakers have associated the increasing prevalence and incidence of chronic illness with the threat of unsustainable demands for medical services, requiring deployment of effective demand-management strategies. In this article, the authors consider the rise in policy interest in self-management and examine the metaphors, discourse, official statements, policy developments, and goals shaping the field of chronic illness, especially surrounding the promotion and uptake of self-skills training in England's Expert Patients Programme (EPP). They discuss the shift in relationship between individuals and the state since the 1960s and 1970s; the rise in importance of self-management in relation to an aging population; the evidence and rhetoric associated with policy development; and the relationship of self-care to the notion of the "responsible patient," as seen in policy implementation and EPP course promotion. The authors also draw on qualitative research to examine the transmission of ideology and rhetoric in self-skills training. Self-management policies are part of a shift from patient rights to individual responsibilities, a shift that may be less persuasive than its supporters imagine.

  10. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David A. S.; Keith, Cierra M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  11. PLUTO'S SEASONS: NEW PREDICTIONS FOR NEW HORIZONS

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Since the last Pluto volatile transport models were published in 1996, we have (1) new stellar occultation data from 2002 and 2006-2012 that show roughly twice the pressure as the first definitive occultation from 1988, (2) new information about the surface properties of Pluto, (3) a spacecraft due to arrive at Pluto in 2015, and (4) a new volatile transport model that is rapid enough to allow a large parameter-space search. Such a parameter-space search coarsely constrained by occultation results reveals three broad solutions: a high-thermal inertia, large volatile inventory solution with permanent northern volatiles (PNVs; using the rotational north pole convention); a lower thermal-inertia, smaller volatile inventory solution with exchanges of volatiles between hemispheres and a pressure plateau beyond 2015 (exchange with pressure plateau, EPP); and solutions with still smaller volatile inventories, with exchanges of volatiles between hemispheres and an early collapse of the atmosphere prior to 2015 (exchange with early collapse, EEC). PNV and EPP are favored by stellar occultation data, but EEC cannot yet be definitively ruled out without more atmospheric modeling or additional occultation observations and analysis.

  12. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: How a Physics Education has Influenced Practice and Graduate Education in Technically-Focused Quantitative Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger Morgan, M.

    2011-04-01

    In a book for the general public published a year before his death, Carl Sagan wrote, "Every time a scientific paper presents a bit of data, it's accompanied by an error bar---a quiet but instant reminder that no knowledge is complete or perfect." For those of us educated in experimental natural science such an observation seems so obvious as to hardly need saying. Yet when, after completing a PhD in experimental radio physics, I began to work on problems in environmental and energy risk and policy analysis in the early 1970s, I was amazed to find that the characterization and treatment of uncertainty was almost completely lacking in the analysis of that day. In the first part of this talk, I will briefly summarize how I, and a number of my physics-educated colleagues, have worked to rectify this situation. Doctoral education in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University has also been shaped by a number of ideas and problem-solving styles that derive from physics. These have been strengthened considerably through integration with a number of ideas from experimental social science -- a field that too many in physics ignore or even belittle. In the second part of the talk, I will describe the PhD program in EPP, talk a bit about some of its unique features, and describe a few of the problems we address.

  13. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male–male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues. PMID:26792973

  14. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research.

  15. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.

    2014-05-01

    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.

  16. Fitting HIV Prevalence 1981 Onwards for Three Indian States Using the Goals Model and the Estimation and Projection Package

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Dutta, Tapati; Stover, John; Godbole, Sheela; Sahu, Damodar; Boopathi, Kangusamy; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Singh, Kh. Jitenkumar; Goyal, Rajat; Pandey, Arvind; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2016-01-01

    Models are designed to provide evidence for strategic program planning by examining the impact of different interventions on projected HIV incidence. We employed the Goals Model to fit the HIV epidemic curves in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of India where HIV epidemic is considered to have matured and in a declining phase. Input data in the Goals Model consisted of demographic, epidemiological, transmission-related and risk group wise behavioral parameters. The HIV prevalence curves generated in the Goals Model for each risk group in the three states were compared with the epidemic curves generated by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) that the national program is routinely using. In all the three states, the HIV prevalence trends for high-risk populations simulated by the Goals Model matched well with those derived using state-level HIV surveillance data in the EPP. However, trends for the low- and medium-risk populations differed between the two models. This highlights the need to generate more representative and robust data in these sub-populations and consider some structural changes in the modeling equation and parameters in the Goals Model to effectively use it to assess the impact of future strategies of HIV control in various sub-populations in India at the sub-national level. PMID:27711212

  17. Integrating weather and climate predictions for seamless hydrologic ensemble forecasting: A case study in the Yalong River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Aizhong; Deng, Xiaoxue; Ma, Feng; Duan, Qingyun; Zhou, Zheng; Du, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Despite the tremendous improvement made in numerical weather and climate models over the recent years, the forecasts generated by those models still cannot be used directly for hydrological forecasting. A post-processor like the Ensemble Pre-Processor (EPP) developed by U.S. National Weather Service must be used to remove various biases and to extract useful predictive information from those forecasts. In this paper, we investigate how different designs of canonical events in the EPP can help post-process precipitation forecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). The use of canonical events allow those products to be linked seamlessly and then the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts can be generated using the Schaake Shuffle procedure. We used the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive a distributed hydrological model to obtain ensemble streamflow forecasts and evaluated those forecasts against the observed streamflow. We found that the careful design of canonical events can help extract more useful information, especially when up-to-date observed precipitation is used to setup the canonical events. We also found that streamflow forecasts using post-processed precipitation forecasts have longer lead times and higher accuracy than streamflow forecasts made by traditional Extend Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and the forecasts based on original GEFS and CFSv2 precipitation forecasts.

  18. Steller Sex: Infidelity and Sexual Selection in a Social Corvid (Cyanocitta stelleri)

    PubMed Central

    Overeem, Katlin R.; Gabriel, Pia O.; Zirpoli, Jeff A.; Black, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of avian mating systems has revealed that more than 70% of monogamous species show incidence of offspring parentage that does not match the social partner. Extra-pair parentage (EPP) has been linked to a variety of factors, including size and symmetry of ornamental traits, coloration, resource availability, and local conspecific density. We examined how ornamental plumage traits of individual Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) and territory characteristics influence genetic fidelity of socially monogamous pairs. We used seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to 79 offspring, and identified 12 (15.2%) as extra-pair young (EPY). Steller's jays with extra-pair young had significantly lower values of feather brightness and hue, indicating more ultraviolet-blue shifted coloration, and nested in closer proximity to the forest edge than Steller's jays with no detected EPY. Body size, crest height, asymmetry of ornamental crest stripes, as well as vegetative composition of territories and their proximity to supplemental feeders appeared to have little relationship to EPP. These results indicate that extra-pair parentage plays a role in the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics in both sexes, and suggest local density and availability of resources may influence Steller's jay mating dynamics. PMID:25148039

  19. The molecular defect of ferrochelatase in a patient with erythropoietic protoporphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahashi, Yoshitsugu; Taketani, Shigeru ); Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Kappas, Attallah; Sassa, Shigeru )

    1992-01-01

    The molecular basis of an inherited defect of ferrochelatase in a patient with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was investigated. Ferrochelatase is the terminal enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway and catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX to form heme. In Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from a proband with EPP, enzyme activity, an immunochemically quantifiable protein, and mRNA content of ferrochelatase were about one-half the normal level. In contrast, the rate of transcription of ferrochelatase mRNA in the proband's cells was normal, suggesting that decreased ferrochelatase mRNA is due to an unstable transcript. cDNA clones encoding ferrochelatase in the proband, isolated by amplification using the polymerase chain reaction, were found to be classified either into those encoding the normal protein or into those encoding an abnormal protein that lacked exon 2 of the ferrochelatase gene, indicating that the proband is heterozygous for the ferrochelatase defect. Genomic DNA analysis revealed that the abnormal allele had a point mutation, C {yields} T, near the acceptor site of intron 1. This point mutation appears to be responsible for the post-transcriptional splicing abnormality resulting in an aberrant transcript of ferrochelatase in this patient.

  20. Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA markers in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n = 26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ≥4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n = 9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations.

  1. Log and data from a trench across the Hubbell Spring Fault Zone, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, S.F.; Eppes, M.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Love, D.W.; Mitchell, D.K.; Murphy, Anne

    2000-01-01

    This report contains field and laboratory data resulting from a trench study of the Hubbell Spring fault zone near Albuquerque, New Mexico. This trench was excavated in September, 1997, as part of earthquake hazards investigations of Quaternary faults in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. The trench was excavated across the youngest of several fault strands near the northern end of the Hubbell Spring fault zone. The site is located on Pueblo of Isleta tribal lands, approximately 1 km south of the southern boundary of Kirtland Air Force Base. Thus the paleoearthquake data derived from investigations at the Hubbell Spring site will be useful in assessing potential earthquake hazards in Isleta Pueblo, Kirtland Air Force Base/Sandia National Laboratories, and the Albuquerque metropolitan area. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed trench log, a scarp profile, soils data (table 1), magnetic susceptibility data (table 2), luminescence and uranium-series ages (tables 3 and 4), and detailed unit descriptions (table 5) obtained in this investigation. S.F. Personius had primary responsibility for siting, excavating, describing, and interpreting the trench; S.A. Mahan did the luminescence dating, and James B. Paces did the uranium-series dating. M.C. Eppes and D.W. Love assisted with trench logging and mapping; and M.C. Eppes, D.K. Mitchell, and A. Murphy did the soils analyses.

  2. The BC Educator Pathway Collaborative Framework: creating the foundation for nursing education capacity.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Patricia; Mildon, Barbara; Purkis, Mary Ellen; Thorne, Sally; Wejr, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the conceptual structure and organizational framework of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), which is a unique collaborative capacity-building project creating infrastructure for integrating nursing practice learning and development throughout the service and education sectors in British Columbia. Since 2005, two major health authorities, two universities and the provincial nurses' bargaining association have been engaged in an intensive and dynamic partnership to conceptualize and fundamentally change intersectoral directions and possibilities. This unique initiative has required considerable investment and commitment among all partner organizations, resulting in a clear, shared vision of systemwide support of nursing. With the EPP now in its final year of funding, we are beginning to document its elements and interpret its significant impact on nurses and their workplaces across the regions. In this paper, we describe the overall program design, explain the collaborative partnership mechanisms through which we have been implementing the project and articulate a range of processes through which we are working together to enact significant system-level adjustments aimed at a genuine practice-education continuum. As part of sustaining a strong nursing workforce, we believe that nursing practice and education leaders across Canada are ready to employ this kind of creative approach towards realizing our common goals.

  3. Evaluation of GFP tag as a screening reporter in directed evolution of a hyperthermophilic beta-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Lima, André O S; Davis, Diane F; Swiatek, Gavin; McCarthy, James K; Yernool, Dinesh; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-06-01

    By applying a directed evolution methodology specific enzymatic characteristics can be enhanced, but to select mutants of interest from a large mutant bank, this approach requires high throughput screening and facile selection. To facilitate such primary screening of enhanced clones, an expression system was tested that uses a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag from Aequorea victoria linked to the enzyme of interest. As GFP's fluorescence is readily measured, and as there is a 1:1 molar correlation between the target protein and GFP, the concept proposed was to determine whether GFP could facilitate primary screening of error-prone PCR (EPP) clones. For this purpose a thermostable beta-glucosidase (BglA) from Fervidobacterium sp. was used as a model enzyme. A vector expressing the chimeric protein BglA-GFP-6XHis was constructed and the fusion protein purified and characterized. When compared to the native proteins, the components of the fusion displayed modified characteristics, such as enhanced GFP thermostability and a higher BglA optimum temperature. Clones carrying mutant BglA proteins obtained by EPP, were screened based on the BglA/GFP activity ratio. Purified tagged enzymes from selected clones resulted in modified substrate specificity.

  4. Postsynaptic production of nitric oxide implicated in long-term depression at the mature amphibian (Bufo marinus) neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, Sarah J; Everett, Alan W

    2004-01-01

    We report here evidence for endogenous NO signalling in long-term (> 1 h) synaptic depression at the neuromuscular junction induced by 20 min of 1 Hz nerve stimulation. Synaptic depression was characterized by a 46% reduction in the end-plate potential (EPP) amplitude and a 21% decrease in miniature EPP (MEPP) frequency, but no change to MEPP amplitude, indicating a reduction in evoked quantal release. Both the membrane-impermeant NO scavenger cPTIO and the NOS inhibitor+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contraction were blocked with dantrolene. These data suggest that the depression depends on transmission, but not muscle contraction. The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A and FK506, as well as ODQ, an inhibitor of NO-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase, Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and the calmodulin antagonist phenoxybenzamine also blocked depression. We propose that low frequency synaptic transmission leads to production of NO at the synapse and depression of transmitter release via a cGMP-dependent mechanism. The NO could be generated either directly from the muscle, or possibly from the Schwann cell in response to an unidentified muscle-derived messenger. We showed that the long-lasting depression of transmitter release was due to sustained activity of the NO signalling pathway, and suggest dephosphorylation of NOS by calcineurin as the basis for continued NO production. PMID:15243135

  5. Regulation of MDR1 gene expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells is independent from YB-1.

    PubMed

    Kaszubiak, Alexander; Kupstat, Annette; Müller, Ursula; Hausmann, Romy; Holm, Per Sonne; Lage, Hermann

    2007-05-25

    The MDR1 gene encoded transmembrane ABC-transporter MDR1/P-glycoprotein can mediate the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle in the clinical management of cancer patients. It was hypothesized that YB-1 is a fundamental regulatory factor of the MDR1 gene in tumor cells and can therewith enhance drug resistance. To analyze the potential impact of YB-1 in MDR cancer cells, two specific anti-YB-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed for transient triggering the gene-silencing RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the MDR cell lines EPG85-257RDB and EPP85-181RDB as well as in their drug-sensitive counterparts EPG85-257P and EPP85-181P. Since both siRNAs showed biological activity, for stable inhibition of YB-1 corresponding tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-encoding expression vectors were designed. By treatment of the cancer cells with these constructs, the expression of the targeted YB-1 encoding mRNA and protein was completely inhibited following tetracycline exposure. These gene-silencing effects were not accompanied by modulation of the MDR1 expression or by reversal of the drug-resistant phenotype. In conclusion, the data demonstrate the utility of the analyzed RNAs as powerful laboratory tools and indicate that YB-1 is not involved in the regulation of the MDR1 gene or the development of the drug-resistant phenotype in MDR cancer cells.

  6. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Chondroprotective Activities of Cryptolepis buchanani Extract: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Chaiwongsa, Rujirek; Ongchai, Siriwan; Kunanusorn, Puongtip; Sangdee, Chaichan; Panthong, Ampai; Bunteang, Samreang; Nathasaen, Narong; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2014-01-01

    Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. is widely used in folk medicine in Southeast Asia for treating muscle tension and arthritis. This study aimed to investigate an analgesic activity of the methanol extract of C. buchanani (CBE) in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice, and to examine its anti-inflammatory activity in ethyl phenylpropiolate- (EPP-) induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Its effects on cartilage degradation induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in porcine cartilage explant culture were also determined. This study demonstrated that CBE significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing response. It also inhibited edema formation in both EPP-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema models. In cartilage explant culture, CBE significantly reduced the sulfated glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronan released into culture media while it reserved the uronic acid and collagen within the cartilage tissues. It also suppressed the matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity with no effect on cell viability. In conclusion, CBE shows analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and chondroprotective effects in this preliminary study. Therefore, CBE may be useful as an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis. PMID:25247198

  7. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations During the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Cassidy, T.; Vervack, R. J.; Burger, M. H.; Merkel, A. W.; Sarantos, M.; Sprague, A. L.; McClintock, W. E.; Benna, M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na, K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29, 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He+, O+, and Na+.

  8. Facultative nitrogen fixation by canopy legumes in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Barron, Alexander R; Purves, Drew W; Hedin, Lars O

    2011-02-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is often invoked to explain the N richness of tropical forests as ostensibly N(2)-fixing trees can be a major component of the community. Such arguments assume N(2) fixers are fixing N when present. However, in laboratory experiments, legumes consistently reduce N(2) fixation in response to increased soil N availability. These contrasting views of N(2) fixation as either obligate or facultative have drastically different implications for the N cycle of tropical forests. We tested these models by directly measuring N(2)-fixing root nodules and nitrogenase activity of individual canopy-dominant legume trees (Inga sp.) across several lowland forest types. Fixation was substantial in disturbed forests and some gaps but near zero in the high N soils of mature forest. Our findings suggest that canopy legumes closely regulate N(2) fixation, leading to large variations in N inputs across the landscape, and low symbiotic fixation in mature forests despite abundant legumes.

  9. High spin states and isomeric decays in doubly-odd 208Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Saha, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Gehlot, J.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Jnaneswari, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron deficient isotopes of francium ( Z=87, N˜121-123) as excited nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction: 197Au( 16O, xn) 213 - xFr at 100 MeV. The γ rays from the residues were observed through the high sensitivity Germanium Clover detector array INGA. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric states of the doubly-odd 208Fr nuclei, identified from the known sequence of ground state transitions, were observed. The half-lives of the E=194(2) keV isomeric transition, known from earlier observations, was measured to be T=233(18) ns. A second isomeric transition at E=383(2) keV and T=33(7) ns was also found. The measured half-lives were compared with the corresponding single particle estimates, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  10. Cu−In−Ga−S quantum dot composition-dependent device performance of electrically driven light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jo, Dae-Yeon; Yang, Heesun; Lee, Yangjin; Hwang, Jun Yeon

    2014-09-29

    Colloidal synthesis of ternary and quaternary quantum dots (QDs) of In/Ga ratio-varied Cu−In{sub 1−x}−Ga{sub x}−S (CIGS) with nominal x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 and their application for the fabrication of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are reported. Four QLEDs having CIGS QDs with different compositions are all solution-processed in the framework of multilayered structure, where QD emitting layer is sandwiched by hybrid charge transport layers of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) and ZnO nanoparticles. The device performance such as luminance and efficiency is found to be strongly dependent on the composition of CIGS QDs, and well interpreted by the device energy level diagram proposed through the determination of QD valence band minima by photoelectron emission spectroscopic measurement.

  11. Broadband control of emission wavelength of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by GaAs capping temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Matsumura, Takuya; Kita, Takashi

    2015-10-21

    We investigated the effects of the GaAs capping temperature on the morphological and photoluminescence (PL) properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs(001). The broadband tuning of the emission wavelength from 1.1 to 1.3 μm was achieved at room temperature by only adjusting the GaAs capping temperature. As the capping temperature was decreased, the QD shrinkage due to In desorption and In-Ga intermixing during the capping process was suppressed. This led to QDs with a high aspect ratio, and resultantly, the emission wavelength shifted toward the longer-wavelength side. In addition, the linearly polarized PL intensity elucidated anisotropic characteristics reflecting the shape anisotropy of the embedded QDs, in which a marked change in polarization anisotropy occurred at capping temperatures lower than 460 °C.

  12. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  13. Energy band structure tailoring of vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structure for intermediate-band solar cell application by thermal annealing process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chu, Ting-Fu; Huang, Tien-Hao

    2014-12-15

    This study presents an band-alignment tailoring of a vertically aligned InAs/GaAs(Sb) quantum dot (QD) structure and the extension of the carrier lifetime therein by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Arrhenius analysis indicates a larger activation energy and thermal stability that results from the suppression of In-Ga intermixing and preservation of the QD heterostructure in an annealed vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb QD structure. Power-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence were utilized to demonstrate the extended carrier lifetime from 4.7 to 9.4 ns and elucidate the mechanisms of the antimony aggregation resulting in a band-alignment tailoring from straddling to staggered gap after the RTA process. The significant extension in the carrier lifetime of the columnar InAs/GaAsSb dot structure make the great potential in improving QD intermediate-band solar cell application.

  14. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  15. Self-annihilation of inversion domains by high energy defects in III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoula, T.; Kioseoglou, J. Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2014-04-07

    Low-defect density InN films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy over an ∼1 μm thick GaN/AlN buffer/nucleation layer. Electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of inverse polarity domains propagating across the GaN layer and terminating at the sharp GaN/InN (0001{sup ¯}) interface, whereas no inversion domains were detected in InN. The systematic annihilation of GaN inversion domains at the GaN/InN interface is explained in terms of indium incorporation on the Ga-terminated inversion domains forming a metal bonded In-Ga bilayer, a structural instability known as the basal inversion domain boundary, during the initial stages of InN growth on GaN.

  16. Experimental investigation of shell-model excitations of 89Zr up to high spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Srivastava, P. C.; Kumar, S.; Naidu, B. S.; Donthi, R.; Jadhav, S.; Biswas, D. C.; Garg, U.; Goswami, A.; Jain, H. C.; Joshi, P. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Naik, Z.; Nag, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Saha, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2012-09-01

    Near yrast states in 89Zr were investigated up to high spin using the fusion evaporation reaction 80Se(13C, 4n) at an incident beam energy of 50 MeV. Excited levels of 89Zr have been observed up to ˜10 MeV excitation energy and spin ˜37/2ℏ using the prompt gamma spectroscopy technique with the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). The angular distribution, directional correlation, and polarization measurements were carried out to assign the spin and parity of the newly reported states. The structures of both the positive and negative parity states up to highest spin observed in the present experiment have been compared with shell-model calculations using two recently developed residual interactions, JUN45 and jj44b. The role of proton excitations from p3/2 and f5/2 orbitals to the g9/2 orbital for the higher spin states has been discussed.

  17. Influence of nanowire density on the shape and optical properties of ternary InGaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong; Joyce, Hannah J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Paladugu, Mohanchand; Zou, Jin; Suvorova, Alexandra A

    2006-04-01

    We have synthesized ternary InGaAs nanowires on (111)B GaAs surfaces by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Au colloidal nanoparticles were employed to catalyze nanowire growth. We observed the strong influence of nanowire density on nanowire height, tapering, and base shape specific to the nanowires with high In composition. This dependency was attributed to the large difference of diffusion length on (111)B surfaces between In and Ga reaction species, with In being the more mobile species. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis together with high-resolution electron microscopy study of individual InGaAs nanowires shows large In/Ga compositional variation along the nanowire supporting the present diffusion model. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit a red shift with decreasing nanowire density due to the higher degree of In incorporation in more sparsely distributed InGaAs nanowires.

  18. Impact of Cu-rich growth on the CuInGaSe2 surface morphology and related solar cells behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreau, Nicolas; Lähnemann, Jonas; Couzinié-Devy, Francois; Assmann, Lionel; Bertoncini, Patricia; Kessler, John

    2011-08-01

    The amount of copper excess provided during the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) 3-stage co-evaporation process is among the most operator subjective. In the present paper the influence of this parameter on the properties of the CIGSe films as well as on the behaviour of the related solar cells is investigated. It is observed that both the In/Ga lateral intermixing and the grain size are enhanced when the excess of copper is increased. Contrary to what could be expected, these changes only weakly affect the performance of the solar cells. Increasing the copper excess also yields a rougher CIGSe morphology. This latter evolution is observed to be the most important factor influencing the device behaviour. Through accurate analysis of quantum efficiency, it is concluded that, in the case of the standard cell structure, there exists a threshold in copper excess, beyond which the cell performance is significantly reduced.

  19. Interface reactions and Kirkendall voids in metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy grown Cu(In ,Ga)Se2 thin films on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, C. H.; Rockett, A. A.; Robertson, I. M.; Papathanasiou, N.; Siebentritt, S.

    2006-12-01

    Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) films were grown on (001) GaAs at 570 or 500°C by means of metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy. All films were Cu-rich [Cu /(In+Ga)>1] with pseudomorphic Cu2Se second phase particles found only on the growth surface. During growth, diffusion of Ga from the substrate and vacancies generated by the formation of CIGS from Cu2Se at the surface occurred. The diffusion processes lead to the formation of Kirkendall voids at the GaAs/CIGS interface. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoprobe energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to analyze the diffusion and void formation processes. The diffusivity of Ga in CIGS was found to be relatively low. This is postulated to be due to a comparatively low concentration of point defects in the epitaxial films. A reaction model explaining the observed profiles and voids is proposed.

  20. Check for chirality in {sup 102}Rh

    SciTech Connect

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Petkov, P.; Angelis, G. de; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, R.; Raju, M. Kumar; Kaur, J.; Mahanto, G.; Singh, A.; Kaur, N.; Garg, R.; Sukla, A.; Marinov, Ts. K.; Brant, S.

    2012-10-20

    Excited states in {sup 102}Rh, populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 94}Zr({sup 11}B,3n){sup 102}Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV, were studied using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the gamma-ray transitions observed were investigated in details. A new chiral candidate sister band was found in the level-scheme of {sup 102}Rh. Lifetimes of exited states in {sup 102}Rh were measured by means of the Doppler-shift attenuation technique. The experimental results do not support the presence of static chirality in {sup 102}Rh.

  1. Measurement of beta-gamma coincidence with a multi-parameter analyzer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah-Kejani, M.; Abbasi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Doost-Mohammadi, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new version of the Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) has been improved to facilitate measurement of beta-gamma coincidence events. It employs a new prototype list-mode multi-parameter data analyzer system, MPA4300. In order to test the new version performance, it has used to obtain energy spectra from radioxenon isotopes using the detector assembly of the Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System. The MPA4300 is able to set the coinciding parameters, extract the corresponding spectrum, and through the use of event by event list file, can replay the measurement in offline mode. A great novelty of this work is the use of internal timing circuit in MPA4300 instead of using standard pick up time modules to identify coincidence events of detectors. A detailed description of the measuring 222Rn and 131mXe is presented.

  2. [Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on weight loss after two years of bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients].

    PubMed

    Abilés, V; Abilés, J; Rodríguez-Ruiz, S; Luna, V; Martín, F; Gándara, N; Fernández-Santaella, M C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la Terapia Cognitivo Conductual (TCC) en el éxito de la pérdida de peso postoperatoria tras 2 años de CB. Metodología: Estudio observacional prospectivo en el que se incluyeron pacientes entre 18 y 59 años candidatos a CB, entre enero de 2007 y junio de 2010, realizando seguimiento postoperatorio hasta junio de 2012. Se compararon dos grupos de estudio de acuerdo a su participación en TCC o no. Se tomaron datos de peso corporal y estatura, a partir de las cuales se calculó el IMC y porcentaje de exceso de peso perdido (Peso perdido x 100)/(Peso inicial-Peso ideal), clasificando a los pacientes como exitosos (E) los que logaron un EPP > 50% y como no exitosos (NE) aquellos con EPP < 50%. Asimismo se examinaron psicopatología general (estrés, ansiedad, depresión y autoestima) y específica de la conducta alimentaria (trastorno por atracón y ansia por la comida) mediante test validados para población española. Resultados: De los 35 pacientes intervenidos, 30 respondieron a la valoración postcirugía. 16 de ellos pasaron por TCC antes de la CB y 14 fueron intervenidos sin recibir terapia pisco-nutricional, (76% mujeres) con edad media de 41 ± 9,5 años. El IMC basal medio fue de 42 ± 10 y un 45% de los pacientes fueron clasificados como superobesos (IMC: 56 ± 6). La media de exceso de peso perdido (EPP) fue de 77%. Según el EPP se clasificaron como “exitosos” (E) a 17 pacientes (59%) y “no exitosos” a 13 (41%). De los pacientes catalogados como E, el 94% paso por TCC (15 individuos de los 17 totales) comparados con solo el 12% que no la recibió (2 individuos de los 17 totales) con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05). Asimismo, se observo menor incidencia de trastornos psicológicos comparados con los NE. En concreto, resultaron estar significativamente menos ansiosos y estresados y tener mayor autoestima (P < 0,05). En cuanto a la psicopatología específica, por un lado, el ansia por la

  3. Automated PET-only quantification of amyloid deposition with adaptive template and empirically pre-defined ROI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, G.; Ikari, Y.; Ohnishi, A.; Nishida, H.; Aita, K.; Sasaki, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Senda, M.

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid PET is useful for early and/or differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Quantification of amyloid deposition using PET has been employed to improve diagnosis and to monitor AD therapy, particularly in research. Although MRI is often used for segmentation of gray matter and for spatial normalization into standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space where region-of-interest (ROI) template is defined, 3D MRI is not always available in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of PET-only amyloid quantification with an adaptive template and a pre-defined standard ROI template that has been empirically generated from typical cases. A total of 68 subjects who underwent brain 11C-PiB PET were examined. The 11C-PiB images were non-linearly spatially normalized to the standard MNI T1 atlas using the same transformation parameters of MRI-based normalization. The automatic-anatomical-labeling-ROI (AAL-ROI) template was applied to the PET images. All voxel values were normalized by the mean value of cerebellar cortex to generate the SUVR-scaled images. Eleven typical positive images and eight typical negative images were normalized and averaged, respectively, and were used as the positive and negative template. Positive and negative masks which consist of voxels with SUVR  ⩾1.7 were extracted from both templates. Empirical PiB-prone ROI (EPP-ROI) was generated by subtracting the negative mask from the positive mask. The 11C-PiB image of each subject was non-rigidly normalized to the positive and negative template, respectively, and the one with higher cross-correlation was adopted. The EPP-ROI was then inversely transformed to individual PET images. We evaluated differences of SUVR between standard MRI-based method and PET-only method. We additionally evaluated whether the PET-only method would correctly categorize 11C-PiB scans as positive or negative. Significant correlation was observed between the SUVRs

  4. Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications

    DOEpatents

    Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Gabor, Andrew M.; Noufi, Rommel; Tennant, Andrew L.

    1995-07-25

    A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

  5. Impacts of major predators on tropical agroforest arthropods: comparisons within and across taxa.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Perfecto, Ivette

    2004-06-01

    In food web studies, taxonomically unrelated predators are often grouped into trophic levels regardless of their relative importance on prey assemblages, multiple predator effects, or interactions such as omnivory. Ants and birds are important predators likely to differentially shape arthropod assemblages, but no studies have compared their effects on a shared prey base. In two separate studies, we excluded birds and ants from branches of a canopy tree ( Inga micheliana) in a coffee farm in Mexico for 2 months in the dry and wet seasons of 2002. We investigated changes in arthropod densities with and without predation pressure from (1) birds and (2) ant assemblages dominated by one of two ant species ( Azteca instabilis and Camponotus senex). We first analyzed individual effects of each predator (birds, Azteca instabilis, and C. senex) then used a per day effect metric to compare differences in effects across (birds vs ants) and within predator taxa (the two ant species). Individually, birds reduced densities of total and large arthropods and some arthropod orders (e.g., spiders, beetles, roaches) in both seasons. Azteca instabilis did not significantly affect arthropods (total, small, large or specific orders). Camponotus senex, however, tended to remove arthropods (total, small), especially in the dry season, and affected arthropod densities of some orders both positively and negatively. Predators greatly differed in their effects on Inga arthropods (for all, small, large, and individual orders of arthropods) both in sign (+/-) and magnitudes of effects. Birds had stronger negative effects on arthropods than ants and the two dominant ant species had stronger effects on arthropods in different seasons. Our results show that aggregating taxonomically related and unrelated predators into trophic levels without prior experimental data quantifying the sign and strengths of effects may lead to a misrepresentation of food web interactions.

  6. Characterization facility for magneto-optic media and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.; Fu, H.; Gadetsky, S.; Sugaya, S.; Wu, T. H.; Zambuto, J.; Gerber, R.; Goodman, T.; Erwin, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of this research are: (1) to measure the hysteresis loop, Kerr rotation angle, anisotropy energy profile, Hall voltage, and magnetoresistance of thin-film magneto-optic media using our loop-tracer; (2) measure the wavelength-dependence of the Kerr rotation angle, Theta(sub k), and ellipticity, epsilon(sub k), for thin-film media using our magneto-optic Kerr spectrometer (MOKS); (3) measure the dielectric tensor of thin-film and multilayer samples using our variable-angle magneto-optic ellipsometer (VAMOE); (4) measure the hysteresis loop, coercivity, remanent magnetization, saturation magnetization, and anisotropy energy constant for thin film magnetic media using vibrating sample magnetometry; (5) observe small magnetic domains and investigate their interaction with defects using magnetic force microscopy; (6) perform static read/write/erase experiments on thin-film magneto-optic media using our static test station; (7) integrate the existing models of magnetization, magneto-optic effects, coercivity, and anisotropy in an interactive and user-friendly environment, and analyze the characterization data obtained in the various experiments, using this modeling package; (8) measure focusing- and tracking-error signals on a static testbed, determine the 'feedthrough' for various focusing schemes, investigate the effects of polarization and birefringence, and compare the results with diffraction-based calculations; and (9) measure the birefringence of optical disk substrates using two variable angle ellipsometers.

  7. Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study's finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed.

  8. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of High-Brightness Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiping

    2013-11-30

    Theoretical and computational investigations of adiabatic thermal beams have been carried out in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research and for various applications such as light sources. Most accelerator applications require high-brightness beams. This is true for high-energy accelerators such as linear colliders. It is also true for energy recovery linacs (ERLs) and free electron lasers (FELs) such as x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from February 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013 were: a) Completion of a preliminary theoretical and computational study of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow (Mok, 2013); and b) Presentation of an invited paper entitled ?Adiabatic Thermal Beams in a Periodic Focusing Field? at Space Charge 2013 Workshop, CERN, April 16-19, 2013 (Chen, 2013). In this report, an introductory background for the research project is provided. Basic theory of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow is reviewed. Results of simulation studies of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flows are discussed.

  9. Crystal structure of the heptamolybdate(VI) (paramolybdate) ion, [Mo7O24]6-, in the ammonium and potassium tetrahydrate salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Gatehouse, B.M.; Leverett, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal structures of the isomorphous salts MI6 [Mo7O24],4H2O (M = NH4 or K) have been refined by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction methods. Unit cell dimensions of these monoclinic compounds, space group P21/C with Z = 4, are, ammonium salt: a = 8.3934 ?? 0.0008, b = 36.1703 ?? 0.0045, c = 10.4715 ?? 0.0011 A??, ?? = 115.958?? ?? 0.008??; and potassium salt: a = 8.15 ?? 0.02, b = 35.68 ?? 0.1, c = 10.30 ?? 0.02 A??, ?? = 115.2?? ?? 02??. By use of multiple Weissenberg patterns, 8197 intensity data (Mo-K?? radiation) for the ammonium compound and 2178 (Cu-K?? radiation) for the potassium compound were estimated visually and used to test and refine Lindqvist's proposed structure in the space group P21/c. Lindqvist's structure was confirmed and the full matrix least-squares isotropic refinement led to R 0.076 (ammonium) 0.120 (potassium), with direct unambiguous location of the cations and water molecules in the potassium compound.

  10. Substance Use and Treatment Outcomes Among Spanish-Speaking Latino/as From Four Acculturation Types.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Kelly; Wendt, Dennis C; Ornelas, India J; Doyle, Suzanne R; Donovan, Dennis M

    2017-01-09

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of acculturation with substance use treatment outcomes in a sample of treatment-seeking Latino/as (N = 405). The study used data from a multisite randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted version of Motivational Enhancement Therapy delivered in Spanish. Berry, Kim, Minde, and Mok's (1987) acculturation model was used to divide the sample into 4 types (integrated, assimilated, separated, marginalized), based on Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire scores. One-way analyses of variance, chi-squared tests, and repeated-measures regression were used to examine baseline acculturation, posttreatment outcomes, and follow-up outcomes. All participants were of Latino/a background, and 88.4% of the sample was male. Participants with greater acculturation to American culture (i.e., integrated and assimilated acculturation types) reported more substance use and associated problems at baseline, χ2(3) = 20.5, p < .001, with the integrated type reporting the highest percentage of substance use disorder symptoms and problems (67.6%). No significant differences in substance use were detected among acculturation types posttreatment or at follow-up. Although the integrated and assimilated acculturation types were associated at baseline with more substance use and associated problems, all acculturation types seemed to benefit at posttreatment from an evidence-based culturally adapted treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Copper(II) complexes with phenoxyalkanoic acids and nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligands: structure and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Dendrinou-Samara, C; Psomas, G; Raptopoulou, C P; Kessissoglou, D P

    2001-01-01

    The copper complexes with the phenoxyalkanoic acids MCPA, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-DP in the presence of a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand, phen or bipyam, were prepared and characterized. Interaction of Cu(II) with phenoxyalkanoic acids and bipyam leads to dinuclear or uninuclear neutral complexes while in the presence of phen uninuclear neutral or cationic forms have been isolated. The crystal structure of bis(1,10-phenanthroline)(2-methyl-4-chloro-phenoxyacetato)copper(ll) chloride-methanol(1/1)-water(1/0.6), 1 has been determined and refined by least-squares methods using three-dimensional MoK, data. 1 crystallizes in space group P1, in a cell of dimensions a = 14.577(6)A, b = 1 1.665(5) A, c = 12.249(6) A, alpha = 98.38( 1)degrees, beta = 112.18( 1) degrees, gamma = 104.56(1 ) degrees, V= 1,798( 1) A3 and Z= 2. The cyclic voltammograms of uninuclear cationic complexes in dmf exhibit an extra cathodic wave due to the chloride ion. The available evidence supports an increasing antimicrobial effeciency for the cationic complexes.

  12. Dissociation between nerve-muscle transmission and nerve trophic effects on rat diaphragm using type D botulinum toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, J J; Harris, A J

    1975-01-01

    Small doses of botulinum toxin can produce partial blockage of transmitter release at the nerve--muscle junction. 2. Subthreshold e.p.p.s, 3--10 days after poisoning, show a distribution of amplitudes that is fitted by Poisson statistics. Successive e.p.p.s. in a short train show a marked facilitation. 3. Two weeks or more after poisoning with a dose of toxin that paralyses the whole muscle, when nerve--muscle transmission is in course of recovery, subthreshold e.p.p.s have an amplitude distribution that is fitted by binomial statistics. This property of transmission is similar to those described in newly formed nerve--muscle junctions, during embryogenesis or regeneration. 4. Muscle fibres with subthreshold transmission in the 5--10 day group of muscles were all supersensitive to ACh, as were a number of fibres in which nerve stimulation still produced an action potential. 5. Two weeks or more after poisoning, muscle fibres with subthreshold transmission had lost their extrajunctional ACh-sensitivity, as had many fibres with m.e.p.p.s of roughly normal frequency but no response to nerve stimulation. 6. In diaphragm muscles poisoned with botulinum toxin between 1 and 4 days previously, the rate of fast axonal transport of radioactively labelled proteins down the phrenic nerve is not greatly affected, but the amount of materials carried is reduced to about one quarter of normal. These labelled proteins accumulate in the intramuscular portion of the phrenic nerve, in or near the nerve terminals, to a much greater extent than in controls, showing that the normal release of some of these materials has been prevented by the toxin. 7. It is concluded that the blockage of the trophic effects of nerves by botulinum toxin is due to a blockage of release of trophic factors other than ACh. 8. The muscle nerve cannot maintain a muscle in its normal state simply by activation of contraction, and a regenerating nerve terminal can restore a muscle towards its normal state before

  13. Ground-based monitoring of nitric oxide (NO) in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere from Syowa Station in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Akira; Nakamura, Takuji; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nagahama, Tomoo; Isono, Yasuko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Hiroyuki, Maezawa; Uemura, Miku

    Ion-molecule chemistry triggered by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) due to large solar proton events or geomagnetic storms influences the atmospheric minor constituents such as HOx, NOx and ozone from the upper stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. To understand the effect of the EPP on the middle atmosphere in the polar region, we installed a new spectroscopic radiometer at Syowa Station (69.00S, 39.85E) in the 52nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. We have carried out ground-based continuous observations of spectral line of nitric oxide (NO) at 250.796 GHz since January 2012. We obtained 197 and 172 daily averaged NO spectra in 2012 and 2013 (until 30 September; DOY 273), respectively. The NO spectra are characterized by narrow line width of about 0.5MHz at FWHM, suggesting that the NO emitting region is between 75 and 100 km based on the relationship between the pressure broadening line width and the altitude. We derived partial column density of NO from the spectral intensity. We found two temporal variation patterns of the NO column density, i.e., long-term and short-term variations. The long-term variation is a seasonal one with a maximum in the winter and a minimum in the summer. The column density of NO during the winter was about 4 times larger than that during the summer. This seasonal variation is considered to be related to the atmospheric transport and the photo-dissociation of NO by solar radiation. The other short-term variation is associated with EPP events such as solar proton events and geomagnetic storms. Typical duration of the short-term variation is 5-10 days. At Syowa Station, we have found that the short-term variations were caused mainly by the precipitation of electrons rather than protons based on the comparison with the precipitating fluxes of protons and electrons obtained by the POES and METOP-02 satellites. We studied more detailed behavior of NO within a day by using high time resolution (˜ 3-hour) data for one of the

  14. Effect of Increasing Experience on Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes in the Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Pretesh R.; Yoo, Sua; Broadwater, Gloria; Marks, Lawrence B.; Miles, Edward F.; D'Amico, Thomas A.; Harpole, David; Kelsey, Chris R.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of increasing experience with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Methods and Materials: The records of all patients who received IMRT following EPP at Duke University Medical Center between 2005 and 2010 were reviewed. Target volumes included the preoperative extent of the pleural space, chest wall incisions, involved nodal stations, and a boost to close/positive surgical margins if applicable. Patients were typically treated with 9-11 beams with gantry angles, collimator rotations, and beam apertures manually fixed to avoid the contalateral lung and to optimize target coverage. Toxicity was graded retrospectively using National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria version 4.0. Target coverage and contralateral lung irradiation were evaluated over time by using linear regression. Local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Thirty patients received IMRT following EPP; 21 patients also received systemic chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 15 months. The median dose prescribed to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax was 45 Gy (range, 40-50.4 Gy) with a boost of 8-25 Gy in 9 patients. Median survival was 23.2 months. Two-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 47%, 34%, and 50%, respectively. Increasing experience planning MPM cases was associated with improved coverage of planning target volumes (P=.04). Similarly, mean lung dose (P<.01) and lung V5 (volume receiving 5 Gy or more; P<.01) values decreased with increasing experience. Lung toxicity developed after IMRT in 4 (13%) patients at a median of 2.2 months after RT (three grade 3-4 and one grade 5). Lung toxicity developed in 4 of the initial 15 patients vs none of the last 15 patients treated. Conclusions: With increasing experience, target volume coverage improved and dose to the

  15. Pulsatile and nonpulsatile extracorporeal circulation using Capiox E terumo oxygenator: a comparison study with Ultrox and Maxima membrane oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Minami, K; Bairaktaris, A; Murray, E; Weitkemper, H; Dramburg, W; Körfer, R

    1997-06-01

    An open randomised, prospective study was undertaken on 90 patients who underwent routine myocardial revascularization. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that the Capiox E polypropylene fiber membrane oxygenator with a conventional single pulsatile/nonpulsatile blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was comparable in performance to that of the Maxima and the Ultrox membrane oxygenators using a double pump system. The patients were divided into six groups according to perfusion mode and oxygenator type. Laboratory parameters, fluid balance and oxygenation was examined at set times before during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Net fluid input was lower in the Capiox E groups regardless of perfusion mode: 2932 +/- 562 ml (Capiox E), compared to 3646 +/- 531 ml (Ultrox) and 3593 +/- 582 ml (Maxima). Net fluid balance 1288 +/- 534 ml was lowest in the Capiox/NP group, compared to 1604 +/- 460 ml (Ultrox/NP) and 1881 +/- 594 ml (Maxima/NP), (p < 0.05). The higher net fluid balance in the Capiox E/PP group 1649 +/- 580 ml compared to 1592 +/- 583 ml (Ultrox E/PP) and 1494 +/- 542 ml (Maxima/PP) was attributed to a technicality whereby the recommended priming volume of the Capiox E oxygenator was exceeded for safety reasons. The values of plasma free Hb were slightly higher in the PP than NP groups: Maxima/PP 80 mg/dl, /NP 50 mg/dl; Ultrox/PP 62 mg/dl, /NP 48 mg/dl; Capiox E/PP 55 mg/dl, /NP 48 mg/dl. The FiO2 was higher in the Capiox E groups 0.77 (PP) and 0.88 (NP) compared to Maxima/PP (0.66), /NP (0.65) and Ultrox/PP (0.64), /NP (0.63). Reciprocally, the venous saturation was higher in the Ultrox and Maxima groups compared to Capiox E at end of CPB. The study demonstrated that the CapioxE oxygenator with a single blood pump system can compare to the Maxima and Ultrox oxygenators with a double blood pump for CPB with regard to blood handling, oxygenation and fluid balance in routine cardiac surgery.

  16. Effects of guanidine on transmitter release and neuronal excitability.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G; Wickelgren, W O

    1977-01-01

    1. Guanidine hydrochloride (CH5N3-HCl) was applied to frog neuromuscular junctions blocked by reduced external Ca2+, or increased external Mg2+ concentration, or by both. Guanidine produced a dose-dependent increase in the average number of quanta released by presynaptic action potentials, the threshold dose being 0-1-0-2 mM. No post-synaptic effects were observed. 2. Guanidine also increased the excitability of the motor nerve fibres, as evidenced by multiple firing to single electrical stimuli and finally by spontaneous action potentials. These effects were studied in greater detail in giant axons (Müller axons) in the spinal cord of lamprey. Exposure to guanidine produced in these axons a progressive increase in excitability, manifested by repetitive firing to a single electrical stimulus, spontaneous membrane potential oscillations and spontaneous bursts of action potentials. Guanidine had no effect on the resting potential. 3. The effect of guanidine on the excitability of Müller axons was mimicked in every detail simply by reducing the divalent cation concentration of the bathing solution. 4. Guanidine also produced dose-dependent increases in the duration of action potentials in Müller axons. This effect always preceded in time the appearance of the excitability effects and was not mimicked by reducing the divalent cation concentration. It is suggested that the broadening of the action potential is separate from the excitability effects and may reflect a decrease of delayed rectification. 5. Guanidine (0-3 mM) increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (min. e.p.p.) in solutions containing 2-11 mM-K+ in such a way as to shift the relationship between min. e.p.p. frequency and extracellular K+ toward lower values of K+. This effect was interpreted to mean that guanidine produced a depolarization of the nerve terminal which summed with the depolarization produced by a given concentration of K+. The calculated depolarization produced by 0-3 m

  17. Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bach, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate ‘unweanable’ patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure. PMID:22525322

  18. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Lake Dawson Dam (CT 00319), Connecticut Coastal Basin, Woodbridge, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    verif,; the procer ._ir. Our conrult-,nts advise that their fiwl report should be ready by !,t, end of September. Y ,r- vr tru," NF!4 ILAVEIT WATER...MALCOLM PIRNIE ENGINEERS L: how details of B47 :.ction on reverse side ___ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0 -- do" Show only features of samnple wi~ich are aplicable ...8217, Vr )Wa) g:4-576 7W* 6A-4 f~9eAW g ~?~’~4 ef,-’ 7eJ xArjrop ~*e- 1 A6Mrrv d- /ioo ~ 7ir*eiv0,-,%C , fr6 _ 75_0,40 0XI7 We 0V-v eppe.0t0)0e0 0 0 0

  19. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria bark ethanol extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Kale, Mrudula; Misar, A V; Dave, Vivek; Joshi, Maruti; Mujumdar, A M

    2007-06-13

    Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria Linn. bark ethanol extract was demonstrated in albino mice using TPA-, EPP- and AA-induced ear edema models. The systemic activity of extract was confirmed using acute and sub-acute anti-inflammatory models in albino rats. The ethanol extract exhibited significant systemic anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, by inhibition of histamine and prostaglandin phases of acute inflammation. The extract also showed significant activity against turpentine-induced exudative changes and no activity against granular tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma in albino rats. Thus, resultant anti-inflammatory activity might be due to effects on several mediators involving cyclo-oxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin formation and leukocyte migration from the vessels.

  1. [Genetic polymorphism of FIBRA,DHFRP2 and ACTBP2 and their forensic application in Yunnan Han population].

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiang; Nie, Sheng-Jie

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the genetic polymorphism of FIBRA,DHFRP2 and ACTBP2 in Yunnan Han population as well as their application in forensic science, EDTA-blood specimens were collected from 200 healthy individuals. The DNA were extracted either by the Chloro form, phenol method or by the Chelex-100 method. The PCR products were analyzed by PAG vertical electrophoresis,following by silver staining. All gene frequencies, discrimination power (DP), exclusion of paternity probability (EPP), heterozygosity (H),polymorphisms information content (PIC),matching probability (PM) as well as the Hardy-Weinberg test were calculated. The obtained data are beneficial in the understanding of population genetics of the three STR loci in Yunnan Han population and the results suggest that these loci are valuable genetic markers for paternity testing and personal identification in forensic science practice.

  2. Modeling of Shadows in Radar Clutter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    0005 wAITE 46.20001 TITLE 060 WRITE 46.21331 N!.4V.NC.NTIN.N4TOUT.M4TIRL.1PAUtF.NETNGO 0007 N1.1 0006 4 2WNI*NCONV 0000 N43 .42 * PIC 0010 NA-43#HE 0011...PARTMtON PARAM7!E C EPpTI. SEP.) PCtNTS ARE %fLPCTEfW FQROS THE 0ATA UNITS. c PEA) TM" SEOU.INCF NUftERS POrN TeE CHOSEN 0A74 cjo ItSOPOPM A"OfS so2 IN...34 MCM WASIARLE FOR Iwo, CLU6Tal 00*?0 00 M.0TMI 006444 gu. 910V 006? so sOMITIN C TilPt PIC W e"RijiUO 0011 CPIOTRJI TOTALIJI 1/00141014JI 60S4Go o ca its

  3. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of tris(2,2' bipyridine)ruthenium(II) using common biological buffers as co-reactant, pH buffer and supporting electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Noah; Francis, Paul S; Barbante, Gregory J; Hogan, Conor F

    2015-11-07

    A series of aliphatic tertiary amines (HEPES, POPSO, EPPS and BIS-TRIS) commonly used to buffer the pH in biological experiments, were examined as alternative, non-toxic co-reactants for the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(ii) ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)). These were found to be very attractive as "multi-tasking" reagents, serving not only as co-reactants, but also fulfiling the roles of pH buffer and supporting electrolyte within an aqueous environment; thus significantly simplifying the overall ECL analysis. Sub-nanomolar detection limits were obtained for [Ru(bpy)3](2+) in the presence of BIS-TRIS, making this species an valuable option for co-reactant ECL-based bioanalytical applications.

  4. Antibacterial effectiveness of chitosan-propolis coated polypropylene films against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Torlak, Emrah; Sert, Durmuş

    2013-09-01

    Antibacterial properties of chitosan are well documented in the literature. However its antibacterial effectiveness in the film form is controversial due to the methodological differences in test methods used. In this study, antibacterial effectiveness of chitosan-coated polypropylene films alone and incorporating ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) were evaluated against six foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus) using the ISO 22196 method designed for the antibacterial treated plastic products. The results demonstrated that chitosan coated film exhibited the broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Incorporation of EPP to coating at 10% (propolis resin/chitosan) enhanced antibacterial activity against all pathogens tested. Results of this study revealed that chitosan has antibacterial activity in the film form and that propolis is a promising antimicrobial for the food packaging applications.

  5. A Numerical Technique for the Calculation of Dispersion Relations and Mode Functions for Upper Ocean Internal Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    gA) ( S S I STMAXI Cu. EPq )Eao TM 10 XI u KO -10 Ne~~ ESTIMATE OF yh4E EppOp IN K PSIL 35 9A Pem ( K16 FRRvis rS ?!MaTE IN K POASIALF NtDL, / Ka * * 22...FSTmATE. K: IR LOWE R PgTTMbfFo IMF C IMPROE FgTtmar rs RET"lwrng. IN K1. C loss C C CALL GUES9(KA,K9.M11) C C 170) C rNECK FOR EPPOP rOflEg PrTUMNJFO...DSIuAAI TXr(TEPM nr. EPQ MO TO PO Sri * .M,:AQ((K1 - TEwPKl / TENN TEMPPAI) F PC Tr * (;T. K ~Plrp~m’ * ?wwM Kft q FPSK 41 a PI - TFU~l CV1iN TuPkPK KT

  6. Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma—The European experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains a clinical challenge and the incidence of the disease will continue to increase worldwide. Several aspects of mesothelioma treatment are discussed controversially, in particular, regarding extent and best type of surgery, radiotherapy, and the role of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. However, best survival data is reported from groups using multimodality treatment including macroscopic complete resection (MCR) achieved by either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or (extended) pleurectomy/decortication for patients qualifying from the tumor biology, stage, and patient’s performance status and comorbidities. Several aspects have to be considered during surgery but morbidity and mortality have been reduced at experienced centres. The final analysis of extended selection algorithms is pending. PMID:24868442

  7. On the anti-inflammatory and anti-phospholipase A(2) activity of extracts from lanostane-rich species.

    PubMed

    Giner-Larza, E M; Máñez, S; Giner-Pons, R M; Carmen Recio, M; Ríos, J L

    2000-11-01

    We have studied extracts from three species rich in lanostane triterpenes for their activity against different in vivo models of inflammation induced by TPA, EPP and PLA(2). The inhibitory effect against PLA(2) in vitro was also studied. When the Poria cocos extract was tested against PLA(2)-induced mouse paw edema, it was active by the oral and parenteral routes. Its effect was greater in both magnitude and duration than that of Pistacia terebinthus and Ganoderma lucidum extracts. P. terebinthus was effective against chronic and acute inflammation, and according to a preliminary chromatographic analysis, its seems to be a good source of lanostane anti-inflammatory agents. G. lucidum was the least effective of the three species studied and, unlike the other two, failed to inhibit the activity of PLA(2) in vitro.

  8. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus: A Dual Spacecraft Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Boardsen, S. A.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Sarantos, M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2007-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 krn) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 201 1 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. Pioneer Venus Orbiter measurements have shown that this interaction affects the upper atmosphere and ionosphere down to altitudes of - 150 km. Here we present an initial overview of the MESSENGER observations during the - 4 hrs that the spacecraft spent within 10 planet radii of Venus and, together with Venus Express measurements, examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on the solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  9. Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R

    2012-03-01

    This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate 'unweanable' patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure.

  10. Developing precipitation modes for preventing the calcium-oxalate contamination of sugar beet pectins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Effects of precipitation modes on the co-precipitation of insoluble oxalates particles during the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from the extract were investigated. It was observed that soluble oxalate ions formed insoluble oxalate salts with calcium and precipitated with pectins during ethanol precipitation as pH of the medium increased and the solvent changed from water to ethanol-water mixture. Comparison among the employed precipitation methods revealed that both the dialysis-ethanol-precipitation and metal precipitation effectively prevented the calcium-oxalate contamination of SBP. Emulsifying properties of DEPP, EPP and MPP were also studied. It was observed that DEPP performed better than the remainder with respect to emulsifying ability. Based on these results, we concluded that the dialysis-ethanolic-precipitation can be a suitable method for improving the purity as well as emulsifying properties of the resulting pectins.

  11. Mercury's Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Third Flyby Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gloeckler, George; Killen, Rosemary M.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Sprague, Ann L.; Vevack, Ronald J., Jr.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury en route to orbit insertion about the innermost planet took place on 29 September 2009. The earlier 14 January and 6 October 2008 encounters revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is highly dipolar and stable over the 35 years since its discovery by Mariner 10; that a structured, temporally variable exosphere extends to great altitudes on the dayside and forms a long tail in the anti-sunward direction; a cloud of planetary ions encompasses the magnetosphere from the dayside bow shock to the downstream magnetosheath and magnetotail; and that the magnetosphere undergoes extremely intense magnetic reconnect ion in response to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field. Here we report on new results derived from observations from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), Magnetometer (MAG), and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) taken during the third flyby.

  12. Report on FY15 alloy 617 code rules development

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Hollinger, Greg; Pease, Derrick; Carter, Peter; Pu, Chao; Wang, Yanli

    2015-09-01

    Due to its strength at very high temperatures, up to 950°C (1742°F), Alloy 617 is the reference construction material for structural components that operate at or near the outlet temperature of the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the current rules in the ASME Section III, Division 5 Subsection HB, Subpart B for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650°C (1200°F) (Corum and Brass, Proceedings of ASME 1991 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, PVP-Vol. 215, p.147, ASME, NY, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650°C (1200°F), is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the high temperature gas-cooled reactors and the very high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis requiring sophisticated material models that have not yet been formulated and verified. To address these issues, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature (Carter, Jetter and Sham, Proceedings of ASME 2012 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, papers PVP 2012 28082 and PVP 2012 28083, ASME, NY, 2012), and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. Background documents have been developed for these two code cases to support the ASME Code committee approval process. These background documents for the EPP strain limits and creep-fatigue code cases are documented in this report.

  13. The influence of ouabain on twitch potentiation by anticholinesterases in the phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscles of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, M.; Ohtani, H.; Yagasaki, O.

    1989-01-01

    1. (+)-Tubocurarine, hexamethonium, atropine, ouabain, and removal of potassium from the bathing medium were examined for their effects on indirectly evoked twitches (IT) of mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm muscles in the presence or absence of neostigmine. 2. Neostigmine increased the amplitude of IT. The twitch potentiation was reduced by (+)-tubocurarine at low concentrations that had no inhibitory effect on normal IT. Hexamethonium (10-100 microM), but not atropine (0.1-1 microM), partially inhibited the twitch potentiation. Neither hexamethonium nor atropine had an inhibitory effect on IT in the absence of neostigmine. 3. Ouabain (5 microM) abolished the twitch potentiation by neostigmine while having no inhibitory effect on directly evoked twitches in the presence of neostigmine and (+)-tubocurarine together. 4. The potentiating effect of neostigmine was less in a potassium-free bathing solution. The inhibitory effect of ouabain disappeared in this solution. 5. Reinclusion of KCl at 2.5 mM restored both the potentiating effect of neostigmine and the antagonistic effect of ouabain. This reinclusion did not potentiate IT in the absence of neostigmine. 6. An interaction resembling that between ouabain and neostigmine was obtained between ouabain and physostigmine or paraoxon. 7. Both endplate potentials (e.p.ps) and miniature e.p.ps increased in terms of their amplitude and duration in the presence of neostigmine. Ouabain did not reduce the enhanced endplate responses. 8. These results indicate that the potentiation of IT by anticholinesterases may occur via nicotinic receptors which are sensitive to both (+)-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, and that the interaction between anticholinesterases and ouabain depends on the presence of K+. It appears that the mechanisms of twitch potentiation are dependent on the ionic gradients maintained by Na+-K+-ATPase. PMID:2924070

  14. Potentiation of the ionotropic GABA receptor response by whiskey fragrance.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2002-11-06

    It is well-known that the target of most mood-defining compounds is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activity in the human brain. To study the effects of whiskey fragrance on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting rat whole brain mRNA or cRNA prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors. Most whiskey components such as phenol, ethoxy, and lactone derivatives potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors, especially ethyl phenylpropanoate (EPP), which strongly potentiated the response. When this compound was applied to mice through respiration, the convulsions induced by pentetrazole were delayed, suggesting that EPP was absorbed by the brain, where it could potentiate the GABA(A) receptor responses. The extract of other alcoholic drinks such as wine, sake, brandy, and shochu also potentiated the responses to varying degrees. Although these fragrant components are present in alcoholic drinks at low concentrations (extremely small quantities compared with ethanol), they may also modulate the mood or consciousness of the human through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic fragrant compounds are easily absorbed into the brain through the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response.

  15. A Comparison of South African National HIV Incidence Estimates: A Critical Appraisal of Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rehle, Thomas; Johnson, Leigh; Hallett, Timothy; Mahy, Mary; Kim, Andrea; Odido, Helen; Onoya, Dorina; Jooste, Sean; Shisana, Olive; Puren, Adrian; Parekh, Bharat; Stover, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The interpretation of HIV prevalence trends is increasingly difficult as antiretroviral treatment programs expand. Reliable HIV incidence estimates are critical to monitoring transmission trends and guiding an effective national response to the epidemic. Methods and Findings We used a range of methods to estimate HIV incidence in South Africa: (i) an incidence testing algorithm applying the Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay (LAg-Avidity EIA) in combination with antiretroviral drug and HIV viral load testing; (ii) a modelling technique based on the synthetic cohort principle; and (iii) two dynamic mathematical models, the EPP/Spectrum model package and the Thembisa model. Overall, the different incidence estimation methods were in broad agreement on HIV incidence estimates among persons aged 15-49 years in 2012. The assay-based method produced slightly higher estimates of incidence, 1.72% (95% CI 1.38 – 2.06), compared with the mathematical models, 1.47% (95% CI 1.23 – 1.72) in Thembisa and 1.52% (95% CI 1.43 – 1.62) in EPP/Spectrum, and slightly lower estimates of incidence compared to the synthetic cohort, 1.9% (95% CI 0.8 – 3.1) over the period from 2008 to 2012. Among youth aged 15-24 years, a declining trend in HIV incidence was estimated by all three mathematical estimation methods. Conclusions The multi-method comparison showed similar levels and trends in HIV incidence and validated the estimates provided by the assay-based incidence testing algorithm. Our results confirm that South Africa is the country with the largest number of new HIV infections in the world, with about 1 000 new infections occurring each day among adults aged 15-49 years in 2012. PMID:26230949

  16. Oxytocin to modulate emotional processing in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Dagani, Jessica; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco; Balestrieri, Matteo; Pini, Stefano; Raimondi, Sara; Saviotti, Francesco Maria; Scocco, Paolo; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in social cognition, including emotional processing, are hallmarks of schizophrenia and antipsychotic agents seem to be ineffectual to improve these symptoms. However, oxytocin does seem to have beneficial effects on social cognition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four months of treatment with intranasal oxytocin, in 31 patients with schizophrenia, on distinct aspects of social cognition. This was assessed using standardized and experimental tests in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. All patients underwent clinical and experimental assessment before treatment, four months after treatment and at the end of treatment. Social cognition abilities were assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET). Furthermore, an Emotional Priming Paradigm (EPP) was developed to examine the effects of oxytocin on implicit perceptual sensitivity to affective information and explicit facial affect recognition. We found that oxytocin improved performance on MSCEIT compared to placebo in Branch 3-Understanding Emotion (p-value=0.004; Cohen׳s d=1.12). In the EPP task, we observed a significant reduction of reaction times for facial affect recognition (p-value=0.021; Cohen׳s d=0.88). No effects were found for implicit priming or for theory of mind abilities. Further study is required in order to highlight the potential for possible integration of oxytocin with antipsychotic agents as well as to evaluate psycho-social treatment as a multi-dimensional approach to increase explicit emotional processing abilities and compensate social cognition deficits related to schizophrenia.

  17. Inosine induces presynaptic inhibition of acetylcholine release by activation of A3 adenosine receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Cinalli, A R; Guarracino, J F; Fernandez, V; Roquel, L I; Losavio, A S

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The role of inosine at the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has not been clearly defined. Moreover, inosine was classically considered to be the inactive metabolite of adenosine. Hence, we investigated the effect of inosine on spontaneous and evoked ACh release, the mechanism underlying its modulatory action and the receptor type and signal transduction pathway involved. Experimental Approach End-plate potentials (EPPs) and miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) were recorded from the mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations using conventional intracellular electrophysiological techniques. Key Results Inosine (100 μM) reduced MEPP frequency and the amplitude and quantal content of EPPs; effects inhibited by the selective A3 receptor antagonist MRS-1191. Immunohistochemical assays confirmed the presence of A3 receptors at mammalian NMJ. The voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocker Cd2+, the removal of extracellular Ca2+ and the L-type and P/Q-type VGCC antagonists, nitrendipine and ω-agatoxin IVA, respectively, all prevented inosine-induced inhibition. In the absence of endogenous adenosine, inosine decreased the hypertonic response. The effects of inosine on ACh release were prevented by the Gi/o protein inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, PKC antagonist chelerytrine and calmodulin antagonist W-7, but not by PKA antagonists, H-89 and KT-5720, or the inhibitor of CaMKII KN-62. Conclusion and Implications Our results suggest that, at motor nerve terminals, inosine induces presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous and evoked ACh release by activating A3 receptors through a mechanism that involves L-type and P/Q-type VGCCs and the secretory machinery downstream of calcium influx. A3 receptors appear to be coupled to Gi/o protein. PKC and calmodulin may be involved in these effects of inosine. PMID:23731236

  18. Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Molgó, J.; Comella, J. X.; Legrand, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a short delay, spontaneous fibrillations of the muscle fibres that could be suppressed with 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by formamide to uncouple excitation-contraction. 3. In preparations treated with formamide, CTX (1-2.5 nM) caused either spontaneous or repetitive muscle action potentials (up to frequencies of 60-100 Hz) in response to a single nerve stimulus. Recordings performed at extrajunctional regions of the muscle membrane revealed that during the repetitive firing a prolongation of the repolarizing phase of the action potential occurred. At junctional sites the repetitive action potentials were triggered by repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps). 4. CTX (2.5 nM) caused a TTX-sensitive depolarization of the muscle membrane. 5. In junctions equilibrated in solutions containing high Mg2+ + low Ca2+, addition of CTX (1.5 nM) first induced an average increase of 239 +/- 36% in the mean quantal content of e.p.ps. Subsequently CTX reduced and finally blocked nerve-evoked transmitter release irreversibly. 6. CTX (1.5-2.5 nM) increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in junctions bathed either in normal Ringer, low Ca2(+)-high Mg2+ medium or in a nominally Ca2(+)-free solution containing EGTA.2+ Extensive washing with toxin-free solutions did not reverse the effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1972891

  19. Porphyria Diagnostics – Part 1: A brief overview of the porphyrias

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Vaithamanithi-Mudumbai Sadagopa; Anderson, Karl Elmo

    2015-01-01

    The porphyria diseases are a group of metabolic disorders caused by abnormal functioning of heme biosynthesis enzymes and characterized by the excessive accumulation and excretion of porphyrins and their precursors. Precisely which of these chemicals builds up depends on the type of porphyria. Porphyria is not a single disease but a group of nine disorders: acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), variegate porphyria (VP), delta-aminolevelunic acid dehyratase deficiency porphyria (ADP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hepatoerythropoetic porphyria (HEP), congenital erythropoetic porphyria (CEP), erythropoetic protoporphyria (EPP), and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP). Each porphyria results from overproduction of heme precursors secondary to partial deficiency or, in XLP, increased activity of one of the enzymes of heme biosynthesis. Taken together, all forms of porphyria afflict fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Based on European studies, the prevalence of the most common porphyria, PCT, is 1 in 10,000, the most common acute porphyria, AlP, is about 1 in 20,000, and the most common erythropoietic porphyria, EPP, is estimated at 1 in 50,000 to 75,000. CEP is extremely rare with prevalence estimates of 1 in 1,000,000 or less. Only 6 cases of ADP are documented. The current porphyria literature is very exhaustive and a brief overview of porphyria diseases is essential in order for the reader to better appreciate the relevance of this area of research prior to undertaking biochemical diagnostics procedures. This unit summarizes the current knowledge on the classification, clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of these porphyria diseases. PMID:26132003

  20. Effect of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) on non-quantal and spontaneous quantal release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular synapse of rat.

    PubMed

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Nikolsky, Eugen E; Lieberman, Edward M; Sherman, Jessica A; Lubischer, Jane L; Grossfeld, Robert M; Urazaev, Albert Kh

    2005-07-01

    N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), known to be present in rat motor neurons, may participate in neuronal modulation of non-quantal secretion of acetylcholine (ACh) from motor nerve terminals. Non-quantal release of ACh was estimated by the amplitude of the endplate membrane hyperpolarization (H-effect) caused by inhibition of nicotinic receptors by (+)-tubocurarine and acetylcholinesterase by armin (diethoxy-p-nitrophenyl phosphate). Application of exogenous NAAG decreased the H-effect in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of the H-effect by NAAG was completely removed when N-acetyl-beta-aspartylglutamate (betaNAAG) or 2-(phosphonomethyl)-pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) was used to inhibit glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II), a presynaptic Schwann cell membrane-associated ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes NAAG to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. Bath application of glutamate decreased the H-effect similarly to the action of NAAG but N-acetylaspartate was without effect. Inhibition of NMDA receptors by dl-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid, (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzocyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK801), and 7-chlorokynurenic acid or inhibition of muscle nitric oxide synthase (NO synthase) by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole completely prevented the decrease of the H-effect by NAAG. These results suggest that glutamate, produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of bath-applied NAAG, can modulate non-quantal secretion of ACh from the presynaptic terminal of the neuromuscular synapse via activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors and synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in muscle fibers. NAAG also increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (mEPPs) generated by spontaneous quantal secretion of ACh, whereas the mean amplitude and time constants for rise time and for decay of mEPPs did not change.

  1. The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elder, George; Harper, Pauline; Badminton, Michael; Sandberg, Sverre; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28-0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5-6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3-5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity.

  2. Porphyria Diagnostics-Part 1: A Brief Overview of the Porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Vaithamanithi-Mudumbai Sadagopa; Anderson, Karl Elmo

    2015-07-01

    Porphyria diseases are a group of metabolic disorders caused by abnormal functioning of heme biosynthesis enzymes and characterized by excessive accumulation and excretion of porphyrins and their precursors. Precisely which of these chemicals builds up depends on the type of porphyria. Porphyria is not a single disease but a group of nine disorders: acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), variegate porphyria (VP), δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria (ADP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP), congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP). Each porphyria results from overproduction of heme precursors secondary to partial deficiency or, in XLP, increased activity of one of the enzymes of heme biosynthesis. Taken together, all forms of porphyria afflict fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Based on European studies, the most common porphyria, PCT, has a prevalence of 1 in 10,000, the most common acute porphyria, AlP, has a prevalence of ∼1 in 20,000, and the most common erythropoietic porphyria, EPP, is estimated at 1 in 50,000 to 75,000. CEP is extremely rare, with prevalence estimates of 1 in 1,000,000 or less. Only six cases of ADP are documented. The current porphyria literature is very exhaustive and a brief overview of porphyria diseases is essential in order for the reader to better appreciate the relevance of this area of research prior to undertaking biochemical diagnostics procedures. This unit summarizes the current knowledge on the classification, clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of porphyria diseases.

  3. High-resolution structures of Neotermes koshunensis β-glucosidase mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism and the synthesis of glucoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Wen-Yih; Wang, Nai-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Tse; Chang, Wei-Jung; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2012-07-01

    NkBgl, a β-glucosidase from Neotermes koshunensis, is a β-retaining glycosyl hydrolase family 1 enzyme that cleaves β-glucosidic linkages in disaccharide or glucose-substituted molecules. β-Glucosidases have been widely used in several applications. For example, mutagenesis of the attacking nucleophile in β-glucosidase has been conducted to convert it into a glycosynthase for the synthesis of oligosaccharides. Here, several high-resolution structures of wild-type or mutated NkBgl in complex with different ligand molecules are reported. In the wild-type NkBgl structures it was found that glucose-like glucosidase inhibitors bind to the glycone-binding pocket, allowing the buffer molecule HEPES to remain in the aglycone-binding pocket. In the crystal structures of NkBgl E193A, E193S and E193D mutants Glu193 not only acts as the catalytic acid/base but also plays an important role in controlling substrate entry and product release. Furthermore, in crystal structures of the NkBgl E193D mutant it was found that new glucoconjugates were generated by the conjugation of glucose (hydrolyzed product) and HEPES/EPPS/opipramol (buffer components). Based on the wild-type and E193D-mutant structures of NkBgl, the glucosidic bond of cellobiose or salicin was hydrolyzed and a new bond was subsequently formed between glucose and HEPES/EPPS/opipramol to generate new glucopyranosidic products through the transglycosylation reaction in the NkBgl E193D mutant. This finding highlights an innovative way to further improve β-glucosidases for the enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides.

  4. Comparison of the effects of epidural or intravenous methadone on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.

    PubMed

    Campagnol, Daniela; Teixeira-Neto, Francisco J; Peccinini, Rosangela G; Oliveira, Flávia A; Alvaides, Renata K; Medeiros, Luiza Q

    2012-06-01

    The effects of epidural and intravenous (IV) methadone (0.5mg/kg) on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISO(MAC)) were compared in dogs. Six dogs (16.5 ± 2.5 kg bodyweight) received three treatments in random order during isoflurane anaesthesia, with a 7 day washout interval between each study. Methadone was injected via a lumbosacral epidural catheter introduced 10 cm cranially into the epidural canal and the electrical stimulation for ISO(MAC) determination was applied either to the thoracic (EP(T) treatment) or to the pelvic limb (EP(P) treatment) during separate study days. In the IV treatment, ISO(MAC) was determined via electrical stimulation of the pelvic limb. Variables were recorded before (baseline), 2.5 and 5h after drug injection. The ISO(MAC) decreased significantly (P<0.05) from baseline at 2.5 and 5h after methadone in all treatments. At 2.5h, the magnitude of ISO(MAC) reduction did not differ between treatments (mean decreases from baseline: 30-33%). The ISO(MAC) reduction lasted longer following epidural methadone in the thoracic limb (decreases from baseline: 30% at 5h in the EP(T) treatment vs. 19% and 16% in the EP(P) and IV treatments, respectively). Although the isoflurane sparing effect provided by epidural methadone was not significantly greater than IV methadone during the initial stage (2.5h), it was more prolonged than the IV route in specific dermatomes (5h in the thoracic limb) with the epidural technique employed. Methadone may therefore provide a greater isoflurane sparing effect when administered epidurally, compared to IV, when noxious stimulation occurs in specific dermatomes.

  5. An experimental study of the solubility of molybdenum in H2O and KCl-H2O solutions from 500 ºC to 800 ºC, and 150 to 300 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, Thomas; Mavrogenes, John

    2008-04-22

    The solubility of molybdenum (Mo) was determined at temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa in KCl-H2O and pure H2O solutions in cold-seal experiments. The solutions were trapped as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz at experimental conditions, and analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICPMS). Mo solubilities of 1.6 wt% in the case of KCl-bearing aqueous solutions and up to 0.8 wt% in pure H2O were found. Mo solubility is temperature dependent, but not pressure dependent over the investigated range, and correlates positively with salinity (KCl concentration). Molar ratios of ~1 for Mo/Cl and Mo/K are derived based on our data. In combination with results of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy of individual fluid inclusions, it is suggested that Mo-oxo-chloride complexes are present at high salinity (>20 wt% KCl) and ion pairs at moderate to low salinity (<11 wt% KCl) in KCl-H2O aqueous solutions. Similarly, in the pure H2O experiments molybdic acid is the dominant species in aqueous solution. The results of these hydrothermal Mo experiments fit with earlier studies conducted at lower temperatures and indicate that high Mo concentrations can be transported in aqueous solutions. Therefore, the Mo concentration in aqueous fluids seems not to be the limiting factor for ore formation, whereas precipitation processes and the availability of sulfur appear to be the main controlling factors in the formation of molybdenite (MoS2).

  6. The crystal structure and thermal history of orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite 15415

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Konnert, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A single crystal of untwinned orthopyroxene from lunar anorthosite sample 15415, with composition (Mg1.14Fe0.80Mn0.02Ca0.04)(Si1.97Al0.03)O6, has a unit cell in space group Pbca with a = 18.310(15) A ??, b = 8.904(10) A ??, c = 5.214(7) A ??, containing 2 formula units. A set of 742 counter-measured intensity data made with MoK?? radiation has been used to refine the crystal structure in isotropic thermal mode to R = 0.116. Anisotropic refinement led to R = 0.092, but thermal parameters are distorted by non-random errors resulting from poor crystal texture. The resulting structure is in close agreement with that obtained by Ghose [9] for a hypersthene from Greenland. A parameter q, which gives (MgqFe1-q) for cation site M(1) and (Mg1.14-qFeq-0.18Ca0.04) for site M(2), was included in the least-squares analysis, yielding q = 0.90(1). This orthopyroxene has the high degree of cation order expected of pyroxenes subjected to Apollonian metamorphism at lower than 500-600??C. No evidence exists for a subsequent thermal event of sufficient intensity to disorder the pyroxene. On the basis of previous laboratory studies of argon-release patterns of lunar plagioclase and order-disorder kinetics of terrestrial pyroxenes, we attribute the reported isotopic age (3.9-4.1 AE) to cessation of metamorphism, perhaps caused by impact excavation. ?? 1978.

  7. Synthesis and Structural Investigation of a New Manganese-Antimony Oxoethoxide, Mn 7Sb 4( μ5-O) 2( μ4-O) 2( μ3-OEt) 2( μ-OEt) 16(HOEt) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemm, U.; Norrestam, R.; Nygren, M.; Westin, G.

    1997-12-01

    A new manganese-antimony oxoethoxide with the formula Mn 7Sb 4O 4(OEt) 18(HOEt) 2has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and FT-IR techniques. The structure of the compound has the noncentrosymmetric tetragonal space group symmetry P4 2(No. 77) with unit-cell parameters a=15.164(3), c=14.729(5) Å, V=3387(2) Å 3, Z=2, and Dx=1.803(1) g cm -1Fw=1838.8 g mol -1. The crystal structure has been refined against the 2227 most significant reflections to an Rvalue of 0.059 ( Rw=0.077). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction intensities were collected at 170(1) K using MoK αradiation. The structure analysis shows that the structure consists of roughly spherically shaped molecules of C2symmetry and of composition Mn 7Sb 4O 4(OEt) 18(HOEt) 2. The antimony atoms are five-coordinated by oxygen atoms, while four of the manganese atoms are five-coordinated and three are six-coordinated. The antimony atoms are located in the outer regions of the molecule and the antimony lone pair regions are pointing away from the molecule. Four oxooxygens are located in the core of the molecule. The ethanol molecules coordinating the antimony atoms are involved in short intramolecular hydrogen bonds. A TLS analysis of the rigid-body motion of the central metal-oxygen core structure shows that two oxygen atoms involved in the intramolecular hydrogen bond do not follow the pattern of the rest of the atoms. The agreement between observed and predicted parameters of the remaining atoms supports the assumed rigidity in the central metal and oxygen core fragment. Structural relationships are found to other spherically shaped alkoxides such as Mn 8Sb 4O 4(OEt) 20and Pb 6Nb 4O 4(OEt) 24.

  8. The Change of Range of Motion at Anterior Compression of the Cervical Cord after Laminoplasty in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective Degenerative diseases of the spine, such as cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), are increasing among the old age population, and surgical treatment of CSM is becoming more and more common. The aim of this study was to investigate how functional recovery can be influenced by anterior compression of the spinal cord (ACS) after laminoplasty for treatment of patients with CSM. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients admitted to Ewha Womans Mok-Dong Hospital with CSM who underwent open-door laminoplasty from January 2012 to December 2014. We divided patients into 2 groups according to whether ACS was or not preoperatively. Each group was analyzed clinical and radiological parameters which were Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and its recovery rate, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM). Results The mean duration of symptom was 11.2 months (range, 6-22 months). A significant difference in recovery rate of the total JOA score was shown between the 2 groups, especially upper extremity motor function. No difference in preoperative JOA score between the 2 groups, but recovery rate of each group was 20.05%±18.1%, 32.21%±25.4%, statistically significant (p<0.005). Upper motor and sensory function was not significantly different in the 2 groups. Preoperative, postoperative and preservation of ROM was 44.3°±10.1°, 41.8°±15.7°, 87.9%±35.4% each at ACS (-) group. A significant difference in postoperative ROM was identified between ACS (-) and ACS (+) group. Postoperative anterior compression of the spinal cord was recognized 14 cases which were classified from its causes. Conclusion Cervical ROM decreased significantly after laminoplasty, but 85.3% of the preoperative ROM was preserved. The postoperative reduction of ROM in group with anterior compression of spinal cord was identified. PMID:28127374

  9. X-ray crystallographic and tungsten-183 nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies of the [M4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- heteropolyanions (M = COII or Zn, X = P or As)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Tourne, C.M.; Tourne, G.F.; Weakley, T.J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The crystal structures of K10[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O 34)2]??22H2O (1) and isomorphous K10[Zn4(H2O)2(AsW9O 34)2]??23H2O (2) have been determined {Mo-K?? radiation, space group P21/n, Z = 2; (1) a = 15.794(2), b = 21.360(2), c = 12.312(1) A??, ?? = 91.96??, R = 0.084 for 3 242 observed reflections [I ??? 3??(I)]; (2) a = 15.842(4), b = 21.327(5), c = 12.308(4) A??, ?? = 92.42(4)??, R = 0.066 for 4 675 observed reflections [F ??? 3??(F)]}. The anions have crystallographic symmetry 1 and non-crystallographic symmetry very close to 2/m (C2h). Each consists of two [XW9O34]9- moieties [??-B isomers; X = P (1) or As (2)] linked via four CoIIO6 or ZnO6 groups. Two Co or Zn atoms each carry a water ligand. The 183W n.m.r. spectra of the anions [Zn4(H2O)2(XW9O34) 2]10- (X = P or As) confirm that the anions retain 2/m symmetry in aqueous solution. Homonuclear coupling constants between 183W atoms are 5.8-9.0 Hz for adjacent WO6 octahedra sharing edges, and 19.6-25.0 Hz for octahedra sharing corners.

  10. Evolution of opto-electronic properties during film formation of complex semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, M. D.; Mainz, R.; Österle, F.; Rodriguez-Alvarez, H.; Greiner, D.; Kaufmann, C. A.; Unold, T.

    2017-01-01

    Optical and electrical properties of complex semiconducting alloys like Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) are strongly influenced by the reaction pathways occurring during their deposition process. This makes it desirable to observe and control these properties in real-time during the deposition. Here we show for the first time the evolution of the band gap and the sub-band-gap defect absorption of CIGS thin film as well as surface roughness during a three-stage co-evaporation process by means of an optical analysis technique, based on white light reflectometry (WLR). By simultaneously recording structural information with in-situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence we can directly correlate the evolution of opto-electronic material parameters with the structural properties of the film during growth. We find that the surface roughness and the sub-gap light absorption can be correlated with the phase evolution during the transformation from (In,Ga)2Se3 to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 by the incorporation of Cu into the film. Sub-bandgap light absorption is found to be influenced by the Cu-saturated growth phase and is lowered close to the points of stoichiometry, allowing for an advanced process design. PMID:28374745

  11. Woody plant diversity and structure of shade-grown-coffee plantations in northern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pinto, L; Romero-Alvarado, Y; Caballero-Nieto, J; Segura Warnholtz, G

    2001-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee is an agricultural system that contains some forest-like characteristics. However, structure and diversity are poorly known in shade coffee systems. In 61 coffee-growers' plots of Chiapas, Mexico, structural variables of shade vegetation and coffee yields were measured, recording species and their use. Coffee stands had five vegetation strata. Seventy seven woody species mostly used as wood were found (mean density 371.4 trees per hectare). Ninety percent were native species (40% of the local flora), the remaining were introduced species, mainly fruit trees/shrubs. Diametric distribution resembles that of a secondary forest. Principal Coordinates Analysis grouped plots in four classes by the presence of Inga, however the majority of plots are diverse. There was no difference in equitability among groups or coffee yields. Coffee yield was 835 g clean coffee per shrub, or ca. 1,668 kg ha-1. There is a significant role of shade-grown coffee as diversity refuge for woody plants and presumably associated fauna as well as an opportunity for shade-coffee growers to participate in the new biodiversity-friendly-coffee market.

  12. Doping dependence of electronic and mechanical properties of GaSe1-xTex and Ga1-xInxSe from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rak, Zs.; Mahanti, S. D.; Mandal, Krishna C.; Fernelius, N. C.

    2010-10-01

    The electronic and mechanical properties of the hexagonal, layered GaSe doped with Te and In have been studied using first-principles pseudopotential method within density-functional theory. The calculated elastic constants of the end compounds GaSe and InSe compare well with the available experimental and theoretical values. As we go from GaSe to InSe, the elastic constants C13 , C33 , and C44 increase while C11 and C12 decrease, suggesting that the crystal becomes stiffer in the direction perpendicular to the atomic layers and the softer in the direction parallel to the layers, as more substitutional In is incorporated in GaSe. The electronic structure and the formation energies of several defects and simple defect complexes are discussed and the calculated charge transition levels are compared to available experimental data. We demonstrate that In doping may play an important role in the observed enhancement in the structural properties of GaSe. Depending on the Fermi energy, In can either substitute for Ga (InGa) or occupy an interstitial position as a triply charged defect (Ini3+) . While the substitutional In does not change significantly the electronic and mechanical properties of the host, we find that the shear stiffness of GaSe is considerably increased when In is incorporated as charged interstitial impurity.

  13. The 1.1 micrometer and visible emission semiconductor diode lasers. [(AlGa)As lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.; Nuese, C. J.; Kressel, H.

    1978-01-01

    In (AlGa)As, the first of three alloy systems studied, Continuous Wave (CW) operation was obtained at room temperature at a wavelength as low as 7260 A. Reliability in this system was studied in the incoherent mode. Zinc doped devices had significant degradation, whereas Ge or Ge plus Zi doped devices had none. The Al2O3 facet coatings were shown to significantly reduce facet deterioration in all types of lasers, longer wavelength units of that type having accumulated (at the time of writing) 22,000 hours with little if any degradation. A CL study of thin (AlGa)As layers revealed micro fluctuation in composition. A macro-scale fluctuation was observed by electroreflectance. An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of stripe width on the threshold current was carried out. Emission below 7000 A was obtained in VPE grown Ga(AsP) (In,Ga)P with CW operation at 10 C. Lasers and LED's were made by LPE in (InGa) (AsP). Laser thresholds of 5 kA/cm2 were obtained, while LED efficiences were on the order of 2%. Incoherent life test over 6000 hours showed no degradation.

  14. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  15. Direct observation of strain in InAs quantum dots and cap layer during molecular beam epitaxial growth using in situ X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Kenichi; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2015-11-14

    Direct measurements on the growth of InAs quantum dots (QDs) and various cap layers during molecular beam epitaxy are performed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The evolution of strain induced both in the QDs and cap layers during capping is discussed based on the XRD intensity transients obtained at various lattice constants. Transients with different features are observed from those obtained during InGaAs and GaAs capping. The difference observed is attributed to In-Ga intermixing between the QDs and the cap layer under limited supply of In. Photoluminescence (PL) wavelength can be tuned by controlling the intermixing, which affects both the strain induced in the QDs and the barrier heights. The PL wavelength also varies with the cap layer thickness. A large redshift occurs by reducing the cap thickness. The in situ XRD observation reveals that this is a result of reduced strain. We demonstrate how such information about strain can be applied for designing and preparing novel device structures.

  16. Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111): from ultraviolet to infrared emission.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Bengoechea-Encabo, A; Sánchez-García, M A; Kong, X; Trampert, A; Calleja, E

    2013-05-03

    Selective area growth of In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns was performed on GaN-buffered Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Undoped and Si-doped GaN buffer layers were first grown on Si(111) substrates, showing photoluminescence excitonic emission without traces of other low energy contributions, in particular, the yellow band. The GaN buffer surface roughness (between 10 and 14 nm, the rms value in a 10 × 10 μm(2) area) was low enough to allow the fabrication of a thin (7 nm thick) well defined Ti nanohole mask, for the selective area growth. Ordered In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns emitting from the ultraviolet (3.2 eV) to the infrared (0.78 eV) were obtained. The morphology and the emission efficiency of the In(Ga)N/GaN nanocolumns emitting at a given wavelength could be substantially improved by tuning the In/Ga and total III/N ratios. An estimated internal quantum efficiency of 36% was derived from photoluminescence data for green emitting nanocolumns.

  17. High-throughput Screening and Statistical Learning for the Design of Transparent Conducting Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Christopher; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Scheffler, Matthias

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) represent a class of well-developed and commercialized wide-bandgap semiconductors that are crucial for many electronic devices. Al, Ga, and In-based sesquioxides are investigated as new TCOs motivated by very intriguing recent experimental work that has demonstrated bandgap engineering in ternary (AlxGayIn1-x-y)2O3 ranging from 3.8 eV to 7.5 eV by adjusting the ratio of In/Ga and Ga/Al. We employed DFT-based cluster expansion (CE) models combined with fast stochastic optimization techniques (e.g., Wang-Landau and diffusive nested sampling) in order to efficiently search for stable and metastable configurations of (AlxGayIn1-x-y)2O3 at various lattice structures. The approach also allows for a consideration of the effect of entropy on the relative stability of ternary TCOs. Statistical learning/compressed sensing is being used to efficiently identify a structure-property relationship between the targeted properties (e.g., mobilities and optical transparency) and the fundamental chemical and physical parameters that control these properties. ∖

  18. Small-animal tomography with a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, D. H.; Lundström, U.; Westermark, U.; Takman, P. A. C.; Burvall, A.; Arsenian Henriksson, M.; Hertz, H. M.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray tomography of small animals is an important tool for medical research. For high-resolution x-ray imaging of few-cm-thick samples such as, e.g., mice, high-brightness x-ray sources with energies in the few-10-keV range are required. In this paper we perform the first small-animal imaging and tomography experiments using liquid-metal-jet-anode x-ray sources. This type of source shows promise to increase the brightness of microfocus x-ray systems, but present sources are typically optimized for an energy of 9 keV. Here we describe the details of a high-brightness 24-keV electron-impact laboratory microfocus x-ray source based on continuous operation of a heated liquid-In/Ga-jet anode. The source normally operates with 40 W of electron-beam power focused onto the metal jet, producing a 7×7 μm2 FWHM x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is 4 × 109 photons / ( s × mm2 × mrad2 × 0.1%BW) at the 24.2 keV In Kα line. We use the new In/Ga source and an existing Ga/In/Sn source for high-resolution imaging and tomography of mice.

  19. The polarization response in InAs quantum dots: theoretical correlation between composition and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Usman, Muhammad; Tasco, Vittorianna; Todaro, Maria Teresa; De Giorgi, Milena; O'Reilly, Eoin P; Klimeck, Gerhard; Passaseo, Adriana

    2012-04-27

    III-V growth and surface conditions strongly influence the physical structure and resulting optical properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Beyond the design of a desired active optical wavelength, the polarization response of QDs is of particular interest for optical communications and quantum information science. Previous theoretical studies based on a pure InAs QD model failed to reproduce experimentally observed polarization properties. In this work, multi-million atom simulations are performed in an effort to understand the correlation between chemical composition and polarization properties of QDs. A systematic analysis of QD structural parameters leads us to propose a two-layer composition model, mimicking In segregation and In-Ga intermixing effects. This model, consistent with mostly accepted compositional findings, allows us to accurately fit the experimental PL spectra. The detailed study of QD morphology parameters presented here serves as a tool for using growth dynamics to engineer the strain field inside and around the QD structures, allowing tuning of the polarization response.

  20. Geant4 simulation study of Indian National Gamma Array at TIFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.; Biswas, S.; Singh, P.

    2016-03-01

    A Geant4 simulation code for the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) consisting of 24 Compton suppressed clover high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors has been developed. The calculated properties in the energy range that is of interest for nuclear γ-ray spectroscopy are spectral distributions for various standard radioactive sources, intrinsic peak efficiencies and peak-to-total (P/T) ratios in various configurations such as singles, add-back and Compton suppressed mode. The principle of operation of the detectors in add-back and Compton suppression mode have been reproduced in the simulation. The reliability of the calculation is checked by comparison with the experimental data for various γ-ray energies up to 5 MeV. The comparison between simulation results and experimental data demonstrate the need of incorporating the exact geometry of the clover detectors, Anti-Compton Shield and other surrounding materials in the array to explain the detector response to the γ-ray. Several experimental effects are also investigated. These include the geometrical correction to angular distribution, crosstalk probability and the impact of heavy metal collimators between the target and the array on the P/T ratio.

  1. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  2. Land use change on coffee farms in southern Guatemala and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35% loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53% lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha(-1) was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha(-1)) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha(-1)). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  3. Structure of positive parity bands and observation of magnetic rotation in 108Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Jasmine; Palit, R.

    2015-10-01

    The interplay of nuclear forces among the neutron particles (holes) and proton holes (particles) in the odd-odd nuclei gives rise to a variety of shapes and hence novel modes of excitations. The odd-odd nuclei in the A ~ 110 region have proton holes in the g9/2 orbital and the neutron particles in the h11/2 orbitals. A systematic study of shears mechanism in A ~ 110 region indicates the presence of magnetic rotation (MR) phenomenon in Ag and In isotopes. Therefore, the structure of doubly odd 108Ag nucleus was probed in two different reactions, i.e, 100Mo(11B, 4n)108Ag at 39 MeV and 94Zr(18O, p3n)108Ag at 72 MeV beam energies. The emitted γ-rays were detected using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) at TIFR, Mumbai. A significant number of new transitions and energy levels were identified. Lifetime measurements, using the Doppler shift attenuation method, have been carried out for a positive parity dipole band. Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) calculations have been performed for two positive parity dipole bands.

  4. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  5. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Dillehay, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the Ñanchoc Valley in northern Peru was an important locus of early and middle Holocene human settlement, and that between 9200 and 5500 14C yr B.P. the valley inhabitants adopted major crop plants such as squash (Cucurbita moschata), peanuts (Arachis sp.), and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). We report here an examination of starch grains preserved in the calculus of human teeth from these sites that provides direct evidence for the early consumption of cultivated squash and peanuts along with two other major food plants not previously detected. Starch from the seeds of Phaseolus and Inga feuillei, the flesh of Cucurbita moschata fruits, and the nuts of Arachis was routinely present on numerous teeth that date to between 8210 and 6970 14C yr B.P. Early plant diets appear to have been diverse and stable through time and were rich in cultivated foods typical of later Andean agriculture. Our data provide early archaeological evidence for Phaseolus beans and I. feuillei, an important tree crop, and indicate that effective food production systems that contributed significant dietary inputs were present in the Ñanchoc region by 8000 14C yr B.P. Starch grain studies of dental remains document plants and edible parts of them not normally preserved in archaeological records and can assume primary roles as direct indicators of ancient human diets and agriculture. PMID:19066222

  6. High compositional homogeneity in In-rich InGaAs nanowire arrays on nanoimprinted SiO2/Si (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertenberger, S.; Funk, S.; Vizbaras, K.; Yadav, A.; Rudolph, D.; Becker, J.; Bolte, S.; Döblinger, M.; Bichler, M.; Scarpa, G.; Lugli, P.; Zardo, I.; Finley, J. J.; Amann, M.-C.; Abstreiter, G.; Koblmüller, G.

    2012-07-01

    We report improved homogeneity control of composition-tuned In1-xGaxAs (x < 0.4) nanowire (NW) arrays grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on nanoimprinted SiO2/Si (111) substrates. Using very high As/(Ga+In) ratios at growth temperatures of 550 °C enabled uniform incorporation of the respective group-III elements (In,Ga) over the investigated composition range, confirmed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Low-temperature (20 K) photoluminescence of these In-rich In1-xGaxAs NW ensembles reveal state-of-the-art linewidths of ˜29-33 meV. These are independent of Ga content, suggesting an overall low degree of phase separation. In contrast, self-assembled, non-periodic In1-xGaxAs NW arrays show larger inhomogeneity with increased peakwidths in 2θ-ω HRXRD scans as well as broadened Raman modes. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of site-selective MBE growth of high-periodicity non-tapered In1-xGaxAs NW arrays with low size and composition dispersion for optimized device integration on Si.

  7. Improvement of Film Quality in CuInSe2 Thin Films Fabricated by a Non-Vacuum, Nanoparticle-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Ito, Manabu; Tamura, Tomoaki; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    To improve the quality of CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films fabricated by a non-vacuum, nanoparticle-based approach, in this study, two categories of nanoparticles, Cu (InGa) Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles and copper selenide (Cu-Se) with indium selenide (In-Se) nanoparticles are investigated. It is found that the Cu-Se with In-Se nanoparticles show a higher crystallization velocity than CIGS nanoparticles. The films obtained from Cu-Se with In-Se nanoparticles exhibit higher crystallinity with a larger grain size. Thiourea is applied as a sintering additive during the selenization process. It is clarified that the addition of thiourea is very effective for grain growth and the fabrication of a dense CIS layer. The cell performance is measured under Air Mass 1.5 irradiation. The efficiency of the solar cell, fabricated using Cu-Se, In-Se nanoparticles with thiourea, is 2.15%, higher than that of the solar cell fabricated using CIGS nanoparticles, which is 0.28%.

  8. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  9. Low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shi, X. J.; Zhu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films on quartz glass substrates utilizing radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is investigated. In the InxGa1-xN films prepared using an In-Ga alloy target, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) peaks corresponding to wurtzite structure were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to study the extent of oxygen contamination and chemical states, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the distribution profiles of oxygen impurity in the as-grown InxGa1-xN thin films. XPS and SIMS analysis indicate that the entire thin films have oxide phases. However, no evidence of In2O3, Ga2O3, or indium oxynitride phases was shown in XRD studies. It may be predicted that the oxygen impurities formed amorphous oxide phases embedded in InxGa1-xN matrix. According to our findings, indium is a major phase in the InxGa1-xN thin films which suggests that a significant amount of indium remains un-reacted with N2. The optical transmittance spectra of the as-grown films show interference fringe patterns. The indium fraction x of the as-deposited InxGa1-xN thin films can be calculated out by the transmittance data.

  10. The effects of light on foliar chemistry, growth and susceptibility of seedlings of a canopy tree to an attine ant.

    PubMed

    Nichols-Orians, Colin M

    1991-05-01

    Seedlings of Inga oerstediana Benth. (Mimosaceae) growing in three different light environments (the understory, tree-fall gaps and full sun) were tested for differences in chemistry (nutrients and tannins), wound-induced increases in tannins, growth, and susceptibility to leaf-cutter ants, Atta cephalotes (L.) (Formicidae: Attini). I hypothesized that seedlings of I. oerstediana would contain higher concentrations of tannins when growing in high light conditions and, therefore, would be less susceptible to leaf-cutter ants.Foliar concentrations of condensed tannins were much higher in plants growing in full sun compared to those growing in the understory. The concentrations of condensed tannins did not increase following damage. Despite higher concentrations of condensed tannins in sun foliage, leaf-cutter ants found these leaves more acceptable. The preference for sun leaves was consistent with higher concentrations of foliar nutrients. I suggest that the magnitude of the increase in condensed tannins was not great enough to override the benefits of increased concentrations of foliar nutrients. Finally, based on these results and those of others, I suggest that foraging by leaf-cutter ants may be an important factor determining patterns of succession in early successional habitats.

  11. Report on FY15 Alloy 617 SMT Creep-Fatigue Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Baird, Seth T.; Pu, Chao; Sham, Sam

    2015-06-22

    viability of the Alloy 617 Code Case, the use of the current elastic analysis based rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits (a precursor for the creep-fatigue rules) and the creep-fatigue rules themselves have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 650C (Corum and Brass, 1991). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 650C, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material for the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as well as the VHTR. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have not yet been formulated and verified. To address the prohibition on the use of current methods at very high temperatures, proposed Code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. To provide data to implement the proposed rules and to verify their application, a series of tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The correlation parameter between test and design is the elastically calculated strain, and the dependent test variable is the observed cycles to failure. Although the initial priority for the SMT approach is to generate data to support validation of the E-PP Code Case for evaluation of creep-fatigue damage, the broader goal of the SMT approach is to develop a methodology for evaluation of creep fatigue damage which is simpler to implement than the current complex rules and applicable to the full temperature range from ambient conditions to the very high temperature creep regime of 900-950C. Also

  12. Report on FY15 Two-Bar Thermal Ratcheting Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I; Baird, Seth T; Pu, Chao; Sham, Sam

    2015-06-22

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH* for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above . The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, , is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. These newly proposed rules also address a long-term objective to provide an option for more simple, comprehensive and easily applied rules than the current so called simplified rules These two-bar tests discussed herein are part of an ongoing series of tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. The initial focus of the two-bar ratcheting test program, to verify the procedure for evaluation of strain limits for Alloy 617 at very high temperatures, has been expanded to respond to guidance from

  13. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  14. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  15. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  16. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Simcox, Nancy J.; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L.; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and ‘green’ or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0–126), 2.69 (2.18–3.30), 6.93 (6.00–7.99), 8.79 (7.84–9.86) µg g−1, respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few

  17. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  18. Identification of resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in the Lycopersicon peruvianum complex.

    PubMed

    Veremis, J C; Roberts, P A

    1996-10-01

    Clones of Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 2704352R2, PI 270435-3MH and PI 126443-1MH expressed novel resistance to three Mi-avirulent M. javanica isolates in greenhouse experiments. Clones from PI 126443-1MH were resistant to the three M. javanica isolates at 25°C. The three isolates were able to reproduce on one embryorescue hybrid of PI 126443-1MH, but not on three L. peruvianum-L. esculentum bridge-line hybrids of PI 1264431MH when screened at 25°C (Mi-expressed temperature). Clones of PI 270435-2R2 and all its hybrids with susceptible genotypes were resistant to the three M. javanica isolates at 25°C. The bridge-line hybrid EPP-2xPI 2704352R2 was susceptible to M. javanica isolate 811 at 32°C, whereas PI 270435-2R2 and all other hybrids of PI 27043 5-2R2 crossed with susceptible genotypes were resistant at 32°C. At 32°C, one F2 progeny of PI 126443-IMHxEPP-1, and three test-cross progenies of PI 1264409MHx[PI 270435-3MHxPI 126443-1MH], and reciprocal test-cross progenies of [PI 270435-3MHxPI 2704352R2]xPI 126440-9MH, each segregated into resistant: susceptible (R∶S) ratios close to 3∶1. The results from the F2 progeny indicated that heat-stable resistance to Mi-avirulent M. javanica in PI 126443 -1MH is conferred by a single dominant gene. The results from the test-crosses indicated that this gene in PI 126443-1MH is different from the resistance gene in PI 270435-3MH. The resistance gene in PI 270435-3MH was also shown to differ from the resistance factor in PI 270435-2R2. The expression of differential susceptibility and resistance to M. javanica and M. incognita in individual plants of the bridge-line hybrid, embryo-rescue hybrid, F2, and test-crosses indicated that at least some genes governing resistance to M. javanica differ from the genes conferring resistance to M. incognita. A new source of heat-stable resistance to M. javanica was identified in Lycopersicon chilense.

  19. Differentiation of Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria novel resistance phenotypes in Lycopersicon peruvianum and derived bridge-lines.

    PubMed

    Veremis, J C; Roberts, P A

    1996-10-01

    Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 270435 clone 2R2 and PI 126443 clone 1MH were crossed reciprocally with three L. esculentum-L. peruvianum bridge-lines. The incongruity barrier between the two plant species was overcome; F1 progeny were obtained from crosses between four parental combinations without embryo-rescue culture. Hybridity was confirmed by leaf and flower morphology and by the production of nematode-resistant F1 progeny on homozygous susceptible parents. Clones of the five F1 bridgeline hybrids were highly resistant to Mi-avirulent root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) at both 25°C and 30°C soil temperatures. However, only clones from PI 270435-3MH and PI 126443-1MH, and hybrids from PI 126443-1MH, were resistant to Mi-virulent M. incognita isolates at high soil temperature. Clones and hybrids from PI 270435-2R2 were not resistant to two Mi-virulent M. incognita isolates at high soil temperature. A source of heat-stable resistance was identified in bridge-line EPP-2, and was found to be derived from L. peruvianum LA 1708. Accessions of the L. peruvianum 'Maranon races', LA 1708 and LA 2172, and bridge-line EPP-2, segregated for heat-stable resistance to Mi-avirulent M. incognita, but were susceptible to Mi-virulent M. incognita isolates. Clone LA 1708-I conferred heat-stable resistance to M. arenaria isolate W, which is virulent to heat-stable resistance genes in L. peruvianum PI 270435-2R2, PI 270435-3MH, and PI 126443-1MH. Clone LA 1708-I has a distinct heat-stable factor for resistance to Mi-avirulent M. arenaria isolate W, for which the gene symbol Mi-4 is proposed. A Mi-virulent M. arenaria isolate Le Grau du Roi was virulent on all Lycopersicon spp. accessions tested, including those with novel resistance genes.

  20. 2010 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-09-01

    scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IPs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), and the ETTP Environmental Compliance Program. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of long-term hydrological data sets: Constraints of the Budyko framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Orlowsky, Boris; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2013-04-01

    An accurate estimate of the climatological land water balance is essential for a wide range of socio-economical issues. Despite the simplicity of the underlying water balance equation, its individual variables are of complex nature. Global estimates, either derived from observations or from models, of precipitation (P ) and especially evapotranspiration (ET) are characterized by high uncertainties. This leads to inconsistent results in determining conditions related to the land water balance and its components. In this study, we consider the Budyko framework as a constraint to evaluate long-term hydrological data sets within the period from 1984 to 2005. The Budyko framework is a well established empirically based relationsship between ET-P and Ep-P , with Ep being the potential evaporation. We use estimates of ET associated with the LandFlux-EVAL initiative (Mueller et. al., 2012), either derived from observations, CMIP5 models or land-surface models (LSMs) driven with observation-based forcing or atmospheric reanalyses. Data sets of P comprise all commonly used global observation-based estimates. Ep is determined by methods of differing complexity with recent global temperature and radiation data sets. Based on this comprehensive synthesis of data sets and methods to determine Ep, more than 2000 possible combinations for ET-P in conjunction with Ep-P are created. All combinations are validated against the Budyko curve and against physical limits within the Budyko phase space. For this purpose we develop an error measure based on the root mean square error which combines both constraints. We find that uncertainties are mainly induced by the ET data sets. In particular, reanalysis and CMIP5 data sets are characterized by low realism. The realism of LSMs is further not primarily controlled by the forcing, as different LSMs driven with the same forcing show significantly different error measures. Our comprehensive approach is thus suitable to detect uncertainties

  2. Defects in Neuromuscular Transmission May Underlie Motor Dysfunction in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Youfen; Halievski, Katherine; Henley, Casey; Atchison, William D.; Katsuno, Masahisa; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sobue, Gen; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2016-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) in men is an androgen-dependent neuromuscular disease caused by expanded CAG repeats in the androgen receptor (AR). Whether muscle or motor neuron dysfunction or both underlies motor impairment in SBMA is unknown. Muscles of SBMA mice show significant contractile dysfunction, implicating them as a likely source of motor dysfunction, but whether disease also impairs neuromuscular transmission is an open question. Thus, we examined synaptic function in three well-studied SBMA mouse models—the AR97Q, knock-in (KI), and myogenic141 models—by recording in vitro miniature and evoked end-plate potentials (MEPPs and EPPs, respectively) intracellularly from adult muscle fibers. We found striking defects in neuromuscular transmission suggesting that toxic AR in SBMA impairs both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Notably, SBMA causes neuromuscular synapses to become weak and muscles to become hyperexcitable in all three models. Presynaptic defects included deficits in quantal content, reduced size of the readily releasable pool, and impaired short-term facilitation. Postsynaptic defects included prolonged decay times for both MEPPs and EPPs, marked resistance to μ-conotoxin (a sodium channel blocker), and enhanced membrane excitability. Quantitative PCR revealed robust upregulation of mRNAs encoding neonatal isoforms of the AChR (γ-subunit) and the voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.5) in diseased adult muscles of all three models, consistent with the observed slowing of synaptic potentials and resistance to μ-conotoxin. These findings suggest that muscles of SBMA patients regress to an immature state that impairs neuromuscular function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We have discovered that SBMA is accompanied by marked defects in neuromuscular synaptic transmission involving both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. For three different mouse models, we find that diseased synapses are weak, having reduced quantal content

  3. Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schindler, M.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Huminicki, D.M.C.; Haynes, P.; Grice, Joel D.; Evans, H.T.

    2003-01-01

    Bobjonesite, V4+ O (SO4) (H2O 3, is a new mineral species from Temple Mountain, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A. It occurs as blue-green crusts and efflorescences in fractures in a fossil (Triassic) tree: individual crystals are ??1 mm and are intimately intergrown. Bobjonesite hydrates very easily, and is unstable in all but the driest atmosphere. Its structure was determined on a crystal of bobjonesite: however, the physical properties, optical properties and X-ray powder-diffraction pattern were recorded on the synthetic equivalent, and an electron-microprobe analysis was not possible. Bobjonesite has a pale blue streak, a vitreous luster and no observable fluorescence under ultraviolet light. It has no cleavage or parting. The Mohs hardness is ???1, and the calculated density is 2.28 g/cm3. Bobjonesite is biaxial positive, with ?? 1.555(2 , ?? 1.561(1), ?? 1.574(2), 2V(obs.) = 72(1)??, 2V(calc.) = 69??; it is non-pleochroic, X = b, Y ??? 19?? (in ?? obtuse). Bobjonesite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, cell dimensions from single-crystal data: a 7.3940(5), b 7.4111(3), c 12.0597(9) A??, ?? 106.55(1)??, V 633.5(1) A??3, Z=4. The strongest seven lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A??(I)(hkl)] are as follows: 5.795(100)(002), 3.498(90)(112), 3.881(48)(1??03), 5.408(37) (101), 4.571(20)(012), 6.962(11 (1??01) and 6.254(11)(011). The chemical formula was derived from crystal-structure analysis; the end-member formula is V O (SO4) (H2O)3. The crystal structure of bobjonesite was refined to an R index of 3.6% for 1105 observed (Fo> 5??F) reflections measured with an automated four-circle X-ray diffractometer using MoK?? X-radiation. There is one V site occupied by V4+ and surrounded by three O atoms and three (H2O) groups in an octahedral arrangement, with one short vanadyl bond (1.577 A??), four similar equatorial bonds (<2.022 A??), and one longer V-O bond (2.278 A??) trans to the vanadyl bond. The structure consists of isolated [V4+2 O2 (H2O)6 (SO4

  4. Kinetic and product studies of Criegee intermediate reactions with halogenated and non-halogenated carboxylic acids and their implications in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhantyal-Pun, Rabi; Rotavera, Brandon; Eskola, Arkke; Taatjes, Craig; Percival, Carl; Shallcross, Dudley; Orr-Ewing, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Criegee intermediates are important species formed during the ozonolysis of alkenes. Direct measurement and modelling studies have shown that reactions of stabilized Criegee intermediates with species like SO2 and NO2 may have a significant effect in tropospheric chemistry.[1, 2] Reaction rates of Criegee intermediates with simple carboxylic acids like HCOOH and CH3COOH have been shown to be near the collision limit and may be a significant sink for these otherwise stable species in the atmosphere.[3, 4] Results obtained from our time-resolved Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) apparatus[5] for reactions of the Criegee intermediates, CH2OO and (CH3)2COO with various halogenated (CF3COOH, CF3CF2COOH, CClF2COOH and CHCl2COOH) and non-halogenated (HCOOH and CH3COOH) carboxylic acids will be presented, together with Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) based on these observations. Structure characterization of the products from these reactions using the Multiplexed PhotoIonization Mass Spectrometry (MPIMS) apparatus[1,3] as well as implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation, assessed using the global atmospheric model STOCHEM, will also be discussed. Bibliography 1. O. Welz, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, S. S. Vasu, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross and C. A. Taatjes, Science, 2012, 335, 204-207. 2. C. J. Percival, O. Welz, A. J. Eskola, J. D. Savee, D. L. Osborn, D. O. Topping, D. Lowe, S. R. Utembe, A. Bacak, G. McFiggans, M. C. Cooke, P. Xiao, A. T. Archibald, M. E. Jenkin, R. G. Derwent, I. Riipinen, D. W. K. Mok, E. P. F. Lee, J. M. Dyke, C. A. Taatjes and D. E. Shallcross, Faraday Discuss., 2013, 165, 45-73. 3. O. Welz, A. J. Eskola, L. Sheps, B. Rotavera, J. D. Savee, A. M. Scheer, D. L. Osborn, D. Lowe, A. M. Booth, P. Xiao, M. A. H. Khan, C. J. Percival, D. E. Shallcross and C. A. Taatjes, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2014, 53, 4547-4550. 4. M. D. Hurley, M. P. S. Andersen, T. J. Wallington, D. A. Ellis, J. W. Martin and S. A. Mabury, J. Phys. Chem. A

  5. Lithium-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite from Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire: A crystal-chemical study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ottolini, L.; Foord, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of two crystals of Li-bearing fluor-arfvedsonite (1) (K0.32Na0.68)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.83Mn2+0.10Zn 0.06Fe3+1.46Ti0.07) (Si7.88Al0.12)O22[Fu1.15(OH) 0.85] and (2) (K0.25Na0.75)Na2(Li0.48Fe 2+2.84Mn2+0.11Zn 0.05Fe3+1.45Ti0.07)(Si 7.89Al0.11)O22[F1.35(OH) 0.65] from a granitic pegmatite, Hurricane Mountain, New Hampshire, have been refined to R indices of 1.5(1.6)% based on 1380(1387) reflections measured with MoK?? X-radiation. The unit cell parameters are (1) a 9.838(4), b 17.991(6), c 5.315(2) A??, 103.78(3)??, V 913.7 A??3 and (2) a 9.832(3), b 17.990(7), c 5.316(3) A??, ?? 103.79(3)??, V 913.2 A??3. Site-scattering refinement shows Li to be completely ordered at the M(3) site in these crystals. The amphibole composition is intermediate between fluor-arfvedsonite and fluor-ferro-leakeite with a small component (???10%) of fluor-ferro-ferri-nybo??ite. These amphibole crystals project into miarolitic cavities in a pegmatitic phase of a riebeckite granite. The early-crystallizing amphibole is close to fluor-ferro-leakeite in composition, but becomes progressively depleted in Li and F as crystals project out into miarolitic cavities; the final amphibole to crystallize is a fibrous Li-poor riebeckite. Li plays a significant role in late-stage fractionation involving the crystallization of alkali amphibole in peralkaline granitic environments.

  6. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Mok, Ka-Wai; Li, Michelle W M; Wong, Chris K C; Lee, Will M; Han, Daishu; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    support round spermatids to enter spermiogenesis.-Li, N., Mruk, D. D., Mok, K.-W., Li, M. W. M., Wong, C. K. C., Lee, W. M., Han, D., Silvestrini, B., Cheng, C. Y. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption.

  7. Searching for the Lost Jurassic and Cretaceous Ocean Basins of the Circum-Arctic Linking Plate Models and Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, G. E.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    pink. Labeled oceanic features in white include ANG Angayucham Ocean AM Amerasia Basin CCR Cache Creek Ocean FAR Farallon Plate IZA Izanagi Plate MOK Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean OMY Oimyakon Ocean SAO South Anuyi Ocean. Selected blue-labeled terranes include AL Alazeya LAU Laurasia NAM North America OM Omolon QS Quesnellia ST Stikinia, WR Wrangellia YTT Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  8. Variability of cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe since 1871

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Martius, O.

    2012-04-01

    . Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, Ø. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, and S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis project. Quarterly J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28. Wernli, H. and C. Schwierz, 2006: Surface cyclones in the ERA-40 dataset (1958-2001). Part I: Novel identification method and global climatology. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2486-2507.

  9. Transition metal coordination polymers based on tetrabromoterephthalic and bis(imidazole) ligands: Syntheses, structures, topological analysis and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Xing, Peiqi; Geng, Xiujuan; Sun, Daofeng; Xiao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Eight new coordination polymers (CPs), namely, [Zn(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (1), [Co(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)]n (2), [CdCl(1,2-mbix)(tbtpa)0.5]n (3), {[Cd(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (4), {[Cd0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·H2O}n (5), {[Co0.5(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)0.5]·2H2O}n (6), {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·H2O}n (7) and {[Co(1,2-bix)(tbtpa)]·Diox·2H2O}n (8), were synthesized under solvothermal conditions based on mix-ligand strategy (H2tbtpa=tetrabromoterephthalic acid and 1,2-mbix=1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, 1,2-bix=1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene). All of the CPs have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). X-ray diffraction analyses show that 1 and 2 are isotypics which have 2D highly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology with the existence of C-H ⋯Br interactions; for 3, it has a 2D planar network with (4,4)-sql topology with the occurrence of C-H ⋯Cl interactions other than C-H ⋯Br interactions; 4 shows a 3D 2-fold interpenetrated nets with rare 65·8-mok topology which has a self-catention property. As the same case as 1 and 2, 5 and 6 are also isostructural with planar layers with 44-sql topology which further assembled into 3D supramolecular structure through the interdigitated stacking fashion and the C-Br ⋯Cph interactions. As for 7, it has a 2D slightly undulated networks with (4,4)-sql topology which has one dimension channel. While 8 has a 2-fold interpenetrated networks with (3,4)-connect jeb topology with point symbol {63}{65·8}. And their structures can be tuned by conformations of bis(imidazol) ligands and solvent mixture. Besides, the TGA properties for all compounds and the luminescent properties for 1, 3, 4, 5 are discussed in detail.

  10. Reconstructing Links between AMOC and Surface Temperature Variability in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Leonard; Fischer, Matthias; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Kruger, GJ Marshall, M Mauger, HY Mok, Ø Nordli, TF Ross, RM Trigo, XL Wang, SD Woodruff, SJ Worley (2011): The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 137: 1-28 Müller, W, D Matei, M Bersch, JH Jungclaus, H Haak, K Lohmann, GP Compo, PD Sardeshmukh, J Marotzke (2014): A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s. Clim Dyn, 44: 1935-1955

  11. Cecropia pachystachya: A Species with Expressive In Vivo Topical Anti-Inflammatory and In Vitro Antioxidant Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Natália Ramos; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Mendes, Renata de Freitas; da Costa, Juliana de Carvalho; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Castañon, Maria Christina Marques Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Cecropia pachystachya is a species traditionally used in Brazil to treat inflammation. This work aims to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of C. pachystachya (CPM) and to perform its chemical fingerprint by HPLC-DAD. The topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the mouse models of acute ear inflammation induced by croton oil, arachidonic acid, capsaicin, EPP, phenol, and chronic inflammation induced by multiple application of croton oil. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPM was investigated using DPPH, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching, and TBARS assays. HPLC analysis was performed to quantify the antioxidant phenolics orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid previously identified in CPM. CPM exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect in the acute models, in some cases comparable to the reference drugs. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate chronic skin anti-inflammatory effect with decrease in vasodilation, edema, cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperproliferation. It also showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity. The contents of orientin, isoorientin, and chlorogenic acid were 66.5 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 0.7, and 5.4 ± 0.2 µg/mg extract, respectively. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of CPM could be based on its antioxidant properties, although other effects are probably involved, including COX inhibition and other mechanisms. PMID:24877079

  12. Application of Combined Sustained and Cyclic Loading Test Results to Alloy 617 Elevated Temperature Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2014-08-25

    Alloy 617 is a reference structural material for very high temperature components of advanced-gas cooled reactors with outlet temperatures in the range of 900-950°C . In order for designers to be able to use Alloy 617 for these high temperature components, Alloy 617 has to be approved for use in Section III (the nuclear section) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. A plan has been developed to submit a draft code for Alloy 617 to ASME Section III by 2015. However, the current rules in Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200°F (650°C). The rationale for this exclusion is that at higher temperatures it is not feasible to decouple plasticity and creep deformation, which is the basis for the current simplified rules. This temperature, 1200 °F, is well below the temperature range of interest for this material in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) applications. The only current alternative is, thus, a full inelastic analysis which requires sophisticated material models which have been formulated but not yet verified. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures.

  13. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerin, C.; Ubeda, J. L.; Alfaro, P.; Dahmani, Y.; Aznar, M.; Canellas, E.; Ausejo, R.

    2014-05-01

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  14. Compounds from multilayer plastic bags cause reproductive failures in artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Nerin, C; Ubeda, J L; Alfaro, P; Dahmani, Y; Aznar, M; Canellas, E; Ausejo, R

    2014-05-09

    High levels of reproductive failure were detected in some Spanish sow farms in the Spring of 2010. Regular returns to estrus and variable reductions in litter size were observed. The problem started suddenly and did not appear to be related to the quality of the ejaculates, disease, alterations of body condition or any other apparent reasons. Subsequent studies determined that the problem was the origin of the plastic bags used for semen storage. Chemical analysis of the suspicious bags identified unexpected compounds such as BADGE, a cyclic lactone and an unknown phthalate that leached into the semen at concentrations of 0.2 to 2.5 mg/L. Spermatozoa preserved in these bags passed all of the routine quality control tests, and no differences were observed between storage in the control and suspicious bags (p > 0.05). In vitro fecundation tests and endocrine profiler panel analysis (EPP) did not show any alterations, whereas the in vivo tests confirmed the described failure. This is the first described relationship between reproductive failure and toxic compounds released from plastic bags.

  15. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  16. New health promotion movement: a critical examination.

    PubMed

    Robertson, A; Minkler, M

    1994-01-01

    In the last decade, a revolution has been occurring in the field of health promotion. Guided to a large extent by position papers disseminated by the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Health Promotion Office, and furthered by the Ottawa Charter, the Epp Report in Canada, the Healthy Cities project, as well as by other efforts, this new health promotion movement has introduced new ideas, new language, and new concepts about what constitutes health and how health promotion efforts should be configured to achieve health. Punctuated by the terms like empowerment and community participation, this movement has generated a whole new discourse about the theory and practice of health promotion. This paper explores the multiple meanings that surround these terms, and the implications for practice, by addressing questions like: What does health mean in this new context? What is empowerment? What does participation look like? Has the tyranny of the professional been replaced by the tyranny of the community? Has anything changed about the practice of health promotion other than the language? Finally, it is argued that an acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of these concepts may facilitate their translation from rhetoric into health promotion practice.

  17. Bilateral femoral insuffiency fractures treated with inflatable intramedullary nails: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Ozgur Karacalioglu, A; Cicek, Engin Ilker; Yildrim, Duzgun; Erler, Kaan

    2007-09-01

    Stress fractures could be classified as fatigue fractures and insufficiency fractures (IF). Fatigue fractures occur when abnormal mechanical stress is applied to a normal bone, on the other hand insufficiency fractures occur when normal to moderate pressure is applied to a bone that has decreased resistance (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). IF have been observed mainly in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and are becoming more common with the increase of elderly population (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). Other systemic and metabolic conditions that can result in osteopenia and IF include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, fluoride treatment, diabetes mellitus, fibrous dysplasia, Paget's disease, irradiation and mechanical factors (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992; Soubrier et al. in Joint Bone Spine 70:209-218, 2003; Epps et al. in Am J Orthop 33:457-460, 2004; Austin and Chrissos in Orthopedics 28:795-797, 2005). In this case report, the authors present an osteoporotic woman who developed bilateral insufficiency fracture of the femoral shaft after longstanding steroid, thyroxine replacement and alendronate therapy due to partial empty sella syndrome and osteoporosis, resulting in the treatment of the fracture by inflatable intramedullary nailing.

  18. Novel pentapeptide activators of mammalian and mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Ubeid, Anan Abu; Hantash, Basil M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to rise due to intentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight and indoor tanning beds. Eumelanin exhibits photoprotective effects; thus, agents that induce its synthesis offer a means for sunless tanning without UVR damage. Herein, we report the development of two pentapeptides, P9 and P10, capable of enhancing melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells by activating mushroom and mouse tyrosinases without any effect on cell viability or proliferation. P9 and P10 significantly increased melanin content in a dose-dependent manner comparable to the positive controls, IBMX, scoparone, and α-MSH. However, unlike IBMX and scoparone, but similar to α-MSH, P9 and P10 were able to reverse 6BH4-dependent tyrosinase inhibition. We hypothesize that P9 and P10 allosterically activate tyrosinase and consequently enhance epidermal melanin synthesis. P9 and P10 may offer an alternative to tanning bed use and non-photoprotective tanning products. Moreover, sustained increase of melanin content in skin has the potential to reduce symptoms of photosensitivity disorders such as erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), solar urticaria (SU) and polymorphic light eruption (PLE), which lack fully effective treatments and result in significant morbidity.

  19. FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George

    2006-12-01

    These are the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005) (http://corfu2005.physics.uoi.gr), which took place in Corfu, Greece from 4 - 26 September 2005. The Corfu Summer Institute has a very long, interesting and successful history, some elements of which can be found in http://www.corfu-summer-institute.gr. In short, the Corfu Meeting started as a Summer School on Elementary Particle Physics (EPP) mostly for Greek graduate students in 1982 and has developed into a leading international Summer Institute in the field of EPP, both experimental and theoretical, providing in addition a very rich outreach programme to teachers and school students. The CORFU2005 Summer Institute on EPP, although based on the general format that has been developed and established in the Corfu Meetings during previous years, is characterized by the fact that it was a full realization of a new idea, which started experimentally in the previous two Corfu Meetings. The successful new ingredient was that three European Marie Curie Research Training Networks decided to hold their Workshops in Corfu during September 2005 and they managed to coordinate the educational part of their meetings to a huge Summer School called `The 8th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics' (4 - 11 September). The European Networks which joined forces to materialize this project and the corresponding dates of their own Workshops are:

  20. The Third Generation as a Probe for New Physics: Experimental and Technological Approach (4 - 11 September)
  21. The Quest for Unification Theory Confronts Experiment (11 - 18 September)
  22. Constituents Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe (20 - 26 September)
  23. To these Workshops has been added a Satellite one called `Noncommutative Geometry in Field and String Theory', and some extra speakers have been invited to complement the full programme of CORFU2005, some of whom have integrated into the Workshop

  24. The quality of sero-surveillance in low- and middle-income countries: status and trends through 2007

    PubMed Central

    Lyerla, R; Gouws, E; Garcia-Calleja, J M

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the quality of HIV sero-surveillance systems in 127 low-income and middle-income countries by 2007, as well as gaps in data needed for reliable estimates of HIV prevalence and size of populations at risk for infection. Methods: The quality of countries’ surveillance systems was scored using information from 2001 through 2007. Sero-surveillance data were compiled from the US Census Bureau’s HIV/AIDS Surveillance Database, from countries’ national HIV surveillance reports available to UNAIDS, from demographic and health survey (DHS) data, from the scientific literature and from countries’ Estimation and Projection Programme (EPP) data files. The quality of systems was scored according to the classification of the epidemic in each country (generalised, concentrated or low-level). Result: The number of countries categorised as fully functioning in 2007 was 40. 43 countries were identified as partially functioning while 44 were categorised as poorly functioning. Low scores were most often attributed to a lack of recent data or data from appropriate risk groups. Conclusion: Many countries still have poorly functioning surveillance systems. The inclusion of HIV testing in national population-based surveys in recent years has resulted in some countries with generalised epidemics receiving higher coverage scores, but many countries with concentrated or low-level epidemics continue to lack data on high-risk populations. PMID:18647872

  1. Mercury's High-Latitude Sodium Exosphere: Observations During MESSENGER's Orbital Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Cassidy, T. A.; Vervack, R. J.; Burger, M. H.; Merkel, A. W.; Sarantos, M.; Sprague, A. L.; McClintock, W. E.; Benna, M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. We now have approximately nine Mercury years of data from orbit. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29, 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere in the polar and high-latitude regions: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma. Observed scale heights are shown to be due to a mixture of source processes interacting with gravitational and radiation forces.

  2. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method development and validation for the assay of HEPES zwitterionic buffer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolong; Gevaert, Bert; Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2017-02-20

    HEPES is a zwitterionic buffer component used as a raw material in the GMP-manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), hence requiring an adequate assay method with sufficient selectivity toward related impurities. Therefore, a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) method was developed. Different factors were investigated towards the retention behavior of HEPES, its analogue EPPS and its starting material isethionate: pH, ion concentration and organic solvent ratio of the mobile phase, as well as column temperature. Moreover, stress testing resulted in the N-oxide degradant, identified by high resolution MS. The final method consisted of an isocratic system with an aqueous (pH 2.0 with H3PO4) acetonitrile (35:65, v/v) mobile phase on a zwitterionic HILIC (Obelisc N) column with a flow rate of 0.5mL/min and UV detection at 195nm. The assay method of HEPES was validated, obtaining adequate linearity (R(2)=0.999), precision (RSD of 0.5%) and accuracy (recovery of 100.08%). Finally, the applicability of the validated method was demonstrated by analysis of samples from different suppliers.

  3. Volatile Transport Implications from the New Horizons Flyby of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Leslie; Grundy, William M.; Binzel, RIchard P.; Earle, Alissa M.; Linscott, Ivan R.; Hinson, David P.; Zangari, Amanda M.; McKinnon, William B.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Harold A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Gladstone, G. Randall; Summers, Michael E.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Spencer, John R.

    2015-11-01

    The New Horizons flyby of Pluto has revealed a striking range of terrains, from the very bright region informally named Sputnik Planum, to very dark regions such as the informally named Cthulhu Regio. Such a variety was beyond the scope of recent models of Pluto's seasonal volatile cycle (Young 2013, ApJL 766, L22; Hansen, Paige and Young 2015, Icarus 246, 183), which assumed globally uniform substrate albedos. The "Exchange with Pressure Plateau (EPP)" class of models in Young (2013) and the favored runs from Hansen et al (2015) had long periods of exchange of volatiles between northern and southern hemispheres. In these models, the equators were largely devoid of volatiles; even though the equatorial latitudes received less insolation than the poles over a Pluto year, they were never the coldest place on the icy world. New models that include a variety of substrate albedos can investigate questions such as whether Sputnik Planum has an albedo that is high enough to act as a local cold trap for much of Pluto's year. We will present the implications of this and other assumption-busting revelations from the New Horizons flyby. This work was supported by NASA’s New Horizons project.

  4. Evidence of Bioactive Compounds from Vernonia polyanthes Leaves with Topical Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Kamilla C. M.; Chibli, Lucas A.; Santos, Bruna C. S.; Temponi, Vanessa S.; Pinto, Nícolas C. C.; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S.; Sousa, Orlando V.

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia polyanthes Less. (Asteraceae), popularly known as “assa-peixe”, is a plant species used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of cutaneous damage, cicatrization, inflammation, and rheumatism. Based on these ethnopharmacological findings, the current study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the hexane (HEVP) and ethyl acetate (EAEVP) extracts from V. polyanthes leaves in experimental models of skin inflammation. Chemical characterization was carried out by HPLC–UV/DAD analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using Croton oil-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, phenol-, ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-, and capsaicin-induced ear edema models in mice. Histopathological evaluation and measurements of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzymes were also performed. Rutin, luteolin, and apigenin were identified in EAEVP. Topically applied HEVP and EAEVP significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001) reduced edema induced by five different irritants at the doses tested (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ear). Histopathological analysis revealed a reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and vasodilation. In addition, the enzymes activity (MPO and NAG) in the ear tissues was reduced by the topical treatment of HEVP and EAEVP (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 or p < 0.001). The results suggest that V. polyanthes leaves are effective against cutaneous damage, which support its traditional use and open up new possibilities for the treatment of skin disorders. PMID:27916942

  5. Data Resource Profile: The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC).

    PubMed

    Arora, Vishal S; Karanikolos, Marina; Clair, Amy; Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Social and economic policies are inextricably linked with population health outcomes in Europe, yet few datasets are able to fully explore and compare this relationship across European countries. The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey aims to address this gap using microdata on income, living conditions and health. EU-SILC contains both cross-sectional and longitudinal elements, with nationally representative samples of individuals 16 years and older in 28 European Union member states as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Data collection began in 2003 in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Greece, Luxembourg and Austria, with subsequent expansion across Europe. By 2011, all 28 EU member states, plus three others, were included in the dataset. Although EU-SILC is administered by Eurostat, the data are output-harmonized so that countries are required to collect specified data items but are free to determine sampling strategies for data collection purposes. EU-SILC covers approximately 500,000 European residents for its cross-sectional survey annually. Whereas aggregated data from EU-SILC are publicly available [http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/main-tables], microdata are only available to research organizations subject to approval by Eurostat. Please refer to [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/microdata/eu_silc] for further information regarding microdata access.

  6. Phenol induced acute cutaneous inflammation (AI) in mice: Diminished response in mast cell-deficient (W/W sup v ) mice and evidence of a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Wershil, B.K.; Wang, Z.S.; Gordon, J.R.; Galli, S.J. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-03-11

    AI can be induced by a variety of chemical agents. The authors examined AI in mast cell-deficient (WBB6F{sub 1}-W/W{sup v}) and congenic normal (WBB6F{sub 1}-+/+) mice; AI was induced by the epicutaneous application to the ear of phenol (2 mg), benzalkonium chloride (BC; 1 mg) and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP, 2 or 5 mg). Phenol induced significantly greater swelling in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. No difference in swelling was seen in +/+ versus W/W{sup v} mice with BC or EEP. Phenol application induced significantly greater neutrophil infiltration in +/+ than in W/W{sup v} mice. Mast cells represent a rich source of TNF and TNF has been shown to participate in the neutrophil accumulation seen in mast cell-dependent, IgE-mediated cutaneous late phase reactions. The authors injected +/+ mice i.d. with 20 {mu}l of 1:100 dilution of a polyclonal rabbit anti-mouse TNF antiserum or 20 {mu}l of medium and then applied 2 mg phenol at the same sites. At 24 hrs, significantly less neutrophil accumulation was seen in the ear treated with anti-TNF antibodies than in the control ear. The authors conclude that mast cells may participate in phenol-induced AI, and that TNF contributes to this response.

  7. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  8. Star sensor image acquisition and preprocessing hardware system based on CMOS image sensor and FGPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuetao; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2003-09-01

    Star Sensor is an avionics instrument used to provide the absolute 3-axis attitude of a spacecraft utilizing star observations. It consists of an electronic camera and associated processing electronics. As outcome of advancing state-of-the-art, new generation star sensor features faster, lower cost, power dissipation and size than the first generation star sensor. This paper describes a star sensor anterior image acquisition and pre-processing hardware system based on CMOS image-sensor and FPGA technology. Practically, star images are produced by a simple simulator on PC, acquired by CMOS image sensor, pre-processed by FPGA, saved in SRAM, read out by EPP protocol and validated by an image process software on PC. The hardware part of system acquires images thought CMOS image-sensor controlled by FPGA, then processes image data by a circuit module of FPGA, and save images to SRAM for test. Basic image data for star recognition and attitude determination of spacecrafts are provided by it. As an important reference for developing star sensor prototype, the system validates the performance advantages of new generation star sensor.

  9. Chiral discrimination of a gemini-type surfactant with rigid spacer at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Shankar, B Vijai; Patnaik, Archita

    2007-10-04

    Spontaneous separation of chiral phases was observed in the monolayers of a racemate of gemini-type twin-tailed, twin-chiral amphiphiles, (2R,3R)-(+)-bis(decyloxy)succinic acid and (2S,3S)-(-)-bis(decyloxy)succinic acid. The pressure-area isotherms of the interfacial monolayers formed at the liquid-air interface, and the 2D lattice structures studied through surface probe measurements revealed that the racemate exhibits a homochiral discrimination of the enantiomers in two dimensions. An enantiomeric excess (e,e) of 20% was sufficient to break the chiral symmetry at the air-water interface for a homochiral interaction. Langmuir monolayers on ZnCl2 and CaCl2 subphases manifested chiral discrimination with Zn2+ evidencing homochiral interaction with a chelate-type complex, whereas Ca2+ resulted in a heterochiral interaction forming an ionic-type complex. For the chiral asymmetric units, oblique and rectangular unit cells of the racemic monolayer had exclusive requirements of homo- and heterochiral recognitions for Zn2+ and Ca2+ ions, respectively. Monolayers transferred from the condensed phase at 25 mN/m onto hydrophilic Si(100) and quartz substrates revealed the formation of bilayers through transfer-induced monolayer buckling. The emergence of homochiral discrimination was explained using the effective-pair-potential (EPP) approach.

  10. Elastic-plastic analysis of the PVRC burst disk tests with comparison to the ASME code -- Primary stress limits

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    1999-02-01

    This paper provides a comparison between finite element analysis results and test data from the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) burst disk program. Testing sponsored by the PVRC over 20 years ago was done by pressurizing circular flat disks made from three different materials until failure by bursting. The purpose of this re-analysis is to investigate the use of finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the primary stress limits of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1998) and to qualify the use of elastic-plastic (EP-FEA) for limit load calculations. The three materials tested represent the range of strength and ductility found in modern pressure vessel construction and include a low strength high ductility material, a medium strength medium ductility material, and a high strength low ductility low alloy material. Results of elastic and EP-FEA are compared to test data. Stresses from the elastic analyses are linearized for comparison of Code primary stress limits to test results. Elastic-plastic analyses are done using both best-estimate and elastic-perfectly plastic (EPP) stress-strain curves. Both large strain-large displacement (LSLD) and small strain-small displacement (SSSD) assumptions are used with the EP-FEA. Analysis results are compared to test results to evaluate the various analysis methods, models, and assumptions as applied to the bursting of thin disks.

  11. A Monte Carlo study of the energy spectra and transmission characteristics of scattered radiation from x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Platten, David John

    2014-06-01

    Existing data used to calculate the barrier transmission of scattered radiation from computed tomography (CT) are based on primary beam CT energy spectra. This study uses the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system and Epp user code to determine the energy spectra of CT scatter from four different primary CT beams passing through an ICRP 110 male reference phantom. Each scatter spectrum was used as a broad-beam x-ray source in transmission simulations through seventeen thicknesses of lead (0.00-3.50 mm). A fit of transmission data to lead thickness was performed to obtain α, β and γ parameters for each spectrum. The mean energy of the scatter spectra were up to 12.3 keV lower than that of the primary spectrum. For 120 kVp scatter beams the transmission through lead was at least 50% less than predicted by existing data for thicknesses of 1.5 mm and greater; at least 30% less transmission was seen for 140 kVp scatter beams. This work has shown that the mean energy and half-value layer of CT scatter spectra are lower than those of the corresponding primary beam. The transmission of CT scatter radiation through lead is lower than that calculated with currently available data. Using the data from this work will result in less lead shielding being required for CT scanner installations.

  12. Circular-cylindrical flux-rope analytical model for Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Linton, Mark; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Savani, Neel P.; Szabo, Adam; Farrugia, Charlie; Yu, Wenyuan

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds ( MCs). The model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. (2000) by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation.The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in-situ observations. Four Earth directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic fi eld and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of theplasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical.

  13. Study of laser-generated debris free x-ray sources produced in a high-density linear Ar, Kr, Xe, Kr/Ar and Xe/Kr/Ar mixtures gas jets by 2 ω, sub-ps LLNL Titan laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Schultz, K. A.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Safronova, A. S.; Cooper, M. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Petkov, E. E.; Stafford, A.; Moschella, J. J.; Schmidt-Petersen, M. T.; Butcher, C. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Andrews, S. D.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The study of laser-generated debris-free x-ray sources in an underdense plasma produced in a high-density linear gas-puff jet was carried out at the LLNL Titan laser (2 ω, 45 J, sub-ps) with an intensity in the 10 um focal spot of 7 x 1019 W/cm2. A linear nozzle with a fast valve was used for the generation of a clusters/gas jet. X-ray diagnostics for the spectral region of 0.7 - 9 keV include: two spectrometers and pinhole cameras, and 3 groups of fast filtered detectors. Electron beams were measured with the EPPS magnetic spectrometer (>1 MeV) and Faraday cups (>72 keV). Spectralon/spectrometer devices were also used to measure absorption of laser radiation in the jets. New results were obtained on: anisotropic generation of x-rays (laser to x-ray conversion coefficient was >1%) and characteristics of laser-generated electron beams; evolution of x-ray generation with the location of the laser focus in a cluster-gas jet, and observations of a strong x-ray flash in some focusing regimes. Non-LTE kinetic modeling was used to estimate plasma parameters. UNR work supported by the DTRA Basic Research Award # HDTRA1-13-1-0033. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Time scales involved in emergent market coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapień, J.; Drożdż, S.; Speth, J.

    2004-06-01

    In addressing the question of the time scales characteristic for the market formation, we analyze high-frequency tick-by-tick data from the NYSE and from the German market. By using returns on various time scales ranging from seconds or minutes up to 2 days, we compare magnitude of the largest eigenvalue of the correlation matrix for the same set of securities but for different time scales. For various sets of stocks of different capitalization (and the average trading frequency), we observe a significant elevation of the largest eigenvalue with increasing time scale. Our results from the correlation matrix study can be considered as a manifestation of the so-called Epps effect. There is no unique explanation of this effect and it seems that many different factors play a role here. One of such factors is randomness in transaction moments for different stocks. Another interesting conclusion to be drawn from our results is that in the contemporary markets the emergence of significant correlations occurs on time scales much smaller than in the more distant history.

  15. A Circular-cylindrical Flux-rope Analytical Model for Magnetic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M. G.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Vourlidas, A.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Farrugia, C.; Yu, W.

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds (MCs). Our model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation. The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in situ observations. Four Earth-directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic field and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, the Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of the plasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical. An extension of our current modeling framework to account for such non-circular CMEs will be presented in a forthcoming publication.

  16. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  17. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  18. Hybrid control and data acquisition system for geographically distributed sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an improvement of a VME-UDP/IP based system we developed for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC, a 16-bit DAC module at 1MHz, and a 20-bit slower ADC necessary for the acquisition of an external calibration signal. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine in parallel with other modules. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC, where the real-time computation is performed. Experimental tests have demonstrated that the distributed control systems implemented with this architecture exihibit a delay time of less than 25 μs on a single channel, that is a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40kHz. The system is now under extensive test in two different experiments: the remote control and data acquisition of a set of seismometers, velocimeters and accelerometers to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors and the remote control of the end mirrors of a suspended Michelson interferometer through electrostatic actuators for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves.

  19. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  20. Direct Imaging of the Onset of Electrical Conduction in Silver Nanowire Networks by Infrared Thermography: Evidence of Geometrical Quantized Percolation.

    PubMed

    Sannicolo, Thomas; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Moreau, Stéphane; Celle, Caroline; Simonato, Jean-Pierre; Bréchet, Yves; Bellet, Daniel

    2016-11-09

    Advancement in the science and technology of random metallic nanowire (MNW) networks is crucial for their appropriate integration in many applications including transparent electrodes for optoelectronics and transparent film heaters. We have recently highlighted the discontinuous activation of efficient percolating pathways (EPPs) for networks having densities slightly above the percolation threshold. Such networks exhibit abrupt drops of electrical resistance when thermal or electrical annealing is performed, which gives rise to a "geometrically quantized percolation". In this Letter, lock-in thermography (LiT) is used to provide visual evidence of geometrical quantized percolation: when low voltage is applied to the network, individual "illuminated pathways" can be detected, and new branches get highlighted as the voltage is incrementally increased. This experimental approach has allowed us to validate our original model and map the electrical and thermal distributions in silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. We also study the effects of electrode morphology and wire dimensions on quantized percolation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the network failure at high temperature can also be governed by a quantized increase of the electrical resistance, which corresponds to the discontinuous destruction of individual pathways (antipercolation). More generally, we demonstrate that LiT is a promising tool for the detection of conductive subclusters as well as hot spots in AgNW networks.

  1. Quantifying and comparing the pattern of thalamic and cortical projections to the posterior auditory field in hearing and deaf cats.

    PubMed

    Butler, Blake E; Chabot, Nicole; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-10-15

    Following sensory loss, compensatory crossmodal reorganization occurs such that the remaining modalities are functionally enhanced. For example, behavioral evidence suggests that peripheral visual localization is better in deaf than in normal hearing animals, and that this enhancement is mediated by recruitment of the posterior auditory field (PAF), an area that is typically involved in localization of sounds in normal hearing animals. To characterize the anatomical changes that underlie this phenomenon, we identified the thalamic and cortical projections to the PAF in hearing cats and those with early- and late-onset deafness. The retrograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine was deposited in the PAF unilaterally, to label cortical and thalamic afferents. Following early deafness, there was a significant decrease in callosal projections from the contralateral PAF. Late-deaf animals showed small-scale changes in projections from one visual cortical area, the posterior ectosylvian field (EPp), and the multisensory zone (MZ). With the exception of these minor differences, connectivity to the PAF was largely similar between groups, with the principle projections arising from the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the ventral division of the medial geniculate body (MGBv). This absence of large-scale connectional change suggests that the functional reorganization that follows sensory loss results from changes in synaptic strength and/or unmasking of subthreshold intermodal connections. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3042-3063, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Probing the Repulsive Core of the Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction via the He4(e ,e'pN) Triple-Coincidence Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korover, I.; Muangma, N.; Hen, O.; Shneor, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Kelleher, A.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Piasetzky, E.; Watson, J. W.; Wood, S. A.; Aguilera, P.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Anez, D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Badman, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertozzi, W.; Bittner, J.; Boeglin, W.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M. M.; Daniel, A.; Day, D.; de Jager, C. W.; De Leo, R.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Gu, C.; Gueye, P.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Jin, G.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Khandaker, M.; LeRose, J.; Leckey, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marti Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Monaghan, P.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman, Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Rondon-Aramayo, O.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sparveris, N.; Subedi, R.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Zielinski, R.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    We studied simultaneously the He4(e ,e'p), He4(e ,e'pp), and He4(e ,e'pn) reactions at Q2=2(GeV/c)2 and xB>1, for an (e ,e'p) missing-momentum range of 400 to 830 MeV/c. The knocked-out proton was detected in coincidence with a proton or neutron recoiling almost back to back to the missing momentum, leaving the residual A =2 system at low excitation energy. These data were used to identify two-nucleon short-range correlated pairs and to deduce their isospin structure as a function of missing momentum, in a region where the nucleon-nucleon (NN) force is expected to change from predominantly tensor to repulsive. The abundance of neutron-proton pairs is reduced as the nucleon momentum increases beyond ˜500 MeV/c. The extracted fraction of proton-proton pairs is small and almost independent of the missing momentum. Our data are compared with calculations of two-nucleon momentum distributions in He4 and discussed in the context of probing the elusive repulsive component of the NN force.

  3. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Near-tail of Venus: Magnetic Flux Transport, Current Sheet Structure, and Flux Rope Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Barabash, S.; Benna, M.; Fraenz, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zhang, T.-L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    At 23:08 UT on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude (338 km) during its second flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. Whereas no measurements were collected during MESSENGER'S first Venus flyby in October 2006, the Magnetometer (MAG) and the Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) operated successfully throughout this second encounter. Venus provides the solar system's best example to date of a solar wind - ionosphere planetary interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of the near-tail of Venus with emphasis on determining the time scales for magnetic flux transport, the structure of the cross-tail current sheet at very low altitudes (approx. 300 to 1000 km), and the nature and origin of a magnetic flux rope observed in the current sheet. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express upstream measurements provides a unique opportunity to examine the influence of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction at solar minimum.

  4. The Chromatin-Remodeling Factor PICKLE Integrates Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Signaling during Skotomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Jing, Yanjun; Jiang, Zhimin; Lin, Rongcheng

    2014-06-01

    Plant cell elongation is controlled by endogenous hormones, including brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA), and by environmental factors, such as light/darkness. The molecular mechanisms underlying the convergence of these signals that govern cell growth remain largely unknown. We previously showed that the chromatin-remodeling factor PICKLE/ENHANCED PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (PKL/EPP1) represses photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrated that PKL physically interacted with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1), key components of the light and BR signaling pathways, respectively. Also, this interaction promoted the association of PKL with cell elongation-related genes. We found that PKL, PIF3, and BZR1 coregulate skotomorphogenesis by repressing the trimethylation of histone H3 Lys-27 (H3K27me3) on target promoters. Moreover, DELLA proteins interacted with PKL and attenuated its binding ability. Strikingly, brassinolide and GA3 inhibited H3K27me3 modification of histones associated with cell elongation-related loci in a BZR1- and DELLA-mediated manner, respectively. Our findings reveal that the PKL chromatin-remodeling factor acts as a critical node that integrates light/darkness, BR, and GA signals to epigenetically regulate plant growth and development. This work also provides a molecular framework by which hormone signals regulate histone modification in concert with light/dark environmental cues.

  5. Absorption cross section for the 5νOH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5νOH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is αmin =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2σ noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  6. Comparison of a 3-D GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code and Ray Tracing for Reflectometry on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gady, Sarah; Kubota, Shigeyuki; Johnson, Irena

    2015-11-01

    Electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in magnetized plasmas are important diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. 1-D and 2-D full-wave codes are standard tools for measurements of the electron density profile and fluctuations; however, ray tracing results have shown that beam propagation in tokamak plasmas is inherently a 3-D problem. The GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code utilizes the FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method for solving the Maxwell equations with the cold plasma approximation in a 3-D geometry. Parallel processing with GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) is used to accelerate the computation. Previously, we reported on initial comparisons of the code results to 1-D numerical and analytical solutions, where the size of the computational grid was limited by the on-board memory of the GPU. In the current study, this limitation is overcome by using domain decomposition and an additional GPU. As a practical application, this code is used to study the current design of the ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer (LSFR) for the Equatorial Port Plug 11 (EPP11). A detailed examination of Gaussian beam propagation in the ITER edge plasma will be presented, as well as comparisons with ray tracing. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No.DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99-ER54527.

  7. Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign: Toward the whole community approach.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Jody H; Cooper, Sheryl B; Austin, Elizabeth N

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the "whole community" involves including everyone in the community in preparing for emergencies, including members of often-overlooked groups. Deaf people who sign are one example of this type of group. An innovative model based on the whole community approach, Emergency Preparedness with People Who Sign (EPPS), is introduced in this article. This model focuses on members of the deaf community directly training first responders using a variety of techniques for effective communication and cultural understanding to achieve safety for all. This model was developed and field tested by a university Deaf Studies program through student service-learning activities and faculty involvement including on-site role-playing. Through the reciprocal awareness training for both professionals and community members, deaf individuals become actively empowered to participate in developing culturally and linguistically sensitive public safety services. Response to the concurrent training of first responders and deaf community members has been positive, and it is hoped that this model can be replicated with deaf people and first responders in other locations, as well as with other often-overlooked groups.

  8. Competitive sports for children and adolescents: should an electrocardiogram be required in the pre-participation physical examination?

    PubMed

    Baptista, Cláudio Aparício Silva; Foronda, Antonio; Baptista, Luciana de Pádua Silva

    2009-08-01

    The growing number of children and adolescents, aged 7 to 17 years, that participate in competitive sports requires preventive medical care. The pre-participation physical examination (PPE) requires appropriate medical knowledge to insure safe medical clearance. Recent sudden death events related to sports practice have raised doubts concerning the need for a medical evaluation based on medical tests, which due to the delay in its implementation may result in demotivation and abandonment of the sports practice. This is a review study, including data collected during a period of 30 years at the Olympic Training and Research Center (COTP) of the Municipal Secretary of Sports of São Paulo, where future athletes are identified, socially included and trained; and the objective of the study was to evaluate the need for the involvement of medical organizations in the preparation of a EPP protocol for the cardiovascular assessment of this population, according to the Brazilian reality. We had no normative standard, and so we relied on data collected from protocols that were established by other countries, but we defined which conduct to be taken with each of our individuals.

  9. Impact of N on the atomic-scale Sb distribution in quaternary GaAsSbN-capped InAs quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Daniel F; González, David; Ulloa, Jose M; Sales, David L; Dominguez, Lara; Mayoral, Alvaro; Hierro, Adrian

    2012-11-27

    The use of GaAsSbN capping layers on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) has recently been proposed for micro- and optoelectronic applications for their ability to independently tailor electron and hole confinement potentials. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the structural and compositional changes associated with the process of simultaneous Sb and N incorporation. In the present work, we have characterized using transmission electron microscopy techniques the effects of adding N in the GaAsSb/InAs/GaAs QD system. Firstly, strain maps of the regions away from the InAs QDs had revealed a huge reduction of the strain fields with the N incorporation but a higher inhomogeneity, which points to a composition modulation enhancement with the presence of Sb-rich and Sb-poor regions in the range of a few nanometers. On the other hand, the average strain in the QDs and surroundings is also similar in both cases. It could be explained by the accumulation of Sb above the QDs, compensating the tensile strain induced by the N incorporation together with an In-Ga intermixing inhibition. Indeed, compositional maps of column resolution from aberration-corrected Z-contrast images confirmed that the addition of N enhances the preferential deposition of Sb above the InAs QD, giving rise to an undulation of the growth front. As an outcome, the strong redshift in the photoluminescence spectrum of the GaAsSbN sample cannot be attributed only to the N-related reduction of the conduction band offset but also to an enhancement of the effect of Sb on the QD band structure.

  10. Impact of N on the atomic-scale Sb distribution in quaternary GaAsSbN-capped InAs quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of GaAsSbN capping layers on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) has recently been proposed for micro- and optoelectronic applications for their ability to independently tailor electron and hole confinement potentials. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the structural and compositional changes associated with the process of simultaneous Sb and N incorporation. In the present work, we have characterized using transmission electron microscopy techniques the effects of adding N in the GaAsSb/InAs/GaAs QD system. Firstly, strain maps of the regions away from the InAs QDs had revealed a huge reduction of the strain fields with the N incorporation but a higher inhomogeneity, which points to a composition modulation enhancement with the presence of Sb-rich and Sb-poor regions in the range of a few nanometers. On the other hand, the average strain in the QDs and surroundings is also similar in both cases. It could be explained by the accumulation of Sb above the QDs, compensating the tensile strain induced by the N incorporation together with an In-Ga intermixing inhibition. Indeed, compositional maps of column resolution from aberration-corrected Z-contrast images confirmed that the addition of N enhances the preferential deposition of Sb above the InAs QD, giving rise to an undulation of the growth front. As an outcome, the strong redshift in the photoluminescence spectrum of the GaAsSbN sample cannot be attributed only to the N-related reduction of the conduction band offset but also to an enhancement of the effect of Sb on the QD band structure. PMID:23181950

  11. Photoluminescence probing of interface evolution with annealing in InGa(N)As/GaAs single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Jun Qi, Zhen; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Xiren; Guo, Shaoling; Zhao, H.; Song, Yuxin; Zha, F.-X.; Wang, S. M.

    2015-10-28

    The effects of thermal annealing on the interfaces of InGa(N)As/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs) are investigated by excitation-, temperature-, and magnetic field-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The annealing at 750 °C results in more significant blueshift and narrowing to the PL peak than that at 600 °C. Each of the PL spectra can be reproduced with two PL components: (i) the low-energy component (LE) keeps energetically unchanged, while the high-energy component (HE) moves up with excitation and shows at higher energy for the In{sub 0.375}Ga{sub 0.625}As/GaAs but crosses over with the LE at a medium excitation power for the In{sub 0.375}Ga{sub 0.625}N{sub 0.012}As{sub 0.988}/GaAs SQWs. The HE is broader than the corresponding LE, the annealing at 750 °C narrows the LE and HE and shrinks their energetic separation; (ii) the PL components are excitonic, and the InGaNAs shows slightly enhanced excitonic effects relative to the InGaAs SQW; (iii) no typical S-shape evolution of PL energy with temperature is detectable, and similar blueshift and narrowing are identified for the same annealing. The phenomena are mainly from the interfacial processes. Annealing improves the intralayer quality, enhances the interfacial In-Ga interdiffusion, and reduces the interfacial fluctuation. The interfacial interdiffusion does not change obviously by the small N content and hence similar PL-component narrowing and blueshift are observed for the SQWs after a nominally identical annealing. Comparison with previous studies is made and the PL measurements under different conditions are shown to be effective for probing the interfacial evolution in QWs.

  12. Isoprene leaf emission under CO2 free atmosphere: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.

    2015-12-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) is a reactive hydrocarbon gas emitted at high rates by tropical vegetation, which affects atmospheric chemistry and climate and, in the leaf level, is a very important agent against environmental stress. Under optimal conditions for photosynthesis, the majority of carbon used for isoprene biosynthesis is a direct product from recently assimilated atmospheric CO2. However, the contribution of 'alternate' carbon sources, that increase with leaf temperature, have been demonstrated and emissions of isoprene from 'alternate' carbon sources under ambient CO2 below the compensation point for photosynthesis have been observed. In this study, we investigated the response of leaf isoprene emissions under 450 ppm CO2 and CO2 free atmosphere as a function of light and leaf temperature. At constant leaf temperature (30 °C) and CO2 free atmospheres, leaves of the tropical species Inga edulis showed net emissions of CO2 and light-dependent isoprene emissions which stagnated at low light levels (75 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and account for 25% of that observed with 450 ppm CO2. Under constant light (1000 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) and CO2 free atmospheres, a increase of leaf temperatures from 25 to 40 °C resulted in net emissions of CO2 and temperature-dependent isoprene emissions which reached values up to 17% of those under 450 ppm CO2. Our observations suggest that, under environmental stress, as high light/temperature and drought (when the stomata close and the amount of internal CO2 decreases), the 'alternate' carbon can maintain photosynthesis rates resulting in the production of isoprene, independent of atmospheric CO2, through the re-assimilation of internal released CO2 as an 'alternate' carbon sources for isoprene.

  13. First principles modeling of defects in the Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene-Diniz, Gabriel; Kuhn, Kelin J.; Hurley, Paul K.; Greer, James C.

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory paired with a first order many-body perturbation theory correction is applied to determine formation energies and charge transition energies for point defects in bulk In0.53Ga0.47As and for models of the In0.53Ga0.47As surface saturated with a monolayer of Al2O3. The results are consistent with previous computational studies that AsGa antisites are candidates for defects observed in capacitance voltage measurements on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors, as the AsGa antisite introduces energy states near the valence band maximum and near the middle of the energy bandgap. However, substantial broadening in the distribution of the GaAs charge transition levels due to the variation in the local chemical environment resulting from alloying on the cation (In/Ga) sublattice is found, whereas this effect is absent for AsGa antisites. Also, charge transition energy levels are found to vary based on proximity to the semiconductor/oxide interfacial layer. The combined effects of alloy- and proximity-shift on the GaAs antisite charge transition energies are consistent with the distribution of interface defect levels between the valence band edge and midgap as extracted from electrical characterization data. Hence, kinetic growth conditions leading to a high density of either GaAs or AsGa antisites near the In0.53Ga0.47As/Al2O3 interface are both consistent with defect energy levels at or below midgap.

  14. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-13

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of

  15. The Effects of Spatial Scale on Breakdown of Leaves in a Tropical Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Renan S.; Petrucio, Mauricio M.; Gonçalves, José F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of natural variation in the physical structure of the environment on biological communities and on the processing of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Inga laurina and to identify the controlling factors at different scales along stream order gradients. The study area consisted of 14 sampling sites distributed within a tropical watershed (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th order streams replicated in 4 sub-basins). Our samples consisted of 3 g of leaves of E. cloeziana (high-quality) and I. laurina (low-quality) placed in 252 bags with 10mm mesh (measured by the chemical composition of the detritus). Four samples of each leaf type were collected periodically (three times) over a period of 75–125 days and washed on a sieve to separate the invertebrates. A series of leaf disks were cut to determine ash-free dry mass, polyphenol, lignin, cellulose, total microbial biomass and fungal biomass, and the remaining material was oven-dried to determine the dry weight. We performed analyses within and between spatial scales (regional and local) to assess which watershed scale was the more import determinant of the leaf breakdown rate (k). The microbial and shredder were most influenced at the local scale (stream order). Shredders were influenced by microorganisms, with stronger interactions between them than were found to drive the k at the local scale. Moreover, differences in the overall k and abiotic variables were more strongly influenced at the regional scale (sub-basin), showing that the study scale alters the response of the studied variables. We found higher k values at higher values of water velocity, dissolved oxygen and temperature, all of which accelerate biological metabolism in response to variations on the regional scale. Watersheds with warmer microclimates and streams with higher nutrient levels and oxygen could be accelerating the ecosystem metabolism, independent of the detritus quality. PMID:24810918

  16. The effects of spatial scale on breakdown of leaves in a tropical watershed.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Renan S; Petrucio, Mauricio M; Gonçalves, José F

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of natural variation in the physical structure of the environment on biological communities and on the processing of Eucalyptus cloeziana and Inga laurina and to identify the controlling factors at different scales along stream order gradients. The study area consisted of 14 sampling sites distributed within a tropical watershed (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th order streams replicated in 4 sub-basins). Our samples consisted of 3 g of leaves of E. cloeziana (high-quality) and I. laurina (low-quality) placed in 252 bags with 10mm mesh (measured by the chemical composition of the detritus). Four samples of each leaf type were collected periodically (three times) over a period of 75-125 days and washed on a sieve to separate the invertebrates. A series of leaf disks were cut to determine ash-free dry mass, polyphenol, lignin, cellulose, total microbial biomass and fungal biomass, and the remaining material was oven-dried to determine the dry weight. We performed analyses within and between spatial scales (regional and local) to assess which watershed scale was the more import determinant of the leaf breakdown rate (k). The microbial and shredder were most influenced at the local scale (stream order). Shredders were influenced by microorganisms, with stronger interactions between them than were found to drive the k at the local scale. Moreover, differences in the overall k and abiotic variables were more strongly influenced at the regional scale (sub-basin), showing that the study scale alters the response of the studied variables. We found higher k values at higher values of water velocity, dissolved oxygen and temperature, all of which accelerate biological metabolism in response to variations on the regional scale. Watersheds with warmer microclimates and streams with higher nutrient levels and oxygen could be accelerating the ecosystem metabolism, independent of the detritus quality.

  17. Structure of 52 132Te80: The two-particle and two-hole spectrum of 50 132Sn82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Palit, R.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Bisoi, A.; Sarkar, M. Saha; Sarkar, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, D. C.; Caamaño, M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Choudhury, D.; Clément, E.; Danu, L. S.; Delaune, O.; Farget, F.; de France, G.; Hota, S. S.; Jacquot, B.; Lemasson, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Singh, Purnima; Srivastava, P. C.; Tandel, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    High-spin states in 132Te, an isotope with two proton particles and two neutron holes outside of the 132Sn doubly magic core, have been extended up to an excitation energy of 6.17 MeV. The prompt-delayed coincidence technique has been used to correlate states above the T1 /2=3.70 (9 ) μ s isomer in 132Te to the lower states using 232Th(7Li,f ) at 5.4 MeV/u and the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). With 9Be(238U,f ) at 6.2 MeV/u and EXOGAM γ -array coupled with the VAMOS++ spectrometer, the level scheme was extended to higher excitation energies. The high-spin positive-parity states, above Jπ=10+ , in 132Te are expected to arise from the alignment of the particles in the high-j orbitals lying close to the Fermi surface, the π g7/2 2 , and the ν h11/2 -2 configurations. The experimental level scheme has been compared with the large scale shell model calculations. A reduction in the p -n interaction strength resulted in an improved agreement with the measurements up to the spin of 15 ℏ . In contrast, the comparison of the differences between the experiment and these calculations for the N =76 ,78 isotones of Te and Sn shows the increasing disagreement as a function of spin, where the magnitude is larger in Te than in Sn. This behavior could possibly be attributed to the deficiencies in the p -n correlations, in addition to the n -n correlations in Sn.

  18. Effect of initial soil properties on six-year growth of 15 tree species in tropical restoration plantings.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Campo, Julio; Ricker, Martin; Tobón, Wolke

    2016-12-01

    In restoration plantings in degraded pastures, initial soil nutrient status may lead to differential growth of tropical tree species with diverse life history attributes and capacity for N2 fixation. In 2006, we planted 1,440 seedlings of 15 native tree species in 16 fenced plots (30 × 30 m) in a 60-year-old pasture in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, in two planting combinations. In the first year, we evaluated bulk density, pH, the concentration of organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), ammonia (NO3-), nitrate (NH4+), and total phosphorus (P) in the upper soil profile (0-20 cm in depth) of all plots. The first two axes of two principal component analyses explained more than 60% of the variation in soil variables: The axes were related to increasing bulk density, NO3-, NH4+, total N concentration, and pH. Average relative growth rates in diameter at the stem base of the juvenile trees after 6 years were higher for pioneer (45.7%) and N2-fixing species (47.6%) than for nonpioneer (34.7%) and nonfixing species (36.2%). Most N2-fixing species and those with the slowest growth rates did not respond to soil attributes. Tree species benefited from higher pH levels and existing litter biomass. The pioneers Ficus yoponensis, Cecropia obtusifolia, and Heliocarpus appendiculatus, and the N2-fixing nonpioneers Cojoba arborea, Inga sinacae, and Platymiscium dimorphandrum were promising for forest restoration on our site, given their high growth rates.

  19. Tumor immune profiling predicts response to anti–PD-1 therapy in human melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Adil I.; Loo, Kimberly; Pauli, Mariela L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Robert; Sandoval, Priscila Munoz; Taravati, Keyon; Tsai, Katy; Nosrati, Adi; Nardo, Lorenzo; Alvarado, Michael D.; Algazi, Alain P.; Pampaloni, Miguel H.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Hwang, Jimmy; Pierce, Robert H.; Gratz, Iris K.; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Immune checkpoint blockade is revolutionizing therapy for advanced cancer, but many patients do not respond to treatment. The identification of robust biomarkers that predict clinical response to specific checkpoint inhibitors is critical in order to stratify patients and to rationally select combinations in the context of an expanding array of therapeutic options. METHODS. We performed multiparameter flow cytometry on freshly isolated metastatic melanoma samples from 2 cohorts of 20 patients each prior to treatment and correlated the subsequent clinical response with the tumor immune phenotype. RESULTS. Increasing fractions of programmed cell death 1 high/cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated protein 4 high (PD-1hiCTLA-4hi) cells within the tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cell subset strongly correlated with response to therapy (RR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Functional analysis of these cells revealed a partially exhausted T cell phenotype. Assessment of metastatic lesions during anti–PD-1 therapy demonstrated a release of T cell exhaustion, as measured by an accumulation of highly activated CD8+ T cells within tumors, with no effect on Tregs. CONCLUSIONS. Our data suggest that the relative abundance of partially exhausted tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells predicts response to anti–PD-1 therapy. This information can be used to appropriately select patients with a high likelihood of achieving a clinical response to PD-1 pathway inhibition. FUNDING. This work was funded by a generous gift provided by Inga-Lill and David Amoroso as well as a generous gift provided by Stephen Juelsgaard and Lori Cook. PMID:27525433

  20. Impact of rapid thermal annealing on dilute nitride (GaAsN)-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots exhibiting optical emission beyond 1.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, M.; Balgarkashi, A.; Singh, S.; Shinde, N.; Makkar, R. L.; Bhatnagar, A.; Chakrabarti, Subhananda

    2016-09-01

    We report here self-assembled 2.6 ML InAs QDs capped with GaAsN0.021 on GaAs (001) substrate grown under high arsenic overpressure and high power by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. With variation in GaAsN0.021 layer thickness, InAs/GaAs QDs were studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that with InAs dot density of 3 ×1010 cm-2 and 4 nm GaAsN capping layer, emission wavelength was possible to extend beyond 1.5 μm at 300K. Rapid thermal annealing was carried out in nitrogen ambient for 30 sec at temperatures ranging from 700°C to 800°C and a continuous blue-shift for the nitride-capped QDs was observed at 19 K PL spectra, and the sample annealed at 800°C exhibited highest intensity with narrowest full width at half maximum (FWHM). Both the as-grown and annealed samples exhibited asymmetric PL behavior in low energy region at low temperature, associated to the N-related states or cluster of N atoms. The peak emission wavelength at the annealing temperature domain of 750-800°C was remained constant, attributed to no In/Ga diffusion at the interface between the dot and the barrier. Hence, the InAs/GaAs dots capped with 4-nm GaAsN0.021 layer could be implemented in lasers in the temporal range of 750-800°C.

  1. Ab initio modeling of vacancies, antisites, and Si dopants in ordered InGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyang; Lukose, Binit; Thompson, Michael O.; Clancy, Paulette

    2017-01-01

    In0.53Ga0.47As, a III-V compound semiconductor with high electron mobility, is expected to bring better performance than silicon in next-generation n-type MOSFET devices. However, one major challenge to its wide scale adoption is the difficulty of obtaining high enough dopant activation. For Si-doped InGaAs, the best current experimental result, involving 10 min of furnace annealing at temperatures above 700 °C, yields a free electron concentration of 1.4 ×1019 cm-3, a value that still falls short of requirement for practical applications. In this paper, we investigate the origin of low dopant activation in InGaAs by calculating formation energies for a wide variety of single point defects (Si substutionals, Si tetrahedral interstitials, vacancies, and antisites) in Si-doped In0.5Ga0.5As in a CuAu-I type crystal structure. We find that (1) a high electron concentration can only be achieved under In/Ga-poor growth conditions, while As-poor conditions inhibit n-type doping; and (2) in heavily n-doped samples, cation vacancies VIn/Ga-3 contribute the most to the compensation of excess Si donors via the Si III - VIII mechanism (III = In/Ga), thus becoming the limiting factor to higher dopant activation. Under the most favorable growth conditions for n-doping, we find the maximum carrier concentration to be 5.2 ×1018 cm-3 under thermal equilibrium, within an order of magnitude of the best experimental value.

  2. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  3. Comparison study between coherent echoes at VHF range and electron density estimated by Ionosphere Model for Auroral Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Takanori; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshi; Nishimura, Koji; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Kohma, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Polar Mesosphere Winter Echo (PMWE) is known as back scatter echo from 55 to 85 km in the mesosphere, and it has been observed by MST and IS radar in polar region during non-summer period. Since density of free electrons as scatterer is low in the dark mesosphere during winter, it is suggested that PMWE requires strong ionization of neutral atmosphere associated with Energetic Particles Precipitations (EPPs) during Solar Proton Events [Kirkwood et al., 2002] or during geomagnetically disturbed periods [Nishiyama et al., 2015]. However, studies on relationship between occurrence of PMWE and background electron density has been limited yet [Lübken et al., 2006], partly because the PMWE occurrence rate is known to be quite low (2.9%) [Zeller et al., 2006]. The PANSY (Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS) radar, which is the largest MST radar in Antarctica, observed many PMWE events since it has started mesosphere observations in June 2012. We established an application method of the PANSY radar as riometer, which makes it possible to estimate Cosmic Noise Absorptions (CNA) as proxy of relative variations on background electron density. In addition, electron density profiles from 60 to 150 km altitude are calculated by Ionospheric Model for the Auroral Zone (IMAZ) [McKinnell and Friedrich, 2007] and CNA estimated by the PANSY radar. In this presentation, we would like to focus on strong PMWE during two big geomagnetic storm events, St. Patrick's Day and the Summer Solstice 2015 Event, in order to compare observed PMWE characteristics to model background electron density. On March 19 and 22, recovery phase of St. Patrick's Day Storm, sudden PMWE intensification was detected near 60 km by the PANSY radar. At the same time, strong Cosmic Noise Absorptions (CNA) of 0.8 dB and 1.0 dB were measured, respectively. However, calculated electron density profiles did not show high electron density at the altitude where the PMWE intensification were observed. On June 22, the

  4. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, H., Jr.; Rai, D.; Xun, L.

    2004-03-17

    degradation except that additional enzymes are required for EDTA degradation. When the catabolic genes were cloned and sequenced, the gene cluster also contained genes encoding a hypothetical ABC-type transporter. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene (emoA) are co-transcribed. EppA is one of the transporter genes, and it codes for a periplasmic binding protein responsible for binding to the substrate before transport across the membrane can occur. EppA was cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli and found to bind, MgEDTA, CaEDTA, Fe(III)EDTA, MgNTA, CaNTA, and Fe(III)NTA. Our data also suggest that BNC1 uses the same ABC-type transporter for both EDTA and NTA uptake. Results from these studies can provide mechanistic understanding and approaches to assist in the bioremediate PuEDTA and other radionuclide-EDTA complexes at DOE sites.

  5. 2011 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IFs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), ETTP Environmental Compliance Program, B&W Y-12 Liquid Waste Treatment Operations, and UT Battelle Facilities Management Division. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  6. Initial Teacher Training Science Nature and Mathematics and the Teaching of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Josué Antunes de

    2014-11-01

    Although Astronomy is part of the National Curriculum Parameters, it is rarely taught adequately in basic education. In this regard, this research has been developed aiming to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. The following steps were taken: i) analysis of educational pedagogical projects (EPP) from licentiate courses at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG); ii) analysis of students' preconceptions on Astronomy and digital technologies; iii) elaboration of the course and application, developed under the education modality of blended learning, using the teaching proposal of methological pluralism; iv) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The research subjects were constituted by thirty-two students of Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences courses. A mixed methodology with a pre-experimental delineation, combined with content analysis, has been used. The results showed the following: at the IFNMG, only the licentiate course in physics includes Astronomy content in several curriculum subjects; students´ rates of previous knowledge of Astronomy are low, and there are indications of meaningful learning of concepts related to Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to initial teacher training, particularly in relation to Astronomy teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this knowledge area. Furthermore, the intention was to respond to requests of institutions for implementation of blended learning or distance courses, since during the survey it was verified that, although discussions in forums are important, there is a need for such courses to promote on-site meetings conducting practical and manipulative activities.

  7. Nitric oxide synthases and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A B; Malave, A; Cubeddu, L X

    2001-03-01

    The role of inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) synthases and of tachykinin NK1 receptors on the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis was investigated, in rats. CYP-induced cystitis was characterized by large increases in bladder-protein plasma extravasation (PPE), increases in the urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and histological evidences of urothelial damage, edema, extensive white blood cell infiltrates and vascular congestion of the bladder. The specific iNOS inhibitor, S-methylthiourea (MITU), produced marked inhibition (>90%) of CYP-induced increases in PPE associated with amelioration of tissue inflammatory changes. Treatment with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg), a selective nNOS inhibitor, did not significantly reduce CYP-induced increases in PPE and failed to produce histological improvement. In addition, treatment with MITU, but not with 7-NI, inhibited the increases in the urinary excretion of NO metabolites induced by CYP treatment. WIN 51,708 (17-beta-hydroxy-17-alpha-ethynyl-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole; WIN), a selective NK1-receptor antagonist, reduced the increases in EPP and ameliorated the inflammatory changes in the bladder induced by CYP. However, the maximal degree of protection achieved with WIN was significantly less than that produced by MITU. Combined treatment with the iNOS inhibitor and the NK1 antagonist produced no greater effect than that produced by the iNOS inhibitor alone. Our results suggest that NO plays a fundamental role in the production of the cystitis associated with CYP treatment. The iNOS, and not nNOS, seems responsible for the inflammatory changes. Part of the increases in NO may due to activation of NK1 receptors by neuropeptides such as substance P possibly released from primary afferent fibers.

  8. High Resolution Spectroscopy at the 2.7-m H J Smith and 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescopes, 1969-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tull, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    The twentieth century has seen the greatest advances in science and technology in the history of the world. These advances spawned a golden age in astronomy and in the astronomical instrumentation that fueled it. This paper will summarize 31 years of development of high-resolution spectroscopic instrumentation at McDonald Observatory, from the construction of the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope and its coudé spectrograph through the completion of the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope with its high-resolution fiber-fed spectrograph. We begin with photographic spectroscopy and advance through rapid-scanning photon counting spectrometry under computer control, addition of echelle gratings, Reticon and self-scanned Digicon solid-state imaging detectors, and innovative cross-dispersed echelle spectrometers with large-format CCDs. Funding for all these projects by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is gratefully acknowledged, as are additional support from University of Texas matching grants and from the Texas state legislature. Thanks also to the many colleagues who have shared this adventure with me: Ed Nather, who taught me computer interfacing techniques; Johnnie Floyd, Don Wells, Steve Vogt, Phil Kelton, Richard Stover, Brenda Young, Phillip MacQueen, David Doss, John Good, Harland Epps, and Mark Cornell, who were involved in various phases of instrument development; and Hans Dekker, who shared ideas developed at ESO. The users developed the observing and data reduction techniques; among these are David Lambert, Chris Sneden, Ed Barker, Larry Trafton, Joc Tomkin, and many others. Tom Barnes and Frank Bash provided moral and logistical support, and Joyce Sampson spent many hours in fund-raising efforts. Finally, I wish to dedicate this work to the memory of Harlan J. Smith who gave unswerving encouragement and support over a period of many years.

  9. Science Enabling ASICs and FEEs for the JUICE and JEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschalidis, Nicholas; Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A family of science enabling radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Front End Electronics (FEEs) and Event Processing Systems, with flight heritage on many NASA missions, is presented. These technologies play an important role in the miniaturization of instruments -and spacecraft systems- at the same time increasing performance and reducing power. The technologies target time of flight, position sensing, and energy measurements as well as standard housekeeping and telemetry functions for particle and fields instruments, but find applications in other instrument categories too. More specifically the technologies include: the TOF chip, 1D and 2D Delay Lines with MCP detectors, for high precision fast and low power time of flight and position sensing; the Energy chip for multichannel SSD readout with time over threshold and standard voltage read out for TDC and ADC digitization; Fast multi channel read out chip with commandable thresholds; the TRIO chip for multiplexed ADC and housekeeping etc. It should be mentioned that the ASICs include basic trigger capabilities to enable random event processing in a heavy background of penetrators and UV foreground. Typical instruments include time of flight versus energy and look angle particle analyzers such as: plasma composition, energetic particle, neutral atom imaging as well as fast plasma and deltaE/E ion/electron telescopes. Flight missions include: Cassini/LEMMS, IMAGE/HENA, MESSENGER/EPPS/MLA/X-ray/MLA, STEREO, PLUTO-NH/PEPSSI/LORI, IBEX-Lo, JUNO/JEDI, RBSP/RBSPICE, MMS/HPCA/EPD, SO/SIS. Given the proven capability on heavy radiation missions such as JUNO, MMS and RBSB, as well diverse long duration missions such as MESSENGER, PLUTO and Cassini, it is expected that these technologies will play an important role in the particle and fields (at least) instruments on the upcoming JUICE and JEO missions.

  10. Classical and non-classical causes of GH deficiency in the paediatric age.

    PubMed

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Gastaldi, Roberto; Calcagno, Annalisa; Patti, Giuseppa; Loche, Sandro; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2016-12-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) may result from a failure of hypothalamic GHRH production or release, from congenital disorders of pituitary development, or from central nervous system insults including tumors, surgery, trauma, radiation or infiltration from inflammatory diseases. Idiopathic, isolated GHD is the most common sporadic form of hypopituitarism. GHD may also occur in combination with other pituitary hormone deficiencies, and is often referred to as hypopituitarism, combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) or panhypopituitarism. Children without any identifiable cause of their GHD are commonly labeled as having idiopathic hypopituitarism. MRI imaging is the technique of choice in the diagnosis of children with hypopituitarism. Marked differences in MRI pituitary gland morphology suggest different etiologies of GHD and different prognoses. Pituitary stalk agenesis and ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) are specific markers of permanent GHD, and patients with these MRI findings show a different clinical and endocrine outcome compared to those with normal pituitary anatomy or hypoplastic pituitary alone. Furthermore, the classic triad of ectopic posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk hypoplasia/agenesis, and anterior pituitary gland hypoplasia is generally associated with permanent GHD. T2 DRIVE images aid in the identification of pituitary stalk without the use of contrast medium administration. Future developments in imaging techniques will undoubtedly reveal additional insights. Mutations in a number of genes encoding transcription factors - such as HESX1, SOX2, SOX3, LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, POU1F1, PITX, GLI3, GLI2, OTX2, ARNT2, IGSF1, FGF8, FGFR1, PROKR2, PROK2, CHD7, WDR11, NFKB2, PAX6, TCF7L1, IFT72, GPR161 and CDON - have been associated with pituitary dysfunction and abnormal pituitary gland development; the correlation of genetic mutations to endocrine and MRI phenotypes has improved our knowledge of

  11. Momentum in general relativity: local versus quasilocal conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Richard J.; McGrath, Paul L.; Mann, Robert B.

    2013-10-01

    We construct a general relativistic conservation law for linear and angular momentum for matter and gravitational fields in a finite volume of space that does not rely on any spacetime symmetries. This work builds on our previous construction of a general relativistic energy conservation law with the same features (McGrath et al 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 215012). Our approach uses the Brown and York (1993 Phys. Rev. D 47 1407-19) quasilocal stress-energy-momentum tensor for matter and gravitational fields, plus the concept of a rigid quasilocal frame (RQF) introduced in (Epp et al 2009 Class. Quantum Grav. 26 035015; 2012 Classical and Quantum Gravity: Theory, Analysis, and Applications (Nova Science)). The RQF approach allows us to construct, in a generic spacetime, frames of reference whose boundaries are rigid (their shape and size do not change with time), and that have precisely the same six arbitrary time-dependent degrees of freedom as the accelerating and tumbling rigid frames we are familiar with in Newtonian mechanics. These RQFs, in turn, give rise to a completely general conservation law for the six components of momentum (three linear and three angular) of a finite system of matter and gravitational fields. We compare in detail this quasilocal RQF approach to constructing conservation laws with the usual local one based on spacetime symmetries, and discuss the shortcomings of the latter. These RQF conservation laws lead to a deeper understanding of physics in the form of simple, exact, operational definitions of gravitational energy and momentum fluxes, which in turn reveal, for the first time, the exact, detailed mechanisms of gravitational energy and momentum transfer taking place in a wide variety of physical phenomena, including a simple falling apple. As a concrete example, we derive a general relativistic version of Archimedes’ law that we apply to understand electrostatic weight and buoyant force in the context of a Reissner

  12. Molecular mechanisms of dominant expression in porphyria.

    PubMed

    Badminton, M N; Elder, G H

    2005-01-01

    Partial deficiency of enzymes in the haem synthetic pathway gives rise to a group of seven inherited metabolic disorders, the porphyrias. Each deficiency is associated with a characteristic increase in haem precursors that correlates with the symptoms associated with individual porphyrias and allows accurate diagnosis. Two types of clinical presentation occur separately or in combination; acute life-threatening neurovisceral attacks and/or cutaneous symptoms. Five of the porphyrias are low-penetrance autosomal dominant conditions in which clinical expression results from additional factors that act by increasing demand for haem or by causing an additional decrease in enzyme activity or by a combination of these effects. These include both genetic and environmental factors. In familial porphyria cutanea tarda (PCTF), environmental factors that include alcohol, exogenous oestrogens and hepatotropic viruses result in inhibition of hepatic enzyme activity via a mechanism that involves excess iron accumulation. In erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), co-inheritance of a functional polymorphism in trans to a null ferrochelatase allele accounts for most clinically overt cases. In the autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria), acute neurovisceral attacks occur in a minority of those who inherit one of these disorders. Although various exogenous (e.g. drugs, alcohol) and endogenous factors (e.g. hormones) have been identified as provoking acute attacks, these do not provide a full explanation for the low penetrance of these disorders. It seems probable that genetic background influences susceptibility to acute attacks, but the genes that are involved have not yet been identified.

  13. Computational and Experimental Simulations of Cr(VI) Remediation via In Situ Reduction in an Alluvial Aquifer at Hinkley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobb, C.; Miller, L. G.; Kent, D. B.; Maher, K.

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in groundwater due to natural and human-induced processes poses a significant health threat as Cr(VI) is both a carcinogen and mutagen. Anthropogenic Cr(VI) contamination has compromised drinking water in the alluvial aquifer underlying the town of Hinkley, CA and extensive in-situ remediation (ISR) is underway to mitigate the threat to residents. ISR capitalizes on the redox sensitivity of chromium by using ethanol to reduce soluble, toxic, Cr(VI) to insoluble and non-hazardous Cr(III). However, the sequence of reduction reactions that occurs within the aquifer is not well understood. Therefore, we use computer-modeled and experimental redox titrations to examine how pH, oxygen supply, mineral surface chemistry, agitation, and microbial activity impact the reduction of Cr(VI) by ethanol. We further use experimental titrations to confirm the validity of our modeled results. Aqueous and gaseous phases are monitored throughout the experiment to track changes in pH, dissolved oxygen, CO2, Mn(II), Fe(II), and SO42-. Aqueous Fe(II) is a dominant control on Cr(VI) reduction; thus the cycling of Fe in the system must be considered. Our modeled results show that reductive dissolution of manganese oxides and Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides increases pH, making sulfate reduction thermodynamically favorable. Simultaneous Fe(III) and sulfate reduction allows precipitation of iron sulfide minerals, limiting the available Fe(II) to reduce Cr(VI). Computational model results indicate that elevated organic buffer (HEPES, MOPS, EPPS) concentrations are required to maintain pH values below 8.8 where simultaneous reduction of Fe(III) and SO42- during ethanol oxidation becomes thermodynamically favorable. Microbial activity within the aquifer may also play a significant role in the transfer of electrons from ethanol to the terminal electron acceptors.

  14. Metal-organic frameworks with phosphotungstate incorporated for hydrolytic cleavage of a DNA-model phosphodiester.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiuxia; Zhang, Lejie; He, Cheng; Niu, Jiangyang; Duan, Chunying

    2012-05-07

    Five phosphotungstate-incorporated metal-organic frameworks {[Eu(4)(dpdo)(9)(H(2)O)(16)PW(12)O(40)]}(PW(12)O(40))(2)·(dpdo)(3)·Cl(3) (1); {ZnNa(2)(μ-OH)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(4)[PW(12)O(40)]}·3H(2)O (2); {Zn(3)(dpdo)(7)}[PW(12)O(40)](2)·3H(2)O (3); and [Ln(2)H(μ-O)(2)(dpdo)(4)(H(2)O)(2)][PW(12)O(40)]·3H(2)O (Ln = Ho for 4 and Yb for 5) (dpdo = 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide) have been synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal reaction and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural analyses indicate that 1-5 display diversity structure from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) series of hybrids. Kinetic experiments for the hydrolytic cleavage of DNA-model phosphodiester BNPP (bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate) were followed spectrophotometrically for the absorbance increase at 400 nm in EPPS (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-propane sulfonic acid) buffer solution, because of the formation of p-nitrophenoxide with 1-5 under conditions of pH 4.0 and 50 °C. Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy indicate that the cleavage of the phosphodiester bond proceeds with the pseudo-first-order rate constant in the range of 10(-7)-10(-6) s(-1), giving an inorganic phosphate and p-nitrophenol as the final products of hydrolysis. The results demonstrate that 1-5 have good catalytic activity and reusability for hydrolytic cleavage of BNPP.

  15. Hybrid control and acquisition system for distributed sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype we developed in Napoli for the implementation of geographycally distributed monitoring and control systems. The system, an improvement of a VME-UDP/IP based system developed by our group for interferometric detectors of gravitational waves, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz, managed by an ALTERA FPGA, that can be used standalone or mounted as mezzanine (also in parallel with other modules) on a motherboard. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to an external PC, where the real-time computation is performed. Experimental tests have demonstrated that this architeture allows the implementation of distributed control systems, using a standard laptop PC for the realtime computation, with delay time Δt < 30 μs on a single channel, that is a sustained sampling frequency f c > 30kHz. Each module is also equipped with a 20-bit slower ADC necessary for the acquisition of an external calibration signal. The system is now under extensive test in two different experiments, i.e. the control of a Michelson Interferometer to be used as Velocimeter for Seismic Waves in Geophysics and the control of the end mirrors a suspended Michelson Interferometer through electrostatic actuators, a prototype for mirror control for Interferometric Detectors of Gravitational Waves.

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  17. Expedite the Processing of Unpressurized Payloads to the International Space Station Using the ExPRESS Pallet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacskay, Allen S.; Gilbert, Paul A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Expedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Pallet will be used as an experiment platform for external/unpressurized payloads to be flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the ExPRESS Pallet is to provide an easy access to the ISS for Scientific Investigators that require an external platform for their experiment hardware. As the name of the ExPRESS Pallet implies, the objective of the ExPRESS program is to provide a simplified integration process in a short time period (24 months) for payloads to be flown on the ISS. The ExPRESS Pallet provides unique opportunities for research across many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, and long-term exposure. The ExPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for viewing and exposure to the space environment. The ExPRESS Pallet will provide standard physical payload interfaces, and a standard integration template. The ExPS consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, a subsystem assembly that includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics compatibility. The ExPRESS Pallet provides the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit via the ExPRESS Pallet Adapter (ExPA). The following paragraphs will describe the Services and Accommodations available to the Payload developers by the ExPRESS Pallet and a brief description of the Integration process. More detailed information on the ExPRESS Pallet can be found in the ExPRESS Pallet Payload Accommodations Handbook, SSP 52000-PAH-EPP.

  18. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  19. Presynaptic pH and vesicle fusion in Drosophila larvae neurones.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Lesley; Harries, Peter; Sydlik, Sebastian; Schwiening, Christof J

    2013-11-01

    Both intracellular pH (pHi) and synaptic cleft pH change during neuronal activity yet little is known about how these pH shifts might affect synaptic transmission by influencing vesicle fusion. To address this we imaged pH- and Ca(2+) -sensitive fluorescent indicators (HPTS, Oregon green) in boutons at neuromuscular junctions. Electrical stimulation of motor nerves evoked presynaptic Ca(2+) i rises and pHi falls (∼0.1 pH units) followed by recovery of both Ca(2+) i and pHi. The plasma-membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) inhibitor, 5(6)-carboxyeosin diacetate, slowed both the calcium recovery and the acidification. To investigate a possible calcium-independent role for the pHi shifts in modulating vesicle fusion we recorded post-synaptic miniature end-plate potential (mEPP) and current (mEPC) frequency in Ca(2+) -free solution. Acidification by propionate superfusion, NH(4)(+) withdrawal, or the inhibition of acid extrusion on the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) induced a rise in miniature frequency. Furthermore, the inhibition of acid extrusion enhanced the rise induced by propionate addition and NH(4)(+) removal. In the presence of NH(4)(+), 10 out of 23 cells showed, after a delay, one or more rises in miniature frequency. These findings suggest that Ca(2+) -dependent pHi shifts, caused by the PMCA and regulated by NHE, may stimulate vesicle release. Furthermore, in the presence of membrane permeant buffers, exocytosed acid or its equivalents may enhance release through positive feedback. This hitherto neglected pH signalling, and the potential feedback role of vesicular acid, could explain some important neuronal excitability changes associated with altered pH and its buffering.

  20. Aerial surveys of landslide bodies through light UAVs: peculiarities and advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Pellicani, Roberta; Leandro, Gianfranco; Marzo, Cosimo; Manzari, Paola; Belmonte, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    The use of UAV in civil applications and particularly for aerial surveillance or surveying is rapidly expanding for several reasons. The first reason is undoubtedly the lowering of the costs of the machines, accompanied by high technology for their positioning and control. The results are high performances and ease of driving. Authors have surveyed some big landslides by drones, with excellent results, which can retail for this technique a specific role, not in conflict with classical airborne aerial surveys, such as LIDAR and others. Obviously the first difference is in the amount of payload, over 100 Kg for classical airborne apparatus, but 1000 times lower in the case of the drones. Nevertheless the advantages of the use of drones and of their products can be synthesized as follows: -Start from the site, without the need of transfers, flight plans and long time weather forecasts; -Imagery product georeferenced and immediately exportable to GIS -Inspection of areas not easily accessible (impervious areas, high layers of mud, crossing of rivers, etc) or unreachable in safety conditions; -Inspection of specific points, relevant for the interpretation of the type and intensity of movement. -The pilot and the landslide specialist define route and compare images in real time -Possibility of flying at very low altitude and hovering. For the geomorphological interpretation of the big landslide of Montescaglioso (Mt, Italy) has been used a 1.5 m EPP (Expanded polipropilene) fixed wing, driven by 3DR Open Source Autopilot, equipped with a 16 Mp compact camera CANON A2300. Very useful revealed the image of the toe of the landslide, critical point for the interpretation of the mechanics of the whole landslide. Results have been of excellent quality and allowed authors to an early correct analysis Other landslides have been explored with a commercial drone (Phantom Vision 2 Dji), the use of which has proved likewise invaluable for returning images of areas not otherwise

  1. Evaluation of the LLNL Spectrometer for Possible use with the NSTec Optical Streak Camera as a Light Gas Gun Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J., Cradick, J.

    2012-09-27

    In fiscal year 2012, it was desired to combine a visible spectrometer with a streak camera to form a diagnostic system for recording time-resolved spectra generated in light gas gun experiments. Acquiring a new spectrometer was an option, but it was possible to borrow an existing unit for a period of months, which would be sufficient to evaluate both “off-line” and in-gas gun shots. If it proved adequate for this application, it could be duplicated (with possible modifications); if not, such testing would help determine needed specifications for another model. This report describes the evaluation of the spectrometer (separately and combined with the NSTec LO streak camera) for this purpose. Spectral and temporal resolutions were of primary interest. The first was measured with a monochromatic laser input. The second was ascertained by the combination of the spectrometer’s spatial resolution in the time-dispersive direction and the streak camera’s intrinsic temporal resolution. System responsivity was also important, and this was investigated by measuring the response of the spectrometer/camera system to black body input—the gas gun experiments are expected to be similar to a 3000K black body—as well as measuring the throughput of the spectrometer separately over a range of visible light provided by a monochromator. The flat field (in wavelength) was also measured and the final part of the evaluation was actual fielding on two gas gun shots. No firm specifications for spectral or temporal resolution were defined precisely, but these were desired to be in the 1–2 nm and 1–2 ns ranges, respectively, if possible. As seen below, these values were met or nearly met, depending on wavelength. Other performance parameters were also not given (threshold requirements) but the evaluations performed with laser, black body, and successful gas gun shots taken in aggregate indicate that the spectrometer is adequate for this purpose. Even still, some (relatively

  2. The effects of Na on high pressure phases of CuIn(0.5)Ga(0.5)Se(2) from ab initio calculation.

    PubMed

    Pluengphon, P; Bovornratanaraks, T; Vannarat, S; Pinsook, U

    2012-03-07

    The effects of Na atoms on high pressure structural phase transitions of CuIn(0.5)Ga(0.5)Se(2) (CIGS) were studied by an ab initio method using density functional theory. At ambient pressure, CIGS is known to have chalcopyrite (I42d) structure. The high pressure phase transitions of CIGS were proposed to be the same as the order in the CuInSe(2) phase transitions which are I42d → Fm3m → Cmcm structures. By using the mixture atoms method, the Na concentration in CIGS was studied at 0.1, 1.0 and 6.25%. The positive mixing enthalpy of Na at In/Ga sites (Na(InGa)) is higher than that of Na at Cu sites (Na(Cu)). It confirmed previous studies that Na preferably substitutes on the Cu sites more than the (In, Ga) sites. From the energy-volume curves, we found that the effect of the Na substitutes is to reduce the hardness of CIGS under high pressure. The most significant effects occur at 6.25% Na. We also found that the electronic density of states of CIGS near the valence band maximum is increased noticeably in the chalcopyrite phase. The band gap is close in the cubic and orthorhombic phases. Also, the Na(Cu)-Se bond length in the chalcopyrite phase is significantly reduced at 6.25% Na, compared with the pure Cu-Se bond length. Consequently, the energy band gap in this phase is wider than in pure CIGS, and the gap increased at the rate of 31 meV GPa(-1) under pressure. The Na has a small effect on the transition pressure. The path of transformation from the cubic to orthorhombic phase was derived. The Cu-Se plane in the cubic phase displaced relatively parallel to the (In, Ga)-Se plane by 18% in order to transform to the Cmcm phase. The enthalpy barrier is 0.020 eV/atom, which is equivalent to a thermal energy of 248 K. We predicted that Fm3m and Cmcm can coexist in some pressure range.

  3. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  4. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

    2015-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

  5. Seed rain under tree islands planted to restore degraded lands in a tropical agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Cole, R J; Holl, K D; Zahawi, R A

    2010-07-01

    Planting native tree seedlings is the predominant restoration strategy for accelerating forest succession on degraded lands. Planting tree "islands" is less costly and labor intensive than establishing larger plantations and simulates the nucleation process of succession. Assessing the role of island size in attracting seed dispersers, the potential of islands to expand through enhanced seed deposition, and the effect of planting arrangements on seed dispersal by birds and bats informs restoration design. Determining the relative importance of local restoration approach vs. landscape-level factors (amount of surrounding forest cover) helps prioritize methods and locations for restoration. We tested how three restoration approaches affect the arrival of forest seeds at 11 experimental sites spread across a gradient of surrounding forest cover in a 100-km2 area of southern Costa Rica. Each site had three 50 x 50 m treatments: (1) control (natural regeneration), (2) island (planting tree seedlings in patches of three sizes: 16 m2, 64 m2, and 144 m2), and (3) plantation (planting entire area). Four tree species were used in planting (Terminalia amazonia, Vochysia guatemalensis, Erythrina poeppigiana, and Inga edulis). Seed rain was measured for 18 months beginning approximately 2 years after planting. Plantations received the most zoochorous tree seeds (266.1 +/- 64.5 seeds x m(-2) x yr(-1) [mean +/- SE]), islands were intermediate (210.4 +/- 52.7 seeds x m(-2) x yr(-1)), and controls were lowest (87.1 +/- 13.9 seeds x m(-2) x yr(-1)). Greater tree seed deposition in the plantations was due to birds (0.51 +/- 0.18 seeds x m(-2) x d(-1)), not bats (0.07 +/- 0.03 seeds x m(-2) x d(-1)). Seed rain was primarily small-seeded, early-successional species. Large and medium islands received twice as many zoochorous tree seeds as small islands and areas away from island edges, suggesting there is a minimum island size necessary to increase seed deposition and that seed rain

  6. Remotely Sensed Predictions and In Situ Observations of Lower Congo River Dynamics in Support of Fish Evolutionary Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, N.; Bjerklie, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Ongoing research into the evolution of fishes in the lower Congo River suggests a close tie between diversity and hydraulic complexity of flow in the channel. For example, fish populations on each side of the rapids at the head of the lower Congo are within 1.5 km of one another, a distance normally allowing for interbreeding in river systems of comparable size, yet these fish populations show about 5% divergence in their mitochondrial DNA signatures. The proximal reason for this divergence is hydraulic complexity: the speed and turbulence of water moving through the thalweg is a barrier to dispersal for these fishes. Further examination of fish diversity suggests additional correlations of evolutionary divergence of fish clades in association with geomorphic and hydraulic features such as deep pools, extensive systems of rapids, alternating sections of fast and slow current, and recurring whirlpools. Due to prohibitive travel costs, limited field time, and the large geographic domain (approximately 400 river km) of the study area, we undertook a nested set of remote sensing analyses to extract habitat features, geomorphic descriptors, and hydraulic parameters including channel forming velocity, depth, channel roughness, slope, and shear stress. Each of these estimated parameters is mapped for each 1 km segment of the river from the rapids described above to below Inga Falls, a massive cataract where several endemic fish species have been identified. To validate remote sensing estimates, we collected depth and velocity data within the river using gps-enabled sonar measurements from a kayak and Doppler profiling from a motor-driven dugout canoe. Observations corroborate remote sensing estimates of geomorphic parameters. Remote sensing-based estimates of channel-forming velocity and depth were less than the observed maximum channel depth but correlated well with channel properties within 1 km reach segments. This correspondence is notable. The empirical models used

  7. Laser ion source for multi-nucleon transfer reaction products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Imai, N.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.; Kim, Y. H.; Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Van Duppen, P.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a laser ion source for the target-like fragments (TLFs) produced in multi-nucleon transfer (MNT) reactions. The operation principle of the source is based on the in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) approach. In the source TLFs are thermalized and neutralized in high pressure and high purity argon gas, and are extracted after being selectively re-ionized in a multi-step laser resonance ionization process. The laser ion source has been implemented at the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) for β-decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich isotopes with N = 126 of nuclear astrophysical interest. The simulations of gas flow and ion-beam optics have been performed to optimize the gas cell for efficient thermalization and fast transporting the TLFs, and the mass-separator for efficient transport with high mass-resolving power, respectively. To confirm the performances expected at the design stage, off-line experiments have been performed by using 56Fe atoms evaporated from a filament in the gas cell. The gas-transport time of 230 ms in the argon cell and the measured KISS mass-resolving power of 900 are consistent with the designed values. The high purity of the gas-cell system, which is extremely important for efficient and highly-selective production of laser ions, was achieved and confirmed from the mass distribution of the extracted ions. After the off-line tests, on-line experiments were conducted by directly injecting energetic 56Fe beam into the gas cell. After thermalization of the injected 56Fe beam, laser-produced singly-charged 56Fe+ ions were extracted. The extraction efficiency and selectivity of the gas cell in the presence of plasma induced by 56Fe beam injection as well as the time profile of the extracted ions were investigated; extraction efficiency of 0.25%, a beam purity of >99% and an extraction time of 270 ms. It has been confirmed that the performance of the KISS laser ion source is satisfactory to start the measurements of

  8. The water and energy exchange of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest zone of central Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Barradas, V.; Cervantes, J.

    2012-12-01

    The water and energy fluxes of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest (LMCF) zone of central Veracruz, Mexico, were measured over a two-year period (September 2006-August 2008) using the eddy covariance method. Complementary measurements of throughfall and stemflow were made to study rainfall interception. The sum of the observed sensible (H) and latent (λE) heat fluxes was almost 95% of the net radiation (Rn) minus the canopy heat storage fluxes, indicating very good energy balance closure. Monthly means of the mid-day (11:00-15:00 h) Bowen ratio (H/λE) and evaporative fraction (λE/Rn) averaged 0.74 +/- 0.12 and 0.56 +/- 0.05, respectively. Energy partitioning showed distinct seasonal variation, with significantly higher Bowen ratios prevailing during the dry season (0.81 +/- 0.13) compared to the rainy season (0.67 +/- 0.06). The lower evaporation rates during the dry season reflected a combination of lower soil moisture availability and a lower leaf area of the Inga shade trees during this part of the year. Both the eddy covariance, and the throughfall and stemflow measurements showed average wet-canopy evaporation rate to be very low (0.05 mm/h) compared to the corresponding rainfall rate (3.06 mm/h). As a result, and despite the low canopy storage capacity of the coffee plantation (Cm, 0.50 mm), interception was dominated by post-event evaporation of intercepted water rather than by within-event evaporation. Comparing the results for the coffee plantation with interception data from mature and secondary LMCFs in the study area suggests that the conversion of LMCF to shade-coffee may lead to a decrease in interception loss of 8-18% of incident rainfall. This decrease is caused by a three- to seven-fold decrease in Cm due to the lower leaf area and smaller epiphyte biomass of the coffee plantation. Comparing the eddy covariance-based estimate of dry-canopy evaporation for the coffee plantation with sapflow-based estimates of

  9. Nuclear structure studies close to N = Z = 50

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Sihotra, S.; Singh, K.; Goswami, J.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Naik, Z.; Palit, R.; Muralithar, S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2014-08-14

    The level structures in {sup 98,99}Rh, and {sup 99}Pd nuclei have been investigated through in beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques following the {sup 75}As({sup 28}Si, xpyn) fusion-evaporation reaction at E{sub lab} = 120 MeV. These investigations were carried out using Indian-National-Gamma-Array (INGA) consisting of Compton-suppressed clover detectors at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The level structures observed in {sup 99}Pd, and {sup 98,99}Rh have been established up to ∼ 11 MeV, 10 MeV and 16 MeV excitation energy and spin ∼ 23ħ, 23ħ, and 28ħ respectively. In the doubly-odd {sup 98}Rh nucleus, new band structures and isomeric states have been identified at lower spins and new states below the previously identified 2{sup +} ground state (T{sub 1/2} = 8.5 m) are identified. In the present work {sup 99}Rh structure have been observed similar to {sup 101}Rh which is based on p{sub 1/2} and g{sub 9/2} orbitals. Various positive and negative parity states in these nuclei are observed to be energetically more favored with respect to the neighboring ones, and are likely to be the maximally aligned states obtained by angular momentum coupling of the valence particles (holes). The level structures observed in {sup 99}Pd have been interpreted in the framework of a microscopic theory based on the deformed Hartree-Fock (HF) and angular momentum projection techniques. Band structures at low excitation energy are based on the low-Ω νg{sub 7/2} and νd{sub 5/2} orbitals, have been observed in {sup 99}Pd. Band structure at higher spins are reproduced with the ν(g{sub 7/2}){sup 2}⊗ν(g{sub 9/2}){sup −1}⊗ν(h{sub 11/2}){sup 2}⊗π(g{sub 9/2}){sup 6} configurations. Observation of new E1 transitions linking the opposite parity νh{sub 11/2} and νd{sub 5/2} bands provide fingerprints of possible octupole correlations in {sup 99}Pd. The extracted values of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios for the lower levels in the νh{sub 11/2} band are ∼ 10{sup

  10. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    validate the model performance during a larger number of events. Compo, G. P., J. S. Whitaker, P. D. Sardeshmukh, N. Matsui, R. J. Allan, X. Yin,B. E. Gleason, R. S. Vose, G. Rutledge, P. Bessemoulin, S. Bronnimann, M. Brunet, R. I. Crouthamel, A. N. Grant, P. Y. Groisman, P. D. Jones, M. C. Kruk, A. C. Kruger, G. J. Marshall, M. Maugeri, H. Y. Mok, O. Nordli, T. F. Ross, R. M. Trigo, X. L. Wang, S. D. Woodruff, S. J. Worley, 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly J. Roy. Met. Soc., 137, 1-28, DOI: 10.1002/qj.776. Hohenegger, C., Walser, A., Langhans, H. and Schär, C., 2008, Cloud-resolving ensemble simulations of the August 2005 Alpine flood, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 2008, DOI: 10.1002/qj.252 Stucki, P., Rickli, R., Brönnimann, S., Martius, O., Wanner, H., Grebner, D. and Luterbacher, J., 2012, Weather patterns and hydro-climatological precursors of extreme floods in Switzerland since 1868, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 21, No. 6, 531-550.

  11. Reassessing the impacts and the atmospheric circulation of the large storms over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varino, F.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    level pressure fields. Additionally a number of other fields were computed and shown in common graphics, namely precipitation rate and CAPE, wind speed and wind divergence at 250 hPa and at 850 hPa geopotential height levels, air temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential height at 500h Pa and finally wind speed barbs and specific moisture content. Compo G. P., Whitaker J.S., Sardeshmukh P.D., Matsui N., Allan R.J., Yin X., Gleason E., J.r., Vose R. S., Rutledge G., Bessemoulin P., Brönnimann S., Brunet M., Crouthamel R.I., Grant A.N., Groisman P. Y., Jones P. D., Kruk M. C., Kruger A.C., Marshall G. J., Maugeri M., Mok H. Y., Nordlki, Ross T.F., Trigo R. M., Wang X. L., Woodruff S. D., Worley S. J. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. doi:10.1002/qj.776

  12. Atmospheric circulation leading to record breaking precipitation and floods in southern Iberia in December 1876

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, R. M.; Varino, F.; Vaquero, J.; Valente, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    exception of events in February 2008 in the Lisbon precipitation (Fragoso et al., 2010) and October 1944 in Évora (in both cases for daily precipitation only). Compo G. P., Whitaker J.S., Sardeshmukh P.D., Matsui N., Allan R.J., Yin X., Gleason E., J.r., Vose R. S., Rutledge G., Bessemoulin P., Brönnimann S., Brunet M., Crouthamel R.I., Grant A.N., Groisman P. Y., Jones P. D., Kruk M. C., Kruger A.C., Marshall G. J., Maugeri M., Mok H. Y., Nordlki, Ross T.F., Trigo R. M., Wang X. L., Woodruff S. D., Worley S. J. (2011). The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137(654), 1-28. doi:10.1002/qj.776 Fragoso, M., Trigo, R. M., Zêzere, J. L., & Valente, M. A. (2010). The exceptional rainfall event in Lisbon on 18 February 2008. Weather, 65(2), 31-35. doi:10.1002/wea.513

  13. [Evaluation of ambulatory antibiotic use in Hungary using drug-specific quality indicators].

    PubMed

    Matuz, Mária; Benkő, Ria; Hajdú, Edit; Viola, Réka; Soós, Gyöngyvér

    2013-06-16

    Bevezetés: A bakteriális rezisztencia visszaszorítására az antibiotikumok átgondolt alkalmazása lehetséges beavatkozási pont. Célkitűzés: A hazai ambuláns antibiotikum-alkalmazás gyakorlatának nemzetközi minőségi indikátorokon keresztül történő bemutatása. Módszer: Az 1996–2010 közötti időszakra vonatkozó nyers, nagykereskedői eladásokon alapuló, ambuláns szisztémás antibiotikum-felhasználási adatokat az Egészségügyi Világszervezet 2010. évi napi terápiás dózisai (defined daily dose – DDD) figyelembevételével DDD/1000 fő/nap egységben adták meg. Az antibiotikum-felhasználás értékelésére a nemzetközileg kidolgozott és validált minőségi indikátorokat alkalmazták. Eredmények: A hazai ambuláns antibiotikum-alkalmazás a vizsgálat során mennyiségileg kiegyenlített (18,0±1,8 DDD/1000 fő/nap) volt, szerkezetében azonban jelentős változások történtek. A széles versus szűk spektrumú béta-laktámok és makrolidek felhasználási aránya többszörösére nőtt (1996: 2,2 vs. 2010: 15,8), a fluorokinolonok felhasználása megháromszorozódott. A vizsgált tíz minőségi indikátor közül Magyarország három indikátor esetében az európai elithez, négy, valamint három esetében a gyengébb, illetve leggyengébb országok közé tartozott. Következtetés: A hazai ambuláns antibiotikum-felhasználás mennyiségileg a skandináv, az összetétel tekintetében a déli országokhoz hasonlít. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 947–956.

  14. The hydrogeology of the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York: an overview of research, 1992-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Onondaga Creek begins approximately 15 miles south of Syracuse, New York, and flows north through the Onondaga Indian Nation, then through Syracuse, and finally into Onondaga Lake in central New York. Tully Valley is in the upper part of the Onondaga Creek watershed between U.S. Route 20 and the Valley Heads end moraine near Tully, N.Y. Tully Valley has a history of several unusual hydrogeologic phenomena that affected past land use and the water quality of Onondaga Creek; the phenomena are still present and continue to affect the area today (2014). These phenomena include mud volcanoes or mudboils, landslides, and land-surface subsidence; all are considered to be naturally occurring but may also have been influenced by human activity. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Onondaga Lake Partnership, began a study of the Tully Valley mudboils beginning in October 1991 in hopes of understanding (1) what drives mudboil activity in order to remediate mudboil influence on the water quality of Onondaga Creek, and (2) land-surface subsidence issues that have caused a road bridge to collapse, a major pipeline to be rerouted, and threatened nearby homes. Two years into this study, the 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred just over 1 mile northwest of the mudboils. This earth slump-mud flow was the largest landslide in New York in more than 70 years (Fickies, 1993); this event provided additional insight into the geology and hydrology of the valley. As the study of the Tully Valley mudboils progressed, other unusual hydrogeologic phenomena were found within the Tully Valley and provided the opportunity to perform short-term, small-scale studies, some of which became graduate student theses—Burgmeier (1998), Curran (1999), Morales-Muniz (2000), Baldauf (2003), Epp (2005), Hackett, (2007), Tamulonis (2010), and Sinclair (2013). The unusual geology and hydrology of the Tully Valley, having been investigated for

  15. Blue camera of the Keck cosmic web imager, fabrication and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockosi, Constance; Cowley, David; Cabak, Jerry; Hilyard, David; Pfister, Terry

    2016-08-01

    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20" x 33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. In this paper, models of the expected KCWI sensitivity and background subtraction capability are presented, along with a detailed description of the instrument design. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces). The optical design of the blue camera for the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) by Harland Epps of the University of California, Santa Cruz is a lens assembly consisting of eight spherical optical elements. Half the elements are calcium fluoride and all elements are air spaced. The design of the camera barrel is unique in that all the optics are secured in their respective cells with an RTV annulus without additional hardware

  16. Mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) action on synaptic transmission at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, E; Lebedeva, J; Yakovlev, A; Zefirov, A; Giniatullin, R; Sitdikova, G

    2015-09-10

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings. Using intracellular recordings it was shown that NaHS increased the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) without changing their amplitudes indicating a pure presynaptic effect. Furthermore, NaHS increased the amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs) without influencing the resting membrane potential of muscle fibers. L-cysteine, a substrate of H2S synthesis induced, similar to NaHS, an increase of EPC amplitudes whereas inhibitors of H2S synthesis (β-cyano-L-alanine and aminooxyacetic acid) had the opposite effect. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase using MDL 12,330A hydrochloride (MDL 12,330A) or elevation of cAMP level with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (pCPT-cAMP) completely prevented the facilitatory action of NaHS indicating involvement of the cAMP signaling cascade. The facilitatory effect of NaHS was significantly diminished when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) was buffered by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (EGTA-AM). Activation of ryanodine receptors by caffeine or ryanodine increased acetylcholine release and prevented further action of NaHS on transmitter release, likely due to

  17. Towards a daily weather type classification for the alpine region back to the late 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocen, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Breda, L.; Spadin, R.

    2010-09-01

    Synoptic weather type classifications for the alpine region go back to the 1950s. The aim of such a combination of various meteorological elements over a certain area is to better understand atmospheric circulation and weather events and to provide a basis for long-term weather forecasts. For the analyses of climate change an investigation of a change in the atmospheric circulation patterns is of high interest. Such a classification is based on high temporal resolution (subdaily) meteorological information on different parameters. For Switzerland, three long (~250 yrs) historical time series (Basel, Geneva, Gr. St. Bernhard) that were hitherto available in the form of monthly means only have recently been digitized (in cooperation with MeteoSwiss) on a subdaily scale. The digitized time series contain subdaily data (varies from 2-6 daily measurements) on temperature, precipitation/snow height, pressure and humidity, and subdaily descriptions on wind direction, wind speeds and cloud cover. Based on different combinations of the parameters pressure, wind direction and wind speed, a weather type classification can be performed back to the late 18th century. With information on absolute pressure height, tendencies and gradients, as well as changes in wind direction and wind speed, typical circulation patterns can be expressed and subsequently weather types for the alpine region classified. For Switzerland Schüepp's "Alpenwetterstatistik", which is often used for daily weather type classification in the alpine region, contains daily assignments to weather types for the last 50 years. With a probabilistic approach daily weather types can be assigned, based on centralized weather types of the "Alpenwetterstatistik". For the analysis of temperature and precipitation anomalies of the year without a summer (1816) in Switzerland, such weather type classifications based on pressure and wind were already conducted and applied. Daily weather types for a 20 year reference period

  18. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's bow shock and magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Acuña, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, J. M.; Schriver, D.; Trávníček, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14, 2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) (2,3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury. Here we present new models of bow shock and magnetopause shape and location that incorporate both the MESSENGER and earlier Mariner 10 measurements of these boundaries. A fast magnetosonic Mach number for the solar wind at Mercury's distance from the Sun of ~ 3 is derived from the shape of the bow shock. This value is consistent with earlier observations at these distances from the Sun by the Helios mission. The shape of Mercury's magnetopause and the thickness of the magnetosheath are found to be similar to that of the Earth, suggesting that the solar wind interaction is dominated by its dipolar magnetic field. MESSENGER measurements near the magnetopause do, however, indicate that internal plasma pressure does contribute to the pressure balance across this boundary. MAG and FIPS measurements are used to estimate the ratio of plasma thermal pressure to magnetic pressure at the dusk flank of the plasma sheet and dawn terminator regions, under the assumption that pressure is balanced across the inbound and outbound magnetopause crossings. To investigate the possible origins of the plasma ions in these regions, we utilize a combination of FIPS measurements and the results of 3-D hybrid [6] and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury for the upstream conditions

  19. MESSENGER: Science payload status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R.; Solomon, S.; Gold, R.

    2003-04-01

    MESSENGER is a NASA Discovery mission to reach Mercury and orbit that planet for an Earth year, gathering data with a miniaturized scientific payload. The MESSENGER project is now entering the integration and test phase as the spacecraft is assembled and the instruments are calibrated and delivered to the spacecraft. The Gamma-Ray and Neutron spectrometer (GRNS) and X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) experienced detector changes in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (based upon more experience with similar instrumentation on the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, NEAR-Shoemaker, mission and on Mars Odyssey). The gamma-ray portion of GRNS uses a high-purity germanium crystal cooled to ˜90K and surrounded by an active shield to detect characteristic gamma-rays from the planet. The neutron spectrometer uses Li-glass and plastic scintillators to detect and separate thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. The XRS spectrometer uses three gas-filled proportional counters looking at the planet and a solar monitor to measure X-ray fluorescence lines from the planet's surface. These instruments thus provide information on elemental abundances. The optical remote-sensing instruments map the planet in several spectral bands (Mercury Dual Imaging System -- MDIS), measure surface spectral reflectance in the visible and infra-red and exospheric emission lines in the ultraviolet and visible (Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer -- MASCS), and measure surface topography (Mercury Laser Altimeter -- MLA). The combination of altimetry with MLA and radio-science (RS) measurements will allow maps of the gravitational field of the planet and inference of the planet's obliquity and physical amplitude. The combination of boom-mounted magnetometer (MAG) and combined Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) allows internal and external sources of magnetic field to be separated, providing knowledge of both Mercury's internal structure and its magnetosphere and

  20. A Compact Particle Detector For The New Horizons Mission To Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Andrews, G. Bruce

    The New Horizons mission concept for a Pluto Kuiper Belt mission has recently been selected by NASA for Phase B study. One of the science goals is to characterize the interaction of the outflowing neutral atmosphere of Pluto with the solar wind. By mea- suring changes in both the solar wind near Pluto as well as the population of pickup ions produced by charge exchange between the atmosphere of the planet and the solar wind, constraints on the neutral atmospheric source strength can be derived. Combin- ing these measurements with remote UV measurements of the neutral atmosphere near the planet, we can estimate the atmospheric loss rate. As part of the payload to make these measurements, a time-of-flight particle instrument, the Pluto Energetic Parti- cle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI), has been included in the payload. PEPSSI measures the mass, energy spectra, and directional distributions of energetic particles accelerated by mass pickup and/or shock processes in the near-Pluto environ- ment both in the solar wind and in the likely Pluto-interaction region. Simultaneous low-resolution measurements of the solar wind are also made. PEPSSI originated with a NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development (PIDDP) grant focused on providing a low-mass, low-power instrument for the Pluto-Kuiper Express mission, then in formulation (McNutt et al., 1996; Andrews et al., 1998). This instrument also formed the basis for the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) that is the energetic particle part of the Energetic Particle and Plasma spectrometer (EPPS) (Gold et al., 2001) now in detailed design for NASA's MESSENGER Discovery mission to the planet Mercury (Solomon et al., 2001). While additional PIDDP work is also continu- ing, PEPSSI is planned as a near-twin of MESSENGER/EPS to take full advantage of the MESSENGER effort and thus minimize cost, cost risk, and schedule risk to New Horizons. PEPSSI is a 1.5 kg, 1.3 W instrument with six sectors arrayed in a