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Sample records for epp moks inga

  1. Inga paterno Harms

    Treesearch

    Nadia Navarrete-Tindall; Hugo Aragon

    2002-01-01

    Inga paterno is native to southern Mexico and Central America (Zarucchi 1986). Inga paterno is a fast-growing tree, reaching 10 m to 20 m in height and 44 cm d.b.h. Inga paterno has pinnately compound leaves with four to five elongated and entire leaflets (Guzmin 1980). Leaves are copper-red and soft when young,...

  2. Probing for suitable climatology to estimate the predictability of monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2016-07-01

    Inter-annual variability in the onset of monsoon over Kerala (MOK), India, is investigated using daily temperature; mean sea level pressure; winds at 850, 500 and 200 hPa pressure levels; outgoing longwave radiation (OLR); sea surface temperature (SST) and vertically integrated moisture content anomaly with 32 years (1981-2013) observation. The MOK is classified as early, delayed, or normal by considering the mean monsoon onset date over Kerala to be the 1st of June with a standard deviation of 8 days. The objective of the study is to identify the synoptic setup during MOK and comparison with climatology to estimate the predictability of the onset type (early, normal, or delayed) with 5, 10, and 15 days lead time. The study reveals that an enhanced convection observed over the Bay of Bengal during early MOK is found to shift over the Arabian Sea during delayed MOK. An intense high-pressure zone observed over the western south Indian Ocean during early MOK shifts to the east during delayed MOK. Higher tropospheric temperature (TT) over the western Equatorial Ocean during early MOK and lower TT over the Indian subcontinent intensify the land-ocean thermal contrast that leads to early MOK. The sea surface temperature (SST) over the Arabian Sea is observed to be warmer during delayed than early MOK. During early MOK, the source of 850 hPa southwesterly wind shifts to the west equatorial zone while a COL region has been found during delayed MOK at that level. The study further reveals that the wind speed anomaly at the 200-hPa pressure level coincides inversely with the anomaly of tropospheric temperature.

  3. Direct EPP Affects on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant direct constituent changes in the mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HOx increases result in direct ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The NOx family has a considerably longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone directly, if produced in the stratosphere. Ozone decreases from the EPPs lead to a reduction in atmospheric heating and, subsequent atmospheric cooling. Conversely, EPPs can cause direct atmospheric heating through Joule heating. Measured HOx constituents OH and HO2 showed increases due to solar protons. Observed NOx constituents NO and NO2 were enhanced due to both solar protons and precipitating electrons. Other hydrogen- and nitrogen-ocntaining constituents were also measured to be directly influenced by EPPs, including N2O, HNO3, HO2NO2, N2OS, H2O2, ClONO2, HCl, and HOCl. Observed constituents ClO and CO were directly affected by EPPs as well. Many measurements indicated significant direct ozone decreases. A significant number of satellites housed instruments, which observed direct EPP-caused atmospheric effects, including Nimbus 4 (BUV), Nimbus 7 (SBUV), several NOAA platforms (SBUV/2), SME, UARS (HALOE, CLAES), SCISAT-1 (ACE-FTS), Odin (OSIRIS), Envisat-l (GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY), and Aura (MLS). Measurements by rockets and ground-based radar also indicated EPP direct

  4. Nuclear structure studies with INGA coupled to a fast DDAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Palit, R.

    2014-08-14

    Studies of different types of nuclear excitation and isomers remain the main thrust area of the last experimental campaign using INGA at TIFR-BARC Pelletron Linac Facility at Mumbai. A digital data acquisition system has been coupled with the INGA which has improved the data throughput and better gain stability. About forty experiments that have been proposed in this experimental campaign. Selected results from these experiments will be discussed.

  5. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  6. Extraction of the EPP Component from the Surface EMG

    PubMed Central

    Kumai, Toshifumi

    2009-01-01

    A surface electromyogram (EMG), especially when recorded near the neuromuscular junction, is expected to contain the endplate potential (EPP) component which can be extracted with an appropriate signal filter. Two factors are important: the EMG must be recorded in monopolar fashion, and the recording must be done so the low frequency signal corresponding the EPP is not eliminated. This report explains how to extract the EPP component from the EMG of the masseter muscle in a human subject. The surface EMG is recorded from eight sites using traditional disc electrodes aligned along over the muscle, with equal inter-electrode distance from the zygomatic arch to the angle of mandible in response to quick gum clenching. A reference electrode is placed on the tip of the nose. The EPP component is extracted from the raw EMGs by applying a high-cut digital filter (2nd dimension Butterworth filter) with a range of 10-35 Hz. When the filter is set to 10 Hz, the extracted EPP wave deflects either negative or positive depending on the recording site. The difference in the polarity reflects the sink-source relation of the end plate current, with the site showing the most negative deflection corresponding to the neuromuscular junction. In the case of the masseter muscle, the neuromuscular junction is estimated to be located in the inferior portion close to the angle of mandible. The EPP component exhibits an interesting oscillation when the cut-off frequency of the high-cut digital filter is set to 30 Hz. The EPP oscillation indicates that muscle contraction is adjusted in an intermittent manner. Abnormal tremors accompanying various sorts of diseases may be substantially due to this EPP oscillation, which becomes slower and is difficult to cease. PMID:20016459

  7. Extraction of the EPP component from the surface EMG.

    PubMed

    Kumai, Toshifumi

    2009-12-16

    A surface electromyogram (EMG), especially when recorded near the neuromuscular junction, is expected to contain the endplate potential (EPP) component which can be extracted with an appropriate signal filter. Two factors are important: the EMG must be recorded in monopolar fashion, and the recording must be done so the low frequency signal corresponding the EPP is not eliminated. This report explains how to extract the EPP component from the EMG of the masseter muscle in a human subject. The surface EMG is recorded from eight sites using traditional disc electrodes aligned along over the muscle, with equal inter-electrode distance from the zygomatic arch to the angle of mandible in response to quick gum clenching. A reference electrode is placed on the tip of the nose. The EPP component is extracted from the raw EMGs by applying a high-cut digital filter (2nd dimension Butterworth filter) with a range of 10-35 Hz. When the filter is set to 10 Hz, the extracted EPP wave deflects either negative or positive depending on the recording site. The difference in the polarity reflects the sink-source relation of the end plate current, with the site showing the most negative deflection corresponding to the neuromuscular junction. In the case of the masseter muscle, the neuromuscular junction is estimated to be located in the inferior portion close to the angle of mandible. The EPP component exhibits an interesting oscillation when the cut-off frequency of the high-cut digital filter is set to 30 Hz. The EPP oscillation indicates that muscle contraction is adjusted in an intermittent manner. Abnormal tremors accompanying various sorts of diseases may be substantially due to this EPP oscillation, which becomes slower and is difficult to cease.

  8. 30 CFR 250.1932 - What are my EPP requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 250.1932 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1932 What are my EPP requirements? (a) Your management must consult with...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1932 - What are my EPP requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 250.1932 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1932 What are my EPP requirements? (a) Your management must consult with...

  10. INGAS: Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System for radioxenon measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost-Mohammadi, V.; Afarideh, H.; Etaati, G. R.; Safari, M. J.; Rouhi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) will be introduced. This system is based on beta-gamma coincidence technique and consists of a well-type NaI(Tl) as gamma or X radiation detector and a cylindrical plastic scintillator to detect beta or conversion electron. Standard NIM modules were utilized to detect coincidence events of detectors. Both the beta and gamma detectors were appropriately calibrated. The efficiency curve of gamma detector for volume geometry was obtained by comparing the results of gamma point sources measurements and simulations of GATE V7.0 Monte Carlo code. The performance of detection system was checked by injection of 222Rn and 131mXe gaseous source in the detection cell. The minimum detectable activity of the system for 133Xe is 1.240±0.024 mBq for 24 h measurement time.

  11. Factor Pattern Comparisons of EPPS Scales of High School, College, and Innovative College Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Paul W.; Ahern, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    EPPS scores from 167 high school seniors (Study 1, S1), 137 introductory psychology students (S2), and students from an innovative college program (S3) were compared using analysis of variance, image analysis, and factor pattern comparison. (Editor)

  12. Factor Pattern Comparisons of EPPS Scales of High School, College, and Innovative College Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Paul W.; Ahern, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    EPPS scores from 167 high school seniors (Study 1, S1), 137 introductory psychology students (S2), and students from an innovative college program (S3) were compared using analysis of variance, image analysis, and factor pattern comparison. (Editor)

  13. Lutein epoxide cycle, light harvesting and photoprotection in species of the tropical tree genus Inga.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, G Heinrich; Seltmann, Martin; Virgo, Aurelio; Kursar, Thomas A; Jahns, Peter; Winter, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Dynamics and possible function of the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle, that is, the reversible conversion of Lx to lutein (L) in the light-harvesting antennae, were investigated in leaves of tropical tree species. Photosynthetic pigments were quantified in nine Inga species and species from three other genera. In Inga, Lx levels were high in shade leaves (mostly above 20 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll) and low in sun leaves. In Virola surinamensis, both sun and shade leaves exhibited very high Lx contents (about 60 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll). In Inga marginata grown under high irradiance, Lx slowly accumulated within several days upon transfer to deep shade. When shade leaves of I. marginata were briefly exposed to the sunlight, both violaxanthin and Lx were quickly de-epoxidized. Subsequently, overnight recovery occurred only for violaxanthin, not for Lx. In such leaves, containing reduced levels of Lx and increased levels of L, chlorophyll fluorescence induction showed significantly slower reduction of the photosystem II electron acceptor, Q(A), and faster formation as well as a higher level of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate that slow Lx accumulation in Inga leaves may improve light harvesting under limiting light, while quick de-epoxidation of Lx to L in response to excess light may enhance photoprotection.

  14. Biology and occurrence of Inga Busk species (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) on Cerrado host plants.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Ivone R; Bernardes, Carolina; Rodovalho, Sheila; Morais, Helena C

    2007-01-01

    We sampled Inga Busk species caterpillars weekly in the cerrado on 15 plants of Diospyros burchellii Hern. (Ebenaceae) from January 2002 to December 2003, on 30 plants of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) from July 2003 to June 2004, and since 1991 on several other plant species. In total we found 15 species of Inga on cerrado host plants. Nine species were very rare, with only one to five adults reared. The other six species occurred throughout the year, with higher abundance during the dry season, from May to July, coinciding with overall peaks of caterpillar abundance in the cerrado. Caterpillars of the genus Inga build shelters by tying and lining two mature or old leaves with silk and frass, where they rest and develop (a common habit found in Oecophorinae). The final instar builds a special envelope inside the leaf shelter, where it will complete the larval stage and pupate. The species are very difficult to distinguish in the immature stages. External features were useful in identifying only four species: I. haemataula (Meyrick), I. phaecrossa (Meyrick), I. ancorata (Walsingham), and I. corystes (Meyrick). These four species are polyphagous and have wide geographical distributions. In this paper we provide information on the natural history and host plants of six Inga species common on cerrado host plants, for which there are no reports in the literature.

  15. EPPS16: nuclear parton distributions with LHC data.

    PubMed

    Eskola, Kari J; Paakkinen, Petja; Paukkunen, Hannu; Salgado, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a global analysis of collinearly factorized nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs) including, for the first time, data constraints from LHC proton-lead collisions. In comparison to our previous analysis, EPS09, where data only from charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS), Drell-Yan (DY) dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions and inclusive pion production in deuteron-nucleus collisions were the input, we now increase the variety of data constraints to cover also neutrino-nucleus DIS and low-mass DY production in pion-nucleus collisions. The new LHC data significantly extend the kinematic reach of the data constraints. We now allow much more freedom for the flavor dependence of nuclear effects than in other currently available analyses. As a result, especially the uncertainty estimates are more objective flavor by flavor. The neutrino DIS plays a pivotal role in obtaining a mutually consistent behavior for both up and down valence quarks, and the LHC dijet data clearly constrain gluons at large momentum fraction. Mainly for insufficient statistics, the pion-nucleus DY and heavy-gauge-boson production in proton-lead collisions impose less visible constraints. The outcome - a new set of next-to-leading order nuclear PDFs called EPPS16 - is made available for applications in high-energy nuclear collisions.

  16. The Inhibition of Inflammasome by Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF)

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Juliana I.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Carrão, Daniel B.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Berretta, Andresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis extracts have gained the attention of consumers and researchers due to their unique chemical compositions and functional properties such as its anti-inflammatory activity. Recently, it was described a complex that is also important in inflammatory processes, named inflammasome. The inflammasomes are a large molecular platform formed in the cell cytosol in response to stress signals, toxins, and microbial infections. Once activated, the inflammasome induces caspase-1, which in turn induces the processing of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. So, to understand inflammasomes regulation becomes crucial to treat several disorders including autoinflammatory diseases. Since green propolis extracts are able to regulate inflammatory pathways, this work purpose was to investigate if this extract could also act on inflammasomes regulation. First, the extract was characterized and it demonstrated the presence of important compounds, especially Artepillin C. This extract was effective in reducing the IL-1β secretion in mouse macrophages and this reduction was correlated with a decrease in activation of the protease caspase-1. Furthermore, we found that the extract at a concentration of 30 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells even after a 18-hour treatment. Altogether, these data indicate that Brazilian green propolis (EPP-AF) extract has a role in regulating the inflammasomes. PMID:23690844

  17. EPPS16: nuclear parton distributions with LHC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskola, Kari J.; Paakkinen, Petja; Paukkunen, Hannu; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a global analysis of collinearly factorized nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs) including, for the first time, data constraints from LHC proton-lead collisions. In comparison to our previous analysis, EPS09, where data only from charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS), Drell-Yan (DY) dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions and inclusive pion production in deuteron-nucleus collisions were the input, we now increase the variety of data constraints to cover also neutrino-nucleus DIS and low-mass DY production in pion-nucleus collisions. The new LHC data significantly extend the kinematic reach of the data constraints. We now allow much more freedom for the flavor dependence of nuclear effects than in other currently available analyses. As a result, especially the uncertainty estimates are more objective flavor by flavor. The neutrino DIS plays a pivotal role in obtaining a mutually consistent behavior for both up and down valence quarks, and the LHC dijet data clearly constrain gluons at large momentum fraction. Mainly for insufficient statistics, the pion-nucleus DY and heavy-gauge-boson production in proton-lead collisions impose less visible constraints. The outcome - a new set of next-to-leading order nuclear PDFs called EPPS16 - is made available for applications in high-energy nuclear collisions.

  18. Extracellular TDP-43 aggregates target MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK) and trigger caspase-3/IL-18 signaling in microglia.

    PubMed

    Leal-Lasarte, María M; Franco, Jaime M; Labrador-Garrido, Adahir; Pozo, David; Roodveldt, Cintia

    2017-07-01

    Dysregulated microglial responses are central in neurodegenerative proteinopathies, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar disease (FTLD). Pathologic TDP-43, which is typically found in intracellular inclusions, is a misfolding protein with emerging roles in ALS and FTLD. Recently, TDP-43 species have been found in extracellular fluids of patients; however, the overall implications of TDP-43-mediated signaling linked to neuroinflammation are poorly understood. Our work-the first, to our knowledge, to focus on innate immunity responses to TDP-43 aggregates-shows that such species are internalized by microglia and cause abnormal mobilization of endogenous TDP-43. Exposure to TDP-43 aggregates elicited not only IL-1β, but also NLRP3-dependent and noncanonical IL-18 processing. Moreover, we report a link between TDP-43 and neuronal loss via the apoptosis-independent emerging roles of caspase-3 in neurotoxic inflammation. Our results further support the view of noncell autonomous neurodegenerative mechanisms in ALS. Remarkably, we demonstrate that TDP-43 aggregates bind to and colocalize with MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK) and show that its phosphorylation status is disrupted. Finally, we show that this TDP-43-caused activation state can be altered by exogenous Hsp27 and Hsp70 chaperones. Our study provides new insight into the immune phenotype, mechanisms, and signaling pathways that operate in microglial neurotoxic activation in ALS.-Leal-Lasarte, M. M., Franco, J. M., Labrador-Garrido, A., Pozo, D., Roodveldt, C. Extracellular TDP-43 aggregates target MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase (MOK) and trigger caspase-3/IL-18 signaling in microglia. © FASEB.

  19. Intraspecific and interspecific polyploidy of Brazilian species of the genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, M F; Bruno, R L A; Barros e Silva, A E; Nascimento, S; Oliveira, I G; Felix, L P

    2014-04-29

    We investigated the karyotypes of 13 species of six sections of the genus Inga (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Brazil. We used conventional Giemsa staining to identify numerical chromosomal variations and looked for karyotypic evolutionary patterns. The karyotypes generally had small chromosomes, varying from metacentric to submetacentric, with a basic number x=13. Nine of the species showed 2n=2x=26 (I. thibaudiana, I. cayennensis, I. ingoides, I. edulis, I. vera, I. subnuda, I. striata, I. bollandii, and Inga sp), while 2n=4x=52 was seen in a population of Inga cylindrical and of I. capitata, and in five populations of I. laurina. Additionally, 2n=8x=104 was observed in a population of I. cayennensis. Eight of these counts were new, while the counts of 2n=52 for I. laurina and 2n=26 for I. marginata, I. vera, I. subnuda, and I. edulis confirmed previous studies. We did not find cytological stability among the sections studied, with occurrence of significant intra- and inter-specific numerical variations. We conclude that polyploidy has played a significant role in karyotypic evolution in this group and that it occurred independently in several sections of the genus.

  20. Entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS).

    PubMed

    Raymer, M G; Marcus, Andrew H; Widom, Julia R; Vitullo, Dashiell L P

    2013-12-12

    We introduce a new method, called entangled photon-pair two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (EPP-2DFS), to sensitively probe the nonlinear electronic response of molecular systems. The method incorporates a separated two-photon ('Franson') interferometer, which generates time-frequency-entangled photon pairs, into the framework of a fluorescence-detected 2D optical spectroscopic experiment. The entangled photons are temporally shaped and phase-modulated in the interferometer, and are used to excite a two-photon-absorbing (TPA) sample, whose excited-state population is selectively detected by simultaneously monitoring the sample fluorescence and the exciting fields. In comparison to 'classical' 2DFS techniques, major advantages of this scheme are the suppression of uncorrelated background signals, the enhancement of simultaneous time-and-frequency resolution, the suppression of diagonal 2D spectral features, and the enhancement and narrowing of off-diagonal spectral cross-peaks that contain information about electronic couplings. These effects are a consequence of the pure-state field properties unique to a parametric down-conversion light source, which must be included in the quantum mechanical description of the composite field-molecule system. We numerically simulate the EPP-2DFS observable for the case of an electronically coupled molecular dimer. The EPP-2DFS spectrum is greatly simplified in comparison to its classical 2D counterpart. Our results indicate that EPP-2DFS can provide previously unattainable resolution to extract model Hamiltonian parameters from electronically coupled molecular dimers.

  1. 75 FR 20981 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...; Educational Partnership Program (EPP) and Ernest F. Hollings Undergraduate Scholarship Program AGENCY... to its student scholarship programs to complete an application for NOAA undergraduate and graduate scholarship programs. Part of the application package requires completion of a NOAA student scholar reference...

  2. EPP Monitor, Volume 8, Issues 1&2, Spring/Summer 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrier, Martine

    2004-01-01

    This issue of EPP Monitor contains the following articles: "Countdown for Justice," Five Quick and Inexpensive Ways to End Overcrowding," "Third Grade Retention -- Deja Vu All Over Again," High-Need African-American and Latino Students Doing Better in Suburban Districts," "An Emerging Consensus on Facts, not…

  3. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae.

  4. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri

    PubMed Central

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  5. Comprehensive Report For Proposed Elevated Temperature Elastic Perfectly Plastic (EPP) Code Cases Representative Example Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, Greg L.

    2014-06-01

    Background: The current rules in the nuclear section of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code , Section III, Subsection NH for the evaluation of strain limits and creep-fatigue damage using simplified methods based on elastic analysis have been deemed inappropriate for Alloy 617 at temperatures above 1200F (650C)1. To address this issue, proposed code rules have been developed which are based on the use of elastic-perfectly plastic (E-PP) analysis methods and which are expected to be applicable to very high temperatures. The proposed rules for strain limits and creep-fatigue evaluation were initially documented in the technical literature 2, 3, and have been recently revised to incorporate comments and simplify their application. The revised code cases have been developed. Task Objectives: The goal of the Sample Problem task is to exercise these code cases through example problems to demonstrate their feasibility and, also, to identify potential corrections and improvements should problems be encountered. This will provide input to the development of technical background documents for consideration by the applicable B&PV committees considering these code cases for approval. This task has been performed by Hollinger and Pease of Becht Engineering Co., Inc., Nuclear Services Division and a report detailing the results of the E-PP analyses conducted on example problems per the procedures of the E-PP strain limits and creep-fatigue draft code cases is enclosed as Enclosure 1. Conclusions: The feasibility of the application of the E-PP code cases has been demonstrated through example problems that consist of realistic geometry (a nozzle attached to a semi-hemispheric shell with a circumferential weld) and load (pressure; pipe reaction load applied at the end of the nozzle, including axial and shear forces, bending and torsional moments; through-wall transient temperature gradient) and design and operating conditions (Levels A, B and C).

  6. Modeling the ferrochelatase c.315-48C modifier mutation for erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bansode, Vijay B.; Koentgen, Frank; Trüb, Judith; Pelczar, Pawel; Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; Minder, Elisabeth I.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), which incorporates iron into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to form heme. Excitation of accumulated PPIX by light generates oxygen radicals that evoke excessive pain and, after longer light exposure, cause ulcerations in exposed skin areas of individuals with EPP. Moreover, ∼5% of the patients develop a liver dysfunction as a result of PPIX accumulation. Most patients (∼97%) have a severe FECH mutation (Mut) in trans to an intronic polymorphism (c.315-48C), which reduces ferrochelatase synthesis by stimulating the use of an aberrant 3′ splice site 63 nt upstream of the normal site for exon 4. In contrast, with the predominant c.315-48T allele, the correct splice site is mostly used, and individuals with a T/Mut genotype do not develop EPP symptoms. Thus, the C allele is a potential target for therapeutic approaches that modify this splicing decision. To provide a model for pre-clinical studies of such approaches, we engineered a mouse containing a partly humanized Fech gene with the c.315-48C polymorphism. F1 hybrids obtained by crossing these mice with another inbred line carrying a severe Fech mutation (named m1Pas) show a very strong EPP phenotype that includes elevated PPIX in the blood, enlargement of liver and spleen, anemia, as well as strong pain reactions and skin lesions after a short period of light exposure. In addition to the expected use of the aberrant splice site, the mice also show a strong skipping of the partly humanized exon 3. This will limit the use of this model for certain applications and illustrates that engineering of a hybrid gene may have unforeseeable consequences on its splicing. PMID:28093505

  7. FY16 Status Report on Development of Integrated EPP and SMT Design Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, R. I.; Sham, T. -L.; Wang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the Elastic-Perfectly Plastic (EPP) combined integrated creep-fatigue damage evaluation approach is to incorporate a Simplified Model Test (SMT) data based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid the separate evaluation of creep and fatigue damage and eliminate the requirement for stress classification in current methods; thus greatly simplifying evaluation of elevated temperature cyclic service. The EPP methodology is based on the idea that creep damage and strain accumulation can be bounded by a properly chosen “pseudo” yield strength used in an elastic-perfectly plastic analysis, thus avoiding the need for stress classification. The original SMT approach is based on the use of elastic analysis. The experimental data, cycles to failure, is correlated using the elastically calculated strain range in the test specimen and the corresponding component strain is also calculated elastically. The advantage of this approach is that it is no longer necessary to use the damage interaction, or D-diagram, because the damage due to the combined effects of creep and fatigue are accounted in the test data by means of a specimen that is designed to replicate or bound the stress and strain redistribution that occurs in actual components when loaded in the creep regime. The reference approach to combining the two methodologies and the corresponding uncertainties and validation plans are presented. Results from recent key feature tests are discussed to illustrate the applicability of the EPP methodology and the behavior of materials at elevated temperature when undergoing stress and strain redistribution due to plasticity and creep.

  8. Preliminary test results in support of integrated EPP and SMT design methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Sham, T. -L.

    2016-02-09

    The proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology consists of incorporating a SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid using the creep-fatigue interaction diagram (the D diagram) and to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed code rules and to verify their applicability, a series of thermomechanical tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The second test concept is the two-bar thermal ratcheting tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. This report summaries the previous SMT results on Alloy 617, SS316H and SS304H and presents the recent development on SMT approach on Alloy 617. These SMT specimen data are also representative of component loading conditions and have been used as part of the verification of the proposed integrated EPP and SMT design methods development. The previous two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on Alloy 617 and SS316H are also summarized and the new results from two bar thermal ratcheting tests on SS316H at a lower temperature range are reported.

  9. A simple microstructure return model explaining microstructure noise and Epps effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel simple microstructure model of financial returns that combines (i) the well-known ARFIMA process applied to tick-by-tick returns, (ii) the bid-ask bounce effect, (iii) the fat tail structure of the distribution of returns and (iv) the non-Poissonian statistics of inter-trade intervals. This model allows us to explain both qualitatively and quantitatively important stylized facts observed in the statistics of both microstructure and macrostructure returns, including the short-ranged correlation of returns, the long-ranged correlations of absolute returns, the microstructure noise and Epps effects. According to the microstructure noise effect, volatility is a decreasing function of the time-scale used to estimate it. The Epps effect states that cross correlations between asset returns are increasing functions of the time-scale at which the returns are estimated. The microstructure noise is explained as the result of the negative return correlations inherent in the definition of the bid-ask bounce component (ii). In the presence of a genuine correlation between the returns of two assets, the Epps effect is due to an average statistical overlap of the momentum of the returns of the two assets defined over a finite time-scale in the presence of the long memory process (i).

  10. EMG and EPP-integrated human-machine interface between the paralyzed and rehabilitation exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue H; Fan, Yuan J; Xu, Li D

    2012-07-01

    Although a lower extremity exoskeleton shows great prospect in the rehabilitation of the lower limb, it has not yet been widely applied to the clinical rehabilitation of the paralyzed. This is partly caused by insufficient information interactions between the paralyzed and existing exoskeleton that cannot meet the requirements of harmonious control. In this research, a bidirectional human-machine interface including a neurofuzzy controller and an extended physiological proprioception (EPP) feedback system is developed by imitating the biological closed-loop control system of human body. The neurofuzzy controller is built to decode human motion in advance by the fusion of the fuzzy electromyographic signals reflecting human motion intention and the precise proprioception providing joint angular feedback information. It transmits control information from human to exoskeleton, while the EPP feedback system based on haptic stimuli transmits motion information of the exoskeleton back to the human. Joint angle and torque information are transmitted in the form of air pressure to the human body. The real-time bidirectional human-machine interface can help a patient with lower limb paralysis to control the exoskeleton with his/her healthy side and simultaneously perceive motion on the paralyzed side by EPP. The interface rebuilds a closed-loop motion control system for paralyzed patients and realizes harmonious control of the human-machine system.

  11. Leaf damage and density-dependent effects on six Inga species in a neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Arguedas, Tania

    2012-12-01

    Many models have been proposed to explain the possible role of pests in the coexistence of a high diversity of plant species in tropical forests. Prominent among them is the Janzen-Connell model. This model suggests that specialized herbivores and pathogens limit tree recruitment as a function of their density or proximity to conspecifics. A large number of studies have tested the predictions of this model with respect to patterns of recruitment and mortality at different life stages, yet only a few have directly linked those density- or distance-dependent effects to pest attack. If pest-attack is an important factor in density- or distance-dependent mortality, there should be spatial heterogeneity in pest pressure. I studied the spatial distribution of leaf damage in saplings of six common Inga species (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the 50ha forest dynamic plot of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The percent leaf damage of Inga saplings was not heterogeneous in space, and the density of conspecific, congener or confamilial neighbors was uncorrelated with the observed damage levels in focal plants. One of the focal species did suffer density-dependent mortality, suggesting that spatial variation in plant performance in these species is not directly driven by leaf damaging agents. While multiple studies suggest that density-dependent effects on performance are common in tropical plant communities, our understanding of the mechanisms that drive those effects is still incomplete and the underlying assumption that these patterns result from differential herbivore attack deserves more scrutiny.

  12. Light and nutrient effects on growth and allocation of Inga vera(Leguminosae), a successional tree of Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    R. W. Myster

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring a better understanding of ecological growth and biomass allocation of Neotropical trees, I inoculated Inga vera Willd. (Leguminosae) plants from cuttings with Rhizobium spp. and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and grew them in a greenhouse for 8 months under varying light (L), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N) treatments. I obtained the following...

  13. Ingasaponin, a complex triterpenoid saponin with immunological adjuvant activity from Inga laurina.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maria de Fátima Simão Jucá; Pereira, Gabriela Moysés; Ribeiro, Marcela Gonçalves; da Silva, Ari Miranda; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2016-02-01

    As part of our search of bioactive saponins from Brazilian plants, phytochemical study of the seeds of Inga laurina led to the isolation of a new complex triterpenoid saponin, named ingasaponin. It is the first saponin isolated from a species of Inga genus. It was isolated by using chromatographic methods and its structural elucidation was performed using detailed analyses of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques and chemical conversions. Its structure was established as 21-[[(2E,6S)-6-[[6-deoxy-4-O-[(2E,6S)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2,6-dimethyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-1-oxo-2,7-octadienyl]oxy]-16-hydroxy-3-[[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β,16α,21β)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 4)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1). The hemolytic potential of 1 was evaluated using in vitro assays, and its adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen was investigated using in vivo models.

  14. Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) obstructs Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins expressed during adaptive mechanisms against plant protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Machado, Suzy Wider; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Zério, Neide Graciano; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    Plant protease inhibitors (PIs) are elements of a common plant defense mechanism induced in response to herbivores. The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran pest, responds to various PIs in its diet by expressing genes encoding trypsins. This raises the question of whether the PI-induced trypsins are also inhibited by other PIs, which we posed as the hypothesis that Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) inhibits PI-induced trypsins in S. frugiperda. In the process of testing our hypothesis, we compared its properties with those of selected PIs, soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), Inga vera trypsin inhibitor (IVTI), Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor (ApTI), and Entada acaciifolia trypsin inhibitor (EATI). We report that ILTI is more effective in inhibiting the induced S. frugiperda trypsins than SKTI and the other PIs, which supports our hypothesis. ILTI may be more appropriate than SKTI for studies regarding adaptive mechanisms to dietary PIs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, James A.; Pennington, R. Toby; Koenen, Erik J. M.; Hughes, Colin E.; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G.; Stone, Graham N.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2–10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies. PMID:26442024

  16. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Nicholls, James A; Pennington, R Toby; Koenen, Erik J M; Hughes, Colin E; Hearn, Jack; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Dexter, Kyle G; Stone, Graham N; Kidner, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia). Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories within the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  17. Elucidation of the structure of the oligosaccharide from wild type Moraxella bovis Epp63 lipooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Cristina; Grice, I Darren; Daal, Terese-Marie; Peak, Ian R; Molinaro, Antonio; Wilson, Jennifer C

    2014-03-31

    Moraxella bovis is a Gram-negative microorganism that causes Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), colloquially known as 'Pink eye' in cattle worldwide. Lipopolysaccharides/lipooligosaccharides are the predominant glycans on the surface of Gram-negative microorganisms. Structural elucidation of the oligosaccharide structure of the rough phenotype of Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined using GC-MS, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide is a branched structure that comprises 10 sugars in addition to KDO. The unusual features of this oligosaccharide include the fact that the oligosaccharide is devoid of heptose. The KDO residue is directly attached to a (→4,6)-branched glucose and additionally contains a terminal open chain acetal-linked N-acetylgalactosamine, (1S)-GalaNAc residue →4,6-linked to a sub-terminal galactose residue.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of ILTI, a Kunitz-Type Trypsin Inhibitor from Inga laurina (SW.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Taveira, Gabriel B; Gomes, Valdirene M; de Barros, Karina M C A; Maria-Neto, Simone

    2016-05-01

    Over the last few years, a growing number of proteinase inhibitors have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds and have shown antimicrobial activity. A 20,000 Da serine peptidase inhibitor, named ILTI, was isolated from Inga laurina seeds and showed potent inhibitory enzymatic activity against trypsin. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ILTI on the growth of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. We observed that ILTI strongly inhibited in particular the growth of Candida tropicalis and Candida buinensis, inducing cellular agglomeration. However, it was ineffective against human pathogenic bacteria. We also investigated the potential of ILTI to permeabilize the plasma membrane of yeast cells. C. tropicalis and C. buinensis were incubated for 24 h with the ILTI at different concentrations, which showed that this inhibitor induced changes in the membranes of yeast cells, leading to their permeabilization. Interestingly, ILTI induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. tropicalis and C. buinensis cells. Finally, ILTI was coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and subsequent treatment of C. tropicalis and C. buinensis with DAPI revealed the presence of the labeled protein in the intracellular spaces. In conclusion, our results indicated the ability of peptidase inhibitors to induce microbial inhibition; therefore, they might offer templates for the design of new antifungal agents.

  19. Molecular cloning and insecticidal effect of Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor on Diatraea saccharalis and Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa da S; Cabrera, Odalys G; Camargo, Eduardo L O; Ambrósio, Alinne B; Vidal, Ramon O; da Silva, Desireé S; Guimarães, Lays C; Marangoni, Sérgio; Parra, José R P; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Macedo, Maria L R

    2012-11-01

    Native Inga laurina (Fabaceae) trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) was tested for anti-insect activity against Diatraea saccharalis and Heliothis virescens larvae. The addition of 0.1% ILTI to the diet of D. saccharalis did not alter larval survival but decreased larval weight by 51%. The H. virescens larvae that were fed a diet containing 0.5% ILTI showed an 84% decrease in weight. ILTI was not digested by the midgut proteinases of either species of larvae. The trypsin levels were reduced by 55.3% in the feces of D. saccharalis and increased by 24.1% in the feces of H. virescens. The trypsin activity in both species fed with ILTI was sensitive to the inhibitor, suggesting that no novel proteinase resistant to ILTI was induced. Additionally, ILTI exhibited inhibitory activity against the proteinases present in the larval midgut of different species of Lepidoptera. The organization of the ilti gene was elucidated by analyzing its corresponding genomic sequence. The recombinant ILTI protein (reILTI) was expressed and purified, and its efficacy was evaluated. Both native ILTI and reILTI exhibited a similar strong inhibitory effect on bovine trypsin activity. These results suggest that ILTI presents insecticidal properties against both insects and may thus be a useful tool in the genetic engineering of plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. FY16 Progress Report on Test Results In Support Of Integrated EPP and SMT Design Methods Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Jetter, Robert I.; Sham, T. -L.

    2016-08-08

    The proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology consists of incorporating an SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid using the creep-fatigue interaction diagram (the D diagram) and to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed code rules and to verify their applicability, a series of thermomechanical tests have been initiated. This report presents the recent test results for Type 2 SMT specimens on Alloy 617, Pressurization SMT on Alloy 617, Type 1 SMT on Gr. 91, and two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on Alloy 617 with a new thermal loading profile.

  1. Observation of 27 day solar cycles in the production and mesospheric descent of EPP-produced NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, K.; Megner, L.; Gumbel, J.; Siskind, D. E.; Orsolini, Y. J.; Tyssøy, H. Nesse; Hervig, M.

    2015-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region, and during the polar winter, NO can descend to stratospheric altitudes where it destroys ozone. In this paper, we study the general scenario, as opposed to a case study, of NO production in the thermosphere due to energetic particles in the auroral region. We first investigate the relationship between NO production and two geomagnetic indices. The analysis indicates that the auroral electrojet index is a more suitable proxy for EPP-produced NO than the typically used midlatitude Ap index. In order to study the production and downward transport of NO from the lower thermosphere to the mesosphere, we perform superposed epoch analyses on NO observations made by the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment instrument on board the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite. The epoch analysis clearly shows the impact of the 27 day solar cycle on NO production. The effect is observed down to an altitude range of about 50 km to 65 km, depending on the hemisphere and the occurrence of stratospheric warmings. Initially, a rapid downward transport is noted during the first 10 days after EPP onset to an altitude of about 80-85 km, which is then followed by a slower downward transport of approximately 1-1.2 km/d to lower mesospheric altitudes in the order of 30 days.

  2. Dependence of the photoluminescence of Tl 2InGaS 4 layered crystal on temperature and excitation intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasanly, N. M.; Serpengüzel, A.; Gürlü, O.; Aydınlı, A.; Yılmaz, İ.

    1998-10-01

    The emission band spectra of Tl 2InGaS 4 layered crystals were investigated in the 10-120 K temperature range and in the 540-860 nm wavelength range using photoluminescence (PL). The peak energy position of the emission band is located at 1.754 eV (707 nm) at 10 K. The emission band has a half-width of 0.28 eV and an asymmetric Gaussian lineshape. The increase of the half-width of the emission band, the blue shift of the emission band peak energy and the quenching of the PL with increasing temperature is explained using the configuration coordinate model. The blue shift of the emission band peak energy and the sublinear increase of the emission band intensity with increasing excitation intensity is explained using the inhomogenously spaced donor-acceptor pair recombination model.

  3. The foreign exchange market: return distributions, multifractality, anomalous multifractality and the Epps effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Rak, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    We present a systematic study of various statistical characteristics of high-frequency returns from the foreign exchange market. This study is based on six exchange rates forming two triangles: EUR-GBP-USD and GBP-CHF-JPY. It is shown that the exchange rate return fluctuations for all of the pairs considered are well described by the non-extensive statistics in terms of q-Gaussians. There exist some small quantitative variations in the non-extensivity q-parameter values for different exchange rates (which depend also on the time scales studied), and this can be related to the importance of a given exchange rate in the world's currency trade. Temporal correlations organize the series of returns such that they develop the multifractal characteristics for all of the exchange rates, with a varying degree of symmetry of the singularity spectrum f(α), however. The most symmetric spectrum is identified for the GBP/USD. We also form time series of triangular residual returns and find that the distributions of their fluctuations develop disproportionately heavier tails as compared to small fluctuations, which excludes description in terms of q-Gaussians. The multifractal characteristics of these residual returns reveal such anomalous properties as negative singularity exponents and even negative singularity spectra. Such anomalous multifractal measures have so far been considered in the literature in connection with diffusion-limited aggregation and with turbulence. Studying the cross-correlations among different exchange rates, we found that market inefficiency on short time scales leads to the occurrence of the Epps effect on much longer time scales, but comparable to the ones for the stock market. Although the currency market is much more liquid than the stock markets and has a much greater transaction frequency, the building up of correlations takes up to several hours—a duration that does not differ much from what is observed in the stock markets. This may suggest

  4. Rapid and sustained cognitive recovery in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by co-administration of EPPS and donepezil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin Vincent; Lee, Dongkeun K.; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Kim, YoungSoo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by sequential progression of pathological events, such as aggregation of amyloid-β proteins, followed by outward symptoms of cognitive impairments. Given that a combination of different therapeutic strategies often provides more rapid and effective outcomes in diverse areas of clinical treatment, we hypothesized that administration of anti-amyloid drugs with cognitive enhancers would result in synergistic effects in AD treatment. Here, we co-administered 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinepropane-sulphonic acid (EPPS), an amyloid-clearing chemical, and donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, to determine whether they could serve complementary roles for each other in regards to AD treatment. We found that oral administration of these two molecules led to a rapid and consistent cognitive improvement in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Although there was no evidence for synergistic effects, our results indicated that EPPS and donepezil function complementary to each other without altering their individual effects. Thus, the combined use of disease-modifying and symptomatic relief drugs may be a promising approach in the treatment of AD. PMID:27796293

  5. HEPPA-II model-measurement intercomparison project: EPP indirect effects during the dynamically perturbed NH winter 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Bernd; Ball, William; Bender, Stefan; Gardini, Angela; Harvey, V. Lynn; Lambert, Alyn; López-Puertas, Manuel; Marsh, Daniel R.; Meraner, Katharina; Nieder, Holger; Päivärinta, Sanna-Mari; Pérot, Kristell; Randall, Cora E.; Reddmann, Thomas; Rozanov, Eugene; Schmidt, Hauke; Seppälä, Annika; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Sukhodolov, Timofei; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Tsvetkova, Natalia D.; Verronen, Pekka T.; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Walker, Kaley A.; Yushkov, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    We compare simulations from three high-top (with upper lid above 120 km) and five medium-top (with upper lid around 80 km) atmospheric models with observations of odd nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2), temperature, and carbon monoxide from seven satellite instruments (ACE-FTS on SciSat, GOMOS, MIPAS, and SCIAMACHY on Envisat, MLS on Aura, SABER on TIMED, and SMR on Odin) during the Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar winter 2008/2009. The models included in the comparison are the 3-D chemistry transport model 3dCTM, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the modelling tools for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and CAO-SOCOL), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The comparison focuses on the energetic particle precipitation (EPP) indirect effect, that is, the polar winter descent of NOx largely produced by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A particular emphasis is given to the impact of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in January 2009 and the subsequent elevated stratopause (ES) event associated with enhanced descent of mesospheric air. The chemistry climate model simulations have been nudged toward reanalysis data in the troposphere and stratosphere while being unconstrained above. An odd nitrogen upper boundary condition obtained from MIPAS observations has further been applied to medium-top models. Most models provide a good representation of the mesospheric tracer descent in general, and the EPP indirect effect in particular, during the unperturbed (pre-SSW) period of the NH winter 2008/2009. The observed NOx descent into the lower mesosphere and stratosphere is generally reproduced within 20 %. Larger discrepancies of a few model simulations could be traced back either to the impact of the models' gravity wave drag scheme on the polar wintertime meridional circulation or

  6. The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) Project: A Longitudinal Study Funded by the DfEE, 1997-2003. Technical Papers 1-6a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London Univ. (England). Inst. of Education.

    This document is comprised of six technical reports detailing the methods and findings of the first major study in the United Kingdom to focus on the effectiveness of early years education. The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education Project (EPPE) studies the progress and development of 3,000 children in various types of preschool and…

  7. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  8. Updates to the Spectrum/Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) model to estimate HIV trends for adults and children.

    PubMed

    Stover, John; Brown, Tim; Marston, Milly

    2012-12-01

    The Spectrum and Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) programs are used to estimate key HIV indicators based on HIV surveillance and surveys, programme statistics and epidemic patterns. These indicators include the number of people living with HIV, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, the number of adults and children needing treatment, the need for preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and the impact of antiretroviral treatment on survival. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) Reference Group on Estimates, Models and Projections regularly reviews new data and information needs and recommends updates to the methodology and assumptions used in Spectrum. The latest updates described here were used in the 2011 round of global estimates. Spectrum and EPP have now been combined into one software package to enhance ease of use and ensure consistent data and assumptions for the curve fitting and indicator estimations. Major enhancements to the methods include a new adult model that tracks the HIV+ population by CD4 count; new patterns describing child survival by time of infection (perinatally, <6 months, 7-12 months and 12+ months after birth); a more detailed estimate of mother-to-child transmission that includes differential transmission rates by CD4 count of the mother, the effects of incident infections and new prophylaxis options; and new procedures to estimate uncertainty ranges around regional estimates. The revised model and software facilitate the preparation of new HIV estimates and use new data to address emerging needs for better information on need for treatment among adults and children.

  9. Updates to the Spectrum/Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) model to estimate HIV trends for adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Stover, John; Brown, Tim; Marston, Milly

    2012-01-01

    Background The Spectrum and Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) programs are used to estimate key HIV indicators based on HIV surveillance and surveys, programme statistics and epidemic patterns. These indicators include the number of people living with HIV, new infections, AIDS deaths, AIDS orphans, the number of adults and children needing treatment, the need for preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and the impact of antiretroviral treatment on survival. Methods The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) Reference Group on Estimates, Models and Projections regularly reviews new data and information needs and recommends updates to the methodology and assumptions used in Spectrum. The latest updates described here were used in the 2011 round of global estimates. Results Spectrum and EPP have now been combined into one software package to enhance ease of use and ensure consistent data and assumptions for the curve fitting and indicator estimations. Major enhancements to the methods include a new adult model that tracks the HIV+ population by CD4 count; new patterns describing child survival by time of infection (perinatally, <6 months, 7–12 months and 12+ months after birth); a more detailed estimate of mother-to-child transmission that includes differential transmission rates by CD4 count of the mother, the effects of incident infections and new prophylaxis options; and new procedures to estimate uncertainty ranges around regional estimates. Conclusions The revised model and software facilitate the preparation of new HIV estimates and use new data to address emerging needs for better information on need for treatment among adults and children. PMID:23172341

  10. Growth responses and accumulation of soluble sugars in Inga marginata Wild. (Fabaceae) subjected to flooding under contrasting light conditions.

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Capellesso, E S; Lottici, M E; Sentkovski, J; Mielniczki-Pereira, A A; Rosa, L M G; Sausen, T L

    2016-08-15

    Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.

  11. Beyond the pollination syndrome: nectar ecology and the role of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in the reproductive success of Inga sessilis (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Amorim, F W; Galetto, L; Sazima, M

    2013-03-01

    Inga species present brush-type flower morphology allowing them to be visited by distinct groups of pollinators. Nectar features in relation to the main pollinators have seldom been studied in this genus. To test the hypothesis of floral adaptation to both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the pollination ecology of Inga sessilis, with emphasis on the nectar secretion patterns, effects of sequential removals on nectar production, sugar composition and the role of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in its reproductive success. Inga sessilis is self-incompatible and pollinated by hummingbirds, hawkmoths and bats. Fruit set under natural conditions is very low despite the fact that most stigmas receive polyads with sufficient pollen to fertilise all ovules in a flower. Nectar secretion starts in the bud stage and flowers continually secreting nectar for a period of 8 h. Flowers actively reabsorbed the nectar a few hours before senescence. Sugar production increased after nectar removal, especially when flowers were drained during the night. Nectar sugar composition changed over flower life span, from sucrose-dominant (just after flower opening, when hummingbirds were the main visitors) to hexose-rich (throughout the night, when bats and hawkmoths were the main visitors). Diurnal pollinators contributed less than nocturnal ones to fruit production, but the former were more constant and reliable visitors through time. Our results indicate I. sessilis has floral adaptations, beyond the morphology, that encompass both diurnal and nocturnal pollinator requirements, suggesting a complementary and mixed pollination system. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Genetic and Ecological Outcomes of Inga vera Subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) Tree Plantations in a Fragmented Tropical Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V.; Twyford, Alex D.; Neaves, Linda E.; Pennington, R. Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V.

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = −0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing. PMID:24932729

  13. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    PubMed

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  14. Seasonal variation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabiana B; de Aquino, Francisco J T; Nascimento, Evandro A; de M Martins, Carla; de Morais, Sérgio A L; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C S; Leandro, Luís F; Martins, Carlos H G; Martins, Mário M; da Silva, Claudio V; Machado, Fabrício C; de Oliveira, Alberto

    2014-04-11

    The seasonal chemical composition of essential oils from Inga laurina was determined by GC/MS. In the stem bark's essential oil extracted during the dry season, the presence of terpenoids (30.05%) stood out, and phytol (9.76%) was the major compound identified. For the stem bark oil obtained during the rainy season, in addition to terpenoids (26.63%), a large amount of fatty acids (46.84%) were identified, in particular palmitic acid (25.40%). Regarding the leaves' essential oil obtained in the dry season, esters (42.35%) were the main components. The main ester present was (Z)-hex-3-enyl benzoate (10.15%) and the major compound of this oil was (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol (14.23%). Terpenoids (33.84%), long-chain alkanes (27.04%) and fatty acids (21.72%) were the main components of the essential oil from leaves in the rainy season. Phytol (33.21%), nonacosane (21.95%) and palmitic acid (15.20%) were the major compounds identified. The antimicrobial activity against aerobic and anaerobic oral bacteria was evaluated by the microdilution broth method and cytotoxic activity was carried out with Vero cells. The essential oils from the rainy season showed a better inhibition of the bacterial growth with Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) values of 25 or 50 µg·mL⁻¹ for aerobic bacteria, and high selectivity against bacteria was observed. The large amount of fatty acids in rainy season oils may be related to the better inhibitory effects observed.

  15. How detrimental are seed galls to their hosts? Plant performance, germination, developmental instability and tolerance to herbivory in Inga laurina, a leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Santos, J C; de Araujo, N A V; Venâncio, H; Andrade, J F; Alves-Silva, E; Almeida, W R; Carmo-Oliveira, R

    2016-11-01

    Gall inducers use these structures as shelters and sources of nutrition. Consequently, they cause multiple physiological changes in host plants. We studied the impact caused by seed coat galls of a braconid wasp on the performance of fruits, seeds and seedlings of tree Inga laurina. We tested whether these seed galls are 'nutrient sinks' with respect to the fruit/seed of host plant, and so constrain the reproductive ability and reduce seedling longevity. We measured the influence of such galls on the secondary compounds, fruit and seed parameters, seed viability and germination and seedling performance. Inga laurina has indehiscent legumes with polyembryonic seeds surrounded by a fleshy sarcotesta rich in sugars. The galls formed inside the seed coat and galled tissues presented higher phenol concentrations, around 7-fold that of ungalled tissues. Galls caused a significant reduction in parameters such as fruit and seed size, seed weight and the number of embryos. Fluctuating asymmetry (a stress indicator) was 31% higher in leaves of galled seed plants in comparison to ungalled seed plants. However, the negative effects on fruit and seed parameters were not sufficient to reduce seed germination (except the synchronization index) or seedling performance (except leaf area and chlorophyll content). We attributed these results to the ability of I. laurina to tolerate gall attack on seeds without a marked influence on seedling performance. Moreover, because of the intensity of seed galling on host plant, we suggest that polyembryony may play a role in I. laurina reproduction increasing tolerance to seed damage. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in defensive metabolites define chemical defense investment during leaf development in Inga, a genus of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Natasha L; Forrister, Dale L; Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by herbivores are often positively correlated with investments that plants make in defense. Research based on the framework of an evolutionary arms race has improved our understanding of why the amount and types of defenses differ between plant species. However, plant species are exposed to different selective pressures during the life of a leaf, such that expanding leaves suffer more damage from herbivores and pathogens than mature leaves. We hypothesize that this differential selective pressure may result in contrasting quantitative and qualitative defense investment in plants exposed to natural selective pressures in the field. To characterize shifts in chemical defenses, we chose six species of Inga, a speciose Neotropical tree genus. Focal species represent diverse chemical, morphological, and developmental defense traits and were collected from a single site in the Amazonian rainforest. Chemical defenses were measured gravimetrically and by characterizing the metabolome of expanding and mature leaves. Quantitative investment in phenolics plus saponins, the major classes of chemical defenses identified in Inga, was greater for expanding than mature leaves (46% and 24% of dry weight, respectively). This supports the theory that, because expanding leaves are under greater selective pressure from herbivores, they rely more upon chemical defense as an antiherbivore strategy than do mature leaves. Qualitatively, mature and expanding leaves were distinct and mature leaves contained more total and unique metabolites. Intraspecific variation was greater for mature leaves than expanding leaves, suggesting that leaf development is canalized. This study provides a snapshot of chemical defense investment in a speciose genus of tropical trees during the short, few-week period of leaf development. Exploring the metabolome through quantitative and qualitative profiling enables a more comprehensive examination of foliar chemical defense investment.

  17. Reversion of multidrug resistance in the P-glycoprotein-positive human pancreatic cell line (EPP85-181RDB) by introduction of a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Holm, P. S.; Scanlon, K. J.; Dietel, M.

    1994-01-01

    A major problem in cytostatic treatment of many tumours is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR4). This is most often accompanied by the overexpression of a membrane transport protein, P-glycoprotein, and its encoding mRNA. In order to reverse the resistant phenotype in cell cultures, we constructed a specific hammerhead ribozyme possessing catalytic activity that cleaves the 3'-end of the GUC sequence in codon 880 of the mdr1 mRNA. We demonstrated that the constructed ribozyme is able to cleave a reduced substrate mdr1 mRNA at the GUC position under physiological conditions in a cell-free system. A DNA sequence encoding the ribozyme gene was then incorporated into a mammalian expression vector (pH beta APr-1 neo) and transfected into the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line EPP85-181RDB, which is resistant to daunorubicin and expresses the MDR phenotype. The expressed ribozyme decreased the level of mdr1 mRNA expression, inhibited the formation of P-glycoprotein and reduced the cell's resistance to daunorubicin dramatically; this means that the resistant cells were 1,600-fold more resistant than the parental cell line (EPP85-181P), whereas those cell clones that showed ribozyme expression were only 5.3-fold more resistant than the parental cell line. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:7914421

  18. Morphology, ultrastructure and mineral uptake is affected by copper toxicity in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana (Benth.) T.D. Penn.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tielle Abreu; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Oliveira, Sérgio José Ribeiro; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Souza, Vânia Lima; Dos Santos Silva, José Victor; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio

    2015-10-01

    Toxic effects of copper (Cu) were analyzed in young plants of Inga subnuda subs. luschnathiana, a species that is highly tolerant to flooding and found in Brazil in wetlands contaminated with Cu. Plants were cultivated in fully nutritive solution, containing different concentrations of Cu (from 0.08 μmol to 0.47 mmol L(-1)). Symptoms of Cu toxicity were observed in both leaves and roots of plants cultivated from 0.16 mmol Cu L(-1). In the leaves, Cu clearly induced alterations in the thickness of the epidermis, mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, and intercellular space of the lacunose parenchyma. Also, this metal induced disorganization in thylakoid membranes, internal and external membrane rupture in chloroplasts, mitochondrial alterations, and electrodense material deposition in vacuoles of the parenchyma and cell walls. The starch grains disappeared; however, an increase of plastoglobule numbers was observed according to Cu toxicity. In the roots, destruction of the epidermis, reduction of the intercellular space, and modifications in the format of initial cells of the external cortex were evident. Cell walls and endoderm had been broken, invaginations of tonoplast and vacuole retractions were found, and, again, electrodense material was observed in these sites. Mineral nutrient analysis revealed higher Cu accumulation in the roots and greater macro- and micronutrients accumulation into shoots. Thus, root morphological and ultrastructural changes induced differential nutrients uptake and their translocations from root toward shoots, and this was related to membrane and endoderm ruptures caused by Cu toxicity.

  19. Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP) or Protoporphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Europe and is under consideration by the United States Food and Drug Administration (2016). The long-term ... five of the leading porphyria centers in the United States. Staff includes physicians, researchers, research coordinators, and technical ...

  20. Inga Fischer-Hjalmars (1918-2008): Swedish Pharmacist, Humanist, and Pioneer Quantum Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Adam Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of questions can be asked about the molecules that compose the physical reality around us and constitute biological life. Some of these questions are answered by the science called biology, others find their answer in chemistry, whereas the answers to the most fundamental questions are only to be found in the theories of physics.…

  1. Inga Fischer-Hjalmars (1918-2008): Swedish Pharmacist, Humanist, and Pioneer Quantum Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Adam Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of questions can be asked about the molecules that compose the physical reality around us and constitute biological life. Some of these questions are answered by the science called biology, others find their answer in chemistry, whereas the answers to the most fundamental questions are only to be found in the theories of physics.…

  2. 78 FR 27188 - Proposed Information Collection-Renewal; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Number of Respondents: 3,004. Estimated Time per Response: Student and Performance Measures Tracking... assesses student data and information for the purpose of selecting successful candidates, generating... to its student scholarship programs to complete an application for NOAA undergraduate scholarship...

  3. Antimicrobial Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF) Containing Biocellulose Membranes as Promising Biomaterial for Skin Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Barud, Hernane da Silva; de Araújo Júnior, Adalberto Miguel; Saska, Sybele; Mestieri, Letícia Boldrin; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Gaspar, Ana Maria Minarelli; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima

    2013-01-01

    Among remarkable discoveries concerning propolis, such as antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, its anti-inflammatory, and mainly its antibacterial, properties deserve special attention when skin wound healing is concerned. Based on this and knowing the distinctive performance of bacterial (BC) membranes on wound healing, in this work it is proposed to demonstrate the potent antimicrobial activity and wound healing properties of a novel propolis containing biocellulose membrane. The obtained propolis/BC membrane was able to adsorb propolis not only on the surface, but also in its interstices demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravidimetric assays. Additionally, the polyphenolic compounds determination and the prominent antibacterial activity in the membrane are demonstrated to be dose dependent, supporting the possibility of obtaining propolis/BC membranes at the desired concentrations, taking into consideration its application and its skin residence time. Finally, it could be suggested that propolis/BC membrane may favor tissue repair in less time and more effectively in contaminated wounds. PMID:23840264

  4. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-09-03

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients' full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs.

  5. Antimicrobial Brazilian Propolis (EPP-AF) Containing Biocellulose Membranes as Promising Biomaterial for Skin Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Barud, Hernane da Silva; de Araújo Júnior, Adalberto Miguel; Saska, Sybele; Mestieri, Letícia Boldrin; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; Ferreira, Nathália Ursoli; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Miguel, Felipe Galeti; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Barizon, Edna Aparecida; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Gaspar, Ana Maria Minarelli; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Among remarkable discoveries concerning propolis, such as antifungal, antiviral, and antioxidant activities, its anti-inflammatory, and mainly its antibacterial, properties deserve special attention when skin wound healing is concerned. Based on this and knowing the distinctive performance of bacterial (BC) membranes on wound healing, in this work it is proposed to demonstrate the potent antimicrobial activity and wound healing properties of a novel propolis containing biocellulose membrane. The obtained propolis/BC membrane was able to adsorb propolis not only on the surface, but also in its interstices demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermogravidimetric assays. Additionally, the polyphenolic compounds determination and the prominent antibacterial activity in the membrane are demonstrated to be dose dependent, supporting the possibility of obtaining propolis/BC membranes at the desired concentrations, taking into consideration its application and its skin residence time. Finally, it could be suggested that propolis/BC membrane may favor tissue repair in less time and more effectively in contaminated wounds.

  6. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinícius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  7. Active and Progressive Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Using Multisource Information Fusion From EMG and Force-Position EPP.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanjie; Yin, Yuehong

    2013-12-01

    Although exoskeletons have received enormous attention and have been widely used in gait training and walking assistance in recent years, few reports addressed their application during early poststroke rehabilitation. This paper presents a healthcare technology for active and progressive early rehabilitation using multisource information fusion from surface electromyography and force-position extended physiological proprioception. The active-compliance control based on interaction force between patient and exoskeleton is applied to accelerate the recovery of the neuromuscular function, whereby progressive treatment through timely evaluation contributes to an effective and appropriate physical rehabilitation. Moreover, a clinic-oriented rehabilitation system, wherein a lower extremity exoskeleton with active compliance is mounted on a standing bed, is designed to ensure comfortable and secure rehabilitation according to the structure and control requirements. Preliminary experiments and clinical trial demonstrate valuable information on the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the progressive exoskeleton-assisted training.

  8. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  9. 78 FR 48417 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Educational Partnership Program (EPP), Ernest F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... the purpose of selecting successful candidates, generating internal NOAA reports and articles to... NOAA for internal tracking purposes. NOAA OEd grantees are required to update the student tracker database with the required student information. In addition, the collected student data supports NOAA...

  10. Band-Gap Design of Quaternary (In,Ga) (As,Sb) Semiconductors via the Inverse-Band-Structure Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Piquini, P.; Graf, P. A.; Zunger. A.

    2008-01-01

    Quaternary systems illustrated by (Ga,In)(As,Sb) manifest a huge configurational space, offering in principle the possibility of designing structures that are lattice matched to a given substrate and have given electronic properties (e.g., band gap) at more than one composition. Such specific configurations were however, hitherto, unidentified. We show here that using a genetic-algorithm search with a pseudopotential Inverse-band-structure (IBS) approach it is possible to identify those configurations that are naturally lattice matching (to GaSb) and have a specific band gap (310 meV) at more than one composition. This is done by deviating from randomness, allowing the IBS to find a partial atomic ordering. This illustrates multitarget design of the electronic structure of multinary systems.

  11. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  12. Diaphragmatic Herniation through Prosthetic Material after Extrapleural Pneumonectomy: Be Aware of Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Daniel; Cohen, Charlotte; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Nadeemy, Ahmad S.; Venissac, Nicolas; Mouroux, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is indicated in selected group of patients with pleural mesothelioma. Diaphragmatic reconstruction represents a part of this complex operation. We present the case of a late diaphragmatic gastric herniation through prosthetic material after EPP. PMID:25360411

  13. 77 FR 19835 - Grant of Individual Exemption Involving BlackRock, Inc. and Its Investment Advisory, Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... with the cooperation of both the Exemption Compliance Officer (ECO) and the Independent Monitor (IM... by such transgressions (EPP Corrections). The ECO will make a written determination as to whether such transgressions require EPP Correction, and, if the ECO determines an EPP Correction is required...

  14. An Investigation of Sex Differences and Social Desirability in the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiany, Frances E.; Mulgrave, Norman W.

    Subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1 took the entire Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). Group 2 rated the individual items from the EPPS using the original definitions of social desirability and personal desirability. Group 3 rated the individual items from the EPPS using redefinitions of social and personal desirability.…

  15. Erikson and Early Childhood Educators: Looking at Ourselves and Our Profession Developmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Erikson's theory of developmentally appropriate curriculum and the eight stages of the life cycle. Provides brief descriptions of these stages and some possible professional applications that early childhood educators can use in pursuing professional development. (MOK)

  16. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  17. Children and Cycle Helmets: The Case For.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibert, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon a review of the literature, claims that bicycle helmets help prevent injury and should be mandated by legislation. Provides evidence of the effectiveness of helmets as well as problems associated with using them. Contains 17 references. (MOK)

  18. On Blocks and Broccoli: How to Organize Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Compares the organization of supermarkets to classroom environments. Emphasizes the efficient use of space with the use of containers, keeping materials in place, and grouping objects together. Provides suggestions on the use of color and adding storage space. (MOK)

  19. Good Afternoon, Sunshine! Protecting Children from Ultraviolet Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certo, Delaine

    1996-01-01

    Notes caregivers' responsibility to protect children from too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the potential for melanoma. Provides suggestions on how to prevent children from sunburn and skin cancer, including the proper way to apply sunscreen. (MOK)

  20. On Blocks and Broccoli: How to Organize Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Compares the organization of supermarkets to classroom environments. Emphasizes the efficient use of space with the use of containers, keeping materials in place, and grouping objects together. Provides suggestions on the use of color and adding storage space. (MOK)

  1. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  2. Good Afternoon, Sunshine! Protecting Children from Ultraviolet Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Certo, Delaine

    1996-01-01

    Notes caregivers' responsibility to protect children from too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the potential for melanoma. Provides suggestions on how to prevent children from sunburn and skin cancer, including the proper way to apply sunscreen. (MOK)

  3. Electromagnetic Analysis of ITER Diagnostic Equatorial Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Zhai, R. Feder, A. Brooks, M. Ulrickson, C.S. Pitcher and G.D. Loesser

    2012-08-27

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functionsincluding structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to the plasma. The design of diagnostic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate responses of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs), Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  4. Electromagnetic Analysis For The Design Of ITER Diagnostic Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Y

    2014-03-03

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to plasma. The design of diagnotic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate response of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs). Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  5. Comments on compressible effects on Alfven normal modes in nonuniform plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mok, Y.; Einaudi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the regime of validity of the theory of dissipative Alfven normal modes presented by Mok and Einaudi (1985) and Einaudi and Mok (1985), which was based on the incompressible closure of the system of ideal MHD equations. Some simple extensions of the earlier results to the compressible case are described. In addition, certain misunderstandings of this work, which have appeared in other papers, are clarified.

  6. Erythropoietic protoporphyria without skin symptoms-you do not always see what they feel

    PubMed Central

    Lecluse, Anne L. Y.; van Weelden, Huib; Sigurdsson, Vigfus; Russel, Ingrid M.; Frank, Jorge; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of the porphyrin metabolism that often remains undiagnosed in children. We report on a 4-year-old girl who had been suffering for 1 year from recurrent painful crises affecting her hands, feet, and nose following sun exposure. Objective skin lesions were absent until the age of 6. Porphyrin analysis revealed elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels confirming the diagnosis of EPP. This illustrates that skin lesions might be completely absent in children affected with EPP, a fact that has only been reported once previously. Because EPP can manifest with few and unspecific cutaneous symptoms or no skin lesions at all, like in this patient, the diagnosis of EPP might be delayed or missed. EPP should be excluded in all photosensitive children, especially when discomfort is disproportionate to the extent of the cutaneous lesions. The clinic, pathophysiology, diagnosis, complications, and therapy of EPP are discussed. PMID:17710435

  7. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  8. Summer monsoon onset over Kerala: New definition and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, D. S.; Nair, Rajeevan M.

    2009-04-01

    The summer monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK) marks the beginning of the rainy season for the country. Associated with the MOK, significant transitions of large scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns are observed over the Asia-Pacific region. In this study, a new method for the objective identification of MOK, based on large scale circulation features and rainfall over Kerala, is discussed. Further, a set of empirical models based on the principal component regression (PCR) technique was developed for the prediction of the date of MOK by keeping in mind the IMD’s operational forecasting service requirements. Predictors for the models were derived using correlation analysis from the thermal, convective and circulation patterns. Only five predictors pertaining to the second half of April were used in the first model (Model-1) so that the prediction of MOK can be prepared by the end of April itself. The second model (Model-2) used four additional predictors pertaining up to the first half of May along with two predictors used in the Model-1 for update prediction at the end of the first half of May. To develop each of the PCR models, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the respective predictor data was carried out followed by regression analysis of first two principal components (PCs) with the date of MOK. Both these models showed good skill in predicting the date of MOK during the independent test period of 1997-2007. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the predictions from both the models during the independent test period was about four days which was nearly half the RMSE of the predictions based on climatology.

  9. Efficacy of extra-peritoneal pelvic packing in hemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures, a Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiara, Osvaldo; di Fratta, Emanuele; Mariani, Anna; Michaela, Bertuzzi; Prestini, Lucia; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Cimbanassi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    An option for emergency control of pelvic hemorrhage is Extra-peritoneal Pelvic Packing (EPP), which addresses the retroperitoneal source of exsanguination in pelvic fractures. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of early EPP in reducing mortality due to hemorrhage from pelvic fractures, and to evaluate the impact of packing on transfusion requirements within the first 24 h and ICU length of stay (ICU-LOS). All data pertaining trauma patients admitted from October 2002 and December 2103 with hemodynamic instability and pelvic fractures were selected from the Hospital Trauma Registry. Patients with severe brain injury and bleeding from extra-pelvic sources were excluded. Patient population was divided into two groups: EPP group, including patients admitted from 2009 to 2013, with EPP as part of the treatment algorithm, and NO-EPP group, from 2002 to 2008, without EPP as atherapeutic option. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed on allpatients. Twenty-five patients of each group with similar features were matched using Propensity Score Analysis (PSA). Six hundred eighty out of 4659 major trauma (14.6 %) presented a pelvic fracture. In 78 hemodynamically unstable patients (30 in EPP group,48 in NO-EPP group) the major source of bleeding was the pelvis. Among patients selected by PSA early mortality was significantly reduced in EPP group (20 vs 52 %, p = .03) compared to NO-EPP, notwithstanding similar hemodynamic impairment. No difference was observed in transfusion requirements and ICU-LOS. The EPP is a safe and quick procedure, able to improve hemodynamic stabilization and to reduce acute mortality due to hemorrhage in patients with pelvic fracture, in combination with optimized transfusion protocol. EPP may be useful as a bridge for time-consuming procedures, such as angio-embolization.

  10. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  11. Erythropoietic protoporphyria patients in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Marko, P B; Miljković, J; Gorenjak, M; Povalej, P; Kansky, A

    2007-09-01

    There are only scarce epidemiological data on the prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) in a given population. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of EPP within the Slovenian population. The patients were selected by routine examination of photosensitive patients and by studying hospital records. A quantitative spectrophotometric method was used to assess protoporphyrin, with values larger than 530 nm/l considered elevated. 32 EPP patients were detected, which allows us to estimate the prevalence of EPP in Slovenia at 1.75 per 100,000 inhabitants.

  12. Cleaning Products Pilot Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This 1997 case study documents a three-year effort to identify and compare environmentally preferable commercial cleaning products and to implement the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP).

  13. The Teaching of the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educator Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Marvin; Thompson, J. Ray; Templeton, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative research study was to answer three basic informational questions: (1) To what extent ethics training, as stipulated in Texas Administrative Code Chapter 247, was included in the EPP curriculum; (2) To what extent Texas public universities with approved EPP programs provided faculty opportunities for…

  14. Extrapair paternity rates vary with latitude and elevation in emberizid sparrows.

    PubMed

    Bonier, Frances; Eikenaar, Cas; Martin, Paul R; Moore, Ignacio T

    2014-01-01

    Mating systems can vary among species and populations and thus influence evolutionary trajectories, ecological traits, and population demography. The siring of offspring by an extrapair male, or extrapair paternity (EPP), is a widespread and varied phenomenon in all vertebrate classes. However, we do not understand all of the factors associated with variation in EPP rates. The breeding synchrony hypothesis suggests that EPP rates should increase with latitude and elevation, whereas the paternal care hypothesis predicts that EPP rates should decrease with elevation. To address these hypotheses, we investigated how population EPP rates vary over elevation and latitude in emberizid sparrows. In comparative analyses including the effects of phylogeny, the relationship between EPP rates and elevation depended on latitude. EPP rates were greater in higher-latitude populations. But within higher-latitude populations, EPP rates decreased with increasing elevation. These findings provide support for both the breeding synchrony and paternal care hypotheses, suggesting that in lower-latitude, higher-elevation populations, the need for male parental care does not outweigh the benefits of seeking extrapair fertilizations in populations with relatively synchronous breeding. In contrast, at higher-latitude, higher-elevation sites, the need for male parental care is greater and might drive lower rates of extrapair mating despite highly synchronous breeding.

  15. Early Identification of Special Educational Needs and the Definition of "At Risk": The Early Years Transition and Special Educational Needs (EYTSEN) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Brenda; Sammons, Pam; Smees, Rebecca; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Elliot, Karen; Lunt, Ingrid

    2006-01-01

    Education in the early years is a key element in the Government's current strategy. Recently, the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) funded a major study of Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE). The Early Years Transition and Special Educational Needs (EYTSEN) Project developed from the EPPE research and was also funded by…

  16. Extractable and non-extractable polyphenols from blueberries modulate LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 macrophages via the NF-κB signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anwei; Han, Caijing; Fang, Xixiu; Sun, Jinyue; Chen, Xiangyan; Wan, Fachun

    2016-08-01

    Plant polyphenols are rich in blueberries that have a wide range of properties beneficial to human health. There are two types, according to the solubility of polyphenols, which were defined as extractable polyphenols (EPP) and non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP), respectively. At present, in most of reports, 'total polyphenol' refers only to EPP excluding NEPP. In this paper, the effects of EPP and NEPP on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW264.7 cells via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway were compared. The results showed that EPP and NEPP from blueberries significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO and gene expression of iNOS and COX-2 in cells. The constitutive level of p65 sub-unit of NF-κB was obviously detected after the treatments with EPP or NEPP. By contrast, the level of phosphorylated p65 (P-p65) was strongly inhibited by EPP or NEPP. EPP had a stronger inhibition on the gene expression of iNOS and COX-2 than that of NEPP. These findings of inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression through the suppression of NF-κB suggest that EPP and ENPP from blueberries have significant anti-inflammatory effect and may be a potential medicine. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Dependency Axiom and the Relation between Agreement and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares Scarcerieau, Carlo Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Agreement and movement go hand in hand in a number of constructions across languages, and this correlation has played an important role in syntactic theory. The current standard approach to this "movement-agreement connection" is the Agree+EPP model, whose EPP component has often been questioned on conceptual grounds. The goal of this…

  18. Systematic analysis of molecular defects in the ferrochelatase gene from patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed Central

    Rüfenacht, U B; Gouya, L; Schneider-Yin, X; Puy, H; Schäfer, B W; Aquaron, R; Nordmann, Y; Minder, E I; Deybach, J C

    1998-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP; MIM 177000) is an inherited disorder caused by partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), the last enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. In EPP patients, the FECH deficiency causes accumulation of free protoporphyrin in the erythron, associated with a painful skin photosensitivity. In rare cases, the massive accumulation of protoporphyrin in hepatocytes may lead to a rapidly progressive liver failure. The mode of inheritance in EPP is complex and can be either autosomal dominant with low clinical penetrance, as it is in most cases, or autosomal recessive. To acquire an in-depth knowledge of the genetic basis of EPP, we conducted a systematic mutation analysis of the FECH gene, following a procedure that combines the exon-by-exon denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis screening of the FECH genomic DNA and direct sequencing. Twenty different mutations, 15 of which are newly described here, have been characterized in 26 of 29 EPP patients of Swiss and French origin. All the EPP patients, including those with liver complications, were heterozygous for the mutations identified in the FECH gene. The deleterious effect of all missense mutations has been assessed by bacterial expression of the respective FECH cDNAs generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutations leading to a null allele were a common feature among three EPP pedigrees with liver complications. Our systematic molecular study has resulted in a significant enlargement of the mutation repertoire in the FECH gene and has shed new light on the hereditary behavior of EPP. PMID:9585598

  19. A Comparative Evaluation of E-Learning and Traditional Pedagogical Process Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavpotic, Damjan; Zvanut, Bostjan; Trobec, Irena

    2013-01-01

    In modern pedagogical processes various teaching methods and approaches (elements of the pedagogical process -- EPPs) are used ranging from traditional ones (e.g., lectures, books) to more recent ones (e.g., e-discussion boards, e-quizzes). Different models for evaluation of the appropriateness of EPPs have been proposed in the past. However, the…

  20. The Dependency Axiom and the Relation between Agreement and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares Scarcerieau, Carlo Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Agreement and movement go hand in hand in a number of constructions across languages, and this correlation has played an important role in syntactic theory. The current standard approach to this "movement-agreement connection" is the Agree+EPP model, whose EPP component has often been questioned on conceptual grounds. The goal of this…

  1. Reducing School Factors That Lead to Student Dropout at Sussex Central High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerns, Pamela Renee

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is to address the dropout rate at Sussex Central High School (SCHS) in the Indian River School District (IRSD). Studies conducted for this EPP align with current research--student dropout is a result of culminating school-based factors that include poor attendance and lack of exposure to rigorous…

  2. The Development of a Comprehensive Intervention Plan for Millsboro Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, LouAnn

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is school improvement through the development and implementation a comprehensive, research-based, intervention plan for Millsboro Middle School (MMS) in the Indian River School District (IRSD). Studies conducted for this EPP began with an informal investigation of MMS data that included the Delaware…

  3. Educational Partnerships Program: Analysis of Project Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzberger, Jacqueline P.

    An eight-part descriptive analysis is presented of the 18 projects funded through OERI's Educational Partnerships Program (EPP) in September of 1990. The EPP supports alliances between public schools and/or higher education and the private sector to encourage excellence in education. The 18 projects include: Anchorage Vocational Academic Institute…

  4. Energetic particle precipitation effects on the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere in 1992-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Singleton, C. S.; Bailey, S. M.; Bernath, P. F.; Codrescu, M.; Nakajima, H.; Russell, J. M.

    2007-04-01

    Measurements from several different satellite instruments are used to estimate effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) on NOx (NO + NO2) in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere from 1992 to 2005. The focus is the EPP Indirect Effect (IE), whereby NOx produced in the mesosphere or thermosphere via EPP (EPP-NOx) descends to the stratosphere during the polar winter, where it can participate in catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-NOx entering the stratosphere is found to vary in magnitude from 0.1 to 2.6 gigamoles per year, with maximum values occurring in 1994 and 2003. The interannual variation correlates strongly with several measures of EPP activity, including auroral and medium energy electron hemispheric power, and satellite measurements of thermospheric NO. This represents the first estimation of EPP-NOx contributions to the stratospheric odd nitrogen budget using observations over an entire solar cycle. The results will be useful for evaluating and constraining global models to investigate coupling of the upper and lower atmosphere by the EPP IE, including any influences this might have on ozone trends and possibly on climate.

  5. Ear Playing and Aural Development in the Instrumental Lesson: Results from a "Case-Control" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David; Green, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a case-control experiment that was conducted in 2012 as part of the Ear Playing Project (EPP) at the Institute of Education, University of London. The EPP developed from the "informal learning" strand of Musical Futures and engaged instrumental students in the UK in learning from specially-created audio recordings…

  6. Ear Playing and Aural Development in the Instrumental Lesson: Results from a "Case-Control" Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David; Green, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a case-control experiment that was conducted in 2012 as part of the Ear Playing Project (EPP) at the Institute of Education, University of London. The EPP developed from the "informal learning" strand of Musical Futures and engaged instrumental students in the UK in learning from specially-created audio recordings…

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of E-Learning and Traditional Pedagogical Process Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavpotic, Damjan; Zvanut, Bostjan; Trobec, Irena

    2013-01-01

    In modern pedagogical processes various teaching methods and approaches (elements of the pedagogical process -- EPPs) are used ranging from traditional ones (e.g., lectures, books) to more recent ones (e.g., e-discussion boards, e-quizzes). Different models for evaluation of the appropriateness of EPPs have been proposed in the past. However, the…

  8. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Improving class separability using extended pixel planes: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Orlov, Nikita V.; Eckley, D. Mark; Shamir, Lior; Goldberg, Ilya G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we explored class separability in feature spaces built on extended representations of pixel planes (EPP) produced using scale pyramid, subband pyramid, and image transforms. The image transforms included Chebyshev, Fourier, wavelets, gradient and Laplacian; we also utilized transform combinations, including Fourier, Chebyshev and wavelets of the gradient transform, as well as Fourier of the Laplacian transform. We demonstrate that all three types of EPP promote class separation. We also explored the effect of EPP on suboptimal feature libraries, using only textural features in one case and only Haralick features in another. The effect of EPP was especially clear for these suboptimal libraries, where the transform-based representations were found to increase separability to a greater extent than scale or subband pyramids. EPP can be particularly useful in new applications where optimal features have not yet been developed. PMID:23074356

  10. Improving class separability using extended pixel planes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Nikita V; Eckley, D Mark; Shamir, Lior; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2012-09-01

    In this work we explored class separability in feature spaces built on extended representations of pixel planes (EPP) produced using scale pyramid, subband pyramid, and image transforms. The image transforms included Chebyshev, Fourier, wavelets, gradient and Laplacian; we also utilized transform combinations, including Fourier, Chebyshev and wavelets of the gradient transform, as well as Fourier of the Laplacian transform. We demonstrate that all three types of EPP promote class separation. We also explored the effect of EPP on suboptimal feature libraries, using only textural features in one case and only Haralick features in another. The effect of EPP was especially clear for these suboptimal libraries, where the transform-based representations were found to increase separability to a greater extent than scale or subband pyramids. EPP can be particularly useful in new applications where optimal features have not yet been developed.

  11. Energetic particle precipitation: A major driver of the ozone budget in the Antarctic upper stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, Alessandro; Funke, Bernd; Santee, Michelle L.; Cordero, Raul R.; Watanabe, Shingo

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic activity is thought to affect ozone and, possibly, climate in polar regions via energetic particle precipitation (EPP) but observational evidence of its importance in the seasonal stratospheric ozone variation on long time scales is still lacking. Here we fill this gap by showing that at high southern latitudes, late winter ozone series, covering the 1979-2014 period, exhibit an average stratospheric depletion of about 10-15% on a monthly basis caused by EPP. Daily observations indicate that every austral winter EPP-induced low ozone concentrations appear at about 45 km in late June and descend later to 30 km, before disappearing by September. Such stratospheric variations are coupled with mesospheric ozone changes also driven by EPP. No significant correlation between these ozone variations and solar ultraviolet irradiance has been found. This suggests the need of including the EPP forcing in both ozone model simulations and trend analysis.

  12. Coevolutionary arms race versus host defense chase in a tropical herbivore-plant system.

    PubMed

    Endara, María-José; Coley, Phyllis D; Ghabash, Gabrielle; Nicholls, James A; Dexter, Kyle G; Donoso, David A; Stone, Graham N; Pennington, R Toby; Kursar, Thomas A

    2017-09-05

    Coevolutionary models suggest that herbivores drive diversification and community composition in plants. For herbivores, many questions remain regarding how plant defenses shape host choice and community structure. We addressed these questions using the tree genus Inga and its lepidopteran herbivores in the Amazon. We constructed phylogenies for both plants and insects and quantified host associations and plant defenses. We found that similarity in herbivore assemblages between Inga species was correlated with similarity in defenses. There was no correlation with phylogeny, a result consistent with our observations that the expression of defenses in Inga is independent of phylogeny. Furthermore, host defensive traits explained 40% of herbivore community similarity. Analyses at finer taxonomic scales showed that different lepidopteran clades select hosts based on different defenses, suggesting taxon-specific histories of herbivore-host plant interactions. Finally, we compared the phylogeny and defenses of Inga to phylogenies for the major lepidopteran clades. We found that closely related herbivores fed on Inga with similar defenses rather than on closely related plants. Together, these results suggest that plant defenses might be more evolutionarily labile than the herbivore traits related to host association. Hence, there is an apparent asymmetry in the evolutionary interactions between Inga and its herbivores. Although plants may evolve under selection by herbivores, we hypothesize that herbivores may not show coevolutionary adaptations, but instead "chase" hosts based on the herbivore's own traits at the time that they encounter a new host, a pattern more consistent with resource tracking than with the arms race model of coevolution.

  13. Investigation of the roles of fascioliasis and food allergy in intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kazuki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Hori, Makito; Konnai, Masaki; Abiko, Chieko; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yamanome, Yukito; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Michishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2013-05-01

    Intrahepatic eosinophilic proliferative pylephlebitis (EPP) in Japanese Black (JB) cattle generally has been considered to be an atypical form of fascioliasis. However, there are many cases of EPP in which no Fasciola spp. have been detected in the livers of affected cattle. The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between EPP and hepatic fascioliasis and to investigate the role of food allergy in the disease. Histologically, EPP lesions were characterised by severe endothelial proliferation of the interlobular veins, accompanied by varying degrees of fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration in portal areas, which could be differentiated from chronic cholangiohepatitis, the typical lesion of hepatic fascioliasis. In addition to hepatic lesions, all cases of EPP had varying degrees of eosinophilic infiltration in the perilymphoid red pulp of the spleen, whereas both affected and unaffected animals had eosinophilic infiltrates in the mucosa of the small intestine. Antibodies against Fasciola spp. were detected in 1/14 EPP cases by ELISA; the seropositive case had EPP in combination with chronic cholangitis. There was no significant difference in total concentration of IgE between cases of EPP and unaffected cattle. Serum IgE levels specific to curly dock (Rumex crispus) and oats (Avena sativa) were higher in EPP cases than in unaffected cattle by allergen profiling screening testing and ELISA. The results of this study suggest that hepatic fascioliasis is unlikely to be the cause of EPP in JB cattle and that food allergens should be investigated as possible aetiological agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hundreds of Ladybugs, Thousands of Ladybugs, Millions and Billions and Trillions of Ladybugs--and a Couple of Roaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Kelly

    1996-01-01

    Claims that children have a natural curiosity for their environment. Describes children's interaction and involvement in an activity with different kinds of insects in a Head Start classroom. Encourages parents to allow children to investigate without being too preoccupied with concerns for order or cleanliness. (MOK)

  15. Hundreds of Ladybugs, Thousands of Ladybugs, Millions and Billions and Trillions of Ladybugs--and a Couple of Roaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Kelly

    1996-01-01

    Claims that children have a natural curiosity for their environment. Describes children's interaction and involvement in an activity with different kinds of insects in a Head Start classroom. Encourages parents to allow children to investigate without being too preoccupied with concerns for order or cleanliness. (MOK)

  16. Children and Helmets: the Case Against.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a child-centered approach to thinking about child cycling accidents. Helmets instill a false sense of safety in children and adults, while a profound change in the habits of adults is the only strategy that can protect children from accidents. Suggests steps for local analysis of the problem of cycling accidents. (MOK)

  17. A Rite of Passage Approach Designed to Preserve the Families of Substance-Abusing African American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitier, Vanesta L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a rite-of-passage approach to the treatment of addicted African American women drawn from traditional African culture. Claims that the best way to work with families to recover sobriety and cultural knowledge is through value orientations drawn from African wisdom. (MOK)

  18. Quality Assurance in Private Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The economic modernization drive of the 21st century has not only fostered the growth of a market economy but has also created the need for a structural change in education (Zha, 2006). Mok (2009) explains that when the Chinese government realized that the state alone could not keep up with the increasing demand for higher education, it allowed…

  19. Development of microsatellite markers of vandaceous orchids for species and variety identification.

    PubMed

    Peyachoknagul, S; Nettuwakul, C; Phuekvilai, P; Wannapinpong, S; Srikulnath, K

    2014-07-24

    Vandaceous orchids are a group of orchid genera in the subfamily Vandoideae. Among this group, Mokara, Phalaenopsis, and Vanda are the most popular and commercially important orchids in Thailand. Novel microsatellite markers were developed from Mokara, the intergeneric hybrid from 3 genera Vanda, Ascocentrum, and Arachnis by using enriched method. Six primers from this study plus one primer previously developed from Vanda genome, a total of 7 markers, were selected to characterize 4 orchid genera (Mokara, Vanda, Rhynchostylis, and Ascocenda). The observed and expected heterozygosities varied in the 4 genera from 0.0000-1.0000 and 0.0000-0.8765, respectively. The transferability of these primers was also investigated in 76 vandaceous orchids from 12 genera. Three primer pairs, MOK26, MOK29, and MOK62, could successfully amplify the DNA of all samples, while MOK103 could be used with most of the samples. The total number of alleles from 76 samples ranged from 3 to 19 alleles per locus, with an average of 8.5714. Therefore, these markers could be used for variety/ species identification, certification and protection, genetic diversity, and evolutionary studies.

  20. The Elements of Social Life and the Montessori Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Traces the Montessori view of adolescent social development and provides illustrations in short-term rural life with 12- to 14-year olds. Provides clear signs pointing to Erdkinder based on the theory that adolescents are in the midst of a social transformation and they want to be treated with respect. (MOK)

  1. Verus: A Tool for Quantitative Analysis of Finite-State Real-Time Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-12

    and A. P. Sistla . Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications. ACM TOPLAS, 8(2):244–263, 1986. [6] E...Proceedings of the 11th CHDL, 1993. [7] E. A. Emerson, A. K. Mok, A. P. Sistla , and J. Srinivasan. Quantitative temporal reasoning. In Lecture Notes in

  2. Real-Time Symbolic Model Checking for Discrete Time Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-02

    Emerson. andl .\\. P. Sistla ..\\ utomatic verification of liniii-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications..: (M11 T"[,ri.saclio, o...8217. A. Emerson. .\\. K. .Mok. A\\. 1). Sistla . and .1. Sriinivasan. Qiianiiliative temiporal reasoning. hit Lrcltrr .\\ohf.s iti (Coteptihr .Sie I

  3. Computing Quantitative Characteristics of Finite-State Real-Time Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-04

    Emerson, and A. P. Sistla . Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent sys- tems using temporal logic specifications. ACM Transactions on...Programming Languages and Systems, 8(2):244-263, 1986. [8] E. A. Emerson, A. K. Mok, A. P. Sistla , and J. Srinivasan. Quantitative temporal reasoning. In

  4. Is the Court-Appointed Special Advocate Program Effective? A Longitudinal Analysis of Time Involvement and Case Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Court Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Program for child welfare proceedings. Examines the current literature regarding the impact of CASA across the nation and discusses the findings and implications of an empirical study that evaluated a CASA program in terms of placement outcomes in a major U.S. city. (MOK)

  5. Quality Assurance in Private Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The economic modernization drive of the 21st century has not only fostered the growth of a market economy but has also created the need for a structural change in education (Zha, 2006). Mok (2009) explains that when the Chinese government realized that the state alone could not keep up with the increasing demand for higher education, it allowed…

  6. A Note on "The Longitudinal Structure of Earnings Losses among Work-Limited Disabled Workers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Wallace K. C.; Meyer, Bruce D.; Charles, Kerwin Kofi; Achen, Alexandra C.

    2008-01-01

    Charles (2003) examines the dynamic effects of disability, finding a small decline in earnings and hours following disability onset, even for those who have positive disability reports for each of the next ten years. These outcomes also rebound quickly after the onset of disability. In recent work, Meyer and Mok (2006), find a much larger loss in…

  7. Glutamic acid promotes monacolin K production and monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Chai, Shiyuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l(-1), monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction. Our findings demonstrated that mokA was not a key gene responsible for the quantity of monacolin K production in the presence of glutamic acid. Observation of Monascus mycelium morphology using Scanning Electron Microscope showed glutamic acid significantly increased the content of Monascus mycelium, altered the permeability of Monascus mycelium, enhanced secretion of monacolin K from the cell, and reduced the monacolin K content in Monascus mycelium, thereby enhancing monacolin K production.

  8. Preparing Your Classroom for a Great Fall!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dora

    1996-01-01

    Suggests a timeline and activities for early childhood educators to plan for a new school year. Provides a sample meeting agenda, teacher to-do list, classroom readiness checklist, a rules and expectations list for students, a substitute teacher packet checklist, and a list of things to do for the first week of class. (MOK)

  9. Energetic particle precipitation effects on the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere observed by LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, L.; Funke, B.; Stiller, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the upper atmosphere contributes to polar stratospheric enhancements of NOx. The first experimental evidence of this emerged when the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) observed stratospheric NOx enhancements during the Arctic winter of 1978/79. Such enhancements have since been observed on numerous occasions, but until recently were much less obvious in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. It is now understood that the magnitude of these stratospheric NOx enhancements depends on both the level of EPP and dynamical conditions. Three out of the last six Arctic winters have seen much larger than average polar stratospheric NOx enhancements due to EPP that have been attributed to extraordinary meteorological events. These are unique events on record and affirm that even with low levels of EPP, the stratosphere can still be influenced to a large degree by EPP. In this study, data from the LIMS instrument is revisited in order to understand the NOx enhancement it observed with respect to meteorological conditions and EPP activity. The temporal evolution of NOx in the polar vortex as measured by LIMS is compared to more recent satellite data, including the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument. Preliminary results indicate that the enhancements are caused neither by elevated EPP nor unusual dynamical conditions, but rather are seen because of the ability of LIMS to observe in the polar night.

  10. Genetic diversity does not explain variation in extra-pair paternity in multiple populations of a songbird.

    PubMed

    Liu, I A; Johndrow, J E; Abe, J; Lüpold, S; Yasukawa, K; Westneat, D F; Nowicki, S

    2015-05-01

    Many songbirds are socially monogamous but genetically polyandrous, mating with individuals outside their pair bonds. Extra-pair paternity (EPP) varies within and across species, but reasons for this variation remain unclear. One possible source of variation is population genetic diversity, which has been shown in interspecific meta-analyses to correlate with EPP but which has limited support from intraspecific tests. Using eight populations of the genetically polyandrous red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), including an island population, we investigated whether population-level differences in genetic diversity led to differences in EPP. We first measured genetic diversity over 10 microsatellite loci and found, as predicted, low genetic diversity in the island population. Additional structure analyses with multilocus genotypes and mtDNA showed the island population to be distinct from the continental populations. However, the island population's EPP rate fell in the middle of the continental populations' distribution, whereas the continental populations themselves showed significant variation in EPP. This result suggests that genetic diversity by itself is not a predictor of EPP rate. We discuss reasons for the departure from previous results, including hypotheses for EPP that do not solely implicate female-driven behaviour. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Evidence that Bacterial ABC-Type Transporter Imports Free EDTA for Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Herman, Jacob P.; Bolton, Harvey; Zhang, Zhicheng; Clark, Sue B.; Xun, Luying

    2007-11-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common chelating agent, is becoming a major organic pollutant in the form of metal-EDTA complexes in surface waters, partly due to its recalcitrance to biodegradation. Even an EDTA-degrading bacterium BNC1 does not degrade stable metal-EDTA complexes. An ABC-type transporter was identified for possible uptake of EDTA because the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene were expressed in a single operon in BNC1. The ABC-type transporter had a periplasmic binding protein (EppA) that should confer the substrate specificity for the transporter; therefore, EppA was produced in Escherichia coli,purified, and characterized. EppA was shown to bind free EDTA with a dissociation constant as low as 25 nM by using isothermal titration calorimetry. When unstable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. MgEDTA2-, were added to the EppA solution, binding was also observed. However, experimental data and theoretical analysis only supported EppA binding of free EDTA. When stable metal-EDTA complexes, e.g. CuEDTA2-, are titrated into the EppA solution, no binding was observed. Since EDTA monooxygenase in the cytoplasm uses some of the stable metal-EDTA complexes as substrates, we suggest that the lack of EppA binding and EDTA uptake are responsible for the failure of BNC1 cells to degrade the stable complexes.

  12. How organizational escalation prevention potential affects success of implementation of innovations: electronic medical records in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lambooij, Mattijs S; Koster, Ferry

    2016-05-20

    Escalation of commitment is the tendency that (innovation) projects continue, even if it is clear that they will not be successful and/or become extremely costly. Escalation prevention potential (EPP), the capability of an organization to stop or steer implementation processes that do not meet their expectations, may prevent an organization of losing time and money on unsuccessful projects. EPP consists of a set of checks and balances incorporated in managerial practices that safeguard management against irrational (but very human) decisions and may limit the escalation of implementation projects. We study whether successful implementation of electronic medical records (EMRs) relates to EPP and investigate the organizational factors accounting for this relationship. Structural equation modelling (SEM), using questionnaire data of 427 doctors and 631 nurses who had experience with implementation and use of EMRs in hospitals, was applied to study whether formal governance and organizational culture mediate the relationship between EPP and the perceived added value of EMRs. Doctors and nurses in hospitals with more EPP report more successful implementation of EMR (in terms of perceived added value of the EMR). Formal governance mediates the relation between EPP and implementation success. We found no evidence that open or innovative culture explains the relationship between EPP and implementation success. There is a positive relationship between the level of EPP and perceived added value of EMRs. This relationship is explained by formal governance mechanisms of organizations. This means that management has a set of tangible tools to positively affect the success of innovation processes. However, it also means that management needs to be able to critically reflect on its (previous) actions and decisions and is willing to change plans if elements of EPP signal that the implementation process is hampered.

  13. Tests of spatial and temporal factors influencing extra-pair paternity in red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Westneat, David F; Mays, Herman L

    2005-06-01

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is a widespread and highly variable reproductive phenomenon in birds. We tested the effects of habitat, spatial factors, and timing of breeding on the occurrence of EPP in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). We used PCR-amplified microsatellites to assess the paternity of 1479 nestlings from 537 broods on 235 territories over four breeding seasons. Over 4 years, 40% of nestlings were extra-pair. At least 27% of actual sires were non-neighbours, suggesting that males or females interacted over longer distances than in other populations of red-winged blackbirds. The level of EPP was significantly clumped within broods and males but not within females across broods. EPP was negatively related to the area of a male's territory. The spatial proximity of a female's nest to the territory boundary had no effect on total EPP, but tended to increase the probability of an EPP by a nearby male. We found no influence on EPP of the type of habitat on the territory or the level of nesting activity nearby. The time in the season when a nest was started and the synchrony of breeding also had no significant effect on the level of EPP. The age of the male, the age of his neighbours, and the interaction between the two had no effect on total EPP. However, older males were less likely to have an offspring sired by a neighbour on their territory. Males with older neighbours were also less likely to have offspring sired by a neighbour, particularly if they were new territory owners. The high variability in who gained and lost paternity, and the limited impact of spatial and temporal factors influencing it, have some interesting implications for theories seeking to explain mating patterns.

  14. A fast one-chip event-preprocessor and sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present an FPGA-based digital camera electronics consisting of an Event-Preprocessor (EPP) for on-board data preprocessing and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout of the detector. The device has been originally designed for the Simbol-X low energy detector (LED). The EPP operates on 64×64 pixel images and has a real-time processing capability of more than 8000 frames per second. The already working releases of the EPP and the SEQ are now combined into one Digital-Camera-Controller-Chip (D3C).

  15. 78 FR 20423 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Revisions to Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Management Systems (SEMS). These requirements pertain to developing and implementing stop work authority (SWA) and ultimate work authority (UWA), requiring an employee participation plan (EPP), and establishing guidelines for reporting unsafe working conditions. The rule establishes additional requirements...

  16. American Porphyria Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-line Test Tests for Porphyria diagnosis Treatment Options Panhematin for Acute Porphyria Lumetine for EPP Finding a Doctor Clinical Studies Porphyria featured Television and Other Media AIP Access to Care Toolkit Get Involved ...

  17. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ..., Chile FTA, NAFTA, Oman FTA, and Peru FTA. Because the Colombia FTA construction threshold of $7,777,000... ``Colombia FTA, Chile FTA,'' and adding ``Chile FTA, Colombia FTA,'' in its place. BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  18. Deterministic entanglement purification and complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis with hyperentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo

    2010-03-15

    Entanglement purification is a very important element for long-distance quantum communication. Different from all the existing entanglement purification protocols (EPPs) in which two parties can only obtain some quantum systems in a mixed entangled state with a higher fidelity probabilistically by consuming quantum resources exponentially, here we present a deterministic EPP with hyperentanglement. Using this protocol, the two parties can, in principle, obtain deterministically maximally entangled pure states in polarization without destroying any less-entangled photon pair, which will improve the efficiency of long-distance quantum communication exponentially. Meanwhile, it will be shown that this EPP can be used to complete nonlocal Bell-state analysis perfectly. We also discuss this EPP in a practical transmission.

  19. Porphyrins and Porphyria Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Important Update - Click to view News Oct 11, 2017 Health Professional Radio Interview Oct 03, 2017 2018 HEME BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE PORPHYRIAS Sep 20, 2017 Scenesse, FDA, and an EPP campaign update Sep ...

  20. An Innovative Educational Approach for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laster, M. E.; Rousseau, J. J.; Mapp, D. C.

    2006-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) educational approach is effective in increasing the number of underrepresented students in NOAA mission related sciences. Initiated in 2001, the EPP educational approach has resulted in increased numbers of trained and graduated students. As result of the EPP educational approach, a student pipeline has developed from high to graduate school. The approach suggests the need for STEM-related programs that target students at the K-12, higher education, and post-doctorate levels and include a combination of applied research, experiential learning, and curriculum development. The data is a result of tracking EPP science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students for five years.

  1. Porphyria Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... New Jersey . It is a lyophilized form of alkaline heme that has to be reconstituted immediately prior ... HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of Porphyria Testing for Porphyria Testing Table ...

  2. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well.

  3. Qualitative Measurement of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Among Federal Employees in 2000

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) program is mandated by Executive Order 13101 to green the federal government. This was a study to determine federal attitudes.

  4. Personality profiles of pilots.

    PubMed

    Ashman, A; Telfer, R

    1983-10-01

    Samples of Air Force fighter pilots, trainee commercial pilots, and males drawn from the general community completed the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS). Four significant effects were found for individual sub-scales; three (Achievement, Affiliation, and Nurturance) identifying air force fighter pilots. Commercial pilot trainees scored significantly less than the community sample on Succorance and Nurturance. The data suggest that the EPPS consists of several related personality dimensions. One of these, "sociability," discriminated fighter pilots from the general community.

  5. Tensile Properties and Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigation of Stereoblock Elastomeric Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    Elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) produced from unbridged 2-arylindene metallocene catalysts was studied by uniaxial tensile and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. The ePP can be separated into three fractions by successive boiling-solvent fractionation method to yield: a low-tacticity fraction soluble in ether (ES), an intermediate-tacticity fraction soluble in heptane (HS), and a high-tacticity fraction insoluble in heptane (HI). Tensile properties of ePP were compared to its solvent fractions, and the role of each solvent fraction residing within ePP was investigated by blending 5 weight % deuterated fraction with ePP. The tensile properties of each fraction vary considerably, exhibiting properties from a weak gum elastomer for ES, to a semi-crystalline thermoplastic for HI. The intermediate-tacticity HS fraction exhibits elastic properties similar to the parent elastomer (ePP). In the melt at 160 C, SANS shows that all deuterated fractions are homogeneously mixed with ePP in a one-phase system. At 25 C upon a slow cooling from the melt, the low-tacticity fraction is preferentially segregated in the amorphous domains induced by different crystallization temperatures and kinetics of the deuterated ES and high-tacticity components. The high-tacticity component within ePP (dHI-ePP) retains its plastic properties in the blend. Despite its low crystallinity ({le} 2%), the low-tacticity fraction can co-crystallize with the crystalline matrix. The dES-ePP shows little or no relaxation when held under strain and recovers readily upon the release of stress.

  6. The Personnel Assessment Center: An Aid in the Selection of Personnel for Cross Cultural Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    75 1. Culture Shock ----------------------------- 76 a. Cultural Self-Awareness --------------- 79 b. Cultura " Sensitivity...instruments reviewed by Pfeiffer and Heslin is the Edwards ?ersonal Preference Schedule (EPPS) which measures fifteen primary need scales. Of the EPPS the...had absent fathers. Fi 159 • k -- rvL. . r i . n . . ~ ~ - - -rz r.’.. Taylor , 1968. Population: New Zealand volunteers serving abroad (613). Criteria

  7. Analysis of sodium and potassium conductances in the procaine end-plate potential

    PubMed Central

    Maeno, Takashi

    1966-01-01

    1. The effect of procaine on neuromuscular transmission was studied on the sartorius muscle of the frog, Rana pipiens, with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. Mean quantal content of the e.p.p. in high Mg Ringer was little affected by procaine. 3. The short circuit effect of the e.p.p. on the action potential, which was an indication of change in potassium conductance (ΔgK) during the e.p.p., was investigated on the muscle fibre immobilized in hypertonic Ringer. It was found that procaine had little effect on ΔgK. 4. The equilibrium potential of the e.p.p. (Ee.p.p.) was measured in hypertonic Ringer. Ee.p.p. was 12 mV in control experiment and was decreased to 3·1 mV in 10-4 procaine. The ratio ΔgNa/ΔgK was calculated to be 2·75 in control and 2·11 in 10-4 procaine. 5. E.p.p.s were recorded extracellularly to study changes in the time course of ΔgNa in procaine. Procaine reduced the peak magnitude of ΔgNa; following the peak, ΔgNa fell quickly to a lower level, which decayed much more slowly. 6. An end-plate model with separate sodium and potassium pathways is proposed to explain the procaine e.p.p. Procaine is assumed to affect the time course of ΔgNa. 7. E.p.p.s simulated from the proposed end-plate model with theoretical ΔgNa and ΔgK agreed satisfactorily with actual procaine e.p.p. PMID:5919558

  8. Photosensitivity in the elderly-think of late-onset protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jorge; Poblete-Gutiérrez, Pamela; Neumann, Norbert J

    2013-06-01

    Photosensitivity is the clinical hallmark of both erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked dominant protoporphyria (XLDPP). Both disorders result from a hereditary dysfunction in heme biosynthesis. Disease onset is usually in early childhood. However, rare patients with late-onset EPP in association with a myeloproliferative disorder or myelodysplastic syndrome have been reported. In this issue, Livideanu et al. describe the first patient with late-onset XLDPP.

  9. Dispersal assembly of rain forest tree communities across the Amazon basin

    PubMed Central

    Lavin, Mathew; Torke, Benjamin M.; Twyford, Alex D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Coley, Phyllis D.; Drake, Camila; Hollands, Ruth; Pennington, R. Toby

    2017-01-01

    We investigate patterns of historical assembly of tree communities across Amazonia using a newly developed phylogeny for the species-rich neotropical tree genus Inga. We compare our results with those for three other ecologically important, diverse, and abundant Amazonian tree lineages, Swartzia, Protieae, and Guatteria. Our analyses using phylogenetic diversity metrics demonstrate a clear lack of geographic phylogenetic structure, and show that local communities of Inga and regional communities of all four lineages are assembled by dispersal across Amazonia. The importance of dispersal in the biogeography of Inga and other tree genera in Amazonian and Guianan rain forests suggests that speciation is not driven by vicariance, and that allopatric isolation following dispersal may be involved in the speciation process. A clear implication of these results is that over evolutionary timescales, the metacommunity for any local or regional tree community in the Amazon is the entire Amazon basin. PMID:28213498

  10. Dispersal assembly of rain forest tree communities across the Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Kyle G; Lavin, Mathew; Torke, Benjamin M; Twyford, Alex D; Kursar, Thomas A; Coley, Phyllis D; Drake, Camila; Hollands, Ruth; Pennington, R Toby

    2017-02-17

    We investigate patterns of historical assembly of tree communities across Amazonia using a newly developed phylogeny for the species-rich neotropical tree genus Inga We compare our results with those for three other ecologically important, diverse, and abundant Amazonian tree lineages, Swartzia, Protieae, and Guatteria Our analyses using phylogenetic diversity metrics demonstrate a clear lack of geographic phylogenetic structure, and show that local communities of Inga and regional communities of all four lineages are assembled by dispersal across Amazonia. The importance of dispersal in the biogeography of Inga and other tree genera in Amazonian and Guianan rain forests suggests that speciation is not driven by vicariance, and that allopatric isolation following dispersal may be involved in the speciation process. A clear implication of these results is that over evolutionary timescales, the metacommunity for any local or regional tree community in the Amazon is the entire Amazon basin.

  11. Eutectic liquid alloys for plasmonics: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Blaber, Martin G; Engel, Clifford J; Vivekchand, S R C; Lubin, Steven M; Odom, Teri W; Schatz, G C

    2012-10-10

    We report a method based on density functional theory molecular dynamics that allows us to calculate the plasmonic properties of liquid metals and metal alloys from first principles with no a priori knowledge of the system. We show exceptional agreement between the simulated and measured optical constants of liquid Ga and the room temperature liquid In-Ga eutectic alloy (T(m) = 289 K). We then use this method to analyze the plasmonic properties of various alloy concentrations in the In-Ga system. The plasmonic performance of the In-Ga system decreases with increasing In concentration. However, the benefits of a room-temperature plasmonic liquid are likely to outweigh the minor reduction in plasmonic performance when moving from pure Ga to the eutectic composition. Our results show that density functional theory molecular dynamics can be used as a predictive tool for studying the optical properties of liquid metal systems amenable to plasmonics.

  12. Molecular detection of common intestinal parasites: a performance evaluation of the BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel.

    PubMed

    Batra, R; Judd, E; Eling, J; Newsholme, W; Goldenberg, S D

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement of the BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) with microscopy for the detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in stool samples. A total of 372 stool samples (partly collected on the basis of positive microscopy and partly unselected, consecutive sample submitted for parasite investigation) were tested with EPP according to manufacturer's instructions and also using microscopy according to standard techniques. Discrepant samples were further tested using PCR by the National Parasitology reference laboratory. Levels of agreement and laboratory turnaround times were measured and compared. Overall, positive and negative percent agreement was high between the two methods. However, microscopy resulted in four false positives and one false negative for G. duodenalis and two false positives for Cryptosporidium. Additionally, microscopy could not differentiate between E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Median laboratory turnaround time was 65 hours for microscopy; results from EPP could be available after four hours. Blastocycstis hominis was detected by microscopy in one sample and would have been missed if only EPP was performed. The EPP was a good alternative to microscopy, detecting a small number of additional positives that were missed by microscopy. The assay is significantly faster than microscopy and allows laboratory workflows to be streamlined. The risk of missing parasites that are not included in the EPP appears to be minimal in the studied population; however, there may be certain patient groups who would benefit from microscopic examination of stools.

  13. A Dynamical and Statistical Characterization of United States Hydrological Extremes and their Associated Large-Scale Meteorological Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Deng, Y.; Black, R. X.

    2016-12-01

    The primary regional patterns of extreme precipitation events occurring over the continental United States are identified via hierarchical cluster analysis of observed daily precipitation for the period 1950-2005. Six canonical extreme precipitation patterns (EPPs) are isolated for the boreal warm season and five for the cool season. The large-scale meteorological pattern (LMP) inducing each EPP is identified and used to create a "base function" for evaluating a climate model's potential for accurately representing the different patterns of precipitation extremes. A parallel analysis of the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) reveals that the CCSM4 successfully captures the main US EPPs for both the warm and cool seasons, albeit with varying degrees of accuracy. The model's skill in simulating each EPP tends to be positively correlated with its capability in representing the associated LMP. Model bias in the occurrence frequency of a governing LMP is directly related to the frequency bias in the corresponding EPP. In addition, however, discrepancies are found between the CCSM4's representation of LMPs and EPPs over regions such as the western US and Midwest, where topographic precipitation influences and organized convection are prominent, respectively. In these cases, the model representation of finer scale physical processes appears to be at least equally important compared to the LMPs in driving the occurrence of extreme precipitation.

  14. Modulation of the polar vortex by energetic particle precipitation and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation via ozone loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, Antti; Asikainen, Timo; Maliniemi, Ville; Mursula, Kalevi

    2017-04-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) has been shown to cause ozone loss in the stratosphere during polar winter. This has been suggested to enhance polar vortex with the effect propagating even to ground level, where it is observed as a more positive phase of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), the dominant ground circulation pattern in the winter time at high latitudes. Recent research has also shown that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the relationship between the ground NAM and EPP so that the positive correlation between the two is more clearly seen in the easterly phase of QBO measured at 30 hPa height especially during the late winter season. Here we elaborate the QBO modulated connection between EPP and NAM by studying how the EPP affects the stratospheric polar vortex in the two phases of the QBO. Since the EPP presumably affects the polar stratosphere via indirect ozone loss we will study how the EPP modulates the amount of ozone, the stratospheric temperatures and zonal winds in the two QBO phases.

  15. Prevention of murine erythropoietic protoporphyria-associated skin photosensitivity and liver disease by dermal and hepatic ferrochelatase.

    PubMed

    Pawliuk, Robert; Tighe, Robert; Wise, Robert J; Mathews-Roth, Micheline M; Leboulch, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is caused by a defect in ferrochelatase, leading to the accumulation of protoporphyrin predominantly in erythrocytes and hepatocytes, and resulting in skin photosensitivity upon leaching of blood protoporphyrin into the skin. Some patients also develop severe liver damage. Because the respective contributions of hepatic and erythrocytic protoporphyrin to the pathophysiology of EPP remain unclear, we investigated this question using the murine model of EPP. Transplantation of bone marrow from EPP mice to normal recipients resulted in elevated erythrocyte and plasma protoporphyrin levels. However, quantification of serum liver enzymes and bilirubin together with histopathologic examination of liver sections of mice up to 16 months post-transplantation showed no evidence of liver damage. Moreover, despite massive elevation of serum protoporphyrin, transplanted mice showed minimal evidence of skin photosensitivity. Photosensitivity could also be prevented locally by implanting skin grafts from normal mice onto the backs of EPP recipients. These data validate the hypothesis that the main source of toxic protoporphyrin originates from the erythrocytes. However, we unexpectedly observed that normal ferrochelatase activity in hepatic and dermal cells of wild-type mice is sufficient to prevent liver disease and significant skin photosensitivity. These findings may provide new strategies for the treatment of EPP.

  16. Dynamics of adsorbed polymers on attractive homogeneous surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Hui; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic behaviors of polymer chains adsorbed on an attractive, homogeneous surface are studied by using dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. The translational diffusion coefficient Dxy parallel to the surface decreases as the intra-polymer attraction strength EPP or the polymer-surface attraction strength EPS increases. The rotational relaxation time τR increases with EPS, but the dependence of τR on EPP is dependent on the adsorption state of the polymer. We find that τR decreases with increasing EPP for a partially adsorbed polymer but it increases with EPP for a fully adsorbed polymer. Scaling relations Dxy ~ N−α and τR ~ Nβ are found for long polymers. The scaling exponent α is independent of EPS for long polymers but increases with EPP from α = 1.06 at EPP = 0. While β ≈ 2.7 is also roughly independent of EPS for the adsorbed polymer at EPP = 0, but β increases with EPS at EPP > 0. Moreover, we find that β always decreases with increasing EPP. Our results reveal different effects of the attractive surface on the diffusion and rotation of adsorbed polymers. PMID:27849002

  17. A semi-empirical model for mesospheric and stratospheric NOy produced by energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Bernd; López-Puertas, Manuel; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The MIPAS Fourier transform spectrometer on board Envisat has measured global distributions of the six principal reactive nitrogen (NOy) compounds (HNO3, NO2, NO, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4) during 2002-2012. These observations were used previously to detect regular polar winter descent of reactive nitrogen produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) down to the lower stratosphere, often called the EPP indirect effect. It has further been shown that the observed fraction of NOy produced by EPP (EPP-NOy) has a nearly linear relationship with the geomagnetic Ap index when taking into account the time lag introduced by transport. Here we exploit these results in a semi-empirical model for computation of EPP-modulated NOy densities and wintertime downward fluxes through stratospheric and mesospheric pressure levels. Since the Ap dependence of EPP-NOy is distorted during episodes of strong descent in Arctic winters associated with elevated stratopause events, a specific parameterization has been developed for these episodes. This model accurately reproduces the observations from MIPAS and is also consistent with estimates from other satellite instruments. Since stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions lead to changes in stratospheric ozone with possible implications for climate, the model presented here can be utilized in climate simulations without the need to incorporate many thermospheric and upper mesospheric processes. By employing historical geomagnetic indices, the model also allows for reconstruction of the EPP indirect effect since 1850. We found secular variations of solar cycle-averaged stratospheric EPP-NOy depositions on the order of 1 GM. In particular, we model a reduction of the EPP-NOy deposition rate during the last 3 decades, related to the coincident decline of geomagnetic activity that corresponds to 1.8 % of the NOy production rate by N2O oxidation. As the decline of the geomagnetic activity level is expected to continue in the coming decades, this is

  18. Erythropoietic protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Lecha, Mario; Puy, Hervé; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disorder of the haem metabolic pathway characterised by accumulation of protoporphyrin in blood, erythrocytes and tissues, and cutaneous manifestations of photosensitivity. EPP has been reported worldwide, with prevalence between 1:75,000 and 1:200,000. It usually manifests in early infancy upon the first sun exposures. EPP is characterised by cutaneous manifestations of acute painful photosensitivity with erythema and oedema, sometimes with petechiae, together with stinging and burning sensations upon exposure to sunlight, without blisters. These episodes have a variable severity depending on the exposure duration and may result in chronic permanent lesions on exposed skin. As protoporphyrin is a lipophilic molecule that is excreted by the liver, EPP patients are at risk of cholelithiasis with obstructive episodes, and chronic liver disease that might evolve to rapid acute liver failure. In most patients, EPP results from a partial deficiency of the last enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway, ferrochelatase, EC 4.99.1.1/FECH (encoded by the FECH gene). EPP appears to be inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, the clinical expression of which is modulated by the presence of the hypomorphic FECH IVS3-48C allele trans, but recessive inheritance with two mutated FECH alleles has also been described. In about 2% of patients, overt disease was recently shown to be caused by gain-of-function mutations in the erythroid-specific aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2/ALAS, EC 2.3.1.27) gene and named X-linked dominant protoporphyria. Diagnosis is established by finding increased levels of protoporphyrin in plasma and red blood cells, and detection of a plasma fluorescence peak at 634 nm. Investigations for hepatic involvement, ferrochelatase activity level, genetic analysis (FECH mutations, presence of the hypomorphic FECH IVS3-48C allele trans and ALAS2 mutations) and family studies are advisable. Differential

  19. An Analysis of Recruit Training Attrition in the U.S. Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    KE WODS(Cothm a mrwe sdeIt woof __ad _______byMok____OW Behavioral Intentions Expectations Job Cofftent - - Roles Attritior Leadership Values...demwgraphic variables, pre-recruit training intentions, expectations, and attraction to civilian and military roles . Changes in these variables over the...intentions and expectations. With respect to role attraction and expected organizational variables, subsequent graduates and attrites differ before

  20. Focusing of Dispersive Targets Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Williams 1030 S Hwy AlA Patrick AFB OH 32925-3002 Distribution (cont’d) Phillips Lab Attn PL/WSR C Baum Attn PL/WSR J Berger Attn PL/WSR S A Blocher...Electrd Engrg Dept/WR1 Attn D M Bolle Attn S U Pillai 6 Metrotech Center Brooklyn NY 11201 Polytechnic Univ WRI & Dept of Physics Attn Mok-Ming Leung

  1. ARC-2009-ACD09-0261-015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-10

    Korean High Level Delegation Visit Ames Certer Director and various Senior staff: John Hines, Ames Center Chief Technologist (middel left) explains operations at the LADEE lab to Soon-Duk Bae, Deputy Director, Big Science Policy Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Young-Mok Hyun, Deputy Director, Space Development Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Seorium Lee, Senior Researcher, International Relations Korea Aerospace Research Institute.

  2. ARC-2009-ACD09-0261-013

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-10

    Korean High Level Delegation Visit Ames Certer Director and various Senior staff: Dan Andrews give presentation about LCROSS/LRO to Seorium Lee, Senior Researcher, International Relations Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Soon-Duk Bae, Deputy Director, Big Science Policy Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Young-Mok Hyun, Deputy Director, Space Development Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Seorium Lee, Senior Researcher, International Relations Korea Aerospace Research Institute.

  3. Products of Photodegradation for Coumarin Laser Dyes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-31

    WORDS (CM0110m.em ote. Side U m....*0 mid 140蔾OF WeeMok mINIINI) C.~. coumarin laser dyes ,.laser dye photodegradation , dye photolysis mechanisms...oŕ PRODUCTS OF PHOTODEGRADATION FOR COUMI3N LASER DYES Guil ord Jones, I ,* W. R. Berguark, and W. R. Jacokson Department of Chemistry...documented.’ The products of photodegradation for a single coumarin dye have been identified in the early report of Winters. Handel- berg, and Mohr

  4. The crystal structure and moisture sensitivity of (+)-4-(1-(2,3 dimethylphenyl) ethyl) 1H-imidazole hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E.; Rajala, R.; Sillanpaa, R.; Pirttimaki, J.

    The preliminar crystal structure determination of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride was carried out. The diffraction data was collected on Rigaku AFC5S diffractometer with graphite monogromated Mo(K sub alpha) radiation at 23 C. The molecular structure and packing in the unit cell was solved by using direct methods. The structure was refined by using the full matrix least squares refinement to an R value of 6.8 with 870 observed reflections.

  5. ARC-2009-ACD09-0261-014

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-10

    Korean High Level Delegation Visit Ames Certer Director and various Senior staff: John Hines, Ames Center Chief Technologist (middel left) explains PharmaSat (small Satellites) to Soon-Duk Bae, Deputy Director, Big Science Policy Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Young-Mok Hyun, Deputy Director, Space Development Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Seorium Lee, Senior Researcher, International Relations Korea Aerospace Research Institute. Unkonw person at the end of table.

  6. De Novo RNA Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis of Monascus purpureus and Analysis of Key Genes Involved in Monacolin K Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-01-01

    Monascus purpureus is an important medicinal and edible microbial resource. To facilitate biological, biochemical, and molecular research on medicinal components of M. purpureus, we investigated the M. purpureus transcriptome by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). An RNA-seq library was created using RNA extracted from a mixed sample of M. purpureus expressing different levels of monacolin K output. In total 29,713 unigenes were assembled from more than 60 million high-quality short reads. A BLAST search revealed hits for 21,331 unigenes in at least one of the protein or nucleotide databases used in this study. The 22,365 unigenes were categorized into 48 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification. Owing to the economic and medicinal importance of M. purpureus, most studies on this organism have focused on the pharmacological activity of chemical components and the molecular function of genes involved in their biogenesis. In this study, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to detect the expression of genes related to monacolin K (mokA-mokI) at different phases (2, 5, 8, and 12 days) of M. purpureus M1 and M1-36. Our study found that mokF modulates monacolin K biogenesis in M. purpureus. Nine genes were suggested to be associated with the monacolin K biosynthesis. Studies on these genes could provide useful information on secondary metabolic processes in M. purpureus. These results indicate a detailed resource through genetic engineering of monacolin K biosynthesis in M. purpureus and related species.

  7. LGBTQ Inclusion in Educator Preparation: Getting Ready for Gender and Sexual Diversity in Secondary School Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelscher, Mary Helen

    While many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students are able to resiliently navigate their public school education many others experience harsh school climates and negative health and educational outcomes. Harassment and bullying of LGBTQ students in school environments have been linked to numerous negative psychological and academic outcomes for students diverse in sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Preparing teacher candidates (TCs) to respond effectively to harassment and bullying of students and to create inclusive curriculum has been recommended to improve outcomes for students. Yet the development of these teaching practices has not been pursued broadly in educator preparation programs (EPPs) or specifically in science EPPs (SEPPs). This dissertation broadens the notion of diversity traditionally attended to in EPPs through three studies. The first study is a holistic single-case study of an LGBTQ-inclusive EPP. It focused on the following three research questions: What were the contextual features that surrounded the LGBTQ-inclusive EPP? What were the specific elements of LGBTQ inclusion in the EPP? And, what were the strengths and weaknesses of the LGBTQ-inclusive EPP? This study drew primarily from data collected from interviews with faculty and administrators in a large post-baccalaureate 5th year preparation for licensure program. Document analysis was used to triangulate and expand upon the data collected during the interviews. A framework for analyzing LGBTQ inclusion across the components of an EPP was developed as part of this study. This study has direct implications for the particular EPP, but also clarifies research needs around LGBTQ inclusion in secondary EPPs. While little has research exists about LGBTQ inclusion in EPPs, far less has been attempted and understood in the discipline of secondary life science. The second study thus narrows its focus from the particulars of LGBTQ inclusion in an EPP to the

  8. Impact of energetic particle precipitation on stratospheric polar constituents: an assessment using monitoring and assimilation of operational MIPAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Alain; Menard, Richard; Chabrillat, Simon; Rochon, Yves; Yang, Yan; de Grandpre, Jean

    In 2003, strong EPP (energetic particle precipitation) produced massive amounts of ionized particles penetrating the top of the atmospheric polar region, significantly perturbing its chem-ical state down to the middle stratosphere. These events and their effects are generally left unaccounted for in current models of stratospheric chemistry and large differences between observations and models are then noted. In this study, we use a coupled 3-D stratospheric dynamical-chemical model and assimilation system to ingest MIPAS temperature and chemical observations. The goal is to gain further understanding and to evaluate the impacts of EPP on stratospheric polar chemistry. Moreover, we investigate the feasibility of assimilating valid "outlier" observations associated with such events. We focus our analysis on OmF (Obser-vation minus Forecast) residuals as they filter out phenomena well reproduced by the model (such as gas phase chemistry, transport, diurnal and seasonal cycles) thus revealing a clear trace of the EPP. Inspection of OmF statistics in both the passive (without chemical assimilation) and active (with chemical assimilation) cases altogether provides a powerful diagnostic tool to assess the model and assimilation system. We also show that passive OmF can permit a satisfactory evaluation of the ozone partial column loss due to EPP effects. Results suggest a small but significant loss of 5-6 DU (Dobson Units) during an EPP-IE (EPP indirect effects) event in the Antarctic winter of 2003, and about only 1 DU for the SPE (solar proton event) of October/November 2003. Despite large differences between the model and MIPAS chemical observations (NO2, HNO3, CH4 and O3), we demonstrate that a careful assimilation of these constituents with only gas phase chemistry included in the model (i.e., no provision for EPP im-pacts) and with relaxed quality control nearly eliminated the short-term bias and significantly reduced the standard deviation error below 1 hPa.

  9. Foliar pathogen and insect herbivore effects on two landslide tree species in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Randall W. Myster

    2002-01-01

    To better understand pathogen/herbivore interactions and landslide regeneration, percent leaf area lost to disease and herbivory on two Puerto Rican trees over a 1-year period was sampled. Cecropia schreberiana saplings lost from 1 to 3% leaf area to pathogens and from 1 to 7% to herbivores. For Inga vera, both sapling and seedling losses to pathogens were minimal, but...

  10. AVIAN DISTRIBUTION IN DOMINICAN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS: AREA AND HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS

    Treesearch

    JOSEPH M . WUNDERLE JR

    1999-01-01

    Residentsa nd wintering Nearctic migrantsw ere sampledb y point countsi n 40 smallt o medium-sized(0 .07-8.65 ha) shadec offeep lantationsw ith an overstoryo f Inga vera in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. The purpose of the study was to determine the relative importance of plantation area, isolation, and habitat structure to avian distribution and abundance...

  11. Royal Naval nursing: 'testing but worth it'.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2014-08-19

    Inga Kennedy is the most senior nurse in the Royal Navy. She enjoys the commitment and discipline required by a career in the armed forces and says the work offers great opportunities for nurses. Her career highlights have included checking that injured personnel in Afghanistan were receiving the best care possible.

  12. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  13. 76 FR 67402 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ..., Brandon; Wright, Ann. Departmental Management and Staff Offices (DM-SO) Armstrong, Kent W.; Bange, Gerald...; Bumbary Langston, Inga P.; Chasteen, G. Taylor; Christian, Lisa A.; Clanton, Michael W.; Davenport, Peter...., Richard; Holland, Marilyn; Huttenlocker, Robert; Jones, Bethany; Kaplan, David; Lautner, Elizabeth;...

  14. Description of a new species of Neoparaphytoseius Chant and McMurtry (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) from Peru, with a redefinition of the genus.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Sofía; McMurtry, James A; De Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-07-25

    Neoparaphytoseius charapa n. sp. is described, based on the morphology of adult females and males collected on Inga edulis (Mart.) (Fabaceae) in northeastern Peru. Neoparaphytoseius Chant & McMurtry is redefined on the basis of the new species and re-examination of its type species N. sooretamus Chant & McMurtry. 

  15. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  16. An explorative study of non-invasive ultra-weak photon emission and the anti-oxidative influence of oral zinc sulphate in light-sensitive patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anita Birgit; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2012-11-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare, inherited disorder of haem biosynthesis owing to deficient ferrochelatase (FECH) and accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). This results in acute cutaneous photosensitivity upon light exposure with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) as a by-product. We investigated if UPE evaluated the light sensitivity in EPP patients and influence of zinc treatment. Fourteen EPP patients took zinc sulphate (3 × 200 mg/day) during spring and summer. Using a photomultiplier (PM), UPE was measured from the buttock skin and dorsal hand before and after solar-simulated light (SUN) exposure. Blood samples were analysed routinely for plasma zinc, iron, ferritin, transferrin, haemoglobin, erythrocyte PPIX and Zn-PPIX. UPE in EPP patients resembled that seen in healthy individuals. Without treatment, a seasonal decrease was seen from spring to summer in four control patients. However, oral zinc treatment reduced ROS formation significantly regardless of SUN exposure. After SUN exposure, the initial burst was correlated to plasma iron and erythrocyte PPIX. During treatment, an inverse correlation was found between plasma zinc concentration and the initial burst. Measurements of UPE can be used for monitoring UVA-induced oxidative processes in vivo in the skin of EPP patients. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Surgical Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Impact of Surgery on Survival and Quality of Life—Relation to Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, and Alternative Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyros, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer arising from pleural mesothelium. Surgery aims to either cure the disease or control the symptoms. Two surgical procedures exist: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). In this systematic review we assess current evidence on safety and efficacy of surgery. Methods. Five electronic databases were reviewed from January 1990 to January 2013. Studies were selected according to a predefined protocol. Primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included quality of life, disease-free survival, disease recurrence, morbidity, and length of hospital stay. Results. Sixteen studies were included. Median survival ranged from 8.1 to 32 months for P/D and from 6.9 to 46.9 months for EPP. Perioperative mortality was 0%–9.8% and 3.2%–12.5%, respectively. Perioperative morbidity was 5.9%–55% for P/D and 10%–82.6% for EPP. Average length of stay was 7 days for P/D and 9 days for EPP. Conclusion. Current evidence cannot definitively answer which procedure (EPP or P/D) is more beneficial in terms of survival and operative risks. This systematic review suggests that surgery in the context of trimodality therapy offers acceptable perioperative outcomes and long-term survival. Centres specialising in MPM management have better results. PMID:24624305

  18. An unsuspected ecdysteroid/steroid phosphatase activity in the key T-cell regulator, Sts-1: surprising relationship to insect ecdysteroid phosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Davies, Lyndsay; Anderson, Ian P; Turner, Philip C; Shirras, Alan D; Rees, Huw H; Rigden, Daniel J

    2007-05-15

    The insect enzyme ecdysteroid phosphate phosphatase (EPP) mobilizes active ecdysteroids from an inactive phosphorylated pool. Previously assigned to a novel class, it is shown here that it resides in the large histidine phosphatase superfamily related to cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase, a superfamily housing notably diverse catalytic activities. Molecular modeling reveals a plausible substrate-binding mode for EPP. Analysis of genomic and transcript data for a number of insect species shows that EPP may exist in both the single domain form previously characterized and in a longer, multidomain form. This latter form bears a quite unexpected relationship in sequence and domain architecture to vertebrate proteins, including Sts-1, characterized as a key regulator of T-cell activity. Long form Drosophila melanogaster EPP, human Sts-1, and a related protein from Caenorhabditis elegans have all been cloned, assayed, and shown to catalyse the hydrolysis of ecdysteroid and steroid phosphates. The surprising relationship described and explored here between EPP and Sts-1 has implications for our understanding of the function(s) of both.

  19. Dynamic Response of Stereoblock Elastomeric Polypropylene Studied by Rheo-Optics and X-ray Scattering: 1. Influence of Isotacticity

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    The dynamic response of elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) prepared by metallocene 2-arylindene hafnium catalyst was investigated by rheo-optical birefringence as well as wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and SAXS). Solvent extraction of ePP ([mmmm] = 34%) results in three fractions with increasing tacticity, crystallinity, and molecular weight in the following order: ether soluble ([mmmm] = 21%), heptane soluble (44%), and heptane insoluble (76%). Unstretched ePP reveals a crystalline phase of the {alpha}-form isotactic polypropylene (i-PP). Tensile stretching of ePP yields three sets of scatterings (equatorial, off-axis diagonal, and meridional arc). High-tacticity fractions contribute to the equatorial and off-axis diagonal scatterings, revealing molecular-scale orientation parallel to the strain axis and crystalline phase transformation from the {alpha}-form to the mesomorphic form. The meridional arc is contributed by the low-tacticity ether-soluble fraction with crystalline chains oriented with a preferred direction orthogonal relative to the strain direction. SAXS, which probes long-range ordering, exhibits broad and diffuse meridional peak for the intermediate-tacticity fraction. This implies that lamellae are oriented orthogonal to the strain direction upon stretching. Permanent deformation of ePP after stretching, as measured by the residual strain (tensile set), originates from permanently oriented crystallites and chains pinned within crystalline networks.

  20. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High Fidelity – No Evidence for Extra-Pair Paternity in Siberian Jays (Perisoreus infaustus)

    PubMed Central

    Gienapp, Phillip; Merilä, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds is related to a number of ecological and social factors. For example, it has been found to be positively related with breeding density, negatively with the amount of paternal care and especially high rates have been observed in group-living species. Siberian jays (Perisoreous infaustus) breed at low densities and have extended parental care, which leads to the expectation of low rates of EPP. On the other hand, Siberian jays live in groups which can include also unrelated individuals, and provide opportunities for extra-pair matings. To assess the potential occurrence of EPP in Siberian jays, we analysed a large data pool (n = 1029 offspring) covering ca. 30 years of samples from a Finnish Siberian jay population. Paternities were assigned based on up to 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers with the additional information from field observations. We were unable to find any evidence for occurrence of EPP in this species. Our findings are in line with earlier studies and confirm the generally low rates of EPP in related Corvid species. These results suggest that ecological factors may be more important than social factors (group living) in determining costs and benefits of extra-pair paternity. PMID:20711255

  2. Surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing for high Nb-TiAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Wanyuan; Hao, Guojian; Liang, Yongfeng; Li, Feng; Liu, Xiao; Lin, Junpin

    2016-12-01

    Metal surface modification by electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) is an innovative treatment widely commonly applied to material processing and pretreatment process of coating and galvanization. EPP involves complex processes and a great deal of parameters, such as preset voltage, current, solution temperature and processing time. Several characterization methods are presented in this paper for evaluating the micro-structure surfaces of Ti45Al8Nb alloys: SEM, EDS, XRD and 3D topography. The results showed that the oxide scale and other contaminants on the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys can be effectively removed via EPP. The typical micro-crater structure of the surface of Ti45Al8Nb alloys were observed by 3D topography after EPP to find that the mean diameter of the surface structure and roughness value can be effectively controlled by altering the processing parameters. The mechanical properties of the surface according to nanomechanical probe testing exhibited slight decrease in microhardness and elastic modulus after EPP, but a dramatic increase in surface roughness, which is beneficial for further processing or coating.

  3. Progress and challenges in modelling country-level HIV/AIDS epidemics: the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package 2007.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Salomon, J A; Alkema, L; Raftery, A E; Gouws, E

    2008-08-01

    The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) was developed to aid in country-level estimation and short-term projection of HIV/AIDS epidemics. This paper describes advances reflected in the most recent update of this tool (EPP 2007), and identifies key issues that remain to be addressed in future versions. The major change to EPP 2007 is the addition of uncertainty estimation for generalised epidemics using the technique of Bayesian melding, but many additional changes have been made to improve the user interface and efficiency of the package. This paper describes the interface for uncertainty analysis, changes to the user interface for calibration procedures and other user interface changes to improve EPP's utility in different settings. While formal uncertainty assessment remains an unresolved challenge in low-level and concentrated epidemics, the Bayesian melding approach has been applied to provide analysts in these settings with a visual depiction of the range of models that may be consistent with their data. In fitting the model to countries with longer-running epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, a number of limitations have been identified in the current model with respect to accommodating behaviour change and accurately replicating certain observed epidemic patterns. This paper discusses these issues along with their implications for future changes to EPP and to the underlying UNAIDS Reference Group model.

  4. Correlation between mesospheric ozone and Energetic Particle Precipitation over Troll, Antarctica in the years 2008 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daae, M.; Espy, P. J.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Newnham, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    The British Antarctic Survey radiometer stationed at Troll, Antarctica (72S, 2.5E, L=4.76) measured ozone in the lower mesosphere and upper stratosphere from February 2008 until February 2010. By looking at anomalies in the polar-winter nighttime ozone, we are able to quantify the influence of Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) on ozone during these two years. Time-lagged correlations between geomagnetic indices (AE, Kp and Dst) and ozone anomalies as a function of height have been calculated to quantify which of the indices best accounts for the variability in the ozone. In addition, the MEPED instruments aboard the NOAA satellites have been used to quantify the EPP flux precipitating over Troll. Since the solar activity in 2008 undergoes a strong periodicity, which is linked to rotating coronal holes, this periodicity is also manifested in the EPP and the geomagnetic indices. A correlation analysis between the ozone over Troll and the periodic solar activity that is reflected in the EPP is also carried out, resulting in a statistical quantification of the EPP effects on mesospheric ozone as measured over Troll, Antarctica.

  5. Relativistic dynamics of electrons around impurities in high-density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douis, Said; Meftah, Mohammed Tayeb

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we focus our attention on the dynamic properties of relativistic electrons moving around an impurity in a plasma. This led us, in the first place, to compute the effective plasma potential (EPP) in which the electrons move. The EPP is built up as a sum of three contributions. These include the potential created by the impurity, the potential due to the ions assumed to form a uniform background of positive electric charges and the potential due to all the electrons. It turns out that the last potential depends on an integral of a function of the EPP in question. This then leads to a nonlinear integral equation where the EPP is the main quantity to compute. Thanks to the EPP, we derive the electron trajectories and compute their total electric field (microfield) at the impurity. According to different plasma conditions, two dynamical properties are then calculated: the time auto-correlation function of this microfield and the dielectric constant. These properties are calculated for both the relativistic case and non-relativistic (classical) case. The comparison between the relativistic and the classical results are also done for the different plasma conditions.

  6. [Early prenatal interview and antenatal education for childbirth and parenthood: Associated psychosocial and obstetric characteristics in women of the ELFE cohort].

    PubMed

    Barandon, S; Balès, M; Melchior, M; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N; Pambrun, E; Bois, C; Verdoux, H; Sutter-Dallay, A-L

    2016-06-01

    Early prenatal interview (Entretien prénatal précoce [EPP]) is aimed at defining with couples their physical, psychological and social needs during perinatal period. Antenatal education for childbirth and parenthood (Préparation à la naissance et à la parentalité [PNP]) is aimed at promoting global perinatal health. The objective was to identify the psychological, demographic and obstetrical characteristics independently associated with participation in: (i) an EPP; (ii) a PNP. Multivariate analyses were applied to data collected during the maternity stay of mothers whose children were included in the French cohort French Longitudinal Study since the Childhood (ELFE), a nationally representative cohort of children followed-up from birth to adulthood. Among the 14,595 mothers of the sample, 33% had an EPP and 52% a PNP. Primiparous mothers, born in France, with high educational level, employed or unemployed, with psychological difficulties more often benefit from EPP and/or PNP. Women who were young, benefiting from free health insurance (Couverture Maladie Universelle [CMU]), with unplanned pregnancy, with less antenatal care and obstetrical complications less often benefit from PNP. The EPP and the PNP reach high sociodemographic level populations. They should be integrated into a wider system of prevention and care, in order to reach the most vulnerable populations and to contribute to the improvement of the psychological and social environment of all the women during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Mating strategies in dominant meerkats: evidence for extra-pair paternity in relation to genetic relatedness between pair mates.

    PubMed

    Leclaire, S; Nielsen, J F; Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2013-07-01

    Rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have frequently been associated with genetic relatedness between social mates in socially monogamous birds. However, evidence is limited in mammals. Here, we investigate whether dominant females use divorce or extra-pair paternity as a strategy to avoid the negative effects of inbreeding when paired with a related male in meerkats Suricata suricatta, a species where inbreeding depression is evident for several traits. We show that dominant breeding pairs seldom divorce, but that rates of EPP are associated with genetic similarity between mates. Although extra-pair males are no more distantly related to the female than social males, they are more heterozygous. Nevertheless, extra-pair pups are not more heterozygous than within-pair pups. Whether females benefit from EPP in terms of increased fitness of the offspring, such as enhanced survival or growth, requires further investigations.

  8. Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-06-01

    Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  9. A computer system for real-time data acquisition and analysis of biopotentials and quantal content at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Kim, Y I

    1983-06-01

    A computerized data acquisition system for on-line analysis of the parameters of neuromuscular transmission is described. Both hardware usage and software methodologies are discussed with regard to sampling in real-time and analyzing miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs), end-plate potentials (EPPs) and quantal content of the evoked transmitter release. Significant features of the program include: (1) automatic threshold determination for MEPP detection; (2) the use of a circular buffer to give pre-trigger information; (3) real-time noise spike rejection; (4) an automatic procedure for EPP failure detection; (5) rapid quantal content determinations by several methods as well as complete MEPP and EPP waveform analysis. The system has proven both accurate and reliable during more than two years of use. Advantages of the system over conventional methods include: (1) increased accuracy and efficiency in data analysis; (2) immediate availability of results; (3) conventional data storage; (4) flexibility to meet changing requirements.

  10. Transitioning from traditional to green cleaners: an analysis of custodian and manager focus groups.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy; Wakai, Sara; Welsh, Loyola; Westinghouse, Carol; Morse, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Custodians represent one of the largest occupational groups using cleaning agents, and yet their voices are infrequently heard in relation to the introduction of "green" cleaners and the laws regarding environmentally preferable products (EPP). This study reflects worker voices on use and effectiveness of chemicals, as well as incentives and obstacles for green cleaning programs. Sixty-four custodians and staff participated in 10 focus groups. Data were entered into Atlas Ti and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to identify themes. Themes included satisfaction in a "well-done" job, more effort required for job, lack of involvement in EPP selection process, EPP's ease of use for workers with English as a Second Language (ESL), misuse of disinfectants, health complaints, and need for training. This study shows that custodians have a voice, and that improved communication and feedback among all the stakeholders are needed to make the transition to green cleaning more effective.

  11. A Energy-Saving Path-Shared Protection Based on Diversity Network Coding for Multi-rate Multicast in WDM Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Danling; Lv, Lei; Liu, Huanlin

    2017-08-01

    For improving the survivability and energy saving of multi-rate multicast, a novel energy-saving path-shared protection based on diversity network coding (EPP-DNC) for multi-rate multicast in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks is proposed in the paper. In the EPP-DNC algorithm, diversity network coding on the source node for multi-rate multicast is adopted to reduce the coding energy consumption by avoiding network coding on the network's intermediate nodes. To decrease the transmission energy, shortest path shared based on heuristic is proposed to transmit the protection information for the request. To provision request's working paths efficiency, the working paths are routed on the preselected P-cycles with minimum required links and minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed EPP-DNC can save energy consumption and improve bandwidth utilization.

  12. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  13. Organization and execution of the epithelial polarity programme

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Macara, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells require apical–basal plasma membrane polarity to perform crucial vectorial transport functions and cytoplasmic polarity to generate different cell progenies for tissue morphogenesis. The establishment and maintenance of a polarized epithelial cell with apical, basolateral and ciliary surface domains is guided by an epithelial polarity programme (EPP) that is controlled by a network of protein and lipid regulators. The EPP is organized in response to extracellular cues and is executed through the establishment of an apical-basal axis, intercellular junctions, epithelial–specific cytoskeletal rearrangements and a polarized trafficking machinery. Recent studies have provided insight on the interactions of the EPP with the polarized trafficking machinery and how they regulate epithelial polarization and depolarization. PMID:24651541

  14. Surgical options in malignant pleural mesothelioma: extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication.

    PubMed

    Flores, Raja M

    2009-01-01

    Two operations have evolved for the surgical treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM): extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). The goal of surgery in the multimodality treatment approach is to achieve a macroscopic complete resection, with adjuvant therapies directed at residual microscopic disease. Overall survival reported in a recent multicenter analysis of these two operations supports the use of P/D for early stage MPM provided that a complete resection is feasible; otherwise EPP will confer a survival advantage. For stage II disease, however, EPP demonstrates a possible advantage. The focus in stage III disease should remain on the ability to achieve macroscopic complete resection, rather than N2 disease. Patients with stage IV cancers have better survival if the lung is left in place.

  15. Glaucoma expert patient programme and ocular hypotensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Amro, Raed; Cox, Carol L; Waddington, Kathryn; Siriwardena, Dilani

    Expert patient programmes (EPPs) are becoming an increasingly important aspect of chronic disease management, resulting in improved health outcomes for patients. Patients with chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG) require lifelong therapy. However, to date, no EPPs have been designed specifically for patients with chronic eye conditions like COAG. This article describes the development and implementation of the Glaucoma Expert Patient Programme (GEPP), a glaucoma-specific educational self-management programme which aims to improve glaucoma patients' knowledge, self-management skills, expectations and adherence to treatment. A review of theoretical frameworks and models which underpin the design, use and conduct of EPPs was undertaken, and the GEPP was designed based on the model by Kate Lorig (2003). The result is an educational programme which offers COAG patients a different perspective on their condition and supports them with knowledge, skills and strategies to better manage their condition on a daily basis.

  16. Refined hyperentanglement purification of two-photon systems for high-capacity quantum communication with cavity-assisted interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-12-01

    Hyperentanglement, defined as the entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a photonic quantum system, has attracted much attention recently as it can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a refined hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for two-photon systems in mixed hyperentangled states in both the spatial-mode and polarization DOFs, assisted by cavity quantum electrodynamics. By means of the spatial (polarization) quantum state transfer process, the quantum states that are discarded in the previous hyper-EPPs can be preserved. That is, the spatial (polarization) state of a four-photon system with high fidelity can be transformed into another four-photon system with low fidelity, not disturbing its polarization (spatial) state, which makes this hyper-EPP take the advantage of possessing a higher efficiency.

  17. A Primer on Bayesian Analysis for Experimental Psychopathologists.

    PubMed

    Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Blanken, Tessa F; Arnaudova, Inna; Matzke, Dora; Beckers, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The principal goals of experimental psychopathology (EPP) research are to offer insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of mental disorders and to provide a stable ground for the development of clinical interventions. The main message of the present article is that those goals are better served by the adoption of Bayesian statistics than by the continued use of null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST). In the first part of the article we list the main disadvantages of NHST and explain why those disadvantages limit the conclusions that can be drawn from EPP research. Next, we highlight the advantages of Bayesian statistics. To illustrate, we then pit NHST and Bayesian analysis against each other using an experimental data set from our lab. Finally, we discuss some challenges when adopting Bayesian statistics. We hope that the present article will encourage experimental psychopathologists to embrace Bayesian statistics, which could strengthen the conclusions drawn from EPP research.

  18. Refined hyperentanglement purification of two-photon systems for high-capacity quantum communication with cavity-assisted interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-12-15

    Hyperentanglement, defined as the entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a photonic quantum system, has attracted much attention recently as it can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a refined hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for two-photon systems in mixed hyperentangled states in both the spatial-mode and polarization DOFs, assisted by cavity quantum electrodynamics. By means of the spatial (polarization) quantum state transfer process, the quantum states that are discarded in the previous hyper-EPPs can be preserved. That is, the spatial (polarization) state of a four-photon system with high fidelity can be transformed into another four-photon system with low fidelity, not disturbing its polarization (spatial) state, which makes this hyper-EPP take the advantage of possessing a higher efficiency.

  19. Fall and winter distribution of Canada geese in the Mississippi flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Rusch, D.H.; Abraham, K.F.; Gillespie, M.M.; Prevett, J.P.; Swenson, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from northern Manitoba and northern Ontario were marked with leg bands and neck bands and observed throughout the Mississippi flyway from 1978 to 1989. We used observations of neck-banded geese within each state to determine the relative fall/winter distribution of the Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) and the Mississippi Valley Population (MVP). Mississippi Valley geese were affiliated with states east of the Mississippi River; EPP geese were affiliated with states west of the Mississippi River. However, we found geographic differences in population distribution within several states. Significant annual changes in distribution also occurred in most states. Management of Mississippi flyway geese should consider the differences in both population dynamics and spatial and temporal distributions of MVP and EPP geese in determining state and flyway harvest objectives.

  20. Advances in the management of erythropoietic protoporphyria – role of afamelanotide

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Ashley M; McKay, Jerome T; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and the phenotypically similar disease X-linked protoporphyria (XLPP) are inherited cutaneous porphyrias characterized clinically by acute non-blistering photosensitivity, intolerance to sunlight, and significantly reduced quality of life. They are due to marked overproduction of protoporphyrin (PP) chiefly by erythroblasts and reticulocytes. In EPP, the underlying genetic defect is in the ferrochelatase gene, which encodes the final enzyme in the heme synthetic pathway. In XLPP, the genetic defect is a gain-of-function mutation, usually a four-base deletion, in the gene that encodes the enzyme 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase-2, the first and rate-controlling enzyme of heme synthesis in developing red blood cells. The excess PP causes acute and painful photosensitivity, being activated by light in the long ultraviolet to blue spectrum (380–420 nm, the Soret band). Although several treatments have been proposed, presently no very effective treatment exists for EPP or XLPP. Afamelanotide (Scenesse®) is a first-in-class synthetic analog of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Afamelanotide mimics the naturally occurring hormone to increase skin pigmentation by increasing melanin production in melanocytes, resulting in increased sunlight tolerance in those with EPP/XLPP. Afamelanotide is currently approved for use in the European Union and Switzerland, and it is under review in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with EPP/XLPP. This paper provides a review of the clinical characteristics and current therapies for EPP/XLPP. We discuss the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of afamelanotide and summarize the results of several key Phase II and III clinical trials. These data indicate that afamelanotide is a promising therapy for those with these debilitating diseases. PMID:28003770

  1. How female reed buntings benefit from extra-pair mating behaviour: testing hypotheses through patterns of paternity in sequential broods.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Karen M; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2006-08-01

    Extra-pair paternity is an important aspect of reproductive strategies in many species of birds. Given that in most species females control whether fertilization occurs, they are expected to benefit in some way from the extra-pair matings. In this study we use patterns of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in broods of individual reed buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus), both within and between seasons, to test four hypothesized female benefits: (1) assessing potential future partners and seeking (2) genetic diversity (3) good genes, or (4) compatible genes. Reed buntings are socially monogamous, multibrooded passerines with extremely high levels of extra-pair paternity. We studied a population of reed buntings in the Netherlands in 2002 and 2003; 51% of offspring in 74% of nests were extra-pair. We showed that patterns of EPP did not support the first and second hypotheses, since females did not form a pair with previous extra-pair partners, EPP was not evenly distributed among broods and more broods than expected were sired by a single male. Furthermore, there was no relation between a male's within- and extra-pair fertilization success, no consistency in EPP between breeding attempts, no effect of parental relatedness on EPP and several cases of reciprocal paternity. These patterns do not support the good genes hypothesis and are most consistent with the genetic compatibility hypothesis. However, our previous finding that older males are more successful in gaining EPP, suggests some effect of good genes. These hypotheses need not be mutually exclusive, as females may select compatible males above a certain quality threshold (e.g. old males).

  2. New support for an old hypothesis: density affects extra-pair paternity

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christian; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Density has been suggested to affect variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) in avian mating systems, because increasing density promotes encounter rates and thus mating opportunities. However, the significance of density affecting EPP variation in intra- and interspecific comparisons has remained controversial, with more support from intraspecific comparisons. Neither experimental nor empirical studies have consistently provided support for the density hypothesis. Testing the density hypothesis is challenging because density measures may not necessarily reflect extra-pair mating opportunities, mate guarding efforts may covary with density, populations studied may differ in migratory behavior and/or climatic conditions, and variation in density may be insufficient. Accounting for these potentially confounding factors, we tested whether EPP rates within and among subpopulations of the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) were related to density. Our analyses were based on data from 13 subpopulations studied over 4 years. Overall, 56.4% of totally 181 broods contained at least one extra-pair young (EPY) and 37.1% of totally 669 young were of extra-pair origin. Roughly 90% of the extra-pair fathers were from the adjacent territory or from the territory after the next one. Within subpopulations, the proportion of EPY in broods was positively related to local breeding density. Similarly, among subpopulations, proportion of EPY was positively associated with population density. EPP was absent in subpopulations consisting of single breeding pairs, that is, without extra-pair mating opportunities. Our study confirms that density is an important biological factor, which significantly influences the amount of EPP within and among subpopulations, but also suggests that other mechanisms influence EPP beyond the variation explained by density. PMID:23533071

  3. The evaluation of the influence of selected patellofemoral joint geometry indicators observed in magnetic resonance imaging on the incidence of anterior knee pain in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstrings.

    PubMed

    Osowska, Katarzyna; Fabiś, Jarosław; Fabiś, Anna; Grodzka, Magdalena; Zwierzchowski, Jacek Tomasz

    2013-12-10

    Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a frequent serious clinical problem after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, regardless of the graft material used. The author conducted prospective studies of the correlation between AKP and disturbed geometry of patello-femoral joint observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with injured ACL reconstructed with the use of hamstrings. The study included 60 patients (34 males and 26 females), at the mean age of 31, who underwent ACL reconstruction with flexors. Only patients without clinical AKP symptoms or AKP factors after reconstruction were included in the study. Before surgery, in all patients MRI was performed in order to evaluate the patellar height, excessive patellar pressure (EPP) and patellar lateralization (PL). In the postoperative course, AKP and its correlation with the ratios mentioned above were observed. In the group of patients included in the study, pathological patellar height was not observed, EPP was diagnosed in 15%, PL in 13.3% and EPP and PL jointly in 11.9% of the patients. AKP was observed in 8 out of 9 patients with abnormal lateral pressure, 7 patients with EPP and 7 patients with concomitant excessive lateral pressure and PL. The first symptoms of AKP appeared between the seventh and twelfth week after surgery and increased after 12 weeks. The occurrence of excessive lateral pressure syndrom (EPP) and PL confirmed in MRI was very strongly correlated (89% and 100%, respectively) with the occurrence of AKP after ACL reconstruction. The evaluation of the patellofemoral joint geometry, taking into account the EPP and PL ratios in pre-operative magnetic resonance image (MRI) in patients with injured anterior cruciate ligament, may allow us to establish the AKP risk group and administer suitable preventive treatment (prophylaxis).

  4. Evaluating and improving the forecast skill of NMME dataset over the CONUS; introducing an effective post-processing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajehei, S.; Ahmadalipour, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2016-12-01

    The North American Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) forecasting system has been providing valuable information using a large number of contributing models each consisting of several ensemble members. Despite all the potential benefits that the NMME offers, the forecasts are prone to bias in many regions. In this study, monthly precipitation from 11 contributing models totaling 128 ensemble members in the NMME are assessed and bias corrected for the hindcast period of 1982-2010 and forecast period of 2012-2015. All the models are regridded to 0.5 degree spatial resolution for a more detailed assessment. The goals of this study are as follows: Evaluating the performance of the NMME models over the Contiguous United States using the probabilistic and deterministic measures. Introducing the Copula based ensemble post-processing (COP-EPP) method rooted in Bayesian methods for conditioning the forecast on the observations to improve the performance of NMME predictions. Bias correcting each of the 128 ensemble members with Quantile Mapping (QM)—as a simple and widely used bias correction method, and comparing the skills of COP-EPP and QM. Comparing the forecast skill of the NMME at four different lead-times (lead-0 to lead-3) for the period of 2012-2015 across the western US, and assessing the effectiveness of COP-EPP in post-processing of precipitation forecasts. Results revealed that NMME models are highly biased in central and western US, while they provide acceptable performance in the eastern regions. Both QM and COP-EPP show substantial improvement over the raw NMME forecasts. However, regional assessment indicates that the COP-EPP is superior to the QM method. Furthermore, analysis of the NMME in the forecast period of 2012-2015 shows that as lead-time increases, the skill of the NMME deteriorates. Meanwhile, COP-EPP is showing considerable improvements on the seasonal NMME forecasts at all lead times.

  5. Degradation of polyphenols (catechin and tannic acid) in the rat intestinal tract. Effect on colonic fermentation and faecal output.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L; Abia, R; Eastwood, M A; Saura-Calixto, F

    1994-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-molecular-weight polyphenols are usually extracted by using different solvents (e.g. water, methanol, aqueous acetone). The aim of the present work was to study the possible effects of some extractable polyphenols (EPP) on fat and protein digestibilities and on the colonic microflora. Degradability of these compounds through the intestinal tract was also studied. Catechin and tannic acid (TA) were chosen as representatives of the most common basic structures of EPP (flavonoids and gallic acid respectively). Three groups of eight male Wistar rats were given either a control diet free of EPP, or diets containing 20 g/kg dry matter of catechin and TA. Body-weight and food intake were monitored during a 3-week experimental period. Faeces and urine were collected daily during the third experimental week. EPP and fat were determined in faeces, and N in both urine and faeces. Only 3.1 and 4.6% of the ingested catechin and TA respectively were excreted in faeces, indicating that absorption and/or degradation of these EPP had occurred. HPLC analysis of the polyphenolic content of faeces showed qualitative differences between groups. A significant increase of total faecal weight as well as water, fat and N excretion was produced by TA. Catechin only caused an increase in fat excretion. In vitro fermentation assays were also performed to study the effect of EPP on the colonic microflora. Both catechin and TA affected the yield of end-products of fermentation, and were also degraded during the fermentation process.

  6. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the

  7. DESIGN NOTE: An enhanced parallel port interface for controlling and monitoring experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celso Viscovini, Ronaldo; Scalabrin, Artemio; Pereira, Daniel

    2000-02-01

    In this paper we present a circuit for enhanced parallel port (EPP) interfacing that is of low cost and great versatility for general use for data communication in research laboratories. The communication is bi-directional and its speed is higher than 500 Kbytes s-1 . This circuit has an address decoder, which permits individual communication with eight items of equipment of 8 and 16 bits, with an extra status bit. The addressing system also allows insertion of up to 16 such interfacing circuits into the same computer EPP output, each of which can be independently reached.

  8. Odin/SMR nitric oxide observations and its contribution to a better understanding of energetic particle precipitation indirect effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, Kristell; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal

    The Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR) on board the Odin platform, launched in 2001, is a limb emission sounder measuring trace gases in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), Finland (TEKES), and France (CNES), with support by the 3rd party mission programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) refers to the process by which energetic protons and electrons affect the Earth’s middle atmosphere. The precipitation of magnetospheric electrons into the polar atmosphere during geomagnetic perturbations leads to nitric oxide (NO) formation in the polar upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). During polar winter, EPP-generated NO can be transported downward into the stratosphere by the meridional circulation, where it can affect the ozone concentration. This important solar-terrestrial coupling mechanism is called the EPP indirect effect (EPP IE). Odin/SMR supplies the scientific community with a 10 year NO data set, and measurements of several other related species. The analysis of these long term observations shows that EPP IE is strongly dependent on dynamical activity. Very strong NO downward transport events are observed during most of the winters characterized by a major midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW). SMR is involved in the SPARC project HEPPA-MMI (High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere - Model-Measurement Inter-comparison). The goal of this international working group is to get a better understanding of EPP-induced middle atmospheric changes, and to assess the ability of current models to reproduce those phenomena. The work is based on inter-comparisons between measurements from several instruments and results from different models, focusing on the 2008/2009 northern hemisphere polar winter. This period was characterized by peculiar dynamical conditions, with a particularly strong SSW

  9. De Novo RNA Sequencing and Transcriptome Analysis of Monascus purpureus and Analysis of Key Genes Involved in Monacolin K Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-01-01

    Monascus purpureus is an important medicinal and edible microbial resource. To facilitate biological, biochemical, and molecular research on medicinal components of M. purpureus, we investigated the M. purpureus transcriptome by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). An RNA-seq library was created using RNA extracted from a mixed sample of M. purpureus expressing different levels of monacolin K output. In total 29,713 unigenes were assembled from more than 60 million high-quality short reads. A BLAST search revealed hits for 21,331 unigenes in at least one of the protein or nucleotide databases used in this study. The 22,365 unigenes were categorized into 48 functional groups based on Gene Ontology classification. Owing to the economic and medicinal importance of M. purpureus, most studies on this organism have focused on the pharmacological activity of chemical components and the molecular function of genes involved in their biogenesis. In this study, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to detect the expression of genes related to monacolin K (mokA-mokI) at different phases (2, 5, 8, and 12 days) of M. purpureus M1 and M1-36. Our study found that mokF modulates monacolin K biogenesis in M. purpureus. Nine genes were suggested to be associated with the monacolin K biosynthesis. Studies on these genes could provide useful information on secondary metabolic processes in M. purpureus. These results indicate a detailed resource through genetic engineering of monacolin K biosynthesis in M. purpureus and related species. PMID:28114365

  10. Achievement Motives of Hispanic and Mainstream Navy Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    1963 A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BFZ ?OMP7 ’ o rom 1. REPORT NUGMeR1 .OvY ACCEAMOm No, Rg’CIPINTs CATALOG "Umea’ 4. TITLI ftd 461104) 5. TYPE Or RaPORT...Governumt 17. 0ISTIUTION STAT606ENT (of Ole abM,.u enterd ti Week. W, It Oftot beaT &#POO IL SUPPL 1.E6TAR MOTU$ MAREa ; A e. -my *ORn (0u a uree...mp ft aoid Idnp blowR mok". h ity Hispanic and go Mainstream Navy recruit. answered a 23-item questiomaire developed by Heareich and Speno to mesum

  11. Shallow Water Reverberation Measurement and Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Hence, a more recent source is needed. 41 cwumm d VA a as Suma LO i I~o Lkw tMok. a O.pn-Wudu’. Chapamm...the bottom would have to be picked out of the set, and the appropriate amplitude/travel times assigned to each. This is a formidable task, yet Bucker...level. Broadband peak level - we performed using a peak picking algorithm and a straight conversion from voltage to sound pressure level in decibels: RLM

  12. ARC-2009-ACD09-0261-012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-10

    Korean High Level Delegation Visit Ames Certer Director and various Senior staff: Dan Andrews give presentation about LCROSS/LRO to Seorium Lee, Senior Researcher, International Relations Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Soon-Duk Bae, Deputy Director, Big Science Policy Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Young-Mok Hyun, Deputy Director, Space Development Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology. Also at table are Chris Giulietti, NASA HQ, John Hines, Ames Center Chief Technologist, Unknow person and Terry Pagaduan, Government Relations/Legislative Affairs office.

  13. ARC-2009-ACD09-0261-006

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-10

    Korean High Level Delegation Visit Ames Certer Director and variou Senior staff: from left to right; Gary Martin, Director of New Ventures and Communication, NASA. Ames, Chris Giulietti, NASA Headquarters, Soon-Duk Bae, Deputy Director, Big Science Policy Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Young-Mok Hyun, Deputy Director, Space Development Division, Ministry of Educaiton, Science Technology, Yvonne Pendleton, Director of Lunar Science Institute, Terry Pagaduan, Ames Government Relations/Legislative Affairs Office, Seorium Lee, Senior Researcher, International Relations Korea Aerospace Research Institute

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Otisco Lake Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 753), Oswego River Basin, Onondaga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-23

    ona Dam Safety Program Oswego River Basin, Onondaga County,.NY 6. PERFORam0G OG. Re.PoRT Nu EaRB.’ Inventory No . NY00753 7- AU MOK&PS OTRC RGAN U~R...PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL DAN SAFETY PROGRAM OTISCO LAKE DAN I.D. NO . NY-753 DEC #73B-2751A OSWEGO RIVER BASIN ONONDAGA...COUNTY TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO . ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW PHOTOGRAPH 1 PROJECT INFORMATION 1 1.1 GENERAL 1 1.2 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT 1 1.3 PERTINENT DATA 2 2

  15. Energy- and Intensity-Modulated Electron Beam for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    collimator conformal radiation therapy. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 25 :171-179, 1993. 6. JM Galvin, X Chen, and RM Smith. Combining multileaf...accelerator, Phys. Med. Biol., 45:2321-41 (1999) 25 . C.-M. Ma, T. Pawlicki, S.B. Jiang, E.Mok, A. Kapur, L. Xing, L. Ma and A.L. Boyer, Verification of IMRT...and measured by ion chamber for a 12 MeV electron beam from a Varian Clinac 2300CD accelerator. The agreement was within I% for both cases. 25 500

  16. Effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure grown with very thin spacer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Halder, N.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2010-11-15

    We have investigated the effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on self-assembled InAs/GaAs bilayer quantum dot samples having very thin barrier thickness (7.5-8.5 nm). In/Ga interdiffusion in the samples due to annealing is presumed to be controlled by the vertical strain coupling from the seed dots in bilayer heterostructure. Strain coupling from embedded seed QD layer maintains a strain relaxed state in active top islands of the bilayer quantum dot sample grown with comparatively thick spacer layer (8.5 nm). This results in minimum In/Ga interdiffusion. However controlled interdiffusion across the interface between dots and GaAs barrier, noticeably enhances the emission efficiency in such bilayer quantum dot heterostructure on annealing up to 700 {sup o}C.

  17. Influence of indium supply on Au-catalyzed InGaAs nanowire growth studied by in situ X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takuo; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the influence of indium supply on the growth dynamics of gold-catalyzed InGaAs nanowires by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A high In/Ga supply ratio results in strong size inhomogeneity of Au particles and interrupts the nanowire growth at a certain point of time. Based on the experimental results, we discussed the state of Au catalysts with high indium content during the nanowire growth. We found that a growth temperature below the eutectic temperature is essential to avoid the growth interruption and maintain the nanowire growth. The high In/Ga ratio necessitates accurate size control of Au particles before growth for further improvement of the nanowire growth.

  18. Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S2 were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

  19. Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin

    2014-09-07

    Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

  20. Synthesis of CulnS2, CulnSe2, and Cu(InxGa(1-x))Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal "inks" for printable photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Panthani, Matthew G; Akhavan, Vahid; Goodfellow, Brian; Schmidtke, Johanna P; Dunn, Lawrence; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Barbara, Paul F; Korgel, Brian A

    2008-12-10

    Chalcopyrite copper indium sulfide (CuInS2) and copper indium gallium selenide (Cu(InxGa(1-x))-Se2; CIGS) nanocrystals ranging from approximately 5 to approximately 25 nm in diameter were synthesized by arrested precipitation in solution. The In/Ga ratio in the CIGS nanocrystals could be controlled by varying the In/Ga reactant ratio in the reaction, and the optical properties of the CulnS2 and CIGS nanocrystals correspond to those of the respective bulk materials. Using methods developed to produce uniform, crack-free micrometer-thick films, CulnSe2 nanocrystals were tested in prototype photovoltaic devices. As a proof-of-concept, the nanocrystal-based devices exhibited a reproducible photovoltaic response.

  1. Growth and electrical properties of high-quality InGaAsBi thin films using gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shuxing; Qi, Ming; Ai, Likun; Wang, Shumin; Xu, Anhuai; Guo, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The effects of Bi flux and In/Ga ratio on Bi incorporation and electrical properties of InGaAsBi grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy were systematically studied. It is found that use of a low In/Ga ratio has an enhancement effect on the incorporation of Bi and its content increases linearly with Bi flux until reach a saturation. Incorporation of Bi induces p-type dopant that compensates the background electron concentration but does not degrade the electron mobility for the Bi content up to 6.2%. Up to 7.5% of Bi incorporation has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and a maximum electron mobility of 5600 cm2·V‑1·s‑1 at room temperature was achieved in InGaAsBi with x Bi = 6.2%, which is the highest value reported in InGaAsBi with x Bi > 5%.

  2. Rust fungi causing galls, witches' brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José R; Hennen, Joe F

    2003-01-01

    Conspicuous galls and witches' brooms frequently are symptoms of rust infections on plant hosts in the ecologically diverse northwestern region of Argentina. These symptoms are caused by systemic or locally systemic spermogonial-aecial infections, although uredinial and telial infections also might be involved. Sixteen species of rust fungi are treated in this paper, most of which cause a plant response that results in enlarged growth. Ypsilospora tucumanensis J.R. Hern. & J.F. Hennen on Inga edulis is described as a species new to science. Puccinia cordiae Arthur is cited as a new record for Argentina. These rusts also are included: Chaconia ingae, Gerwasia imperialis, Kuehneola loeseneriana, Prospodium appendiculatum, Prospodium elegans, Prospodium perornatum, Puccinia bougainvilleae, Puccinia pampeana, Ravenelia argentinica, Ravenelia hieronymi, Ravenelia papillosa, Ravenelia spegazziniana, Uromyces cestri and Uropyxis rickiana. For some of the scientific names, lectotype specimens have been designated.

  3. Representative Personality Dimensions Characteristic of Different Occupational Choice in the Paramedical Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Priscilla Bernadette

    To ascertain differences in the area of non-intellectual characteristics among senior students and successful practitioners in four paramedical groups, data collected by administering the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) were statistically analyzed. This test, measuring the relative strength of 15 personality needs, was given to 396…

  4. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  5. 78 FR 80381 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-72; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80381-80382] [FR Doc No: 2013-31152] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... rule adopts, without change, an interim rule which was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 37686...-wide Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-31152 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  6. 78 FR 80379 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Trade Agreements Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Pages 80379-80381] [FR Doc No: 2013-31151] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... (78 FR 76700), the United States Trade Representative published new procurement thresholds. The United... and Remedies (DEC 2013) * * * * * [FR Doc. 2013-31151 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P...

  7. Framework for Virtual Mentoring in Prison Education: Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Tamecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that mentoring relationships have long been used to address populations of need, underrepresented populations, social inequities, and educational attainment (Single & Single, 2005). The work reported in the EPP was conducted in the context of enhancing an existing life skills course for juvenile offenders. The purpose of this…

  8. Teacher Attitudes and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), and the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) were administered to 183 undergraduate students enrolled in teacher education courses. The MTAI was compared with each of the two personality instruments by canonical analysis. Concludes that teacher's…

  9. Interleukin-1β-Targeted Vaccine Improves Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in a Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-lin; Liu, Xiang-meng; Liu, Dong-qun; Zhu, Jie; Ji, Hui; Liu, Rui-tian

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated as a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pancreatic islet inflammation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Excess IL-1β impairs islet function by inducing insulin resistance and β-cell apoptosis. Therefore, specifically reducing IL-1β activity provides a therapeutic improvement for T2DM by sustaining the inhibition of IL-1β-mediated islet inflammation. In this study, we developed an IL-1β-targeted epitope peptide vaccine adjuvanted with polylactic acid microparticles (1βEPP) and applied it to a diabetic KK-Ay mouse model. Results showed that the 1βEPP elicited high antibody responses, which neutralized the biological activity of IL-1β, and induced barely detectable inflammatory activity. 1βEPP immunization reduced body weight gain, protected KK-Ay mice from hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and decreased the serum levels of free fatty acids, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Moreover, 1βEPP restored β-cell mass; inhibited β-cell apoptosis; decreased the expression of IL-1β; and interrupted NF-κB activation by reducing IKKβ and pRelA levels. These studies indicated that the IL-1β-targeted vaccine may be a promising immunotherapeutic for T2DM treatment. PMID:27152706

  10. Interleukin-1β-Targeted Vaccine Improves Glucose Control and β-Cell Function in a Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zha, Jun; Chi, Xiao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Xiang-Meng; Liu, Dong-Qun; Zhu, Jie; Ji, Hui; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated as a key proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pancreatic islet inflammation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Excess IL-1β impairs islet function by inducing insulin resistance and β-cell apoptosis. Therefore, specifically reducing IL-1β activity provides a therapeutic improvement for T2DM by sustaining the inhibition of IL-1β-mediated islet inflammation. In this study, we developed an IL-1β-targeted epitope peptide vaccine adjuvanted with polylactic acid microparticles (1βEPP) and applied it to a diabetic KK-Ay mouse model. Results showed that the 1βEPP elicited high antibody responses, which neutralized the biological activity of IL-1β, and induced barely detectable inflammatory activity. 1βEPP immunization reduced body weight gain, protected KK-Ay mice from hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and decreased the serum levels of free fatty acids, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Moreover, 1βEPP restored β-cell mass; inhibited β-cell apoptosis; decreased the expression of IL-1β; and interrupted NF-κB activation by reducing IKKβ and pRelA levels. These studies indicated that the IL-1β-targeted vaccine may be a promising immunotherapeutic for T2DM treatment.

  11. The Contribution of Geomagnetic Activities to Polar Ozone Changes in Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Huang, F.; Zhang, X.; Liu, D.; Hao, Y.; Liu, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) plays an important role in the catalytic process of ozone depletion due to the odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen species produced by EPP in the polar middle atmosphere during the geomagnetic activities. It is known that solar UV emission variations have significant effects on ozone generation. So it is interesting to compare the contributions of EPP and solar UV emission to ozone change in the polar upper atmosphere. In this work, we applied annual average Ap index to denote the annual mean magnitude of geomagnetic activity which has good relationship with EPP flux and annual average F10.7 index to denote annual mean magnitude of solar radiation which has certain relevancy with solar UV emission. We adopted latitude-average dataset of ozone measurements from SBUV instruments on the POES satellites and studied the statistics characters between ozone dataset and Ap,F10.7 index. The multiple regression analysis shows that the contributions of geomagnetic activities are not negligible and have the similar order of magnitude compared with solar UV emission in polar upper atmosphere (above 30 km). The results also show that HSSWS-Induced (HSSWS, High-Speed Solar Wind Stream) geomagnetic activities and that of CME-Induced (CME, Coronal Mass Ejection) are of the same order of magnitude. There exists differences between two hemispheres according to the multiple regression analysis and we made a discussion to interpret the causes of these differences.

  12. The Role of International School Counselors in U.S. College Recruitment Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Amy Greenwald

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware has embraced a global admissions initiative with minimal experience in international endeavors and a limited budget for international recruitment. This EPP serves as exploratory research for improving our understanding of the international student market in Latin America and working more effectively with international…

  13. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  14. Representative Personality Dimensions Characteristic of Different Occupational Choice in the Paramedical Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Priscilla Bernadette

    To ascertain differences in the area of non-intellectual characteristics among senior students and successful practitioners in four paramedical groups, data collected by administering the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) were statistically analyzed. This test, measuring the relative strength of 15 personality needs, was given to 396…

  15. "Would You Like to Tidy up Now?" An Analysis of Adult Questioning in the English Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Manni, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an extension of analysis concerned with adult questioning carried out in the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years (REPEY) study. The REPEY study drew on robust quantitative data provided by the Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) project to identify the particular pedagogical strategies being applied…

  16. Personality Characteristics of Women's Assertiveness Training Group Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsook, Judith E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study compared personality characteristics of 25 volunteers for a women's assertiveness group with a control group of vocational counselees and the norm group on the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS). Results suggested that women are highly concerned with the approval of others, moderately inhibited in expressing their feelings, but…

  17. NEEMO 18 (NCO-125)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-22

    JSC2014-E-068003 (July 2014) --- NASA astronaut Jeanette Epps and European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Pesquet, who represent half the NEEMO 18 crew, waste little time in performing experiments and other assignments inside a 400 square-foot habitat housing them for nine days underwater off Key Largo. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  19. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  20. Polarization entanglement purification for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Entanglement purification plays a fundamental role in long-distance quantum communication. In the paper, we put forward the first polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for one type of nonlocal logic-qubit entanglement, i.e., concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity. In contrast to existing EPPs, this protocol can purify the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in both physic and logic level. Instead of measuring the photons directly, this protocol only requires to measure the atom states to judge whether the protocol is successful. In this way, the purified logic entangled states can be preserved for further application. Moreover, it makes this EPP repeatable so as to obtain a higher fidelity of logic entangled states. As the logic-qubit entanglement utilizes the quantum error correction (QEC) codes, which has an inherent stability against noise and decoherence, this EPP combined with the QEC codes may provide a double protection for the entanglement from the channel noise and may have potential applications in long-distance quantum communication.

  1. Educational Partnerships. Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-deUriarte, Christine; And Others

    The United States Congress enacted the Educational Partnerships Act in 1988. The Educational Partnerships Program (EPP) stimulated the creation of educational partnerships to demonstrate their contribution to educational reform. The Office of Educational Research (OERI) provided funds to 30 educational partnerships. This document contains five…

  2. 77 FR 27847 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... left eye, 20/20. Following an examination in 2012, his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Ellis demonstrates.... Following an examination in 2012, his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Epps has sufficient visiual stability to... in his left eye, 20/20. Following an examination in 2012, his optometrist noted, ``In my...

  3. On Social Psychology and Human Nature: An Interview with Roy Baumeister

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Natalie Kerr

    2008-01-01

    Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…

  4. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  5. Cultivating a Growth Mindset in Students at a High-Achieving High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fegley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this EPP is to develop a plan for changing the mindset of a large number of Haddonfield Memorial High School (HMHS) students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. HMHS is by most conventional measures a high performing school. Typically 100% of the students graduate with 96% of the students attending two or four year colleges…

  6. Early Identification of ADHD: Methods, Benefits, and a Standard Performance Metric for School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation as an executive position paper (EPP) will provide a thorough literature review and the most current and reliable data on Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) prevalence, show the high importance of early diagnosis and interventions, and provide a standard for a school district to…

  7. Summary of Activities and Policy Studies. Educational Policy and Planning Project. A Government of Indonesia-USAID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boediono; And Others

    The Educational Policy and Planning (EPP) Project assists the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) in establishing an information system to improve policy analysis and formulation. There are five elements of the project strategy: increase the ability of MOEC staff to create and use information for use in policy research, strengthen…

  8. VISITOR - SULTAN - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-04

    S85-29711 (April 1985) --- Ronald C. Epps, right of the training division in the mission operations directorate, briefs the Saudi Arabian payload specialist, Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, and his backup, Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam, in the flight control room (FCR) of the mission control center (MCC). Erlinda Stevenson is also pictured.

  9. The English Profile Programme: Background, Current Issues and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The EPP is a collaborative programme of interdisciplinary research, whose goal is to provide a set of Reference Level Descriptions (RLDs) for English for all six levels of the CEFR (Council of Europe 2001; Little 2006), from A1 to C2.

  10. Department of Defense: Further Actions Needed to Institutionalize Key Business System Modernization Management Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    reported that the pace of DOD’s efforts in defining and implementing key institutional modernization management controls had slowed compared with...Carl Barden, Shaun Byrnes, Debra Conner, Elena Epps, Rebecca Eyler, Nancy Glover, Neelaxi Lakhmani (Assistant Director), Anh Le, Lori Martinez

  11. Relationships Among the Edwards Personality Inventory Scales, the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule, and the Personality Research Form Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Allen L.; Abbott, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the degree to which the EPPS and PRF scales are correlated with the EPI scales, and also to determine the degree to which the scales in all three inventories are measuring the same common traits. (Author)

  12. Authentic Field-Based Learning Experiences for EdD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Jane Boag

    2009-01-01

    This EPP examines the problem of EdD coursework not having sufficient connection to the work that EdD students will eventually assume as leaders of school districts or other educational systems. It reviews literature critical of EdD programs and websites of educational administration professional organizations with recommended curriculum for EdD…

  13. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  14. Reducing Uncertainties of Hydrologic Model Predictions Using a New Ensemble Pre-Processing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajehei, S.; Moradkhani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) was developed to characterize the uncertainty in hydrologic predictions. However, ESP outputs are still prone to bias due to the uncertainty in the forcing data, initial condition, and model structure. Among these, uncertainty in forcing data has a major impact on the reliability of hydrologic simulations/forecasts. Major steps have been taken in generating less uncertain precipitation forecasts such as the Ensemble Pre-Processing (EPP) to achieve this goal. EPP is introduced as a statistical procedure based on the bivariate joint distribution between observation and forecast to generate ensemble climatologic forecast from single-value forecast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of pre-processed ensemble precipitation forecast in generating ensemble streamflow predictions. Copula functions used in EPP, model the multivariate joint distribution between univariate variables with any level of dependency. Accordingly, ESP is generated by employing both raw ensemble precipitation forecast as well as pre-processed ensemble precipitation. The ensemble precipitation forecast is taken from Climate Forecast System (CFS) generated by National Weather Service's (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) models. Study is conducted using the precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) over two basins in the Pacific Northwest USA for the period of 1979 to 2013. Results reveal that applying this new EPP will lead to reduction of uncertainty and overall improvement in the ESP.

  15. Evaluation of Educators and Educator Preparation Programs: Models and Systems in Theory and Practice. WCER Working Paper No. 2014-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert; Pyatigorsky, Mikhail; Rice, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Student growth measures are increasingly common in K-12 school and teacher accountability policy in the United States. At this time, it is still rare for educator preparation programs (EPPs) to be evaluated by similar measures for either low stakes program improvement or higher stakes accreditation processes. Growth in student achievement reflects…

  16. The Role of International School Counselors in U.S. College Recruitment Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Amy Greenwald

    2013-01-01

    The University of Delaware has embraced a global admissions initiative with minimal experience in international endeavors and a limited budget for international recruitment. This EPP serves as exploratory research for improving our understanding of the international student market in Latin America and working more effectively with international…

  17. The vertical propagation and extent of stratospheric temperature and wind anomalies related to enhanced geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, A. M.; Baumgaertner, A. J.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M.

    2010-12-01

    Model studies have suggested that Odd Nitrogen, NOx, created by Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) and the consequent ozone loss through catalytic loss cycles could have an effect on stratospheric and tropospheric (e.g. surface level) temperatures. These effects can potentially be comparable to the effects induced by the solar cycle at high latitudes. Significant mesospheric and stratospheric NOx enhancements have been observed during times of high solar activity (e.g. during Solar Proton Events). NOx can also be, through dynamics, transported from high altitudes (mesosphere-lower thermosphere), where it's created by EPP, down to the stratosphere. Once the NOx reaches the the stratosphere, ozone loss reactions involving NOx provide a link to the general stratospheric ozone balance. Surface temperature effects similar to those reported in the model studies were recently found in re-analysis meteorological data sets, but the mechanism connecting the high altitude NOx production to the surface level remained unclear. In this work, using meteorological re-analysis and operational data sets from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast and the UK Met Office from 1957 to 2009, we examine the vertical propagation and extent, particularly in the stratosphere, of temperature and wind anomalies related to enhanced geomagnetic activity (i.e. enhanced EPP into the atmosphere), to provide better understanding of the linking mechanism. Furthermore we discuss results from the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy, which provides a more comprehensive view of the variation in atmospheric parameters as a result of varying EPP input.

  18. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase I. Tactical Air Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Training-. ( ASPT ) located at Williams AFB (Faconti, Mortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Knoop, 1973; Faconti & Epps, 1975; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980). The ASPT ...1tomated performance measurement system. Notwithstanding the apparent training potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found

  19. Cradle to Gate Life Cycle Assessment of North American Cellulosic Fiberboard Production

    Treesearch

    Maureen Puettmann; Richard Bergman; Elaine Oneil

    2016-01-01

    All consumer products have an environmental footprint. Quantifying that footprint has become more common with the advent of Environmental Preferential Purchasing (EPP), an emergent world-wide phenomenon. The forest products industry in particular has been challenged regarding its environmental sustainability. The greatest challenges with respect to practices center on...

  20. The influence of nonrandom extra‐pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Josh A.; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Santure, Anna W.; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness among individuals through observation. However, extra‐pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with EPP and the accuracy of heritability estimates for such traits remains unexplored. We show analytically how nonrandom pedigree errors can influence heritability estimates. Then, combining empirical data from a large great tit (Parus major) pedigree with simulations, we assess how heritability estimates derived from social pedigrees change depending on the mode of the relationship between EPP and the focal trait. We show that the magnitude of the underestimation is typically small (<15%). Hence, our analyses suggest that quantitative genetic inference from pedigrees derived from observations of social relationships is relatively robust; our approach also provides a widely applicable method for assessing the consequences of nonrandom EPP. PMID:25800997

  1. CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SOCIAL DESIRABILITY VARIABLE AND PERSONALITY VARIABLES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GHEI, S.N.

    AN EFFORT WAS MADE TO MEASURE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE OBSERVED DIFFERENCES IN THE PERSONALITY STRUCTURE OF AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS AND COLLEGE STUDENTS IN INDIA MIGHT HAVE BEEN AFFECTED BY CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN A SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SET DERIVED FROM THE EDWARDS PERSONAL PREFERENCE SCHEDULE (EPPS). EIGHT HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED ON 243…

  2. On Social Psychology and Human Nature: An Interview with Roy Baumeister

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Natalie Kerr

    2008-01-01

    Roy F. Baumeister currently holds the Eppes Eminent Professorship in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. He received his PhD in social psychology from Princeton in 1978 working under Edward E. Jones. After a postdoctoral fellowship in sociology at Berkeley, he spent 23 years on the faculty at Case Western Reserve University,…

  3. The Educational Priorities Panel: Its Significance as an Educational Change Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litow, Stanley S.

    The Educational Priorities Panel (EPP) is a coalition of parent and civic organizations which was formed to focus attention on spending practices and fiscal priorities of the New York City Board of Education. The highly centralized nature of the school system, the myriad of competing interests which influence policy, and a large and complicated…

  4. Dual Electrolytic Plasma Processing for Steel Surface Cleaning and Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, P.; Shi, J.; Liang, J.; Tian, W. B.; Zhang, Y. M.; Sun, Z. M.

    2017-07-01

    To remove the rust on rebars and passivate the fresh surfaces, electrodes reversing electrolytic plasma processing (EPP) was proposed and conducted in a 10 wt.% Na2CO3 aqueous solution. The morphology and the composition of the surface were investigated by SEM and XPS. Experimental results show that the rust on the surface was removed effectively by cathode EPP, and a passive film containing Cr2O3 was achieved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, by a simple operation of reversing the bias. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution using an electrochemical workstation. In comparison, the corrosion resistance was improved by the succeeding anode EPP treatment, which is evidenced by a positive shift of the open-circuit potential, an increase in the electrochemical impedance representing the inner layer by 76.8% and the decrease in the corrosion current density by 49.6%. This is an effective and environment-friendly technique to clean and passivate rebars and similar steel materials.

  5. Noninvasive Respiratory Management for Patients with Spinal Cord Injury and Neuromuscular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bakshiyev, Raisa; Hon, Alice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe noninvasive respiratory management for patients with neuromuscular respiratory muscle dysfunction (NMD) and spinal cord injury (SCI) and the role of electrophrenic pacing (EPP) and diaphragm pacing (DP) in this respect. Long term outcomes will be reviewed and the use of noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV), MAC, and EPP/DP to prevent pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, to facilitate extubation, and to avoid tracheotomy will be evaluated. Although ventilator dependent patients with most NMDs and high level SCI can be indefinitely managed noninvasively, most ALS patients can be managed for a limited time by continuous NIV before tracheostomy is necessary for survival. Glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) can be learned by patients without any autonomous breathing ability and used by them in the event of ventilator/EPP/DP failure or loss of interface access. EPP/DP can maintain alveolar ventilation for high level SCI patients when they cannot grab a mouth piece to use NIV. PMID:25191394

  6. Mechanism of the differential sensitivity in the rat adductor and abductor laryngeal muscles to a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, M; Iwasaki, H

    1995-09-01

    We have compared the neuromuscular blocking effects of tubocurarine at pre- and postsynaptic sites in the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA) (one of the adductor muscles of the vocal cords) and in the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) (sole abductor muscle of the vocal cords) of the rat. Fine wire electrodes were inserted into both muscles and evoked compound electromyographic (EMG) responses measured by supramaximal stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerves. End-plate potentials (EPP), mean quantal content and carbachol sensitivity to tubocurarine in both muscles were measured using intracellular microelectrodes. Tubocurarine produced a concentration-dependent reduction in the EMG responses, EPP amplitude, mean quantal content and carbachol sensitivity. The LCA muscle was more resistant to tubocurarine than the PCA muscle in EPP amplitude, mean quantal content and carbachol sensitivity, suggesting unequal pre- and postsynaptic sensitivity for inhibition of elicited acetylcholine release, reduction in EPP amplitude and loss of evoked muscle action potentials. Examination of muscle fibre composition demonstrated that the LCA muscle contained a significantly higher fraction of slow twitch muscle fibres than PCA muscle. However, the sizes of the fibres were similar in both muscles. We conclude that the mechanism of unequal sensitivity to a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker in the LCA and PCA muscles may be explained by differential sensitivities at the pre- and postsynaptic sites of the neuromuscular junction.

  7. Unusually strong nitric oxide descent in the Arctic middle atmosphere in early 2013 as observed by Odin/SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérot, K.; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    The middle atmosphere was affected by an exceptionally strong midwinter stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) during the Arctic winter 2012/2013. These unusual meteorological conditions led to a breakdown of the polar vortex, followed by the reformation of a strong upper stratospheric vortex associated with particularly efficient descent of air. Measurements by the submillimetre radiometer (SMR), on board the Odin satellite, show that very large amounts of nitric oxide (NO), produced by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT), could thus enter the polar stratosphere in early 2013. The mechanism referring to the downward transport of EPP-generated NOx during winter is generally called the EPP indirect effect. SMR observed up to 20 times more NO in the upper stratosphere than the average NO measured at the same latitude, pressure and time during three previous winters where no mixing between mesospheric and stratospheric air was noticeable. This event turned out to be the strongest in the aeronomy-only period of SMR (2007-present). Our study is based on a comparison with the Arctic winter 2008/2009, when a similar situation was observed. This outstanding situation is the result of the combination of a relatively high geomagnetic activity and an unusually high dynamical activity, which makes this case a prime example to study the EPP impacts on the atmospheric composition.

  8. Applying Multimedia Learning Theories to the Redesign of Residence Life Online Training Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliher, Licinia Barrueco

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Executive Position Paper (EPP) is to develop a model for improving the online training modules utilized by a mid-Atlantic Residence Life department. The complexity of the Residence Life staff positions, coupled with demands from other university departments and the need to provide as much information as possible, resulted in an…

  9. Current Work in Linguistics. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 4, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriadis, Alexis, Ed.; Lee, Hikyoung, Ed.; Siegel, Laura, Ed.; Surek-Clark, Clarissa, Ed.; Williams, Alexander, Ed.

    This issue contains the following articles: "Was Mir Wisse: A Review of the Literature on the Languages of the Pennsylvania Germans" (David Bowie); "Tigrinya Root Consonants and the OCP" (Eugene Buckley); "Duration of Onset Consonants in Gay Male Stereotyped Speech" (Sean Crist); "PRO, the EPP and Nominative…

  10. Exploring issues of personality measurement and structure through the development of a short form of the Eysenck Personality Profiler .

    PubMed

    Petrides, K V; Jackson, Chris J; Furnham, Adrian; Levine, Stephen Z

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we develop a revised short form of the original Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; H. J. Eysenck & Wilson, 1991). In addition, we address topics of broad theoretical importance such as the recurrent empirical finding of correlations between conceptually orthogonal personality dimensions and the possibility that gender differences in these dimensions are partly spurious. In Study 1 (N = 227), we demonstrate that the existing short form of the EPP (EPP-SF; H. J. Eysenck, Wilson, & Jackson, 1996) provides a poor fit to the data and we develop a revised well-fitting version. In Study 2, we retest this version on an independent new sample (N = 3,374) where it is again found to fit the data well. We show that most of the structural and measurement parameters of the revised EPP-SF are invariant across genders. Structured means analysis indicated a significant gender difference in Psychoticism, with men scoring higher than women, but no differences in Extraversion or Neuroticism. Our discussion focuses on issues concerning personality measurement and structure, including an examination of the role of confirmatory factor analysis in personality research.

  11. "Would You Like to Tidy up Now?" An Analysis of Adult Questioning in the English Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Manni, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an extension of analysis concerned with adult questioning carried out in the Researching Effective Pedagogy in the Early Years (REPEY) study. The REPEY study drew on robust quantitative data provided by the Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) project to identify the particular pedagogical strategies being applied…

  12. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  13. Threats and Aggression Directed at Soccer Referees: An Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Margareta; Nyberg, Claes; Norlander, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which…

  14. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged…

  15. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Risk, Benjamin B.; Webster, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability—one key aspect of habitat quality—on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  16. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Erythropoietic porphyrias: animal models and update in gene-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Richard, Emmanuel; Robert-Richard, Elodie; Ged, Cécile; Moreau-Gaudry, François; de Verneuil, Hubert

    2008-06-01

    The inherited porphyrias are inborn errors of haem biosynthesis, each resulting from the deficient activity of a specific enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are divided into erythropoietic and hepatic according to the predominant porphyrin-accumulating tissue. Three different erythropoietic porphyrias (EP) have been described: erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP, MIM 177000) the most frequent, congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP, MIM 263700), and the very rare hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP, MIM 176100). Bone marrow transplantation is considered as the only curative treatment for severe cases of erythropoietic porphyria (especially CEP), if donors are available. Some EPP patients who undergo liver failure may require hepatic transplantation. Murine models of EPP and CEP have been developed and mimic most of the human disease features. These models allow a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in EP as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies. The restoration of deficient enzymatic activity in the bone marrow compartment following gene therapy has been extensively studied. Murine oncoretroviral, and recently, lentiviral vectors have been successfully used to transduce hematopoietic stem cells, allowing full metabolic and phenotypic correction of both EPP and CEP mice. In CEP, a selective survival advantage of corrected cells was demonstrated in mice, reinforcing the arguments for a gene therapy approach in the human disease. These successful results form the basis for gene therapy clinical trials in severe forms of erythropoietic porphyrias.

  18. Study of the Hellenic Military Education Buying Process Using Trend Analysis to Identify Determinant Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    objectives, and because of their 26 Kotler Philip and Keller Kevin Lane, Marketing Management 12e...pp. 143-156. Kotler , Philip and Keller, Kevin Lane. Marketing Management 12e, Prentice Hall, 2005. NPS Academic Catalog 2007. NPS Registrar Office

  19. Learning Conversations and Listening Pedagogy: The Relationship in Student Teachers' Developing Professional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in early childhood education in the UK and other parts of Europe have emphasised the importance of dialogue between adults and children. In the UK, the EPPE project paid particular attention to the role of extended child-centred conversations ("sustained shared thinking"--Sylva et al. 2003) as an important element or…

  20. Using Data to Drive Success in Educator Prep: Massachusetts and Endicott College Collaborate for Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    For educator preparation programs (EPPs) to produce effective teachers, they must engage in a process of continuous improvement using timely, high-quality information about the performance of their respective graduates in the classroom as measured by student outcomes. While states have the capacity to provide this information through their…

  1. Structural and electronic properties of group III Rich In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian; Clemens, Jonathon B.; Chagarov, Evgueni A.; Feldwinn, Darby L.; Melitz, Wilhelm; Song, Tao; Bishop, Sarah R.; Kummel, Andrew C.; Droopad, Ravi

    2010-09-01

    The structural and electronic properties of group III rich In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001) have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS). At room temperature (300 K), STM images show that the In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) reconstruction is comprised of undimerized In/Ga atoms in the top layer. Quantitative comparison of the In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) and InAs(001)-(4 × 2) shows the reconstructions are almost identical, but In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) has at least a 4× higher surface defect density even on the best samples. At low temperature (77 K), STM images show that the most probable In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001) reconstruction is comprised of one In/Ga dimer and two undimerized In/Ga atoms in the top layer in a double (4 × 2) unit cell. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations at elevated temperature are consistent with the experimentally observed 300 K structure being a thermal superposition of three structures. DFT molecular dynamics (MD) show the row dimer formation and breaking is facilitated by the very large motions of tricoodinated row edge As atoms and z motion of In/Ga row atoms induced changes in As-In/Ga-As bond angles at elevated temperature. STS results show there is a surface dipole or the pinning states near the valence band (VB) for 300 K In 0.53Ga 0.47As(001)-(4 × 2) surface consistent with DFT calculations. DFT calculations of the band-decomposed charge density indicate that the strained unbuckled trough dimers being responsible for the surface pinning.

  2. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    development of nuclear power stations. stand that thermal power generation (by coal) and hydropower generation can no longer meet the increas- ing...as quently, no firm decision was made on the construction building thermal power stations. In the first place, the of nuclear power stations, and...year, many thermal He pointed out that China is 20 years behind advanced power and hydropower experts pointed out that the way countries in developing

  3. The journey so far and the road ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    The talk gives a brief intoduction to the experimental setups and nuclear structure studies at IUAC in the past. Salient features of the setup of 24 Compton suppressed clover detectors known as Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) commissioned at IUAC and some of the recent works pursued by the nuclear structure group are discussed. The talk also gives a brief overview of the experimental facilities that will be available for nuclear structure studies at IUAC in near future.

  4. The journey so far and the road ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R. P.

    2014-08-14

    The talk gives a brief intoduction to the experimental setups and nuclear structure studies at IUAC in the past. Salient features of the setup of 24 Compton suppressed clover detectors known as Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) commissioned at IUAC and some of the recent works pursued by the nuclear structure group are discussed. The talk also gives a brief overview of the experimental facilities that will be available for nuclear structure studies at IUAC in near future.

  5. Southeast Asia Report. No. 1296

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-07

    lion. Federico Puno, NPC vice president for «fi- nance, disclosed yesterday that the gov- ernment firm will spe- cifically request fund- ing...A wad, Emilio Gon- zalez-Lao, Gilbert Dee and Federico Agrava. Gokongwei, who ran under Brimo’s banner, took the place of stock- broker Antonio...personal illicit gains of respondents" Henry A. Brimo, Anto- nio G. Gonzales and Federico A. Agrava who are, respectively, the president, execu

  6. Assessing Physical Therapy Students' Performance during Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sue; Dalton, Megan; Dawes, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Évaluer la faisabilité d'utiliser les instruments d'évaluation de la pratique de la physiothérapie (EPP) et leur accessibilité afin d'évaluer les compétences cliniques des étudiants en physiothérapie. Méthodes : Un échantillon de commodité constitué de formateurs cliniciens (FC) et d'étudiants de l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique (UCB) à Vancouver, au Canada, a rempli l'instrument utilisé actuellement, soit l'Instrument d'évaluation du rendement clinique des physiothérapeutes (ERC-PT) et l'EPP. On a réalisé, de 2011 à 2012, un sondage transversal auprès de formateurs cliniciens et d'étudiants en physiothérapie qui comportait des questions visant à réunir des opinions sur les deux instruments utilisés dans l'environnement clinique avec des étudiants à différents stades de la formation. Les questions portaient sur divers aspects des instruments, y compris la facilité d'utilisation, la formulation de commentaires et le temps nécessaire pour y répondre. Résultats : On a analysé des données provenant de 63 formateurs cliniciens de toutes sortes de contextes et 71 formulaires d'ERC-PT et d'EPP d'étudiants contenaient suffisamment de données. Une comparaison des cotes entre l'instrument ERC-PT et l'EPP a démontré une équivalence des normes au niveau débutant. Il a fallu en moyenne 80 (ET 53) minutes pour remplir l'ERC-PT et 23 (13) minutes pour répondre à l'EPP. La différence moyenne s'est établie à 57 (IC à 95%, 39 à 75). Les étudiants préféreraient (82%) qu'on utilise l'EPP pour formuler des commentaires et évaluer leur rendement au cours des stages cliniques. Conclusions : Il est possible et acceptable d'utiliser l'EPP pour évaluer les compétences cliniques des étudiants en physiothérapie à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique.

  7. Comparative development of rare cases of a polycarpellate gynoecium in an otherwise monocarpellate family, Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Juliana Villela; Prenner, Gerhard; Mansano, Vidal Freitas; Teixeira, Simone Pádua

    2014-04-01

    Apocarpy (i.e., free carpels) is considered to be the basal condition for ovary development in angiosperms. Yet it only occurs in 10% of angiosperm species, of which another 10% are monocarpellate. Most legume flowers are monocarpellate. Species with polycarpellate gynoecia occur in about 15 genera with most representatives in Mimosoideae. In the present study, we analyze legumes with polycarpellate flowers with the aim of improving our understanding of gynoecium evolution. Flowers of nine legume species from five genera were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In Leguminosae, carpels usually form as individual primordia or protuberances. Inga congesta differs slightly from this pattern in that the central apex bulges outward before the formation of individual carpel primordia. While legumes usually develop entirely plicate carpels, flowers of Acacia celastrifolia and Inga bella show an intermediate type of carpel morphology with a distal plicate zone and a small proximal ascidiate zone. Carpels in Inga congesta and Archidendron glabrum are sometimes slightly fused at the ovary base. The orientation of carpel clefts seems to reflect the floral symmetry. They are directed to the floral center in mimosoids and caesalpinioids, whereas in Swartzia dipetala carpel clefts are oriented to the adaxial side. Polycarpelly arose at least seven times independently in Leguminosae. The polycarpellate condition appears to be correlated with polyandry, and in most instances, it is accompanied by a profound change in floral organization from a closed to an open system.

  8. Historical effects on beta diversity and community assembly in Amazonian trees.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Kyle G; Terborgh, John W; Cunningham, Clifford W

    2012-05-15

    We present a unique perspective on the role of historical processes in community assembly by synthesizing analyses of species turnover among communities with environmental data and independent, population genetic-derived estimates of among-community dispersal. We sampled floodplain and terra firme communities of the diverse tree genus Inga (Fabaceae) across a 250-km transect in Amazonian Peru and found patterns of distance-decay in compositional similarity in both habitat types. However, conventional analyses of distance-decay masked a zone of increased species turnover present in the middle of the transect. We estimated past seed dispersal among the same communities by examining geographic plastid DNA variation for eight widespread Inga species and uncovered a population genetic break in the majority of species that is geographically coincident with the zone of increased species turnover. Analyses of these and 12 additional Inga species shared between two communities located on opposite sides of the zone showed that the populations experienced divergence 42,000-612,000 y ago. Our results suggest that the observed distance decay is the result not of environmental gradients or dispersal limitation coupled with ecological drift--as conventionally interpreted under neutral ecological theory--but rather of secondary contact between historically separated communities. Thus, even at this small spatial scale, historical processes seem to significantly impact species' distributions and community assembly. Other documented zones of increased species turnover found in the western Amazon basin or elsewhere may be related to similar historical processes.

  9. Morphology, structure, and properties of Cu-poor and Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films partially selenized using H2Se gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anjun; Huang, Yongliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Xian, Wang; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Zhengxin

    2016-11-01

    Cu-poor and Cu-rich metallic precursors were prepared by cosputtering from In and Cu-Ga alloy targets and then partially selenized using H2Se gas. The properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films are comparatively studied and the phase transition process is analyzed. The cosputtered metallic precursor has a rough morphology mostly covered by large In-rich nodules. After selenization, a large number of crumblike InSe grains were formed from the nodules on the surface of the Cu-rich film, whereas the Cu-poor film shows a dense surface. The selenized films comprise CIGS, Cu9(In,Ga)4 intermetallic, and the InSe phases. The proportion of the Cu9(In,Ga)4 phase in the Cu-rich film is more than that in the Cu-poor film. After annealing, the residual Cu9(In,Ga)4 of the Cu-poor film is eliminated. A negligible effect of Cu/(In+Ga) on the grain size can be observed. The CIGS solar cell with an efficiency of 15.1% was prepared by this method.

  10. Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Medical Data: Improved Self-Adaptive Niche Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Jing; Yan, Molei; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical technology, more and more parameters are produced to describe the human physiological condition, forming high-dimensional clinical datasets. In clinical analysis, data are commonly utilized to establish mathematical models and carry out classification. High-dimensional clinical data will increase the complexity of classification, which is often utilized in the models, and thus reduce efficiency. The Niche Genetic Algorithm (NGA) is an excellent algorithm for dimensionality reduction. However, in the conventional NGA, the niche distance parameter is set in advance, which prevents it from adjusting to the environment. In this paper, an Improved Niche Genetic Algorithm (INGA) is introduced. It employs a self-adaptive niche-culling operation in the construction of the niche environment to improve the population diversity and prevent local optimal solutions. The INGA was verified in a stratification model for sepsis patients. The results show that, by applying INGA, the feature dimensionality of datasets was reduced from 77 to 10 and that the model achieved an accuracy of 92% in predicting 28-day death in sepsis patients, which is significantly higher than other methods.

  11. Dimensionality Reduction in Complex Medical Data: Improved Self-Adaptive Niche Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Xia, Jing; Yan, Molei; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical technology, more and more parameters are produced to describe the human physiological condition, forming high-dimensional clinical datasets. In clinical analysis, data are commonly utilized to establish mathematical models and carry out classification. High-dimensional clinical data will increase the complexity of classification, which is often utilized in the models, and thus reduce efficiency. The Niche Genetic Algorithm (NGA) is an excellent algorithm for dimensionality reduction. However, in the conventional NGA, the niche distance parameter is set in advance, which prevents it from adjusting to the environment. In this paper, an Improved Niche Genetic Algorithm (INGA) is introduced. It employs a self-adaptive niche-culling operation in the construction of the niche environment to improve the population diversity and prevent local optimal solutions. The INGA was verified in a stratification model for sepsis patients. The results show that, by applying INGA, the feature dimensionality of datasets was reduced from 77 to 10 and that the model achieved an accuracy of 92% in predicting 28-day death in sepsis patients, which is significantly higher than other methods. PMID:26649071

  12. Evaluation of the BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Perry, Michael D; Corden, Sally A; Lewis White, P

    2017-08-01

    Conventional laboratory detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites are time consuming, require considerable technical expertise and may suffer from poor analytical sensitivity. This study sought to evaluate the automated BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis.Methodolgy. A total of 104 known positive samples (43 Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and 61 G. duodenalis), 15 simulated samples (E. histolytica and other Entamoeba species) and 745 patient stool samples, submitted for enteric pathogen culture and microscopy, were inoculated into BD MAX EPP sample buffer tubes (SBTs). All specimens were blinded and tested within 7 days of SBT inoculation using the BD MAX EPP assay with results compared to those generated by microscopy.Results/Key findings. Combining the results from the known positive samples and anonymously tested patient samples, the sensitivity of the BD MAX EPP assay was 100 % for both Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Specificities of 99.7 and 98.9 % were calculated for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis respectively. Insufficient clinical specimen data was available to determine the performance of the assay for E. histolytica detection. The findings of this study indicate that the BD MAX EPP is suitable for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and G. duodenalis from clinical specimens with reduced hands-on time and complexity compared to microscopy. Results for the detection of E. histolytica were promising although further work is required to evaluate the assay for the detection of this pathogen.

  13. Trimodality strategy for treating malignant pleural mesothelioma: results of a feasibility study of induction pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and postoperative hemithoracic radiation (Japan Mesothelioma Interest Group 0601 Trial).

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Seiki; Okada, Morihito; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Soejima, Toshinori; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Yokoi, Kohei; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a prospective multi-institutional study to determine the feasibility of trimodality therapy (TMT) comprising induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and radiation therapy in Japanese patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Major eligibility criteria were histologically confirmed diagnosis of MPM, including clinical subtypes T0-3, N0-2, M0 disease; no prior treatment for the disease; age 20-75 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1; predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume >1000 ml in 1 s; written informed consent. Treatment methods comprised induction chemotherapy using pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)) plus cisplatin (60 mg/m(2)) for three cycles, followed by EPP and postoperative hemithoracic radiation therapy (54 Gy). Primary endpoints were macroscopic complete resection (MCR) rate for EPP and treatment-related mortality for TMT. Forty-two eligible patients were enrolled: median age 64.5 (range 43-74) years; M:F = 39:3, clinical stage I:II:III = 14:13:15; histological type epithelioid were sarcomatoid; biphasic; others = 28:1:9:4. Of 42 patients, 30 completed EPP with MCR and 17 completed TMT. The trial met the primary endpoints, with an MCR rate of 71 % (30/42) and treatment-related mortality of 9.5 % (4/42). Overall median survival time and 2-year survival rate for 42 registered patients were 19.9 months and 42.9 %, respectively. Two-year relapse-free survival rate of 30 patients who completed EPP with MCR was 37.0 %. This phase II study met the predefined primary endpoints, but its risk/benefit ratio was not satisfactory.

  14. High frequency of extra-pair paternity in an urban population of Cooper's Hawks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Stout, William C.; Talbot, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Raptors exhibit some of the highest rates of intra-pair copulations among birds, perhaps in an attempt by males to reduce the risk of being cuckolded. Indeed, the frequency of extra-pair fertilizations reported in studies of raptors to date is relatively low (0-11.2%). Socially monogamous Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) exhibit one of the highest copulation rates among birds, yet there are no published accounts of extra-pair copulations (or paternity). We studied a population of Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during three breeding seasons (2003, 2004, and 2007), examining the possible effects of age (1 yr old vs. ≥ 2 yr old), adult mass, and brood size on the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that 19.3% of nestlings (N = 27/140) were extra-pair young (EPY), and 34% of all broods (N = 15/44) had at least one EPY. The sires of the EPY in our study were identified for only two broods, suggesting that floater males may have engaged in extra-pair copulations with territorial females. We found that brood size was a good predictor of the occurrence of EPP (EPP) in nests, but adult mass and female age were not. To our knowledge, these possible correlates of the occurrence of EPP in raptors had not previously been investigated. Male Cooper's Hawks provide food for females during the pre-nesting period, and delivery of food is, in contrast to other raptor species, typically followed by copulation. Thus, one possible explanation of the relatively high rates of EPP in our study is that females might accept or even solicit extra-pair copulations from males other than their mates as a means of maximizing energy intake for egg production. Such behavior might be particularly likely in our study area, i.e., a food-rich urban setting with a high breeding density of Cooper's Hawks.

  15. Atmospheric effects of energetic particle precipitation in the Arctic winter 1978-1979 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-03-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (˜2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003-2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  16. Atmospheric Effects of Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Arctic Winter 1978-1979 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (approximately 2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003 2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  17. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Erosion-free and Erosion-present Status in Psoriatic Arthritis in a Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Touma, Zahi; Thavaneswaran, Arane; Chandran, Vinod; Pellett, Fawnda; Cook, Richard J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2016-06-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has been recognized as a severe erosive disease. However, some patients do not develop erosions. We aimed to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and predictors of erosion-free patients (EFP) as compared with erosion-present patients (EPP) among patients with PsA followed prospectively. This is a retrospective analysis conducted on patients from the Toronto PsA cohort. Patients with at least 10 years of followup and radiographs were analyzed. Radiographs were scored with the modified Steinbrocker method. Baseline (first visit to clinic) characteristics were used to predict the development of erosions with logistic regression models. To examine the effect of time-varying covariates, Cox regression models were fit for the time to development of erosions from baseline. Among 290 patients, 12.4% were EFP and 87.6% were EPP over the study period. The mean time to development of erosion in the EPP over the course of followup was 6.8 ± 6.1 years. EFP were diagnosed with psoriasis at a younger age compared with EPP. In both models, actively inflamed joints and clinically damaged joints were predictive of the development of erosion, whereas a longer duration of psoriasis at baseline decreased the odds of developing erosion. EPP had a higher percentage of unemployment as compared with EFP at baseline and followup visits. Among patients with PsA followed for at least 10 years, 12.4% never develop erosions. The clinical and radiographic findings can ultimately assist in the stratification of a patient's prognosis regarding the development of erosions.

  18. Comparison of treadmill and cycle ergometer measurements of force-velocity relationships and power output.

    PubMed

    Jaskólska, A; Goossens, P; Veenstra, B; Jaskólski, A; Skinner, J S

    1999-04-01

    Since body balance and weight-bearing factors present while running on the treadmill might cause additional muscle recruitment and thus could influence the force-velocity relationship and power, the present study was undertaken to find out whether the F-V and F-P relationships measured while running on the treadmill are different from the respective indices measured during cycling. On two separate occasions, 32 male subjects were tested using a series of 5 sec, all-out sprints against different braking forces on the Gymrol Sprint treadmill and on the Monark ergometer. The maximal peak power (PPmax) and maximal mean power (MPmax) were measured. The equation: EP = 0.5 maximal force (Fo) x0.5 maximal velocity (Vo) was used to calculate the estimated values of peak power (EPP) and mean power (EMP). The F-V relationship was linear in both cycle ergometer and treadmill measurements. PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP values on the treadmill were lower than the respective values on the ergometer. EPP on the ergometer and on the treadmill, as well as EMP values on the ergometer, were slightly higher than the corresponding measured values of PPmax and MPmax. The levels of braking force at which PP, MP, PPmax, and MPmax were obtained were lower on the ergometer than on the treadmill. High correlation coefficients were found between PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP measured on the ergometer and on the treadmill (r = 0.86, r = 0.84, r = 0.71, r = 0.78, respectively, P<0.01). In both tests, significant relationships between PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP were observed. It is concluded that independent of the type of ergometry the force-velocity relationship is similar in the measured range of velocities which suggests that the number of muscle groups and joints engaged in movement are more important than body balance and weight-bearing factors present while running on a treadmill.

  19. National Cancer Data Base Report on Pneumonectomy Versus Lung-Sparing Surgery for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Ahern, Christopher A; Berlind, Christopher G; Lindsay, William D; Sharma, Sonam; Shabason, Jacob; Culligan, Melissa J; Grover, Surbhi; Friedberg, Joseph S; Simone, Charles B

    2017-08-23

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal surgical technique for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We evaluated national practice patterns and outcomes of MPM treated with extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) versus lung-sparing extended pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). The National Cancer Data Base was queried for newly-diagnosed MPM patients undergoing EPP or P/D. Multivariable logistic regression ascertained clinical factors independently associated with P/D receipt. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated overall survival (OS) between cohorts; multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling evaluated factors associated with OS. Survival was then evaluated between propensity-matched populations. Overall, 1,307 patients (n=271 (21%) EPP, n=1,036 (79%) P/D) met criteria. Patients receiving P/D were older (p=0.028), whereas those undergoing EPP more likely lived in rural areas (p=0.044), farther from the treating facility (p=0.039), and treated at academic centers (p=0.050). There were no differences between cohorts in 30-day readmission or mortality (all p>0.05). Median OS in the EPP and P/D groups was 19 versus 16 months (p=0.120); no differences were observed after propensity-matching (p=0.540). In the largest such analysis to date, findings from this contemporary cohort demonstrate that P/D comprised the majority of surgical procedures for MPM. Procedure type was influenced by sociodemographic and geographical factors, without observed differences in survival or postoperative mortality/readmission rates between techniques. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Barriers faced by expanded practice dental hygienists in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Coplen, Amy E; Bell, Kathryn P

    2015-04-01

    Oregon allows dental hygienists to provide services without the supervision of a dentist if they hold an expanded practice permit (EPP). This study surveyed practicing and non-practicing EPP holders with the purpose of assessing perceived barriers to practicing independently and better educating students to begin independent practice upon graduation. A survey was developed, approved by the institutional review board and pilot tested with current Expanded Practice Dental Hygienists (EPDHs). A list of EPDHs was obtained from the Oregon State Dental Board, and 181 surveys were mailed in November 2011. The response rate was 39% (n=71). Data from this study indicate a large number of new EPP holders, with 62% (n=41) holding their permit for 3 years or less, but only 41% (n=29) of respondents are actually providing care in a setting requiring an EPP. Responding practicing EPDHs reported barriers including: challenges with insurance reimbursement, lack of knowledge/acceptance, equipment cost/maintenance, difficulty obtaining a collaborative agreement/cooperating facility, advertising and inability to make a living wage. Responding non-practicing EPDHs reported barriers including: currently working in another setting, lack of business knowledge, time, start-up cost, inability to make a living wage, lack of opportunity, reimbursement difficulties and lack of experience. Perceived barriers to practicing independently differ between those practicing utilizing their EPP and those not practicing. Ways to eliminate barriers for both practicing and non-practicing EPDHs should be explored. There is potential to reduce the barriers to independent practice through curricular changes, public health partnerships among EPDHs, and new health care systems that specifically address barriers found through this study. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. The quantal nature of transmission and spontaneous potentials at the Torpedo electromotor junction.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, L

    1985-01-01

    Miniature and stimulus evoked electroplaque potentials (mEpPs and EpPs) were recorded in Torpedo electrocytes intracellularly and extracellularly. The quantal release parameters of EpPs and the time course of quantal EpCs were estimated in normal and low Ca2+-high Mg2+ solutions. Amplitude-frequency distribution of mEpPs showed Gaussian or uneven character with an average mean value of 0.3 +/- 0.08 mV (S.D.). The mean coefficient of variation of mEpPs was 26.8 +/- 7.2% (n = 6). Tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked the stimulus evoked EpP but hardly influenced the amplitude-frequency histogram of spontaneous EpPs in 10(-8)-10(-6) M concentration. The quantum content of stimulus evoked EpPs varied between 100-400 in normal solution which decreased in low Ca2+-high Mg2+ solution and the quantal release conformed to binomial statistics and allowed determination of the parameters p and n. Frequency of the spontaneous discharges varied highly from electrocyte to electrocyte but an analysis of the time intervals showed randomness for the events. The decay phase of quantal current composed of non-exponential and exponential sections which was characteristic with 0.75 +/- 0.16 msec (mean, S.D., at 20 degrees C) time constant of exponential decay. Although, two types of mEpCs could be differentiated having significantly slower and faster time courses. Neostigmine prolonged the time constant of decay of mEpCs in dose-dependent manner with a factor of 2 in 10(-6) M and of 4 in 10(-5) M concentrations (at about 20 degrees C).

  2. The UK Expert Patients Program: lessons learned and implications for cancer survivors' self-care support programs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patricia M

    2008-03-01

    Globally, the enablement of self-care is increasingly being recognised as an essential component of chronic disease management. Within the UK a key self-care policy initiative is the Expert Patients Program. Developed from the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, this is a 6 week self-management education program for people with different chronic diseases, facilitated by lay volunteers. As an example of a major public health initiative designed to enhance self-management in long-term conditions, this paper draws on evaluations of the EPP and CDSMP and analyzes the implications for the development of similar programs for cancer survivors. There are a number of evaluations of the CDSMP which suggest significant improvement in participants' chronic disease management self-efficacy and some evidence of healthcare utilization reduction. However, whilst the national evaluation of the EPP demonstrated similar improvements in self-efficacy and health status, there was no significant effect on healthcare utilization. Trials of such programs need to be treated with some caution as participants are often not typical of the general population, and as a complex intervention effectiveness is inherently difficult to assess. Qualitative evaluations revealed that the EPP's strength was derived mainly through peer support and learning. Nevertheless, a number of contextual problems were identified including recruitment, clinicians' lack of engagement with the program and inflexible course materials. Lay-led self-care support programs such as the EPP have a significantly positive effect on self-efficacy which could be of benefit to cancer survivors. However, a number of lessons should be learned from the EPP when developing similar initiatives for cancer survivors.

  3. Antisense oligonucleotide-based therapy in human erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Oustric, Vincent; Manceau, Hana; Ducamp, Sarah; Soaid, Rima; Karim, Zoubida; Schmitt, Caroline; Mirmiran, Arienne; Peoc'h, Katell; Grandchamp, Bernard; Beaumont, Carole; Lyoumi, Said; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Guyonnet-Dupérat, Véronique; de Verneuil, Hubert; Marie, Joëlle; Puy, Herve; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent

    2014-04-03

    In 90% of people with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), the disease results from the inheritance of a common hypomorphic FECH allele, encoding ferrochelatase, in trans to a private deleterious FECH mutation. The activity of the resulting FECH enzyme falls below the critical threshold of 35%, leading to the accumulation of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in bone marrow erythroblasts and in red cells. The mechanism of low expression involves a biallelic polymorphism (c.315-48T>C) localized in intron 3. The 315-48C allele increases usage of the 3' cryptic splice site between exons 3 and 4, resulting in the transcription of an unstable mRNA with a premature stop codon, reducing the abundance of wild-type FECH mRNA, and finally reducing FECH activity. Through a candidate-sequence approach and an antisense-oligonucleotide-tiling method, we identified a sequence that, when targeted by an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-V1), prevented usage of the cryptic splice site. In lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from symptomatic EPP subjects, transfection of ASO-V1 reduced the usage of the cryptic splice site and efficiently redirected the splicing of intron 3 toward the physiological acceptor site, thereby increasing the amount of functional FECH mRNA. Moreover, the administration of ASO-V1 into developing human erythroblasts from an overtly EPP subject markedly increased the production of WT FECH mRNA and reduced the accumulation of PPIX to a level similar to that measured in asymptomatic EPP subjects. Thus, EPP is a paradigmatic Mendelian disease in which the in vivo correction of a common single splicing defect would improve the condition of most affected individuals.

  4. Antisense Oligonucleotide-Based Therapy in Human Erythropoietic Protoporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Oustric, Vincent; Manceau, Hana; Ducamp, Sarah; Soaid, Rima; Karim, Zoubida; Schmitt, Caroline; Mirmiran, Arienne; Peoc’h, Katell; Grandchamp, Bernard; Beaumont, Carole; Lyoumi, Said; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Guyonnet-Dupérat, Véronique; de Verneuil, Hubert; Marie, Joëlle; Puy, Herve; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    In 90% of people with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), the disease results from the inheritance of a common hypomorphic FECH allele, encoding ferrochelatase, in trans to a private deleterious FECH mutation. The activity of the resulting FECH enzyme falls below the critical threshold of 35%, leading to the accumulation of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in bone marrow erythroblasts and in red cells. The mechanism of low expression involves a biallelic polymorphism (c.315−48T>C) localized in intron 3. The 315−48C allele increases usage of the 3′ cryptic splice site between exons 3 and 4, resulting in the transcription of an unstable mRNA with a premature stop codon, reducing the abundance of wild-type FECH mRNA, and finally reducing FECH activity. Through a candidate-sequence approach and an antisense-oligonucleotide-tiling method, we identified a sequence that, when targeted by an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-V1), prevented usage of the cryptic splice site. In lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from symptomatic EPP subjects, transfection of ASO-V1 reduced the usage of the cryptic splice site and efficiently redirected the splicing of intron 3 toward the physiological acceptor site, thereby increasing the amount of functional FECH mRNA. Moreover, the administration of ASO-V1 into developing human erythroblasts from an overtly EPP subject markedly increased the production of WT FECH mRNA and reduced the accumulation of PPIX to a level similar to that measured in asymptomatic EPP subjects. Thus, EPP is a paradigmatic Mendelian disease in which the in vivo correction of a common single splicing defect would improve the condition of most affected individuals. PMID:24680888

  5. Atmospheric Effects of Energetic Particle Precipitation in the Arctic Winter 1978-1979 Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, L. A.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measured polar stratospheric enhancements of NO2 mixing ratios due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) in the Arctic winter of 1978-1979. Recently reprocessed LIMS data are compared to more recent measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to place the LIMS measurements in the context of current observations. The amount of NOx (NO + NO2) entering the stratosphere that has been created by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (EPP-NOx) has been quantified for the 1978-1979 and 2002-2003 through 2008-2009 Arctic winters. The NO2 enhancements in the LIMS data are similar to those in MIPAS and ACE-FTS data in the Arctic winters of 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007, and 2007-2008. The largest enhancement by far is in 2003-2004 (approximately 2.2 Gmol at 1500 K), which is attributed to a combination of elevated EPP and unusual dynamics that led to strong descent in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere in late winter. The enhancements in 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, during which large stratospheric NOx enhancements were caused by a dynamical situation similar to that in 2003 2004, are larger than in all the other years (except 2003-2004) at 3000 K. However, by 2000 K the enhancements in 2005-2006 (2008-2009) are on the same order of magnitude as (smaller than) all other years. These results highlight the importance of the timing of the descent in determining the potential of EPP-NOx for reaching the middle stratosphere.

  6. Variability of the date of monsoon onset over Kerala (India) of the period 1870-2014 and its relation to sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preenu, P. N.; Joseph, P. V.; Dineshkumar, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Monsoon onset over Kerala (India) which occurs every year is a major climatic phenomenon that involves large scale changes in wind, rainfall and sea surface temperature (SST). Over the last 150 years, the date of monsoon onset over Kerala (DMOK) has varied widely, the earliest being 11 May, 1918 and the most delayed being 18 June, 1972. DMOK has a long term (1870-2014) mean of 01 June and standard deviation of 7-8 days. We have studied the inter-annual and decadal time scale variability of DMOK and their relation with SST. We found that SST anomalies of large spatial scale similar to those in El Nino/La Nina are associated with the inter-annual variability in DMOK. Indian Ocean between latitudes 5°S and 20°N has two episodes of active convection associated with monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK), one around DMOK and the other about six weeks earlier (called pre-monsoon rain peak or bogus monsoon onset) and in between a two week period of suppressed convection occurs over north Indian Ocean. A prominent decadal time scale variability was found in DMOK having large and statistically significant linear correlation with the SST gradient across the equator over Indian and Pacific oceans, the large correlation persisting for several months prior to the MOK. However, no linear trend was seen in DMOK during the long period from 1870 to 2014.

  7. Creating a More Inclusive Talent Pool for the GeoSciences in NOAA Mission Fields:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J.; Trotman, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) with Minority Serving Institutions (MSI) is recognized as a model federal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, (STEM) education investment. The EPP has a premier goal of increasing the numbers of students, especially from underrepresented communities, who are trained and awarded degrees in NOAA mission-relevant STEM fields. This goal is being achieved through awards to support undergraduate and graduate level student scholarships and to enhance NOAA mission-relevant education, research and internships at EPP Cooperative Science Centers located at MSIs. The internships allow undergraduate students to gain technical experience in STEM fields while gaining an understanding of a science mission agency such as NOAA. EPP has built evidence supporting the value of internships with its Undergraduate Scholarship Program (USP). Program metrics are used to refine and improve the internship to ensure student success. Scholarships are competitively awarded and requires applicants to submit a personal statement detailing the NOAA-relevant professional experience the applicant seeks to acquire, and gauges the depth of understanding of the work of NOAA.A focus is the EPP USP Student Internship at NOAA, which has two training phases. The first occurs at NOAA HQ in Maryland and incorporates exposure to NOAA professional culture including mentoring and professional development for scholarship recipients. The second occurs at NOAA facilities in the 50 states and US Territories. The internship projects are conducted under the supervision of a NOAA mentor and allow the scholars to: acquire increased science and technology skills: be attached to a research group and participate in a research activity as part of the team; and, acquire practical experience and knowledge of the day-to-day work of the NOAA facility. EPP has recently initiated the Experiential Research and Training

  8. An Overview of Energetic Particle Precipitation Effects on the Earth's Atmosphere and (Potentially) Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The solar EPP-created HOx increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The HOx-caused ozone depletion of greater than 30% has been observed during several large solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 50 years. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in solar cycle 23. A number of modeling studies have been undertaken over this time period that show predictions of enhanced HOx accompanied by decreased ozone due to energetic particles. The solar EPP-created NOx family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the lower thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events, and SPEs have been measured and/or modeled for decades. Model predictions and measurements show that certain years have significant winter-time meteorological events, which result in the transport of EPP-caused NOx enhancements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lower altitudes. The NOx-caused ozone depletion has also been observed during several solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 50 years

  9. Insights into public export promotion programs in an emerging economy: the case of Malaysian SMEs.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Abu H; Freixanet, Joan

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of public export promotion programs (EPPs) among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. Three indicators, level of awareness, frequency of use, and perception of usefulness, were examined according to a firm's export status. The global evaluation suggests that exporters are more frequent users of EPPs and perceive them to be more useful than non-exporters. Nonetheless, both groups demonstrate higher levels of awareness, are frequent users, and perceive the programs relating to export info/knowledge are more usefulness than programs relating to financial assistance. Further analysis also reveals that the frequency of use and the perception of usefulness for most programs are positively related to export experience, but not to export turnover. This study offers insights into the effectiveness of export programs for encouraging export initiation and expansion in an emerging economy.

  10. Clinical, Biochemical, and Genetic Characterization of North American Patients With Erythropoietic Protoporphyria and X-linked Protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Balwani, Manisha; Naik, Hetanshi; Anderson, Karl E; Bissell, D Montgomery; Bloomer, Joseph; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Phillips, John D; Overbey, Jessica R; Wang, Bruce; Singal, Ashwani K; Liu, Lawrence U; Desnick, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal recessive erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) are rare photodermatoses presenting with variable degrees of painful phototoxicity that markedly affects quality of life. The clinical variability, determinants of severity, and genotype/phenotype correlations of these diseases are not well characterized. To describe the baseline clinical characteristics, genotypes, and determinants of disease severity in a large patient cohort with EPP or XLP. A prospective observational study was conducted among patients with confirmed diagnoses of EPP or XLP from November 1, 2010, to December 6, 2015, at 6 academic medical centers of the Porphyrias Consortium of the National Institutes of Health Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network. Detailed medical histories, including history of phototoxicity and treatment, were collected on standardized case report forms. Patients underwent baseline laboratory testing, total erythrocyte protoporphyrin (ePPIX) testing, and molecular genetic testing. Data were entered into a centralized database. Results of biochemical and genetic tests were explored for association with clinical phenotype in patients with EPP or XLP. Of the 226 patients in the study (113 female and 113 male patients; mean [SD] age, 36.7 [17.0] years), 186 (82.3%) had EPP with a FECH (OMIM 612386) mutation and the common low-expression FECH allele IVS3-48T>C, and only 1 patient had 2 FECH mutations. Twenty-two patients had XLP (9.7%; 10 male and 12 female patients), and 9 patients (4.0%) had elevated ePPIX levels and symptoms consistent with protoporphyria but no detectable mutation in the FECH or ALAS2 (OMIM 301300) gene. Samples of DNA could not be obtained from 8 patients. Patients' mean (SD) age at symptom onset was 4.4 (4.4) years. Anemia (107 [47.3%]), history of liver dysfunction (62 [27.4%]), and gallstones (53 [23.5%]) were commonly reported. Higher ePPIX levels were associated with earlier age of symptom onset (median e

  11. Noninvasive respiratory management and diaphragm and electrophrenic pacing in neuromuscular disease and spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bach, John R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to describe noninvasive management of respiratory muscle weakness/paralysis for patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) assists and supports inspiratory muscles, whereas mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) simulates an effective cough. Long-term outcomes will be reviewed as well as the use of NIV, MAC, and electrophrenic pacing (EPP) and diaphragm pacing (DP) to facilitate extubation and decannulation. Although EPP and DP can facilitate decannulation and maintain alveolar ventilation for high-level SCI patients when they cannot use NIV because of lack of access to oral interfaces, there is no evidence that they have any place in the management of NMD.

  12. An Investigation on Low Velocity Impact Response of Multilayer Sandwich Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Jedari Salami, S.; Sadighi, M.; Shakeri, M.; Moeinfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  13. An Overview of the Impact of Energetic Particle Precipitation on the Mesosphere and Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The HO, increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx,-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The HOx,-caused ozone depletion has been observed during several solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 40 years. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in the past solar cycle. A number of modeling studies have been undertaken over this time period that show predictions of enhanced HO, accompanied by decreased ozone due to energetic particles. The NO, family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the 1ow.er thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events, and SPEs have been measured and/or modeled for decades Only a small number of SPEs (less than 10) in each solar cycle have sufficient flux of high energy protons (greater than 30 MeV) to produce a significant amount of NOx directly in the stratosphere to cause a measurable ozone destruction. Very high energy electrons (greater than 1500 keV) during REP events can also produce NOx directly in the stratosphere, however, the frequency and intensity of these

  14. Nurse Educator Pathway Project: a competency-based intersectoral curriculum.

    PubMed

    Young, Lynne; Frost, Linda J; Bigl, Julie; Clauson, Marion; McRae, Cora; Scarborough, Kathy S; Murphy, Sue; Jillings, Carol; Gillespie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), an education infrastructure that was developed in response to emerging critical nursing workplace issues, and the related demand for enhanced workplace education. We then describe the EPP competency-based curriculum designed to prepare nurses as preceptors, mentors, and educators to lead learning with diverse learner groups. This competency-based curriculum was developed through a collaboration of nurse leaders across practice, academic, and union sectors and drew from a widely embraced curriculum development model (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyzyn, 2005). The goal of the curriculum was to prepare nurses through a four-level career pathway model that contextualized practice and education theory to various education-related roles and levels of experience within the practice setting. Over 1,100 nurses participated in this innovative intersectoral nursing initiative.

  15. Filamentous-haemagglutinin-like protein genes encoded on a plasmid of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Tsutomu; Sarataphan, Nopporn; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Takai, Shinji

    2006-11-26

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid, pMBO-1, from Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined. We identified 30 open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by the 44,215bp molecule. Two large ORFs, flpA and flpB, encoding proteins with similarity to Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), were identified on the same plasmid. The gene for a specific accessory protein (Fap), which may play a role in the secretion of Flp protein, was also identified. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from M. bovis Epp63 indicated that the flpA, flpB, and fap genes are all transcribed. Southern blot analysis indicated that the flp and fap genes are present in other clinical isolates of geographically diverse M. bovis.

  16. Effects of energetic particles precipitation on stratospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zossi de Artigas, Marta; Zotto, Elda M.; Mansilla, Gustavo A.; Fernandez de Campra, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    Measurements from TOMS and UARS-HALOE are used to estimate the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) over the stratosphere during two geomagnetic storms occurred in November of the years 2003 and 2004. The EPP couples the solar wind to the Earth's atmosphere and indirectly to the Earth's climate. Due to particle precipitation, the ionization and dissociation increase, and create odd nitrogen (NOx) and odd hydrogen (HOx) in the upper atmosphere, which can affect ozone chemistry. In this paper, statistically significant variation in total ozone content at middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is observed. The variations depend on the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the geomagnetic longitude. A significant variation in NOx concentration at altitudes from 30 to 50 km is observed from the profiles analysis.

  17. Energetic Particle Influence on the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, Irina A.; Aplin, Karen L.; Arnold, Frank; Bazilevskaya, Galina A.; Harrison, R. Giles; Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Turunen, Esa; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript gives an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) onto the whole atmosphere, from the lower thermosphere/mesosphere through the stratosphere and troposphere, to the surface. The paper summarizes the different sources and energies of particles, principally galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles (SEPs) and energetic electron precipitation (EEP). All the proposed mechanisms by which EPP can affect the atmosphere are discussed, including chemical changes in the upper atmosphere and lower thermosphere, chemistry-dynamics feedbacks, the global electric circuit and cloud formation. The role of energetic particles in Earth's atmosphere is a multi-disciplinary problem that requires expertise from a range of scientific backgrounds. To assist with this synergy, summary tables are provided, which are intended to evaluate the level of current knowledge of the effects of energetic particles on processes in the entire atmosphere.

  18. New developments in erythropoietic porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Darwich, E; Herrero, C

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, important advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics of porphyrias, particularly with respect to erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) and congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), 2 forms of erythropoietic porphyria no longer considered to be monogenic. The identification of mutations in genes not previously associated with these disorders as causative factors or modulators of severity has helped to explain the presence of genotypic and phenotypic differences between patients carrying the same mutations. These advances have also led to the identification of causative genetic defects in patients who, based on molecular studies, had no mutations in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene UROS (in CEP) or in the ferrochelatase gene FECH (in EPP). Better understanding and characterization of the genetics of porphyrias will allow us to determine genotypic and phenotypic correlations and improve the molecular classification of these diseases, which will have both practical and prognostic implications.

  19. The role of thoracic surgery in the management of mesothelioma: an expert opinion on the limited evidence.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Pietro; Waller, David A

    2016-06-01

    Surgery has a key role at different points in the management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Diagnosis with video assisted thoracoscopy offers excellent sensitivity and specificity and a direct view of the pleural cavity to verify the extent of the tumor. Nodal involvement can be assessed by mediastinoscopy and either talc pleurodesis or partial pleurectomy can be used for symptom control in advanced stage disease. Extra Pleural Pneumonectomy (EPP) and Extended Pleurectomy Decortication (EPD) are used to prolong survival although the benefit of radical surgery has not has been fully clarified; EPP failed to show its benefit in the MARS trial and EPD is currently under investigation in the MARS2 trial. More randomized prospective trial data are needed to fully understand the role of radical surgery in the treatment of pleural mesothelioma.

  20. Dependence structure of the Korean stock market in high frequency data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kwak, Young Bin; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the dependence structure for various time window intervals, known as Epps effect, using the Trade and Quote data of 663 actively traded stocks in Korean stock market. It is found that the random matrix theory analysis could not represent the dependence structure of the stock market in the microstructure regime. The Cook-Johnson copula is introduced as a parsimonious alternative method to handle this problem, and the existence of the Epps effect is confirmed for the 663 stocks using high frequency data. It was also found that large capitalization companies tend to have a stronger dependence structure, except for the largest capitalization group, since the phenomenon of price level resistance leads to the weak dependence structure in the largest capitalization group. In addition, grouping the industry as a sub-portfolio is an appropriate approach for hour interval traders, whereas this approach is not a strategy recommended for high frequency traders.

  1. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: Case report of three cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Gutch, Manish; Kumar, Sukriti; Razi, Syed Mohd; Saran, Sanjay; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pickardt syndrome (Pickardt-Fahlbusch syndrome) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by tertiary hypothyroidism caused by the interruption of the portal veins between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis. Typical features of this syndrome are tertiary hypothyroidism with low thyroid stimulating hormone, hyperprolactinemia and other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is characterized by a triad of thin or interrupted pituitary stalk, aplasia or hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary and absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is a congenital anomaly of pituitary whose exact prevalence is unknown. In some cases, it is restricted to EPP or pituitary stalk interruption. We are presenting the case history along with MRI finding of three children's who presented with short stature and delayed puberty. PMID:25250085

  2. Personality characteristics in heroin addicts and nonaddicted prisoners using the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule.

    PubMed

    Reith, G; Crockett, D; Craig, K

    1975-01-01

    The present study compares the self-reported personality characteristics of heroin addict and nonaddict prisoners using the Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS) which was corrected for social desirability. Seventy pairs of addicted and nonaddicted criminal offenders were matched for age, education, intelligence, and home environment. The addicted offenders were identified by the pattern of their response to the EPPS as reflected by the significant multivariate results. In addition, significant univariate differences consistent with those previously reported were found. Addicted criminals had stronger succorance, heterosexuality, and aggression needs and less abasement and endurance needs than nonaddicted offenders. Age, educational achievment, intelligence,and home environment had little influence on the prisoners' response to this self-report personality inventory.

  3. Effect of prolonged inactivity on skeletal motor nerve terminals during aestivation in the burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Choy, Peng T; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the effect of prolonged inactivity, associated with aestivation, on neuromuscular transmission in the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. We compared the structure and function of the neuromuscular junctions on the iliofibularis muscle from active C. alboguttata and from C. alboguttata that had been aestivating for 6 months. Despite the prolonged period of immobility, there was no significant difference in the shape of the terminals (primary, secondary or tertiary branches) or the length of primary terminal branches between aestivators and non-aestivators. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the membrane potentials of muscle fibres or in miniature end plate potential (EPP) frequency and amplitude. However, there was a significant decrease in evoked transmitter release characterised by a 56% decrease in mean EPP amplitude, and a 29% increase in the failure rate of nerve terminal action potentials to evoke transmitter release. The impact of this suite of neuromuscular characteristics on the locomotor performance of emergent frogs is discussed.

  4. The mechanism of monensin-mediated cation exchange based on real time measurements.

    PubMed

    Nachliel, E; Finkelstein, Y; Gutman, M

    1996-12-04

    Monensin is an ionophore that supports an electroneutral ion exchange across the lipid bilayer. Because of this, under steady-state conditions, no electric signals accompany its reactions. Using the Laser Induced Proton Pulse as a synchronizing event we selectively acidify one face of a black lipid membrane impregnated by monensin. The short perturbation temporarily upsets the acid-base equilibrium on one face of the membrane, causing a transient cycle of ion exchange. Under such conditions the molecular events could be discerned as a transient electric polarization of the membrane lasting approx. 200 microseconds. The proton-driven chemical reactions that lead to the electric signals had been reconstructed by numeric integration of differential rate equations which constitute a maximalistic description of the multi equilibria nature of the system (Gutman, M. and Nachliel, E. (1989) Electrochim. Acta 34, 1801-1806). The analysis of the reactions reveals that the ionic selectivity of the monensin (H+ > Na+ > K+) is due to more than one term. Besides the well established different affinity for the various cations, the selectivity is also derived from a large difference in the rates of cross membranal diffusivities (MoH > MoNa > MoK), which have never been detected before. (v) Quantitative analysis of the membrane's crossing rates of the three neutral complexes reveals a major role of the membranal dipolar field in regulating ion transport. The diffusion of MoH, which has no dipole moment, is hindered only by the viscose drag. On the other hand, the dipolar complexes (MoNa and MoK) are delayed by dipole-dipole interaction with the membrane. (vi) Comparison of the calculated dipoles with those estimated for the crystalline conformation of the [MoNa(H2O)2] and [MoK(H2O)2] complexes reveals that the MoNa may exist in the membrane at its crystal configuration, while the MoK definitely attains a structure having a dipole moment larger than in the crystal.

  5. Extracts from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants ameliorate cellular and animal models of neurodegenerative proteinopathies.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Michelle; Ghio, Stephanie; Neuner, Johanna; Gauci, Alison J; Cacciottolo, Rebecca; Marchal, Christelle; Caruana, Mario; Cullin, Christophe; Vassallo, Neville; Cauchi, Ruben J

    2017-01-18

    A signature feature of age-related neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the misfolding and aggregation of proteins, typically amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD), into soluble oligomeric structures that are highly neurotoxic. Cellular and animal models that faithfully replicate the hallmark features of these disorders are being increasing exploited to identify disease-modifying compounds. Natural compounds have been identified as a useful source of bioactive molecules with promising neuroprotective capabilities. In the present report, we investigated whether extracts derived from two ubiquitous Mediterranean plants namely, the prickly pear Opuntia ficus-indica (EOFI) and the brown alga Padina pavonica (EPP) alleviate neurodegenerative phenotypes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fly (Drosophila melanogaster) models of AD and PD. Pre-treatment with EPP or EOFI in the culture medium significantly improved the viability of yeast expressing the Arctic Aβ42 (E22G) mutant. Supplementing food with EOFI or EPP dramatically ameliorated lifespan and behavioural signs of flies with brain-specific expression of wild-type Aβ42 (model of late-onset AD) or the Arctic Aβ42 variant (model of early-onset AD). Additionally, we show that either extract prolonged the survival of a PD fly model based on transgenic expression of the human α-syn A53T mutant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the plant-derived extracts interfere with shared mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD and PD. This notion is strengthened by evidence demonstrating that EOFI and to a greater extent EPP, while strongly inhibiting the fibrillogenesis of both Aβ42 and α-syn, accumulate remodelled oligomeric aggregates that are less effective at disrupting lipid membrane integrity. Our work therefore opens new avenues for developing therapeutic applications of these natural plant extracts in the treatment of amyloidogenic

  6. Expression of Glycoproteins in Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Varicella Zoster Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-18

    described by Fenner (Fenner, 1948). Briefly, contact with infectious virus occurs through inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets or direct...contact with an individual (this may be from an individual with chickenpox or zoster). The virus first replicates locally in the respiratory tract and...reticuloendothelial system (RES) where it undergoes multiple rounds of replication, and secondary viremia occurs (Feldman and Epp, 1979). The secondary viremia is

  7. Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer for use at Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, S L

    2010-04-07

    The Electron Positron Proton Spectrometer (EPPS) is mounted in a TIM (Ten-Inch Manipulator) system on the Omega-60 or Omega-EP laser facilities at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), when in use, see Fig. 1. The Spectrometer assembly, shown in Fig. 2, is constructed of a steel box containing magnets, surrounded by Lead 6% Antimony shielding with SS threaded insert, sitting on an Aluminum 6061-T6 plate.

  8. Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Ruth E; Moores, Thomas S; Morris, Neil P; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2004-12-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05-0.5 mM), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25-150 nM) and Penitrem A (100 nM), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-microM 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05-1 microM. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ.

  9. Long-term in vivo modulation of synaptic efficacy at the neuromuscular junction of Rana pipiens frogs

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, Eve-Lyne; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Prolonged changes in motor neurone activity can result in long-term changes in synaptic transmission. We investigated whether mechanisms commonly thought to be involved in determining synaptic efficacy of vertebrate motor neurones are involved in these long-term changes. The nerve supplying the cutaneus pectoris muscle was chronically stimulated via skin surface electrodes in freely moving frogs for 5–7 days. Chronic stimulation induced a 50% reduction in evoked endplate potential (EPP) amplitude at stimulated neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). These changes appear to be presynaptic since miniature EPP (mEPP) amplitude was unchanged while mEPP frequency was decreased by 46% and paired-pulse facilitation was increased by 26%. High frequency facilitation (40 Hz, 2 s) was also increased by 89%. Moreover, stimulated NMJs presented a 92% decrease in synaptic depression (40 Hz, 2 s). An increase in mitochondrial metabolism was observed as indicated by a more pronounced labelling of active mitochondria (Mitotracker) in stimulated nerve terminals, which could account for their greater resistance to synaptic depression. NMJ length visualized by α-bungarotoxin staining of nAChRs was not affected. Presynaptic calcium signals measured with Calcium Green-1 were larger in stimulated NMJs at low frequency (0.2 Hz) and not different from control NMJs at higher frequency (40 Hz, 2 s and 30 s). These results suggest that some mechanisms downstream of calcium entry are responsible for the determination of synaptic output, such as a down-regulation of some calcium-binding proteins, which could explain the observed results. The possibility of a change in frequenin expression, a calcium-binding protein that is more prominently expressed in phasic synapses, was, however, refuted by our results. PMID:16166159

  10. Functionally Graded Shape Memory Alloy Composites Optimized for Passive Vibration Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-20

    Nitinol , it is anticipated that the wire can only experience an incomplete hysteresis. 2.1. SMA wires in sleeves continuously bonded to the plate...Gilheany, J. 1995. Control of the natural frequencies of nitinol -reinforced composite beams, Journal of Sound and Vibrations, Vol. 185, 171-185. 3 Ro...J., and Baz, A., 1995. Nitinol -reinforced plates: Part III, Dynamic characteristics, Composites Engineering, Vol. 5, 91-106. 4 Epps, J and Chandra

  11. Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

  12. Towards an improved ensemble precipitation forecast: A probabilistic post-processing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajehei, Sepideh; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Recently, ensemble post-processing (EPP) has become a commonly used approach for reducing the uncertainty in forcing data and hence hydrologic simulation. The procedure was introduced to build ensemble precipitation forecasts based on the statistical relationship between observations and forecasts. More specifically, the approach relies on a transfer function that is developed based on a bivariate joint distribution between the observations and the simulations in the historical period. The transfer function is used to post-process the forecast. In this study, we propose a Bayesian EPP approach based on copula functions (COP-EPP) to improve the reliability of the precipitation ensemble forecast. Evaluation of the copula-based method is carried out by comparing the performance of the generated ensemble precipitation with the outputs from an existing procedure, i.e. mixed type meta-Gaussian distribution. Monthly precipitation from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFS) and gridded observation from Parameter-Elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) have been employed to generate the post-processed ensemble precipitation. Deterministic and probabilistic verification frameworks are utilized in order to evaluate the outputs from the proposed technique. Distribution of seasonal precipitation for the generated ensemble from the copula-based technique is compared to the observation and raw forecasts for three sub-basins located in the Western United States. Results show that both techniques are successful in producing reliable and unbiased ensemble forecast, however, the COP-EPP demonstrates considerable improvement in the ensemble forecast in both deterministic and probabilistic verification, in particular in characterizing the extreme events in wet seasons.

  13. On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

  14. Gene Therapy of Breast Cancer: Studies of Selection Promoter/Enhancer-Modified Vectors to Deliver Suicide Genes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    carcinoembryonic antigen - expressing tumor cells in bone 21 "DAMD17-94-J-4394 DONALD W. KUFE, M.D. marrow aspirates by polymerase chain reaction . J. Clin. Oncol...1992. Detection of tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with primary breast cancer: a prognostic factor for distant metastasis. J. Clin. Oncol. 10...Vachula, M. J. Kennedy, H. Kaizer, J. S. Coon, R. Ghalie, S. Williams, and D. Van Epps. 1995.

  15. Neurotransmitter release evoked by nerve impulses without Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels in frog motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E M; Watanabe, M; Redman, R S; Qiu, R; Hirsh, J K; Hunt, J M; Solsona, C S; Alford, S; MacDonald, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. The requirement for extracellular Ca2+ in the process of evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release by nerve impulses was tested at endplates in frog skeletal muscle. Ca(2+)-containing lipid vesicles (Ca2+ liposomes) were used to elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations under conditions in which Ca2+ entry from the extracellular fluid was prevented. 2. In an extracellular solution containing no added Ca2+ and 1 mM Mg2+ ('Ca(2+)-free' solution), Ca2+ liposomes promoted the synchronous release of ACh quanta, reflected electrophysiologically as endplate potentials (EPPs), in response to temporally isolated nerve impulses. 3. Motor nerve stimulation generated EPPs during superfusion with Ca2+ liposomes in Ca(2+)-free solutions containing the Ca2+ channel blocker Co2+ (1 mM), and the Ca2+ chelator EGTA (2 mM). As a physiological control for Ca2+ leakage from the liposomes to the extracellular fluid, the effect of Ca2+ liposomes on asynchronous evoked ACh release mediated by Ba2+ was examined. In contrast to the effects of 0.2-0.3 mM extracellular Ca2+, which generated EPPs but antagonized Ba(2+)-mediated asynchronous ACh release, Ca2+ liposomes generated EPPs but did not reduce asynchronous release mediated by Ba2+. The effects of Ca2+ liposomes were thus not due to leakage of Ca2+ from the liposome to the extracellular fluid. 4. Morphological studies using fluorescently labelled liposomes in conjunction with a confocal microscope demonstrate that lipid is transferred from the liposomes to nerve endings and liposomal contents are delivered to the nerve terminal cytoplasm. 5. The results suggest that when intracellular Ca2+ is elevated using liposomes as a vehicle, evoked ACh release can occur in the absence of Ca2+ entry via Ca2+ channels. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7738845

  16. Development of buffers for fast semidry transfer of proteins.

    PubMed

    Garić, Dušan; Humbert, Laure; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Korah, Juliana; Zarfabian, Yasaman; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques; Ali, Suhad

    2013-10-15

    Western blot is an extensively used method for protein detection in cell biology. To optimize this procedure, here we examined a panel of buffers for their ability to efficiently transfer proteins from SDS-polyacrylamide gels onto nitrocellulose membranes in a short 12-min period, designated here as fast semidry transfer. Our results show for the first time that HEPES- and HEPPS/EPPS-based buffers represent the most efficient buffers for fast semidry transfer.

  17. Real benefit of a protective factor against dementia: Importance of controlling for death. Example of sport practice.

    PubMed

    Grasset, Leslie; Joly, Pierre; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Wittwer, Jérôme; Amieva, Hélène; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean François

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the impact of a risk factor on several epidemiological indicators of death and dementia; the example of sport practice is presented. A population of 3670 non-demented subjects living at home and aged 65 and older from the PAQUID study were followed for 22 years. Sport practice was documented at baseline. Dementia (according to DSM-III-R criteria) and death were assessed at each visit. Analyses were performed with an Illness-Death model, providing results on the risks of dementia and death, probabilities and life expectancies. A total of 743 subjects (20.2%) participated in regular sport practice. During the follow-up, the proportion of death was lower in the elderly people practicing sport (EPPS), whereas the proportion of incident dementia cases was the same. The adjusted model showed a decreased risk of dementia (HR = 0.84 (0.72-1.00)) and of death for non-demented subjects (HR = 0.61 (0.51-0.71)) for EPPS but a similar risk of death with dementia in both sport groups. The probability of remaining alive without dementia was higher in EPPS, whereas the probability of dying was lower. The mean lifetime without dementia was 3 years higher for the EPPS, but the mean lifetime with dementia was the same. A preventive measure on a protective factor that is more effective for preventing death than dementia could lead to an increased lifetime without dementia; however, the number of demented cases may remain unchanged, even if the risk of developing dementia is reduced. This dynamic is important to forecast the need for health care and social services for the elderly.

  18. Aircrew Training Devices: Utility and Utilization of Advanced Instructional Features. Phase 4. Summary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the automated instructional system on the Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) at Williams AF8, Arizona (Faconti & Epps, 1975; Faconti...Nortimer, & Simpson, 1970; Fuller, Waag, & Martin, 1980; Knoop, 1973). The ASPT is a sophisticated research device that incorporates advanced visual and...potential of the ASPT , Gray, Chun, Warner, and Eubanks (1981) found that SIs tended to use the device in a fairly conventional manner. with few

  19. Biodegradation of PuEDTA and Impacts on Pu Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying; Bolton, Jr., Harvey

    2002-06-01

    This project, by Dr. Xun, supports work at PNNL (Bolton) regarding plutonium mobility in the subsurface. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is a chelating agent that can increase the mobility of radionuclides and heavy metals in groundwater. Biodegradation of EDTA can decrease the enhanced mobility. The overall objective is to understand how microbial degradation affects Plutonium-EDTA transport in the environment and the specific objective of this component is to understand how microorganisms degrade EDTA. A chelating degrading bacterium BNC1 can use EDTA and nitrilotriacetate (NTA) as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. A gene cluster responsible for both EDTA and NTA degradation has been cloned and characterized (1,2). The same enzymes are used to degrade both compounds except that additional enzymes are required for EDTA degradation. Since the enzymes are located inside cells, EDTA and NTA must be transported into cells for degradation. For the first funding year, we have focused on how EDTA and NTA are transported into BNC1 cells. The EDTA-degrading gene cluster also contains genes encoding a hypothetical ABC-type transporter. We first demonstrated that the transporter genes and EDTA monooxygenase gene (emoA) were co-transcribed by RT-PCR, suggesting that the genes are involved in EDTA transport. We then characterized one of the gene product EppA. Using recombinant EppA purified from Escherichia coli, we have shown that EppA binds several metal:EDTA complexes by fluorescence techniques. In addition, EppA is shown to bind Mg:NTA, Ca:NTA and Fe(III):NTA but not free NTA.

  20. Influence of Radiotherapy Technique and Dose on Patterns of Failure for Mesothelioma Patients After Extrapleural Pneumonectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. . E-mail: aallen@lroc.harvard.edu; Den, Robert; Wong, Julia S.; Zurakowski, David; Soto, Ricardo; Jaenne, Pasi A.; Zellos, Lambros; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David J.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is an effective treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We compared the outcomes after moderate-dose hemithoracic radiotherapy (MDRT) and high-dose hemithoracic RT (HDRT) after EPP for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods and Materials: Between July 1994 and April 2004, 39 patients underwent EPP and adjuvant RT at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital. Between 1994 and 2002, MDRT, including 30 Gy to the hemithorax, 40 Gy to the mediastinum, and boosts to positive margins or nodes to 54 Gy, was given, generally with concurrent chemotherapy. In 2003, HDRT to 54 Gy with a matched photon/electron technique was given, with sequential chemotherapy. Results: A total of 39 patients underwent RT after EPP. The median age was 59 years (range, 44-77). The histologic type was epithelial in 25 patients (64%) and mixed or sarcomatoid in 14 patients (36%). Of the 39 patients, 24 underwent MDRT and 15 (39%) HDRT. The median follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-71). The median overall survival was 19 months (95% confidence interval, 14-24). The median time to distant failure (DF) and local failure (LF) was 20 months (95% confidence interval, 14-26) and 26 months (95% confidence interval, 16-36), respectively. On univariate and multivariate analyses, only a mixed histologic type was predictive of inferior DF (p <0.006) and overall survival (p <0.004). The RT technique was not predictive of LF, DF, or overall survival. The LF rate was 50% (12 of 24) after MDRT and 27% (4 of 15) after HDRT (p = NS). Four patients who had undergone HDRT were alive and without evidence of disease at the last follow-up. Conclusions: High-dose hemithoracic RT appears to limit in-field LF compared with MDRT. However, DF remains a significant challenge, with one-half of our patients experiencing DF.

  1. A bicistronic SIN-lentiviral vector containing G156A MGMT allows selection and metabolic correction of hematopoietic protoporphyric cell lines.

    PubMed

    Richard, Emmanuel; Géronimi, Fabien; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Redonnet-Vernhet, Isabelle; Lamrissi-Garcia, Isabelle; Gerson, Stanton L; de Verneuil, Hubert; Moreau-Gaudry, François

    2003-09-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited disease characterised by a ferrochelatase (FECH) deficiency, the latest enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, leading to the accumulation of toxic protoporphyrin in the liver, bone marrow and spleen. We have previously shown that a successful gene therapy of a murine model of the disease was possible with lentiviral vectors even in the absence of preselection of corrected cells, but lethal irradiation of the recipient was necessary to obtain an efficient bone marrow engraftment. To overcome a preconditioning regimen, a selective growth advantage has to be conferred to the corrected cells. We have developed a novel bicistronic lentiviral vector that contains the human alkylating drug resistance mutant O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT G156A) and FECH cDNAs. We tested their capacity to protect hematopoietic cell lines efficiently from alkylating drug toxicity and correct enzymatic deficiency. EPP lymphoblastoid (LB) cell lines, K562 and cord-blood-derived CD34(+) cells were transduced at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) with the bicistronic constructs. Resistance to O(6)-benzylguanine (BG)/N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) was clearly shown in transduced cells, leading to the survival and expansion of provirus-containing cells. Corrected EPP LB cells were selectively amplified, leading to complete restoration of enzymatic activity and the absence of protoporphyrin accumulation. This study demonstrates that a lentiviral vector including therapeutic and G156A MGMT genes followed by BG/BCNU exposure can lead to a full metabolic correction of deficient cells. This vector might form the basis of new EPP mouse gene therapy protocols without a preconditioning regimen followed by in vivo selection of corrected hematopoietic stem cells. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Oxaliplatin induces hyperexcitability at motor and autonomic neuromuscular junctions through effects on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard G; Brain, Keith L; Wilson, Richard H; Grem, Jean L; Vincent, Angela

    2005-12-01

    Oxaliplatin, an effective cytotoxic treatment in combination with 5-fluorouracil for colorectal cancer, is associated with sensory, motor and autonomic neurotoxicity. Motor symptoms include hyperexcitability while autonomic effects include urinary retention, but the cause of these side-effects is unknown. We examined the effects on motor nerve function in the mouse hemidiaphragm and on the autonomic system in the vas deferens. In the mouse diaphragm, oxaliplatin (0.5 mM) induced multiple endplate potentials (EPPs) following a single stimulus, and was associated with an increase in spontaneous miniature EPP frequency. In the vas deferens, spontaneous excitatory junction potential frequency was increased after 30 min exposure to oxaliplatin; no changes in resting Ca(2+) concentration in nerve terminal varicosities were observed, and recovery after stimuli trains was unaffected. In both tissues, an oxaliplatin-induced increase in spontaneous activity was prevented by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Carbamazepine (0.3 mM) also prevented multiple EPPs and the increase in spontaneous activity in both tissues. In diaphragm, beta-pompilidotoxin (100 microM), which slows Na(+) channel inactivation, induced multiple EPPs similar to oxaliplatin's effect. By contrast, blockers of K(+) channels (4-aminopyridine and apamin) did not replicate oxaliplatin-induced hyperexcitability in the diaphragm. The prevention of hyperexcitability by TTX blockade implies that oxaliplatin acts on nerve conduction rather than by effecting repolarisation. The similarity between beta-pompilidotoxin and oxaliplatin suggests that alteration of voltage-gated Na(+) channel kinetics is likely to underlie the acute neurotoxic actions of oxaliplatin.

  3. Cultural Resources Survey of the East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee Item E-44, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-18

    depth of local alluvium or to the need to direct rvey efforts in a broader area. Survey attempts at the two report d site locales were unsuccessful...of the project was the skill of Ernie Epps, borrow channel flatboat pilot. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS CORPS LETTER...within the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This plain is a zone of intensive interaction between fluvial and marine processes. The deltaic plain is

  4. National Dam Safety Program. Otsego Lake Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 361), Susquehanna River Basin, Otsego County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    o0 ,c 0 ILI 20 . .0 0 O~N(........... 4-iii in4 Ot 0. I.t* .n-n .. . ...... NMI. U.2~ fa. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . -’V - Ovn !-a...C FLAHERT Y DAC .51 R aI-C- 006 UNCLASSIFIED NL 6 7 fffffffff~l %- ab * ,bm - ; a ePp;; w r i -. r r..r...rr...’ r IL~~I . V ~ u OVN WFM m n x In. on

  5. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus P particle-M2e chimeric vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Elaish, M; Kang, K I; Xia, M; Ali, A; Shany, S A S; Wang, L; Jiang, X; Lee, C W

    2015-09-11

    The ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved across strains and has been shown to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine in the mouse model. In this study, we tested immune response and protective efficacy of a chimeric norovirus P particle containing the avian M2e protein against challenges with three avian influenza (AI) viruses (H5N2, H6N2, H7N2) in chickens. Two-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were vaccinated 3 times with an M2e-P particle (M2e-PP) vaccine via the subcutaneous (SQ) route with oil adjuvant, and transmucosal routes (intranasal, IN; eye drop, ED; microspray, MS) without adjuvant. M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route induced significant IgG antibody responses which were increased by each booster vaccination. In groups vaccinated via IN, ED or MS, neither IgG nor IgA responses were detected from sera or nasal washes of immunized birds. The M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route significantly reduced the virus shedding in the trachea and the cloaca for all three challenge viruses. Despite the absence of detectable IgG and IgA responses in birds vaccinated with the M2e-PP via intranasal routes, a similar level of reduction in virus shedding was observed in the IN group compared to the SQ group. Our results supports that the universal vaccine approach using M2e-based vaccine can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses among different HA subtypes although the efficacy of the vaccine should be enhanced further to be practical. Better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of an M2e-based vaccine in chickens.

  6. Which Leber congenital amaurosis patients are eligible for gene therapy trials?

    PubMed Central

    Drack, Arlene V.; Johnston, Rebecca; Stone, Edwin M.

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2007, clinical trials began for gene-replacement therapy for RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). To enroll, subjects must have both disease-causing RPE65 alleles identified. Determining which patients have true disease-causing mutations requires a multistep approach. Methods This study is a retrospective case series using the estimate of pathogenic probability (EPP) algorithm and genotyping of family members to establish phase. Results Five probands and their families were studied. Patient 1 had genetic testing elsewhere and was reported to have 2 disease-causing AIPL1 mutations. The family received incorrect prenatal counseling based on this result. We found both variations to be benign ethnic polymorphisms (EPP = 0). Case 2 had possible disease-causing mutations in RPE65, RPGRIP1, and CRB1; however, screening of family members revealed that only CRB1 variations were disease causing and the RPE65 change was a polymorphism found in 11% of African Americans. Case 3 had a diagnosis of CRB1 associated LCA, but this mutation had an EPP = 0; a true homozygous disease-causing mutation was later found in RDH12. Patient 4 had 3 mutations found in RPE65, but only 2 were disease causing. Patient 5 had a homozygous mutation in RPE65. Only patients 4 and 5 would be eligible for clinical trials of RPE65 gene replacement. Conclusions To be eligible for participation in current RPE65 gene therapy trials, patients’ DNA must contain 2 correctly segregating alleles with an EPP = 2 or 3. Interpretation of DNA variants is complex; genetic misdiagnosis may lead to ineffective treatment in some patients and lack of treatment in others. PMID:19840725

  7. Which Leber congenital amaurosis patients are eligible for gene therapy trials?

    PubMed

    Drack, Arlene V; Johnston, Rebecca; Stone, Edwin M

    2009-10-01

    In 2007, clinical trials began for gene-replacement therapy for RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis. To enroll, subjects must have both disease-causing RPE65 alleles identified. Determining which patients have true disease-causing mutations requires a multistep approach. This study is a retrospective case series using the estimate of pathogenic probability (EPP) algorithm and genotyping of family members to establish phase. Five probands and their families were studied. Patient 1 had genetic testing elsewhere and was reported to have 2 disease-causing AIPL1 mutations. The family received incorrect prenatal counseling based on this result. We found both variations to be benign ethnic polymorphisms (EPP = 0). Case 2 had possible disease-causing mutations in RPE65, RPGRIP1, and CRB1; however, screening of family members revealed that only CRB1 variations were disease causing and the RPE65 change was a polymorphism found in 11% of African Americans. Case 3 had a diagnosis of CRB1-associated Leber congenital amaurosis, but this mutation had an EPP = 0; a true homozygous disease-causing mutation was later found in RDH12. Patient 4 had 3 mutations found in RPE65, but only 2 were disease causing. Patient 5 had a homozygous mutation in RPE65. Only Patients 4 and 5 would be eligible for clinical trials of RPE65 gene replacement. To be eligible for participation in current RPE65 gene therapy trials, patients' DNA must contain 2 correctly segregating alleles with an EPP = 2 or 3. Interpretation of DNA variants is complex; genetic misdiagnosis may lead to ineffective treatment in some patients and lack of treatment in others.

  8. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-05-07

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy.

  9. Hyperentanglement purification for two-photon six-qubit quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-09-01

    Recently, two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states were produced in experiment and they can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a scheme for the hyperentanglement purification of nonlocal two-photon systems in three degrees of freedom (DOFs), including the polarization, the first-longitudinal-momentum, and the second-longitudinal-momentum DOFs. Our hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) is constructed with two steps resorting to parity-check quantum nondemolition measurement on the three DOFs and swap gates, respectively. With these two steps, the bit-flip errors in the three DOFs can be corrected efficiently. Also, we show that using swap gates is a universal method for hyper-EPP in the polarization DOF and multiple-longitudinal-momentum DOFs. The implementation of our hyper-EPP is assisted by nitrogen-vacancy centers in optical microcavities, which could be achieved with current techniques. It is useful for long-distance high-capacity quantum communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentanglement.

  10. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. An assessment strategy for proposals of engineering projects in the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering Curriculum at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Villa, N; Jiménez-González, A; Ortiz-Posadas, M R

    2015-08-01

    Since 1974, the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering Program (BBME) is offered at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, in Mexico City. By design, it must be completed in four years (12 trimesters) and, in the latter three, the senior students work on a BME project, which is done by completing three modules: Project Seminar (PS), Project on BME I and Project on BME II. In the PS module, the student must find a problem of interest in the BME field and suggest a solution through the development of an Engineering Project Proposal (EPP). Currently, the module is being taught by two faculty members of the BBME, who instruct students on how to develop their EPPs and evaluate their progress by reviewing a number of EPPs during the trimester. This generates a huge workload for the module instructors, which makes it necessary to involve more faculty members trimester-to-trimester (i.e. every 12 weeks) and, therefore, to create a set of systematic guidelines that ease the evaluation process for new instructors. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present an assessment strategy (in the form of an assessment matrix) for the PS module as well as some preliminary results after two trimesters of its implementation.

  12. Ryanodine and inositol triphosphate receptors modulate facilitation and tetanic depression at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Priscila E; Lima, Ricardo F; Guimarães, Jennifer D S; Molgó, Jordi; Naves, Ligia A; Kushmerick, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Short-term plasticity of synaptic function is an important physiological control of transmitter release. Short-term plasticity can be regulated by intracellular calcium released by ryanodine and inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors, but the role of these receptors at the neuromuscular junction is understood incompletely. We measured short-term plasticity of evoked endplate potential (EPP) amplitudes from frog neuromuscular junctions treated with ryanodine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB), or 1-[6-[[(17β)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U- 73122). Ryanodine decreases paired-pulse facilitation for intervals <20 ms and markedly decreases tetanic depression. Treatment with 2-APB reduces EPP amplitude, increases paired-pulse facilitation for intervals of <20 ms, and significantly reduces tetanic depression. U-73122 decreases EPP amplitude and decreases paired-pulse depression for intervals <20 ms. Ryanodine, IP3 receptors, and phospholipase C modulate short-term plasticity of transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. These results suggest possible targets for improving the safety factor of neuromuscular transmission during repetitive activity of the neuromuscular junction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Introduction to the eastern Arctic Marine Environmental Studies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterlin, N.; Snow, N.

    1982-01-01

    Main problems are formulated and a study technique is characterized for the environmental protection program (EPP) of the eastern marine area of the Canadian Arctic in the area of physical-geographical (oceanography, meteorology, geomorphology) and biological sciences (microbiology, phytoand zooplankton, benthos, fish, birds and mammals, including white bear) which will be implemented in relation to realization of the extensive plans examined by the Canadian government back in 1977 for development of the large oil and gas resources of this part of the country. With regard for the severity of the ice and climate situation, it is planned to conduct studies of the EPP in the Canadian Arctic with the use of the entire modern scientific and technical potential, from ships and radar units to Earth satellites. Financing and supervision of the research on the EPP come from the government of the country, academic organizations and private firms. The research results will be published by the company Petro-Canada under the title ''Arctic.''

  14. Evaluation of Physicians’ Awareness of Pediatric Diseases in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Mirminachi, Babak; Daryabeigi, Maedeh; Agharahimi, Zahra; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Rabbani, Ali; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Physicians’ awareness about pediatric health problems is very important in health system. This has not been investigated in Iran as yet. Therefore this study was conducted to characterize the knowledge of the Iranian physicians which has direct association with health status of children. Methods: One hundred and four physicians, mainly pediatric specialists (58.6%) working in the state hospitals (45.1%) were enrolled. They filled a valid and reliable questionnaire, containing 26 questions about basic and important pediatric issues before and after an educational pediatric program (EPP). Findings : Thirty nine (37.5%) physicians answered correctly more than 2/3 of all questions (passed the examination) before EPP, which increased to 42.3% after EEP. Subgroup analysis showed that the total scores of general practitioners (P=0.007) was significantly increased after the EPP. Moreover, physicians with shorter practicing time (P=0.006) and those with shorter time past graduation (P=0.01) had a significant improvement in their total scores after the program. The best scores of educational issues were documented in growth and development (16.0%; P=0.04), followed by dermatology (9.2%, P=0.04), urology (9.1%; P=0.04), and asthma and allergy (9.0%, P=0.04). Conclusion: This study revealed that there are gaps in the knowledge of professionals about the pediatric issues. PMID:25793051

  15. Selective depolarization of the muscle membrane in frog nerve-muscle preparations by a chromatographically purified extract of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Frédéric A; Mercado, José A; Molgó, Jordi; Tosteson, Thomas R; Escalona de Motta, Gladys

    1997-01-01

    The actions of a chromatographically identified extract of the marine dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis, named ostreotoxin-3 (OTX-3), were studied on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations. OTX-3 (1–10 μg ml−1) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations depolarized skeletal muscle fibres and caused spontaneous contractions. The depolarization was neither reversed by prolonged washing nor by (+)-tubocurarine. OTX-3 decreased the amplitude of miniature end plate potentials (m.e.p.ps) but did not affect their frequency. Extracellular recording of compound action potentials revealed that OTX-3 affected neither excitability nor conduction along intramuscular nerve branches. End-plate potentials (e.p.ps) elicited by nerve stimulation were reduced in amplitude by OTX-3 and even showed reversed polarity in junctions deeply depolarized by the toxin. Membrane depolarization induced by OTX-3 was decreased about 70% in muscles pretreated for 30 min with 10 μM tetrodotoxin. In contrast, muscles pretreated with 5 μM μ-conotoxin GIIIA were completely insensitive to OTX-3-induced depolarization. OTX-3 did not affect e.p.p. amplitude and the quantal content of e.p.ps in junctions in which muscle depolarization was abolished by μ-conotoxin GIIIA. OTX-3 is a novel type of sodium-channel activating toxin that discriminates between nerve and skeletal muscle membranes. PMID:9249261

  16. Identification of FECH gene multiple variations in two Chinese patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria and a review* #

    PubMed Central

    Long, Zhang-biao; Wang, Yong-wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Gang; Du, Ya-li; Nie, Guang-jun; Chang, Yan-zhong; Han, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP), an autosomal dominant disease, is caused by partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), which catalyzes the terminal step of heme biosynthesis because of loss-of-function mutations in the FECH gene. To date, only a few cases have been described in Asia. In this study, we describe the clinical features of two Chinese patients with EPP, with diagnosis confirmed by the increase of free protoporphyrin in erythrocytes, detection of plasma fluorescence peak at 630–634 nm, and analysis of FECH gene mutations. Using gene scanning, we identified a small deletion in the FECH gene (c.973 delA) in one proband (patient A) and a pathogenic FECH mutation (c.1232 G>T) in the other (patient B) and also observed some nucleotide variations (c.798 C>G, c.921 A>G, IVS1−23 C>T, IVS3+23 A>G, IVS9+35 C>T, and IVS3−48 T>C) in these patients. The family pedigree of patient A was then established by characterization of the genotype of the patient’s relatives. We also analyzed the potential perniciousness of the missense mutation with bioinformatic software, Polyphen and Sift. In summary, Chinese EPP patients have similar manifestations to those of Caucasians, and identification of the Chinese FECH gene mutations expands the FECH genotypic spectrum and may contribute to genetic counseling. PMID:27704751

  17. Territory configuration moderates the frequency of extra-group mating in superb fairy-wrens.

    PubMed

    Bain, Glen C; Hall, Michelle L; Mulder, Raoul A

    2014-11-01

    The frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in socially monogamous birds varies substantially between and within species, but ecological drivers of this variation remain poorly understood. Habitat configuration could influence EPP by moderating access to extra-pair mates, because species occupying territories in a clustered 'honeycomb' configuration have a larger pool of potential extra-group mates in their immediate neighbourhood than those living in linearly arranged territories (e.g. along narrow strips of riparian or fragmented habitat). We exploited variation in the spatial arrangement of territories due to anthropogenic modification of habitat of the cooperatively breeding superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus to test whether habitat configuration influenced the frequency of EPP. In this species, most paternity is obtained by males outside the social group [extra-group paternity (EGP)]. We found that the frequency of EGP among groups living in linear strips of roadside vegetation (41% of 44 offspring) was lower than it was for groups living in clustered territories within continuous habitat (59% of 70 offspring). Differences in group size and pair relatedness did not explain differences in EGP associated with territory configuration, although the frequency of EGP was negatively correlated with pair relatedness. Our finding suggests that territory configuration can influence rates of EGP and that anthropogenic habitat fragmentation has the potential to limit access to extra-pair mates, affecting mating systems and ultimately fitness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Co-operative action of calcium ions in transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, F. A.; Rahamimoff, R.

    1967-01-01

    1. The quantitative dependence of transmitter release on external calcium concentration has been studied at the frog neuromuscular junction, using intracellular recording and taking the amplitude of the end-plate potential (e.p.p.) as an index of the number of packets released. 2. The relation between [Ca] and the e.p.p. is highly non-linear. The initial part of this relation on double logarithmic co-ordinates gives a straight line with a slope of nearly four (mean 3·78 ± 0·2 S.D. in 28 experiments). Addition of a constant amount of Mg reduces the e.p.p. without altering the slope of the log e.p.p./log Ca relation. 3. The slope of this logarithmic relation diminishes as [Ca] is raised towards the normal level. 4. The results are explained quantitatively on the hypothesis that Ca ions combine with a specific site X on the nerve terminal forming CaX, and that the number of packets of acetylcholine released is proportional to the fourth power of [CaX]. 5. The analysis suggests that a co-operative action of about four calcium ions is necessary for the release of each quantal packet of transmitter by the nerve impulse. PMID:6065887

  19. A Robust and Effective Multivariate Post-processing approach: Application on North American Multi-Model Ensemble Climate Forecast over the CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajehei, Sepideh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    The North American Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) forecasting system has been providing valuable information using a large number of contributing models each consisting of several ensemble members. Despite all the potential benefits that the NMME offers, the forecasts are prone to bias in many regions. In this study, monthly precipitation from 11 contributing models totaling 128 ensemble members in the NMME are assessed and bias corrected. All the models are regridded to 0.5 degree spatial resolution for a more detailed assessment. The goals of this study are as follows: 1. Evaluating the performance of the NMME models over the Contiguous United States using the probabilistic and deterministic measures. 2. Introducing the Copula based ensemble post-processing (COP-EPP) method rooted in Bayesian methods for conditioning the forecast on the observations to improve the performance of NMME predictions. 3. Comparing the forecast skill of the NMME at four different lead-times (lead-0 to lead-3) across the western US, and assessing the effectiveness of COP-EPP in post-processing of precipitation forecasts. Results revealed that NMME models are highly biased in central and western US, while they provide acceptable performance in the eastern regions. The new approach demonstrates substantial improvement over the raw NMME forecasts. However, regional assessment indicates that the COP-EPP is superior to the commonly used Quantile Matching (QM) approach. Also, this method is showing considerable improvements on the seasonal NMME forecasts at all lead times.

  20. Pilin Processing Follows a Different Temporal Route than That of Archaellins in Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Divya B.; Jarrell, Ken F.

    2015-01-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis has two different surface appendages: type IV-like pili and archaella. Both structures are believed to be assembled using a bacterial type IV pilus mechanism. Each structure is composed of multiple subunits, either pilins or archaellins. Both pilins and archaellins are made initially as preproteins with type IV pilin-like signal peptides, which must be removed by a prepilin peptidase-like enzyme. This enzyme is FlaK for archaellins and EppA for pilins. In addition, both pilins and archaellins are modified with N-linked glycans. The archaellins possess an N-linked tetrasaccharide while the pilins have a pentasaccharide which consists of the archaellin tetrasaccharide but with an additional sugar, an unidentified hexose, attached to the linking sugar. In this report, we show that archaellins can be processed by FlaK in the absence of N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation can occur on archaellins that still retain their signal peptides. In contrast, pilins are not glycosylated unless they have been acted on by EppA to have the signal peptide removed. However, EppA can still remove signal peptides from non-glycosylated pilins. These findings indicate that there is a difference in the order of the posttranslational modifications of pilins and archaellins even though both are type IV pilin-like proteins. PMID:25569238

  1. CAD-Based Shielding Analysis for ITER Port Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serikov, Arkady; Fischer, Ulrich; Anthoine, David; Bertalot, Luciano; De Bock, Maartin; O'Connor, Richard; Juarez, Rafael; Krasilnikov, Vitaly

    2017-09-01

    Radiation shielding analysis conducted in support of design development of the contemporary diagnostic systems integrated inside the ITER ports is relied on the use of CAD models. This paper presents the CAD-based MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Upper and Equatorial Port Plugs (UPP #3 and EPP #8, #17). The creation process of the complicated 3D MCNP models of the diagnostics systems was substantially accelerated by application of the CAD-to-MCNP converter programs MCAM and McCad. High performance computing resources of the Helios supercomputer allowed to speed-up the MCNP parallel transport calculations with the MPI/OpenMP interface. The found shielding solutions could be universal, reducing ports R&D costs. The shield block behind the Tritium and Deposit Monitor (TDM) optical box was added to study its influence on Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) in Port Interspace (PI) of EPP#17. Influence of neutron streaming along the Lost Alpha Monitor (LAM) on the neutron energy spectra calculated in the Tangential Neutron Spectrometer (TNS) of EPP#8. For the UPP#3 with Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS-core), an excessive neutron streaming along the CXRS shutter, which should be prevented in further design iteration.

  2. Efficacy of Propolis on the Denture Stomatitis Treatment in Older Adults: A Multicentric Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Gisela de M. S.; Lia, Erica N.; Berretta, Andresa A.; Nascimento, Andresa P.; Torres, Elina C.; Buszinski, Andrei F. M.; de Campos, Tatiana A.; Martins, Vicente de P.

    2017-01-01

    Our hypothesis tested the efficacy and safety of a mucoadhesive oral gel formulation of Brazilian propolis extract compared to miconazole oral gel for the treatment of denture stomatitis due to Candida spp. infection in older adults. Forty patients were randomly allocated in a noninferiority clinical trial into two groups. The control group (MIC) received 20 mg/g miconazole oral gel and the study group (PROP) received mucoadhesive formulation containing standardized extract of 2% (20 mg/g) propolis (EPP-AF®) during 14 days. Patients were examined on days 1, 7, and 14. The Newton's score was used to classify the severity of denture stomatitis. The colony forming unity count (CFU/mL) was quantified and identified (CHROMagar Candida®) before and after the treatment. Baseline characteristics did not differ between groups. Both treatments reduced Newton's score (P < 0.0001), indicating a clinical improvement of the symptoms of candidiasis with a clinical cure rate of 70%. The microbiological cure with significant reduction in fungal burden on T14 was 70% in the miconazole group and 25% in the EPP-AF group. The EPP-AF appears to be noninferior to miconazole considering the clinical cure rate and could be recommended as an alternative treatment in older patients. PMID:28396692

  3. Sa-am Five-element Acupuncture and Hwangyeon- haedoktang Pharmacopuncture Treatment for an Essential Tremor: Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Jin; Sun, Seung-Ho

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the effect of a combination of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (EPP) for the treatment of an essential tremor (ET). This study reviewed the medical records treated at OO Korean medical hospital for ET by using diverse types of acupuncture without herbal medicine, other types of physical therapy, and western medication related ET or Parkinson's disease and was performed after the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). The three cases that were finally selected were then extracted and reviewed. The three cases that were finally selected involved three women in their 70s to 80s. The evaluation of the progress was made by using the numeric rating scale. A combined treatment, the method of liver excess (), from amongSa-am five-element acupuncture, and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP at CV23 and CV17, was applied to all cases. In all three cases, the ET was improved, and recurred ETs improved with the same treatment. The results suggest that the combined treatment of Sa-am five-element acupuncture and Hwangyeonhaedoktang ePP may be effective for treating an ET, even though this conclusion is based on only three cases.

  4. Loss of laminin-α4 results in pre- and postsynaptic modifications at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2017-04-01

    Synaptic basal lamina such as laminin-421 (α4β2γ1) mediate differentiation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Laminins interact with their pre- or postsynaptic receptors to provide stability and alignment of the pre- to postsynaptic specializations. Knockout of the laminin-α4 gene (lama4) does not alter gross NMJ morphogenesis. However, mice deficient in laminin-α4 (lama4(-/-) mice) display disruptions in the alignment of the active zones and postsynaptic folds at the NMJ, although the physiological consequences of this loss have not been examined. The present study investigated the differences in neurotransmission during the early development and maturation of the NMJ in lama4(-/-) and wild-type mice. Lama4(-/-) NMJs demonstrated a decrease in miniature end-plate potential (EPP) frequency and increased amplitude of miniature EPPs and evoked EPPs. Binomial parameters analysis of neurotransmitter release revealed a decrease in quantal release, the result of a decrease in the number of active release sites, but not in the probability of transmitter release. Lama4(-/-) NMJs displayed higher levels of synaptic depression under high-frequency stimulation and altered facilitation, suggesting compromised delivery of synaptic vesicles. This idea is supported by our molecular investigations of lama4(-/-) NMJs, where we see altered distribution of Bassoon, a molecular component of active zones, presumably resulting from perturbed neurotransmission.-Chand, K. K., Lee, K. M., Lavidis, N. A., Noakes, P. G. Loss of laminin-α4 results in pre- and postsynaptic modifications at the neuromuscular junction. © FASEB.

  5. Suppression of error-preceding brain activity explains exaggerated error monitoring in females with worry.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Hans S; Glazer, James E; Bennett, Ken P; Moran, Tim P; Moser, Jason S

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is consistently associated with hyperactive neural responses to errors. The majority of existing research has focused on a single marker of error-elicited brain activity-the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) elicited 50-100ms following an erroneous response. The ERN has accumulated growing interest for its use in clinical contexts as a potential biomarker and/or endophenotype. However, it is unknown whether anxiety's effects are specific to brain activity following erroneous responses; anxiety may affect processes prior to error commission, suggesting that the ERN might reflect the output of abnormal processing that begins before an error. Here, we examined the error-preceding positivity (EPP) - an ERP time-locked to the correct response immediately before errors - that reflects a gradual disengagement of task-focused attention preceding errors. Results revealed that female worriers demonstrated significantly attenuated EPP amplitude, indicating reduced pre-error disengagement. Moreover, reduced EPP mediated the relationship between worry and the enhanced ERN following errors. These results suggest that the temporal dynamics of anxiety's impact on error processing are more nuanced than previously thought such that effects emerge prior to the actual occurrence of an erroneous response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of sepsis on the neuromuscular blocking actions of d-tubocurarine on rat adductor and abductor laryngeal muscles.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Kohki; Narimatsu, Eichi; Igarashi, Motohiko; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sepsis on the neuromuscular blocking actions of d-tubocurarine (dTc) in the lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles, an adductor muscle and an abductor muscle of the vocal cords, respectively, in vitro. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to elicit panperitonitis. Electromyograms (EMGs) and endplate potentials (EPPs) were recorded from the LCA and PCA muscles of CLP-operated septic rats and sham-operated nonseptic rats, using extracellular and intracellular microelectrodes, respectively. EMG and EPP (amplitude and quantum content) were depressed by dTc, but the dTc-induced neuromuscular blocking effects were attenuated by sepsis. The suppressive effects of dTc on EMG and EPP (amplitude and quantum content) were less intense in the LCA muscle than in the PCA muscle under both sepsis and nonsepsis conditions. Our study shows that sepsis has a depressive effect on dTc-induced neuromuscular blocking actions at both the adductor and abductor muscles of vocal cords in the larynx.

  7. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy. PMID:24648230

  8. The structure of the Eysenck Personality Profiler.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C J; Furnham, A; Forde, L; Cotter, T

    2000-05-01

    The dominant issue in personality research over the last decade has been concerned with the fundamental structure of personality and the best measures of that structure. Exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate possible three- and five-factor solutions to the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP; Eysenck, Barrett, Wilson, & Jackson, 1992) which consists of 21 primary scales categorized under three super-factors. Little evidence was found to support Costa and McCrae's (1995) unequivocal comment that a five-factor solution fitted the data well. Confirmatory factor analysis was also used, by means of structural equation modelling, to estimate the goodness of fit of three- and five-factor models and little evidence was found to favour one solution over the other. A shorter version of the EPP, which consists of just nine scales, seemed to favour a three-factor solution. Various criticisms of the EPP are also made: some scales have relatively low alpha, there seem to be too many neuroticism scales and the three category response scales seem less than ideal.

  9. A clinical comparison of two different prednisolone acetate formulations in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2005-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two topical steroid prednisolone preparations (Econopred Plus 1%, prednisolone acetate 1%: EPP; Pred Fortedagger 1%, prednisolone acetate 1%: PF) in reducing postoperative inflammation in cataract patients. This was a 4 week, randomized, parallel-group, single-center, active-controlled study. One group of patients received postoperative topical EPP while the other group received postoperative topical PF. Both medications were dosed 4 times per day for 14 days and then BID until the container was empty. Both groups of patients received diclofenac sodium QID for 14 days and hydroxypropyl guar (HP-Guar, Systane) QID for 7 days then PRN (or as directed). The presence of corneal surface keratitis, anterior chamber cells and flare (scales 0-3 for keratitis, 0-5 for cells and 0-4 for flare; 0 = none) was evaluated by slit lamp biomicroscopy. EPP produced significantly lower (P < 0.05) anterior chamber flare scores 14 days following surgery (mean +/- SD: 0.86 +/- 0.53) than PF (1.08 +/- 0.40). Otherwise, there were no differences observed between the 2 treatments with respect to keratitis, anterior chamber flare or cells at postop days 1, 7, or 28. This comparative trial demonstrated that both formulations of prednisolone acetate 1% have similar efficacy in the treatment of postoperative ophthalmologic inflammation.

  10. The evolution of the diminishing role of extrapleural pneumonectomy in the surgical management of malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Azzouqa, Abdel-Ghani; Stevenson, James P

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon and aggressive thoracic malignancy that is rarely curable, even when multimodality therapy is used. Systemic chemotherapy is the primary treatment for the majority of patients with this disease; however, surgical resection may benefit a subset of patients with early-stage disease. The surgical approach that offers the best outcomes remains an area of controversy, with data from retrospective comparisons being the only guide. Historically, extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) has been the standard procedure, carrying with it a cost of significant morbidity and impact on quality of life that has raised questions regarding its routine application. Over the past two decades as surgical techniques have been refined and survival data with EPP in large case series have been reported, the paradigm has evolved toward the use of lung-sparing pleural resections such as pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) and extended P/D. The identification of patients who may benefit from EPP over pleurectomy has proven problematic, and the larger question regarding the impact of any type of surgical intervention on outcomes for pleural mesothelioma patients is still an area of investigation. Uniform treatment approaches have been difficult to develop due to the relatively small numbers of patients with this disease, the use of a staging system that does not readily identify those who may benefit from more aggressive therapy, and the institutional biases that have resulted from the growth of multimodality centers of excellence. PMID:27932892

  11. A fast event preprocessor for the Simbol-X Low-Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Simbol-X1 Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128 × 128 pixel DEPFET array, will be read out very fast (8000 frames/second). This requires a very fast onboard data preprocessing of the raw data. We present an FPGA based Event Preprocessor (EPP) which can fulfill this requirements. The design is developed in the hardware description language VHDL and can be later ported on an ASIC technology. The EPP performs a pixel related offset correction and can apply different energy thresholds to each pixel of the frame. It also provides a line related common-mode correction to reduce noise that is unavoidably caused by the analog readout chip of the DEPFET. An integrated pattern detector can block all invalid pixel patterns. The EPP has an internal pipeline structure and can perform all operation in realtime (< 2 μs per line of 64 pixel) with a base clock frequency of 100 MHz. It is utilizing a fast median-value detection algorithm for common-mode correction and a new pattern scanning algorithm to select only valid events. Both new algorithms were developed during the last year at our institute.

  12. Influence of the Latency Fluctuations and the Quantal Process of Transmitter Release on the End-Plate Potentials' Amplitude Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Souček, Branko

    1971-01-01

    Spontaneous synaptic potentials and their relation to the end-plate potential (e.p.p.) are studied. It has been suggested earlier that the e.p.p. at a single nerve-muscle junction is built up statistically of small all-or-none units which are identical in size with the spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.'s). In this paper, a more general theory is developed which takes into account latency fluctuations of the unit components. A general equation for e.p.p. amplitude probability distribution is derived. This probability distribution is a function of the latency distribution, m.e.p.p.'s pulse shape, m.e.p.p.'s amplitude distribution, and the mean quantal content. The time course of transmitter release, or latency distribution, is derived from a histogram of synaptic delays in a frog muscle, but obtained equations can be used for other distribution functions as well. PMID:5542609

  13. Investigation of cell proliferative activity on the surface of the nanocomposite material produced by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbina, N. N.; Kurilova, U. E.; Ickitidze, L. P.; Podgaetsky, V. M.; Selishchev, S. V.; Suetina, I. A.; Mezentseva, M. V.; Eganova, E. M.; Pavlov, A. A.; Gerasimenko, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    A new method for the formation of composite nanomaterials based on multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) on a silicon substrate has been developed. Formation is carried out by ultrasound coating of a silicon substrate by homogenous dispersion of CNTs in the albumin matrix and further irradiation with the continuous laser beam with a wavelength of 810 nm and power of 5.5 watts. The high electrical conductivity of CNTs provides its structuring under the influence of the laser radiation electric field. The result is a scaffold that provides high mechanical strength of nanocomposite material (250 MPa). For in vitro studies of materials biocompatibility a method of cell growth microscopic analysis was developed. Human embryonic fibroblasts (EPP) were used as biological cells. Investigation of the interaction between nanocomposite material and cells was carried out by optical and atomic force microscopy depending on the time of cells incubation. The study showed that after 3 hours incubation EPP were fixed on the substrate surface, avoiding the surface of the composite material. However, after 24 hours of incubation EPP fix on the sample surface and then begin to grow and divide. After 72 hours of incubation, the cells completely fill the sample surface of nanocomposite material. Thus, a nanocomposite material based on CNTs in albumin matrix does not inhibit cell growth on its surface, and favours their growth. The nanocomposite material can be used for creating soft tissue implants

  14. Insolation forcing of coccolithophore productivity in the western tropical Indian Ocean over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangunan, Deborah; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Pätzold, Jürgen; Henrich, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Groeneveld, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    We present a new coccolithophore productivity reconstruction spanning the last 300 ka in core GeoB12613-1 retrieved from the western tropical Indian Ocean (IO), an area that mainly derives its warm and oligotrophic surface waters from the eastern IO. Application of a calibrated assemblage-based productivity index indicates a reduction in estimated primary productivity (EPP) from 300 ka to the present, with reconstructed EPP values ranging from 91 to 246 g C/m2/yr. Coccolithophore assemblages and coccolith fraction Sr/Ca indicate three main phases of productivity change, with major changes at 160 and 46 ka. The productivity and water-column stratification records show both dominant precession and obliquity periodicities, which appear to control the paleoproductivity in the study area over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Shallowing of the thermocline due to strengthening of the trade winds in response to insolation maxima resulted to peaks in EPP. Comparison with the eastern IO productivity and stratification coccolithophore data reveals good correspondence with our records, indicating a strong tropical Pacific influence in our study area. Both of these records show high productivity from 300 to 160 ka, interpreted to be due to stronger Walker Circulation while the declining productivity from 160 ka to the present day is a consequence of its weakening intensity.

  15. Development of small centrifugal pumps for an electric propellant pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Göran; Bigert, Mikael

    Small centrifugal pumps with low specific speeds have been designed, manufactured and performance tested at Volvo Flygmotor AB under a contract from the European Space Agency (ESA) over the period mid-1985 to mid-1988. The development of the pumps is a part of the work carried out to develop an Electric Propellant Pump System (EPPS) for the storable propellant monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetraoxide (NTO). Supporting technology development has been funded by the Swedish Delegation for Space Activities (DFR) and Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) together with Volvo Flygmotor. The main advantages of a typical EPPS communication satellite application are weight and volume reduction of the propellant system compared with a pressure-fed system. Active engine mixture ratio control and improved propellant utilization are also possible. Refuelling in space is another potential application where EPPS can be used. The development work was focused on communication satellite apogee propulsion and used the MBB 3 kN engine as reference. This paper presents the pump design and analyses and the results from the test campaigns of three different pump configurations, carried out with water as test liquid. The head rise, efficiency and suction performance together with other characteristics are also given. The planned next development step is to demonstrate pump performance in the propellants and primarily in NTO. The step is funded by (DFR)/(SSC) together with Volvo Flygmotor.

  16. Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP grown on Ge substrate and their effects on the ordering of InGaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tsai, Shi-Jane; Ho, Hao-I.; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2016-03-01

    We report on the Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP epilayer with Cu-Pt ordering grown on 4-in. Ge substrate. Ge profiles determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that the Ge out-diffusion depth is within 100 nm. However, the edge of the wafer suffers from stronger Ge gas-phase auto-doping than the center, leading to ordering deterioration in the InGaP epilayer. In the edge, we observed a residual Cu-Pt ordering layer left beneath the surface, suggesting that the ordering deterioration takes place after the deposition rather than during the deposition and In/Ga inter-diffusion enhanced by Ge vapor-phase auto-doping is responsible for the deterioration. We thus propose a di-vacancy diffusion model, in which the amphoteric Ge increases the di-vacancy density, resulting in a Ge density dependent diffusion. In the model, the In/Ga inter-diffusion and Ge out-diffusion are realized by the random hopping of In/Ga host atoms and Ge atoms to di-vacancies, respectively. Simulation based on this model well fits the Ge out-diffusion profiles, suggesting its validity. By comparing the Ge diffusion coefficient obtained from the fitting and the characteristic time constant of ordering deterioration estimated from the residual ordering layer, we found that the hopping rates of Ge and the host atoms are in the same order of magnitude, indicating that di-vacancies are bound in the vicinity of Ge atoms.

  17. Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP grown on Ge substrate and their effects on the ordering of InGaP

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Ho, Hao-I; Tsai, Shi-Jane; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2016-03-21

    We report on the Ge auto-doping and out-diffusion in InGaP epilayer with Cu-Pt ordering grown on 4-in. Ge substrate. Ge profiles determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that the Ge out-diffusion depth is within 100 nm. However, the edge of the wafer suffers from stronger Ge gas-phase auto-doping than the center, leading to ordering deterioration in the InGaP epilayer. In the edge, we observed a residual Cu-Pt ordering layer left beneath the surface, suggesting that the ordering deterioration takes place after the deposition rather than during the deposition and In/Ga inter-diffusion enhanced by Ge vapor-phase auto-doping is responsible for the deterioration. We thus propose a di-vacancy diffusion model, in which the amphoteric Ge increases the di-vacancy density, resulting in a Ge density dependent diffusion. In the model, the In/Ga inter-diffusion and Ge out-diffusion are realized by the random hopping of In/Ga host atoms and Ge atoms to di-vacancies, respectively. Simulation based on this model well fits the Ge out-diffusion profiles, suggesting its validity. By comparing the Ge diffusion coefficient obtained from the fitting and the characteristic time constant of ordering deterioration estimated from the residual ordering layer, we found that the hopping rates of Ge and the host atoms are in the same order of magnitude, indicating that di-vacancies are bound in the vicinity of Ge atoms.

  18. Long-term diameter growth for trees in the Cinnamon Bay Watershed

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    2009-01-01

    From 1983 to 2008, the mean annual diameter growth (MAI) for 1,402 surviving stems of 62 species in the Cinnamon Bay watershed was 0.08¡À0.002 cm yr-1. Long-term MAI ranged from 0.02 cm yr-1 for Randia aculeata to 0.23 cm yr-1 for Inga laurina. Of the 30 species with ¡Ý8 surviving stems, eight averaged ¡Ý0.10 cm yr-1. Hurricane Hugo in 1989, Hurricane Marilyn in 1995,...

  19. Investigation of chirality in the case of 102Rh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavahchova, M. S.; Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; de Angelis, G.; Petkov, P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, R.; Raju, M. Kumar; Kaur, J.; Mahanto, G.; Singh, A.; Kaur, N.; Garg, R.; Sukla, A.; Marinov, Ts. K.; Mateeva, R. R.; Brant, S.

    2016-06-01

    Excited states in 102Rh were populated in the fusion-evaporation reaction 94Zr(11B, 3n)102Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the gamma-ray transitions observed were investigated in details. A new chiral candidate sister band was found. Lifetimes of exited states in 102Rh were measured using the Doppler-shift attenuation technique and the derived reduced transition probabilities are compared to the predictions of the Two Quasiparticles Plus Triaxial Rotor model.

  20. Selective area growth and characterization of InGaN nanocolumns for phosphor-free white light emission

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-03-21

    This work reports on the morphology and light emission characteristics of ordered InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 Degree-Sign C, the In incorporation can be modified either by the growth temperature, the In/Ga ratio, or the III/V ratio, following different mechanisms. Control of these factors allows the optimization of the InGaN nanocolumns light emission wavelength and line-shape. Furthermore, yellow-white emission is obtained at room temperature from nanostructures with a composition-graded active InGaN region obtained by temperature gradients during growth.

  1. Experimental study of upper sd shell nuclei and evolution of sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha

    2012-06-27

    The intruder orbitals from the fp shell play important role in the structure of nuclei around the line of stability in the upper sd shell. Experimentally we have studied {sup 35}Cl, {sup 30}P, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Ar and {sup 34}Cl in this mass region using the INGA setup. Large basis cross-shell shell model calculations have indicated the need for change of the sd-fp energy gap for reliable reproduction of negative parity and high spin positive parity states. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. Theoretical interpretation of these states has been discussed.

  2. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  3. Shape evolution at high spin states in Kr and Br isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, T.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Jain, H. C.; Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Pancholi, S. C.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Yang, Y.-C.; Sun, Y.; Sheikh, J. A.; Raja, M. K.; Kumar, S.; Choudhury, D.; Jain, A. K.; Mehrotra, I.

    2014-08-14

    The high spin states in A = 75, Kr and Br isotopes have been populated via fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 90 MeV. The de-exciting γ-rays were detected utilizing the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Lifetime of these excited high spin states were determined by Doppler-shift attenuation method. Experimental results obtained from lifetime measurement are interpreted in the frame work of projected shell-model to get better insight into the evolution of collectivity. Comparison of the calculations of the model with transitional quadrupole moments Q{sub t} of the positive and negative parity bands firmly established their configurations.

  4. External Morphology and Ultra-Structure of Eggs and First Instar of Prepona Laertes Laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with Notes on Host Plant use and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2011-01-01

    The external morphology and the tegument ultra-structure of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae) eggs and first instar larvae feeding on Inga spp. (Fabaceae) in a forest fragment in Joinville, Santa Catarina, Brazil, are described. Descriptions of the morphology with illustrations are presented, based upon observations through scanning electron microscopy and stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to a camera lucida. Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed. PMID:22208698

  5. Solar cells based on InP/GaP/Si structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitsiani, O.; Laperashvil, D.; Laperashvili, T.; Mikelashvili, V.

    2016-10-01

    Solar cells (SCs) based on III-V semiconductors are reviewed. Presented work emphases on the Solar Cells containing Quantum Dots (QDs) for next-generation photovoltaics. In this work the method of fabrication of InP QDs on III-V semiconductors is investigated. The original method of electrochemical deposition of metals: indium (In), gallium (Ga) and of alloys (InGa) on the surface of gallium phosphide (GaP), and mechanism of formation of InP QDs on GaP surface is presented. The possibilities of application of InP/GaP/Si structure as SC are discussed, and the challenges arising is also considered.

  6. Growth of crystals for synchrotron radiation Mössbauer investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrbova, M.; Hejduk, J.; Malnev, V. V.; Seleznev, V. N.; Yagupov, S. V.; Andronova, N. V.; Chechin, A. I.; Mikhailov, A. Yu.

    1991-10-01

    Iron borate crystals (FeBO 3) were flux grown at the Physical Institute (Prague) and at Simferopol State University. During the crystal growth procedure the temperature regime was held constant to 0.1°C accuracy. Crystals were investigated with the help of a double crystal X-ray diffractometer DRON-2 (SiO 2(30 overline33)FeBO 3(444), MoK α 1 radiation). The rocking curve measurements were carried out in a constant magnetic field of 1kG. Most of the crystal surface has a rocking curve 10″-15″ wide. Some parts of some crystals with the area 1 × 1 mm 2 have rocking curves of 3″-4″ width and can be considered ideal.

  7. A new species of chondracanthid copepod parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes (Myxiniformes: Myxinidae) from off Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Rong; Luo, Hao-Yuan; Dai, Chang-Feng; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A new species of Acanthochondria Oakley, 1927 (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Chondracanthidae), parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes Eptatretus burgeri (Girard), E. sheni (Kuo, Huang & Mok) and E. yangi (Teng), from off Taiwan is described and illustrated. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the neck region longer than wide (about 2-3 times as long as wide), the moderately long protopod of leg 2 (Type E), the endopod of leg 2 as large as exopod, the cephalosome wider than long, the armature formula of antennule (1, 1, 2, 2, 9), the relatively long trunk (6.7 mm) and egg-sacs (14.4 mm). This is the first record of a parasitic chondracanthid from hagfishes. The findings may provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships and interactions among chondracanthids, hagfishes and demersal fishes, but call for further molecular studies.

  8. Mechanism of positioning the cell nucleus in vertebrate photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Omori, Yoshihiro; Biyanwila, Janisha; Malicki, Jarema

    2007-01-01

    Organelles are frequently distributed in a nonrandom manner in a cell's cytoplasm. A particular distribution pattern often facilitates a specific function of a cell, whereas its aberrations can lead to cell death. We show that a mutation in the zebrafish mikre oko (mok) locus, which encodes dynactin 1 subunit of the dynactin complex, produces a severe displacement of the photoreceptor cell nucleus toward the synaptic terminus. Interference with the function of other dynein complex constituents, including p50/dynamitin, the Lis1 polypeptide, and the disruption of a nuclear envelope component of the syne gene family in vertebrate photoreceptors also result in the mispositioning of nuclei. Although the overall photoreceptor polarity is not affected, this phenotype is accompanied by a misdistribution of the Bardet–Biedl syndrome 4 polypeptide and a decreased photoreceptor survival. These findings reveal an important mechanism that regulates nuclear position in vertebrate neurons. PMID:17785424

  9. Phelps-Collins, Alpena, Michigan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-19

    964.0 967 96.7 96.8 96.9 96.9 9609 96.9 97.2 9 (> 200 ’ 82.9 86.6 92*2 9497 95.1 96.8 97.2 97.2 97.9 98.2 98.2 98.2 98.2 98.4 98.4 4 f 8z2 8 a17I 6 9qo...97.1l 9?61 98.0 906 98.1 U41.U USAF ETAC 0Z O.4-5 (01 A) owi moks op se po m m .- ~II~OII. 4,. 4 -- t-- I I*gq I S - ~ ~ ~ ~ IA -M~ nb aw.--- .-. I

  10. [Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on weight loss after two years of bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients].

    PubMed

    Abilés, V; Abilés, J; Rodríguez-Ruiz, S; Luna, V; Martín, F; Gándara, N; Fernández-Santaella, M C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in the success of postoperative weight loss after 2 years of CB. A prospective observational study was conducted in consecutive patients with morbid obesity aged between 18 and 59 yrs and enrolled in the bariatric surgery program of the Obesity Surgery Unit of our hospital from June 2007 through June 2010, with two years postoperative follow-up. Participants were divided into two groups according to their participation in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or not. Over a 3-month period, CBT was applied in 12 2-h sessions. The main dependent variables studied were body weight and height, from which we calculated BMI and percentage of excess weight lost (weight lost x 100)/(initial weight-ideal weight), classifying patients as successful (E ) those with EPP > 50%, and unsuccessful (NE) those with EPP <50%. Participants were also, assessed for general (stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem) and specific (binge eating and food craving) psychopathology. Of the 35 patients with bariatric surgery, 30 responded postoperative evaluations, 16 underwent CBT before CB and 14 underwent surgery without receiving psycho-nutritional therapy, (76% female) with a mean age of 41 ± 9.5 years. The mean baseline BMI was 42 ± 10 and 45% of patients were classified as super obese (BMI: 56 ± 6). Mean excess weight loss (EPP) was 77%. According to the EPP were classified as "successful" (S) (59%) and "unsuccessful" (U) (41%). Of the patients assigned to S, 94% received CBT (15 individuals of 17 total), compared with only 12% who did not receive (2 individuals of the 17 total) with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Also, the S patients appeared to be significantly less anxious and stressed and have higher self-esteem (P < 0.05). Regarding specific psychopathology, the food craving guided by hunger, loss of control over food intake and guilt was lower in patients who achieved > 50% of EPP (p < 0.04, p < 0

  11. GOES-16 On-Orbit Dual Isolation Performance Characterization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Delano; Clapp, Brian; Early, Derrick; Freesland, Douglas; Chapel, Jim; Bailey, Robert; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites. GOES-R successfully launched on November19, 2016 and renamed GOES-16 upon entering geostationary orbit. Subsequently, GOES-16post-launch testing began. This paper presents the GOES-16 Satellite Dynamic Interaction Characterization results for the Earth Pointed Platform (EPP) stowed, referred to as the Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) Isolation Only configuration, and deployed, referred to as the Dual Isolation configuration. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suites increased sensitivity to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design included an EPP, a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation Control (GNC) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. To reduce the risk of wheel disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms reaction wheels, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Pre-launch Satellite Dynamic Interaction Characterization high-fidelity simulations and ground testing were conducted to

  12. Utilization of monensin for detection of microdomains in cholesterol containing membrane.

    PubMed

    Bransburg-Zabary, S; Nachliel, E; Gutman, M

    1996-12-04

    The effect of cholesterol on the monensin mediated proton-cation exchange reaction was measured in the time-resolved domain. The experimental system consisted of a black lipid membrane equilibrated with monensin (Nachliel, E., Finkelstein, Y. and Gutman, M. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1285, 131-145). The membrane separated two compartments containing electrolyte solutions and pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene 1,3,6-trisulfonate) was added on to one side of the membrane. A short laser pulse was used to cause a brief transient acidification of the pyranine-containing solution and the resulting electric signal, derived from proton-cation exchange, was measured in the microsecond time domain. Incorporation of cholesterol had a clear effect on the electric transients as measured with Na+ or K+ as transportable cations. The measured transients were subjected to rigorous analysis based on numeric integration of coupled, non-linear, differential rate equations which correspond with the perturbed multi-equilibria state between all reactants present in the system. The various kinetic parameters of the reaction and their dependence on the cholesterol content had been determined. On the basis of these observations we can draw the following conclusions: (1) Cholesterol perturbed the homogeneity of the membrane and microdomains were formed, having a composition that differed from the average value. The ionophore was found in domains which were practically depleted of phosphatidylserine. (2) The diffusivity of the protonated monensin (MoH) was not affected by the presence of cholesterol, indicating that the viscosity of the central layer of the membrane was unaltered. (3) The diffusivity of the monensin metal complexes (MoNa and MoK) was significantly increased upon addition of cholesterol. As the viscosity along the cross membranal diffusion route is unchanged, the enhanced motion of the MoNa and MoK is attributed to variations of the electrostatic potential within the domains.

  13. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs.

  14. Vertically aligned InGaN nanowires with engineered axial In composition for highly efficient visible light emission

    PubMed Central

    Ebaid, Mohamed; Kang, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Yang-Seok; Lim, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of novel InGaN nanowires (NWs) with improved crystalline quality and high radiative efficiency for applications as nanoscale visible light emitters. Pristine InGaN NWs grown under a uniform In/Ga molar flow ratio (UIF) exhibited multi-peak white-like emission and a high density of dislocation-like defects. A phase separation and broad emission with non-uniform luminescent clusters were also observed for a single UIF NW investigated by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence. Hence, we proposed a simple approach based on engineering the axial In content by increasing the In/Ga molar flow ratio at the end of NW growth. This new approach yielded samples with a high luminescence intensity, a narrow emission spectrum, and enhanced crystalline quality. Using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the UIF NWs exhibited a long radiative recombination time (τr) and low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) due to strong exciton localization and carrier trapping in defect states. In contrast, NWs with engineered In content demonstrated three times higher IQE and a much shorter τr due to mitigated In fluctuation and improved crystal quality. PMID:26585509

  15. Predictors of leafhopper abundance and richness in a coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Burdine, Justin D; Domínguez Martínez, Gabriel H; Philpott, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Coffee agroecosystems with a vegetatively complex shade canopy contain high levels of biodiversity. However, as coffee management is intensified, diversity may be lost. Most biodiversity studies in coffee agroecosystems have examined predators and not herbivores, despite their importance as potential coffee pests and coffee disease vectors. We sampled one abundant herbivore group of leafhoppers on an organic coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico. We sampled leafhoppers with elevated pan traps in high- and moderate-shade coffee during the dry and wet seasons of 2011. The two major objectives were to 1) compare leafhopper abundance and richness during the wet and dry seasons and 2) examine the correlations between habitat characteristics (e.g., vegetation, elevation, and presence of aggressive ants) and leafhopper richness and abundance. We collected 2,351 leafhoppers, representing eight tribes and 64 morphospecies. Leafhopper abundance was higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Likewise, leafhopper richness was higher in the dry season. Several vegetation and other habitat characteristics correlated with abundance and richness of leafhoppers. The number of Inga trees positively correlated with leafhopper abundance, and other significant correlates of abundance included vegetation complexity. Leafhopper richness was correlated with the number of Inga trees. As leafhoppers transmit important coffee diseases, understanding the specific habitat factors correlating with changes in abundance and richness may help predict future disease outbreaks.

  16. Indirect interactions between ant-tended hemipterans, a dominant ant Azteca instabilis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and shade trees in a tropical agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Livingston, George F; White, Adam M; Kratz, Carley J

    2008-06-01

    The occurrence, intensity, and composition of mutualisms are dependent not only on the co-occurrence of mutualists, but also the broader biotic context in which they are embedded. Here, the influence of the specific nest tree identity of the ant Azteca instabilis (F. Smith) on the density of the green coffee scale (Coccus viridis Green) was studied in a coffee agroecosystem in southern Mexico. The hypothesis that an indirect competitive interaction for ant attendance occurs between a scale species (Octolecanium sp. Kondo) in the canopy of the shade tree Inga micheliana Harms and C. viridis, which inhabits coffee bushes (Coffea arabica) beneath the shade trees was tested. Coffee bushes beneath a different shade tree species (Alchornea latifolia Swartz) were used as an indication of C. viridis density in a noncompetitive environment. Results indicate that C. viridis occurs in significantly lower density adjacent to nests in Inga, supporting the hypothesis of indirect competition. Additional experimentation suggests that there is a mutualism between Azteca and Octolecanium and that this interaction may be mediated by a hierarchy in ant attendance of scale insects. Our results show the importance of considering the biotic context of ant-hemipteran mutualisms. In coffee agroecosystems, consideration of shade tree diversity and species composition may be directly applicable to the biological control of insect pests.

  17. Pitfalls in Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Measurement for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Protoporphyrias

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Eric W.; Balwani, Manisha; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Bloomer, Joseph R.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Desnick, Robert J.; Naik, Hetanshi; Phillips, John D.; Singal, Ashwani K.; Wang, Bruce; Keel, Sioban; Anderson, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laboratory diagnosis of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) requires a marked increase in total erythrocyte protoporphyrin (300–5000 µg/dL erythrocytes, reference interval <80 µg/dL) and a predominance (85%–100%) of metal-free protoporphyrin [normal, mostly zinc protoporphyrin (reference intervals for the zinc protoporphyrin proportion have not been established)]; plasma porphyrins are not always increased. X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) causes a similar increase in total erythrocyte protoporphyrin with a lower fraction of metal-free protoporphyrin (50%–85% of the total). CONTENT In studying more than 180 patients with EPP and XLP, the Porphyrias Consortium found that erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations for some patients were much higher (4.3- to 46.7-fold) than indicated by previous reports provided by these patients. The discrepant earlier reports, which sometimes caused the diagnosis to be missed initially, were from laboratories that measure protoporphyrin only by hematofluorometry, which is intended primarily to screen for lead poisoning. However, the instrument can calculate results on the basis of assumed hematocrits and reports results as “free” and “zinc” protoporphyrin (with different reference intervals), implying separate measurements of metal-free and zinc protoporphyrin. Such misleading reports impair diagnosis and monitoring of patients with protoporphyria. SUMMARY We suggest that laboratories should prioritize testing for EPP and XLP, because accurate measurement of erythrocyte total and metal-free protoporphyrin is essential for diagnosis and monitoring of these conditions, but less important for other disorders. Terms and abbreviations used in reporting erythrocyte protoporphyrin results should be accurately defined. PMID:26482161

  18. Using estimation and projection package and Spectrum for Jamaica's national HIV estimates and targets.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jacqueline; Beckford Jarrett, Sharlene; Harvey, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    Adequate coverage of target populations ensures that desired outcomes, such as increased survival of people living with HIV, are achieved. However, estimates of coverage and impact of HIV programmes using available data are limited by the complex natural history of HIV, underreporting of cases and inadequate information systems. Jamaica's national HIV estimates were generated using the 2009 version of the UNAIDS estimation and projection package (EPP) and Spectrum. National data used included sentinel surveillance data on antenatal clinic attendees (1986-2005 and 2007), distribution of antiretroviral regimes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, distribution of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among adults and ART distribution in subpopulations (e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers). Surveys of MSM (2007), sex worker (2001, 2005, 2008), STI clinic attendees (1990-2002) and inmates (2006) also provided inputs. In 2009, Jamaica's HIV prevalence was estimated at 1.7% (range 1.1-2.5) and 31 000 (range 20 000-43 000) adults (>15 years) were living with HIV. The number of adults in need of treatment was 15 000 (range 11 000-19 000) and approximately 2100 new infections occurred in 2009. The EPP/Spectrum estimates were generally consistent with locally available data. However, the number of persons with advanced HIV targeted by the national treatment programme was significantly lower than Spectrum's estimated target population. EPP/Spectrum can provide important data for national HIV programme planning. Improved monitoring and evaluation systems will provide quality data and result in more robust estimates.

  19. European academy of dermatology and venereology European prurigo project: expert consensus on the definition, classification and terminology of chronic prurigo.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M P; Steinke, S; Zeidler, C; Forner, C; Riepe, C; Augustin, M; Bobko, S; Dalgard, F; Elberling, J; Garcovich, S; Gieler, U; Gonçalo, M; Halvorsen, J A; Leslie, T A; Metz, M; Reich, A; Şavk, E; Schneider, G; Serra-Baldrich, E; Ständer, H F; Streit, M; Wallengren, J; Weller, K; Wollenberg, A; Bruland, P; Soto-Rey, I; Storck, M; Dugas, M; Weisshaar, E; Szepietowski, J C; Legat, F J; Ständer, S

    2017-08-31

    The term prurigo has been used for many decades in dermatology without clear definition, and currently used terminology of prurigo is inconsistent and confusing. Especially, itch-related prurigo remains unexplored regarding the epidemiology, clinical profile, natural course, underlying causes, available treatments and economic burden, although burdensome and difficult to treat. To address these issues, the multicentre European Prurigo Project (EPP) was designed to increase knowledge on chronic prurigo (CPG). In the first step, European experts of the EADV Task Force Pruritus (TFP) aimed to achieve a consensus on the definition, classification and terminology of CPG. Additionally, procedures of the cross-sectional EPP were discussed and agreed upon. Discussions and surveys between members of the TFP served as basis for a consensus conference. Using the Delphi method, consensus was defined as an agreement ≥75% among the present members. Twenty-four members of the TFP participated in the consensus conference. Experts consented that CPG should be used as an umbrella term for the range of clinical manifestations (e.g. papular, nodular, plaque or umbilicated types). CPG is considered a distinct disease defined by the presence of chronic pruritus for ≥6 weeks, history and/or signs of repeated scratching and multiple localized/generalized pruriginous skin lesions (whitish or pink papules, nodules and/or plaques). CPG occurs due to a neuronal sensitization to itch and the development of an itch-scratch cycle. This new definition and terminology of CPG should be implemented in dermatology to harmonize communication in the clinical routine, clinical trials and scientific literature. Acute/subacute forms of prurigo are separated entities, which need to be differentiated from CPG and will be discussed in a next step. In the near future, the cross-sectional EPP will provide relevant clinical data on various aspects of CPG leading to new directions in the scientific

  20. Sexual Conflict Arising from Extrapair Matings in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Chaine, Alexis S.; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. PMID:25605708

  1. 24S-Hydroxycholesterol enhances synaptic vesicle cycling in the mouse neuromuscular junction: Implication of glutamate NMDA receptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kasimov, M R; Fatkhrakhmanova, M R; Mukhutdinova, K A; Petrov, A M

    2017-01-31

    24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC) is a brain-derived product of lipid metabolism present in the systemic circulation, where its level can change significantly in response to physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, using electrophysiological and optical approaches, we have found a high sensitivity to 24S-HC of the synaptic vesicle cycle at the mouse neuromuscular junctions. Treatment with 24S-HC increased the end plate potential amplitude (EPP) in response to a single stimulus and attenuated the EPP amplitude rundown during high frequency (HF) activity but had no influence on miniature EPP amplitude or frequency. The effects on evoked responses were associated with enhanced FM1-43 dye loading and unloading by endo- and exocytosis. Comparison of electrophysiological and optical data revealed an increase in the rate of vesicular cycling. The impact of 24S-HC was abolished or potentiated by stimulation or inhibition of NMDA-receptors respectively. Moreover, 24S-HC, acting in the same manner as the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor cavtratin, suppressed an increase in NO-sensitive dye fluorescence during HF stimulation, while l-glutamate had the opposite effect. Inhibitors of NOS (l-NAME and cavtratin, but not the neuronal NOS inhibitor TRIM), a scavenger of extracellular NO and a protein kinase G blocker all had stimulatory effects, similar to those of 24S-HC, on exocytosis induced by HF activity and completely masked the effect of 24S-HC. The data suggest that 24S-HC enhances synaptic vesicle cycling due to an attenuation of retrograde NO signaling that depends on eNOS. In this regard, 24S-HC counteracts the effects of NMDA-receptor stimulation at mouse neuromuscular junctions.

  2. Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model With Lower Ionospheric Chemistry: Improved Modeling of Nitric Acid and Active Chlorine During Energetic Particle Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verronen, P. T.; Andersson, M. E.; Marsh, D. R.; Kovacs, T.; Plane, J. M. C.; Päivärinta, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and ion chemistry affect the neutral composition of the polar middle atmosphere. For example, production of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen during EPP events can decrease ozone by tens of percent. However, the standard ion chemistry parameterizations used in atmospheric models neglect the effects on some important species, such as nitric acid. We present WACCM-D, a variant of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, which includes a set of lower ionosphere (D-region) chemistry: 307 reactions of 20 positive ions and 21 negative ions. Compared to the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry (SIC), a state-of-the-art 1-D model of the D-region chemistry, WACCM-D represents the lower ionosphere well. Comparison of ion concentrations between the models shows that the WACCM-D bias is typically within ±10% or less below 70 km. At 70-90 km, when strong altitude gradients in ionization rates and/or ion concentrations exist, the bias can be larger for some ions but is still within tens of percent. We also compare WACCM-D results for the January 2005 solar proton event (SPE) to those from the standard WACCM and observations from the Aura/MLS and SCISAT/ACE-FTS instruments. The results indicate that WACCM-D improves the modeling of {HNO3}, {HCl}, {ClO}, {OH}, and {NOx} during the SPE. For example, Northern Hemispheric {HNO3} from WACCM-D shows an increase by two orders of magnitude at 40-70 km compared to WACCM, reaching 2.6 ppbv, in agreement with the observations. Based on our results, WACCM-D provides a state-of-the-art global representation of D-region ion chemistry and improves modeling of EPP atmospheric effects considerably.

  3. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion.

  4. Inclusive fitness of 'kissing cousins': new evidence of a role for kin selection in the evolution of extra-pair mating in birds.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kevin P

    2011-07-01

    Social monogamy is nearly ubiquitous across avian taxa,but evidence from a proliferation of studies utilizing molecular paternity analysis suggests that sexual monogamy is the rare exception rather than the rule (Griffith et al. 2002). Efforts to explain the prevalence of extra-pair paternity (EPP) have largely focused on the potential fitness benefits for offspring genetic quality, as females are less likely to benefit directly from seeking extra-pair mates. In particular, there has been considerable interest in the degree to which EPP may represent an adaptive female strategy to avoid inbreeding (or outbreeding)depression when paired with a highly related (or unrelated)social mate (Kempenaers 2007). Others have argued that, because relatives share many genes identical by descent,females might increase their own inclusive fitness by providing additional breeding opportunities to genetically related males (Waser et al. 1986; Kokko & Ots 2006). Thus, in the absence of significant inbreeding depression, pursuing EPP with relatives should be favoured by kin selection, although there exist few unambiguous empirical examples of such preferences in the literature. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Wang &Lu (2011) present an analysis of mating patterns with respect to genetic relatedness of social and extra-pair partners in the ground tit (Parus humilis), a facultative cooperative breeder in which socially monogamous pairs occasionally form cooperative groups with unpaired helper males (Fig. 1). Consistent with the predictions of the kin-selection hypothesis, females in both bi-parental and cooperative groups preferentially engaged in extra-pair matings with relatives, irrespective of relatedness to their social mates, and while suffering no apparent costs of inbreeding depression in their progeny. These finding shave several exciting implications for our understanding of avian mating system diversity and the evolution of cooperative breeding.

  5. Dynamic Response of Stereoblock Elastomeric Polypropylene Studied by Rheo-Optics and X-ray Scattering: 2. Orthogonally Oriented Crystalline Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    A combination of tensile stress, rheo-optical birefringence, and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) was used to probe the dynamic response of the low-tacticity ether-soluble (ES) fraction of elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from metallocene 2-arylindene hafnium catalyst. The ES fraction has isotactic pentad distribution [mmmm] = 21% and a very low amount of crystallinity ({le} 2% by differential scanning calorimetry and WAXS). In tensile stretching and step-strain shearing, ES exhibits unusual deformation behavior of crystalline chains preferentially oriented orthogonal relative to the deformation axis. Under deformation, WAXS shows arcing along the meridian axis at a scattering angle 2{theta} = 16.0{sup o} (d = 0.551 {+-} 0.002 nm) which coincides with one of the characteristic reflections of the {beta}-form; but the higher order reflection for the {beta}-form at 2{theta} = 21.3{sup o} is not observed. The meridional arcing, which signifies crystallization of the low-tacticity fraction of ePP, is also observed when ES is blended with higher tacticity fractions of ePP. The meridional arcing, however, is observed at 2{theta} = 14.0{sup o} corresponding to (110) reflection of the {alpha}-form, instead of at 2{theta} = 16.0{sup o} for the neat ES. The crystallization in the {alpha}-form offers evidence of co-crystallization of the ES fraction with the higher-tacticity components in the same crystalline form as the host matrix. We believe that the co-crystallization occurs through an epitaxial growth in the ac-faces of the {alpha}-form.

  6. Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of dairy calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Mani, Rinosh; Breshears, Melanie A; Gilmour, Margi; Taylor, Jared D; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture. RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK.

  7. Multicenter Evaluation of BD Max Enteric Parasite Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Madison-Antenucci, S; Relich, R F; Doyle, L; Espina, N; Fuller, D; Karchmer, T; Lainesse, A; Mortensen, J E; Pancholi, P; Veros, W; Harrington, S M

    2016-11-01

    Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time-consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) stains have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay. We performed a clinical evaluation of a multiplex PCR panel, the enteric parasite panel (EPP), for the detection of these common parasites using the BD Max instrument, which performs automated extraction and amplification. A total of 2,495 compliant specimens were enrolled, including 2,104 (84%) specimens collected prospectively and 391 (16%) specimens collected retrospectively. Approximately equal numbers were received in 10% formalin (1,273 specimens) and unpreserved (1,222 specimens). The results from the EPP were compared to those from alternate PCR and bidirectional sequencing (APCR), as well as DFA (G. duodenalis and C. parvum or C. hominis) or trichrome stain (E. histolytica). The sensitivity and specificity for prospective and retrospective specimens combined were 98.2% and 99.5% for G. duodenalis, 95.5% and 99.6 for C. parvum or C. hominis, and 100% and 100% for E. histolytica, respectively. The performance of the FDA-approved BD Max EPP compared well to the reference methods and may be an appropriate substitute for microscopic examination or immunoassays.

  8. Multicenter Evaluation of BD Max Enteric Parasite Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Relich, R. F.; Doyle, L.; Espina, N.; Fuller, D.; Karchmer, T.; Lainesse, A.; Mortensen, J. E.; Pancholi, P.; Veros, W.; Harrington, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis. Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time-consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) stains have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay. We performed a clinical evaluation of a multiplex PCR panel, the enteric parasite panel (EPP), for the detection of these common parasites using the BD Max instrument, which performs automated extraction and amplification. A total of 2,495 compliant specimens were enrolled, including 2,104 (84%) specimens collected prospectively and 391 (16%) specimens collected retrospectively. Approximately equal numbers were received in 10% formalin (1,273 specimens) and unpreserved (1,222 specimens). The results from the EPP were compared to those from alternate PCR and bidirectional sequencing (APCR), as well as DFA (G. duodenalis and C. parvum or C. hominis) or trichrome stain (E. histolytica). The sensitivity and specificity for prospective and retrospective specimens combined were 98.2% and 99.5% for G. duodenalis, 95.5% and 99.6 for C. parvum or C. hominis, and 100% and 100% for E. histolytica, respectively. The performance of the FDA-approved BD Max EPP compared well to the reference methods and may be an appropriate substitute for microscopic examination or immunoassays. PMID:27535690

  9. GOES-R Dual Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, Doug; Carter, Delano; Chapel, Jim; Clapp, Brian; Howat, John; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R) is the first of the next generation geostationary weather satellites, scheduled for delivery in late 2015. GOES-R represents a quantum increase in Earth and solar weather observation capabilities, with 4 times the resolution, 5 times the observation rate, and 3 times the number of spectral bands for Earth observations. With the improved resolution, comes the instrument suite's increased sensitive to disturbances over a broad spectrum 0-512 Hz. Sources of disturbance include reaction wheels, thruster firings for station keeping and momentum management, gimbal motion, and internal instrument disturbances. To minimize the impact of these disturbances, the baseline design includes an Earth Pointed Platform (EPP), a stiff optical bench to which the two nadir pointed instruments are collocated together with the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C) star trackers and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). The EPP is passively isolated from the spacecraft bus with Honeywell D-Strut isolators providing attenuation for frequencies above approximately 5 Hz in all six degrees-of-freedom. A change in Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA) vendors occurred very late in the program. To reduce the risk of RWA disturbances impacting performance, a secondary passive isolation system manufactured by Moog CSA Engineering was incorporated under each of the six 160 Nms RWAs, tuned to provide attenuation at frequencies above approximately 50 Hz. Integrated wheel and isolator testing was performed on a Kistler table at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. High fidelity simulations were conducted to evaluate jitter performance for four topologies: 1) hard mounted no isolation, 2) EPP isolation only, 2) RWA isolation only, and 4) dual isolation. Simulation results demonstrate excellent performance relative to the pointing stability requirements, with dual isolated Line of Sight (LOS) jitter less than 1 micron rad.

  10. Impaired Synaptic Development, Maintenance, and Neuromuscular Transmission in LRP4 Myasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Selcen, Duygu; Ohkawara, Bisei; Shen, Xin-Ming; McEvoy, Kathleen; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders. Defining the phenotypic features, genetic basis, and pathomechanisms of a CMS is relevant to prognosis, genetic counseling, and therapy. OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical, structural, electrophysiologic, and genetic features of a CMS and search for optimal therapy. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS Two sisters, 34 and 20 years of age suffering from a CMS affecting the limb-girdle muscles were investigated at an academic medical center by clinical observation, in vitro analysis of neuromuscular transmission, cytochemical and electron microscopy studies of the neuromuscular junction, exome sequencing, expression studies in HEK293 and COS-7 cells, and for response to therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We identified the disease gene and mutation, confirmed pathogenicity of the mutation by expression studies, and instituted optimal pharmacotherapy. RESULTS Intercostal muscle endplates (EPs) were abnormally small with attenuated reactivities for the acetylcholine receptor and acetylcholine esterase. Most EPs had poorly differentiated or degenerate junctional folds and some appeared denuded of nerve terminals. The amplitude of the EP potential (EPP), the miniature EPP, and the quantal content of the EPP were all markedly reduced. Exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous p.Glu1233Ala mutation in LRP4, a coreceptor for agrin to activate MuSK, required for EP development and maintenance. Expression studies indicate the mutation compromises ability of LRP4 to bind to, phosphorylate, and activate MuSK. Albuterol improved the patients’ symptoms. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We identify a second CMS kinship harboring mutations in LRP4, identify the mechanisms that impair neuromuscular transmission, and mitigate the disease by appropriate therapy. PMID:26052878

  11. Evaluation of a pharmacist-led medication assessment used to identify prevalence of and associations with polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medication use among ambulatory senior adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Ginah; Hajjar, Emily; Swartz, Kristine; Andrel-Sendecki, Jocelyn; Chapman, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    The use of multiple and/or inappropriate medications in seniors is a significant public health problem, and cancer treatment escalates its prevalence and complexity. Existing studies are limited by patient self-report and medical record extraction compared with a pharmacist-led comprehensive medication assessment. We retrospectively examined medication use in ambulatory senior adults with cancer to determine the prevalence of polypharmacy (PP) and potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use and associated factors. PP was defined as concurrent use of five or more and less than 10 medications, and excessive polypharmacy (EPP) was defined as 10 or more medications. PIMs were categorized by 2012 Beers Criteria, Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP), and the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS). A total of 248 patients received a geriatric oncology assessment between January 2011 and June 2013 (mean age was 79.9 years, 64% were women, 74% were white, and 87% had solid tumors). Only 234 patients (evaluated by pharmacists) were included in the final analysis. Mean number of medications used was 9.23. The prevalence of PP, EPP, and PIM use was 41% (n = 96), 43% (n = 101), and 51% (n = 119), respectively. 2012 Beers, STOPP, and HEDIS criteria classified 173 occurrences of PIMs, which were present in 40%, 38%, and 21% of patients, respectively. Associations with PIM use were PP (P < .001) and increased comorbidities (P = .005). A pharmacist-led comprehensive medication assessment demonstrated a high prevalence of PP, EPP, and PIM use. Medication assessments that integrate both 2012 Beers and STOPP criteria and consider cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer-related therapy are needed to optimize medication use in this population. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Expanded Practice Dental Hygienists in Oregon: An Outcomes Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn P; Coplen, Amy E

    2016-06-01

    Currently the dental hygiene practice model in Oregon includes the Expanded Practice Dental Hygienist (EPDH), which allows dental hygienists with an Expanded Practice Permit (EPP) to provide care to limited access populations without the supervision of a dentist. The number and types of services provided by EPDH practitioners is thus far undocumented. The purpose of this study is to conduct an outcomes assessment of EPDH practitioners in order to quantify the impact, defined by count of services, on the access to care crisis in Oregon. A 16 question confidential survey was developed and approved by the Pacific University institutional review board. The mail-based survey was sent to 181 EPDHs in Oregon in November 2011 (all EPDHs except pilot testers and one author). A second mailing was sent to non-respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis in SPSS. The response rate was 39% (n=71). Approximately 41% (n=29) of the respondents were currently using their EPP to provide care to limited access patients with an additional 21% (n=15) planning to start their own expanded practice. The majority of practicing EPDHs provide care in residential care facilities (n=21) and in school settings (n=13). Of the current practicing EPP holders, 76% practice ≤10 hours per week, and 66% make <$10,000 per year. Total services reported in an average month from all responding EPDH practitioners were: 254 adult prophylaxes, 1,003 child prophylaxes, 106 adult fluorides, 901 child fluorides and 1,994 fluoride varnishes, among many other preventive procedures. To a limited extent, the amount and type of services provided by EPDHs has now been quantified, and EPDHs are making an impact on the access to care crisis in Oregon. Continued outcomes assessment is needed to further quantify the impact of EPDHs. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  13. WACCM-D—Improved modeling of nitric acid and active chlorine during energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. E.; Verronen, P. T.; Marsh, D. R.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Plane, J. M. C.

    2016-09-01

    Observations have shown that a number of neutral minor species are affected by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and ion chemistry (IC) in the polar regions. However, to date the complexity of the ion chemistry below the mesopause (i.e., in the D region ionosphere) has restricted global models to simplified EEP/IC parameterizations which are unable to reproduce some important effects, e.g., the increase of mesospheric nitric acid (HNO3). Here we use WACCM-D, a variant of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model which includes a selected set of D region ion chemistry designed to produce the observed effects of EPP/IC. We evaluate the performance of EPP/IC modeling by comparing WACCM-D results for the January 2005 solar proton event (SPE) to those from the standard WACCM and Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and SCISAT/Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) observations. The results indicate that WACCM-D improves the modeling of HNO3, HCl, ClO, OH, and NOx during the SPE. Northern Hemispheric HNO3 from WACCM-D shows an increase by 2 orders of magnitude at 40-70 km compared to WACCM, reaching 2.6 ppbv, in agreement with the observations. For HCl and ClO, the improvement is most pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere at 40-50 km where WACCM-D predicts a decrease of HCl and increase of ClO by 1.6% and 10%, respectively, similar to MLS data. Compared to WACCM, WACCM-D produces 25-50% less OH and 30-130% more NOx at 70-85 km which leads to better agreement with the observations. Although not addressed here, longer-term NOx impact of ion chemistry could be important for polar stratospheric ozone and middle atmospheric dynamics.

  14. Personal protective equipment for the Ebola virus disease: A comparison of 2 training programs.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Enrique; Astocondor, Eugenio; Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Santana, David Enrique; Del Aguila, Carlos; Carrillo, Juan Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) for preventing Ebola virus disease (EVD) includes basic PPE (B-PPE) and enhanced PPE (E-PPE). Our aim was to compare conventional training programs (CTPs) and reinforced training programs (RTPs) on the use of B-PPE and E-PPE. Four groups were created, designated CTP-B, CTP-E, RTP-B, and RTP-E. All groups received the same theoretical training, followed by 3 practical training sessions. A total of 120 students were included (30 per group). In all 4 groups, the frequency and number of total errors and critical errors decreased significantly over the course of the training sessions (P < .01). The RTP was associated with a greater reduction in the number of total errors and critical errors (P < .0001). During the third training session, we noted an error frequency of 7%-43%, a critical error frequency of 3%-40%, 0.3-1.5 total errors, and 0.1-0.8 critical errors per student. The B-PPE groups had the fewest errors and critical errors (P < .0001). Our results indicate that both training methods improved the student's proficiency, that B-PPE appears to be easier to use than E-PPE, that the RTP achieved better proficiency for both PPE types, and that a number of students are still potentially at risk for EVD contamination despite the improvements observed during the training. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuromuscular transmission in the athymic nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Schofield, G G; Marshall, I G

    1980-10-01

    No major differences were observed in the mechanical properties of diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from athymic nude and control mice. Denervated soleus muscles from nudes and controls showed no significant differences in their sensitivities to the cholinoceptor agonists acetylcholine and carbachol, either in the absence or presence of the anticholinesterase, physostigmine, suggesting that postjunctional receptor function is essentially normal. Phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations from nudes were less sensitive to the twitch-augmenting effects of neostigmine. No difference in the time course of endplate potentials (epps) between nudes and controls was seen either in the absence or presence of neostigmine. Hence the observed differences in twitch augmentation are unlikely to be due to differences in acetylcholinesterase activity in the two muscles. In normal mice miniature endplate potential (mepp) amplitude decreased and mepp frequency increased with age. These changes were associated with an increase in muscle fibre diameter and a concomitant decrease in membrane resistance. Such changes did not occur in nude mice; thus mepp amplitude remained, high as in young normal muscle. It is suggested that the thymus may play a role in muscle development and that the effects on neuromuscular transmission are secondary to changes in development. In cut diaphragm muscles transmitter reversal potentials in nudes and controls were not different. Although there was no difference in the amplitude of the first epp of a train, or in the immediately releasable acetylcholine store, the quantal content of the first epp, the probability of transmitter release, the total nerve terminal acetylcholine store and the transmitter mobilization rate were all reduced. It is considered probable that all the measurable differences in transmitter release can be explained in terms of the nude muscle fibre diameter being small and being associated with a small nerve terminal

  16. Dual innervation of end-plate sites and its consequences for neuromuscular transmission in muscles of adult Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed Central

    Angaut-Petit, D; Mallart, A

    1979-01-01

    1. Electrophysiological study of dually innervated end-plate sites was carried out in Xenopus laevis pectoral muscle fibres. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) and miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) have been recorded in Mg-blocked preparations. 2. The mean quantal content (m) of each e.p.p. at dually innervated end-plates was significantly smaller than the corresponding values obtained at singly innervated ones. At a given doubly innervated end-plate site the values of m tended to be inversely related, so that the compound value of m (obtained by adding them) was in the same range as that found in singly innervated junctions. These findings were taken to suggest the existence of an upper limit in the average amount of transmitter released at a synaptic site. 3. It was found that neither intermittent presynaptic conduction block, nor particular muscle fibre properties could account for the low values of m in dual end plates. The small size of the nerve terminals appears to be the most likely explanation. 4. The sensitivity to acetylcholine and muscle fibre electrical properties were investigated; no differences were found between fibres with sub- or suprathreshold e.p.p.s. 5. The nature of the factors responsible for this presumed small size of the nerve endings (competition between nerve endings for a limited synaptic space on the muscle membrane or reciprocal interaction between closely located terminals) as well as the possible origins of polyinnervation are discussed. PMID:222897

  17. Incident Energy Focused Design and Validation for the Floating Potential Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2002-01-01

    Utilizing the spacecraft shadowing and incident energy analysis capabilities of the NASA Glenn Research Center Power and Propulsion Office's SPACE System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) computer code, this paper documents the analyses for various International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potential Probe (EPP) preliminary design options. These options include various solar panel orientations and configurations as well as deployment locations on the ISS. The incident energy for the final selected option is characterized. A good correlation between the predicted data and on-orbit operational telemetry is demonstrated. Minor deviations are postulated to be induced by degradation or sensor drift.

  18. Presymptomatic and symptomatic ALS SOD1(G93A) mice differ in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor-mediated tonic modulation of neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Filipe; Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2015-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease leading to neuromuscular transmission impairment. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) function changes with disease stage, but the role of the A(1) receptors (A1Rs) is unknown and may have a functional cross-talk with A2AR. The role of A1R in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS in presymptomatic (4-6 weeks old) and symptomatic (12-14 weeks old) phases was investigated by recording endplate potentials (EPPs), miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs), and quantal content (q.c.) of EPPs, from Mg(2+) paralyzed hemidiaphragm preparations. In presymptomatic mice, the A1R agonist, N (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) (50 nM), decreased mean EPP amplitude, MEPP frequency, and q.c. of EPPs, an effect quantitatively similar to that in age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. However, coactivation of A2AR with CGS 21680 (5 nM) prevented the effects of CPA in WT mice but not in presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice, suggestive of A1R/A2AR cross-talk disruption in this phase of ALS. DPCPX (50 nM) impaired CGS 21680 facilitatory action on neuromuscular transmission in WT but not in presymptomatic mice. In symptomatic animals, CPA only inhibited transmission if added in the presence of adenosine deaminase (ADA, 1 U/mL). ADA and DPCPX enhanced more transmission in symptomatic mice than in age-matched WT mice, suggestive of increase in extracellular adenosine during the symptomatic phase of ALS. The data documents that at the neuromuscular junction of presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice, there is a loss of A1R-A2AR functional cross-talk, while in symptomatic mice there is increased A1R tonic activation, and that with disease progression, changes in A1R-mediated adenosine modulation may act as aggravating factors during the symptomatic phase of ALS.

  19. Race Relations Equal Opportunity Case Studies for Judge Advocates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    PROBLEMS IN AMERICA. Wiley Press, 1972 (464 pages). 1 10-1 10. Cahn, Edgar S. OUR BROTHER’S KEEPER: THE INDIAN 0 IN WHITE AMERICA. New Community Press...USAGE IN THE UNITED STATES.ý Random House, 1972 (361 pages). 17. Epps, Edgar G. RACE RELATIONS: CURRENT PERSPEC- TIVES. Winthrop Publisher, 1973 (235...Brown, 1971 (489 pages). 10-3 34. Morin , Raul. AMONG THE VALIANT: MEXICAN AMERI- 0 CANS IN WW II AND KOREA. Borden, 1963 (290 pages). 35. Moskos, Charles

  20. Impacts of Energetic Electron Precipitation on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Ethan D.

    Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) can have profound impacts on the middle atmosphere. NOx produced by EPP in the thermosphere and mesosphere can descend into the stratosphere during polar night; after being sequestered by the polar vortex until spring, NOx can destroy stratospheric O3 (>25 km) in a catalytic cycle. Changes to O 3 can change local temperatures and in turn zonal wind through thermal wind balance. This work seeks to understand the impacts of medium energy electrons (MEE) (25 keV - 2 MeV), a subset of EPP, on the middle atmosphere. Data from the Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector (MEPED) is assimilated into the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). This is accomplished in three steps: (1) examine the response of WACCM to solar cycle; (2) improve and prepare MEPED data for use in WACCM; and (3) simulate MEE precipitation in WACCM. WACCM is able to simulate solar cycle impacts in general agreement with observations and reanalysis. Auroral EPP (10% more O3 in solar maximum simulations than solar minimum simulations. Temperature and zonal wind results match reanalysis in the northern hemisphere (NH), but not in the southern hemisphere (SH). Disagreements are likely caused by the Antarctic "cold-pole problem.". This work removes proton contamination from MEPED electron channels and outputs spectral count flux for protons and electrons by using an inversion technique with a combination of best fit spectra. Results are in agreement with the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) Instrument for Detecting Particles (IDP). MEE spectral flux is converted into precipitating flux and assimilated into specified dynamics WACCM (SD-WACCM). Production by MEE is large (>100 ppbv at 80 km). MEE NOx production is too high below 80 km, and too low above 80 km. SD-WACCM is also found to have too strong winter polar descent. MEE precipitation is believed to be capable of producing NO x to match observations

  1. A Fast Event Preprocessor and Sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-11

    The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128x128 pixel DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) array, will be read out at a very high rate (8000 frames/second) and, therefore, requires a very fast on board electronics. We present an FPGA-based LED camera electronics consisting of an Event Preprocessor (EPP) for on board data preprocessing and filtering of the Simbol-X low-energy detector and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout.

  2. Buffers more than buffering agent: introducing a new class of stabilizers for the protein BSA.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhupender S; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-14

    In this study, we have analyzed the influence of four biological buffers on the thermal stability of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The investigated buffers include 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-propanesulfonic acid (EPPS), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (HEPES-Na), and 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MOPS-Na). These buffers behave as a potential stabilizer for the native structure of BSA against thermal denaturation. The stabilization tendency follows the order of MOPS-Na > HEPES-Na > HEPES ≫ EPPS. To obtain an insight into the role of hydration layers and peptide backbone in the stabilization of BSA by these buffers, we have also explored the phase transition of a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM)), a model compound for protein, in aqueous solutions of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffers at different concentrations. It was found that the lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of PNIPAM in the aqueous buffer solutions substantially decrease with increase in buffer concentration. The mechanism of interactions between these buffers and protein BSA was probed by various techniques, including UV-visible, fluorescence, and FTIR. The results of this series of studies reveal that the interactions are mainly governed by the influence of the buffers on the hydration layers surrounding the protein. We have also explored the possible binding sites of BSA with these buffers using a molecular docking technique. Moreover, the activities of an industrially important enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) in 0.05 M, 0.5 M, and 1.0 M of HEPES, EPPS, HEPES-Na, and MOPS-Na buffer solutions were analyzed at pH = 8.0 and T = 25 °C. Interestingly, the activities of α-CT were found to be enhanced in the aqueous solutions of these investigated buffers. Based upon the Jones-Dole viscosity parameters, the

  3. Faunal Biogeography Community Structure and Genetic Connectivity of North Atlantic Seamounts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    deep-sea fishes of the Icelandic slope and Reykjanes Ridge , p. 161- 199. In A. G. Hooper [ed.], Deep-water Fisheries of the North Atlantic Oceanic...Smoot 1989). They are often formed due to on-axis and off-axis ridge volcanism and more rarely by tectonic shifts (Batiza 2001; Epp and Smoot 1989...Fryer and Fryer 1987). Seamounts formed on-axis are generally small and form near medium and fast-spreading ridges , most likely due to mantle

  4. Hemithoracic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Toxicity, Patterns of Failure, and a Matched Survival Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, William W.; Rice, David C.; Allen, Pamela K.; Tsao, Anne S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Tang, Chad; Pan, Hubert Y.; Welsh, James W.; Mehran, Reza J.; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate safety, efficacy, and recurrence after hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication (PD-IMRT) and after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: In 2009-2013, 24 patients with mesothelioma underwent PD-IMRT to the involved hemithorax to a dose of 45 Gy, with an optional integrated boost; 22 also received chemotherapy. Toxicity was scored with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Pulmonary function was compared at baseline, after surgery, and after IMRT. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time to locoregional failure, and time to distant metastasis. Failures were in-field, marginal, or out of field. Outcomes were compared with those of 24 patients, matched for age, nodal status, performance status, and chemotherapy, who had received EPP-IMRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 12.2 months. Grade 3 toxicity rates were 8% skin and 8% pulmonary. Pulmonary function declined from baseline to after surgery (by 21% for forced vital capacity, 16% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and 19% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P for all = .01]) and declined still further after IMRT (by 31% for forced vital capacity [P=.02], 25% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second [P=.01], and 30% for lung diffusion of carbon monoxide [P=.01]). The OS and PFS rates were 76% and 67%, respectively, at 1 year and 56% and 34% at 2 years. Median OS (28.4 vs 14.2 months, P=.04) and median PFS (16.4 vs 8.2 months, P=.01) favored PD-IMRT versus EPP-IMRT. No differences were found in grade 4-5 toxicity (0 of 24 vs 3 of 24, P=.23), median time to locoregional failure (18.7 months vs not reached, P not calculable), or median time to distant metastasis (18.8 vs 11.8 months, P=.12). Conclusions: Hemithoracic intensity modulated radiation therapy after pleurectomy/decortication produced little high-grade toxicity but

  5. Injuries and illnesses in the preparticipation evaluation data of 1693 college student-athletes.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Gordon O; Anderson, Scott; Robell, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    While the preparticipation evaluation (PPE) is widely used by medical practitioners, its overall effectiveness is unknown, in part because there are no standardized or centralized mechanisms to collect and analyze medical history information. To report on the injuries and illnesses identified with the use of an electronic PPE (ePPE) completed by first-time National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 varsity sport participants (N = 1693; 797 women, 896 men) upon entry to a single institution between 2010 and 2013. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. In total, 3126 discrete past injuries were reported (women, 1473 injuries; men, 1653 injuries). Time loss from sport participation averaged 31.4 days for each injury (women, 32.2 days; men, 30.7 days), and aggregate time loss from sport for all student-athletes before the ePPE was 256 years. Eleven percent of student-athletes had injuries that were unresolved and still symptomatic at the time of the ePPE. Thirty percent of injured student-athletes had a history of ≥1 surgeries for an injury (women, 176; men, 213), and these accounted for 57% of the time lost from sport before college participation. Head injuries accounted for 9% (110 women, 173 men), and loss of consciousness was reported in 19% of these. One in 3 student-athletes answered "yes" to ≥1 of the American Heart Association questions on cardiovascular health. While 15% of women reported a history of stress fracture, only 3% reported a diagnosed eating disorder. While some data in this population are self-evident, we were not aware of the high frequency of past injuries, the magnitude of time lost from sport, the high frequency of past surgery, and the number of participants still symptomatic from injuries. The ePPE is a valuable tool for collecting and analyzing aggregate injury and illness data in athletes, such as the finding that 11% of injuries that were reported were unresolved and still symptomatic. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Predicting Subsequent Service Potential for Former Army Prisoners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-25

    Esteem Scale, and Hudson’s (1974) Index of Self - Esteem , fou9d significant d_ e.re.e beteen-gr duates-and-non-gj The results of the two studies are...a greater need for autonomy, on the EPPS, and less self - esteem , on the Rosenberg (1965) scale. 400 Table 1 Predicting Graduation/Discharge from...Acceptance (CPI) .588 Education Completed .410 Socialization (CPI) -.445 Highest Pay Grade -.388 Social Presence (CPI) -.443 Marital Status .388 Self - Esteem (Rosenberg

  7. Erythropoietic protoporphyria in Slovenia. Epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Kansky, A; Bercic, M

    1981-01-01

    32 patients with EPP were detected in Slovenia, which gives an incidence of 1.71 cases/100,000 inhabitants. 20 patients had typical clinical symptoms and increased values of laboratory assays, 12 patients had either slightly expressed clinical symptoms or increased values of laboratory tests; these patients were diagnosed as latent cases. The patients belong to 12 families, no blood relationship between these families could be established. In 7 families the latent carriers of this inborn error of the porphyrin metabolism were detected. Almost all patients live in two distinct, rather small geographical areas, one in north-eastern Slovenia and the other near Ljubljana.

  8. Value of Undergraduate Internship Experiences at NOAA: Analysis of Survey Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will examine survey data from over 500 undergraduates who participated in summer internships at NOAA facilities as Ernest F. Hollings Scholars and Educational Partnership Program (EPP) Undergraduate Scholars. NOAA selects over 100 students per year to receive academic support in their junior and senior years and a paid summer internship at any NOAA facility in the country. Scholars are hosted by NOAA mentors who actively oversee summer research activities. Analysis of survey results identified six thematic impacts from the internship experience (McIntosh and Baek, 2013).

  9. Fatal pneumonitis associated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. . E-mail: aallen@lroc.harvard.edu; Czerminska, Maria; Jaenne, Pasi A.; Sugarbaker, David J.; Bueno, Raphael; Harris, Jay R.; Court, Laurence; Baldini, Elizabeth H.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the initial experience at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as adjuvant therapy after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The medical records of patients treated with IMRT after EPP and adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. IMRT was given to a dose of 54 Gy to the clinical target volume in 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Treatment was delivered with a dynamic multileaf collimator using a sliding window technique. Eleven of 13 patients received heated intraoperative cisplatin chemotherapy (225 mg/m{sup 2}). Two patients received neoadjuvant intravenous cisplatin/pemetrexed, and 10 patients received adjuvant cisplatin/pemetrexed chemotherapy after EPP but before radiation therapy. All patients received at least 2 cycles of intravenous chemotherapy. The contralateral lung was limited to a V20 (volume of lung receiving 20 Gy or more) of 20% and a mean lung dose (MLD) of 15 Gy. All patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for staging, and any FDG-avid areas in the hemithorax were given a simultaneous boost of radiotherapy to 60 Gy. Statistical comparisons were done using two-sided t test. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with IMRT from December 2004 to September 2005. Six patients developed fatal pneumonitis after treatment. The median time from completion of IMRT to the onset of radiation pneumonitis was 30 days (range 5-57 days). Thirty percent of patients (4 of 13) developed acute Grade 3 nausea and vomiting. One patient developed acute Grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The median V20, MLD, and V5 (volume of lung receiving 5 Gy or more) for the patients who developed pneumonitis was 17.6% (range, 15.3-22.3%), 15.2 Gy (range, 13.3-17 Gy), and 98.6% (range, 81-100%), respectively, as compared with 10.9% (range, 5.5-24.7%) (p = 0.08), 12.9 Gy (range, 8.7-16.9 Gy) (p = 0.07), and 90% (range

  10. 1986 Program Report on the Army-Navy Initiative in the National Capital Area in Support of The Department of Defense Science and Engineering Apprenticeship Program for High School Students

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    charge of David Taylor Naval Ship Reear-ch and Development Center, Bethesda. Dr. Anthony Donfoi" teaches physics at the Uiniversiat, of ýhe District of... Anthony 0. Translated programs from DUL to Mentori Mr. Nob Epps VAX BASIC and modified than to iUonzaga iL’ollege High School limit use of system... Anthony M. Constructed a 1/1315 scale I1 lli- it or: Mr. Ueorge Coutler x II’ model to simLilato the Aberdeen Hiqli ScIhool mountainous terrain

  11. Aedes Hartwellianae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, William Henry

    2014-02-01

    1. Details respecting the parish and manor of Hartwell: locality, geology, produce, and general statistics; 2. The successive lords of the manor of Hartwell, from the Conquest to the present time: Peverel, De Hertewell, Luton, Hampden, and Lee; 3. Particulars respecting Hartwell House: its appartments, paintings, library, museum, numismata, and Egyptian antiquities; 4. Origin of the Hartwell Observatory. The transit-room. The equatorial tower. Mr Epps's meridional observations. The double-stars measured by Captain Smyth. Encke's comet. The meteorological department; Appendix; Index.

  12. The action of aminopyridine on the electromotor synapse of Torpedo marmorata.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, L

    1983-09-09

    An investigation of the action of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on Torpedo electromotor synapses was performed using the microelectrode technique. 4-AP in concentrations of 1--10 micrometers increased the peak amplitude (p) and half-decay time (t 1/2) of the intracellularly recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EEP), independent of alterations in miniature EPPs or membrane potential. 4-AP also increased the amplitude and time constant of decay (tau) of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPC). Analysis of the results supports potentiated transmitter release and accumulation of the transmitter in the synaptic cleft as the mechanism by which 4-AP produces its effect.

  13. A New Look at the Global Distribution of Isotopes in Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posmentier, E. S.; Faiia, A. M.; Feng, X.

    2005-05-01

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of meteoric water, as preserved in geologic materials, are widely used to reconstruct past climatic conditions. Correlation between temperature and isotopic composition of precipitation for temperate regions has been well documented, and modern day correlations are used in interpreting paleo-isotopic records, although temperature is not the direct causative factor in isotopic distribution. Semi-tropical and tropical locations demonstrate correlation between amount of precipitation and isotopic value. In this report, we propose that the parameter (E-P)/P, where E is evaporation and P is precipitation, explains the annual mean isotopic distribution in both temperate and tropical environments. This parameter is also shown to correlate with the seasonal distribution of isotopic ratios in precipitation globally. Global data was downloaded from the GNIP (Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) database (http://isohis.iaea.org). This set is comprised of monthly hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions, amount of precipitation, and temperature for over 500 stations throughout the world. The monthly oxygen isotopic data were plotted against station latitude and a spline function fitted for each month. The resulting distributions show a local minimum in isotopic values in the tropics, which migrates seasonally following the ITCZ. On either side of the minimum, two asymmetric maxima occur which change in position and amplitude throughout the year. We use a simple one-dimensional model to predict the seasonal isotopic distribution. The model divides the world into 5-degree latitudinal zones. Seasonally varying evaporation and precipitation are specified for each zone from marine climatologic records, and the model uses the mass balance equations to calculate the import or export of water vapor and the isotopic value of precipitation falling in each zone. The results show that the major variations in isotopic value of precipitation

  14. History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Yoon-Young; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period

  15. A Fast Event Preprocessor and Sequencer for the Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, T.; Tenzer, C.; Maier, D.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector (LED), a 128×128 pixel DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) array, will be read out at a very high rate (8000 frames/second) and, therefore, requires a very fast on board electronics. We present an FPGA-based LED camera electronics consisting of an Event Preprocessor (EPP) for on board data preprocessing and filtering of the Simbol-X low-energy detector and a related Sequencer (SEQ) to generate the necessary signals to control the readout.

  16. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  17. Spatially-Resolved System for Polarimetric Measurements at Subwavelength Scales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    8217 Cj>a:: .. nao .-. ic lie "•eepe no.eve-t ippei :can-«i see be c.-. \\ stepoe: TOIO- :Uje j-" rr-lri-je. Elecii ca conntctor: seep 32’ \\ ::eppe...involve performing near-field tomographic reconstruction, measuring low refractive index contrast materials , measuring the polarimetric response of...field tomography: The fields from an NSOM scan penetrate a finite depth into the material , giving one the ability to see structures below the surface of

  18. Impact of the tick-size on financial returns and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnix, Michael C.; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate that the lowest possible price change (tick-size) has a large impact on the structure of financial return distributions. It induces a microstructure as well as possibly altering the tail behavior. On small return intervals, the tick-size can distort the calculation of correlations. This especially occurs on small return intervals and thus contributes to the decay of the correlation coefficient towards smaller return intervals (Epps effect). We study this behavior within a model and identify the effect in market data. Furthermore, we present a method to compensate this purely statistical error.

  19. Messenger Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin J. A.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, M.; Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14.2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER'S Magnetometer (MAG) (2.3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury.

  20. An empirical comparison of Maslow's and Murray's needs systems.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C H; Wakefield, J A; Ward, G R

    1975-12-01

    The Work Motivation Inventory (WMI), a measure of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), a measure of Murray's manifest needs, were administered to 372 undergraduates. The two instruments were compared using canonical analysis. The analysis revealed three significant relationships between components of the two instruments. The first relationship supported Maslow's need hierarchy in general and its measurement by the WMI. The second suggested a fluctuating relationship between giving and receiving help and the levels of Maslow's hierarchy. The third relationship suggested that need for Achievement is associated with the intermediate levels of Maslow's hierarchy.

  1. Local perturbations in the western rift of Corinth (Greece) caused by the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake: joint observation of strain, water-level and seismic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canitano, A.; Bernard, P.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth (Greece) is one of the most seismic regions in Europe, producing some strong earthquakes in the decades, 1 to 1.5 cm/yr of north-south extension, and frequent seismic swarms. This structure is a 110 km long, N110E oriented graben bounded by systems of very recent normal faults. The Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL) project is concentrated in the western part of the rift, around the city of Aigion, where instrumental seismicity and strain rate is highest. In the aim to detect transient slow deformation and creep phenomenon, possibly associated with the numerous microseismic swarms, three Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have been deployed since few years. They are devoted to support the GPS observations, especially at short periods. During the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku earthquake, the passing of long-period surface waves have initiated free oscillations of the gulf (commonly called seiches) at different periods. The dominant oscillations exhibit a period of 5-7 min with related amplitude of about 5-8 cm of water. This is also observed on the records of the strainmeters installed on Trizonia island (TRZ) and in Monasteraki (MOK). We took advantage of this observation to investigate in details the principal mechanisms of resonance of the gulf of Corinth. Furthermore, the observation of the dynamic strain induced by the longest period surface waves (150-200 sec) shows an anti-correlation between the TRZ dilatometer response and the MOK strainmeter, located 15 km apart. This puzzling observation is consistent with a similar anti-correlation between the solid tidal signal at 24-hrs period recorded at TRZ and the theoretical solid tide. This could be related to the presence of a shallow fault close to the instrument, which would creep in response to seismic wave related stress. However, further observations are necessary to better understand the response of the TRZ sensor to internal forcing, as for instance the strain associated with the earth free

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae), a critically endangered aquatic plant endemic to Japan, and implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takashi; Yokogawa, Masashi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Nuphar submersa (Nymphaeaceae) is a critically endangered freshwater macrophyte indigenous to central Japan, with only four small extant populations represented across its entire range. We investigated the genotypic and genetic diversity as well as the genetic structure of all extant individuals of N. submersa based on analysis of 15 microsatellite loci. Among 278 individual ramets, 52 multilocus genotypes were detected: 30 genotypes in Nikko City (NIK), 18 in Nasukarasuyama City (NAS), 3 in Mooka City (MOK), and 1 in Sakura City (SAK). The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.20 to 1.93, whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.33 and from 0.10 to 0.24, respectively. With the exception of SAK, all populations contained multiple clones, but our results indicated low levels of within-population genetic diversity. The populations NIK and NAS comprised few large or middle-sized genets and many small genets. The populations NIK and NAS were suggested to comprise large old, old fragmented, and/or young small genets resulting from seedling establishment. All four populations were differentiated, and gene flow between the populations was restricted (average level of gene flow (Nm) = 0.122, G' ST  = 0.639). Of the total genetic diversity, 67.20 and 9.13% were attributable to inter- and intra-population diversity, respectively. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two or three well-differentiated groups of populations. Cluster I comprised one population (NIK) and cluster II comprised the remaining populations at K = 2. The populations NIK, NAS, and the remaining populations were assigned to clusters I, II, and III, respectively, at K = 3. For conservation practices, we recommend that each cluster be regarded as a different management unit. We further suggest that artificial gene flow among MOK and SAK populations is an appropriate option, whereas NIK should not be reinforced with genotypes from the remaining populations.

  3. From ecophysiology to phenomics: some implications of photoprotection and shade–sun acclimation in situ for dynamics of thylakoids in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Shizue; Förster, Britta; Waterman, Melinda; Robinson, Sharon A.; Pogson, Barry J.; Gunning, Brian; Osmond, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Half a century of research into the physiology and biochemistry of sun–shade acclimation in diverse plants has provided reality checks for contemporary understanding of thylakoid membrane dynamics. This paper reviews recent insights into photosynthetic efficiency and photoprotection from studies of two xanthophyll cycles in old shade leaves from the inner canopy of the tropical trees Inga sapindoides and Persea americana (avocado). It then presents new physiological data from avocado on the time frames of the slow coordinated photosynthetic development of sink leaves in sunlight and on the slow renovation of photosynthetic properties in old leaves during sun to shade and shade to sun acclimation. In so doing, it grapples with issues in vivo that seem relevant to our increasingly sophisticated understanding of ΔpH-dependent, xanthophyll-pigment-stabilized non-photochemical quenching in the antenna of PSII in thylakoid membranes in vitro. PMID:23148277

  4. Check for chirality in {sup 102}Rh

    SciTech Connect

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Yavahchova, M. S.; Petkov, P.; Angelis, G. de; Bhowmik, R. K.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, R.; Raju, M. Kumar; Kaur, J.; Mahanto, G.; Singh, A.; Kaur, N.; Garg, R.; Sukla, A.; Marinov, Ts. K.; Brant, S.

    2012-10-20

    Excited states in {sup 102}Rh, populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 94}Zr({sup 11}B,3n){sup 102}Rh at a beam energy of 36 MeV, were studied using the INGA spectrometer at IUAC, New Delhi. The angular correlations and the electromagnetic character of some of the gamma-ray transitions observed were investigated in details. A new chiral candidate sister band was found in the level-scheme of {sup 102}Rh. Lifetimes of exited states in {sup 102}Rh were measured by means of the Doppler-shift attenuation technique. The experimental results do not support the presence of static chirality in {sup 102}Rh.

  5. Interface reactions and Kirkendall voids in metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy grown Cu(In ,Ga)Se2 thin films on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, C. H.; Rockett, A. A.; Robertson, I. M.; Papathanasiou, N.; Siebentritt, S.

    2006-12-01

    Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) films were grown on (001) GaAs at 570 or 500°C by means of metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy. All films were Cu-rich [Cu /(In+Ga)>1] with pseudomorphic Cu2Se second phase particles found only on the growth surface. During growth, diffusion of Ga from the substrate and vacancies generated by the formation of CIGS from Cu2Se at the surface occurred. The diffusion processes lead to the formation of Kirkendall voids at the GaAs/CIGS interface. Transmission electron microscopy and nanoprobe energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to analyze the diffusion and void formation processes. The diffusivity of Ga in CIGS was found to be relatively low. This is postulated to be due to a comparatively low concentration of point defects in the epitaxial films. A reaction model explaining the observed profiles and voids is proposed.

  6. Remote renewable energy resources; Long-distance high voltage interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses international perspectives on remote energy made possible by high-voltage interconnections. It will discuss large-scale conversion, transfer, and utilization of renewable energy as a strategy to counter environmental problems caused by the combustion of fossil fuels. Potential development of huge renewable hydro resources in Africa, South America, North America, Eastern Siberia, Australia, and South East China, as well as potential development of geothermal and solar energy sources, will also be discussed. These include the proposed 30 GW Inga hydro power complex in Zaire, Central Africa, along the Congo River, where power will be exported to Southern Europe over a distance of 7000 Km, in Columbia with electrical ties through Central America linking South America with the electricity demand in North America, and developments in Siberia linked by cable across the Bering Strait to Alaska, Quebec to New England, Manitoba to midwest United States, Iceland to the United Kingdom, and in the Persian Gulf States.

  7. Experimental investigation of shell-model excitations of 89Zr up to high spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Palit, R.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Srivastava, P. C.; Kumar, S.; Naidu, B. S.; Donthi, R.; Jadhav, S.; Biswas, D. C.; Garg, U.; Goswami, A.; Jain, H. C.; Joshi, P. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Naik, Z.; Nag, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Saha, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2012-09-01

    Near yrast states in 89Zr were investigated up to high spin using the fusion evaporation reaction 80Se(13C, 4n) at an incident beam energy of 50 MeV. Excited levels of 89Zr have been observed up to ˜10 MeV excitation energy and spin ˜37/2ℏ using the prompt gamma spectroscopy technique with the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). The angular distribution, directional correlation, and polarization measurements were carried out to assign the spin and parity of the newly reported states. The structures of both the positive and negative parity states up to highest spin observed in the present experiment have been compared with shell-model calculations using two recently developed residual interactions, JUN45 and jj44b. The role of proton excitations from p3/2 and f5/2 orbitals to the g9/2 orbital for the higher spin states has been discussed.

  8. Impact of Cu-rich growth on the CuInGaSe2 surface morphology and related solar cells behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreau, Nicolas; Lähnemann, Jonas; Couzinié-Devy, Francois; Assmann, Lionel; Bertoncini, Patricia; Kessler, John

    2011-08-01

    The amount of copper excess provided during the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) 3-stage co-evaporation process is among the most operator subjective. In the present paper the influence of this parameter on the properties of the CIGSe films as well as on the behaviour of the related solar cells is investigated. It is observed that both the In/Ga lateral intermixing and the grain size are enhanced when the excess of copper is increased. Contrary to what could be expected, these changes only weakly affect the performance of the solar cells. Increasing the copper excess also yields a rougher CIGSe morphology. This latter evolution is observed to be the most important factor influencing the device behaviour. Through accurate analysis of quantum efficiency, it is concluded that, in the case of the standard cell structure, there exists a threshold in copper excess, beyond which the cell performance is significantly reduced.

  9. Energy band structure tailoring of vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structure for intermediate-band solar cell application by thermal annealing process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Sheng; Chu, Ting-Fu; Huang, Tien-Hao

    2014-12-15

    This study presents an band-alignment tailoring of a vertically aligned InAs/GaAs(Sb) quantum dot (QD) structure and the extension of the carrier lifetime therein by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Arrhenius analysis indicates a larger activation energy and thermal stability that results from the suppression of In-Ga intermixing and preservation of the QD heterostructure in an annealed vertically aligned InAs/GaAsSb QD structure. Power-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence were utilized to demonstrate the extended carrier lifetime from 4.7 to 9.4 ns and elucidate the mechanisms of the antimony aggregation resulting in a band-alignment tailoring from straddling to staggered gap after the RTA process. The significant extension in the carrier lifetime of the columnar InAs/GaAsSb dot structure make the great potential in improving QD intermediate-band solar cell application.

  10. Broadband control of emission wavelength of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by GaAs capping temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Matsumura, Takuya; Kita, Takashi

    2015-10-21

    We investigated the effects of the GaAs capping temperature on the morphological and photoluminescence (PL) properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs(001). The broadband tuning of the emission wavelength from 1.1 to 1.3 μm was achieved at room temperature by only adjusting the GaAs capping temperature. As the capping temperature was decreased, the QD shrinkage due to In desorption and In-Ga intermixing during the capping process was suppressed. This led to QDs with a high aspect ratio, and resultantly, the emission wavelength shifted toward the longer-wavelength side. In addition, the linearly polarized PL intensity elucidated anisotropic characteristics reflecting the shape anisotropy of the embedded QDs, in which a marked change in polarization anisotropy occurred at capping temperatures lower than 460 °C.

  11. Facultative nitrogen fixation by canopy legumes in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Barron, Alexander R; Purves, Drew W; Hedin, Lars O

    2011-02-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation is often invoked to explain the N richness of tropical forests as ostensibly N(2)-fixing trees can be a major component of the community. Such arguments assume N(2) fixers are fixing N when present. However, in laboratory experiments, legumes consistently reduce N(2) fixation in response to increased soil N availability. These contrasting views of N(2) fixation as either obligate or facultative have drastically different implications for the N cycle of tropical forests. We tested these models by directly measuring N(2)-fixing root nodules and nitrogenase activity of individual canopy-dominant legume trees (Inga sp.) across several lowland forest types. Fixation was substantial in disturbed forests and some gaps but near zero in the high N soils of mature forest. Our findings suggest that canopy legumes closely regulate N(2) fixation, leading to large variations in N inputs across the landscape, and low symbiotic fixation in mature forests despite abundant legumes.

  12. High spin states and isomeric decays in doubly-odd 208Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanjilal, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Saha, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Gehlot, J.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Jnaneswari, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukherjee, B.

    2010-10-01

    Neutron deficient isotopes of francium ( Z=87, N˜121-123) as excited nuclei were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction: 197Au( 16O, xn) 213 - xFr at 100 MeV. The γ rays from the residues were observed through the high sensitivity Germanium Clover detector array INGA. The decay of the high spin states and the isomeric states of the doubly-odd 208Fr nuclei, identified from the known sequence of ground state transitions, were observed. The half-lives of the E=194(2) keV isomeric transition, known from earlier observations, was measured to be T=233(18) ns. A second isomeric transition at E=383(2) keV and T=33(7) ns was also found. The measured half-lives were compared with the corresponding single particle estimates, based on the level scheme obtained from the experiment.

  13. Cu−In−Ga−S quantum dot composition-dependent device performance of electrically driven light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jo, Dae-Yeon; Yang, Heesun; Lee, Yangjin; Hwang, Jun Yeon

    2014-09-29

    Colloidal synthesis of ternary and quaternary quantum dots (QDs) of In/Ga ratio-varied Cu−In{sub 1−x}−Ga{sub x}−S (CIGS) with nominal x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, and 1 and their application for the fabrication of quantum dot-light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are reported. Four QLEDs having CIGS QDs with different compositions are all solution-processed in the framework of multilayered structure, where QD emitting layer is sandwiched by hybrid charge transport layers of poly(9-vinlycarbazole) and ZnO nanoparticles. The device performance such as luminance and efficiency is found to be strongly dependent on the composition of CIGS QDs, and well interpreted by the device energy level diagram proposed through the determination of QD valence band minima by photoelectron emission spectroscopic measurement.

  14. Self-annihilation of inversion domains by high energy defects in III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Koukoula, T.; Kioseoglou, J. Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2014-04-07

    Low-defect density InN films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy over an ∼1 μm thick GaN/AlN buffer/nucleation layer. Electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of inverse polarity domains propagating across the GaN layer and terminating at the sharp GaN/InN (0001{sup ¯}) interface, whereas no inversion domains were detected in InN. The systematic annihilation of GaN inversion domains at the GaN/InN interface is explained in terms of indium incorporation on the Ga-terminated inversion domains forming a metal bonded In-Ga bilayer, a structural instability known as the basal inversion domain boundary, during the initial stages of InN growth on GaN.

  15. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  16. Influence of nanowire density on the shape and optical properties of ternary InGaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong; Joyce, Hannah J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Paladugu, Mohanchand; Zou, Jin; Suvorova, Alexandra A

    2006-04-01

    We have synthesized ternary InGaAs nanowires on (111)B GaAs surfaces by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Au colloidal nanoparticles were employed to catalyze nanowire growth. We observed the strong influence of nanowire density on nanowire height, tapering, and base shape specific to the nanowires with high In composition. This dependency was attributed to the large difference of diffusion length on (111)B surfaces between In and Ga reaction species, with In being the more mobile species. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis together with high-resolution electron microscopy study of individual InGaAs nanowires shows large In/Ga compositional variation along the nanowire supporting the present diffusion model. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit a red shift with decreasing nanowire density due to the higher degree of In incorporation in more sparsely distributed InGaAs nanowires.

  17. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  18. Measurement of beta-gamma coincidence with a multi-parameter analyzer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah-Kejani, M.; Abbasi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Doost-Mohammadi, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new version of the Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System (INGAS) has been improved to facilitate measurement of beta-gamma coincidence events. It employs a new prototype list-mode multi-parameter data analyzer system, MPA4300. In order to test the new version performance, it has used to obtain energy spectra from radioxenon isotopes using the detector assembly of the Iranian Noble Gas Analyzing System. The MPA4300 is able to set the coinciding parameters, extract the corresponding spectrum, and through the use of event by event list file, can replay the measurement in offline mode. A great novelty of this work is the use of internal timing circuit in MPA4300 instead of using standard pick up time modules to identify coincidence events of detectors. A detailed description of the measuring 222Rn and 131mXe is presented.

  19. Auroral precipitation and descent of thermospheric NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, Sven; Espy, Patrick; Hibbins, Robert; Paxton, Larry; Funke, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Energetic particle precipitation in Auroras (E <20 keV) produces nitric oxide (NO) in the upper meso- and lower thermosphere region (UMLT). The subsequent descent of the NO produced in the UMLT to the lower meso- and upper stratosphere is referred to as the energetic particle precipitation indirect effect (EPP IE). The downwelling of NO produced in Auroras alters the chemistry of the mesosphere and upper stratosphere (e.g. by the NOx cycle) and possibly has important effects also on its dynamics. By observations of auroral precipitation from SSUSI(DMSP) and measurements of NO from MIPAS(ENVISAT) and SMR(ODIN) we investigate the quantitative relation of the electron fluxes and characteristic energies of auroral precipitation to the NO produced in the lower thermosphere and the subsequent downwelling of NO. Using additional ground-based (e.g. Meteor Radar, Microwave Radiometer) and satellite observations (SOFIE) we attempt to quantify the EPP IE and its impact on atmospheric chemistry and dynamics.

  20. Rationality, rhetoric, and religiosity in health care: the case of England's Expert Patients Programme.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Anne; Bury, Michael; Kennedy, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Policymakers have associated the increasing prevalence and incidence of chronic illness with the threat of unsustainable demands for medical services, requiring deployment of effective demand-management strategies. In this article, the authors consider the rise in policy interest in self-management and examine the metaphors, discourse, official statements, policy developments, and goals shaping the field of chronic illness, especially surrounding the promotion and uptake of self-skills training in England's Expert Patients Programme (EPP). They discuss the shift in relationship between individuals and the state since the 1960s and 1970s; the rise in importance of self-management in relation to an aging population; the evidence and rhetoric associated with policy development; and the relationship of self-care to the notion of the "responsible patient," as seen in policy implementation and EPP course promotion. The authors also draw on qualitative research to examine the transmission of ideology and rhetoric in self-skills training. Self-management policies are part of a shift from patient rights to individual responsibilities, a shift that may be less persuasive than its supporters imagine.

  1. Integrating weather and climate predictions for seamless hydrologic ensemble forecasting: A case study in the Yalong River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Aizhong; Deng, Xiaoxue; Ma, Feng; Duan, Qingyun; Zhou, Zheng; Du, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Despite the tremendous improvement made in numerical weather and climate models over the recent years, the forecasts generated by those models still cannot be used directly for hydrological forecasting. A post-processor like the Ensemble Pre-Processor (EPP) developed by U.S. National Weather Service must be used to remove various biases and to extract useful predictive information from those forecasts. In this paper, we investigate how different designs of canonical events in the EPP can help post-process precipitation forecasts from the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). The use of canonical events allow those products to be linked seamlessly and then the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts can be generated using the Schaake Shuffle procedure. We used the post-processed ensemble precipitation forecasts to drive a distributed hydrological model to obtain ensemble streamflow forecasts and evaluated those forecasts against the observed streamflow. We found that the careful design of canonical events can help extract more useful information, especially when up-to-date observed precipitation is used to setup the canonical events. We also found that streamflow forecasts using post-processed precipitation forecasts have longer lead times and higher accuracy than streamflow forecasts made by traditional Extend Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and the forecasts based on original GEFS and CFSv2 precipitation forecasts.

  2. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule.

  3. Concepts for particle foam based ultralight automotive interior parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.; Schreier, P.

    2014-05-01

    The described concepts for modern automotive interior parts are based on polypropylene (PP). These interior parts have a core of expanded polypropylene particle foam (EPP) and a decorative layer of a thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer (TPO) film. Compared with conventional solutions in the field of automotive interior parts, they are characterised mainly due to the avoidance of material mixtures so that they have better recycling properties and are significantly lighter in spite of comparable crash behaviour. Because of the optimized combination of positive component properties (specifically, the rigidity of the carrier, lower density combined with the better crash behaviour of the EPP foam core and good haptic and optical properties of the film), the multi-material system compensates the disadvantages of the individual components. In addition, the integration of all process steps into a new single-step manufacturing process combined with the elimination of an additional surface treatment means that the new ultra-light concept should lead to a significant reduction in the costs and cycle time.

  4. Health Impact of Elevated Levels of Lead Encountered in the Manufacture of Crystal Glass.

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2015-12-01

    Lead is known to cause harmful effects in the haematopoietic, nervous, digestive, renal, and other organ systems, inhibiting a number of enzymes in the biosynthesis of haem, as well as other enzymes with haematological significance. Our study involved 151 employees involved with the cutting of crystal, i.e. leaded glass, who had been found using eco-monitoring to have been exposed to above normal levels of lead. Our bio-monitoring process followed the values of lead, delta-ALAD and EPP.The highest level of lead detected was 276 µg/L, the lowest level of delta-ALAD was 99 nkat/L), and the highest level of EPP was 14.2 nmol/gHb). We had found that contrary to expectations, lead levels were not correlated to haemoglobin levels, or to gender or age, but were instead based only on the post of the employee and their time spent working at the glassworks. The levels of haematopoiesis were directly proportional to the levels of lead, however, the correlation was not statistically significant or had perhaps been masked by the exposure due to the employee's post and gender. We had also found a significant correlation of lead levels to the levels of renal function. The study had indicated some health impacts of lead on the exposed glass workers, but also at least partly diverged from the results of previous studies, prompting us to continue our research.

  5. The BC Educator Pathway Collaborative Framework: creating the foundation for nursing education capacity.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Patricia; Mildon, Barbara; Purkis, Mary Ellen; Thorne, Sally; Wejr, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the conceptual structure and organizational framework of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), which is a unique collaborative capacity-building project creating infrastructure for integrating nursing practice learning and development throughout the service and education sectors in British Columbia. Since 2005, two major health authorities, two universities and the provincial nurses' bargaining association have been engaged in an intensive and dynamic partnership to conceptualize and fundamentally change intersectoral directions and possibilities. This unique initiative has required considerable investment and commitment among all partner organizations, resulting in a clear, shared vision of systemwide support of nursing. With the EPP now in its final year of funding, we are beginning to document its elements and interpret its significant impact on nurses and their workplaces across the regions. In this paper, we describe the overall program design, explain the collaborative partnership mechanisms through which we have been implementing the project and articulate a range of processes through which we are working together to enact significant system-level adjustments aimed at a genuine practice-education continuum. As part of sustaining a strong nursing workforce, we believe that nursing practice and education leaders across Canada are ready to employ this kind of creative approach towards realizing our common goals.

  6. Entire papilla preservation technique in the regenerative treatment of deep intrabony defects: 1-Year results.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the clinical outcomes of a novel tunnel-like surgical technique in the treatment of isolated deep intrabony defects. Twelve patients presenting with at least one isolated deep intrabony defect received regenerative periodontal treatment with "entire papilla preservation (EPP)" technique. Access to the intrabony defect for debridement was provided by a bevelled vertical releasing incision positioned in the buccal gingiva of the neighbouring inter-dental space. Following the elevation of a buccal flap, an inter-dental tunnel was prepared undermining the defect-associated papilla. Granulation tissue was removed, root surfaces were carefully debrided and bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative were applied. Microsurgical suturing technique was used for optimal wound closure. Early healing was uneventful in all cases, and 100% wound closure was maintained during the entire healing period. At 1-year, there was significant attachment gain of 6.83±2.51 mm (p<0.001). The 7±2.8 mm reduction in probing depth was also significant (p<0.001), which was associated with minimal increase in gingival recession (0.16±0.38 mm, p=0.166). Tunnel-like "EPP" technique may limit the risk of wound failure particularly in the early healing phase, thereby preventing exposure of regenerative biomaterials, possibly enhancing stabilization of blood clot in deep intrabony defects and leading to optimal clinical outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of GFP tag as a screening reporter in directed evolution of a hyperthermophilic beta-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Lima, André O S; Davis, Diane F; Swiatek, Gavin; McCarthy, James K; Yernool, Dinesh; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A; Eveleigh, Douglas E

    2009-06-01

    By applying a directed evolution methodology specific enzymatic characteristics can be enhanced, but to select mutants of interest from a large mutant bank, this approach requires high throughput screening and facile selection. To facilitate such primary screening of enhanced clones, an expression system was tested that uses a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag from Aequorea victoria linked to the enzyme of interest. As GFP's fluorescence is readily measured, and as there is a 1:1 molar correlation between the target protein and GFP, the concept proposed was to determine whether GFP could facilitate primary screening of error-prone PCR (EPP) clones. For this purpose a thermostable beta-glucosidase (BglA) from Fervidobacterium sp. was used as a model enzyme. A vector expressing the chimeric protein BglA-GFP-6XHis was constructed and the fusion protein purified and characterized. When compared to the native proteins, the components of the fusion displayed modified characteristics, such as enhanced GFP thermostability and a higher BglA optimum temperature. Clones carrying mutant BglA proteins obtained by EPP, were screened based on the BglA/GFP activity ratio. Purified tagged enzymes from selected clones resulted in modified substrate specificity.

  8. [Adherence between antibiotic prescriptions and guidelines in an internal medicine ward: an evaluation of professional practices].

    PubMed

    Peix, C; Vandenhende, M-A; Bonnet, F; Lacoste, D; Bernard, N; Youssef, J; Hessamfar, M; Pometan, J-P; Morlat, P

    2013-08-01

    This is an evaluation of professional practices (EPP) on antibiotic therapy in an internal medicine ward. A 6-month prospective review of antibiotic prescriptions and their comparisons with local and national guidelines (drug, daily dose, administration, and duration) were performed. Antibiotic therapy on 227 infectious episodes was collected. According to local guidelines, we found 56% of totally respected (lower respiratory tract infections: 38%, urinary tract infections: 88% and skin infections: 73%), 33% of partially respected and 11% of non-appropriate prescriptions. Considering national guidelines for lower respiratory tract infections as references, the results were: totally respected prescriptions 81%, partially respected prescriptions 16%, and non-appropriate prescriptions 3%. This evaluation of the prescriptions allowed setting up long-lasting actions to improve clinical practice. This approach anticipates the procedures of EPP that will be needed for hospital accreditation and highlights the importance of considering several guidelines for the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Meditation lowers stress and supports forgiveness among college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oman, Doug; Shapiro, Shauna L; Thoresen, Carl E; Plante, Thomas G; Flinders, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effects on stress, rumination, forgiveness, and hope of two 8-week, 90-min/wk training programs for college undergraduates in meditation-based stress-management tools. After a pretest, the authors randomly allocated college undergraduates to training in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR; n = 15), Easwaran's Eight-Point Program (EPP; n = 14), or wait-list control (n = 15). The authors gathered pretest, posttest, and 8-week follow-up data on self-report outcome measures. The authors observed no post-treatment differences between MBSR and EPP or between posttest and 8-week follow-up (p > .10). Compared with controls, treated participants (n = 29) demonstrated significant benefits for stress (p < .05, Cohen's d = -.45) and forgiveness (p < .05, d = .34) and marginal benefits for rumination (p < .10, d = -.34). Evidence suggests that meditation-based stress-management practices reduce stress and enhance forgiveness among college undergraduates. Such programs merit further study as potential health-promotion tools for college populations.

  10. PLUTO'S SEASONS: NEW PREDICTIONS FOR NEW HORIZONS

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L. A.

    2013-04-01

    Since the last Pluto volatile transport models were published in 1996, we have (1) new stellar occultation data from 2002 and 2006-2012 that show roughly twice the pressure as the first definitive occultation from 1988, (2) new information about the surface properties of Pluto, (3) a spacecraft due to arrive at Pluto in 2015, and (4) a new volatile transport model that is rapid enough to allow a large parameter-space search. Such a parameter-space search coarsely constrained by occultation results reveals three broad solutions: a high-thermal inertia, large volatile inventory solution with permanent northern volatiles (PNVs; using the rotational north pole convention); a lower thermal-inertia, smaller volatile inventory solution with exchanges of volatiles between hemispheres and a pressure plateau beyond 2015 (exchange with pressure plateau, EPP); and solutions with still smaller volatile inventories, with exchanges of volatiles between hemispheres and an early collapse of the atmosphere prior to 2015 (exchange with early collapse, EEC). PNV and EPP are favored by stellar occultation data, but EEC cannot yet be definitively ruled out without more atmospheric modeling or additional occultation observations and analysis.

  11. Optimizing Eco-Efficiency Across the Procurement Portfolio.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Rylie E O; Li, Mo; Smith, Timothy M; Lyon, Thomas P

    2016-06-07

    Manufacturing organizations' environmental impacts are often attributable to processes in the firm's upstream supply chain. Environmentally preferable procurement (EPP) and the establishment of environmental purchasing criteria can potentially reduce these indirect impacts. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) can help identify the purchasing criteria that are most effective in reducing environmental impacts. However, the high costs of LCA and the problems associated with the comparability of results have limited efforts to integrate procurement performance with quantitative organizational environmental performance targets. Moreover, environmental purchasing criteria, when implemented, are often established on a product-by-product basis without consideration of other products in the procurement portfolio. We develop an approach that utilizes streamlined LCA methods, together with linear programming, to determine optimal portfolios of product impact-reduction opportunities under budget constraints. The approach is illustrated through a simulated breakfast cereal manufacturing firm procuring grain, containerboard boxes, plastic packaging, electricity, and industrial cleaning solutions. Results suggest that extending EPP decisions and resources to the portfolio level, recently made feasible through the methods illustrated herein, can provide substantially greater CO2e and water-depletion reductions per dollar spend than a product-by-product approach, creating opportunities for procurement organizations to participate in firm-wide environmental impact reduction targets.

  12. Developing interdisciplinary environmental frameworks.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Petri; Willamo, Risto

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review interdisciplinary systemic frameworks of environmental protection and evaluate their use as tools, educational policymaking and education. We analyze the pressures-state-responses (PSR) framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the drivers-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework developed in the European Environment Agency and a later environmental political dynamics framework developed by Schroll and Staerdahl. We then continue the discussion by introducing a comprehensive model, labeled as the environmental protection process (EPP) framework that can be used to analyze and teach why there are environmental problems, what are their characteristics, and in which ways they can be mitigated. The EPP model is used for classifying measures of coping with environmental problems. Finally, a submodel of individual and societal factors affecting human action is formed. Environmental issues of transport are used as an illustrative example. We hope to contribute a relevant way to outline a wide interdisciplinary picture of environmental problems and solutions.

  13. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints: MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain species, many other studies find no such pattern. This may be, at least in part, because in natural systems constraints may reduce the choices available to individuals and prevent full expression of underlying preferences. We used translocations to previously unoccupied islands to experimentally reduce constraints on female social mate choice in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), a species in which patterns of MHC-dependent extrapair paternity (EPP), but not social mate choice, have been observed. We find no evidence of MHC-dependent social mate choice in the new populations. Instead, we find that older males and males with more microsatellite heterozygosity are more likely to have successfully paired. Our data cannot resolve whether these patterns in pairing were due to male–male competition or female choice. However, our research does suggest that female Seychelles warblers do not choose social mates using MHC class I to increase fitness. It may also indicate that the MHC-dependent EPP observed in the source population is probably due to mechanisms other than female precopulatory mate choice based on MHC cues. PMID:26792973

  14. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations during the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Burger, Matthew H.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.; McClintock, William E.; Benna, Mehdi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18,2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na. K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29. 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He(+), 0(+), and Na(+),

  15. Log and data from a trench across the Hubbell Spring Fault Zone, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, S.F.; Eppes, M.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Love, D.W.; Mitchell, D.K.; Murphy, Anne

    2000-01-01

    This report contains field and laboratory data resulting from a trench study of the Hubbell Spring fault zone near Albuquerque, New Mexico. This trench was excavated in September, 1997, as part of earthquake hazards investigations of Quaternary faults in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. The trench was excavated across the youngest of several fault strands near the northern end of the Hubbell Spring fault zone. The site is located on Pueblo of Isleta tribal lands, approximately 1 km south of the southern boundary of Kirtland Air Force Base. Thus the paleoearthquake data derived from investigations at the Hubbell Spring site will be useful in assessing potential earthquake hazards in Isleta Pueblo, Kirtland Air Force Base/Sandia National Laboratories, and the Albuquerque metropolitan area. The purpose of this report is to present a detailed trench log, a scarp profile, soils data (table 1), magnetic susceptibility data (table 2), luminescence and uranium-series ages (tables 3 and 4), and detailed unit descriptions (table 5) obtained in this investigation. S.F. Personius had primary responsibility for siting, excavating, describing, and interpreting the trench; S.A. Mahan did the luminescence dating, and James B. Paces did the uranium-series dating. M.C. Eppes and D.W. Love assisted with trench logging and mapping; and M.C. Eppes, D.K. Mitchell, and A. Murphy did the soils analyses.

  16. A Monte-Carlo Benchmark of TRIPOLI-4® and MCNP on ITER neutronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, David; Pénéliau, Yannick; Eschbach, Romain; Fontaine, Bruno; Cantone, Bruno; Ferlet, Marc; Gauthier, Eric; Guillon, Christophe; Letellier, Laurent; Proust, Maxime; Mota, Fernando; Palermo, Iole; Rios, Luis; Guern, Frédéric Le; Kocan, Martin; Reichle, Roger

    2017-09-01

    Radiation protection and shielding studies are often based on the extensive use of 3D Monte-Carlo neutron and photon transport simulations. ITER organization hence recommends the use of MCNP-5 code (version 1.60), in association with the FENDL-2.1 neutron cross section data library, specifically dedicated to fusion applications. The MCNP reference model of the ITER tokamak, the `C-lite', is being continuously developed and improved. This article proposes to develop an alternative model, equivalent to the 'C-lite', but for the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®. A benchmark study is defined to test this new model. Since one of the most critical areas for ITER neutronics analysis concerns the assessment of radiation levels and Shutdown Dose Rates (SDDR) behind the Equatorial Port Plugs (EPP), the benchmark is conducted to compare the neutron flux through the EPP. This problem is quite challenging with regard to the complex geometry and considering the important neutron flux attenuation ranging from 1014 down to 108 n•cm-2•s-1. Such code-to-code comparison provides independent validation of the Monte-Carlo simulations, improving the confidence in neutronic results.

  17. Current Issues in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon disease most often associated with occupational asbestos exposure and is steadily increasing in worldwide incidence. Patients typically present at an older age, with advanced clinical stage and other medical comorbidities, making management quite challenging. Despite great efforts, the prognosis of MPM remains poor, especially at progression after initial treatment. Macroscopic complete resection of MPM can be achieved through extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended (ie, radical) pleurectomy (e-P/D) in selected patients and can result in prolonged survival when incorporated into a multimodality approach. Given the morbidity associated with surgical resection of MPM, optimizing identification of appropriate patients is essential. Unfortunately, most patients are not candidates for EPP or e-P/D due to advanced stage, age, and/or medical comorbidity. Pemetrexed and platinum combination chemotherapy has become the cornerstone of therapy for patients with unresectable disease because the combination is associated with improved survival and quality of life in treated patients. However, MPM eventually becomes resistant to initial therapy, and benefit to further lines of therapy has not been substantiated in randomized clinical trials. Translational research has provided exciting insights into tumorigenesis, biomarkers, and immune response in MPM, leading to the development of multiple novel therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials. These advances hold the promise of a new era in the treatment of MPM and suggest that this disease will not be left behind in the war on cancer. PMID:25061089

  18. Increased hatching success as a direct benefit of polyandry in birds.

    PubMed

    Reding, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is difficult to explain in primarily socially monogamous taxa such as birds because mating outside the pair bond often provides no obvious benefit to females. Although indirect selection is often invoked to explain the evolution of polyandry, current evidence suggests that selection on indirect benefits of mating is weak. Here, I consider a direct benefit of remating in birds: increased fertilization success. I test whether increased hatching success of a female's eggs is related to rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP), a proxy of polyandry, across 113 bird species. I use two statistical approaches, control for phylogenetic uncertainty, and assess the fit of competing evolutionary models. Results show there is indeed a positive relationship between rates of EPP and hatching success in birds. I propose that by mating with many males, females may increase their fertility. I end by discussing the biological rationale for this explanation, alternative interpretations of the results, and how this study furthers our understanding of polyandry and mating system evolution. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. The molecular defect of ferrochelatase in a patient with erythropoietic protoporphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahashi, Yoshitsugu; Taketani, Shigeru ); Fujita, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Kappas, Attallah; Sassa, Shigeru )

    1992-01-01

    The molecular basis of an inherited defect of ferrochelatase in a patient with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was investigated. Ferrochelatase is the terminal enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway and catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX to form heme. In Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from a proband with EPP, enzyme activity, an immunochemically quantifiable protein, and mRNA content of ferrochelatase were about one-half the normal level. In contrast, the rate of transcription of ferrochelatase mRNA in the proband's cells was normal, suggesting that decreased ferrochelatase mRNA is due to an unstable transcript. cDNA clones encoding ferrochelatase in the proband, isolated by amplification using the polymerase chain reaction, were found to be classified either into those encoding the normal protein or into those encoding an abnormal protein that lacked exon 2 of the ferrochelatase gene, indicating that the proband is heterozygous for the ferrochelatase defect. Genomic DNA analysis revealed that the abnormal allele had a point mutation, C {yields} T, near the acceptor site of intron 1. This point mutation appears to be responsible for the post-transcriptional splicing abnormality resulting in an aberrant transcript of ferrochelatase in this patient.

  20. MHC-based patterns of social and extra-pair mate choice in the Seychelles warbler

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; von Schantz, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    The existence and nature of indirect genetic benefits to mate choice remain contentious. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which play a vital role in determining pathogen resistance in vertebrates, may be the link between mate choice and the genetic inheritance of vigour in offspring. Studies have shown that MHC-dependent mate choice can occur in mammal and fish species, but little work has focused on the role of the MHC in birds. We tested for MHC-dependent mating patterns in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). There was no influence of MHC class I exon 3 variation on the choice of social mate. However, females were more likely to obtain extra-pair paternity (EPP) when their social mate had low MHC diversity, and the MHC diversity of the extra-pair male was significantly higher than that of the cuckolded male. There was no evidence that females were mating disassortatively, or that they preferred males with an intermediate number of MHC bands. Overall, the results are consistent with the ‘good genes’ rather than the ‘genetic compatibility’ hypothesis. As female choice will result in offspring of higher MHC diversity, MHC-dependent EPP may provide indirect benefits in the Seychelles warbler if survival is positively linked to MHC diversity. PMID:15870038

  1. Mutation in human CLPX elevates levels of δ-aminolevulinate synthase and protoporphyrin IX to promote erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Yien, Yvette Y; Ducamp, Sarah; van der Vorm, Lisa N; Kardon, Julia R; Manceau, Hana; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Bergonia, Hector A; Kafina, Martin D; Karim, Zoubida; Gouya, Laurent; Baker, Tania A; Puy, Hervé; Phillips, John D; Nicolas, Gaël; Paw, Barry H

    2017-09-19

    Loss-of-function mutations in genes for heme biosynthetic enzymes can give rise to congenital porphyrias, eight forms of which have been described. The genetic penetrance of the porphyrias is clinically variable, underscoring the role of additional causative, contributing, and modifier genes. We previously discovered that the mitochondrial AAA+ unfoldase ClpX promotes heme biosynthesis by activation of δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), which catalyzes the first step of heme synthesis. CLPX has also been reported to mediate heme-induced turnover of ALAS. Here we report a dominant mutation in the ATPase active site of human CLPX, p.Gly298Asp, that results in pathological accumulation of the heme biosynthesis intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Amassing of PPIX in erythroid cells promotes erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) in the affected family. The mutation in CLPX inactivates its ATPase activity, resulting in coassembly of mutant and WT protomers to form an enzyme with reduced activity. The presence of low-activity CLPX increases the posttranslational stability of ALAS, causing increased ALAS protein and ALA levels, leading to abnormal accumulation of PPIX. Our results thus identify an additional molecular mechanism underlying the development of EPP and further our understanding of the multiple mechanisms by which CLPX controls heme metabolism.

  2. Blocking p75 (NTR) receptors alters polyinnervationz of neuromuscular synapses during development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Neus; Tomàs, Marta; Santafe, Manel M; Lanuza, Maria A; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Josep

    2011-09-01

    High-resolution immunohistochemistry shows that the receptor protein p75(NTR) is present in the nerve terminal, muscle cell, and glial Schwann cell at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) of postnatal rats (P4-P6) during the synapse elimination period. Blocking the receptor with the antibody anti-p75-192-IgG (1-5 μg/ml, 1 hr) results in reduced endplate potentials (EPPs) in mono- and polyinnervated synapses ex vivo, but the mean number of functional inputs per NMJ does not change for as long as 3 hr. Incubation with exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for 1 hr (50 nM) resulted in a significant increase in the size of the EPPs in all nerve terminals, and preincubation with anti-p75-192-IgG prevented this potentiation. Long exposure (24 hr) in vivo of the NMJs to the antibody anti-p75-192-IgG (1-2 μg/ml) results in a delay of postnatal synapse elimination and even some regrowth of previously withdrawn axons, but also in some acceleration of the morphologic maturation of the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) clusters. The results indicate that p75(NTR) is involved in both ACh release and axonal retraction during postnatal axonal competition and synapse elimination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Identification and characterization of a drug-sensitive strain enables puromycin-based translational assays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cary, Gregory A; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Torres, Cecilia Garmendia; Wang, Kathie; Hays, Michelle; Ludlow, Catherine; Goodlett, David R; Dudley, Aimée M

    2014-05-01

    Puromycin is an aminonucleoside antibiotic with structural similarity to aminoacyl tRNA. This structure allows the drug to bind the ribosomal A site and incorporate into nascent polypeptides, causing chain termination, ribosomal subunit dissociation and widespread translational arrest at high concentrations. In contrast, at sufficiently low concentrations, puromycin incorporates primarily at the C-terminus of proteins. While a number of techniques utilize puromycin incorporation as a tool for probing translational activity in vivo, these methods cannot be applied in yeasts that are insensitive to puromycin. Here, we describe a mutant strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is sensitive to puromycin and characterize the cellular response to the drug. Puromycin inhibits the growth of yeast cells mutant for erg6∆, pdr1∆ and pdr3∆ (EPP) on both solid and liquid media. Puromycin also induces the aggregation of the cytoplasmic processing body component Edc3 in the mutant strain. We establish that puromycin is rapidly incorporated into yeast proteins and test the effects of puromycin on translation in vivo. This study establishes the EPP strain as a valuable tool for implementing puromycin-based assays in yeast, which will enable new avenues of inquiry into protein production and maturation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Outstanding student paper awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Atmospheric Sciences Section presented the following outstanding student paper awards at the AGU 1997 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California, last December. James Corbett presented a poster on “Nitrogen and Sulfur Emissions From Oceangoing Ships.” James is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. He has been awarded a M.S. degree in EPP and recently completed the M.S. requirements in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He graduated in 1985 with a degree in marine engineering technology from the California Maritime Academy and holds a California Professional Engineering License (Mechanical). He joined the doctoral program in engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University in August 1995. In 1997, he was selected for a U.S. EPA STAR Fellowship. His research focuses on international maritime transportation and pollution issues, particularly air emissions from ship propulsion. James has developed the first global geographic characterization of air emissions from international maritime transport. As recently published in Science (Corbett and Fischbeck, 1997), his work estimates the global annual nitrogen and sulfur emissions from ships to be 3.08 terragrams (Tg) N and 4.24 Tg S, respectively.

  5. Fitting HIV Prevalence 1981 Onwards for Three Indian States Using the Goals Model and the Estimation and Projection Package

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Dutta, Tapati; Stover, John; Godbole, Sheela; Sahu, Damodar; Boopathi, Kangusamy; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Singh, Kh. Jitenkumar; Goyal, Rajat; Pandey, Arvind; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2016-01-01

    Models are designed to provide evidence for strategic program planning by examining the impact of different interventions on projected HIV incidence. We employed the Goals Model to fit the HIV epidemic curves in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of India where HIV epidemic is considered to have matured and in a declining phase. Input data in the Goals Model consisted of demographic, epidemiological, transmission-related and risk group wise behavioral parameters. The HIV prevalence curves generated in the Goals Model for each risk group in the three states were compared with the epidemic curves generated by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) that the national program is routinely using. In all the three states, the HIV prevalence trends for high-risk populations simulated by the Goals Model matched well with those derived using state-level HIV surveillance data in the EPP. However, trends for the low- and medium-risk populations differed between the two models. This highlights the need to generate more representative and robust data in these sub-populations and consider some structural changes in the modeling equation and parameters in the Goals Model to effectively use it to assess the impact of future strategies of HIV control in various sub-populations in India at the sub-national level. PMID:27711212

  6. Steller Sex: Infidelity and Sexual Selection in a Social Corvid (Cyanocitta stelleri)

    PubMed Central

    Overeem, Katlin R.; Gabriel, Pia O.; Zirpoli, Jeff A.; Black, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analysis of avian mating systems has revealed that more than 70% of monogamous species show incidence of offspring parentage that does not match the social partner. Extra-pair parentage (EPP) has been linked to a variety of factors, including size and symmetry of ornamental traits, coloration, resource availability, and local conspecific density. We examined how ornamental plumage traits of individual Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) and territory characteristics influence genetic fidelity of socially monogamous pairs. We used seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to 79 offspring, and identified 12 (15.2%) as extra-pair young (EPY). Steller's jays with extra-pair young had significantly lower values of feather brightness and hue, indicating more ultraviolet-blue shifted coloration, and nested in closer proximity to the forest edge than Steller's jays with no detected EPY. Body size, crest height, asymmetry of ornamental crest stripes, as well as vegetative composition of territories and their proximity to supplemental feeders appeared to have little relationship to EPP. These results indicate that extra-pair parentage plays a role in the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics in both sexes, and suggest local density and availability of resources may influence Steller's jay mating dynamics. PMID:25148039

  7. Mercury's Sodium Exosphere: Observations During the MESSENGER Orbital Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Cassidy, T.; Vervack, R. J.; Burger, M. H.; Merkel, A. W.; Sarantos, M.; Sprague, A. L.; McClintock, W. E.; Benna, M.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered into orbit about Mercury on March 18, 2011. We now have approximately five Mercury years of data from orbit. Prior to the MESSENGER mission, Mercury's surface-bounded exosphere was known to contain H, He, Na, K, and Ca. The Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) began routine orbital observations of both the dayside and nightside exosphere on March 29, 2011, measuring altitude profiles for all previously detected neutral species except for He and K. We focus here on what we have learned about the sodium exosphere: its spatial, seasonal, and sporadic variation. Observations to date permit delineation of the relative roles of photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and impact vaporization (IV) from seasonal and spatial effects, as well as of the roles of ions both as sputtering agents and in their possible role to enhance the efficiency of PSD. Correlations of Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere with measurements from MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) provide insight into the roles of ions and electrons. Models incorporating MAG observations provide a basis for identifying the location and area of the surface exposed to solar wind plasma, and EPPS observations reveal episodic populations of energetic electrons in the magnetosphere and the presence of planetary He+, O+, and Na+.

  8. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Chondroprotective Activities of Cryptolepis buchanani Extract: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Chaiwongsa, Rujirek; Ongchai, Siriwan; Kunanusorn, Puongtip; Sangdee, Chaichan; Panthong, Ampai; Bunteang, Samreang; Nathasaen, Narong; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2014-01-01

    Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. & Schult. is widely used in folk medicine in Southeast Asia for treating muscle tension and arthritis. This study aimed to investigate an analgesic activity of the methanol extract of C. buchanani (CBE) in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice, and to examine its anti-inflammatory activity in ethyl phenylpropiolate- (EPP-) induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Its effects on cartilage degradation induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in porcine cartilage explant culture were also determined. This study demonstrated that CBE significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing response. It also inhibited edema formation in both EPP-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema models. In cartilage explant culture, CBE significantly reduced the sulfated glycosaminoglycan and hyaluronan released into culture media while it reserved the uronic acid and collagen within the cartilage tissues. It also suppressed the matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity with no effect on cell viability. In conclusion, CBE shows analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and chondroprotective effects in this preliminary study. Therefore, CBE may be useful as an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis. PMID:25247198

  9. An investigation on low-velocity impact response of elastomeric & crushable foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadighi, Mojtaba; Salami, Sattar

    2012-12-01

    The mechanical behavior of elastomeric foam, in particular, Ethylene Propylene Diene Methyle (EPDM) and crushable foams, in particular, Expanded Poly-Propylene (EPP) and Poly Urthane Rigid (PUR), under low-velocity impact are studied experimentally and numerically. At first, these foams were loaded under quasi-static loading in compression. In order to study the dependence of their behavior on strain rate, the loadings were performed in two rates, 3 mm/min and 100 mm/min. The low-velocity impact tests were applied using a drop hammer testing machine. The drop heights of projectile in all tests were 0.5 and 1 m. The thickness effect of specimens on absorption of energy and parameters such as, contact force and displacement of specimens are discussed. Then, the dynamic factors of force and energy for three types of foam are investigated. Since, EPP showed an insensitive property to the thickness of specimen in the impact tests, it is possible to define dynamic factors for different thickness of this type of foam. Finally, all test results are compared with numerical results through implementation of ABAQUS finite element package. Good agreements between numerical results and experimental data show the capability of numerical modeling to fulfill the experimental investigation.

  10. Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Early Processing of Visual Novelty in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David A. S.; Keith, Cierra M.; Perlstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have previously found that scalp topographies of attention-related ERP components show frontal shifts with age, suggesting an increased need for compensatory frontal activity to assist with top-down facilitation of attention. However, the precise neural time course of top-down attentional control in aging is not clear. In this study, 20 young (mean: 22 years) and 14 older (mean: 64 years) adults completed a three-stimulus visual oddball task while high-density ERPs were acquired. Colorful, novel distracters were presented to engage early visual processing. Relative to young controls, older participants exhibited elevations in occipital early posterior positivity (EPP), approximately 100 ms after viewing colorful distracters. Neural source models for older adults implicated unique patterns of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11) activity during early visual novelty processing (100 ms), which was positively correlated with subsequent activations in primary visual cortex (BA 17). Older adult EPP amplitudes and OFC activity were associated with performance on tests of complex attention and executive function. These findings are suggestive of age-related, compensatory neural changes that may driven by a combination of weaker cortical efficiency and increased need for top-down control over attention. Accordingly, enhanced early OFC activity during visual attention may serve as an important indicator of frontal lobe integrity in healthy aging. PMID:27199744

  11. A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rubia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Lourenço, Juliana Dias; Riane, Alyne; Cervilha, Daniela Aparecida de Brito; Ito, Juliana Tiyaki; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution); PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE); CS (CS exposure for 60 days); and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days). At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm) and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC)-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox) in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Descrever um modelo murino de enfisema induzido por exposição a fumaça de cigarro (FC) e instilação de elastase pancreática porcina (EPP). Trinta e oito camundongos C57BL/6 foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos: controle (uma instilação intranasal

  12. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Talk: How a Physics Education has Influenced Practice and Graduate Education in Technically-Focused Quantitative Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger Morgan, M.

    2011-04-01

    In a book for the general public published a year before his death, Carl Sagan wrote, "Every time a scientific paper presents a bit of data, it's accompanied by an error bar---a quiet but instant reminder that no knowledge is complete or perfect." For those of us educated in experimental natural science such an observation seems so obvious as to hardly need saying. Yet when, after completing a PhD in experimental radio physics, I began to work on problems in environmental and energy risk and policy analysis in the early 1970s, I was amazed to find that the characterization and treatment of uncertainty was almost completely lacking in the analysis of that day. In the first part of this talk, I will briefly summarize how I, and a number of my physics-educated colleagues, have worked to rectify this situation. Doctoral education in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy (EPP) at Carnegie Mellon University has also been shaped by a number of ideas and problem-solving styles that derive from physics. These have been strengthened considerably through integration with a number of ideas from experimental social science -- a field that too many in physics ignore or even belittle. In the second part of the talk, I will describe the PhD program in EPP, talk a bit about some of its unique features, and describe a few of the problems we address.

  13. Regulation of MDR1 gene expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells is independent from YB-1.

    PubMed

    Kaszubiak, Alexander; Kupstat, Annette; Müller, Ursula; Hausmann, Romy; Holm, Per Sonne; Lage, Hermann

    2007-05-25

    The MDR1 gene encoded transmembrane ABC-transporter MDR1/P-glycoprotein can mediate the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle in the clinical management of cancer patients. It was hypothesized that YB-1 is a fundamental regulatory factor of the MDR1 gene in tumor cells and can therewith enhance drug resistance. To analyze the potential impact of YB-1 in MDR cancer cells, two specific anti-YB-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed for transient triggering the gene-silencing RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the MDR cell lines EPG85-257RDB and EPP85-181RDB as well as in their drug-sensitive counterparts EPG85-257P and EPP85-181P. Since both siRNAs showed biological activity, for stable inhibition of YB-1 corresponding tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-encoding expression vectors were designed. By treatment of the cancer cells with these constructs, the expression of the targeted YB-1 encoding mRNA and protein was completely inhibited following tetracycline exposure. These gene-silencing effects were not accompanied by modulation of the MDR1 expression or by reversal of the drug-resistant phenotype. In conclusion, the data demonstrate the utility of the analyzed RNAs as powerful laboratory tools and indicate that YB-1 is not involved in the regulation of the MDR1 gene or the development of the drug-resistant phenotype in MDR cancer cells.

  14. Antioxidant and antiproliferation effects of extractable and nonextractable polyphenols isolated from apple waste using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Tow, Wei Wei; Premier, Robert; Jing, Hao; Ajlouni, Said

    2011-09-01

    Fruits and vegetables waste byproducts could be utilized as a good source of cheap antioxidants for improving human health and reducing the risks of some chronic diseases. Results from examining industrial apple waste revealed that the total polyphenolic content in nonextractable polyphenols (NEPPs) reached 539.84 ± 8.90 mg as gallic acid equivalents/1 g of dry wt. in comparison to 77.26 ± 11.53 mg dry wt. of extractable polyphenols (EPPs). The antioxidant activities of NEPPs reported as percentage reduction in 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2'.2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt were 89.76 ± 0.93% and 99.78 ± 0.38%, respectively. In addition, the antiproliferation study on human HeLa, HepG2, and HT-29 cancer cells showed that NEPPs at the concentration of 1 mg/mL had significant inhibitory effects against all tested cancer cells (46.2% to 95%), where EPP showed lower effect (3.9% to 22.2%). These results clearly indicated that NEPPs from industrial apple waste could be a good source of natural antioxidants with significant antiproliferation efficacy against human cancer cells.

  15. Stimulation of fecal fat excretion and the disposal of protoporphyrin in a murine model for erythropoietic protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Gooijert, Karin E R; Havinga, Rick; Oosterloo-Duinkerken, Alida R; Venekamp-Hoolsema, Enge E A; Kuipers, Folkert; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2007-08-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is characterized by toxic accumulation of the hydrophobic compound protoporphyrin (PP). Ferrochelatase-deficient (fch/fch) mice are an animal model for human EPP. Recently, we have demonstrated that the accumulation of another hydrophobic compound, unconjugated bilirubin, could effectively be treated by stimulation of fecal fat excretion. We investigated whether stimulation of fecal fat excretion enhanced the disposal of PP in fch/fch mice. Fch/fch mice were fed for 8 wk with a high-fat diet (16 wt% fat; control) or with the high-fat diet mixed with either a nonabsorbable fat (sucrose polyester) or the intestinal lipase inhibitor orlistat. The effects of the treatments on fecal excretion of fat and PP and on hepatic PP concentrations were compared with control diets. Fecal fat excretion in fch/fch mice on a high-fat diet was higher than in mice on a low-fat diet (+149%, P < 0.05). Sucrose polyesters and orlistat increased fecal fat excretion even more, up to sixfold of control values. However, none of the different treatments affected fecal PP excretion or hepatic PP concentration. Treatment of fch/fch mice with a high-fat diet, a nonabsorbable fat diet, or with orlistat increased the fecal excretion of fat but did not increase fecal PP excretion or decrease hepatic PP concentration. The present data indicate that accumulation of PP is not amenable to stimulation of fecal fat excretion.

  16. DNA-based taxonomy of larval stages reveals huge unknown species diversity in neotropical seed weevils (genus Conotrachelus): relevance to evolutionary ecology.

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Navarro, Sara; Barrios, Héctor; Múrria, Cesc; Lyal, Christopher H C; Vogler, Alfried P

    2010-07-01

    High diversity in tropical phytophagous insects may be linked to narrow host specificity and host shifts, but tests are complicated by incomplete taxonomy and difficulties in food source identification. Specimens of the highly diverse New World genus Conotrachelus (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) were reared from >17,500 fruits (seeds) at six Central American rain forests. Interception traps were used for comparison with assemblages flying in the forest. Mitochondrial cox1 and the nuclear 28S genes were sequenced for 483 larval and adult specimens. A Yule-Coalescent technique was used to group cox1 sequences into putative species (17 from traps, 48 from rearing). Cox1 sequences of 24 species from museum collections provided matches for three species from traps and no match for the reared species. Inga (Fabaceae) was the predominant host among 15 other genera and 67% of the weevils were monophagous. A three gene tree (cox1, rrnL, 28S) recovered four well-supported clades feeding on Inga confirmed by phylogenetic community analyzes that showed phylogenetic conservation of host plant utilization. This suggests that host shifts are not directly involved in speciation, while the broad taxonomic host range and the evolutionary repeated shifts still contribute to the high species richness in Conotrachelus. The DNA-based approach combining species delimitation and phylogenetic analysis elucidated the evolutionary diversification of this lineage, despite insufficient taxonomic knowledge. Conotrachelus is an example of the diverse tropical groups that require DNA-based taxonomy to study their evolutionary ecology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of phytoproductivity data in the choice of native plant species to restore a degraded coal mining site amended with a stabilized industrial organic sludge.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Toumi, Hela; Böhm, Renata F S; Engel, Fernanda; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Rörig, Leonardo R; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-09-14

    Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge. The content of nutrients P and N, together with stabilized organic matter, makes this material an excellent fertilizer and soil conditioner, fostering biota colonization and succession in the degraded site. However, choice of native plant species to restore a degraded site must be guided by some minimal criteria, such as plant survival/adaptation and plant biomass productivity. Thus, in this 3-month study under environmental conditions, phytoproductivity tests with five native plant species (Surinam cherry Eugenia uniflora L., C. myrianthum-Citharexylum myrianthum, Inga-Inga spp., Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius, and Sour cherry Prunus cerasus) were performed to assess these criteria, and additional biochemical parameters were measured in plant tissues (i.e., protein content and peroxidase activity) exposed to different soil/sludge mixture proportions. The results show that three native plants were more adequate to restore vegetation on degraded sites: Surinam cherry, C. myrianthum, and Brazilian peppertree. Thus, this study demonstrates that phytoproductivity tests associated with biochemical endpoint measurements can help in the choice of native plant species, as well as aiding in the choice of the most appropriate soil/stabilized sludge proportion in order to optimize biomass production.

  18. Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications

    DOEpatents

    Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Gabor, Andrew M.; Noufi, Rommel; Tennant, Andrew L.

    1995-07-25

    A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

  19. Impacts of major predators on tropical agroforest arthropods: comparisons within and across taxa.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Perfecto, Ivette

    2004-06-01

    In food web studies, taxonomically unrelated predators are often grouped into trophic levels regardless of their relative importance on prey assemblages, multiple predator effects, or interactions such as omnivory. Ants and birds are important predators likely to differentially shape arthropod assemblages, but no studies have compared their effects on a shared prey base. In two separate studies, we excluded birds and ants from branches of a canopy tree ( Inga micheliana) in a coffee farm in Mexico for 2 months in the dry and wet seasons of 2002. We investigated changes in arthropod densities with and without predation pressure from (1) birds and (2) ant assemblages dominated by one of two ant species ( Azteca instabilis and Camponotus senex). We first analyzed individual effects of each predator (birds, Azteca instabilis, and C. senex) then used a per day effect metric to compare differences in effects across (birds vs ants) and within predator taxa (the two ant species). Individually, birds reduced densities of total and large arthropods and some arthropod orders (e.g., spiders, beetles, roaches) in both seasons. Azteca instabilis did not significantly affect arthropods (total, small, large or specific orders). Camponotus senex, however, tended to remove arthropods (total, small), especially in the dry season, and affected arthropod densities of some orders both positively and negatively. Predators greatly differed in their effects on Inga arthropods (for all, small, large, and individual orders of arthropods) both in sign (+/-) and magnitudes of effects. Birds had stronger negative effects on arthropods than ants and the two dominant ant species had stronger effects on arthropods in different seasons. Our results show that aggregating taxonomically related and unrelated predators into trophic levels without prior experimental data quantifying the sign and strengths of effects may lead to a misrepresentation of food web interactions.

  20. Local structure and dynamics of III-V semiconductor alloys by high resolution x-ray pair distribution function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Il-Kyoung

    In semiconductor alloys such as In1-xGaxAs, the energy band gap as well as the lattice parameter can be engineered by changing the concentration, x. Due to these properties, semiconductor alloys have found wide applications in optoelectronic devices. In these alloys, local structure information is of fundamental importance in understanding the physical properties such as band structure. Using the high real-space resolution atomic Pair Distribution Function, we obtained more complete structural information such as bond length, bond length distributions, and far-neighbor distances and distributions. From such experimental information and the Kirkwood model we studied both local static displacements and correlations in the displacements of atoms. The 3-dimensional As and (In,Ga) atom iso-probability surfaces were obtained from the supercell relaxed using the Kirkwood potential. This shows that the As atom displacements are very directional and can be represented as a combination of <100> and <111> displacements. On the contrary, the (In,Ga) atom displacements are more or less isotropic. In addition, the single crystal diffuse scattering calculation of the relaxed supercell shows that the atomic displacements are correlated over longer range along [110] directions although the displacements of As atoms are along <100> and <111> directions. Besides the local static displacements, we studied correlations in thermal atomic motions of atom pairs from the PDF peak width changes as a function of atom pair distance. In the PDF the near-neighbor peaks are sharper than those of far-neighbors due to the correlation in near-neighbor thermal motions. We also determined bond stretching and bond bending force constants of semiconductor compounds by fitting the nearest neighbor and far-neighbor peak widths to the lattice dynamic calculations using the Kirkwood model.