Science.gov

Sample records for epstein-barr virus infectious

  1. Epstein-Barr virus test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  2. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of infectious mononucleosis by Epstein-Barr virus in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious mononucleosis (IM) or Mononucleosis syndrome is caused by an acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus. In Latin American countries, there are little information pertaining to the clinical manifestations and complications of this disease. For this reason, the purpose of this work was to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of infection by Epstein-Barr virus in Mexican children with infectious mononucleosis. Methods A descriptive study was carried out by reviewing the clinical files of patients less than 18 years old with clinical and serological diagnosis of IM by Epstein-Barr virus from November, 1970 to July, 2011 in a third level pediatric hospital in Mexico City. Results One hundred and sixty three cases of IM were found. The most frequent clinical signs were lymphadenopathy (89.5%), fever (79.7%), general body pain (69.3%), pharyngitis (55.2%), hepatomegaly (47.2%). The laboratory findings were lymphocytosis (41.7%), atypic lymphocytes (24.5%), and increased transaminases (30.9%), there were no rupture of the spleen and no deaths among the 163 cases. Conclusions Our results revealed that IM appeared in earlier ages compared with that reported in industrialized countries, where adolescents are the most affected group. Also, the order and frequency of the clinical manifestations were different in our country than in industrialized ones. PMID:22818256

  3. Large-scale production and concentration of infectious Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, F; Rosensteel, J F; Hummer, R M; Hillman, E A; Riggs, C W; Charmella, L J

    1978-01-01

    Infectious Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was produced from suspension cultures of P3HR-1 cells. A protocol for the scaled-up production and concentration of the virus was developed. Virus from the culture fluid was concentrated by continuous-flow pelletization or continuous flow with banding in sucrose. EBV prepared by pelletization yielded 1.7 X 10(4) infectious units/ml (100 X concentration) and less than 3.4 X 10(7) EVB particles/ml (1,000 X concentration), whereas EBV prepared by banding yielded 4.6 X 10(3) infectious units/ml (100 X concentration) aand 1.3 X 10(8) EBV particles 1 ml (1,000 X concentration). The majority of the virus particles observed were "empty" membrane-associated particles. A statistical test of the correlation between infectivity and virus particle count was made. Images PMID:203227

  4. About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

  5. Acute Cerebellar Syndrome in Infectious Mononucleosis: Documentation of Two Cases With Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, David S.; Smitnik, Loretta M.; John, Kuruvilla; Drake, Miles E.

    1985-01-01

    Acute cerebellar ataxia has been described occasionally with infectious mononucleosis. Two additional cases are reported with serologic identification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. As with previously described cases, the outcome was benign, and examination and laboratory studies did not indicate diffuse neurologic involvement. Visual and brainstem auditory-evoked responses were normal. Electroencephalograms (EEG) demonstrated 14 and 6 per second positive spikes in both patients. This pattern is considered a normal variant and has been recorded from depth electrodes and reported with deep midline lesions. These cases support the prognosis of benign cerebellar involvement in infectious mononucleosis and suggest that evidence of EBV infection be sought in patients with acute ataxia. The significance of 14/sec and 6/sec positive EEG spikes is uncertain. PMID:2987517

  6. Human natural killer cells prevent infectious mononucleosis features by targeting lytic Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chijioke, Obinna; Müller, Anne; Feederle, Regina; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Krieg, Carsten; Emmel, Vanessa; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Leung, Carol S; Antsiferova, Olga; Landtwing, Vanessa; Bossart, Walter; Moretta, Alessandro; Hassan, Rocio; Boyman, Onur; Niedobitek, Gerald; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Capaul, Riccarda; Münz, Christian

    2013-12-26

    Primary infection with the human oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can result in infectious mononucleosis (IM), a self-limiting disease caused by massive lymphocyte expansion that predisposes for the development of distinct EBV-associated lymphomas. Why some individuals experience this symptomatic primary EBV infection, whereas the majority acquires the virus asymptomatically, remains unclear. Using a mouse model with reconstituted human immune system components, we show that depletion of human natural killer (NK) cells enhances IM symptoms and promotes EBV-associated tumorigenesis mainly because of a loss of immune control over lytic EBV infection. These data suggest that failure of innate immune control by human NK cells augments symptomatic lytic EBV infection, which drives lymphocyte expansion and predisposes for EBV-associated malignancies.

  7. Production of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in acute phase of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection: a case report of a child.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Keiko; Okuno, Keisuke; Ochi, Marika; Kumata, Keisuke; Sano, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Naohiro; Ueyama, Jun-Ichi; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Kanzaki, Susumu; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Various autoantibodies have been reported to be detected during the progression of infectious mononucleosis. We observed a case of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection for 2 months, and noticed the transiently increased titer of thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies detected at the acute phase on the 3rd day after admission. At that time, real-time quantitative PCR also revealed the mRNA expressions of an immediate early lytic gene, BZLF1, and a latent gene, EBNA2. The expression of BZLF1 mRNA means that Epstein-Barr virus infects lytically, and EBNA2 protein has an important role in antibody production as well as the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus latency. These results suggest that Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection is relevant to thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies stimulate thyroid follicular cells to produce excessive thyroid hormones and cause Graves' disease. Recently, we reported the thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production from thyrotropin receptor autoantibody-predisposed Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection in vitro. This case showed in vivo findings consistent with our previous reports, and is important to consider the pathophysiology of Graves' disease and one of the mechanisms of autoimmunity.

  8. Suppressor T cell clones from patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus-induced infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F; Blaese, R M; Zoon, K C; Tosato, G

    1987-01-01

    Suppression and/or cytotoxicity are believed to play an important role in the defense against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To analyze the role of suppressor T cells in relation to EBV, we sought to clone and study these T cells. Analysis of 152 T cell clones derived from the peripheral blood of two patients with acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis (IM) yielded 11 highly suppressive clones that had no cytotoxic activity for the natural killer sensitive K562 cell line, an autologous EBV-infected cell line, or an allogeneic EBV-infected B cell line. Four of six suppressor T cell clones also profoundly inhibited EBV-induced immunoglobulin production, and five of five clones delayed the outgrowth of immortalized cells. These results indicate that during acute IM, suppressor T cells capable of inhibiting B cell activation in the absence of cytotoxicity can be identified, and may play a key role in the control of EBV infection. Images PMID:3025263

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Share this page: Was this ... EA-D IgG Ab Formal name: Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody to Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM, IgG; Epstein- ...

  10. Diagnostic dilemma: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis with lung involvement or co-infection with Legionnaire's disease?

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Gian, John

    Hospitalized adults with fever and "pneumonia" can be a difficult diagnostic challenge particularly when the clinical findings may be due to different infectious diseases. We recently had an elderly female who presented with fever, fatigue and dry cough with elevated serum transaminases and lung infiltrates. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis (IM) was made based on a positive Monospot test, elevated EBV VCA IgM titer, and highly elevated EBV viral load. Her chest infiltrates were not accompanied by hilar adenopathy which may occur with EBV IM. Her dry cough persisted and she developed abdominal pain. Legionnaire's disease was considered because she had extra-pulmonary findings characteristic of Legionnaire's disease, e.g., relative bradycardia, abdominal pain, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, elevated ferritin levels, microscopic hematuria. Legionella titers were negative, but Legionella (serogroup 1) urinary antigen was positive. We present a diagnostic dilemma in an elderly female with both Legionnaire's disease and Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis with pulmonary involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae preceding Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium nucleatum complicated by acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie C; Petelin, Andrew; Cunha, Burke A

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of Lemierre's syndrome due to a rare species of Fusobacterium, that is, Fusobacterium nucleatum preceded by Mycoplasma pneumoniae pharyngitis and followed later by Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus mRNA Export Factor EB2 Is Essential for Production of Infectious Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gruffat, Henri; Batisse, Julien; Pich, Dagmar; Neuhierl, Bernhard; Manet, Evelyne; Hammerschmidt, Wolfgang; Sergeant, Alain

    2002-01-01

    The splicing machinery which positions a protein export complex near the exon-exon junction mediates nuclear export of mRNAs generated from intron-containing genes. Many Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early and late genes are intronless, and an alternative pathway, independent of splicing, must export the corresponding mRNAs. Since the EBV EB2 protein induces the cytoplasmic accumulation of intronless mRNA, it is tempting to speculate that EB2 is a viral adapter involved in the export of intronless viral mRNA. If this is true, then the EB2 protein is essential for the production of EBV infectious virions. To test this hypothesis, we generated an EBV mutant in which the BMLF1 gene, encoding the EB2 protein, has been deleted (EBVBMLF1-KO). Our studies show that EB2 is necessary for the production of infectious EBV and that its function cannot be transcomplemented by a cellular factor. In the EBVBMLF1-KO 293 cells, oriLyt-dependent DNA replication was greatly enhanced by EB2. Accordingly, EB2 induced the cytoplasmic accumulation of a subset of EBV early mRNAs coding for essential proteins implicated in EBV DNA replication during the productive cycle. Two herpesvirus homologs of the EB2 protein, the herpes simplex virus type 1 protein ICP27 and, the human cytomegalovirus protein UL69, only partly rescued the phenotype of the EBVBMLF1-KO mutant, indicating that some EB2 functions in virus production cannot be transcomplemented by ICP27 and UL69. PMID:12208942

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus Strain Variation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    What is wild-type Epstein-Barr virus and are there genetic differences in EBV strains that contribute to some of the EBV-associated diseases? Recent progress in DNA sequencing has resulted in many new Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome sequences becoming available. EBV isolates worldwide can be grouped into type 1 and type 2, a classification based on the EBNA2 gene sequence. Type 1 transforms human B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines much more efficiently than type 2 EBV and molecular mechanisms that may account for this difference in cell transformation are now becoming understood. Study of geographic variation of EBV strains independent of the type 1/type 2 classification and systematic investigation of the relationship between viral strains, infection and disease are now becoming possible. So we should consider more directly whether viral sequence variation might play a role in the incidence of some EBV-associated diseases.

  14. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in patients with cryptococcosis.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, P H; Diamond, R D; Reisher, J I

    1975-01-01

    Antibody levels to the Epstein-Barr virus, the etiological agent for heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis, have been demonstrated in high titer in a number of lymphomas as well as infectious mononucleosis. Recent reports have suggested that the elevated antibody levels to Epstein-Barr virus may be the nonspecific result of disordered cell-mediated immunity. This study of patients with cryptococcosis was therefore undertaken to examine another disorder of known etiology associated with a defect in cell-mediated immunity. In this study we found that antibody levels in cryptococcosis patients, including a group specifically demonstrated to be anergic to a series of skin test antigens, were no different than those in matched normal controls. At the present time, therefore, it is unlikely that elevated antibody levels can be explained solely on the basis of depressed cellular immunity. PMID:170312

  15. Dendritic cells during Epstein Barr virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Münz

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) causes persistent infection in more than 90% of the human adult population and is associated with 2% of all tumors in humans. This γ-herpes virus infects primarily human B and epithelial cells, but it has been reported to be sensed by dendritic cells (DCs) during primary infection. These activated DCs are thought to contribute to innate restriction of EBV infection and initiate EBV-specific adaptive immune responses via cross-priming. The respective evidence and their potential importance for EBV-specific vaccine development will be discussed in this review. PMID:24999343

  16. Epstein-Barr virus-associated cholestatic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Salva, Inês; Silva, Inês Vaz; Cunha, Florbela

    2013-12-16

    Epstein-Barr virus infection is common in children, usually presenting as infectious mononucleosis, including fever, tonsillitis and lymphadenopathy associated with self-resolving increase in transaminases. Cholestasis is rare in children with only a few cases reported but it was described in up to 55% of the adult population affected. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with fever, vomiting and choluria. The physical examination showed hepatomegaly and jaundice and was otherwise unremarkable. The laboratory studies revealed increased transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase 97 U/L, alanine aminotransferase 166 U/L), hyperbilirubinaemia (total bilirubin 3.2 mg/dL, direct bilirubin 2.89 mg/dL) and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (114 mg/dL). Urine urobilinogen was increased. The abdominal ultrasound showed hepatomegaly. Epstein-Barr viral capsid antibody IgM was positive and IgG was negative. Serological studies for other viruses were negative. We underline the need to consider Epstein-Barr virus in the cholestatic hepatitis differential diagnosis, in order to avoid unnecessary investigations.

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear and early antigens in patients with infectious mononucleosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Halprin, J; Scott, A L; Jacobson, L; Levine, P H; Ho, J H; Niederman, J C; Hayward, S D; Milman, G

    1986-03-01

    A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure titers of IgG antibodies against bacterially synthesized Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen and early antigen in sera from 100 healthy North Americans, 40 North American patients with infectious mononucleosis, and 48 Asian patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. All healthy persons previously infected with Epstein-Barr virus had antibodies to nuclear antigen, and 70% had very low but detectable antibody titers to early antigen. In contrast, patients with mononucleosis had nondetectable or very low levels of antibodies to nuclear antigen and high antibody levels to early antigen. High levels of antibody to early antigen also were seen in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and a decrease in this response during the first 12 months after diagnosis and treatment was a significant prognostic indicator of survival. The probability of survival was 75% for patients whose antibody concentration to early antigen remained constant or decreased, and near 0% for patients with increasing levels of antibody.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Rickinson, Alan B; Bell, Andrew I

    2017-10-19

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), originally discovered through its association with Burkitt lymphoma, is now aetiologically linked to a remarkably wide range of lymphoproliferative lesions and malignant lymphomas of B-, T- and NK-cell origin. Some occur as rare accidents of virus persistence in the B lymphoid system, while others arise as a result of viral entry into unnatural target cells. The early finding that EBV is a potent B-cell growth transforming agent hinted at a simple oncogenic mechanism by which this virus could promote lymphomagenesis. In reality, the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphomas involves a complex interplay between different patterns of viral gene expression and cellular genetic changes. Here we review recent developments in our understanding of EBV-associated lymphomagenesis in both the immunocompetent and immunocompromised host.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus and renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Le, Jade; Durand, Christine M; Agha, Irfan; Brennan, Daniel C

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma herpesvirus associated with diseases ranging from asymptomatic viremia to post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. EBV specifically is associated with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), in kidney transplant recipients, with increased risk in EBV seronegative patients with EBV seropositive donors on intensified immunosuppression. The diagnosis of PTLD relies on clinical suspicion plus tissue biopsy with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of blood currently used for risk determination in high-risk recipients. Therapeutic strategies for PTLD include reduction of immunosuppression, chemotherapy and rituximab, and consideration of sirolimus-based immunosuppression. Antivirals such as ganciclovir are used to prevent reactivation of cytomegalovirus and other herpes viruses but are not onco-therapeutic. Radiation therapy or surgery is indicated for bulky, disseminated or recalcitrant disease. Prognosis varies depending on the type of malignancy identified and stage of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Jerdan, Kimberly; Aronson, Iris; Hernandez, Claudia; Fishman, Patricia M; Groth, John V

    2013-06-01

    Genital ulcerations are a rare clinical finding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present the case of a 16-year-old adolescent girl who reported the onset of diarrhea, headaches, dysuria, and vaginal discharge along with vulvar ulcerations with edema. Laboratory studies revealed a high-quantitative EBV IgG and early antigen as well as a positive IgM antibody for EBV. Although the association between EBV and genital ulcerations is rare, physicians should be aware of this clinical presentation to exclude other infectious entities, to be reassured to accept negative testing, and to quell patient distress or concerns of abuse.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus-positive blastoid variant of mantle cell lymphoma in an adult with recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Masakazu; Muta, Tsuyoshi; Karube, Ken-nosuke; Eto, Tetsuya; Yamano, Yujiro; Ohshima, Koichi

    2007-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with several lymphomas, such as Burkitt lymphoma, natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, whether EBV is implicated in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has not been established. We report the case of an adult with recurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms who developed an EBV-positive blastoid variant of MCL. A 54-year-old Japanese man presented with fever, swelling of the oral mucosa and tongue, dispersed pulmonary infiltrations, systemic lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. He had a history of recurrent IM-like symptoms (prolonged fever and cervical lymphadenopathy) for at least 1 year. MCL was diagnosed by biopsy of the cervical lymph node. The anti-EBV antibody titer indicated a reactivation of chronic infection with this virus. EBV was detected in most of the lymphoma cells and in the peripheral blood. EBV might have played some role in the tumorigenesis of blastoid MCL.

  2. RNA families in Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Moss, Walter N; Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a tumorigenic human γ-herpesvirus, which produces several known structured RNAs with functional importance: two are implicated in latency maintenance and tumorigenic phenotypes, EBER1 and EBER2; a viral small nucleolar RNA (v-snoRNA1) that may generate a small regulatory RNA; and an internal ribosomal entry site in the EBNA1 mRNA. A recent bioinformatics and RNA-Seq study of EBV identified two novel EBV non-coding (nc)RNAs with evolutionary conservation in lymphocryptoviruses and likely functional importance. Both RNAs are transcribed from a repetitive region of the EBV genome (the W repeats) during a highly oncogenic type of viral latency. One novel ncRNA can form a massive (586 nt) hairpin, while the other RNA is generated from a short (81 nt) intron and is found in high abundance in EBV-infected cells.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus latent genes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Soo; Kieff, Elliott

    2015-01-23

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has a substantial role in causing many human disorders. The persistence of these viral genomes in all malignant cells, yet with the expression of limited latent genes, is consistent with the notion that EBV latent genes are important for malignant cell growth. While the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP-2A) are critical, the EBNA-leader proteins, EBNA-2, EBNA-3A, EBNA-3C and LMP-1, are individually essential for in vitro transformation of primary B cells to lymphoblastoid cell lines. EBV-encoded RNAs and EBNA-3Bs are dispensable. In this review, the roles of EBV latent genes are summarized.

  4. Epstein Barr Virus and Blood Brain Barrier in Multiple Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    brain-barrier, Epstein-Barr virus; EBV ; BBB; MS, Multiple sclerosis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune neurodegenerative disease. Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) infection is associated with MS...pathogenesis. However, mechanism for the EBV -MS connection is unclear. The blood– brain barrier (BBB) is a separation of circulating blood and the brain

  5. Macular Amyloidosis and Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nahidi, Yalda; Tayyebi Meibodi, Naser; Meshkat, Zahra; Nazeri, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Background. Amyloidosis is extracellular precipitation of eosinophilic hyaline material of self-origin with special staining features and fibrillar ultrastructure. Macular amyloidosis is limited to the skin, and several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in this lesion suggests that this virus can play a role in pathogenesis of this disease. Objective. EBV DNA detection was done on 30 skin samples with a diagnosis of macular amyloidosis and 31 healthy skin samples in the margin of removed melanocytic nevi by using PCR. Results. In patients positive for beta-globin gene in PCR, BLLF1 gene of EBV virus was positive in 23 patients (8 patients in case and 15 patients in the control group). There was no significant difference in presence of EBV DNA between macular amyloidosis (3.8%) and control (23.8%) groups (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The findings of this study showed that EBV is not involved in pathogenesis of macular amyloidosis. PMID:26981113

  6. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  11. Targeting Epstein-Barr virus infection as an intervention against multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jons, D; Sundström, P; Andersen, O

    2015-02-01

    We here review contemporary data on genetic and environmental risk factors, particularly Epstein-Barr virus infection, for multiple sclerosis. There is an important immunogenetic etiological factor for multiple sclerosis. However, a general assumption is that immune defense genes are activated by the environment, basically by infections. We contend that the relationship between infectious mononucleosis and multiple sclerosis cannot be completely explained by genetics and inverse causality. Epstein-Barr infection as indicated by positive serology is an obligatory precondition for multiple sclerosis, which is a stronger attribute than a risk factor only. Data on events in the early pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis are cumulating from bio-banks with presymptomatic specimens, but there is only little information from the critical age when Epstein-Barr infection including infectious mononucleosis is acquired, nor on the detailed immunological consequences of this infection in individuals with and without multiple sclerosis. We discuss how focused bio-banking may elaborate a rationale for the development of treatment or vaccination against Epstein-Barr virus infection. A cohort in which intervention against Epstein-Barr infections was performed should be the object of neurological follow-up.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Smooth Muscle Tumor.

    PubMed

    Dekate, Jyoti; Chetty, Runjan

    2016-07-01

    Immunodeficient individuals are prone to develop a number of opportunistic infections and unique neoplasms. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor is an uncommon neoplasm associated with immunodeficiency. It has been described in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, in the posttransplant setting, and in those with congenital immunodeficiency. Different anatomic sites can be involved by Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor, and even multiple locations can contain these unique lesions within the same patient. The presence of variable numbers of intratumoral lymphocytes and primitive round cell areas are the unique defining features for this tumor. Histopathologic features may vary considerably in terms of cellular atypia, mitotic activity, and necrosis, with no correlation to the clinical behavior. Demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus infection by in situ hybridization within tumor cell remains critical for the diagnosis. The mechanism for Epstein-Barr virus infection of progenitor cells and neoplastic transformation has been an area of interest and conjecture. Different treatment strategies are proposed according to underlying disease status. This paper reviews the clinicopathologic features of this uncommon neoplasm with detailed discussion of the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis.

  13. Epstein-barr virus in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  14. Possible roles of Epstein-Barr virus in Castleman disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Liu, Hung-Chang; Hung, Tzu-Ti; Liu, Tsang-Pai

    2009-01-01

    Background Complete resection seemed to be curative in patients with Castleman disease of any location but the disease is likely to be reactive in its pathogenesis. The relation between Epstein-Barr virus and Castleman disease has not been elucidated. We tried to define the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Castleman disease. Methods 20 cases of Castleman disease were retrospectively reviewed from 1993 to 2006. At least 2 to 4 representative sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from each patient were obtained to examine the presence of EBV and its localization by hematoxylin-eosin stain, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and In-situ hybridization Results Hyaline-vascular type was diagnosed in 18 cases, plasma cell type in 1 and mixed type in 1 case. All of them were positive for Epstein-Barr virus confirmed by PCR. For tumors that EBER(Epstein-Barr early region) signals mainly localized in the germinal centers have increased vascularity than cases with EBER detected in inter-follicular areas. Conclusion There is a strong association between Castleman disease and Epstein-Barr virus. EBV may have a potential role in angiogenesis of Castleman disease. For smaller lesion with high activity of angiogenesis but not amenable for curative resection, anti-angiogenesis medications may have a potential role to control the disease. PMID:19589162

  15. Recent advances in understanding Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Brent A; Luftig, Micah A

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common human herpes virus known to infect the majority of the world population. Infection with EBV is often asymptomatic but can manifest in a range of pathologies from infectious mononucleosis to severe cancers of epithelial and lymphocytic origin. Indeed, in the past decade, EBV has been linked to nearly 10% of all gastric cancers. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput next-generation sequencing and the development of humanized mice, which effectively model EBV pathogenesis, have led to a wealth of knowledge pertaining to strain variation and host-pathogen interaction. This review highlights some recent advances in our understanding of EBV biology, focusing on new findings on the early events of infection, the role EBV plays in gastric cancer, new strain variation, and humanized mouse models of EBV infection.

  16. Recent advances in understanding Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent A.; Luftig, Micah A.

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common human herpes virus known to infect the majority of the world population. Infection with EBV is often asymptomatic but can manifest in a range of pathologies from infectious mononucleosis to severe cancers of epithelial and lymphocytic origin. Indeed, in the past decade, EBV has been linked to nearly 10% of all gastric cancers. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput next-generation sequencing and the development of humanized mice, which effectively model EBV pathogenesis, have led to a wealth of knowledge pertaining to strain variation and host-pathogen interaction. This review highlights some recent advances in our understanding of EBV biology, focusing on new findings on the early events of infection, the role EBV plays in gastric cancer, new strain variation, and humanized mouse models of EBV infection. PMID:28408983

  17. Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation of EB2 regulates its function in the production of Epstein-Barr virus infectious viral particles.

    PubMed

    Medina-Palazon, Cahora; Gruffat, Henri; Mure, Fabrice; Filhol, Odile; Vingtdeux-Didier, Valérie; Drobecq, Hervé; Cochet, Claude; Sergeant, Nicolas; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne

    2007-11-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM) promotes the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs and is essential for the production of infectious virions. We show here that in vitro, protein kinase CK2alpha and -beta subunits bind both individually and, more efficiently, as a complex to the EB2 N terminus and that the CK2beta regulatory subunit also interacts with the EB2 C terminus. Immunoprecipitated EB2 has CK2 activity that phosphorylates several sites within the 80 N-terminal amino acids of EB2, including Ser-55, -56, and -57, which are localized next to the nuclear export signal. EB2S3E, the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant of EB2 at these three serines, but not the phosphorylation ablation mutant EB2S3A, efficiently rescued the production of infectious EBV particles by HEK293(BMLF1-KO) cells harboring an EB2-defective EBV genome. The defect of EB2S3A in transcomplementing 293(BMLF1-KO) cells was not due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the mutated protein but was associated with a decrease in the cytoplasmic accumulation of several late viral mRNAs. Thus, EB2-mediated production of infectious EBV virions is regulated by CK2 phosphorylation at one or more of the serine residues Ser-55, -56, and -57.

  18. Protein Kinase CK2 Phosphorylation of EB2 Regulates Its Function in the Production of Epstein-Barr Virus Infectious Viral Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Palazon, Cahora; Gruffat, Henri; Mure, Fabrice; Filhol, Odile; Vingtdeux-Didier, Valérie; Drobecq, Hervé; Cochet, Claude; Sergeant, Nicolas; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne

    2007-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM) promotes the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs and is essential for the production of infectious virions. We show here that in vitro, protein kinase CK2α and -β subunits bind both individually and, more efficiently, as a complex to the EB2 N terminus and that the CK2β regulatory subunit also interacts with the EB2 C terminus. Immunoprecipitated EB2 has CK2 activity that phosphorylates several sites within the 80 N-terminal amino acids of EB2, including Ser-55, -56, and -57, which are localized next to the nuclear export signal. EB2S3E, the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant of EB2 at these three serines, but not the phosphorylation ablation mutant EB2S3A, efficiently rescued the production of infectious EBV particles by HEK293BMLF1-KO cells harboring an EB2-defective EBV genome. The defect of EB2S3A in transcomplementing 293BMLF1-KO cells was not due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the mutated protein but was associated with a decrease in the cytoplasmic accumulation of several late viral mRNAs. Thus, EB2-mediated production of infectious EBV virions is regulated by CK2 phosphorylation at one or more of the serine residues Ser-55, -56, and -57. PMID:17699575

  19. Gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Akari; Nagai, Takayuki; Okawara, Hitoshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tasaki, Takako; Nakagawa, Yoshifumi; Hashinaga, Masahiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yokoyama, Shigeo; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is a self-limiting clinical syndrome caused by primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV-associated gastritis, however, has rarely been documented. We report a case of a 17-year-old woman who presented with fever, sore throat, and epigastric pain. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse granular mucosae and elevated lesions in the stomach. Histologically, the biopsied mucosa was infiltrated by numerous atypical lymphocytes. From clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization analyses, we diagnosed EBV-associated gastritis. Her symptoms spontaneously resolved, and follow-up endoscopy revealed improvement and no atypical lymphocytes. To prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment, the possibility of EBV-associated gastritis should be considered.

  20. [Clinical polymorphism in Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ Gonález, D; Ramírez Ojeda, H

    1997-01-01

    Several diseases was associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. In the next three cases, the clinical course was unusual . Case I: Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, female 47 years old, she had systemic lupus erythematosus and clinical data of infectious mononucleosis but she evolved to a polyclonal gammopathy with IgM predominantly against EBV. Case II: Demyelinating encephalitis, male, 32 years old with central neurological alterations, IgM antibodies against EBV and demyelinating lesion in magnetic resonance image in brain steam. Case III. Villous leukoplakia, male, 40 years old developed right tonsil tumor. He had IgM antibodies against EBV. The antiviral and immunomodulator treatment (specific for each case) done a satisfactory clinical response in the three patients.

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HASHEMIAN, Somayh; ASHRAFZADEH, Farah; AKHONDIAN, Javad; BEIRAGHI TOOSI, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Many neurologic manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection have been documented, including encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. These manifestations can occur alone or coincidentally with the clinical picture of infectious mononucleosis. EBV encephalitis is rare and is indicated as a wide range of clinical manifestations. We report a 10-year-old girl presented with fever, gait disturbance, and bizarre behavior for one week. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable. The diagnosis of EBV encephalitis was made by changes in titers of EBV specific antibodies and MRI findings. A cranial MRI demonstrated abnormal high signal intensities in the basal ganglia and the striatal body, especially in the putamen and caudate nucleus. EBV infection should be considered when lesions are localized to the basal ganglia. PMID:25767548

  2. Atypical manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus in children: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Bolis, Vasileios; Karadedos, Christos; Chiotis, Ioannis; Chaliasos, Nikolaos; Tsabouri, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Clarify the frequency and the pathophysiological mechanisms of the rare manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Original research studies published in English between 1985 and 2015 were selected through a computer-assisted literature search (PubMed and Scopus). Computer searches used combinations of key words relating to "EBV infections" and "atypical manifestation." Epstein-Barr virus is a herpes virus responsible for a lifelong latent infection in almost every adult. The primary infection concerns mostly children and presents with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis. However, Epstein-Barr virus infection may exhibit numerous rare, atypical and threatening manifestations. It may cause secondary infections and various complications of the respiratory, cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Epstein-Barr virus also plays a significant role in pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies, and neoplasms, with Burkitt lymphoma as the main representative of the latter. The mechanisms of these manifestations are still unresolved. Therefore, the main suggestions are direct viral invasion and chronic immune response due to the reactivation of the latent state of the virus, or even various DNA mutations. Physicians should be cautious about uncommon presentations of the viral infection and consider EBV as a causative agent when they encounter similar clinical pictures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of EBV-seronegative infants with infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Kazufumi; Saiga, Kyoko; Deguchi, Masanori; Sairenji, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from infants with infectious mononucleosis- (IM) like symptoms. Thirteen of the 17 patients did not have EBV antibodies; however, EBV DNA was detected in 8 PBMC from the 13 seronegative patients by PCR. The 4 patients were retested in 6-12 months later. Three patients were still seronegative; however EBV DNA wasnot detected. One patient seroconverted and EBV DNA could still be detected. The transcript of EBNA1 was detected in one patient, but neither EBNA2 nor LMP2A were detected in all PBMC from the 4 tested patients. Type 1 EBV DNA was detected in 5 PBMC of 7 tested patients, and type 2 EBV DNA was detected in type 1 positive PBMC of one patient as well. The IL-1 beta polymorphism that is reported to be one of the immunological factors of EBV seronegativity revealed no difference in IM-like patients. These results indicated that EBV infection occurs in EBV-seronegative IM-like infants; however, the modes of infection are clearly different from IM.

  4. Lytic Replication of Epstein-Barr Virus During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D. T.

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Cellular immunity, which is decreased during and after space flight, is responsible for controlling EBV replication in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-term space flight on latent EBV reactivation.

  5. Descending Mediastinitis in Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Driel, E. M.; Janssen, M. J. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Our case report describes a previously healthy 34-year-old male who develops a descending mediastinitis as a complication of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The mediastinitis was suspected to have developed by a breakthrough of a peritonsillar abscess through the space between the alar and prevertebral space. PMID:25740774

  6. Epstein Barr Virus and Blood Brain Barrier in Multiple Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    of EBV in MS disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Blood-brain-barrier, Epstein-Barr virus; EBV ; BBB; MS, Multiple sclerosis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...virus ( EBV ) infection is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, mechanism for the EBV -MS connection is unclear. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is...astrocytes. Interestingly EBV is able to infect both kinds of cells. Because EBV is able to transfer infection from one cell type to another cell type

  7. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus replication by small interfering RNA targeting the Epstein-Barr virus protease gene.

    PubMed

    Larrat, Sylvie; Morand, Patrice; Bas, Ariane; Vigne, Solenne; Crance, Jean-Marc; Boyer, Véronique; Nicod, Sandrine; Grossi, Laurence; Buisson, Marlyse; Burmeister, Wim P; Seigneurin, Jean-Marie; Germi, Raphaële

    2009-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protease (PR), coded by the BVRF2 gene, is essential for the maturation of the viral capsid and viral DNA packaging during the late stage of the EBV lytic cycle. Like the other herpesvirus serine PRs, EBV PR could be a target for the inhibition of EBV replication. To date, no data have been reported on the inhibition of EBV PR messenger RNA (mRNA) by small interfering RNA (siRNA). In this study, siRNAs targeting EBV PR were delivered to the epithelial 293 cell line stably transfected with the complete B95-8 EBV episome. EBV DNA and PR mRNA were quantified by real-time PCR in cells and supernatant, protein expression was assessed by immunoblotting, and production of EBV infectious particles in the culture medium was measured by Raji cell superinfection. The EBV PR mRNA within the cells was reduced by 73%, the PR protein by 35% and the amount of virus in the cell supernatant was drastically decreased by 86% or 95%, depending on the method. The strong effect of the siRNA targeting EBV PR on EBV replication attests to the crucial role played by EBV PR in the production of infectious particles and suggests that targeting this enzyme can be a new strategy against EBV-associated diseases where virus replication occurs.

  8. Analysis of the Variability of Epstein-Barr Virus Genes in Infectious Mononucleosis: Investigation of the Potential Correlation with Biochemical Parameters of Hepatic Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevic, Ivana; Stevanovic, Goran; Cirkovic, Andja; Karalic, Danijela; Cupic, Maja; Banko, Bojan; Milovanovic, Jovica; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is usually asymptomatic, although at times it results in the benign lymphoproliferative disease, infectious mononucleosis (IM), during which almost half of patients develop hepatitis. The aims of the present study are to evaluate polymorphisms of EBV genes circulating in IM isolates from this geographic region and to investigate the correlation of viral sequence patterns with the available IM biochemical parameters. Methods The study included plasma samples from 128 IM patients. The genes EBNA2, LMP1, and EBNA1 were amplified using nested-PCR. EBNA2 genotyping was performed by visualization of PCR products using gel electrophoresis. Investigation of LMP1 and EBNA1 included sequence, phylogenetic, and statistical analyses. Results The presence of EBV DNA in plasma samples showed correlation with patients’ necessity for hospitalization (p=0.034). The majority of EBV isolates was genotype 1. LMP1 variability showed 4 known variants, and two new deletions (27-bp and 147-bp). Of the 3 analyzed attributes of LMP1 isolates, the number of 33-bp repeats less than the reference 4.5 was the only one that absolutely correlated with the elevated levels of transaminases. EBNA1 variability was presented by prototype subtypes. A particular combination of EBNA2, LMP1, and EBNA1 polymorphisms, deleted LMP1/P-thr and non-deleted LMP1/P-ala, as well as genotype 1/ 4.5 33-bp LMP1 repeats or genotype 2/ 4.5 33-bp LMP1 repeats showed correlation with elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and ALT (alanine transaminase). Conclusions This is the first study which identified the association between EBV variability and biochemical parameters in IM patients. These results showed a possibility for the identification of hepatic related diagnostic EBV markers. PMID:28356886

  9. High Epstein-Barr Virus Load and Genomic Diversity Are Associated with Generation of gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Eric R; Alter, Galit; Ogembo, Javier Gordon; Henderson, Jennifer L; Tabak, Barbara; Bakiş, Yasin; Somasundaran, Mohan; Garber, Manuel; Selin, Liisa; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and the evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]) and again 6 months later (during convalescence [CONV]). EBV gp350-specific IgG was detected in the sera of 17 (71%) of 24 individuals at the time of AIM and all 24 (100%) individuals during CONV; binding antibody titers increased from AIM through CONV, reaching levels equivalent to those in age-matched, chronically infected individuals. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) was rarely detected during AIM (4 of 24 individuals; 17%) but was commonly detected during CONV (19 of 24 individuals; 79%). The majority (83%) of samples taken during AIM neutralized infection of primary B cells; all samples obtained at 6 months postdiagnosis neutralized EBV infection of cultured and primary target cells. Deep sequencing revealed interpatient gp350 sequence variation but conservation of the CR2-binding site. The levels of gp350-specific neutralizing activity directly correlated with higher peripheral blood EBV DNA levels during AIM and a greater evolution of diversity in gp350 nucleotide sequences from AIM to CONV. In summary, we conclude that the viral load and EBV gp350 diversity during early infection are associated with the development of neutralizing antibody responses following AIM.

  10. Generalized pustular psoriasis associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Jiyad, Z; Moriarty, B; Creamer, D; Higgins, E

    2015-03-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a rare and severe variant of psoriasis. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented with generalized pustular psoriasis and significant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viraemia. Serial measurements of EBV DNA showed a correlation with the deterioration in her clinical condition. We speculate that EBV reactivation triggered the development of GPP, and propose that further investigation is required into the association between EBV and GPP. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  12. Multiple Epstein-Barr virus infections in healthy individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walling, Dennis M.; Brown, Abigail L.; Etienne, Wiguins; Keitel, Wendy A.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We employed a newly developed genotyping technique with direct representational detection of LMP-1 gene sequences to study the molecular epidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in healthy individuals. Infections with up to five different EBV genotypes were found in two of nine individuals studied. These results support the hypothesis that multiple EBV infections of healthy individuals are common. The implications for the development of an EBV vaccine are discussed.

  13. Laboratory Assays for Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Margaret L.; Tang, Weihua

    2008-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects various cell types in a wide spectrum of benign and malignant diseases. Laboratory tests for EBV have improved and are increasingly used in diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and prevention of diseases ranging from infectious mononucleosis to selected subtypes of lymphoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma. Indeed, the presence of EBV is among the most effective tumor markers supporting clinical management of cancer patients. In biopsies, localization of EBER transcripts by in situ hybridization remains the gold standard for identifying latent infection. Other RNA- and protein-based assays detect lytic viral replication and can distinguish carcinoma-derived from lymphocyte-derived EBV in saliva or nasopharyngeal brushings. Analysis of blood using EBV viral load and serology reflects disease status and risk of progression. This review summarizes prior research in the context of basic virologic principles to provide a rational strategy for applying and interpreting EBV tests in various clinical settings. Such assays have been incorporated into standard clinical practice in selected settings such as diagnosis of primary infection and management of patients with immune dysfunction or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. As novel therapies are developed that target virus-infected cells or overcome the adverse effects of infection, laboratory testing becomes even more critical for determining when intervention is appropriate and the extent to which it has succeeded. PMID:18556771

  14. Severe thrombocytopenia and recurrent epistaxis associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tilden, William; Valliani, Shahnawaz

    2015-04-09

    Infectious mononucleosis, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), generally follows a benign, yet protracted course, with the majority of symptoms being systemic somatic symptoms. Rarely, the clinical picture can be complicated by more acute severe haemotological sequelae of the disease, requiring hospitalisation and causing diagnostic uncertainty, particularly when distinguishing between a viral illness and a lymphoproliferative disorder. We describe the case of a young male patient who presented with headache, recurrent epistaxis and severe thrombocytopenia.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close ... X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym ...

  16. Infection of human thymocytes by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Watry, D; Hedrick, J A; Siervo, S; Rhodes, G; Lamberti, J J; Lambris, J D; Tsoukas, C D

    1991-04-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis, and has been strongly associated with certain human cancers. The virus is thought to exclusively bind to B lymphocytes and epithelial cells via receptors (CR2/CD21) that also interact with fragments of the third component of complement (C3). Recent evidence, however, has challenged this belief. We have used two-color immunofluorescence analysis using biotin-conjugated EBV and streptavidin-phycoerythrin along with fluorescein-conjugated anti-T cell antibodies and demonstrated that CD1-positive, CD3-dull (immature) human thymocytes express functional EBV receptors. In four replicate experiments, the binding of EBV to thymocytes ranged between 8 and 18%. This interaction is specific as evidenced by inhibition with nonconjugated virus, anti-CR2 antibodies, aggregated C3, and an antibody to the gp350 viral glycoprotein that the virus uses to bind to CR2. EBV can infect the thymocytes as evaluated by the presence of episomal EBV-DNA in thymocytes that had been incubated with the virus as short as 12 days or as long as 6 weeks. Episomal DNA analysis was performed by Southern blotting with a EBV-DNA probe that hybridizes to the first internal reiteration of the viral DNA. The presence of the EBV genome is also supported by the detection of EBV nuclear antigen 1 in infected thymocytes, assessed by Western blotting with EBV-immune sera. The EBV infection is specific as determined by blocking experiments using anti-CR2 and anti-gp350 antibodies. Finally, virus infection of thymocytes can act synergistically along with interleukin 2 and induce a lymphokine-dependent cellular proliferation. In view of previously reported cases of EBV-positive human T cell lymphomas, the possibility is raised that EBV may be involved in cancers of T lymphocytes that have not been previously appreciated.

  17. Molecular diversity of IgG responses to Epstein-Barr virus proteins in asymptomatic Epstein-Barr virus carriers.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Ria; Shair, Kathy Ho Yen; Gershburg, Edward

    2017-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects over 90 % of adults. EBV is the primary etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis and is closely associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Clinical serological assays for EBV diagnosis only survey a small portion of the viral proteome, which does not represent the total antigenic breadth presented to the immune system during viral infection. In this study, we have generated an expression library containing the majority of EBV ORFs, and have systematically evaluated IgG responses to those EBV proteins in sera from EBV carriers. In addition to confirming previously recognized dominant EBV antigens, this study has identified additional immunodominant antigens, and has revealed a more expansive antigenic profile of the humoral responses to EBV in asymptomatic carriers. This EBV expression library will be deposited in a public repository with the goal of disseminating this new research tool for the application of identifying potential new biomarkers for EBV-associated diseases.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-23

    Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein-Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein-Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases.

  19. Burkitt lymphoma and the discovery of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    The chance germinal encounter with the first lecture outside Africa on Burkitt lymphoma is described together with the hypothesis of a viral cause. Repeated virological investigations on lymphoma biopsies proved negative, leading to the idea that a latent virus might be activated if lymphoma cells could be cultured, although no human lymphoid cell had at that time ever been maintained in vitro. A chance event reminding of the need for suspension culture with mouse lymphomas led to success. The cultured cells carried a morphologically unequivocal, strangely inert, herpesvirus shown later to be immunologically, biologically and biochemically unique. How this new agent acquired its name, Epstein-Barr virus, is explained.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus-associated carcinomas: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kathrin; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2003-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human tumours including lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. Most EBV-associated tumours are rare or occur at higher incidence only in certain geographical regions. The recently reported detection of EBV in gastric, breast, and hepatocellular carcinomas raises the possibility of involvement of the virus in the pathogenesis of common cancers. This article reviews the evidence linking EBV infection to epithelial tumours. It is concluded that at present, there is no convincing evidence to suggest that breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are EBV-associated tumours. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Anterior opercular syndrome induced by Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Takashi; Nishioka, Kenya; Tanaka, Ryota; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old female presenting with fever, drooling, anarthria, and voluntary facial movement disruption, characteristic of anterior opercular syndrome (AOS). Serological examination revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection following acute encephalitis with severe ataxia. A single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) examination indicated hypoperfusion in the left perisylvian region, bilateral thalamus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. This is the first report of AOS related to EBV encephalitis. SPECT was a useful method for detecting the damaged region of the operculum. In addition, AOS is a clinically distinct entity that may help us understand the mechanisms of language circuits within the operculum.

  2. Frequency of epstein-barr virus in classical hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Muhammad; Din, Hafeez Ud; Muhammad, Iqbal; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Akhtar, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus plays an important role in pathogenesis of Hodgkin lymphoma. The first patient with Epstein-Barr positive Reed Sternberg cells was described in 1985. Since then association between Epstein-Barr virus and Hodgkin lymphoma has been shown in many parts of the world and its occurrence shows significant variation from continent to continent and from country to country. The study was carried out at department of histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from 27th April 2013 to 10th March 2014. A total of 55 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma were included in the study. Out of 55 patients, 38 (69%) were male and 17 (31%) were female. The age of the patients ranged between 4-67 years with an average age of 29.4±21.72 years. Out of these, 44 cases (80%) were positive for latent membrane protein-1. Among positive cases 32 (72.72%) were male and 12 (27.28%) were female. Based upon histological subtypes MCHL was the commonest as a whole accounting for 87.3% as well as among both genders. Out of total 55 cases, 79.16% (38/48) of mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma cases showed positivity for latent membrane protein-1 while 83.33% (5/6) cases of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma and 100% (1/1) cases of lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphoma showed positivity. No case of lymphocyte predominant classical Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed during the study. 80% of our classical Hodgkin lymphoma cases showed association with EBV expression. A total of 79.16% cases of mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma showed LMP1 expression while 100% of lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphoma showed LMP1 expression. The highest expression seen in lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphoma subtype in contrast to mixed cellularity requires to be confirmed by a larger scale study comprising of substantial number of patients of lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphocyte rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus Related Lymphoproliferations After Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Simona; Metafuni, Elisabetta; Bellesi, Silvia; Chiusolo, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative disorders are a rare but potentially fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with an incidence of 1–3% and occurring within 6 months after transplantation. The most relevant risk factors include the use of in vivo T-cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin, HLA disparities between donor and recipient, donor type, splenectomy etc. The higher the numbers of risk factors the higher the risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative disorders. Monitoring EBV viremia after transplantation is of value and it should be applied to high risk patients since it allows pre-emptive therapy initiation at specified threshold values and early treatment. This strategy might reduce mortality which was >80% prior to the implementation of anti-EBV therapy. Treatment of EBV-LPD after allogeneic SCT may consist of anti-B-cell therapy (rituximab), adoptive T-cell immunotherapy or both. Rituximab treatment should be considered the first treatment option, preferably guided by intensive monitoring of EBV DNA while reduction of immunosuppression should be carefully evaluated for the risk of graft versus host disease. PMID:21416005

  4. Epstein-Barr virus-positive plasmacytoma in immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Loghavi, Sanam; Khoury, Joseph D; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas are often localized, clinically indolent neoplasms, and affected patients usually respond to radiation therapy or limited cycles of chemotherapy. In contrast, plasmablastic lymphomas are clinically aggressive neoplasms composed of immunoblastic or plasmablastic cells and associated with more mature plasma cells in some cases. Patients with plasmablastic lymphoma usually have a poor prognosis despite aggressive chemotherapy. Evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is uncommon in plasmacytoma, but common in plasmablastic lymphoma, and is therefore helpful in differential diagnosis. The aim of this study is to describe four cases of plasmacytoma arising in immunocompetent individuals that were diffusely positive for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA as shown by in-situ hybridization. We describe the clinicopathological and immunophenotypic findings of four EBV-positive plasmacytomas arising in immunocompetent patients. These tumours were characterized by diffuse proliferation of mature-appearing plasma cells intermixed with a briskly reactive, CD8-positive, TIA-1-positive cytotoxic T-cell infiltrate. Long-term follow-up was available for all patients, and all were alive and free of disease at last follow-up (median 43.4 months). We suggest the term EBV-positive plasmacytoma in immunocompetent patients for these lesions. It is essential to distinguish these tumours from plasmablastic lymphoma, as the latter diagnosis is associated with a much poorer prognosis, and patients require much more aggressive therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The immunology of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, D J; Burrows, S R; Silins, S L; Misko, I; Khanna, R

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is a classic example of a persistent human virus that has caught the imagination of immunologists, virologists and oncologists because of the juxtaposition of a number of important properties. First, the ability of the virus to immortalize B lymphocytes in vitro has provided an antigen presenting cell in which all the latent antigens of the virus are displayed and are available for systematic study. Second, the virus presents an ideal system for studying the immune parameters that maintain latency and the consequences of disturbing this cell-virus relationship. Third, this wealth of immunological background has provided a platform for elucidating the role of the immune system in protection from viral-associated malignancies of B cell and epithelial cell origin. Finally, attention is now being directed towards the development of vaccine formulations which might have broad application in the control of human malignancies. PMID:11313006

  6. The Epstein-Barr virus: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, M.A.; Achong, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: Failure in Immunological Control of the Virus Infection: Post-Transplant Lymphomas; Cellular Immunological Responses to the Virus Infection; Characterization of the Virus-Determined Antigens; and the Virus Genome and its Expression in Latent Infection.

  7. Dynamic expression of viral and cellular microRNAs in infectious mononucleosis caused by primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liwei; Ai, Junhong; Xie, Zhengde; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Kunling

    2015-12-03

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first virus identified to encode microRNAs (miRNAs). Both of viral and human cellular miRNAs are important in EBV infection. However, the dynamic expression profile of miRNAs during primary EBV infection was unknown. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic expression profile of viral and cellular miRNAs in infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by primary EBV infection. The levels of viral and cellular miRNAs were measured in fifteen pediatric IM patients at three different time-points. Fifteen healthy children who were seropositive for EBV were enrolled in the control group. Relative expression levels of miRNAs were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. EBV-miR-BHRF1-1, 1-2-3P, miR-BART13-1, 19-3p, 11-3P, 12-1, and 16-1 in IM patients of early phase were significantly higher than in healthy children. Most cellular miRNAs of B cells, such as hsa-miR-155-5p, -34a-5p, -18b-5p, -181a-5p, and -142-5p were up-regulated; while most of cellular miRNAs of CD8 + T cells, such as hsa-miR-223, -29c-3p, -181a, -200a-3p, miR-155-5p, -146a, and -142-5p were down-regulated in IM patients. With disease progression, nearly all of EBV-miRNAs decreased, especially miR-BHRF1, but at a slower rate than EBV DNA loads. Most of the cellular miRNAs of B cells, including hsa-miR-134-5p, -18b-5p, -34a-5p, and -196a-5p increased with time. However, most of the cellular miRNAs of CD8 + T cells, including hsa-let-7a-5p, -142-3p, -142-5p, and -155-5p decreased with time. Additionally, hsa-miR-155-5p of B cells and hsa-miR-18b-5p of CD8+ T cells exhibited a positive correlation with miR-BHRF1-2-5P and miR-BART2-5P (0.96 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, P < 0.05). Finally, hsa-miR-181a-5p of B cells had positive correlation with miR-BART4-3p, 4-5P, 16-1, and 22 (0.97 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, P < 0.05). Our study is the first to describe the expression profile of viral and cellular miRNAs in IM caused by primary EBV infection. These results might be the basis of

  8. Constitutive expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs and nuclear antigen during latency and after induction of Epstein-Barr virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, R; Fischer, D K; Heston, L; Miller, G

    1985-01-01

    We examined the fate of two major products of latency as Epstein-Barr virus was induced to replicate. We studied a superinducible clone of HR-1 cells in the presence and absence of induction by phorbol ester, and we analyzed the X50-7 line with and without superinfection by an HR-1 viral variant which disrupts latency. The two methods of induction yielded qualitatively similar results. After induction, there was abundant synthesis of viral transcripts, amplification of viral DNA, and the appearance of many new viral polypeptides. Nonetheless, there were no changes in the cytoplasmic abundance of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs and no alteration in the level of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen mRNA or polypeptide. Thus, under conditions in which numerous other Epstein-Barr virus gene products are activated, the two major latent gene products are expressed at a constitutive level. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs and nuclear antigen must therefore be regulated in a manner completely different from expression of replicative functions. Images PMID:2981344

  9. Immune Evasion by Epstein-Barr Virus.

    PubMed

    Ressing, Maaike E; van Gent, Michiel; Gram, Anna M; Hooykaas, Marjolein J G; Piersma, Sytse J; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is widespread within the human population with over 90% of adults being infected. In response to primary EBV infection, the host mounts an antiviral immune response comprising both innate and adaptive effector functions. Although the immune system can control EBV infection to a large extent, the virus is not cleared. Instead, EBV establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes characterized by limited viral gene expression. For the production of new viral progeny, EBV reactivates from these latently infected cells. During the productive phase of infection, a repertoire of over 80 EBV gene products is expressed, presenting a vast number of viral antigens to the primed immune system. In particular the EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T lymphocytes can respond within hours, potentially destroying the virus-producing cells before viral replication is completed and viral particles have been released. Preceding the adaptive immune response, potent innate immune mechanisms provide a first line of defense during primary and recurrent infections. In spite of this broad range of antiviral immune effector mechanisms, EBV persists for life and continues to replicate. Studies performed over the past decades have revealed a wide array of viral gene products interfering with both innate and adaptive immunity. These include EBV-encoded proteins as well as small noncoding RNAs with immune-evasive properties. The current review presents an overview of the evasion strategies that are employed by EBV to facilitate immune escape during latency and productive infection. These evasion mechanisms may also compromise the elimination of EBV-transformed cells, and thus contribute to malignancies associated with EBV infection.

  10. The Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread human herpes virus that immortalizes cells as part of its latent infection and is a causative agent in the development of several types of lymphomas and carcinomas. Replication and stable persistence of the EBV genomes in latent infection require the viral EBNA1 protein, which binds specific DNA sequences in the viral DNA. While the roles of EBNA1 were initially thought to be limited to effects on the viral genomes, more recently EBNA1 has been found to have multiple effects on cellular proteins and pathways that may also be important for viral persistence. In addition, a role for EBNA1 in lytic infection has been recently identified. The multiple roles of EBNA1 in EBV infection are the subject of this paper. PMID:24278697

  11. The Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread human herpes virus that immortalizes cells as part of its latent infection and is a causative agent in the development of several types of lymphomas and carcinomas. Replication and stable persistence of the EBV genomes in latent infection require the viral EBNA1 protein, which binds specific DNA sequences in the viral DNA. While the roles of EBNA1 were initially thought to be limited to effects on the viral genomes, more recently EBNA1 has been found to have multiple effects on cellular proteins and pathways that may also be important for viral persistence. In addition, a role for EBNA1 in lytic infection has been recently identified. The multiple roles of EBNA1 in EBV infection are the subject of this paper.

  12. A case of acute acalculous cholecystitis complicated by primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Suga, Kenichi; Shono, Miki; Goji, Aya; Matsuura, Sato; Inoue, Miki; Kawahito, Masami; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis (IM). An immunocompetent 6-year-old Japanese girl complained of epigastralgia during the course of IM. Ultrasonography (US) revealed a markedly thickened and sonolucent gallbladder wall. No gallstones were apparent. Antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) confirmed primary EBV infection. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M showed a false-positive result in the acute phase, probably due to cross-reaction to EBV nuclear antigen. We diagnosed her as AAC related with primary EBV infection. She recovered completely by conservative treatment. US should be performed in consideration of the possibility of AAC when a patient with IM complains of epigastralgia.

  13. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-11-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization.

  14. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization. PMID:28018450

  15. Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cinbis, M; Aysun, S

    1992-05-01

    We present a patient with serologically confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who had illusions of size, shape, and colour of objects but none of the typical symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious mononucleosis (IM) except sore throat which developed 2 weeks after the initial visual disturbances. The bizarre feelings about the images of body and objects are called the 'Alice in Wonderland syndrome' due to the similarity with Alice's dreams. The same symptomatology including visual metamorphosia is defined in patients with migraine, epilepsy, intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs, schizophrenia, hyperpyrexia, and cerebral lesions. Alice in Wonderland syndrome has also been reported in the course of IM.

  16. Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Cinbis, M; Aysun, S

    1992-01-01

    We present a patient with serologically confirmed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection who had illusions of size, shape, and colour of objects but none of the typical symptoms and signs peculiar to infectious mononucleosis (IM) except sore throat which developed 2 weeks after the initial visual disturbances. The bizarre feelings about the images of body and objects are called the 'Alice in Wonderland syndrome' due to the similarity with Alice's dreams. The same symptomatology including visual metamorphosia is defined in patients with migraine, epilepsy, intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs, schizophrenia, hyperpyrexia, and cerebral lesions. Alice in Wonderland syndrome has also been reported in the course of IM. PMID:1390519

  17. Clinical Trials Using Adenovirus/Cytomegalovirus/Epstein-Barr Virus-specific Allogeneic Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus/cytomegalovirus/epstein-barr virus-specific allogeneic cytotoxic t lymphocytes.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus: a master epigenetic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rona S

    2017-08-03

    Like all herpesviruses, the ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to establish life-long persistent infections is related to a biphasic viral lifecycle that involves latency and reactivation/lytic replication. Memory B cells serve as the EBV latency compartment where silencing of viral gene expression allows maintenance of the viral genome, avoidance of immune surveillance, and life-long carriage. Upon viral reactivation, viral gene expression is induced for replication, progeny virion production, and viral spread. EBV uses the host epigenetic machinery to regulate its distinct viral gene expression states. However, epigenetic manipulation by EBV affects the host epigenome by reprogramming cells in ways that leave long-lasting, oncogenic phenotypes. Such virally-induced epigenetic alterations are evident in EBV-associated cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus in breast carcinoma in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Preciado, María Victoria; Chabay, Paola Andrea; De Matteo, Elena Noemí; Gonzalez, Pedro; Grinstein, Saúl; Actis, Andrea; Gass, Hugo Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Because the etiology and progression of breast carcinoma remain unclear, novel mechanisms of disease pathogenesis need to be considered. Recent interest has focused on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic ubiquitous herpesvirus. Investigations of this association could not only broaden understanding of breast cancer etiology but also have implications regarding early detection, treatment, and prevention. To assess EBV presence in breast carcinoma in an Argentine series. Breast biopsy specimens of 69 women with breast carcinoma and fresh tumor tissue of 39 of these women were collected. As controls, 17 biopsy specimens of fibroadenomas, 9 of benign epithelial proliferation, 4 of atypical ductal hyperplasia, and 10 of usual ductal hyperplasia and 8 normal breast tissues from women were studied. The EBV-infected cells were identified by means of immunohistochemical analysis, using a monoclonal antibody against Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify EBV DNA, with primers that cover the EBV encoded RNA (EBER) and BamHIW regions. Nuclear expression of EBNA-1 was observed in tumor epithelial cells in 24 (35%) of the 69 cases. We confirmed both positive and negative immunohistochemical results by PCR in those cases where good quality DNA was also available, detecting amplification fragments of 108 base pairs (bp) from the EBER region and 122 bp from the BamHIW region. Neither immunohistochemical analysis nor PCR detected any positive EBV results in the control samples. Our results demonstrate the presence and expression of EBV restricted to epithelial tumor cells in a subset of breast carcinomas studied. However, no significant association was observed between EBV expression and worse clinical and pathologic patient characteristics.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). V. Incidence of EBV antibodies in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, I V; Ghenoiu, O; Tache, M

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 24 patients with other various rheumatic diseases, 50 patients with diabetes mellitus, 34 patients with acute viral infections, 6 patients with infectious mononucleosis, 77 patients with lymphomas and leukemia and 110 blood donors and 24 healthy subjects as normal controls, respectively, were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) reaction for the presence of specific antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus determined viral capsid antigen (anti-VCA) and Epstein-Barr active viral infection. The IF test carried out in acetone-fixed smears of EB-3 cell line revealed EB antibodies anti-VCA in 83.3% of infectious mononucleosis, 61.0% lymphomas and leukemia, 58.0% diabetic patients. The frequency of anti-VCA antibodies in rheumatic patients was 31.4%, and 3.6% and 25% in sera from blood donors and healthy subjects, respectively. Incidence of active EBV infection was 5.7% of rheumatic diseases, 17.7% of acute virus infections, 50.0% of infectious mononucleosis, and 31.1% of lymphomas and leukemia patients. Active EBV infection was not found out in blood donors (0/110) and healthy subjects (0/24) groups as control. Rheumatoid arthritis with or without rheumatoid factor patients had serological evidence of active EBV infection 6/26 and 4/26 respectively.

  1. Could Epstein-Barr virus or canine distemper virus cause multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Lincoln, John A; Hankiewicz, Karolina; Cook, Stuart D

    2008-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an immune-mediated disease with a possible environmental trigger. Genetic and environmental factors, including infection by pathogens, may act synergistically to trigger the disease. There is growing epidemiologic, serologic, and pathologic evidence that Epstein-Barr virus may cause MS or contribute to its pathogenesis. The evidence that canine distemper virus is involved in MS is less robust. More definitive data are required to prove that Epstein-Barr virus or canine distemper virus causes some or most cases of MS.

  2. The Epstein-Barr virus and the pathogenesis of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Vockerodt, Martina; Yap, Lee-Fah; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Curley, Helen; Wei, Wenbin; Vrzalikova, Katerina; Murray, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery in 1964 of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in African Burkitt lymphoma, this virus has been associated with a remarkably diverse range of cancer types. Because EBV persists in the B cells of the asymptomatic host, it can easily be envisaged how it contributes to the development of B-cell lymphomas. However, EBV is also found in other cancers, including T-cell/natural killer cell lymphomas and several epithelial malignancies. Explaining the aetiological role of EBV is challenging, partly because the virus probably contributes differently to each tumour and partly because the available disease models cannot adequately recapitulate the subtle variations in the virus-host balance that exist between the different EBV-associated cancers. A further challenge is to identify the co-factors involved; because most persistently infected individuals will never develop an EBV-associated cancer, the virus cannot be working alone. This article will review what is known about the contribution of EBV to lymphoma development.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus and skin manifestations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Di Lernia, Vito; Mansouri, Yasaman

    2013-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human B-lymphotropic herpes virus and one of the most common viruses in humans. Specific skin signs related to EBV infection are the exanthem of mononucleosis, which is observed more frequently after ingestion of amoxicillin, and oral hairy leukoplakia, a disease occurring mostly in immunocompromised subjects with HIV infection. Other more uncommon cutaneous disorders that have been associated with EBV infection include virus-related exanthems or diseases such as Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, erythema multiforme, and acute genital ulcers. Other skin manifestations, not correlated to virus infection, such as hydroa vacciniforme and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome have also been linked to EBV. The putative involvement of EBV in skin diseases is growing similarly to other areas of medicine, where the role of EBV infection is being investigated in potentially debilitating inflammatory diseases. The prognosis of EBV infection in healthy, immunocompetent individuals is excellent. However, lifelong infection, which is kept in check by the host immune system, determines an unpredictable risk of pathologic unpredictable scenarios. In this review, we describe the spectrum of non-tumoral dermatological manifestations that can follow EBV primary infection or reactivation of EBV in childhood.

  4. [Epstein-Barr virus presence in Colombian Hodgkin lymphoma cases and its relation to treatment response].

    PubMed

    Quijano, Sandra; Saavedra, Carlos; Fiorentino, Susana; Orozco, Oscar; Bravo, María Mercedes

    2004-06-01

    The role of Epstein-Barr virus as etiologic agent in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) development has been supported by the detection of viral DNA in the Reed-Sternberg cell in a subset of HL, and the high levels of latent membrane protein 1 expression in these tumors. To gain further evidence of this relationship, lymph nodes from 67 patients with HL were analyzed for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus using EBERs in situ hybridization and LMP-1 immunohistochemistry. Virus presence was related to histological subtype, patients' treatment response and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes phenotype. EBERs transcripts were found in 67% of the cases and LMP-1 in the Reed-Sternberg tumor cells at a 56.7% rate. The prevalence, as determined by histological subtype, was 69.81% for nodular sclerosing, 85.71% for mixed cellularity and 40% for lymphocyte-rich. Epstein-Barr virus presence was more frequent in children (84.2%) in comparison with adults (60.4%). Positive patients presented higher failure-free survival rates than Epstein-Barr virus negative patients. CD4 positive infiltrating T cells were present in a higher proportion in relation to CD8 positive T infiltrating cells, the mean percentages for both subsets were higher in Epstein-Barr virus positive cases. A high percentage of Epstein-Barr virus was present in HL with a probable association with treatment response. This suggests an application of Epstein-Barr virus detection to use as a prognosis marker in treatment response for HL cases.

  5. [Pancreatitis, myocarditis and interstitial nephritis associated with acute infection with Epstein Barr virus].

    PubMed

    Teniente Urbina, Maria Elena; Castañeda, Jorge Casas; José Ortiz Saavedra, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widely disseminated herpesvirus that is spread by intimate contact between susceptible persons and asymptomatic EBV shedders. Clinical manifestations range from uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis to Burkitt lymphoma. The majority of primary EBV infections throughout the world are subclinical, after a prodromal period of feverishness, and malaise, the disease presents with the classic triad of severe sore throat, fever and lymphadenopathy. In some cases an atypical presentation can occur that may lead to potentially fatal complication. A 39-year-old woman was admitted because of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting; one week before admission the patient noticed sore throath and fever. During hospitalization an acute pancreatitis was documented with elevated serum amylase and Balthazar B CT, in addition to an acute renal failure; subsequently presented respiratory failure and distributive shock associated to myocardial injury. These serious complications progressively resolved with supportive measures. The final diagnosis was pancreatitis, myocarditis and acute renal failure due to Epstein-Barr virus, confirmed by serological markers. EBV can affect virtually any organ system and can have a variety of clinical presentations. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile processes of unknown etiology with multisystem involvement.

  6. Attachment anxiety is related to Epstein-Barr virus latency.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Christopher P; Jaremka, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Alfano, Catherine M; Povoski, Stephen P; Lipari, Adele M; Agnese, Doreen M; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Farrar, William B; Malarkey, William B; Chen, Min; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2014-10-01

    Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding individual differences in chronic interpersonal stress. Attachment anxiety, a type of relationship insecurity characterized by worry about rejection and abandonment, is a chronic interpersonal stressor. Stress impacts cellular immunity, including herpesvirus reactivation. We investigated whether attachment anxiety was related to the expression of a latent herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), when individuals were being tested for breast or colon cancer and approximately 1 year later. Participants (N=183) completed a standard attachment questionnaire and provided blood to assess EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG antibody titers. Individuals with more attachment anxiety had higher EBV VCA IgG antibody titers than those with less attachment anxiety. The strength of the association between attachment anxiety and antibody titers was the same at both assessments. This study is the first to show an association between latent herpesvirus reactivation and attachment anxiety. Because elevated herpesvirus antibody titers reflect poorer cellular immune system control over the latent virus, these data suggest that high attachment anxiety is associated with cellular immune dysregulation.

  7. Joint involvement secondary to Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Feced Olmos, Carlos Manuel; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Robustillo Villarino, Montserrat; de la Morena Barrio, Isabel; Alegre Sancho, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    We describe a group of patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and joint involvement. Between February 2011 and January 2012, there were six cases in our unit. Two presented with a pattern similar to rheumatoid arthritis, three had polyarthralgia with an inflammatory pattern and only one patient had asymmetrical oligoarthritis of large joints. They were all women aged between 25 and 75 (4 were of child-bearing potential). Diagnosis in all the cases was made by exclusion of other possible causes and negative IgM were obtained for the rest of the "Herpesviridae" family viruses. In our series, EBV joint involvement was more common in women of childbearing potential. Clinical presentation was heterogeneous but was predominantly in the form of inflammatory joint pain. When it presents in the form of symmetrical polyarthritis, it can become chronic and require the use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and Epstein-Barr virus: an association?

    PubMed

    Vergnon, J M; Vincent, M; de Thé, G; Mornex, J F; Weynants, P; Brune, J

    1984-10-06

    13 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) and 12 with interstitial lung disease (ILD) of known cause were studied for their humoral response to herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Serum antibodies to HSV and CMV were within the normal range in all patients. 10 patients with CFA had raised serum antibodies to EBV, and IgA against viral-capsid antigen (VCA) was detectable in all 13. In the other 12 patients EBV serological profiles were normal and IgA against VCA was detectable in only 1 patient. The EBV antibody levels did not correlate with the level of circulating immune complexes, the presence of rheumatoid factors, or the cytological findings of the alveolitis. The presence of IgG against VCA in 5 CFA patients suggests local production of EBV-specific immunoglobulins. Elevated IgG and IgA against EBV in CFA may indicate non-specific depression of cell-mediated immunity or that EBV plays a part in the aetiology of CFA.

  9. Murine Models of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Elshafa Hassan; Baiocchi, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a B-lymphotropic gamma herpes virus associated with a number of malignancies. Most EBV-related cancers present complex medical management challenges; thus it has been essential to develop preclinical in vivo models allowing for the study of pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. Early in vivo models used nonhuman primates; however, such models were limited by the inability of EBV to achieve viral latency, availability, and cost. Immunodeficient mouse strains emerged as efficient models that allow for engraftment of human mononuclear cells and controlled evaluation of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). By using highly immunodeficient strains of mice such as severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) and NOD/LtSz-scid ILrg(-/-)(NOG) mice, investigators have developed efficient platforms for evaluating pathogenesis of benign (HLH) and malignant (EBV-LPD) diseases associated with EBV. Humanized murine chimeric models have been essential tools for evaluating preventive strategies with vaccine and adoptive cellular approaches, as well as development of experimental therapeutic strategies. Manipulation of the human immune cells before engraftment or mutation of viral lytic and latent genes has enhanced our understanding of the oncogenic nature of EBV and the complexity of human immune responses to EBV. In this review, we discuss how the EBV murine models have evolved to become essential tools for studying the virology of EBV as it relates to human EBV-LPD pathogenesis, the immunobiology of innate and adaptive responses, and limitations of these models.

  10. Maternal depressive symptoms related to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Peng; Chen, Yu-Jiang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Ge, Jin-Fang; Huang, Kun; Tao, Rui-Xue; Jiang, Xiao-Min; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation before delivery. In this prospective observational study, prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation within one week before delivery was compared between 163 pregnant women with depressive symptoms at 33 to 34 weeks of gestation and a computer-generated control group of 163 pregnant healthy women without depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms at 33 to 34 weeks of gestation were significantly related to the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation before delivery after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 2.74, 95%CI: 1.23–6.08). Compared to that in the control group, the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation was higher in women with depressive symptoms accompanied by higher negative coping (24.2% compared with 7.9%; adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 1.47–9.16). Maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy are associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, and this association could be moderated by maternal coping style. PMID:24172862

  11. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856

  13. The role of Epstein-Barr virus in epithelial malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Sai-Wah; Tsang, Chi Man; To, Ka-Fai; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2015-01-01

    The close association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinomas and a subset of gastric carcinomas suggests that EBV infection is a crucial event in these cancers. The difficulties encountered in infecting and transforming primary epithelial cells in experimental systems suggest that the role of EBV in epithelial malignancies is complex and multifactorial in nature. Genetic alterations in the premalignant epithelium may support the establishment of latent EBV infection, which is believed to be an initiation event. Oncogenic properties have been reported in multiple EBV latent genes. The BamH1 A rightwards transcripts (BARTs) and the BART-encoded microRNAs (miR-BARTs) are highly expressed in EBV-associated epithelial malignancies and may induce malignant transformation. However, enhanced proliferation may not be the crucial function of EBV infection in epithelial malignancies, at least in the early stages of cancer development. EBV-encoded gene products may confer anti-apoptotic properties and promote the survival of infected premalignant epithelial cells harbouring genetic alterations. Multiple EBV-encoded microRNAs have been reported to have immune evasion functions. Genetic alterations in host cells, as well as inflammatory stroma, could modulate the expression of EBV genes and alter the growth properties of infected premalignant epithelial cells, encouraging their selection during carcinogenesis.

  14. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shimakage, Misuzu; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Harada, Shizuko; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Shinka, Toshiaki; Oka, Toshitsugu

    2007-07-01

    There have been few studies regarding the etiology of renal cell carcinoma. To examine the possible involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in this disease, 9 renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 2 nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) and 2 RCC cell lines were subjected to mRNA in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence staining. Messenger RNA in situ hybridization using BamHIW, EBNA LP, EBNA 2 and EBER1 probes of EBV revealed signals in all the examined samples, although some samples showed weak signals using the EBNA LP probe. Indirect immunofluorescence staining using anti-EBNA LP, anti-EBNA2, anti-LMP1 and anti-BZLF1 antibodies showed definitive fluorescence. PCR also revealed EBV DNA in all 8 RCC specimens including 7 cases other than hybridization and fluorescence. EBV infected all the RCC and nephroblastoma irrespective of the histological or clinical stage. On the other hand, EBV expression was stronger in papillary and clear cell-type RCC than chromophobe cell-type, as well as being stronger in the higher grades of RCC. These results suggest that the expression of EBV may be involved in the pathogenesis of RCC and nephroblastoma.

  15. Biology and disease associations of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D H

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus which infects almost all of the world's population subclinically during childhood and thereafter remains in the body for life. The virus colonizes antibody-producing (B) cells, which, as relatively long-lived resting cells, are an ideal site for long-term residence. Here EBV evades recognition and destruction by cytotoxic T cells. EBV is passed to naive hosts in saliva, but how the virus gains access to this route of transmission is not entirely clear. EBV carries a set of latent genes that, when expressed in resting B cells, induce cell proliferation and thereby increase the chances of successful virus colonization of the B-cell system during primary infection and the establishment of persistence. However, if this cell proliferation is not controlled, or if it is accompanied by additional genetic events within the infected cell, it can lead to malignancy. Thus EBV acts as a step in the evolution of an ever-increasing list of malignancies which are broadly of lymphoid or epithelial cell origin. In some of these, such as B-lymphoproliferative disease in the immunocompromised host, the role of the virus is central and well defined; in others, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, essential cofactors have been identified which act in concert with EBV in the evolution of the malignant clone. However, in several diseases in which the presence of EBV has more recently been discovered, the role of the virus is unclear. This review describes recent views on the EBV life cycle and its interlinks with normal B-cell biology, and discusses how this interrelationship may be upset and result in EBV-associated disease. PMID:11313005

  16. An increased prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    James, J A; Kaufman, K M; Farris, A D; Taylor-Albert, E; Lehman, T J; Harley, J B

    1997-01-01

    An unknown environmental agent has been suspected to induce systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) in man. Prompted by our recent immunochemical findings, we sought evidence for an association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and lupus. Because the vast majority of adults have been infected with Epstein-Barr virus, we chose to study children and young adults. Virtually all (116 of 117, or 99%) of these young patients had seroconverted against Epstein-Barr virus, as compared with only 70% (107 of 153) of their controls (odds ratio 49.9, 95% confidence interval 9.3-1025, P < 0. 00000000001). The difference in the rate of Epstein-Barr virus seroconversion could not be explained by serum IgG level or by cross-reacting anti-Sm/nRNP autoantibodies. No similar difference was found in the seroconversion rates against four other herpes viruses. An assay for Epstein-Barr viral DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes established Epstein-Barr virus infection in the peripheral blood of all 32 of the lupus patients tested, while only 23 of the 32 matched controls were infected (odds ratio > 10, 95% confidence interval 2.53-infinity, P < 0.002). When considered with other evidence supporting a relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and lupus, these data are consistent with, but do not in themselves establish, Epstein-Barr virus infection as an etiologic factor in lupus. PMID:9399948

  17. Cordycepin enhances Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection and Epstein-Barr virus-positive tumor treatment efficacy by doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Du, Yinping; Yu, Jieshi; Du, Li; Tang, Jun; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The consistent latent presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in tumor cells offers potential for virus-targeted therapies. The switch from the latent form of EBV to the lytic form in tumor cells can lead to tumor cell lysis. In this study, we report that a natural small molecule compound, cordycepin, can induce lytic EBV infection in tumor cells. Subsequently, we demonstrate that cordycepin can enhance EBV reactivating capacity and EBV-positive tumor cell killing ability of low dose doxorubicin. The combination of cordycepin and doxorubicin phosphorylates CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) through protein kinase C (PKC)-p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway, and C/EBPβ is required for the activation of lytic EBV infection. Most importantly, an in vivo experiment demonstrates that the combination of cordycepin and doxorubicin is more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in SCID mice than is doxorubicin alone. Our findings establish that cordycepin can enhance the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy for treatment of EBV-positive tumors.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Transcytosis through Polarized Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Rossana; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an orally transmitted virus, viral transmission through the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, we investigated how EBV traverses polarized human oral epithelial cells without causing productive infection. We found that EBV may be transcytosed through oral epithelial cells bidirectionally, from both the apical to the basolateral membranes and the basolateral to the apical membranes. Apical to basolateral EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Electron microscopy showed that virions were surrounded by apical surface protrusions and that virus was present in subapical vesicles. Inactivation of signaling molecules critical for macropinocytosis, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, myosin light-chain kinase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21-activated kinase 1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, and cell division control protein 42 homolog, led to significant reduction in EBV apical to basolateral transcytosis. In contrast, basolateral to apical EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolin-mediated virus entry. Caveolae were detected in the basolateral membranes of polarized human oral epithelial cells, and virions were detected in caveosome-like endosomes. Methyl β-cyclodextrin, an inhibitor of caveola formation, reduced EBV basolateral entry. EBV virions transcytosed in either direction were able to infect B lymphocytes. Together, these data show that EBV transmigrates across oral epithelial cells by (i) apical to basolateral transcytosis, potentially contributing to initial EBV penetration that leads to systemic infection, and (ii) basolateral to apical transcytosis, which may enable EBV secretion into saliva in EBV-infected individuals. PMID:23698302

  19. EVIDENCE OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ASSOCIATION WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCERS: A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Soorebettu R; Wilson, David F

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ubiquitous: over 90% of the adult population is infected with this virus. EBV is capable of infecting both B lymphocytes and epithelial cells throughout the body including the head and neck region. Transmission occurs mainly by exchange of saliva. The infection is asymptomatic or mild in children but, in adolescents and young adults, it causes infectious mononucleosis, a self-limiting disease characterized by lethargy, sore throat, fever and lymphadenopathy. Once established, the virus often remains latent and people become lifelong carriers without experiencing disease. However, in some people, the latent virus is capable of causing malignant tumours, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and various B- and T-cell lymphomas, at sites including the head, neck and oropharyngeal region. As lymphoma is the second-most common malignant disease of the head, neck and oral region after squamous cell carcinoma, oral health care workers including dentists and specialists have a responsibility to carry out a thorough clinical examination of this anatomical region with a view to identifying and diagnosing lesions that may represent lymphomas. Early detection allows early treatment resulting in better prognosis. The focus of this review is on the morphology, transmission and carcinogenic properties of EBV and clinical and diagnostic aspects of a range of EBV-associated malignancies occurring in the head, neck and oral region. As carcinogenic agents, viruses contribute to a significant proportion of the global cancer burden: approximately 15% of all human cancers, worldwide, are attributable to viruses.1,2 Serologic and epidemiologic studies are providing mounting evidence of an etiologic association between viruses and head and neck malignancies.3 To update oral and maxillofacial surgeons and oral medicine specialists and raise awareness of this association, we recently reviewed the evidence of the etiologic role of human papillomavirus in oral disease.4

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus and Its Association with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Khammissa, Razia Abdool Gafaar; Fourie, Jeanine; Chandran, Rakesh; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompromised subjects, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of terminally differentiated oral keratinocytes may result in subclinical productive infection of the virus in the stratum spinosum and in the stratum granulosum with shedding of infectious virions into the oral fluid in the desquamating cells. In a minority of cases this productive infection with dysregulation of the cell cycle of terminally differentiated epithelial cells may manifest as oral hairy leukoplakia. This is a white, hyperkeratotic, benign lesion of low morbidity, affecting primarily the lateral border of the tongue. Factors that determine whether productive EBV replication within the oral epithelium will cause oral hairy leukoplakia include the fitness of local immune responses, the profile of EBV gene expression, and local environmental factors.

  1. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic lupus erythematosus. On the

  2. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene promoter variants and comparison of cellular gene expression profiles in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Imajoh, Masayuki; Hashida, Yumiko; Murakami, Masanao; Maeda, Akihiko; Sato, Tetsuya; Fujieda, Mikiya; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Daibata, Masanori

    2012-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genotypes can be distinguished based on gene sequence differences in EBV nuclear antigens 2, 3A, 3B, and 3C, and the BZLF1 promoter zone (Zp). EBV subtypes and BZLF1 Zp variants were examined in Japanese patients with infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The results of EBV typing showed that samples of infectious mononucleosis, chronic active EBV infection, and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis all belonged to EBV type 1. However, sequencing analysis of BZLF1 Zp found three polymorphic Zp variants in the same samples. The Zp-P prototype and the Zp-V3 variant were both detected in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection. Furthermore, a novel variant previously identified in Chinese children with infectious mononucleosis, Zp-V1, was also found in 3 of 18 samples of infectious mononucleosis, where it coexisted with the Zp-P prototype. This is the first evidence that the EBV variant distribution in Japanese patients resembles that found in other Asian patients. The expression levels of 29 chronic active EBV infection-associated cellular genes were also compared in the three EBV-related disorders, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Two upregulated genes, RIPK2 and CDH9, were identified as common specific markers for chronic active EBV infection in both in vitro and in vivo studies. RIPK2 activates apoptosis and autophagy, and could be responsible for the pathogenesis of chronic active EBV infection.

  3. Valganciclovir suppressed Epstein Barr virus reactivation during immunosuppression with alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harinder; Hwang, Yu-Yan; Chan, Thomas S Y; Pang, Annie W K; Leung, Anskar Y H; Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2014-04-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes viruses occurs with immunosuppression. Alemtuzumab is an antibody targeting CD52, which is expressed on all B- and T-cells. Treatment with alemtuzumab leads to profound T-cell suppression, and reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) occurs. Valganciclovir is used as an anti-CMV prophylaxis during alemtuzumab therapy. To determine if EBV reactivation is decreased with valganciclovir prophylaxis. Plasma EBV DNA was serially quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction with a World Health Organization EBV standard in patients receiving alemtuzumab therapy with valganciclovir as anti-CMV prophylaxis. Twenty-nine patients were studied. A total of 258 samples were quantified, at a median of 7 (3-25) specimens per patient. Twenty-four patients never had any quantifiable EBV DNA. Five patients (17%) developed EBV reactivation. Two patients had EBV reactivation at very low levels of about 10(3)IU/mL, 3-4 logs lower than those typically found in post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases. Three patients had EBV reactivation at higher levels of 10(4)IU/mL, which only occurred after two courses of alemtuzumab were administered. EBV reactivation subsided spontaneously in four cases. One patient developed EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma, but he had also received previously another potent T-cell suppressing drug fludarabine. Valganciclovir suppressed EBV reactivation during alemtuzumab therapy. It might be a useful prophylaxis in immunocompromized patient populations at high risk of EBV reactivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal lengths for DNAs encapsidated by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Bloss, T A; Sugden, B

    1994-01-01

    We measured the efficiency of DNA packaging by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as a function of the length of the DNA being packaged. Plasmids that contain oriP (the origin of latent EBV DNA replication), oriLyt (the origin of lytic EBV DNA replication), the viral terminal repeats (necessary for cleavage and packaging by EBV), and various lengths of bacteriophage lambda DNA were introduced into EBV-positive cells. Upon induction of the resident EBV's lytic phase, introduced plasmids replicated as concatemers and were packaged. Plasmid-derived concatemers of DNA with certain lengths were found to predominate in isolated virion particles. We measured the distribution of lengths of plasmid concatemers found within cells supporting the lytic phase of the viral life cycle and found that this distribution differed from the distribution of lengths of concatemers found in mature virion particles. This finding indicates that the DNA packaged into mature virions represents a selected subset of those present in the cell during packaging. These observations together indicate that the length of DNA affects the efficiency with which that DNA is packaged by EBV. Finally, we measured the length of the packaged B95-8 viral DNA and found it to be approximately 165 kbp, or 10 kbp shorter than the originally predicted size for B95-8 based on its sequence. Together with the results of other studies, these findings indicate that the packaging of DNAs by EBV is dependent on two imprecisely recognized elements: the viral terminal repeats and the length of the DNA being packaged by the virus. Images PMID:7966614

  5. Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans: from harmless to life endangering virus-lymphocyte interactions.

    PubMed

    Klein, E; Kis, L L; Klein, G

    2007-02-26

    After the primary infection, that may or may not cause infectious mononucleosis, the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is carried for lifetime. The great majority of adult humans are virus carriers. EBV was discovered in a B-cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma). EBV infection in humans is the example for the power of immune surveillance against virus transformed, potentially malignant cells. Although the virus can transform B lymphocytes in vitro into proliferating lines, it induces malignancy directly only in immunosuppressed hosts. EBV-induced growth transformation occurs only in B lymphocytes. It is the result of a complex interaction between virally encoded and cellular proteins. Different forms of the virus-cell and the cell-host interactions have evolved during a long period of coexistence between the virus and all Old World (but not New World) primates. The asymptomatic carrier state is based on a viral-strategy that downregulates the expression of the transforming proteins in the virus-carrying cell. In addition to the silent viral-gene carriers and the expressors of the nine virus-encoded genes that drive the growth program, virus carrying cells exist that show other patterns of gene expression, depending on the differentiated state of the host cell. Certain combinations contribute to malignant transformation, but only in conjunction with additional cellular changes. These are induced by direct or cytokine-mediated interactions with normal cells of the immune system.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Chronically Inflamed Periapical Granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kosuke; Takeichi, Osamu; Hatori, Keisuke; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2015-01-01

    Periapical granulomas are lesions around the apex of a tooth caused by a polymicrobial infection. Treatment with antibacterial agents is normally performed to eliminate bacteria from root canals; however, loss of the supporting alveolar bone is typically observed, and tooth extraction is often selected if root canal treatment does not work well. Therefore, bacteria and other microorganisms could be involved in this disease. To understand the pathogenesis of periapical granulomas more precisely, we focused on the association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using surgically removed periapical granulomas (n = 32). EBV DNA was detected in 25 of 32 periapical granulomas (78.1%) by real-time PCR, and the median number of EBV DNA copies was approximately 8,688.01/μg total DNA. In contrast, EBV DNA was not detected in healthy gingival tissues (n = 10); the difference was statistically significant according to the Mann-Whitney U test (p = 0.0001). Paraffin sections were also analyzed by in situ hybridization to detect EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER)-expressing cells. EBER was detected in the cytoplasm and nuclei of B cells and plasma cells in six of nine periapical granulomas, but not in healthy gingival tissues. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) of EBV using serial tissue sections showed that LMP-1-expressing cells were localized to the same areas as EBER-expressing cells. These data suggest that B cells and plasma cells in inflamed granulomas are a major source of EBV infection, and that EBV could play a pivotal role in controlling immune cell responses in periapical granulomas. PMID:25884725

  7. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L; Stowe, R P; Phillips, T M; Lugg, D J; Mehta, S K

    2005-05-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  10. Bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitors block the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle at two distinct steps.

    PubMed

    Keck, Kristin M; Moquin, Stephanie A; He, Amanda; Fernandez, Samantha G; Somberg, Jessica J; Liu, Stephanie M; Martinez, Delsy M; Miranda, Jj L

    2017-08-11

    Lytic infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) poses numerous health risks, such as infectious mononucleosis and lymphoproliferative disorder. Proteins in the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family regulate multiple stages of viral life cycles and provide promising intervention targets. Synthetic small molecules can bind to the bromodomains and disrupt function by preventing recognition of acetylated lysine substrates. We demonstrate that JQ1 and other BET inhibitors block two different steps in the sequential cascade of the EBV lytic cycle. BET inhibitors prevent expression of the viral immediate-early protein BZLF1. JQ1 alters transcription of genes controlled by the host protein BACH1, and BACH1 knockdown reduces BZLF1 expression. BET proteins also localize to the lytic origin of replication (OriLyt) genetic elements, and BET inhibitors prevent viral late gene expression. There JQ1 reduces BRD4 recruitment during reactivation to preclude replication initiation. This represents a rarely observed dual mode of action for drugs.

  11. Prolonged hepatitis and jaundice: a rare complication of paediatric Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhen Han; Phua, Kong Boo; Ong, Christina; Kader, Ajmal

    2015-07-01

    We herein report the case of a 14-year-old girl with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious mononucleosis who developed prolonged hepatitis and jaundice. At presentation, she had tender hepatomegaly with a markedly deranged liver function test. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatomegaly and a thickened gallbladder wall. During the subsequent 11 weeks, her transaminases showed two further peaks, which corresponded with clinical deterioration. Her highest alanine transaminase level was 1,795 µ/L and total bilirubin level was 154 µmol/L. She recovered fully with conservative management. EBV-related liver involvement is typically mild and self-limiting. We believe that tender hepatomegaly and gallbladder thickening may be important predictors of significant liver involvement. Although multiple transaminase peaks may occur, we do not consider this an indication for antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy. In the absence of strong evidence supporting the use of any specific therapy, we recommend a conservative approach for an immunocompetent patient.

  12. Unusual Presentation of Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome due to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Al Kaabi, Amani; Kara Hamo, Yasmin; Al Kaabi, Aysha; Al Kaabi, Salwa; Al Tatari, Hossam

    2016-01-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is viral exanthema of childhood. It typically presents with a symmetric erythematous papular and papulovesicular eruption. It has been classically associated with hepatitis B virus, as well as rarely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report a case of GCS related to EBV infection without the classical systemic symptoms in a five-year-old male patient.

  13. Why and How Epstein-Barr Virus Was Discovered 50 Years Ago.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    An account is given of the experiences and events which led to a search being undertaken for a causative virus in the recently described Burkitt's lymphoma and of the steps which ultimately culminated in the discovery of the new human herpesvirus which came to be known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).

  14. Neutralization of Epstein-Barr Virus by Nonimmune Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Jensen, Fred C.; Cooper, Neil R.

    1982-01-01

    These studies were carried out to investigate the mechanism of neutralization of purified Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by fresh human serum from normal individuals lacking antibody to the EBV viral capsid (VCA) and nuclear antigens (EBNA). Such individuals thus lack serological evidence of immunity to EBV. Although an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with highly purified immobilized EBV detected low levels of IgG antibody reactive with EBV in these normal nonimmune sera, this antibody failed to neutralize EBV in the absence of complement. Studies with depleted sera and mixtures of purified complement proteins at physiologic concentrations showed that the IgG antibody and C1, C4, C2, and C3 of the classical pathway were able to fully neutralize EBV. Mixtures of the purified components of the alternative pathway at physiologic concentrations failed to neutralize purified EBV in the presence or absence of the antibody and the alternative pathway did not potentiate classical pathway-mediated neutralization. No evidence for a requirement for C8 was obtained, precluding lysis as the mechanism of neutralization. Since C3 deposition on the viral surface accompanied classical pathway activation, viral neutralization is most likely secondary to the accumulation of complement protein on the viral surface. A coating of protein on the virus could interfere with attachment to, or penetration of potentially susceptible cells. Experiments were undertaken to determine the specificity of the IgG antibody in the sera of EBV nonimmune individuals which, together with complement, neutralized EBV. Both purified EBV and herpes simplex I (HSV-1) absorbed the EBV ELISA reactivity and EBV-neutralizing activity of nonimmune sera, whereas another member of the herpesvirus group, cytomegalovirus, was inactive in this regard. HSV-1 was quantitatively more efficient than EBV in absorbing reactivity, a finding that indicates that the antibody has a higher affinity for HSV-1 than for EBV

  15. Giant cell arteritis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Giardina, A; Rizzo, A; Ferrante, A; Capra, G; Triolo, G; Ciccia, F

    2013-03-28

    Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory vasculopathy that preferentially affects medium-sized and large arteries. A viral cause has been suspected but not confirmed in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. We report the case of a 81-year-old female who suffered from chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and developed giant cell temporal arteritis.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). III. Incidence of EBV antibodies in patients with various tumors.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, I V; Andrian, T; Stoian, M; Tache, M

    1988-01-01

    Serum samples from 553 patients with various tumors, from 26 patients with different viral infections and from 78 clinically healthy subjects were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) reaction for the presence of specific antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus. The test revealed antibodies to EBV in 127 patients with tumors, in 14 patients with viral infections and in 8 healthy persons.

  17. Mannose-Binding Lectin Genotypes and Susceptibility to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy▿

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Jeppe T.; Jarrett, Ruth F.; Koch, Anders; Garred, Peter; Freeland, June M. L.; Andersen, Andreas; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    In a cohort study of children <4 years of age in Greenland, mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotypes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels were determined. EBV seropositivity was significantly lower and time to seroconversion increased in MBL-insufficient compared with MBL-sufficient children, indicating that MBL may be involved in primary EBV infection in infancy. PMID:20610664

  18. Emotional Disclosure through Writing or Speaking Modulates Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Titers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterling, Brian A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Healthy Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositive undergraduates (n=57) completed personality inventory, provided blood samples, and were randomly assigned to write/talk about stressful events, or to write about trivial events. Those assigned to verbal/stressful condition had significantly lower EBV antibody titers (suggesting better cellular immune…

  19. Emotional Disclosure through Writing or Speaking Modulates Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody Titers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esterling, Brian A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Healthy Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositive undergraduates (n=57) completed personality inventory, provided blood samples, and were randomly assigned to write/talk about stressful events, or to write about trivial events. Those assigned to verbal/stressful condition had significantly lower EBV antibody titers (suggesting better cellular immune…

  20. Severe leptospirosis complicated by Epstein-Barr Virus reactivation.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Matthias; Herfurth, Konstantin; Kläver, Monika; Miethke, Jenny; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Luge, Enno; Straube, Eberhard; Busch, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Weil's disease is a severe, potentially fatal illness following Leptospira interrogans infection. The reported case of a patient suffering from acute renal failure, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, rhabdomyolysis and encephalitis syndrome highlights the clinical challenge in reference to Weil syndrome complicated by Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) reactivation. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was performed using four different diagnostic methods. Sera were analyzed with an in-house IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was done using 17 reference strains comprising 14 serogroups and 17 serovars. Polyvalent EBV-IgG analysis, EBV-IgG/IgM/IgA western blot analysis as well as quantitative EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. Leptospira IHA showed an initial titer of 1:640 (cut-off 1:320), leptospiral IgG was negative, but IgM was positive. MAT was negative at that time for all 17 strains analyzed. One week later, leptospirosis IHA titer increased to 1:20,480. Leptospiral IgG was now positive, -IgM remained positive and urine was tested negative for leptospiral DNA. The MAT showed positive results for L. interrogans serovar Bataviae, serovar Copenhageni, serovar Pyrogenes and L. borgpetersenii serovar Serjoe. During follow-up examinations, both the leptospiral IgM and IgG remained positive and MAT showed positive results for L. interrogans of different serovars. EBV IgA immunoblot taken at admission was positive for VCA-p18, quantitative EBV-PCR showed an EBV viral load of 2.8E3 copies/ml indicating acute EBV-reactivation. Leptospirosis represents a neglected and re-emerging disease which is difficult to diagnose since Leptospira-PCR from whole blood or urine is frequently negative in the case of early empiric antibiotic treatment. EBV-reactivation might represent a severe complication in Weil's disease which potentially aggravates clinical manifestations of leptospirosis

  1. Clinical value of serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA assay in the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dezhong; Yang, Zhaoke; Fu, Yugui; Chen, Yanlin; Wang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Yanyi; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-09-01

    Serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA has been approved for diagnosing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The goal of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical value of the serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA in the diagnosis of NPC. The PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Wanfang Med Online, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched to identify suitable studies. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of the serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA for the diagnosis of NPC were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall test performances. Meta-Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.0 softwares were used to analyze the data. A total of 2,520 patients from ten trials were subjected to meta-analysis. The summary estimates of the serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA for NPC diagnosis were as follows: sensitivity 0.69 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.72), specificity 0.84 (95 % CI = 0.82-0.86), LR + 4.81 (95 % CI = 2.94-7.88), LR - 0.25 (95 % CI = 0.13-0.48), DOR 24.65 (95 % CI = 12.64-48.07), and area under the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve (AUC) was 0.8979. Our study demonstrates that the serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA could be a useful tumor marker for NPC diagnosis.

  2. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in two renal transplant patients: is there a role for Epstein-Barr virus reactivation?

    PubMed

    Caucheteux, N; Maarouf, A; Daelman, L; Toupance, O; Lavaud, S; Tourbah, A

    2013-08-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, usually occurring after a vaccination or infectious disease. It has been exceptionally described in transplanted patients. The pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We report the clinical, biological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) presentation and evolution of two kidney-transplanted patients with ADEM associated with local Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation. ADEM may occur in transplanted patients with favorable evolution. Its pathophysiology is uncertain, and the implication of EBV is discussed.

  3. Immune responses to epstein-barr virus in atomic bomb survivors: Study of precursor frequency of cytotoxic lymphocytes and titer levels of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Saito, Mayumi; Ozaki, Kyoko; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi ); Fukuda, Yasuko Children's Hospital Medical Center of Northern California, Oakland, CA ); Huang, Hua Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI )

    1994-04-01

    Precursor frequencies of cytotoxic lymphocytes to autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and serum titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-related antibodies were measured in 68 atomic bomb survivors to clarify the immune mechanism controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection. The precursor frequency was negatively correlated with the titer of anti-early antigen lgG, which is probably produced at the stage of viral reactivation. A positive correlation between the precursor frequency and titer of anti-Epstein-Barr virus-associated nuclear antigen antibody was also observed, indicating that the precursor frequency reflects the degree of in vivo destruction by T cells of the virus-infected cells. These results suggest that T-cell memory specific to Epstein-Barr virus keeps the virus under control and that the precursor frequency assay is useful for the evaluation of immune responses to Epstein-Barr virus. However, no significant effect of atomic bomb radiation on the precursor frequency was observed in the present study, probably due to the limited number of participants. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of a new reagent for anti-cytomegalovirus and anti-Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, J; Maroto, M D; Piédrola, G

    1994-01-01

    The Enzygnost alpha method was tested against the complement fixation test and anti-VCA immunofluorescence to determine the respective titers of anti-cytomegalovirus and anti-Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G antibodies. For cytomegalovirus, the Enzygnost results showed 97.99% agreement with the readings obtained by the alternative method, with 100% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity. For Epstein-Barr virus, Enzygnost showed 97.71% agreement, 100% sensitivity, and 91.11% specificity. PMID:7814510

  5. A possible link between the Epstein-Barr virus infection and autoimmune thyroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Michalski, Marek; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the Herpesviridae virus family. EBV infection can cause infectious mononucleosis (IM) in the lytic phase of EBV’s life cycle. Past EBV infection is associated with lymphomas, and may also result in certain allergic and autoimmune diseases. Although potential mechanisms of autoimmune diseases have not been clearly elucidated, both genetic and environmental factors, such as infectious agents, are considered to be responsible for their development. In addition, EBV modifies the host immune response. The worldwide prevalence of autoimmune diseases shows how common this pathogen is. Normally, the virus stays in the body and remains dormant throughout life. However, this is not always the case, and a serious EBV-related illness may develop later in life. This explains the chronic course of autoimmune diseases that is often accompanied by exacerbations of symptoms. Based on the present studies, EBV infection can cause autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. The EBV has also been reported in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Although EBV is not the only agent responsible for the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases, it can be considered a contributory factor. PMID:27833448

  6. Infektion mit Epstein-Barr-Virus und Tumor-Entstehung beim Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, H.

    1981-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the only infectious agent for which a close association with human malignant tumors has been clearly demonstrated. These tumors are one type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma which is frequent in parts of East Asia and the Burkitt lymphoma which predominantly occurs in parts of Africa and New Guinea. Nonetheless, the EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a benign, self-limiting lymphoproliferative disease of adolescents. The major difference between the countries in which the EBV-induced tumors occur and those in which IM occurs is the late primary EBV infection in the latter, whereas primary infection with EBV occurs in the first year of life in the former. All theories of viral carcinogenesis have to explain the long latency period between primary infection and tumor growth and how an ubiquitous virus may be oncogenic. Thus, invariably, one has to assume a role of cofactors, which may be of cytogenetic nature or may be represented by additional infections or by chemical agents. Since most modern theories of carcinogenesis consider a multi-step development of tumors, the theory that infection with an ubiquitous virus at the right time of life represents one step to carcinogenesis seems to be tenable.

  7. A possible link between the Epstein-Barr virus infection and autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Dittfeld, Anna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Michalski, Marek; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the Herpesviridae virus family. EBV infection can cause infectious mononucleosis (IM) in the lytic phase of EBV's life cycle. Past EBV infection is associated with lymphomas, and may also result in certain allergic and autoimmune diseases. Although potential mechanisms of autoimmune diseases have not been clearly elucidated, both genetic and environmental factors, such as infectious agents, are considered to be responsible for their development. In addition, EBV modifies the host immune response. The worldwide prevalence of autoimmune diseases shows how common this pathogen is. Normally, the virus stays in the body and remains dormant throughout life. However, this is not always the case, and a serious EBV-related illness may develop later in life. This explains the chronic course of autoimmune diseases that is often accompanied by exacerbations of symptoms. Based on the present studies, EBV infection can cause autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren's syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. The EBV has also been reported in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Although EBV is not the only agent responsible for the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases, it can be considered a contributory factor.

  8. Acute Retinal Necrosis Associated with Epstein-Barr Virus in a Patient Undergoing Immunosuppressive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oe, Chiaki; Hiraoka, Miki; Tanaka, Sachie; Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rapidly progressive and severe retinitis resulting in a poor visual outcome. Infections caused by herpes viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 or the varicella zoster virus (VZV) are known to be implicated in the development of ARN. In the present study, an 80-year-old female with ARN was examined. She had been affected with rheumatoid arthritis and had taken methotrexate for over 10 years. Her right eye showed clinical features of ARN, and her left eye showed mild retinitis. The genomic DNA in the aqueous humor and vitreous fluid from her right eye were analyzed by a comprehensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to screen infectious pathogens including viruses. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected from both specimens, but neither HSV or VZV nor cytomegalovirus was detected. She underwent intraocular surgery following systemic corticosteroid and acyclovir applications. However, although the retinitis of her right eye was extinguished, the final visual outcome was blindness due to optic nerve atrophy. There are few reports indicating that EBV is associated with ARN development. The present findings suggest that EBV alone can be the causative agent of ARN. PMID:27194989

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus: The Path from Latent to Productive Infection.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Bill

    2016-09-29

    The intrinsic properties of different viruses have driven their study. For example, the capacity for efficient productive infection of cultured cells by herpes simplex virus 1 has made it a paradigm for this mode of infection for herpesviruses in general. Epstein-Barr virus, another herpesvirus, has two properties that have driven its study: It causes human cancers, and it exhibits a tractable transition from its latent to its productive cycle in cell culture. Here, we review our understanding of the path Epstein-Barr virus follows to move from a latent infection to and through its productive cycle. We use information from human infections to provide a framework for describing studies in cell culture and, where possible, the molecular resolutions from these studies. We also pose questions whose answers we think are pivotal to understanding this path, and we provide answers where we can.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus induces MCP-1 secretion by human monocytes via TLR2.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Eric; Fiola, Stéphanie; Olivier, Martin; Gosselin, Jean

    2007-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus infecting the majority of the human adult population in the world. TLR2, a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, has been implicated in the immune responses to different viruses including members of the herpesvirus family, such as human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and varicella-zoster virus. In this report, we demonstrate that infectious and UV-inactivated EBV virions lead to the activation of NF-kappaB through TLR2 using HEK293 cells cotransfected with TLR2-expressing vector along with NF-kappaB-Luc reporter plasmid. NF-kappaB activation in HEK293-TLR2 cells (HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2) by EBV was not enhanced by the presence of CD14. The effect of EBV was abrogated by pretreating HEK293-TLR2 cells with blocking anti-TLR2 antibodies or by preincubating viral particles with neutralizing anti-EBV antibodies 72A1. In addition, EBV infection of primary human monocytes induced the release of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and the use of small interfering RNA targeting TLR2 significantly reduced such a chemokine response to EBV. Taken together, these results indicate that TLR2 may be an important pattern recognition receptor in the immune response directed against EBV infection.

  11. Unusual Presentation of Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome due to Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Al Kaabi, Amani; Kara Hamo, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is viral exanthema of childhood. It typically presents with a symmetric erythematous papular and papulovesicular eruption. It has been classically associated with hepatitis B virus, as well as rarely with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report a case of GCS related to EBV infection without the classical systemic symptoms in a five-year-old male patient. PMID:28050291

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus Quantitation by Real-Time PCR Targeting Multiple Gene Segments

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Julie L.; Fan, Hongxin; Glaser, Sally L.; Schichman, Steven A.; Raab-Traub, Nancy; Gulley, Margaret L.

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infects nearly all humans and then persists for the life of the host. In some people who later develop cancer, EBV DNA is present within malignant cells and circulates at elevated levels in the plasma. In the current study, we validated five novel quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) assays targeting disparate but highly conserved segments of the EBV genome (BamH1W, EBNA1, LMP1, LMP2, and BZLF1). Each assay was sensitive to as few as 50 copies of EBV DNA per reaction and was linear across at least four orders of magnitude. When applied to paraffin-embedded tissues in concert with EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization, the BamH1W and EBNA1 assays were the most informative, while use of the entire battery of EBV PCR assays may help identify genomic polymorphisms or deletions. Higher viral loads were found in the 17 EBER-positive compared with the 13 EBER-negative tumors (means 84,978 versus 22 copies of EBV per 100,000 cells, respectively). The five Q-PCR assays were also informative in plasma samples where EBV was measurable in all nine patients with lymphoma or infectious mononucleosis, whereas EBV was undetectable in all nine healthy controls. The findings suggest that Q-PCR is an effective method of distinguishing disease-associated virus from incidental virus in paraffin-embedded tissue and in plasma samples. PMID:15507678

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and thrombocytopenia following Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhammad; Dabbagh, Omar; Al-Muhaizae, Muhammad; Dhalaan, Hesham; Chedrawi, Aziza

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes a broad spectrum of disease in humans with several clinical syndromes and is ubiquitous, infecting more than 95% of the world's population. Central Nervous System (CNS) disease alone associated with Epstein-Barr virus rarely occurs in previously healthy individuals. Systemic viral illness in children and complications are rare, but may occur. In few cases, it is associated with a variety of CNS and hematological complications like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, neuropsychiatric syndrome, GBS, autoimmune thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia and they usually respond to immunotherapy. We report previously healthy boy, who presented with left sided weakness, headache and thrombocytopenia following EBV infection. The thrombocytopenia was resistant to intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone but responded well to Rituximab.

  14. Primary immunodeficiencies and the control of Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Rickinson, Alan B

    2015-11-01

    Human primary immunodeficiency (PID) states, where mutations in single immune system genes predispose individuals to certain infectious agents and not others, are experiments of nature that hold important lessons for the immunologist. The number of genetically defined PIDs is rising rapidly, as is the opportunity to learn from them. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, has long been of interest because of its complex interaction with the immune system. Thus, it causes both infectious mononucleosis (IM), an immunopathologic disease associated with exaggerated host responses, and at least one malignancy, EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease, when those responses are impaired. Here, we describe the full range of PIDs currently linked with an increased risk of EBV-associated disease. These provide examples where IM-like immunopathology is fatally exaggerated, and others where responses impaired at the stage of induction, expansion, or effector function predispose to malignancy. Current evidence from this rapidly moving field supports the view that lesions in both natural killer cell and T cell function can lead to EBV pathology.

  15. The Epstein-Barr virus miR-BHRF1-1 targets RNF4 during productive infection to promote the accumulation of SUMO conjugates and the release of infectious virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinlin; Callegari, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modification by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) regulates a variety of cellular functions, and is hijacked by viruses to remodel the host cell during latent and productive infection. Here we have monitored the activity of the SUMO conjugation machinery in cells productively infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We found that SUMO2/3 conjugates accumulate during the late phase of the productive virus cycle, and identified several viral proteins as bone fide SUMOylation substrates. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the accumulation of SUMOylated proteins revealed upregulation of several components of the SUMO-conjugation machinery and post-transcriptional downregulation of the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4. The latter effect was mediated by selective inhibition of RNF4 protein expression by the viral miR-BHRF1-1. Reconstitution of RNF4 in cells expressing an inducible miR-BHRF1-1 sponge or a miR-BHRF1-1 resistant RNF4 was associated with reduced levels of early and late viral proteins and impaired virus release. These findings illustrate a novel strategy for viral interference with the SUMO pathway, and identify the EBV miR-BHRF1-1 and the cellular RNF4 as regulators of the productive virus cycle. PMID:28414785

  16. The Epstein-Barr virus miR-BHRF1-1 targets RNF4 during productive infection to promote the accumulation of SUMO conjugates and the release of infectious virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlin; Callegari, Simone; Masucci, Maria G

    2017-04-01

    Post-translational modification by the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) regulates a variety of cellular functions, and is hijacked by viruses to remodel the host cell during latent and productive infection. Here we have monitored the activity of the SUMO conjugation machinery in cells productively infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We found that SUMO2/3 conjugates accumulate during the late phase of the productive virus cycle, and identified several viral proteins as bone fide SUMOylation substrates. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the accumulation of SUMOylated proteins revealed upregulation of several components of the SUMO-conjugation machinery and post-transcriptional downregulation of the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4. The latter effect was mediated by selective inhibition of RNF4 protein expression by the viral miR-BHRF1-1. Reconstitution of RNF4 in cells expressing an inducible miR-BHRF1-1 sponge or a miR-BHRF1-1 resistant RNF4 was associated with reduced levels of early and late viral proteins and impaired virus release. These findings illustrate a novel strategy for viral interference with the SUMO pathway, and identify the EBV miR-BHRF1-1 and the cellular RNF4 as regulators of the productive virus cycle.

  17. Kinetics of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Neutralizing and Virus-Specific Antibodies after Primary Infection with EBV.

    PubMed

    Bu, Wei; Hayes, Gregory M; Liu, Hui; Gemmell, Lorraine; Schmeling, David O; Radecki, Pierce; Aguilar, Fiona; Burbelo, Peter D; Woo, Jennifer; Balfour, Henry H; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2016-04-01

    Prospective studies of antibodies to multiple Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and EBV neutralizing antibodies in the same individuals before, during, and after primary EBV infection have not been reported. We studied antibody responses to EBV in college students who acquired primary EBV infection during prospective surveillance and correlated the kinetics of antibody response with the severity of disease. Neutralizing antibodies and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies to gp350, the major target of neutralizing antibody, reached peak levels at medians of 179 and 333 days after the onset of symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, respectively. No clear correlation was found between the severity of the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis and the peak levels of antibody to individual viral proteins or to neutralizing antibody. In summary, we found that titers of neutralizing antibody and antibodies to multiple EBV proteins increase over many months after primary infection with EBV. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Stress-induced reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Herpesviruses are leading causes of infectious blindness and death in immunocompromised individuals. Impaired cellular immunity, which is known to result in increased frequency and severity of herpesvirus infections, has been demonstrated both during and after spaceflight. Therefore, we examined whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a well-characterized latent herpesvirus, undergoes reactivation in astronauts. Sera from Shuttle astronauts, taken before and after spaceflight, were examined for evidence of EBV reactivation. The geometric mean antibody titer to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) was significantly increased prior to flight compared to baseline (p = 0. 0001). After spaceflight, evidence of acute lytic replication was found in which 8- to 64-fold increases in EBV early antigen (EA) antibodies occurred without significant increases in antibodies to measles virus. Additionally, stress-induced shifts in circulating leukocytes and elevated levels of urinary cortisol and epinephrine were found. Overall, significant increases in EA or high VCA/EA antibody titers were found in 8 of 23 (35%) male astronauts and 3 of 5 (60%) female astronauts. These results indicate that stress reactivates EBV prior to flight and suggest that acute lytic replication of EBV occurs during spaceflight. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. From Conventional to Next Generation Sequencing of Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Hin; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2016-02-24

    Genomic sequences of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been of interest because the virus is associated with cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and conditions such as infectious mononucleosis. The progress of whole-genome EBV sequencing has been limited by the inefficiency and cost of the first-generation sequencing technology. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and target enrichment strategies, increasing number of EBV genomes has been published. These genomes were sequenced using different approaches, either with or without EBV DNA enrichment. This review provides an overview of the EBV genomes published to date, and a description of the sequencing technology and bioinformatic analyses employed in generating these sequences. We further explored ways through which the quality of sequencing data can be improved, such as using DNA oligos for capture hybridization, and longer insert size and read length in the sequencing runs. These advances will enable large-scale genomic sequencing of EBV which will facilitate a better understanding of the genetic variations of EBV in different geographic regions and discovery of potentially pathogenic variants in specific diseases.

  20. Stress-induced reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Herpesviruses are leading causes of infectious blindness and death in immunocompromised individuals. Impaired cellular immunity, which is known to result in increased frequency and severity of herpesvirus infections, has been demonstrated both during and after spaceflight. Therefore, we examined whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a well-characterized latent herpesvirus, undergoes reactivation in astronauts. Sera from Shuttle astronauts, taken before and after spaceflight, were examined for evidence of EBV reactivation. The geometric mean antibody titer to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) was significantly increased prior to flight compared to baseline (p = 0. 0001). After spaceflight, evidence of acute lytic replication was found in which 8- to 64-fold increases in EBV early antigen (EA) antibodies occurred without significant increases in antibodies to measles virus. Additionally, stress-induced shifts in circulating leukocytes and elevated levels of urinary cortisol and epinephrine were found. Overall, significant increases in EA or high VCA/EA antibody titers were found in 8 of 23 (35%) male astronauts and 3 of 5 (60%) female astronauts. These results indicate that stress reactivates EBV prior to flight and suggest that acute lytic replication of EBV occurs during spaceflight. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Salivary levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA correlate with subgingival levels, not severity of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D R; Wang, C; Danaher, R J; Lin, Y; Kryscio, R J; Jacob, R J; Miller, C S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in the saliva of patients with periodontitis, and investigate the correlation between these factors. Presence and amounts of viral DNA in saliva and subgingival plaque samples, from healthy and disease sites, of 65 adults diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected in saliva of 81.5% (53/65) of patients at a median concentration of 4325 copies ml(-1). CMV DNA was detected in saliva of one individual (1.5%) at low copy number. Patients who had EBV in saliva were 10 times more likely to have EBV in subgingival plaque than patients lacking EBV in saliva (odds ratio = 10.1, 95% confidence interval = 2.6-39.5; P = 0.0009). EBV DNA burden in saliva positively correlated with the amounts detected in plaque and with amounts detected in increasing number of affected sites (P < 0.0001). EBV DNA presence and quantity in saliva did not correlate with increasing severity of disease as measured by periodontal indices. Epstein-Barr virus DNA presence and burden in saliva are associated with its presence and burden in subgingival plaque, but presence and burden in saliva does not correlate with periodontal disease severity.

  2. Neurologic Complications Caused by Epstein-Barr Virus in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Breńska, Iwona; Jończyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Pieczonka-Ruszkowska, Ilona; Mania, Anna; Służewski, Wojciech; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the medical documentation of 194 children infected with Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and the presence of the viral capsid antigen IgM antibody. Patients with severe neurologic complications also underwent neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG). There were 2 peaks in incidence of infection; the first one in young children aged 1 to 5 years represented 62.0% of cases. The second peak (24.6% of patients) occurred in teenagers. Febrile seizures were confirmed in 3.1% of affected children younger than 5 years and headaches in 24.2% patients, mostly older children. Ten children presented severe, neurologic complications: meningoencephalitis, acute encephalitis, acute cerebellitis, transverse myelitis, and myeloradiculitis. Our study identified a variety of Epstein-Barr virus-related neurologic complications. Epstein-Barr virus should be routinely tested for when a child presents with an apparent neuroinfection as it is a common pathogen that can induce a wide variety of signs and symptoms.

  3. Potential cellular functions of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) of Epstein-Barr Virus.

    PubMed

    Westhoff Smith, Danielle; Sugden, Bill

    2013-01-16

    Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional protein encoded by EBV. EBNA1's role in maintaining EBV in latently proliferating cells, by mediating EBV genome synthesis and nonrandom partitioning to daughter cells, as well as regulating viral gene transcription, is well characterized. Less understood are the roles of EBNA1 in affecting the host cell to provide selective advantages to those cells that harbor EBV. In this review we will focus on the interactions between EBNA1 and the host cell that may provide EBV-infected cells selective advantages beyond the maintenance of EBV.

  4. Potential Cellular Functions of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) of Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Danielle Westhoff; Sugden, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional protein encoded by EBV. EBNA1’s role in maintaining EBV in latently proliferating cells, by mediating EBV genome synthesis and nonrandom partitioning to daughter cells, as well as regulating viral gene transcription, is well characterized. Less understood are the roles of EBNA1 in affecting the host cell to provide selective advantages to those cells that harbor EBV. In this review we will focus on the interactions between EBNA1 and the host cell that may provide EBV-infected cells selective advantages beyond the maintenance of EBV. PMID:23325328

  5. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to immunoglobulin g autoantibody exacerbated by epstein-barr virus.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Pomper, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are caused by the production of an autoantibody that targets determinants on red blood cells (RBCs). This autoantibody can be immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, or IgA. Some autoantibodies react optimally at 0° to 4°C (ie, cold agglutinin) and usually are clinically insignificant. High-titer cold agglutinins are associated with IgM autoantibody and complement fixation induced by infectious agents, including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This case report describes a 31-year-old man who had jaundice, a hemoglobin of 6.0 gdL, and was diagnosed with a hemolytic crisis of AIHA. He received a total of 11 RBC transfusions during a 15-hour period without sustained response and later died. The direct antiglobulin test results for this patient were positive, whereas the cold-agglutinin-testing results were negative. We detected EBV DNA in blood via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a rare case of AIHA associated with an IgG autoantibody and exacerbated by EBV infection, causing a fatal hemolytic anemia.

  6. Serum IgA to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen-diffuse identifies Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Shane C; Shedd, Duane; Mueller, Nancy E; Chang, Ellen T; Miller, George; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2014-09-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with immune dysregulation. Immune impairment often results in aberrant immune responses and lytic reactivation of ubiquitous Herpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in mucosal tissues. Accordingly, the specificity of IgA to EBV early lytic antigens, which are important for reactivation, was evaluated to determine Hodgkin's lymphoma-specific sero-reactive patterns. Sera from 42 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared to sera from 17 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), another EBV-related condition that often presents in a similar manner; and to sera from 15 healthy EBV-seropositive subjects. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that like IM sera, most Hodgkin's lymphoma sera contained IgA that labeled cells expressing EBV early lytic antigens whereas healthy EBV-seropositive sera did not. Further evaluation to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM showed that IgA in most Hodgkin's lymphoma, irrespective of the presence of EBV in primary tumors, detected only modified forms of EBV lytic Early Antigen-Diffuse (EA-D) while IM sera detected the un-modified form as well, further supporting the presence of immune dysregulation in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. This IgA pattern distinguished Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM sera with a sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 85%. Our findings lay the groundwork for additional scientific and clinical investigation, particularly into the potential for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma-associated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.

  7. Serum IgA to Epstein-Barr virus Early Antigen-Diffuse identifies Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Shedd, Duane; Mueller, Nancy E.; Chang, Ellen T.; Miller, George; Bhaduri-McIntosh, Sumita

    2013-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with immune dysregulation. Immune impairment often results in aberrant immune responses and lytic reactivation of ubiquitous Herpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in mucosal tissues. Accordingly, the specificity of IgA to EBV early-lytic antigens, which are important for reactivation, was evaluated to determine Hodgkin's lymphoma-specific sero-reactive patterns. Sera from 42 previously described patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared to sera from 17 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), another EBV-related condition that often presents in a similar manner; and to sera from 15 healthy EBV-seropositive subjects. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that like IM sera, most Hodgkin's lymphoma sera contained IgA that labeled cells expressing EBV early-lytic antigens whereas healthy EBV-seropositive sera did not. Further evaluation to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM showed that IgA in most Hodgkin's lymphoma, irrespective of the presence of EBV in primary tumors, detected only modified forms of EBV lytic Early Antigen-Diffuse (EA-D) while IM sera detected the un-modified form as well, further supporting the presence of immune dysregulation in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. This IgA pattern distinguished Hodgkin's lymphoma from IM sera with a sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 85%. Our findings lay the groundwork for additional scientific and clinical investigation, particularly into the potential for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma -associated diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24122847

  8. Phosphorylation sites of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 regulate its function.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Thompson, Katie L; Coon, Joshua J; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and a risk factor for developing a variety of lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein found in all EBV-related malignancies. It plays a key role in establishing and maintaining the altered state of cells transformed with EBV. EBNA1 is required for a variety of functions, including gene regulation, replication and maintenance of the viral genome, but the regulation of EBNA1's functions is poorly understood. We demonstrate that phosphorylation affects the functions of EBNA1. By using electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, ten specific phosphorylated EBNA1 residues were identified. A mutant derivative preventing the phosphorylation of all ten phosphosites retained the unusually long half-life and the ability to translocate into the nucleus of wild-type EBNA1. This phosphorylation-deficient mutant, however, had a significantly reduced ability to activate transcription and to maintain EBV's plasmids in cells.

  9. Epstein- Barr Virus: Clinical and Epidemiological Revisits and Genetic Basis of Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdelwahid Saeed; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Al-Hakami, Ahmed Musa; Jones, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a member in the order herpesvirales, family herpesviridae, subfamily gammaherpesvirinae and the genus lymphocytovirus. The virus is an exclusively human pathogen and thus also termed as human herpesvirus 4 (HHV4). It was the first oncogenic virus recognized and has been incriminated in the causation of tumors of both lymphatic and epithelial nature. It was reported in some previous studies that 95% of the population worldwide are serologically positive to the virus. Clinically, EBV primary infection is almost silent, persisting as a life-long asymptomatic latent infection in B cells although it may be responsible for a transient clinical syndrome called infectious mononucleosis. Following reactivation of the virus from latency due to immunocompromised status, EBV was found to be associated with several tumors. EBV linked to oncogenesis as detected in lymphoid tumors such as Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) and T-cell lymphomas (e.g. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas; PTCL and Anaplastic large cell lymphomas; ALCL). It is also linked to epithelial tumors such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinomas and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL). In vitro, EBV many studies have demonstrated its ability to transform B cells into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Despite these malignancies showing different clinical and epidemiological patterns when studied, genetic studies have suggested that these EBV- associated transformations were characterized generally by low level of virus gene expression with only the latent virus proteins (LVPs) upregulated in both tumors and LCLs. In this review, we summarize some clinical and epidemiological features of EBV- associated tumors. We also discuss how EBV latent genes may lead to oncogenesis in the different clinical malignancies PMID:26862355

  10. Role of Viral miRNAs and Epigenetic Modifications in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Aldo; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Tecce, Mario Felice; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Rotondo, Emanuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Scrima, Mario; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Capunzo, Mario; Franci, Gianluigi; Barbieri, Antonio; Bimonte, Sabrina; Montella, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short (21-23 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that typically silence posttranscriptional gene expression through interaction with target messenger RNAs. Currently, miRNAs have been identified in almost all studied multicellular eukaryotes in the plant and animal kingdoms. Additionally, recent studies reported that miRNAs can also be encoded by certain single-cell eukaryotes and by viruses. The vast majority of viral miRNAs are encoded by the herpesviruses family. These DNA viruses including Epstein-Barr virus encode their own miRNAs and/or manipulate the expression of cellular miRNAs to facilitate respective infection cycles. Modulation of the control pathways of miRNAs expression is often involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis through a specific cascade of transduction signals. Notably, latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is considered liable of causing several types of malignancies, including the majority of gastric carcinoma cases detected worldwide. In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs.

  11. Role of Viral miRNAs and Epigenetic Modifications in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Aldo; D'Arena, Giovanni; Crispo, Anna; Tecce, Mario Felice; Nocerino, Flavia; Grimaldi, Maria; Rotondo, Emanuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; Scrima, Mario; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Capunzo, Mario; Franci, Gianluigi; Barbieri, Antonio; Bimonte, Sabrina; Montella, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short (21–23 nucleotides), noncoding RNAs that typically silence posttranscriptional gene expression through interaction with target messenger RNAs. Currently, miRNAs have been identified in almost all studied multicellular eukaryotes in the plant and animal kingdoms. Additionally, recent studies reported that miRNAs can also be encoded by certain single-cell eukaryotes and by viruses. The vast majority of viral miRNAs are encoded by the herpesviruses family. These DNA viruses including Epstein-Barr virus encode their own miRNAs and/or manipulate the expression of cellular miRNAs to facilitate respective infection cycles. Modulation of the control pathways of miRNAs expression is often involved in the promotion of tumorigenesis through a specific cascade of transduction signals. Notably, latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus is considered liable of causing several types of malignancies, including the majority of gastric carcinoma cases detected worldwide. In this review, we describe the role of the Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinogenesis, summarizing the functions of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded viral proteins and related epigenetic alterations as well as the roles of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded and virally modulated cellular miRNAs. PMID:26977250

  12. Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, George; Klein, Eva; Kashuba, Elena

    2010-05-21

    Epstein-Barr virus, EBV, and humans have a common history that reaches back to our primate ancestors. The virus co-evolved with man and has established a largely harmless and highly complex co-existence. It is carried as silent infection by almost all human adults. A serendipitous discovery established that it is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. Still, EBV became known first in 1964, in a rare, geographically prevalent malignant lymphoma of B-cell origin, Burkitt lymphoma BL. Its association with a malignancy prompted intensive studies and its capacity to immortalize B-lymphocytes in vitro was soon demonstrated. Consequently EBV was classified therefore as a potentially tumorigenic virus. Despite of this property however, the virus carrier state itself does not lead to malignancies because the transformed cells are recognized by the immune response. Consequently the EBV induced proliferation of EBV carrying B-lymphocytes is manifested only under immunosuppressive conditions. The expression of EBV encoded genes is regulated by the cell phenotype. The virus genome can be found in malignancies originating from cell types other than the B-lymphocyte. Even in the EBV infected B-cell, the direct transforming capacity is restricted to a defined window of differentiation. A complex interaction between virally encoded proteins and B-cell specific cellular proteins constitute the proliferation inducing program. In this short review we touch upon aspects which are the subject of our present work. We describe the mechanisms of some of the functional interactions between EBV encoded and cellular proteins that determine the phenotype of latently infected B-cells. The growth promoting EBV encoded genes are not expressed in the virus carrying BL cells. Still, EBV seems to contribute to the etiology of this tumor by modifying events that influence cell survival and proliferation. We describe a possible growth promoting mechanism in the genesis of Burkitt lymphoma

  13. The Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Clinical, pathologic, and virologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Hanto, D W; Sakamoto, K; Purtilo, D T; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1981-08-01

    Twelve renal transplant patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) were studied. Two clinical patterns were identified: (1) Young patients present with an infectious mononucleosis-like illness with fever, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy soon after transplantation or antirejection therapy. Many organs are ultimately involved, and the clinical course is one of a rapidly fatal LPD. (2) Older patients present a longer time after transplantation with symptoms of solid tumors involving the central nervous system, oropharynx, liver, or small bowel. The clinical course is slower, but it is progressive and fatal. Morphologically these LPDs can all be classified as polymorphic diffuse B-cell hyperplasia (PDBH) or polymorphic diffuse B-cell lymphoma (PBL). Cell marker studies in four patients demonstrated a polyclonal B-cell proliferation. Transition from a polyclonal B-cell proliferation to a monoclonal tumor may occur. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) specific antibody titers, anticomplement immunofluorescence staining of tumors for the presence of the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA), and EBV complementary ribonucleic acid (cRNA)/deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization and vDNA/DNA reassociation analysis implicate EBV as the probable etiologic agent in these disorders. Successful management of these lethal LPDs may depend on discontinuation of immunosuppression and removal of the allograft. Antiviral therapy, however, may prove to be useful.

  14. Synchronous HIV/AIDS-related Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Adam, Etai; Wang, Larry; Herrington, Cynthia; Bliss, David; Church, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    We present a case of simultaneous endobronchial and adrenal Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female with AIDS. Blood Epstein-Barr Virus polymerase chain reaction was negative at the time of diagnosis.

  15. Burkitt's lymphoma: the Rosetta Stone deciphering Epstein-Barr virus biology.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Martin; Kelly, Gemma L; Bell, Andrew I; Rickinson, Alan B

    2009-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus was originally identified in the tumour cells of a Burkitt's lymphoma, and was the first virus to be associated with the pathogenesis of a human cancer. Studies on the relationship of EBV with Burkitt's lymphoma have revealed important general principles that are relevant to other virus-associated cancers. In addition, the impact of such studies on the knowledge of EBV biology has been enormous. Here, we review some of the key historical observations arising from studies on Burkitt's lymphoma that have informed our understanding of EBV, and we summarise the current hypotheses regarding the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  16. Synergistic activation of cells by Epstein-Barr virus and B-cell growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Hutt-Fletcher, L M

    1987-01-01

    Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is initiated by virus binding to the C3dg-C3d receptor CR2. Several workers have implicated this receptor in the control of B-cell activation by examining the effects of antibodies to CR2 and isolated C3d on B-cell proliferation and differentiation. We report here on the activating effects of irradiated EBV, which retains its capacity to bind to CR2 but loses its ability to function as a T-independent B-cell activator. EBV synergized with B-cell growth factor in the induction of uptake of tritiated thymidine by T cell-depleted leukocytes from seronegative donors but did not induce secretion of immunoglobulin. Synergism could be inhibited with an anti-viral antibody that inhibited binding of EBV to CR2. No similar synergism was found between EBV and recombinant interleukin 2, interleukin 1 alpha, or gamma interferon or with the lipid A fraction of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. EBV may thus initiate B-cell activation as it binds to CR2. Infectious virus may, under normal circumstances, induce the cell to make those growth factors necessary to support B-cell proliferation; the difficulty of transforming cells with transfected EBV DNA may in part reflect the absence of an activation event provided by intact virus as it attaches to CR2. The synergism of EBV and B-cell growth factor more clearly distinguishes the effects of B-cell growth factor from those of interleukin 1 and interleukin 2 in other models of B-cell activation. Thus, this may be a useful model for further delineation of unique effects of B-cell growth factor on B-cell function. PMID:3027404

  17. Translation of intronless RNAs is strongly stimulated by the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Emiliano P; Mure, Fabrice; Gruffat, Henri; Decimo, Didier; Medina-Palazon, Cahora; Ohlmann, Théophile; Manet, Evelyne

    2009-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus protein (EB2) allows the nuclear export of a particular subset of early and late viral RNAs derived from intronless genes. EB2 is conserved among most herpesvirus members and its presence is essential for the production of infectious particles. Here we show that, besides its role as a nuclear export factor, EB2 strongly stimulates translation of unspliced mRNAs without affecting overall cellular translation. Interestingly, this effect can be reversed by the addition of an intron within the gene. The spliced mRNA is then efficiently exported and translated even in the absence of EB2. Moreover, we show that EB2 associates with translating ribosomes and increases the proportion of its target RNA in the polyribosomal fraction. Finally, testing of EB2 homolog proteins derived from EBV-related herpesviruses, shows that, even if they play similar roles within the replication cycle of their respective virus, their mechanisms of action are different.

  18. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Coronary Atherosclerotic Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Imbronito, Ana Vitória; Marcelino, Silvia Linardi; Grande, Sabrina Rosa; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that patients with atherosclerosis are predominantly infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but rarely infected by type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-1). In this study, atheromas of 30 patients who underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery with coronary endartherectomy were tested for the presence of these two viruses. HCMV occurred in 93.3% of the samples and EBV-1 was present in 50% of them. Concurrent presence of both pathogens was detected in 43.3% of the samples. PMID:24031529

  19. Concomitant Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor and granulomatous inflammation of the liver.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy; Grenert, James P; Vohra, Poonam

    2017-07-13

    Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of EBV-SMT and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. We review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains helpful for the diagnosis of this rare entity. Finally, we consider possible explanations for the concomitant presence of these lesions. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Demonstration of Epstein-Barr virus in primary brain lymphoma by in situ DNA hybridisation in paraffin wax embedded tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J K; Young, L S; Bevan, I S; Lewis, F A; Dockey, D; Ironside, J W; O'Brien, C J; Wells, M

    1990-01-01

    Tumour tissue from 29 patients with primary brain lymphoma was reviewed to determine if there was an aetiological association between Epstein-Barr virus and polyclonal and monoclonal lymphoproliferations. The morphology and immunophenotype in 24 patients for whom paraffin wax embedded tissue was available were studied. A high grade pleomorphic tumour morphology with plasmacytoid features was seen in 13 tumours. Because of the large number of pleomorphic lymphomas, all tumours were examined for the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus genome using in situ DNA hybridisation. A panel of three biotinylated probes to different sequences in the Epstein-Barr virus genome was used. Positive hybridisation with one or more probes was shown in tumours from 11 patients. The remaining tumours gave no hybridisation signal. There was no correlation between positive hybridisation and morphological subtype or clinical outcome. Images PMID:2159030

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Atraumatic Spleen Laceration Presenting with Neck and Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sergent, Shane R.; Johnson, Sophia M.; Ashurst, John; Johnston, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Infectious Mononucleosis induced spleen laceratio Symptoms: Fever • headache • neck pain and upper shoulder pain which was worse with flexion and extension Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Splenic angiogram and proximal splenic artery embolization technique Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Infectious mononucleosis, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a common infection with worldwide distribution; more than 90% of people have been infected by adulthood. One of the most feared, albeit rare, complications, occurring in less than 0.5% of those infected, is splenic injury or rupture. Case Report: A febrile 15-year-old male presented to the emergency department with the chief compliant of headache, neck pain, and upper shoulder pain. He did not recall any specific traumatic injury. His abdomen was soft, nondistended, and was tender in the right and left lower quadrants. Right lower quadrant ultrasound demonstrated non-visualization of the appendix, moderate right lower quadrant free fluid, and positive McBurney’s sign. CT of the abdomen and pelvis was ordered, which demonstrated moderate splenomegaly, with findings compatible with laceration through the anterior aspect of the spleen, with moderate hemoperitoneum. Monospot was negative and EBV panel demonstrated IGG negative, IGM positive, and, IGG negative. The patient was transferred to interventional radiology for a splenic angiogram and proximal splenic artery embolization. The angiogram demonstrated grade 3 laceration with moderate hemoperitoneum and no active extravasation or evidence of pseudoaneurysm. The patient was admitted and made a prompt recovery without any other sequelae. Conclusions: The presentation of splenic injury or rupture can vary; the patient may complain of abdominal pain or left upper quadrant pain, may exhibit referred left shoulder pain when the LUQ is palpated (Kehr’s Sign), or may exhibit

  2. Methylation of Epstein-Barr virus Rta promoter in EBV primary infection, reactivation and lymphoproliferation.

    PubMed

    Germi, Raphaële; Guigue, Nicolas; Lupo, Julien; Semenova, Touyana; Grossi, Laurence; Vermeulen, Odile; Epaulard, Olivier; de Fraipont, Florence; Morand, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    During Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency, the EBV genome is largely silenced by methylation. This silencing is overturned during the switch to the lytic cycle. A key event is the production of the viral protein Zta which binds to three Zta-response elements (ZRE) from the Rta promoter (Rp), two of which (ZRE2 and ZRE3) include three CpG motifs methylated in the latent genome. The bisulphite pyrosequencing reaction was used to quantify the methylation of ZRE2, ZRE3a, and ZRE3b in EBV-positive cell lines and in ex vivo samples of EBV-related diseases, in order to assess whether the level of methylation in these ZREs could provide additional information to viral DNA load and serology in the characterization of EBV-associated diseases. In PBMC from two patients with infectious mononucleosis, over time Rp became increasingly methylated whereas EBV load decreased. In tonsil from patients with chronic tonsillitis, the methylation was less than in EBV-associated tumors, regardless of the viral load. This was even more striking when only the ZRE3a and ZRE3b were considered since some samples presented unbalanced profiles on ZRE2. EBV reactivation in cell culture showed that the reduction in the overall level of methylation was closely related to the production of unmethylated virions. Thus, an assessment of the level of methylation may help to better characterize EBV replication in PBMC and in biopsies with high EBV load, during infectious mononucleosis and EBV-associated cancers. J. Med. Virol. 88:1814-1820, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus genetic variants are associated with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mechelli, Rosella; Manzari, Caterina; Policano, Claudia; Annese, Anita; Picardi, Ernesto; Umeton, Renato; Fornasiero, Arianna; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Buscarinu, Maria Chiara; Agliardi, Cristina; Annibali, Viviana; Serafini, Barbara; Rosicarelli, Barbara; Romano, Silvia; Angelini, Daniela F.; Ricigliano, Vito A.G.; Buttari, Fabio; Battistini, Luca; Centonze, Diego; Guerini, Franca R.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Pesole, Graziano; Ristori, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We analyzed the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) gene, which contains the most variable region of the viral genome, in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and control subjects to verify whether virus genetic variants are involved in disease development. Methods: A seminested PCR approach and Sanger sequencing were used to analyze EBNA2 in 53 patients and 38 matched healthy donors (HDs). High-throughput sequencing by Illumina MiSeq was also applied in a subgroup of donors (17 patients and 17 HDs). Patients underwent gadolinium-enhanced MRI and human leucocyte antigen typing. Results: MS risk significantly correlated with an excess of 1.2 allele (odds ratio [OR] = 5.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–14.32; p = 0.016) and underrepresentation of 1.3B allele (OR = 0.23; 95% CI 0.08–0.51; p = 0.0006). We identified new genetic variants, mostly 1.2 allele- and MS-associated (especially amino acid variation at position 245; OR = 9.4; 95% CI 1.19–78.72; p = 0.0123). In all cases, the consensus sequence from deep sequencing confirmed Sanger sequencing (including the cosegregation of newly identified variants with known EBNA2 alleles) and showed that the extent of genotype intraindividual variability was higher than expected: rare EBNA2 variants were detected in all HDs and patients with MS (range 1–17 and 3–19, respectively). EBNA2 variants did not seem to correlate with human leucocyte antigen typing or clinical/MRI features. Conclusions: Our study unveils a strong association between Epstein-Barr virus genomic variants and MS, reinforcing the idea that Epstein-Barr virus contributes to disease development. PMID:25740864

  4. Tracheal ulcer due to Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takeo; Fujisaki, Hideaki; Nishio, Suehiro; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a tracheal stenosis circumscribed with soft tissue density and a left pulmonary nodule. Open biopsy of a right submandibular lymph node revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and the malignant cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus gene products. Bronchofiberscopy revealed a tracheal necrotizing ulcer. After chemotherapy, the tracheal ulcer resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly with a tracheal ulcer.

  5. High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in human breast milk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and mouse mammary tumour virus have been identified in human milk. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences have been identified in breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if viral sequences are present in human milk from normal lactating women. Findings Standard (liquid) and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify HPV and EBV in human milk samples from normal lactating Australian women who had no history of breast cancer. High risk human papillomavirus was identified in milk samples of 6 of 40 (15%) from normal lactating women - sequencing on four samples showed three were HPV 16 and one was HPV 18. Epstein Barr virus was identified in fourteen samples (33%). Conclusion The presence of high risk HPV and EBV in human milk suggests the possibility of milk transmission of these viruses. However, given the rarity of viral associated malignancies in young people, it is possible but unlikely, that such transmission is associated with breast or other cancers. PMID:22937830

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-derived EBNA2 regulates STAT3 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Muromoto, Ryuta; Ikeda, Osamu; Okabe, Kanako; Togi, Sumihito; Kamitani, Shinya; Fujimuro, Masahiro; Harada, Shizuko; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2009-01-16

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latency protein EBNA2 is a nuclear transcriptional activator that is essential for EBV-induced cellular transformation. Here, we show that EBNA2 interacts with STAT3, a signal transducer for an interleukin-6 family cytokine, and enhances the transcriptional activity of STAT3 by influencing its DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, EBNA2 cooperatively acts on STAT3 activation with LMP1. These data demonstrate that EBNA2 acts as a transcriptional coactivator of STAT3.

  7. Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Ahlfors, Helena; Ruuska, Marja; Kieff, Elliott; Koskinen, Paeivi J. . E-mail: paivi.koskinen@btk.fi

    2005-03-15

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome mimicking severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Talya; Chawla, Rashmi; Marik, Paul E

    2008-07-01

    Severe sepsis is amongst the most common reasons for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) throughout the world and is a common cause of death. The diagnosis of sepsis is usually straightforward, being based on a constellation of clinical and laboratory features. Noninfectious disorders, including pancreatitis, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders, may cause a systemic inflammatory response that mimics sepsis. We present the case of a 32-year-old male with Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome who presented to the ICU with features of severe sepsis which progressed to multisystem organ failure and death despite aggressive supportive measures.

  9. Geographic Population Structure in Epstein-Barr Virus Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, Matteo; Manzari, Caterina; Lionetti, Claudia; Mechelli, Rosella; Anastasiadou, Eleni; Chiara Buscarinu, Maria; Ristori, Giovanni; Salvetti, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects the majority of the human population and is implicated as a causal or contributory factor in numerous diseases. We sequenced 27 complete EBV genomes from a cohort of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls from Italy, although no variants showed a statistically significant association with MS. Taking advantage of the availability of ∼130 EBV genomes with known geographical origins, we reveal a striking geographic distribution of EBV sub-populations with distinct allele frequency distributions. We discuss mechanisms that potentially explain these observations, and their implications for understanding the association of EBV with human disease. PMID:27635051

  10. Nucleophosmin Contributes to the Transcriptional Activation Function of the Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Malik-Soni, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA1 protein plays important roles in latent infection, including transcriptional activation of EBV latency genes by binding to the family-of-repeats (FR) element. Through a proteomic approach, we previously identified an interaction between EBNA1 and the histone chaperone nucleophosmin. Here we show that the EBNA1-nucleophosmin interaction is direct and requires the Gly-Arg-rich sequences that contribute to transactivation. Additionally, nucleophosmin is recruited by EBNA1 to the FR element and is required for EBNA1-mediated transcriptional activation. PMID:24284322

  11. Nucleophosmin contributes to the transcriptional activation function of the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein.

    PubMed

    Malik-Soni, Natasha; Frappier, Lori

    2014-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA1 protein plays important roles in latent infection, including transcriptional activation of EBV latency genes by binding to the family-of-repeats (FR) element. Through a proteomic approach, we previously identified an interaction between EBNA1 and the histone chaperone nucleophosmin. Here we show that the EBNA1-nucleophosmin interaction is direct and requires the Gly-Arg-rich sequences that contribute to transactivation. Additionally, nucleophosmin is recruited by EBNA1 to the FR element and is required for EBNA1-mediated transcriptional activation.

  12. Lack of evidence for Epstein-Barr virus infection in myasthenia gravis thymus.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mandy; Höls, Ann-Kathrin; Liersch, Britta; Leistner, Rasmus; Gellert, Klaus; Schalke, Berthold; Marx, Alexander; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2011-09-01

    A role for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in myasthenia gravis pathogenesis has been suggested recently. Using in situ hybridization for the detection of the EBV-encoded RNAs and EBNA1-specific immunohistochemistry, we found no latently infected cells in a series of thymus specimens from patients with myasthenia gravis showing lymphofollicular thymitis. In addition, using immunohistochemistry and an antibody specific for the viral immediate early protein BZLF1, no evidence of lytic EBV infection was seen in these cases. Our results therefore do not support a direct role of thymic EBV infection in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis.

  13. A Virtual Look at Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Simulation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, M.; Duca, K.A; Lee, K.; Delgado-Eckert, E.; Hawkins, J.; Jarrah, A.S.; Laubenbacher, R.; Polys, N.F.; Hadinoto, V.; Thorley-Lawson, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogen that establishes a lifelong persistent infection and for which no precise animal model exists. In this paper we describe in detail an agent-based model and computer simulation of EBV infection. Agents representing EBV and sets of B and T lymphocytes move and interact on a three-dimensional grid approximating Waldeyer’s ring, together with abstract compartments for lymph and blood. The simulation allows us to explore the development and resolution of virtual infections in a manner not possible in actual human experiments. Specifically, we identify parameters capable of inducing clearance, persistent infection, or death. PMID:18371986

  14. Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Complicating Epstein-Barr Virus Encephalitis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Filippo; Cocuzza, Maria Donatella; Smilari, Pierluigi; Sorge, Giovanni; Pavone, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Children with acute encephalopathy show prolonged electrographic seizure activity consistent with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Pediatric NCSE is a heterogeneous clinical entity with poor outcome and different etiologies, including central nervous system infection, stroke, toxic-metabolic syndrome, and epileptic syndrome. We report a 4-year-old girl with seizure and behavioral changes in whom the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction was positive for Epstein-Barr virus. We emphasize the importance of electroencephalography (EEG), and particularly, of continuous EEG monitoring for early recognition and appropriate treatment of this condition. PMID:24744940

  15. Integration sites of Epstein-Barr virus genome on chromosomes of human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Wuu, K.D.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang-Wuu, S.

    1994-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the pathogen of infectious mononucleosis. The viral genome is present in more than 95% of the African cases of Burkitt lymphoma and it is usually maintained in episomal form in the tumor cells. Viral integration has been described only for Nanalwa which is a Burkitt lymphoma cell line lacking episomes. In order to examine the role of EBV in the immortalization of human Blymphocytes, we investigated whether the EBV integration into the human genome is essential. If the integration does occur, we would like to know whether the integration is randomly distributed or whether the viral DNA integrates preferentially at certain sites. Fourteen in vitro immortalized human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a biotinylated EBV BamHI w DNA fragment as probe. The episomal form of EBV DNA was found in all cells of these cell lines, while only about 65% of the cells have the integrated viral DNA. This might suggest that integration is not a pre-requisite for cell immortalization. Although all chromosomes, except Y, have been found with integrated viral genome, chromsomes 1 and 5 are the most frequent EBV DNA carrier (p<0.05). Nine chromosome bands, namely, 1p31, 1q31, 2q32, 3q13, 3q26, 5q14, 6q24, 7q31 and 12q21, are preferential targets for EBV integration (p<0.001). Eighty percent of the total 938 EBV hybridization signals were found to be at G-band-positive area. This suggests that the mechanism of EBV integration might be different from that of the retroviruses, which specifically integrate to G-band-negative areas. Thus, we conclude that the integration of EBV to host genome is non-random and it may have something to do with the structure of chromosome and DNA sequences.

  16. [Expression of CD163 in children with Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Li; Chen, Fu-Xiong; Deng, Chang-Bo; Xia, Bo; Wu, Li-Ping; Wu, Ze-Lin; Lu, Hui-Min

    2015-05-01

    To study the clinical significance of CD163 in the diagnosis and the evaluation of severity and prognosis of childhood hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Ninety-four children were classified into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive (n=55) and EBV-negative groups (n=39; control group). The EBV-positive group was subgrouped into infectious mononucleosis (IM; n=47) and HLH (n=8). Serum levels of soluble CD163 were measured using ELISA. Expression of CD163 on mononuclear cells was detected by flow cytometry. The serum levels of soluble CD163 were>10 000 ng/mL in all eight HLH patients (>30 000 ng/mL in 3 cases). The mean serum levels of soluble CD163 in the HLH group were significantly higher than in the control and IM groups (P<0.05). The serum levels of soluble CD163 in EBV-positive children were positively correlated with EBV-DNA copies and serum levels of ferritin and LDH, but were negatively correlated with white blood cell count, neutrophil count, hemoglobin and platelet count. The follow-up after treatment for three HLH patients showed that serum levels of soluble CD163 were significantly reduced, but the soluble CD163 levels rebounded in one patient who was complicated by fungal pneumonia infection. The levels of serum soluble CD163 may be related to the severity in children with HLH. The EBV-positive children with soluble CD163 levels >10 000 ng/mL should be considered the possibility of HLH.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus in the multiple sclerosis brain: a controversial issue--report on a focused workshop held in the Centre for Brain Research of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Lassmann, Hans; Niedobitek, Gerald; Aloisi, Francesca; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2011-09-01

    Recent epidemiological and immunological studies provide evidence for an association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in disease induction and pathogenesis. A key question in this context is whether Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes are present within the central nervous system and the lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies on this topic provided highly controversial results, showing Epstein-Barr virus reactivity in B cells in the vast majority of multiple sclerosis cases and lesions, or only exceptional Epstein-Barr virus-positive B cells in rare cases. In an attempt to explain the reasons for these divergent results, a workshop was organized under the umbrella of the European Union FP6 NeuroproMiSe project, the outcome of which is presented here. This report summarizes the current knowledge of Epstein-Barr virus biology and shows that Epstein-Barr virus infection is highly complex. There are still major controversies, how to unequivocally identify Epstein-Barr virus infection in pathological tissues, particularly in situations other than Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomas or acute Epstein-Barr virus infections. It further highlights that unequivocal proof of Epstein-Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis lesions is still lacking, due to issues related to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection methods.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus BKRF4 Gene Product Is Required for Efficient Progeny Production.

    PubMed

    Masud, H M Abdullah Al; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murata, Takayuki

    2017-09-13

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of human gammaherpesvirus, infects mainly B cells. EBV has two alternative life cycles, latent and lytic, and is reactivated occasionally from the latent stage to the lytic cycle. To combat EBV-associated disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV lytic replication cycle is also important. Here, we focused on an EBV lytic gene, BKRF4. Using our anti-BKRF4 antibody, we revealed that the BKRF4 gene product is expressed during the lytic cycle with late kinetics. To characterize the role of BKRF4, we constructed BKRF4-knockout mutants using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. While disruption of the BKRF4 gene had almost no effect on viral protein expression and DNA synthesis, it significantly decreased progeny virion levels in HEK293 and Akata cells. Furthermore, we show that BKRF4 is involved not only in production of progeny virions but also in increasing the infectivity of the virus particles. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that BKRF4 interacted with a virion protein, BGLF2. We showed that the C-terminal region of BKRF4 was critical for this interaction and for efficient progeny production. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BKRF4 partially colocalized with BGLF2 in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Finally, we showed that BKRF4 is a phosphorylated, possible tegument protein and that the EBV protein kinase BGLF4 may be important for this phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that BKRF4 is involved in the production of infectious virions.IMPORTANCE While the latent genes of EBV have been studied extensively, the lytic genes are less well characterized. This study focused on one such lytic gene, BKRF4, which is conserved only among gammaherpesviruses (ORF45 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or murine herpesvirus-68). After preparing the BKRF4 knockout virus using B95-8 EBV-BAC, we demonstrated that the BKRF4 gene was involved in infectious progeny

  19. Proteomic Profiling of EBNA1-Host Protein Interactions in Latent and Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Malik-Soni, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in both latent and lytic modes of EBV infection and contributes to EBV-associated cancers. Using a proteomics approach, we profiled EBNA1-host protein interactions in nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma cells in the context of latent and lytic EBV infection. We identified several interactions that occur in both modes of infection, including a previously unreported interaction with nucleophosmin and RNA-mediated interactions with several heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and La protein. PMID:22496234

  20. Proteomic profiling of EBNA1-host protein interactions in latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus infections.

    PubMed

    Malik-Soni, Natasha; Frappier, Lori

    2012-06-01

    The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in both latent and lytic modes of EBV infection and contributes to EBV-associated cancers. Using a proteomics approach, we profiled EBNA1-host protein interactions in nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma cells in the context of latent and lytic EBV infection. We identified several interactions that occur in both modes of infection, including a previously unreported interaction with nucleophosmin and RNA-mediated interactions with several heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) and La protein.

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome. A critical appraisal of the role of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Koo, D

    1989-05-01

    The symptom complex currently designated the chronic fatigue syndrome was previously termed the chronic or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus syndrome or the chronic mononucleosis syndrome, prematurely assuming an etiologic role for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This presumption derived from the fact that some patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome have very high or very low titers of certain antibodies to EBV. A review of seroepidemiologic patterns of response to EBV and of studies of patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome shows that these antibody titers overlap considerably both with those of controls or other healthy persons and with those of patients with other illnesses. Given the high prevalence of exposure to EBV, it would be difficult to determine whether the virus caused the syndrome or whether the antibody elevations resulted from the illness, even if distinct differences in titers existed. Other methodologic issues of control selection, laboratory test comparability, and differing case definitions pose problems in studying this syndrome. The recently published working case definition should facilitate the continuing search for causes.

  2. Increased presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in ocular fluid samples from HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ongkosuwito, J.; Van der Lelij, A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Doorn, M. W.; Feron, E.; Hoyng, C.; de Keizer, R. J W; Klok, A.; Kijlstra, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate whether routine testing for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is necessary in the examination of a patient with uveitis.
METHODS—Intraocular EBV DNA was determined in 183 ocular fluid samples taken from patients with AIDS and uveitis, HIV negative immunocompromised uveitis, acute retinal necrosis, toxoplasma chorioretinitis, intraocular lymphoma, anterior uveitis, and miscellaneous uveitis of unknown cause. In 82 samples from this group of patients paired serum/ocular fluid analysis was performed to detect local antibody production against EBV. Controls (n=46) included ocular fluid samples taken during surgery for diabetic retinopathy, macular pucker, or cataract.
RESULTS—Serum antibody titres to EBV capsid antigen proved to be significantly increased in HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis (p<0.01) compared with controls. Local antibody production revealed only three positive cases out of 82 patients tested, two results were borderline positive and one patient had uveitis caused by VZV. EBV DNA was detected in three out of 46 control ocular fluid samples. In the different uveitis groups EBV DNA was noted, but was not significantly higher than in the controls, except in six out of 11 HIV negative immunocompromised patients (p=0.0008). In four out of these six cases another infectious agent (VZV, HSV, CMV, or Toxoplasma gondii) had previously been identified as the cause of the uveitis.
CONCLUSIONS—When comparing various groups of uveitis patients, EBV DNA was found more often in HIV negative immunocompromised patients with uveitis. Testing for EBV does not have to be included in the routine management of patients with uveitis, since indications for an important role of this virus were not found in the pathogenesis of intraocular inflammation.

 Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; intraocular fluid; polymerase chain reaction; uveitis PMID:9602620

  3. [Alice in Wonderland syndrome due to Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez Méndez, C; Martín Mardomingo, M; Otero Martínez, B; Lagunilla Herrero, L; Fernández Zurita, C

    2001-06-01

    The Alice in Wonderland syndrome refers to distortions in body image and in the apparent sizes, shapes, and spatial relations of objects seen. The syndrome is usually associated with migraine headaches and has also been reported in several viral infections. We report a 6-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department complaining of several episodes in which the ceiling, the objects and the people around him seemed very small and far away. The child presented no alteration in the level of consciousness. The episodes provoked great fear in the child. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities except pharyngoamygdalitis. Serologic studies (IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen) confirmed Epstein-Barr virus infection. The child's symptoms resolved spontaneously within 48 hours and he continued to be asymptomatic after a 4 -month follow-up. We consider that all children presenting a clinical picture consistent with the Alice in Wonderland syndrome should undergo serological testing for Epstein Barr virus infection. Diagnosis would enable physicians to reassure the family of the temporary and benign nature of this alarming condition.

  4. Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoproliferative diseases of the lung.

    PubMed

    Shimakage, Misuzu; Sakamoto, Haruhiko; Harada, Shizuko; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Ken

    2007-06-01

    There have been few studies regarding the etiology of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung. To examine the possible involvement of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in these diseases, EBV mRNAs, proteins and DNA, were detected. Two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) originating in the lung, 5 mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (MALT lymphoma) of the lung, 1 lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung and 1 lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), were subjected to mRNA in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence staining and PCR. mRNA in situ hybridization using BamHIW, BamHIY1Y2, the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and the EBV encoded small non-polyadenylated RNA (EBER1) probe revealed signals in all the examined samples, although some samples showed weak signals by using the EBER1 probe. Indirect immunofluorescence staining using the anti-leader protein, anti-EBNA2, the anti-latent member protein-1 and anti-BamHIZ coding leftward reading frame-1 antibodies showed definitive fluorescence. PCR also revealed EBV DNA in these specimens. EBV infected all the lymphoproliferative diseases of the lung irrespective of the histological or clinical stages. Furthermore, EBV infected not only the atypical lymphocytes but also the macrophages in the tissues of these diseases. These results suggest that the expression of EBV could be involved in the pathogenesis of many lymphoproliferative diseases of the lung.

  5. Plasmid-like replicative intermediates of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pfüller, R; Hammerschmidt, W

    1996-01-01

    During the lytic phase of herpesviruses, intermediates of viral DNA replication are found as large concatemeric molecules in the infected cells. It is not known, however, what the early events in viral DNA replication that yield these concatemers are. In an attempt to identify these early steps of DNA replication, replicative intermediates derived from the lytic origin of Epstein-Barr virus, oriLyt, were analyzed. As shown by density shift experiments with bromodeoxyuridine, oriLyt replicated semiconservatively soon after induction of the lytic cycle and oriLyt-containing DNA is amplified to yield monomeric plasmid progeny DNA (besides multimeric forms and high-molecular-weight DNA). A new class of plasmid progeny DNA which have far fewer negative supercoils than do plasmids extracted from uninduced cells is present only in cells undergoing the lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus. This finding is consistent with plasmid DNAs having fewer nucleosomes before extraction. The newly replicated plasmid DNAs are dependent on a functional oriLyt in cis and support an efficient marker transfer into Escherichia coli as monomeric plasmids. Multimeric forms of presumably circular progeny DNA of oriLyt, as well as detected recombination events, indicate that oriLyt-mediated DNA replication is biphasic: an early theta-like mode is followed by a complex pattern which could result from rolling-circle DNA replication. PMID:8648674

  6. [Epstein-Barr virus bilateral dacryoadenitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Romero, Ivana Lopes; Vital Filho, José; Bison, Simone Haber Duellberg Von Faber

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of acute bilateral dacryoadenitis in association with infectious mononucleosis. A 27 year-old woman had acute bilateral lacrimal gland enlargement with inflammatory signs. The CT scan findings and laboratorial investigations confirmed the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. The systemic treatment with intravenous steroids was initiated leading to complete remission of the signs and symptoms. Dacryoadenitis is an uncommon manifestation of infectious mononucleosis and may minimize other signs of the disease. Mononucleosis has to be considered in acute dacryoadenitis cases. Systemic steroids contribute to the fast regression of inflammatory condition.

  7. Computational analysis of EBNA1 ``druggability'' suggests novel insights for Epstein-Barr virus inhibitor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianti, Eleonora; Messick, Troy E.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Zauhar, Randy J.

    2016-04-01

    The Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a critical protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). During latent infection, EBNA1 is essential for DNA replication and transcription initiation of viral and cellular genes and is necessary to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes. Nonetheless, the concept of EBNA1 as drug target is novel. Two EBNA1 crystal structures are publicly available and the first small-molecule EBNA1 inhibitors were recently discovered. However, no systematic studies have been reported on the structural details of EBNA1 "druggable" binding sites. We conducted computational identification and structural characterization of EBNA1 binding pockets, likely to accommodate ligand molecules (i.e. "druggable" binding sites). Then, we validated our predictions by docking against a set of compounds previously tested in vitro for EBNA1 inhibition (PubChem AID-2381). Finally, we supported assessments of pocket druggability by performing induced fit docking and molecular dynamics simulations paired with binding affinity predictions by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area calculations for a number of hits belonging to druggable binding sites. Our results establish EBNA1 as a target for drug discovery, and provide the computational evidence that active AID-2381 hits disrupt EBNA1:DNA binding upon interacting at individual sites. Lastly, structural properties of top scoring hits are proposed to support the rational design of the next generation of EBNA1 inhibitors.

  8. Computational analysis of EBNA1 "druggability" suggests novel insights for Epstein-Barr virus inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Gianti, Eleonora; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M; Zauhar, Randy J

    2016-04-01

    The Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a critical protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). During latent infection, EBNA1 is essential for DNA replication and transcription initiation of viral and cellular genes and is necessary to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes. Nonetheless, the concept of EBNA1 as drug target is novel. Two EBNA1 crystal structures are publicly available and the first small-molecule EBNA1 inhibitors were recently discovered. However, no systematic studies have been reported on the structural details of EBNA1 "druggable" binding sites. We conducted computational identification and structural characterization of EBNA1 binding pockets, likely to accommodate ligand molecules (i.e. "druggable" binding sites). Then, we validated our predictions by docking against a set of compounds previously tested in vitro for EBNA1 inhibition (PubChem AID-2381). Finally, we supported assessments of pocket druggability by performing induced fit docking and molecular dynamics simulations paired with binding affinity predictions by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area calculations for a number of hits belonging to druggable binding sites. Our results establish EBNA1 as a target for drug discovery, and provide the computational evidence that active AID-2381 hits disrupt EBNA1:DNA binding upon interacting at individual sites. Lastly, structural properties of top scoring hits are proposed to support the rational design of the next generation of EBNA1 inhibitors.

  9. Features of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in Korean children living in an area of high seroprevalence against Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Bae, E Young; Lee, Jae Wook; Jang, Pil Sang; Lee, Dong-Gun; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Jeong, Dae Chul; Cho, Bin; Lee, Soon Ju; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Hack-Ki

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Korean children living in an area of a high seroprevalence against EBV and to determine the impact of recipient age on EBV reactivation. Medical records of 248 children and adolescents who had received allogeneic HCT were retrospectively reviewed. The trends of EBV reactivation and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) were evaluated and compared between younger (≤10 years old) and older (11-20 years old) groups. EBV reactivation occurred in 177 cases (71.4 %) and high-level EBV reactivation, defined as a virus DNA titer of 300,000 copies/mL or higher, occurred in 21 cases (8.5 %). PTLD was diagnosed in five cases (2.0 %), and one of these patients died. The EBV reactivation rate was not significantly different between the two age groups; however, high-level reactivation and PTLD were more significantly frequent in the older than in the younger group (P = 0.030 and P = 0.026, respectively). In conclusion, older children and adolescents are more likely to experience high-level EBV reactivation and PTLDs, and higher EBV DNA titers than those previously reported may be a predictor of PTLD in areas with a high seroprevalence against EBV.

  10. Reproduction of epstein-barr virus infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with a variety of diseases including lymphoproliferative diseases, lymphomas, carcinomas, and autoimmune diseases. Humans are the only natural host of EBV and limited species of new-world monkeys can be infected with the virus in experimental conditions. Small animal models of EBV infection, required for evaluation of novel therapies and vaccines for EBV-associated diseases, have not been available. Recently the development of severely immunodeficient mouse strains enabled production of humanized mice in which human immune system components are reconstituted and express their normal functions. Humanized mice can serve as infection models for human-specific viruses such as EBV that target cells of the immune system. This review summarizes recent studies by the author's group addressing reproduction of EBV infection and pathogenesis in humanized mice.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus episome-based promoter function in human myeloid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, C A; Getty, R R; Tykocinski, M L

    1989-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episomal replicons offer an expeditious means for amplifying transfected genes in human cells. A panel of EBV episomes was constructed to assess the relative utility of five distinct eukaryotic promoter elements for high level and inducible gene expression in stably transfected human myeloid leukemia cells. The Rous sarcoma virus 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) was most highly suited for EBV episome-based gene expression, whereas the lymphopapilloma virus and the SV40 early regulatory elements exhibited substantially lower activities. Chemically responsive promoter elements, such as the SV40 early, human metallothionein IIA and rat GRP78 gene promoters, retained their inducibility when EBV episome-based. Differences in gene expression obtained with the episomes reflected differential promoter activity rather than significant variations in episome copy numbers per cell. These observations provide guidelines for the optimal design of EBV episomal expression vectors for human expression work. Images PMID:2538801

  12. Epstein-Barr virus latency type and spontaneous reactivation predict lytic induction levels.

    PubMed

    Phan, An T; Fernandez, Samantha G; Somberg, Jessica J; Keck, Kristin M; Miranda, Jj L

    2016-05-20

    The human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) evades the immune system by entering a transcriptionally latent phase in B cells. EBV in tumor cells expresses distinct patterns of genes referred to as latency types. Viruses in tumor cells also display varying levels of lytic transcription resulting from spontaneous reactivation out of latency. We measured this dynamic range of lytic transcription with RNA deep sequencing and observed no correlation with EBV latency types among genetically different viruses, but type I cell lines reveal more spontaneous reactivation than isogenic type III cultures. We further determined that latency type and spontaneous reactivation levels predict the relative amount of induced reactivation generated by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs. Our work has potential implications for personalizing medicine against EBV-transformed malignancies. Identifying latency type or measuring spontaneous reactivation may provide predictive power in treatment contexts where viral production should be either avoided or coerced.

  13. Chromatin reorganisation in Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells and its role in cancer development.

    PubMed

    West, Michelle J

    2017-09-11

    The oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth transforms B cells and drives lymphoma and carcinoma development. The virus encodes four key transcription factors (EBNA2, EBNA3A, EBNA3B and EBNA3C) that hijack host cell factors to bind gene control elements and reprogramme infected B cells. These viral factors predominantly target long-range enhancers to alter the expression of host cell genes that control B cell growth and survival and facilitate virus persistence. Enhancer and super-enhancer binding by these EBNAs results in large-scale reorganisation of three-dimensional enhancer-promoter architecture to drive the overexpression of oncogenes, the silencing of tumour suppressors and the modulation of transcription, cell-cycle progression, migration and adhesion. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early events associated with infection of Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B-cells.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sabyasachi; Murakami, Masanao; Verma, Subhash C; Kumar, Pankaj; Yi, Fuming; Robertson, Erle S

    2009-09-28

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with the development of a vast number of human cancers. To develop a system for monitoring early cellular and viral events associated with EBV infection a self-recombining BAC containing 172-kb of the Epstein Barr virus genome BAC-EBV designated as MD1 BAC (Chen et al., 2005, J.Virology) was used to introduce an expression cassette of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by homologous recombination, and the resultant BAC clone, BAC-GFP-EBV was transfected into the HEK 293T epithelial cell line. The resulting recombinant GFP EBV was induced to produce progeny virus by chemical inducer from the stable HEK 293T BAC GFP EBV cell line and the virus was used to immortalize human primary B-cell as monitored by green fluorescence and outgrowth of the primary B cells. The infection, B-cell activation and cell proliferation due to GFP EBV was monitored by the expression of the B-cell surface antigens CD5, CD10, CD19, CD23, CD39, CD40 , CD44 and the intercellular proliferation marker Ki-67 using Flow cytometry. The results show a dramatic increase in Ki-67 which continues to increase by 6-7 days post-infection. Likewise, CD40 signals showed a gradual increase, whereas CD23 signals were increased by 6-12 hours, maximally by 3 days and then decreased. Monitoring the viral gene expression pattern showed an early burst of lytic gene expression. This up-regulation of lytic gene expression prior to latent genes during early infection strongly suggests that EBV infects primary B-cell with an initial burst of lytic gene expression and the resulting progeny virus is competent for infecting new primary B-cells. This process may be critical for establishment of latency prior to cellular transformation. The newly infected primary B-cells can be further analyzed for investigating B cell activation due to EBV infection.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-5 binds to Epstein-Barr virus-induced Fte1/S3a protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kashuba, Elena . E-mail: Elena.Kashuba@mtc.ki.se; Yurchenko, Mariya; Szirak, Krisztina; Stahl, Joachim; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2005-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms resting human B cells into immortalized immunoblasts. EBV-encoded nuclear antigens EBNA-5 (also called EBNA-LP) is one of the earliest viral proteins expressed in freshly infected B cells. We have recently shown that EBNA-5 binds p14ARF, a nucleolar protein that regulates the p53 pathway. Here, we report the identification of another protein with partially nucleolar localization, the v-fos transformation effector Fte-1 (Fte-1/S3a), as an EBNA-5 binding partner. In transfected cells, Fte-1/S3a and EBNA-5 proteins showed high levels of colocalization in extranucleolar inclusions. Fte-1/S3a has multiple biological functions. It enhances v-fos-mediated cellular transformation and is part of the small ribosomal subunit. It also interacts with the transcriptional factor CHOP and apoptosis regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Fte-1/S3a is regularly expressed at high levels in both tumors and cancer cell lines. Its high expression favors the maintenance of malignant phenotype and undifferentiated state, whereas its down-regulation is associated with cellular differentiation and growth arrest. Here, we show that EBV-induced B cell transformation leads to the up-regulation of Fte-1/S3a. We suggest that EBNA-5 through binding may influence the growth promoting, differentiation inhibiting, or apoptosis regulating functions of Fte-1/S3a.

  16. Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus and cellular gene expression during the early phases of Epstein-Barr virus lytic induction.

    PubMed

    Auburn, Helen; Zuckerman, Mark; Smith, Melvyn

    2016-11-01

    In order to develop novel host/pathogen real-time PCR assays for routine diagnostic use, early gene expression patterns from both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Raji cells were examined after inducing the lytic life cycle using 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol ester and sodium butyrate. Real-time PCR identified several highly induced (>90-fold) EBV lytic genes over a 48 h time course during the lytic induction phase. Latent genes were induced at low levels during this phase. The cellular response to lytic viral replication is poorly understood. Whole human genome microarray analysis identified 113 cellular genes regulated twofold or more by EBV, including 63 upregulated and 46 downregulated genes, over a 24 h time course post-induction. The most upregulated gene was CHI3L1, a chitinase-3-like 1 protein (18.1-fold; P<0.0084), and the most downregulated gene was TYMS, a thymidylate synthetase (-7.6-fold). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis using MetaCore software revealed cell cycle (core), cell cycle (role of anaphase-promoting complex) in cell cycle regulation) and lymphatic diseases as the most significantly represented biological network processes, canonical pathways and disease biomarkers, respectively. Chemotaxis, DNA damage and inflammation (IL-4 signalling) together with lymphoproliferative disorders and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were significantly represented biological processes and disease biomarkers.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus growth/latency III program alters cellular microRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Jennifer E. Fewell, Claire Yin, Qinyan McBride, Jane Wang Xia Lin Zhen

    2008-12-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with lymphoid and epithelial cancers. Initial EBV infection alters lymphocyte gene expression, inducing cellular proliferation and differentiation as the virus transitions through consecutive latency transcription programs. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of signaling pathways and are implicated in carcinogenesis. The extent to which EBV exploits cellular miRNAs is unknown. Using micro-array analysis and quantitative PCR, we demonstrate differential expression of cellular miRNAs in type III versus type I EBV latency including elevated expression of miR-21, miR-23a, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-34a, miR-146a and b, and miR-155. In contrast, miR-28 expression was found to be lower in type III latency. The EBV-mediated regulation of cellular miRNAs may contribute to EBV signaling and associated cancers.

  18. Space Flight-Induced Reactivation of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Raymond P.; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2001-01-01

    Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may be an important threat to crew health during extended space missions. Decreased cellular immune function has been reported both during and after space flight. Preliminary studies have demonstrated increased EBV shedding in saliva as well as increased antibody titers to EBV lytic proteins. We hypothesize that the combined effects of microgravity along with associated physical and psychological stress will decrease EBV-specific T-cell immunity and reactivate latent EBV in infected B-lymphocytes. If increased virus production and clonal expansion of infected B-lymphocytes are detected, then pharmacological measures can be developed and instituted prior to onset of overt clinical disease. More importantly, we will begin to understand the basic mechanisms involved in stress-induced reactivation of EBV in circulating B-lymphocytes.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus, the germinal centre and the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ghada; Vrzalikova, Katerina; Cader, Fathima Zumla; Vockerodt, Martina; Nagy, Eszter; Flodr, Patrik; Yap, Lee-Fah; Diepstra, Arjan; Kluin, Philip M; Rosati, Stefano; Murray, Paul

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the germinal centre (GC) of the asymptomatic host remains an enigma. The occasional appearance of EBV-positive germinal centres in some patients, particularly those with a history of immunosuppression, suggests that EBV numbers in the GC are subject to immune control. The relationship, if any, between lymphoid hyperplasia with EBV-positive germinal centres and subsequent or concurrent lymphomagenesis remains to be clarified. As far as the development of EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma is concerned, the suppression of virus replication, mediated by LMP1 on the one hand, and the loss of B-cell receptor signalling on the other, appears to be an important pathogenic mechanism. A further important emerging concept is that alterations in the microenvironment of the EBV-infected B-cell may be important for lymphomagenesis.

  20. Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

  1. Rare Presentations of Epstein-Barr Virus--Associated Smooth Muscle Tumor in Children.

    PubMed

    Arva, Nicoleta C; Schafernak, Kristian T

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has oncogenic potential and has been implicated in the etiology of a wide range of malignancies. Certain EBV-driven neoplasms, such as smooth muscle tumors (SMTs), manifest typically in immunocompromised patients. In children, these neoplasms have been encountered in the setting of primary immune disorders, specifically severe combined and common variable immunodeficiency syndromes. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and posttransplant immunosuppression, in particular liver and kidney transplantation, likewise increase the risk in the pediatric population. The location of these neoplasms appears related to the type of immunodeficiency: in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome they are frequently located intracranially or intraspinally, whereas after transplant they usually involve the liver or lung. We report 2 distinct cases of EBV-related SMT, unique through their coassociated immunosuppressive state or location: the 1st occurred in a patient with immunodeficiency secondary to NEMO gene mutation following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; the 2nd developed in the orbit after heart transplant.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumour presenting as a parasagittal brain tumour.

    PubMed

    Ibebuike, K E; Pather, S; Emereole, O; Ndolo, P; Kajee, A; Gopal, R; Naidoo, S

    2012-11-01

    Dural-based brain tumours, apart from meningiomas, are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumor (SMT) is a documented but rare disease that occurs in immunocompromized patients. These tumours may be located at unusual sites including the brain. We present a 37-year-old patient, positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who was admitted after generalized tonic-clonic seizures. MRI and CT scan revealed a dural-based brain tumour, intraoperatively thought to be a meningioma, but with an eventual histological diagnosis of EBV-SMT. Clinically the patient was well postoperatively with a Glasgow coma scale score of 15/15 and no focal neurologic deficit. This case confirms the association between EBV and SMT in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It also highlights the need to include EBV-SMT in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Identification and functional analysis of the BIM interactome; new clues on its possible involvement in Epstein-Barr Virus-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Rouka, Erasmia; Kyriakou, Despoina

    2015-12-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a common feature in the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-related lymphomas and carcinomas. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between EBV latency in B-cells and epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene BIM. This study aimed to the construction and functional analysis of the BIM interactome in order to identify novel host genes that may be targeted by EBV. Fifty-nine unique interactors were found to compose the BIM gene network. Ontological analysis at the pathway level highlighted infectious diseases along with neuropathologies. These results underline the possible interplay between the BIM interactome and EBV-associated disorders.

  4. Generation of specific cytotoxic T cells with a fragment of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded p63/latent membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Thorley-Lawson, D A; Israelsohn, E S

    1987-01-01

    Human B lymphocytes, transformed by the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus, are known to express a characteristic antigen(s) recognized by the cellular immune response. This structure has been termed lymphocyte-determined membrane antigen. Because of the significance of this structure in controlling Epstein-Barr virus infection in vivo, the molecular nature of lymphocyte-determined membrane antigen has been long sought. In this paper, we show that a sequence of 10 amino acids (residues 43-53) from the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded membrane protein p63/latent membrane protein can induce Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T cells and, therefore, bears at least one of the lymphocyte-determined membrane antigenic determinants. PMID:3037547

  5. Epstein-Barr virus-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a distinct entity?

    PubMed

    Nelson, B P; Nalesnik, M A; Bahler, D W; Locker, J; Fung, J J; Swerdlow, S H

    2000-03-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are usually but not invariably associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The reported incidence, however, of EBV-negative PTLDs varies widely, and it is uncertain whether they should be considered analogous to EBV-positive PTLDs and whether they have any distinctive features. Therefore, the EBV status of 133 PTLDs from 80 patients was determined using EBV-encoded small ribonucleic acid (EBER) in situ hybridization stains with or without Southern blot EBV terminal repeat analysis. The morphologic, immunophenotypic, genotypic, and clinical features of the EBV-negative PTLDs were reviewed, and selected features were compared with EBV-positive cases. Twenty-one percent of patients had at least one EBV-negative PTLD (14% of biopsies). The initial EBV-negative PTLDs occurred a median of 50 months post-transplantation compared with 10 months for EBV-positive cases. Although only 2% of PTLDs from before 1991 were EBV negative, 23% of subsequent PTLDs were EBV negative (p <0.001). Of the EBV-negative PTLDs, 67% were of monomorphic type (M-PTLD) compared with 42% of EBV-positive cases (p <0.05). The other EBV-negative PTLDs were of infectious mononucleosis-like, plasma cell-rich (n = 2), small B-cell lymphoid neoplasm, large granular lymphocyte disorder (n = 4) and polymorphic (P) types. B-cell clonality was established in 14 specimens and T-cell clonality was established in three (two patients). None of the remaining specimens were studied with Southern blot analysis and some had no ancillary studies. Rearrangement of c-MYC was identified in two M-PTLDs with small noncleaved-like features, and rearrangement of BCL-2 was found in one large noncleaved-like M-PTLD. Ten patients were alive at 3 to 63 months (only three patients received chemotherapy). Seven patients, all with M-PTLDs, are dead at 0.3 to 6 months. Therefore, EBV-negative PTLDs have distinct features, but some do respond to decreased immunosuppression, similar

  6. An unusual presentation of cardiac tamponade associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai Man Alexander; Mitchell, Sheena C

    2015-05-13

    We present a case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with a dry cough, shortness of breath and general malaise. She had presented 5 days previously with a sore throat, feeling feverish and with non-specific symptoms. Her background included paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and hypertension. She was initially thought to have decompensated heart failure secondary to atrial fibrillation and was initiated on diuretic therapy. However, a transthoracic echocardiogram performed revealed collapse of the right ventricle and a swinging heart, suggestive of cardiac tamponade. The patient underwent therapeutic pericardiocentesis where 700 mL of exudative, blood-stained fluid was drained. Subsequent testing of the pericardial fluid revealed the presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA. Serial follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms revealed resolution of the pericardial effusion and the patient remained asymptomatic.

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma of Guatemalan and Brazilian Patients.

    PubMed

    Rumayor Piña, Alicia; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Carlos, Roman; Altemani, Albina; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2017-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), particularly the undifferentiated nonkeratinizing subtype. Prevalence of EBV in NPC in countries such as Guatemala and Brazil has not been studied. We analyzed 19 cases of NPC, 11 from Guatemala and 8 from Brazil, for the presence of EBV by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, 19 hyperplastic adenoids from children were analyzed for EBV by in situ hybridization, 12 from Guatemala and 7 from Brazil. All the NPC cases from Guatemala and 5 from Brazil were of the undifferentiated nonkeratinizing type. EBV-negative cases comprised 2 keratinizing NPC and 1 differentiated nonkeratinizing NPC. All undifferentiated nonkeratinizing NPC from both samples showed intense positivity for EBER, while LMP-1 only focally and scarcely expressed. EBER was positive in 75% and 43% of the adenoids from Guatemala and Brazil, respectively. All undifferentiated nonkeratinizing NPC irrespective of origin from Guatemala or Brazil were highly associated with EBV.

  8. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus associated conditions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Ivan J; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections of the oral mucosa may present as both benign and malignant conditions. Squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum are benign, HPV-associated growths treated with simple excision while multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) usually occurs in children and adolescents and resolves over time. HPV-associated oral dysplasia is uncommon and HPV-carcinoma comprises 6% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. EBV is responsible for oral hairy leukoplakia, a benign condition seen in immunocompromised patients, while the EBV-associated mucocutaneous ulcer is a recently-described, indolent condition associated with an atypical lymphoid proliferation seen immunocompromised patients as well as older adults, the latter likely because of immunosenescence. Awareness of these conditions is important for the practicing pathologist because some of these conditions may represent the first sign of underlying immunocompromise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural Basis for Apoptosis Inhibition by Epstein-Barr Virus BHRF1

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Simon N.; Chen, Lin; Roberts, Andrew W.; Huang, David C. S.; Colman, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with human malignancies, especially those affecting the B cell compartment such as Burkitt lymphoma. The virally encoded homolog of the mammalian pro-survival protein Bcl-2, BHRF1 contributes to viral infectivity and lymphomagenesis. In addition to the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim, its key target in lymphoid cells, BHRF1 also binds a selective sub-set of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bid, Puma, Bak) expressed by host cells. A consequence of BHRF1 expression is marked resistance to a range of cytotoxic agents and in particular, we show that its expression renders a mouse model of Burkitt lymphoma untreatable. As current small organic antagonists of Bcl-2 do not target BHRF1, the structures of it in complex with Bim or Bak shown here will be useful to guide efforts to target BHRF1 in EBV-associated malignancies, which are usually associated with poor clinical outcomes. PMID:21203485

  10. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of an Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tsu-Man; Lin, Yueh-Min; Wang, Shing-Chuang; Tsai, Yi-Giien

    2016-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) is a rare disease characterized by intense local skin reactions with general symptoms, such as high fever and regional lymphadenopathy after mosquito bites. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) chronic infection and NK cell lymphoproliferative disease have been reported first in diagnosed HMB patients. Here, we present the case of a 6-year-old girl with 2 months' history of bullae and necrotic skin lesions, accompanied by a high temperature, visual hallucinations, and liver dysfunction after mosquito bites. A histopathologic examination of the skin lesion showed vasculitis and EBV infection. We could not detect any findings of hematologic malignancies or NK cell proliferative disease in the patient. Clinicians should closely evaluate HMB patients for possible development of lymphoproliferative status or hematologic malignant disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Emergence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome upon treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kawashiri, S; Nakamura, H; Kawakami, A; Ida, H; Izumi, Y; Tamai, M; Origuchi, T; Moriuchi, M; Moriuchi, H; Eguchi, K

    2006-01-01

    A 32-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus was admitted to our hospital with fever and cytopenia, and diagnosed as haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) by bone marrow aspiration study showing haemophagocytosis. Since the serologic activity of lupus was not increased at that time and HPS was refractory to the conventional therapies, an additional aetiological factor was suspected. Real-time PCR analysis identified reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A combination therapy targetting EBV-associated HPS, consisting of intravenous administration of cyclosporine A as well as immunoglobulin with a high titre of anti-EBV antibody, significantly suppressed EBV viraemia and led to the remission of HPS until the time of writing.

  12. Hepatic follicular dendritic cell sarcoma without Epstein-Barr virus expression.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ulises; Hawkins, William G; Antonescu, Cristina R; DeMatteo, Ronald P

    2005-11-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the liver is an uncommon pathologic entity, and only 5 cases have been reported previously. Herein, we report the first case, to our knowledge, of hepatic follicular dendritic cell sarcoma without evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection. The patient is an elderly man who was found to have an incidental liver mass and then developed weight loss and fever. The diagnosis was based on the typical morphologic appearance of spindle cell proliferation associated with a brisk lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and strong immunoreactivity to CD21 and CD35. Based on our experience and a review of the published reports, we summarize the clinical and pathologic features of hepatic follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and its surgical management.

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome after Scrub Typhus Infection

    PubMed Central

    You, Hyun Seon; Lee, Tae Won; Jo, Won Yong; Kim, Bo Ra; Suh, Young Sun; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    There have been a small number of cases of scrub typhus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), most of which were treated successfully using adequate antibiotics. Here, we report a case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated HPS after scrub typhus infection that was not improved using antirickettsial treatment. A 73-year-old male who had been diagnosed with scrub typhus according to an eschar and a positive serology was transferred to our institution because of a persistent fever despite 7-day doxycycline therapy. Physical and laboratory data showed hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. A bone marrow examination (BM) revealed hypercellular marrow with hemophagocytosis and histiocyte infiltration. EBV was detected in BM aspirates using polymerase chain reaction. After a diagnosis of HPS was made, the patient was treated successfully using high-dose steroids. PMID:27883370

  14. Unusual presentation of Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis treated successfully with valganciclovir.

    PubMed

    Cauldwell, Katrine; Williams, Roger

    2014-03-01

    Described is the case of a 21-year-old male patient who presented with a severe Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) hepatitis. The initial diagnosis was challenging, as the patient did not have the typical features of the mononucleosis syndrome and despite the severity of the hepatitis, the initial serology was negative. In addition the liver biopsy did not show the mononuclear cell infiltration typically seen in EBV hepatitis. Later, measurements of EBV DNA showed high titers and the patient received a course of oral valganciclovir, following which he made a rapid clinical and serological response. This case describes an unusual presentation of EBV hepatitis, and adds to the body of evidence supporting its treatment with valganciclovir. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Leishmania Infantum and Epstein-Barr Virus Co-Infection in a Patient with Hemophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gaifer, Zied; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe a rare case of a 27- year old previously healthy male presenting with high grade fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, high levels of ferritin and triglyceride, suggesting a diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) syndrome. Other investigations showed a positive Leishmania infantum serology and high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia. The diagnosis of a visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone morrow biopsy, which showed Leishman-Donovan bodies and evidence of HLH. The patient received liposomal amphotericin B and he had a complete resolution of his symptoms and clearance of EBV viremia. This case of HLH associated with visceral leishmaniasis and EBV co-infection raises the question about the significance of EBV in patients with HLH. The treatment of actual etiological agent can lead to complete cure while using current recommend chemotherapy for HLH-related EBV in a patient with hidden infection may have deleterious effects. PMID:28191297

  16. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum Coinfection on Longitudinal Epstein-Barr Virus Kinetics in Kenyan Children.

    PubMed

    Reynaldi, Arnold; Schlub, Timothy E; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Sumba, Peter Odada; Piriou, Erwan; Ogolla, Sidney; Moormann, Ann M; Rochford, Rosemary; Davenport, Miles P

    2016-03-15

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfection, although how P. falciparum exposure affects the dynamics of EBV infection is unclear. We have used a modeling approach to study EBV infection kinetics in a longitudinal cohort of children living in regions of high and low malaria transmission in Kenya. Residence in an area of high malaria transmission was associated with a higher rate of EBV expansion during primary EBV infection in infants and during subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection, as well as with longer episodes of EBV DNA detection and shorter intervals between subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection. In addition, we found that concurrent P. falciparum parasitemia also increases the likelihood of the first and subsequent peaks of EBV in peripheral blood. This suggests that P. falciparum infection is associated with increased EBV growth and contributes to endemic Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis.

  17. Advanced therapeutic and prophylactic strategies for Epstein-Barr virus infection in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Okano, Motohiko; Gross, Thomas G

    2007-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an ubiquitous human herpesvirus. Primary infection is generally subclinical but in certain circumstances, such as in patients with either hereditary or secondary immunodeficiency, EBV infection may cause overt disease that is often lethal. Strategies for the prophylaxis and treatment of these potentially life-threatening complications of EBV infection have advanced dramatically. They include immunological-based approaches targeted at EBV-infected cells, as well as improvement in the treatment of the underlying and predisposing disease. This review will discuss EBV biology and immune events that occur in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals and introduce the novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for EBV-associated life-threatening diseases.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the hypopharynx.

    PubMed

    Cordes, C; Tiemann, M; Tiemann, K; Knappe, D; Hoffmann, M; Gottschlich, S

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is commonly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma, but association with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal tumours is rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the hypopharynx. A 63-year-old male patient suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia presented with swallowing disorders and a sore throat. Panendoscopy with laser surgical resection of tissue specimens was performed. Immunohistochemical and molecular genetic diagnostics, including EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization, confirmed the diagnosis of an EBV-associated DLBCL of the hypopharynx. Ten weeks after the diagnosis, the patient died of disease related to multiple complications. We hypothesize that the EBV infection was triggered by long-term immunosuppressive therapy that led secondarily to the development of a DLBCL. Otorhinolaryngologists should keep in mind that lymphomas might develop in the entire pharynx.

  19. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in Hodgkin's disease: relation to age.

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R F; Gallagher, A; Jones, D B; Alexander, F E; Krajewski, A S; Kelsey, A; Adams, J; Angus, B; Gledhill, S; Wright, D H

    1991-01-01

    An investigation as to whether any particular subgroup of patients with Hodgkin's disease was particularly likely to be Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome positive was made on samples from 95 patients. These were grouped according to age and Hodgkin's disease subtype, and analysed using Southern blot analysis. Most samples from children or adults aged 50 years or over contained detectable EBV genomes; samples from young adults were only rarely positive. The differences in EBV positivity by age were highly significant, but there was no significant association between EBV and histological subtype after allowing for the effect of age. The results support the hypothesis that Hodgkin's disease in different age groups may have different aetiologies, and suggest that EBV does have a pathogenetic role in Hodgkin's disease in children and older age groups. Images PMID:1660054

  20. Dominant-negative inhibitors of EBNA-1 of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchmaier, A L; Sugden, B

    1997-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is required in trans to support replication of the EBV genome once per cell cycle via the latent origin of replication, oriP. EBNA-1 can also activate transcription on binding to the family of repeats of oriP to enhance some heterologous as well as native EBV promoters. We have made and screened derivatives of EBNA-1 for the ability to act as inhibitors of wild-type EBNA-1. These derivatives lack the linking or the retention functions of EBNA-1 and were analyzed for the residual ability to activate transcription and replication. We have identified derivatives of EBNA-1 that can inhibit up to 98% of wild-type EBNA-1's activities. We have also identified one derivative of EBNA-1 with only two of EBNA-1's three linking domains which can support transcription and replication inefficiently. PMID:9032305

  1. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum Coinfection on Longitudinal Epstein-Barr Virus Kinetics in Kenyan Children

    PubMed Central

    Reynaldi, Arnold; Schlub, Timothy E.; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Sumba, Peter Odada; Piriou, Erwan; Ogolla, Sidney; Moormann, Ann M.; Rochford, Rosemary; Davenport, Miles P.

    2016-01-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfection, although how P. falciparum exposure affects the dynamics of EBV infection is unclear. We have used a modeling approach to study EBV infection kinetics in a longitudinal cohort of children living in regions of high and low malaria transmission in Kenya. Residence in an area of high malaria transmission was associated with a higher rate of EBV expansion during primary EBV infection in infants and during subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection, as well as with longer episodes of EBV DNA detection and shorter intervals between subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection. In addition, we found that concurrent P. falciparum parasitemia also increases the likelihood of the first and subsequent peaks of EBV in peripheral blood. This suggests that P. falciparum infection is associated with increased EBV growth and contributes to endemic Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis. PMID:26531246

  2. Fatal Epstein-Barr virus myocarditis in a child with repetitive myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M M; Yu, C; Towbin, J A; Rogers, B B

    1995-01-01

    Fatal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) myocarditis occurred in a 9-year-old female with a history of two prior discrete episodes of myocarditis, the first associated with chicken pox and the second of undetermined origin. Serologic studies during the fatal episode were characteristic of acute EBV infection, and EBV genome was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA extracted from autopsy heart and liver. PCRs for enteroviruses and cardiac viral culture were negative. An intense mononuclear cell infiltrate in the myocardium consisted entirely of T cells, without identifiable B cells. Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR analysis using frozen tissue obtained postmortem revealed antigens DR4 and DR13. DR4 is associated with some autoimmune disorders, as well as idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. We postulate that an aberrant immune response, possibly associated with the DR4 locus, was responsible for the repetitive episodes of myocarditis in this patient.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Langer-Gould, Annette; Wu, Jun; Lucas, Robyn; Smith, Jessica; Gonzales, Edlin; Amezcua, Lilyana; Haraszti, Samantha; Chen, Lie Hong; Quach, Hong; James, Judith A; Barcellos, Lisa F; Xiang, Anny H

    2017-09-26

    To determine whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) in blacks and Hispanics and to what extent measures of the hygiene hypothesis or breastfeeding could explain these findings. EBV and CMV have been associated with MS risk in whites, and the timing and frequency of both viruses vary by factors implicated in the hygiene hypothesis. Incident cases of MS or its precursor, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and matched controls (blacks, 111 cases/128 controls; Hispanics, 173/187; whites, 235/256) were recruited from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Logistic regression models accounted for HLA-DRB1*1501 status, smoking, socioeconomic status, age, sex, genetic ancestry, and country of birth. Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) seropositivity was independently associated with an increased odds of MS/CIS in all 3 racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.001 for blacks and whites, p = 0.02 for Hispanics). In contrast, CMV seropositivity was associated with a lower risk of MS/CIS in Hispanics (p = 0.004) but not in blacks (p = 0.95) or whites (p = 0.96). Being born in a low/middle-income country was associated with a lower risk of MS in Hispanics (p = 0.02) but not after accounting for EBNA-1 seropositivity. Accounting for breastfeeding did not diminish the association between CMV and MS in Hispanics. The consistency of EBNA-1 seropositivity with MS across racial/ethnic groups and between studies points to a strong biological link between EBV infection and MS risk. The association between past CMV infection and MS risk supports the broader hygiene hypothesis, but the inconsistency of this association across racial/ethnic groups implies noncausal associations. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Manifesting as Intestinal Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma in an Adult Renal Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Börcek, Pelin; Özdemir, B Handan; Özgün, Gonca; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a relatively common posttransplant malignancy affecting as many as 10% of all solid-organ recipients. Most cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are of B-cell origin, with common Epstein-Barr virus association. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell origin are much rarer and less frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Here, we report an unusual case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma causing an intestinal perforation in an adult renal transplant recipient. A 52-year-old male patient with renal allograft developed cryptogenic end-stage liver failure and was accepted as a candidate for liver transplant. Before transplant, he was admitted with severe abdominal pain, which turned out to result from ileal perforation. Pathologic evaluation of the intestinal resection showed diffuse malignant lymphoid infiltration of the ileum, consistent with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. The tumor was positive for Epstein-Barr virus genome. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma is a rare form of T-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder that is infrequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus. The occurrence of this extraordinary form of post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, its late onset, intestinal localization, and Epstein-Barr virus as sociation represent a unique clinical rarity.

  5. Association of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashish; Nath Prasad, Kashi; Chand Ghoshal, Uday; Krishnani, Narendra; Roshan Bhagat, Monty; Husain, Nuzhat

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are common world-wide. Though H. pylori infection is a major factor in gastroduodenal diseases, its role in association with EBV infection is unknown. We prospectively studied the association of H. pylori and EBV in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). A total of 348 adult patients (non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) 241, PUD 45, GC 62) undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between September 2003 and May 2007 were enrolled in the study. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). EBV DNA was detected by non-polymorphic Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) gene-based PCR and sequence analysis. The rate of H. pylori infection was higher in patients with PUD than in those with GC (80% versus 56.5%, p=0.01) and NUD (80% versus 55.2%, p=0.002). In patients with GC and PUD, EBV DNA was detected more often than in those with NUD (GC versus NUD - 82.3% versus 37.3%, p<0.001; PUD versus NUD - 75.5% versus 37.3%, p<0.001). H. pylori infection and EBV DNA detected in different groups of patients was as follows: 62.2% in PUD, 46.8% in GC and 29.5% in NUD. PUD and GC were significantly associated (p<0.001 and <0.05, respectively) with the presence of H. pylori infection and EBV DNA as compared with NUD. EBV DNA either alone or in combination with H. pylori infection was significantly associated with GC and PUD, suggesting that EBV might play an important role in gastroduodenal pathology.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus DNA load and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in gastroduodenal diseases.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, K N; Tripathi, Aparna; Singh, Avinash; Saxena, Ashish; Ghoshal, Uday Chand; Krishnani, Narendra; Husain, Nuzhat

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are common worldwide. Although H. pylori infection is a major factor in gastroduodenal diseases, its role in association with EBV infection is unknown. To study the association of H. pylori infection and EBV DNA load in patients with gastroduodenal diseases. Biopsy samples were collected from 200 adult patients [non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) 100, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) 50, gastric carcinoma (GC) 50] undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology, PCR and Q-PCR. EBV DNA was detected by non-polymorphic Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) gene based Q-PCR. In patients with GC and PUD, EBV DNA was detected more often than NUD (GC versus NUD = 90% versus 37%, p < 0.001; PUD versus NUD = 70% versus 37%, p < 0.001). The dual prevalence of H. pylori infection and EBV DNA was significantly higher in patients with GC and PUD than in those with NUD. Median copy number of EBV DNA was considerably higher in GC and PUD than NUD (p < 0.01). The copy number of EBV DNA was significantly higher in H. pylori infected patients (p = 0.015). The number of ureA gene copies was also found to be significantly higher in PUD and NUD with presence of EBV DNA. However, in GC no significant difference was seen between EBV positive and negative status. There was a trend for higher EBV DNA load in H. pylori positive individuals suggesting a probable role of H. pylori in modulating the conversion of EBV to its lytic phase.

  7. Suppression of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in lymphoblastoid cells cultured in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Long, J P; Pierson, S; Hughes, J H

    1999-01-01

    Rotating-wall vessels allow for the growth of cells in simulated microgravity. Lymphoblastoid cells cultured in rotating-wall vessels exhibited significant differences in the expression of both early and late Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) antigens. Viral protein expression (as measured by indirect immunofluorescence) was significantly suppressed in cells cultured in simulated microgravity. A significantly greater percentage of P3HR-1 cells and Daudi cells were positive for the expression of BamH1-Z-DNA fragment of Epstein-Barr replication activator (ZEBRA), early antigen restricted (EA-R), and viral capsid antigen (VCA) in cells cultured in static tissue culture flasks as compared to cells cultured in rotating-wall vessels. We observed a 7, 11, and 25-fold reduction, respectively, for EA-R, VCA, and ZEBRA protein in P3HR-1 cells cultured in simulated microgravity. Additionally, suspension cultures of P3HR-1 cells exhibited significantly greater ZEBRA antigen expression than cells cultured in rotating-wall vessels. As an independent confirmation of the reduction in ZEBRA-protein production in simulated microgravity in P3HR-1 cells, ZEBRA-mRNA was quantitated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We observed between a 4 to 10-fold reduction in ZEBRA-mRNA in cells cultured in simulated microgravity as compared to cells cultured at 1 x g in tissue culture flasks. Rotating-wall vessels, by virtue of providing a simple culture environment triggering marked differences in viral activation, provide a model whereby both host and viral factors involved in regulating the maintenance of EBV latency can be examined.

  8. Molecular signature of Epstein Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder suggest different roles for Epstein Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Mohsen; Fuligni, Fabio; Laginestra, Maria A.; Etebari, Maryam; Ambrosio, Maria R.; Sapienza, Maria R.; Rossi, Maura; De Falco, Giulia; Gibellini, Davide; Tripodo, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano A.; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Piccaluga, Pier P.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection is commonly associated with human cancer and, in particular, with lymphoid malignancies. Although the precise role of the virus in the pathogenesis of different lymphomas is largely unknown, it is well recognized that the expression of viral latent proteins and miRNA can contribute to its pathogenetic role. In this study, we compared the gene and miRNA expression profile of two EBV-associated aggressive B non-Hodgkin lymphomas known to be characterized by differential expression of the viral latent proteins aiming to dissect the possible different contribution of such proteins and EBV-encoded miRNAs. By applying extensive bioinformatic inferring and an experimental model, we found that EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma presented with significant over-expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs that were likely to contribute to its global molecular profile. On the other hand, EBV+ post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas presented a significant enrichment in genes regulated by the viral latent proteins. Based on these different viral and cellular gene expression patterns, a clear distinction between EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas was made. In this regard, the different viral and cellular expression patterns seemed to depend on each other, at least partially, and the latency type most probably played a significant role in their regulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that EBV influence over B-cell malignant clones may act through different mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and suggest that potentially different pathogenetic mechanisms may depend upon the conditions of the interaction between EBV and the host that finally determine the latency pattern. PMID:25566237

  9. Epstein Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: the virus as a therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) express all EBV latent antigens (type III latency) in immunodeficient patients and limited antigens (type I and II latencies) in immunocompetent patients. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the prototype exhibiting type III EBV latency. Although EBV antigens are highly immunogenic, PTLD cell proliferation remains unchecked because of the underlying immunosuppression. The restoration of anti-EBV immunity by EBV-specific T cells of either autologous or allogeneic origin has been shown to be safe and effective in PTLDs. Cellular therapy can be improved by establishing a bank of human leukocyte antigen-characterized allogeneic EBV-specific T cells. In EBV+ LPDs exhibiting type I and II latencies, the use of EBV-specific T cells is more limited, although the safety and efficacy of this therapy have also been demonstrated. The therapeutic role of EBV-specific T cells in EBV+ LPDs needs to be critically reappraised with the advent of monoclonal antibodies and other targeted therapy. Another strategy involves the use of epigenetic approaches to induce EBV to undergo lytic proliferation when expression of the viral thymidine kinase renders host tumor cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir. Finally, the prophylactic use of antiviral drugs to prevent EBV reactivation may decrease the occurrence of EBV+ LPDs. PMID:25613733

  10. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk are associated with HIV-1 shedding but not with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Soren; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Shetty, Avinash K; Seidel, Kristy D; Qin, Xuan; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S; Katzenstein, David A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2008-07-31

    Breast milk HIV-1 load is associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, and both milk viral load and mastitis are associated with increased mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding. Bacterial infections may cause clinical mastitis, but whether other copathogens common in HIV-1 infection are associated with subclinical mastitis or HIV-1 shedding is unknown. A cross-sectional study of HIV-1-infected breastfeeding women in Zimbabwe was performed to examine the relationship between a wide range of breast coinfections, mastitis, and HIV-1 shedding. Breast milk was cultured for bacteria and fungi and tested by PCR for mycobacteria, mycoplasmas, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Symptoms of clinical mastitis were documented and subclinical mastitis was identified by breast milk sodium concentration (Na) and leukocyte counts. Coinfections of milk were not associated with clinical or subclinical mastitis in the 217 women studied. Detection of HIV-1 RNA, but not DNA, in breast milk was associated with cytomegalovirus concentration (odds ratio = 1.8, P = 0.002) and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (odds ratio = 3.8, P = 0.0003) but not other coinfections in multivariate analysis. Coinfection of breast milk with bacteria, fungi, or herpes viruses was not associated with mastitis. The associations between shedding of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus with HIV-1 in milk suggest a local interaction between herpes virus infection and HIV-1 independent of mastitis. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections may impact HIV-1 shedding in breast milk and the risk of MTCT.

  11. Characterization of Clonality of Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Human B Lymphoproliferative Disease in Mice with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nakamine, Hirokazu; Masih, Aneal S.; Okano, Motohiko; Taguchi, Yuichi; Pirruccello, Samuel J.; Davis, Jack R.; Mahloch, Mark L.; Beisel, Kirk W.; Kleveland, Kimberly; Sanger, Warren G.; Purtilo, David T.

    1993-01-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy and understanding of the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) occurring in immunosuppressed transplant recipients (post-transplantation LPD), clonality of Epstein-Barr virus-induced human LPDs in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency was examined by analyzing: 1) human immunoglobulin genes and their products, 2) the clonality of Epstein-Barr virus DNA, and 3) genetic alteration of c-myc or bcl-2 genes. A spectrum of clonality was found in the LPDs comparable with that reported for post-transplantation LPDs, although rearrangements of c-myc or bcl-2 genes were not detected. It is confirmed that this system is useful in terms of clonality for understanding the early phases in the pathogenesis of post-transplantation LPD or LPD in immune deficient patients. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:8380952

  12. Knockout of Epstein-Barr Virus BPLF1 Retards B-Cell Transformation and Lymphoma Formation in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangming; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Montgomery, Nathan D.; Su, Lishan; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT BPLF1 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a late lytic cycle protein but is also found in the viral tegument, suggesting its potential involvement at both initial and late stages of viral infection. BPLF1 possesses both deubiquitinating and deneddylating activity located in its N-terminal domain and is involved in processes that affect viral infectivity, viral DNA replication, DNA repair, and immune evasion. A recently constructed EBV BPLF1-knockout (KO) virus was used in conjunction with a humanized mouse model that can be infected with EBV, enabling the first characterization of BPLF1 function in vivo. Results demonstrate that the BPLF1-knockout virus is approximately 90% less infectious than wild-type (WT) virus. Transformation of human B cells, a hallmark of EBV infection, was delayed and reduced with BPLF1-knockout virus. Humanized mice infected with EBV BPLF1-knockout virus showed less weight loss and survived longer than mice infected with equivalent infectious units of WT virus. Additionally, splenic tumors formed in 100% of mice infected with WT EBV but in only 25% of mice infected with BPLF1-KO virus. Morphological features of spleens containing tumors were similar to those in EBV-induced posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and were almost identical to cases seen in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The presence of EBV genomes was detected in all mice that developed tumors. The results implicate BPLF1 in human B-cell transformation and tumor formation in humanized mice. PMID:26489865

  13. Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen titer by immunofluorescence with microplates: new semiautomated method based on the microtiter system.

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, M E; Favart, A M; Burtonboy, G; Arana, A

    1977-01-01

    A semiautomated method of an indirect immunofluorescence technique for the titration of antibodies directed against viral capsid antigens of Epstein-Barr virus has been developed with Microtiter system units. By this method, a technician is able to titrate some hundred samples daily. The technique is safe, easy, and reproducible. The various procedures are described, and the sensitivity of the test is discussed. Images PMID:195981

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in plasma is not encapsidated in patients with EBV-related malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Julie L; Fan, Hongxin; Swinnen, Lode J; Schichman, Steven A; Raab-Traub, Nancy; Covington, Mary; Elmore, Sandra; Gulley, Margaret L

    2004-06-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), a ubiquitous gamma herpes virus, infects more than 95% of the human population before adulthood. Life-long persistence, usually without adverse health consequences, relies on a balance between viral latency, viral replication, and host immune response. Patients with EBV-related disease often have high levels of EBV DNA in their plasma. This study addresses whether this circulating, cell-free EBV DNA is encapsidated in virions or exists as naked genomes. First, an assay was developed, combining DNase I and quantitative real-time PCR, to discriminate encapsidated from naked EBV DNA. EBV DNA was almost always naked in the plasma of AIDS-related lymphoma patients (n = 11) and immunosuppressed/posttransplantation patients (n = 8). In contrast, infectious mononucleosis patients (n = 30) often had a mixture of encapsidated and naked EBV DNA. These findings may be important in understanding how viral load relates to disease status and in predicting response to nucleoside analogs and other antiviral therapies.

  15. Immune-checkpoint expression in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative plasmablastic lymphoma: a clinical and pathological study in 82 patients.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Camille; Fabiani, Bettina; Do, Catherine; Tchernonog, Emmanuelle; Cartron, Guillaume; Gravelle, Pauline; Amara, Nadia; Malot, Sandrine; Palisoc, Maryknoll Mawanay; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Glehen, Alexandra Traverse; Copin, Marie-Christine; Brousset, Pierre; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S; Coppo, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus co-infection that most often occurs in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Therefore, its immune escape strategy may involve the upregulation of immune-checkpoint proteins allowing the tumor immune evasion. However, the expression of these molecules was poorly studied in this lymphoma. We have investigated 82 plasmablastic lymphoma cases of whom half were Epstein-Barr virus positive. Although they harbored similar pathological features, Epstein-Barr virus positive plasmablastic lymphomas showed a significant increase in MYC gene rearrangement and had a better 2-year event-free survival than Epstein-Barr virus negative cases (P=0.049). Immunostains for programmed cell death-1, programmed cell death-ligand 1, indole 2,3-dioxygenase and dendritic cell specific C-type lectin showed a high or moderate expression by the microenvironment cells in 60%-72% of cases, whereas CD163 was expressed in almost all cases. Tumor cells also expressed programmed cell death-1 and its ligand in 22.5% and 5% of cases, respectively. Both Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative plasmablastic lymphomas exhibited a high immune-checkpoint score showing that it involves several pathways of immune escape. However, Epstein-Barr virus positive lymphomas exhibited a higher expression of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand in both malignant cells and microenvironment as compared to Epstein-Barr virus negative cases. In conclusion, plasmablastic lymphoma expresses immune-checkpoint proteins through both malignant cells and the tumor microenvironment. The expression of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand constitutes a strong rationale for testing monoclonal antibodies in this often chemoresistant disease.

  16. Immune-checkpoint expression in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative plasmablastic lymphoma: a clinical and pathological study in 82 patients

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Camille; Fabiani, Bettina; Do, Catherine; Tchernonog, Emmanuelle; Cartron, Guillaume; Gravelle, Pauline; Amara, Nadia; Malot, Sandrine; Palisoc, Maryknoll Mawanay; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Glehen, Alexandra Traverse; Copin, Marie-Christine; Brousset, Pierre; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Coppo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma commonly associated with Epstein-Barr virus co-infection that most often occurs in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Therefore, its immune escape strategy may involve the upregulation of immune-checkpoint proteins allowing the tumor immune evasion. However, the expression of these molecules was poorly studied in this lymphoma. We have investigated 82 plasmablastic lymphoma cases of whom half were Epstein-Barr virus positive. Although they harbored similar pathological features, Epstein-Barr virus positive plasmablastic lymphomas showed a significant increase in MYC gene rearrangement and had a better 2-year event-free survival than Epstein-Barr virus negative cases (P=0.049). Immunostains for programmed cell death-1, programmed cell death-ligand 1, indole 2,3-dioxygenase and dendritic cell specific C-type lectin showed a high or moderate expression by the microenvironment cells in 60%–72% of cases, whereas CD163 was expressed in almost all cases. Tumor cells also expressed programmed cell death-1 and its ligand in 22.5% and 5% of cases, respectively. Both Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative plasmablastic lymphomas exhibited a high immune-checkpoint score showing that it involves several pathways of immune escape. However, Epstein-Barr virus positive lymphomas exhibited a higher expression of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand in both malignant cells and microenvironment as compared to Epstein-Barr virus negative cases. In conclusion, plasmablastic lymphoma expresses immune-checkpoint proteins through both malignant cells and the tumor microenvironment. The expression of programmed cell death-1 and its ligand constitutes a strong rationale for testing monoclonal antibodies in this often chemoresistant disease. PMID:27175027

  17. Transcriptome-wide analysis of alternative RNA splicing events in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Armero, Victoria E S; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Allaire, Andréa; Boudreault, Simon; Martenon-Brodeur, Camille; Duval, Cyntia; Durand, Mathieu; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Tremblay-Létourneau, Maude; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Scott, Michelle S; Bisaillon, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Multiple human diseases including cancer have been associated with a dysregulation in RNA splicing patterns. In the current study, modifications to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes were investigated in the context of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer. Global alterations to the RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes was examined in a large-scale screen from 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas using high-throughput RNA sequencing data. RT-PCR analysis, mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation studies were also used to experimentally validate and investigate the differential alternative splicing (AS) events that were observed through RNA-seq studies. Our study identifies alterations in the AS patterns of approximately 900 genes such as tumor suppressor genes, transcription factors, splicing factors, and kinases. These findings allowed the identification of unique gene signatures for which AS is misregulated in both Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer and EBV-negative gastric cancer. Moreover, we show that the expression of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) leads to modifications in the AS profile of cellular genes and that the EBNA1 protein interacts with cellular splicing factors. These findings provide insights into the molecular differences between various types of gastric cancer and suggest a role for the EBNA1 protein in the dysregulation of cellular AS.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Promotes Epstein-Barr Virus Maintenance and Lytic Reactivation in Immortalized Oral Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Makielski, Kathleen R.; Lee, Denis; Lorenz, Laurel D.; Nawandar, Dhananjay M.; Chiu, Ya- Fang; Kenney, Shannon C.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomaviruses are human tumor viruses that infect and replicate in upper aerodigestive tract epithelia and cause head and neck cancers. The productive phases of both viruses are tied to stratified epithelia highlighting the possibility that these viruses may affect each other’s life cycles. Our lab has established an in vitro model system to test the effects of EBV and HPV co-infection in stratified squamous oral epithelial cells. Our results indicate that HPV increases maintenance of the EBV genome in the co-infected cells and promotes lytic reactivation of EBV in upper layers of stratified epithelium. Expression of the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 were found to be necessary and sufficient to account for HPV-mediated lytic reactivation of EBV. Our findings indicate that HPV increases the capacity of epithelial cells to support the EBV life cycle, which could in turn increase EBV-mediated pathogenesis in the oral cavity. PMID:27179345

  19. Reactivation of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus; A Comparison After Gamma Rays and Proton Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Plante, Ianik; Bloom, David C.; Stowe, Raymond; Renner, Ashlie; Wu, Honglu; Crucian, Brian; Pierson, Duane L.

    2017-01-01

    Among different unique stressors astronauts are exposed to during spaceflight, cosmic radiation constitutes an important one that leads to various health effects. In particular, space radiation may contribute to decreased immunity, which has been observed in astronauts during short and long duration missions, as evidenced by several changes in cellular immunity and plasma cytokines levels. Reactivation of latent herpes viruses, either directly from radiation or resulting from perturbation in the immune system, is also observed in astronauts. While EBV is one of the eight human herpes viruses known to infect more than 90% human adults and stays latent for the life of the host without normally causing adverse effects of reactivation, increased reactivation in astronauts is well-documented, though the mechanism of this increase is not understood. In this work, we have studied the effect of two different types of radiations, Cs-137 gamma and 150-MeV proton on the reactivation rates of the Epstein - Barr virus (EBV) in vitro in EBV latent cell lines at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. While we find that both types of radiations reactivated latent EBV in vitro, we observe that at equivalent doses, early response is stronger for protons but with time, the reactivation induced by gamma rays is more persistent. These differences between the protons and gamma rays curves in latent virus reactivation challenge the common paradigm that protons and gamma rays have similar biological effects.

  20. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  1. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B

    SciTech Connect

    Backovic, Marija; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2009-03-16

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the structure of gB from Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is available. Here, we report the crystal structure of the secreted EBV gB ectodomain, which forms 16-nm long spike-like trimers, structurally homologous to the postfusion trimers of the fusion protein G of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Comparative structural analyses of EBV gB and VSV G, which has been solved in its pre and postfusion states, shed light on gB residues that may be involved in conformational changes and membrane fusion. Also, the EBV gB structure reveals that, despite the high sequence conservation of gB in herpesviruses, the relative orientations of individual domains, the surface charge distributions, and the structural details of EBV gB differ from the HSV-1 protein, indicating regions and residues that may have important roles in virus-specific entry.

  2. Mountain gorilla lymphocryptovirus has Epstein-Barr virus-like epidemiology and pathology in infants.

    PubMed

    Smiley Evans, Tierra; Lowenstine, Linda J; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Barry, Peter A; Ssebide, Benard J; Kinani, Jean Felix; Nizeyimana, Fred; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Cranfield, Michael R; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine Kreuder

    2017-07-13

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects greater than 90% of humans, is recognized as a significant comorbidity with HIV/AIDS, and is an etiologic agent for some human cancers. The critically endangered mountain gorilla population was suspected of infection with an EBV-like virus based on serology and infant histopathology similar to pulmonary reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (PRLH), a condition associated with EBV in HIV-infected children. To further examine the presence of EBV or an EBV-like virus in mountain gorillas, we conducted the first population-wide survey of oral samples for an EBV-like virus in a nonhuman great ape. We discovered that mountain gorillas are widely infected (n = 143/332) with a specific strain of lymphocryptovirus 1 (GbbLCV-1). Fifty-two percent of infant mountain gorillas were orally shedding GbbLCV-1, suggesting primary infection during this stage of life, similar to what is seen in humans in less developed countries. We then identified GbbLCV-1 in post-mortem infant lung tissues demonstrating histopathological lesions consistent with PRLH, suggesting primary infection with GbbLCV-1 is associated with PRLH in infants. Together, our findings demonstrate that mountain gorilla's infection with GbbLCV-1 could provide valuable information for human disease in a natural great ape setting and have potential conservation implications in this critically endangered species.

  3. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  4. Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection in homosexual men in London.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D H; Weller, I; Iliescu, V; Wara, D W

    1984-08-01

    Twenty five homosexual men from London, 14 of whom had persistent lymphadenopathy and 11 of whom did not, were tested for immunity to Epstein-Barr (EB) virus. All yielded positive results to serological tests for the viral capsid antibody, and 11 had antibodies to the early antigen. Thirteen out of 17 were excreting virus into the saliva; culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two of these patients showed no detectable regression induced by T cells that was specific to EB virus. No differences were found between the patients with and without lymphadenopathy. Peripheral blood B cells from six patients with hypergammaglobulinaemia were double stained for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin and EB viral nuclear antigen, and in all cases the activated B cells producing immunoglobulin did not contain EB nuclear antigen. Similarly, lymph node biopsy specimens from five patients showed no cells with EB nuclear antigen. These results indicate that although homosexual men have a high incidence of reactivated infection with EB virus, this viral infection is not the cause of the polyclonal activation of B cells seen in peripheral blood and is not implicated in the aetiology of the lymphadenopathy found in these men.

  5. Viral Causes of Lymphoma: The History of Epstein-Barr Virus and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.

    PubMed

    Esau, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In 1964, Epstein, Barr, and Achong published a report outlining their discovery of viral particles in lymphoblasts isolated from a patient with Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human cancer virus to be described, and its discovery paved the way for further investigations into the oncogenic potential of viruses. In the decades following the discovery of EBV, multinational research efforts led to the discovery of further viral causes of various human cancers. Lymphomas are perhaps the cancer type that is most closely associated with oncogenic viruses: infection with EBV, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8, and hepatitis C virus have all been associated with lymphomagenesis. Lymphomas have also played an important role in the history of oncoviruses, as both the first human oncovirus (EBV) and the first human retrovirus (HTLV-1) were discovered through isolates taken from patients with unique lymphoma syndromes. The history of the discovery of these 2 key oncoviruses is presented here, and their impact on further medical research, using the specific example of HIV research, is briefly discussed.

  6. Viral Causes of Lymphoma: The History of Epstein-Barr Virus and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Esau, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In 1964, Epstein, Barr, and Achong published a report outlining their discovery of viral particles in lymphoblasts isolated from a patient with Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human cancer virus to be described, and its discovery paved the way for further investigations into the oncogenic potential of viruses. In the decades following the discovery of EBV, multinational research efforts led to the discovery of further viral causes of various human cancers. Lymphomas are perhaps the cancer type that is most closely associated with oncogenic viruses: infection with EBV, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8, and hepatitis C virus have all been associated with lymphomagenesis. Lymphomas have also played an important role in the history of oncoviruses, as both the first human oncovirus (EBV) and the first human retrovirus (HTLV-1) were discovered through isolates taken from patients with unique lymphoma syndromes. The history of the discovery of these 2 key oncoviruses is presented here, and their impact on further medical research, using the specific example of HIV research, is briefly discussed. PMID:28983187

  7. Epstein Barr Virus detection and latent membrane protein 1 in oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV+ Venezuelan patients.

    PubMed

    González, Xiomara; Correnti, María; Rivera, Helen; Perrone, Marianella

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in oral hairy leukoplakia lesions (OHL) in HIV+ Venezuelan patients. In this case study, we evaluated 21 HIV+ adult patients with clinically present OHL lesions, 11 who were undergoing antiretroviral therapy, 10 who were not undergoing therapy and 10 HIV-negative adult patients with hyperkeratotic oral mucosal lesions. All of the subjects were assessed at the Infectious Disease Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Central University of Venezuela, and were clinically examined to detect oral mucosal lesions with the confirmed histopathologic diagnosis. Nested-PCR was used to determine the EBV infection and the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) expression by immunohistochemistry. Of the subjects, 16/21 (76%) of the HIV+/AIDS patients tested positive for EBV, whereas 5/10 (50%) of the HIV-negative subjects tested positive for EBV. In the present study, a higher EBV prevalence was observed in HIV-positive patients when compared to HIV-negative patients without oral hairy leukoplakia, confirming the etiologic role in this entity. The LMP-1 in OHL patients who were both HIV+ and EBV+ was highly expressed (60%) at the epithelial basal cells. No association between the alcohol and tobacco consumption was observed among the EBV-positive cases.

  8. A novel recombinant variant of latent membrane protein 1 from Epstein Barr virus in Argentina denotes phylogeographical association

    PubMed Central

    Gantuz, Magdalena; Lorenzetti, Mario Alejandro; Chabay, Paola Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection in Argentina occurs at an early age and occasionally develops infectious mononucleosis (IM). EBV is also related with lymphomas. LMP1, the viral oncoprotein is polymorphic and is used to define viral variants. Aim To study LMP1 variants distribution among children with EBV+ malignant and benign conditions as well as in healthy carriers. Methods Oral secretions and blood cells from 31 children with IM, and biopsies from 14 EBV+ reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and 33 EBV+ lymphomas were included. LMP1 was amplified by nested PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic reconstructions were made under Maximun Likelihood, Bayesian and coalescent algorithms. Results Six clades were defined (China1, China2, Med-, Alaskan, B95.8 and Argentine). Argentine variants, the most prevalent (46%), harbored 3 distinctive mutations and were a recombination between Raji and China1. Despite no pathology or compartment associations were observed for LMP1, the Argentine clade showed a phylogeographic association with our region. LMP1 estimated evolution rate was 8.591x10-5s/s/y and the estimated tMRCA for Raji and Argentine was 136ybp. Conclusions An LMP1 Argentine clade was defined. LMP1 evolutionary rate was higher than expected for herpesviruses. The tMRCA for Raji and the Argentine agrees with African immigration and could explain the recombinant nature of the Argentine variant. PMID:28328987

  9. Serum BAFF levels, Methypredsinolone therapy, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Arru, Giannina; Caggiu, Elisa; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-07-07

    Elevated B lymphocyte activating factor BAFF levels have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have shown to influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, although the significance of these changes is still controversial. In addition, BAFF levels were reported increased during infectious diseases. In our study, we wanted to investigate on the serum BAFF concentrations correlated to the antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and their human homologous epitopes in MS and in patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND), divided in Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (IND), Non Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (NIND) and Undetermined Neurological Diseases (UND), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Our results confirmed a statistically significant high BAFF levels in MS and IND patients in comparison to HCs but not NIND and UND patients. Interestingly, BAFF levels were inversely proportional to antibodies level against EBV and MAP peptides and the BAFF levels significantly decreased in MS patients after methylprednisolone therapy. These results implicate that lower circulating BAFF concentrations were present in MS patients with humoral response against MAP and EBV. In conclusion MS patients with no IgGs against EBV and MAP may support the hypothesis that elevated blood BAFF levels could be associated with a more stable disease.

  10. Serum BAFF levels, Methypredsinolone therapy, Epstein-Barr Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Multiple Sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cocco, Eleonora; Frau, Jessica; Arru, Giannina; Caggiu, Elisa; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated B lymphocyte activating factor BAFF levels have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients; moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) have shown to influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, although the significance of these changes is still controversial. In addition, BAFF levels were reported increased during infectious diseases. In our study, we wanted to investigate on the serum BAFF concentrations correlated to the antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and their human homologous epitopes in MS and in patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND), divided in Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (IND), Non Inflammatory Neurological Diseases (NIND) and Undetermined Neurological Diseases (UND), in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). Our results confirmed a statistically significant high BAFF levels in MS and IND patients in comparison to HCs but not NIND and UND patients. Interestingly, BAFF levels were inversely proportional to antibodies level against EBV and MAP peptides and the BAFF levels significantly decreased in MS patients after methylprednisolone therapy. These results implicate that lower circulating BAFF concentrations were present in MS patients with humoral response against MAP and EBV. In conclusion MS patients with no IgGs against EBV and MAP may support the hypothesis that elevated blood BAFF levels could be associated with a more stable disease. PMID:27383531

  11. Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Correale, J; Gaitán, M I

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis development have yet to be clearly identified, but considerable evidence indicates that autoimmunity plays an important role in the etiology of the disease. It is generally accepted that autoimmune diseases like MS arise from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Although environmental factors unequivocally influencing MS development have yet to be established, accumulating evidence singles out several candidates, including sunlight-UV exposure or vitamin D deficiency, viral infections, hygiene, and cigarette smoking. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with different autoimmune diseases. Several investigations indicate 125 (OH)2 vitamin D plays a critical role in shaping T-cell response and inducing T cells with immunosuppressive properties. Likewise, helminth infections represent another potential environmental factor exerting immunomodulatory properties. Both epidemiological and experimental data provide evidence to support autoimmune down-regulation secondary to parasite infections in patients with MS, through regulatory T- and B-cell action, with effects extending beyond simple response to an infectious agent. Finally, different epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus infection confers added risk of developing MS. Proposed mechanisms responsible for this association include activation and expansion of self-reactive T and B cells, lower threshold for self-tolerance breakdown, and enhanced autoreactive B-cell survival, all to be discussed in this review. Understanding environmental factors influencing propensity to MS will lead to new and more effective approaches to prevent and treat the disease.

  12. The company malaria keeps: how co-infection with Epstein-Barr virus leads to endemic Burkitt lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Moormann, Ann M.; Snider, Cynthia J.; Chelimo, Kiprotich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf-) malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are implicated in the etiology of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), the most prevalent pediatric cancer in equatorial Africa. Although the causal association between EBV and eBL has been established, Pf-malaria’s role is not as clearly defined. This review focuses on how malaria may disrupt EBV persistence and immunity. Recent findings Two mutually-compatible theories have been proposed. One suggests that Pf-malaria induces polyclonal B-cell expansion and lytic EBV reactivation, leading to the expansion of latently infected B-cells and the likelihood of c-myc translocation; a hallmark of BL tumors. The other advocates that EBV-specific T-cell immunity is impaired during Pf-malaria co-infection, either as a cause or consequence of enhanced EBV replication, leading to loss of viral control. Advancements in our ability to query the complexity of human responses to infectious diseases have stimulated interest in eBL pathogenesis. Summary EBV is necessary but not sufficient to cause eBL. A more dynamic model encompasses incremental contributions from both chronic and acute Pf-malaria leading to alterations in EBV persistence and EBV-specific immunity that culminate in eBL. A better understanding of how Pf-malaria modifies EBV infections in children may allow us to anticipate reductions in eBL incidence coinciding with malaria control programs. PMID:21885920

  13. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Antibody Profiles in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-Positive and EBV-Negative Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Torres, Javier; Liao, Linda M; Morgan, Douglas R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Dominguez, Ricardo L; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kim, Sung; Rocha-Guevara, Erick R; Lissowska, Jolanta; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, but about 9% of cases harbor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells. There is limited evidence on the possible interaction or antagonism between these infectious agents in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared H. pylori serologic profiles of EBV-positive (n = 58) and EBV-negative (n = 111) noncardia gastric cancer patients from the United States National Cancer Institute's International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium. EBV positivity of tumors was assessed by in situ hybridization. Serum levels of 15 antibodies to immunogenic proteins of H. pylori (Cad, CagA, Cagδ, CagM, Catalase, GroEL, HcpC, HP0231, HP0305, HpaA, HyuA, NapA, Omp, UreA, VacA) were assessed using bead-based multiplex serology. Logistic regression models were used to adjust odds ratios (OR) for country, age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Seropositivity to individual proteins ranged up to 90% overall. Antibodies to Catalase were borderline associated with tumor EBV positivity (adjusted OR = 3.15, p = .0024, Bonferroni corrected p = .036). Distributions of other antibodies did not vary by tumor EBV status. Similarity of host-response indicates the essential etiological role of H. pylori in EBV-positive gastric cancer. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Epstein-barr virus diversity in immunocompetent healthy persons: reassessment of the distribution of genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Ryo; Kogashiwa, Yasunao; Matsuda, Takehiro; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2014-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has many strains; however, it remains unclear whether a causal relationship exists between different regions and viral genetic variants in healthy persons. This study was designed to examine the relationship between EBV strains in tonsils and adenoids and peripheral blood lymphocytes of the same individuals using different measurements of EBV strain polymorphism. This study examined whether EBV contains two or three copies of a tandem repeat sequence in the first intron of the BZLF-1 gene. The genotype of the virus from P3HR-1, designated Z*, yielded a 415-bp product, and this was distinguished from the smaller, 386-bp product obtained with the B95-8 virus, designated the Z genotype. Simultaneous sequence infections with Z and Z* genotypes were also detected in one of the tonsils examined, suggesting that more than one strain or variant of EBV genotype may be present in a specimen from the same subject. Co-infection with Z and Z* was recognized in two subjects, so variation of the EBV gene may be seen in at least two different strains of EBV. It was seen that Z and Z* strain-infected cells are constantly in flux through lymph nodes and/or the blood stream in healthy persons; therefore, these results indicated that EBV genome variants probably show no specific tissue distribution.

  15. Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Mamiani, Alfredo; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; West, Michelle J.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Graesser, Friedrich A.

    2010-02-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJkappa (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJkappa in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJkappa.

  16. [History of resaerch on Epstein-Barr virus--target cells of infection, and disease].

    PubMed

    Ohga, Shouichi

    2014-01-01

    Half a century has passed since Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) particles were isolated from the cultured lymphoblasts of Burkitt lymphoma. During the period, molecular biology, hematology/immunology, and transplantation medicine made amazing progress, that clarified the mode of infection and pathophysiology of the virus in human diseases. Research strategies on the relationship between EBV and human have expanded to the epidemiology, structures and functions of both genomes, regulatory genes including microRNA, and the nature of epigenetics. Although no animal models of EBV infection long hampered the completion of in vivo experiments, humanized mice have broken through a barrier of in vitro study on EBV-infected cell lines. Our understanding of the life cycle of EBV has continued to deepen about the infection via the CD21 receptor expressed on B cells, the latency, reactivation/reinfection, and transformation, and also the dynamics of T-cell immune response and the intracellular immunosurveillance beyond acquired and innate immunity. On the other hand, the disease entity of life-threatening lymphoproliferative disease of EBV-infected T cells or NK cells is on controversial. The other parts of this special issue include the recent topics of the basic and clinical researches of EBV as the oncogenic virus. Then, we herewith overview the research history of EBV with special reference to the infected cells and host immune responses in EBV-associated diseases.

  17. Variations of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas from Guangzhou, southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-ning; Zhang, Na-na; Jiang, Ye; Hui, Da-yang; Wen, Zi-jin; Li, Hai-gang; Ding, Yun-gang; Du, Hong; Shao, Chun-kui

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein consistently expressed in all EBV-associated malignancies, and play a critical role in the onset, progression, and/or maintenance of these tumors. Based on the signature changes at amino acid residue 487, EBNA1 is classified into five distinct subtypes: P-ala, P-thr, V-leu, V-val and V-pro. In the present study, the sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and throat washing (TW) samples of healthy EBV carriers in Guangzhou, southern China, where nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic, were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. V-val subtype was the most predominant (53.6%, 15/28) in EBVaGC, followed by P-ala (42.9%, 12/28) and V-leu (32.1%, 9/28) subtypes. In TWs of healthy EBV carriers, V-val subtype was also predominant (85.7%, 18/21). The sequence variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC were similar to those in TW of healthy EBV carriers (p>0.05), suggesting that the EBV strains in EBVaGC might originate from the viral strains prevalent within the background population. The predominance of V-val subtype in EBVaGC in Guangzhou was similar to that in EBVaGC in northern China and Japan, but was different from that in EBVaGC in America, suggesting that the variations of EBNA1 in EBVaGC represent geographic-associated polymorphisms rather than tumor-specific mutations. In addition, the EBNA1 variations in EBVaGC in gastric remnant carcinoma were also determined. V-leu subtype was detected in all 4 (100%) cases, although 2 cases occurred as mixed infection with P-ala subtype. This is different from the predominant V-val subtype in EBVaGC in conventional gastric carcinoma, suggesting that V-leu might be a subtype that adapts particularly well to the microenvironment within the gastric stump and enters the remnant gastric mucosa epithelia easily. This, to our best knowledge, is the first investigation of EBNA1 polymorphisms in EBVaGC from endemic area of NPC.

  18. Zidovudine-based lytic-inducing chemotherapy for Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Ulas Darda; Diaz, Luis A; Ashlock, Brittany; Toomey, Ngoc; Cabral, Lisa; Bayraktar, Soley; Pereira, Denise; Dittmer, Dirk P; Ramos, Juan Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphomas with lytic-inducing agents is an attractive targeted approach for eliminating virus-infected tumor cells. Zidovudine (AZT) is an excellent substrate for EBV-thymidine kinase: it can induce EBV lytic gene expression and apoptosis in primary EBV+ lymphoma cell lines. We hypothesized that the combination of AZT with lytic-inducing chemotherapy agents would be effective in treating EBV+ lymphomas. We report a retrospective analysis of 19 patients with aggressive EBV+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including nine cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (AIDS-PCNSL) treated with AZT-based chemotherapy. Our results demonstrate that high-dose AZT-methotrexate is efficacious in treating highly aggressive systemic EBV+ lymphomas in the upfront setting. In primary EBV+ lymphoma cell lines, the combination of AZT with hydroxyurea resulted in synergistic EBV lytic induction and cell death. Further, AZT-hydroxyurea treatment resulted in dramatic responses in patients with AIDS-PCNSL. The combination of AZT with chemotherapy, especially lytic-inducing agents, should be explored further in clinical trials for the treatment of EBV-related lymphomas.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in palatine tonsils and autologous serum from EBV carriers.

    PubMed

    Nadal, David; Blasius, Martin; Niggli, Felix K; Meier, Gabriela; Berger, Christoph

    2002-05-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect and quantitate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in tonsils and autologous sera from EBV-seropositive children. EBV DNA was found in 95% of tonsils from 21 children and in 50% from 18 children with serum IgG titers to the virus capsid antigen (VCA) of > or =1:160 and 1:10 to 1:80, respectively (P = 0.002). Tonsils from children with titers > or =1:160 harbored more EBV DNA copies per mg tissue (mean, 1,237; range, < 2-13,998) than from children with titers 1:10 to 1:80 (mean, 23; range, < 2-226; P < 0.0001). By contrast, EBV DNA was detected only in serum from 25% of 20 children with titers > or = 1:160. Thus, ample differences in tonsillar EBV replication are mirrored inconstantly by detectable EBV in autologous serum suggesting that EBV DNA quantitation in tonsils may serve for refined monitoring of individuals at risk of EBV-associated lymphoproliferation.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation associated with diminished cell-mediated immunity in antarctic expeditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Cooley, H.; Dubow, R.; Lugg, D.

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at 2 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, that was evaluated 2 times before winter isolation and 3 times during isolation. At all 5 evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished CMI response. Diminished DTH was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal DTH responses for all 5 tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, during, and after the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least 1 occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (P = 0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (P < 0.0005) when DTH response was diminished than when DTH was normal. The findings indicate that the psychosocial, physical, and other stresses associated with working and living in physical isolation during the Antarctic winter result in diminished CMI and an accompanying increased reactivation and shedding of latent viruses.

  1. Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation Associated with Diminished Cell-Mediated Immunity in Antarctic Expeditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cooley, Helen; Dubow, Robin; Lugg, Desmond

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at two Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, which was evaluated two times before winter isolation and three times during isolation. At all five evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished. CMI response. Diminished CMI was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal CMI responses for all five tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, after, and during the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least one occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (p=0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (p<0.0005) when CMI responsiveness was diminished than when CMI status was normal. The findings indicate that the psychosocial, physical, and other stresses associated with working and living in physical isolation during the Antarctic winter results in diminished CMI and an accompanying increased reactivation and shedding of latent viruses.

  2. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in tonsils and adenoids of United Arab Emirates nationals.

    PubMed

    Al-Salam, Suhail; Dhaheri, Shamma Al; Awwad, Aktham; Daoud, Sayel; Shams, Ahmed; Ashari, Mouied Al

    2011-09-01

    Given that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) often inhabits human tonsils and adenoids, it remains to be distinctively determined its prevalence and in which cell and microenvironment the virus is present. To determine the prevalence of EBV in the tonsils and adenoids of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals and to provide a basis for understanding the origin and biology of EBV-infected cells, the immunophenotype of all EBV-infected cells in 46 tonsils and 46 adenoids was determined by EBER in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to T cells (CD3), B cells (CD20), and epithelial cells (cytokeratin AE1/AE3), as well as immunostaining with antibodies to EBV latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1). EBV was found in 43% of tonsillectomy specimens and 15% of adenoidectomy specimens. All EBV-infected cells were found to be B lymphocytes. About 90% of the infected B cells are found in the interfollicular regions of tonsils and adenoids and the remaining 10% are found within the follicles. There is no significant association between EBV infection, age (P=0.324) and gender (P=0.442). EBV is associated with tonsillar hypertrophy and is prevalent in 43% of our cases. EBV is only detected in B lymphocytes and we believe that B lymphocytes are sites of primary infection and latency. In situ hybridization is the gold standard for the detection of EBV in tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection in clinical serum samples by an SPR biosensor assay.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Tomáš; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bědajánková, Anna; Jinoch, Pavel; Boltovets, Praskovia M; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-05-15

    Label-free affinity biosensors offer a promising platform for the development of a new generation of medical diagnostic technologies. Nevertheless, when such sensors are used in complex biological media, adsorption of non-targeted medium components prevents the specific detection of the analyte. In this work, we introduce for the first time a biosensor assay based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) capable of diagnosing different stages of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections in clinical serum samples. This was achieved by simultaneous detection of the antibodies against three different antigens present in the virus. To prevent the interference of the fouling from serum during the measurement, the SPR chips were coated by an antifouling layer of a polymer brush of poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] grown by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The bioreceptors were then attached via hybridization of complementary oligonucleotides. This allowed the sensor surface to be regenerated after measurement by disrupting the complementary pairs above the oligonucleotides' melting temperature and attaching new bioreceptors. In this way, the same sensing surface could be used repeatedly. The procedure used in this work will serve as a prototype strategy for the development of label-free affinity biosensors for diagnostics in blood serum or plasma samples. This is the first example of detection of marker of a disease in clinical serum samples by an optical affinity biosensor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Emotional disclosure through writing or speaking modulates latent Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Esterling, B A; Antoni, M H; Fletcher, M A; Margulies, S; Schneiderman, N

    1994-02-01

    Healthy Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositive undergraduates (N = 57) completed a personality inventory, provided blood samples, and were randomly assigned to write or talk about stressful events, or to write about trivial events, during three weekly 20-min sessions, after which they provided a final blood sample. Individuals assigned to the verbal/stressful condition had significantly lower EBV antibody titers (suggesting better cellular immune control over the latent virus) after the intervention than those in the written/stressful group, who had significantly lower values than those in the written/trivial control group. Subjects assigned to the written/stressful condition expressed more negative emotional words than the verbal/stressful and control groups and more positive emotional words than the verbal/stressful group at each time point. The verbal/stressful group expressed more negative emotional words compared with the control group at baseline. Content analysis indicated that the verbal/stressful group achieved the greatest improvements in cognitive change, self-esteem, and adaptive coping strategies.

  5. [Molecular biological properties of the Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 gene: structure, function and polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, K V; Diduk, S V; Senyuta, N B; Gurtsevitch, V E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) encoded by the same name gene of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an extremely important role in the pathogenesis of a number of malignant neoplasia. Specifically, LMP1 has the ability to transform human B-lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro and rodent fibroblasts (Rat-1) in vitro. The introduction of the latter into athymic mice leads to tumor development. In addition, expression of the oncoprotein has been often found in EBV-associated tumors at the DNA and constantly at the RNA levels. Having pleiotropic effects, LMP1, participates in the transmission and activation of multiple intracellular signals. It is also involved in the inhibition of key tumor suppressors, has significant influence on proliferation, apoptosis and morphological alteration of the infected cells finally resulting in their transformation. General characteristics of EBV and LMP1 gene as well as functional activity of the encoded LMP1 protein and a brief description of human pathologies associated with the virus have been discussed in this review. The questions concerning the polymorphism LMP1 in EBV-associated pathologies have been also analyzed in details.

  6. An update: Epstein-Barr virus and immune evasion via microRNA regulation.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lielian; Yue, Wenxin; Du, Shujuan; Xin, Shuyu; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Lingzhi; Li, Guiyuan; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that ubiquitously establishes life-long persistence in humans. To ensure its survival and maintain its B cell transformation function, EBV has developed powerful strategies to evade host immune responses. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful regulators of the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In this review, we summarize current progress on how EBV utilizes miRNAs for immune evasion. EBV encodes miRNAs targeting both viral and host genes involved in the immune response. The miRNAs are found in two gene clusters, and recent studies have demonstrated that lack of these clusters increases the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response of infected cells. These reports strongly indicate that EBV miRNAs are critical for immune evasion. In addition, EBV is able to dysregulate the expression of a variety of host miRNAs, which influence multiple immune-related molecules and signaling pathways. The transport via exosomes of EBV-regulated miRNAs and viral proteins contributes to the construction and modification of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. During EBV immune evasion, viral proteins, immune cells, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and pro-apoptosis molecules are involved. Our increasing knowledge of the role of miRNAs in immune evasion will improve the understanding of EBV persistence and help to develop new treatments for EBV-associated cancers and other diseases.

  7. The Immune Response to Epstein Barr Virus and Implications for Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Olivia M; Krams, Sheri M

    2017-04-04

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication in organ transplant recipients and is most often associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a common gammaherpes virus with tropism for B lymphocytes and infection in immunocompetent individuals is typically asymptomatic and benign. However, infection in immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals can result in malignant B cell lymphoproliferations such as PTLD. EBV+ PTLD can arise following primary EBV infection, or because of reactivation of a prior infection, and represents a leading malignancy in the transplant population. The incidence of EBV+ PTLD is variable depending on the organ transplanted and whether the recipient has preexisting immunity to EBV but can be as high as 20%. It is generally accepted that impaired immune function due to immunosuppression is a primary cause of EBV+ PTLD. In this overview, we review the EBV life cycle and discuss our current understanding of the immune response to EBV in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, in transplant recipients, and in PTLD patients. We review the strategies that EBV utilizes to subvert and evade host immunity and discuss the implications for the development of EBV+ PTLD.

  8. Carcinoma-risk variant of EBNA1 deregulates Epstein-Barr Virus episomal latency

    PubMed Central

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Malecka, Kimberly; Wiedmer, Andreas; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Chiang, Alan K.S.; Altieri, Dario C.; Messick, Troy E.; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection is a causative co-factor for endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC). NPC-associated variants have been identified in EBV-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA1. Here, we solve the X-ray crystal structure of an NPC-derived EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD) and show that variant amino acids are found on the surface away from the DNA binding interface. We show that NPC-derived EBNA1 is compromised for DNA replication and episome maintenance functions. Recombinant virus containing the NPC EBNA1 DBD are impaired in their ability to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes and suppress lytic transcription during early stages of B-cell infection. We identify Survivin as a host protein deficiently bound by the NPC variant of EBNA1 and show that Survivin depletion compromises EBV episome maintenance in multiple cell types. We propose that endemic variants of EBNA1 play a significant role in EBV-driven carcinogenesis by altering key regulatory interactions that destabilize latent infection. PMID:28077791

  9. Carcinoma-risk variant of EBNA1 deregulates Epstein-Barr Virus episomal latency.

    PubMed

    Dheekollu, Jayaraju; Malecka, Kimberly; Wiedmer, Andreas; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Chiang, Alan K S; Altieri, Dario C; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-01-31

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection is a causative co-factor for endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC). NPC-associated variants have been identified in EBV-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA1. Here, we solve the X-ray crystal structure of an NPC-derived EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD) and show that variant amino acids are found on the surface away from the DNA binding interface. We show that NPC-derived EBNA1 is compromised for DNA replication and episome maintenance functions. Recombinant virus containing the NPC EBNA1 DBD are impaired in their ability to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes and suppress lytic transcription during early stages of B-cell infection. We identify Survivin as a host protein deficiently bound by the NPC variant of EBNA1 and show that Survivin depletion compromises EBV episome maintenance in multiple cell types. We propose that endemic variants of EBNA1 play a significant role in EBV-driven carcinogenesis by altering key regulatory interactions that destabilize latent infection.

  10. Regulation of Epstein-Barr virus infection by recombinant interferons. Selected sensitivity to interferon-gamma.

    PubMed

    Lotz, M; Tsoukas, C D; Fong, S; Carson, D A; Vaughan, J H

    1985-05-01

    Interferons (IFN) are antiviral proteins that may be important in mediating cellular defenses against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the means by which IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma modify EBV infectivity are not clear. We have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant preparations of all three classes of IFN on EBV-induced B lymphocyte proliferation and Ig secretion. When added early after EBV infection, all three recombinant IFN reduced B cell outgrowth and Ig secretion. IFN-gamma exerted a 7-10-fold more potent antiviral effect than IFN-alpha or -beta. All three types of IFN act directly on B cells. Monocytes and natural killer cells are not necessary for the anti-EBV activity. Of the three recombinant IFN, only IFN-gamma reduced EBV-induced proliferation and Ig secretion when added 3-4 days after virus infection; IFN-alpha/beta were only effective up to 24 h. B lymphoblastoid lines already transformed by EBV are insensitive to the anti-proliferative actions of all three types of IFN. On the basis of these findings, we propose three phases of regulation during EBV infection. In the early phase, EBV-infected cells can be regulated by all IFN. Subsequently, there is an intermediate period where only IFN-gamma is capable of directly affecting EBV-induced B cell responses. In the third phase, B lymphocytes become insensitive to direct actions of all IFN and are now subject to regulation only by cytotoxic cells.

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: experimental and clinical developments

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lingyun; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), the first human virus related to oncogenesis, was initially identified in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line in 1964. EBV infects over 90% of the world’s population. Most infected people maintain an asymptomatic but persistent EBV infection lifelong. However, in some individuals, EBV infection has been involved in the development of cancer and autoimmune disease. Nowadays, oncogenic potential of EBV has been intensively studied in a wide range of human neoplasms, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), gastric carcinoma (GC), etc. EBV encodes a series of viral protein and miRNAs, promoting its persistent infection and the transformation of EBV-infected cells. Although the exact role of EBV in the oncogenesis remains to be clarified, novel diagnostic and targeted therapeutic approaches are encouraging for the management of EBV-related malignancies. This review mainly focuses on the experimental and clinical advances of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:26628948

  12. Distribution and Phenotype of Epstein-Barr Virus-Infected Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spieker, Tilmann; Herbst, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of colon mucosa, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are thought to differ in T-helper lymphocyte composition and cytokine secretion patterns. Some of the implicated cytokines are growth factors for EBV-infected cells. We examined colon mucosa for differences in the distribution and phenotype of EBV-infected cells. Colon tissues with Crohn’s disease (n = 31) or ulcerative colitis (n = 25) and controls (n = 60) were characterized by in situ hybridization and immunohistology for six EBV gene products as indicators of latent and replicative EBV infection. The cells were additionally phenotyped by combined detection of the EBV transcripts and B- or T-cell antigens. B lymphocytes predominated as the site of latent EBV infection in the colon and were most numerous in ulcerative colitis. In active ulcerative colitis, EBV-positive lymphocytes accumulated under and within the epithelium and displayed evidence for replicative infection. The patterns of mucosal EBV gene expression indicate local impairment of virus-specific T-cell responses in active ulcerative colitis. Detection of EBV may help to discriminate between active ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases. Colon mucosa is a potential site of EBV replication and may be relevant for EBV transmission. PMID:10880375

  13. Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-dependent Recruitment of Origin Recognition Complex (Orc) on oriP of Epstein-Barr Virus with Purified Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Kenji; Yoshizawa-Sugata, Naoko; Obuse, Chikashi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Masai, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Origin recognition complex (Orc) plays an essential role in directing assembly of prereplicative complex at selective sites on chromosomes. However, Orc from vertebrates is reported to bind to DNA in a sequence-nonspecific manner, and it is still unclear how it selects specific genomic loci and how Cdc6, another conserved AAA+ factor known to interact with Orc, participates in this process. Replication from oriP, the latent origin of Epstein-Barr virus, provides an excellent model system for the study of initiation on the host chromosomes because it is known to depend on prereplicative complex factors, including Orc and Mcm. Here, we show that Orc is recruited selectively at the essential dyad symmetry element in nuclear extracts in a manner dependent on EBNA1, which specifically binds to dyad symmetry. With purified proteins, EBNA1 can recruit both Cdc6 and Orc independently on a DNA containing EBNA1 binding sites, and Cdc6 facilitates the Orc recruitment by EBNA1. Purified Cdc6 directly binds to EBNA1, whereas association of Orc with EBNA1 requires the presence of the oriP DNA. Nuclease protection assays suggest that Orc associates with DNA segments on both sides adjacent to the EBNA1 binding sites and that this process is stimulated by the presence of Cdc6. Thus, EBNA1 can direct localized assembly of Orc in a process that is facilitated by Cdc6. The possibility of similar modes of recruitment of Orc/Cdc6 at the human chromosomal origins will be discussed. PMID:22589552

  14. Determination of Roles of Microgravity and Ionizing Radiation on the Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K; Renner, Ashlie; Stowe, Raymond; Bloom, David; Pierson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes virus reactivation during spaceflight. We have shown increases in reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and shedding in body fluids (saliva and urine) in astronauts during space travel. Alterations in immunity, increased stress hormone levels, microgravity, increased radiation, and other conditions unique to spaceflight may promote reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Unique mechanico-physico forces associated with spaceflight can have profound effects on cellular function, especially immune cells. In space flight analog studies such as Antarctica, bed rest studies, and NASA's undersea habitat (Aquarius), reactivation of these viruses occurred, but to a lesser extent than spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs model some spaceflight factors, but none of the analogs recreates all factors experienced in space. Most notably, microgravity and radiation are not included in many analogs. Stress, processed through the HPA axis and SAM systems, induces viral reactivation. However, the respective roles of microgravity and increased space radiation levels or if any synergy exists are not known. Therefore, we studied the effect of modeled space radiation and/or microgravity, independent of the immune system on the changes in cellular gene expression that results in viral (EBV) reactivation. The effects of modeled microgravity and low shear on EBV replication and cellular and EBV gene expression were studied in human B-lymphocyte cell cultures. Latently infected B-lymphocytes were propagated in the rotating wall bioreactor and irradiated with the various dosages of gamma irradiation. At specific time intervals following exposure to modeled microgravity, the cells and supernatant were harvested and reactivation of EBV were assessed by measuring EBV and gene expression, DNA methylation, and infectious virus production.

  15. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4), and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients. PMID:22967962

  16. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sadiku, Shemsedin; Kurshumliu, Fisnik; Krasniqi, Xhevdet; Brovina, Ahmet; Kryeziu, Emrush; Rrudhani, Ibrahim; Meqa, Kastriot; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije; Merz, Hartmut

    2012-09-11

    Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4), and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients.

  17. Epstein Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer of the colon associated Hodgkin lymphoma in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Neil R; Webster, Bradley; Lee, Kenneth M; Trotman, Judith; Kwan, Yiu-Lam; Napoli, John; Leong, Rupert W

    2015-05-21

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCU) form part of a spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. They have been reported in the setting of immunosenescence and iatrogenic immunosuppression, affecting the oropharyngeal mucosa, skin and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Case reports and series to date suggest a benign natural history responding to conservative management, particularly in the GIT. We report an unusual case of EBVMCU in the colon, arising in the setting of immunosuppression in the treatment of Crohn's disease, with progression to Hodgkin lymphoma 18 mo after cessation of infliximab. The patient presented with multiple areas of segmental colonic ulceration, histologically showing a polymorphous infiltrate with EBV positive Reed-Sternberg-like cells. A diagnosis of EBVMCU was made. The ulcers failed to regress upon cessation of infliximab and methotrexate for 18 mo. Following commencement of prednisolone for her Crohn's disease, the patient developed widespread Hodgkin lymphoma which ultimately presented as a life-threatening lower GIT bleed requiring emergency colectomy. This is the first report of progression of EBVMCU to Hodgkin lymphoma, in the setting of ongoing iatrogenic immunosuppression and inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Epigenetic control of Epstein-Barr virus transcription - relevance to viral life cycle?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation normally leads to silencing of gene expression but Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) provides an exception to the epigenetic paradigm. DNA methylation is absolutely required for the expression of many viral genes. Although the viral genome is initially un-methylated in newly infected cells, it becomes extensively methylated during the establishment of viral latency. One of the major regulators of EBV gene expression is a viral transcription factor called Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, Z) that resembles the cellular AP1 transcription factor. Zta recognizes at least 32 variants of a 7-nucleotide DNA sequence element, the Zta-response element (ZRE), some of which contain a CpG motif. Zta only binds to the latter class of ZREs in their DNA-methylated form, whether they occur in viral or cellular promoters and is functionally relevant for the activity of these promoters. The ability of Zta to interpret the differential DNA methylation of the viral genome is paramount for both the establishment of viral latency and the release from latency to initiate viral replication.

  19. Cancer stem-like cells in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lun, Samantha Wei-Man; Cheung, Siu-Tim; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2014-11-01

    Although the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has spread to all populations in the world, EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is prevalent only in South China and Southeast Asia. The role of EBV in the malignant transformation of nasopharyngeal epithelium is the main focus of current researches. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy have been successful in treating early stage NPC, but the recurrence rates remain high. Unfortunately, local relapse and metastasis are commonly unresponsive to conventional treatments. These recurrent and metastatic lesions are believed to arise from residual or surviving cells that have the properties of cancer stem cells. These cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have the ability to self-renew, differentiate, and sustain propagation. They are also chemo-resistant and can form spheres in anchorage-independent environments. This review summarizes recent researches on the CSCs in EBV-associated NPC, including the findings regarding cell surface markers, stem cell-related transcription factors, and various signaling pathways. In particular, the review focuses on the roles of EBV latent genes [latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A)], cellular microRNAs, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette chemodrug transporters in contributing to the properties of CSCs, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem-like transition, and chemo-resistance. Novel therapeutics that enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy and inhibitors that suppress the properties of CSCs are also discussed.

  20. Inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by moronic acid.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Hsieh, Yi-Chung; Chang, Yung-Fu; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses two transcription factors, Rta and Zta, during the immediate-early stage of the lytic cycle to activate the transcription of viral lytic genes. Our immunoblotting and flow cytometry analyses find that moronic acid, found in galls of Rhus chinensis and Brazilian propolis, at 10microM inhibits the expression of Rta, Zta, and an EBV early protein, EA-D, after lytic induction with sodium butyrate. This study also finds that moronic acids inhibits the capacity of Rta to activate a promoter that contains an Rta-response element, indicating that moronic acid interferes with the function of Rta. On the other hand, moronic acid does not appear to influence with the transactivation function of Zta. Therefore, the lack of expression of Zta and EA-D after moronic acid treatment is attributable to the inhibition of the transactivation functions of Rta. Because the expression of Zta, EA-D and many EBV lytic genes depends on Rta, the treatment of P3HR1 cells with moronic acid substantially reduces the numbers of EBV particles produced by the cells after lytic induction. This study suggests that moronic acid is a new structural lead for anti-EBV drug development.

  1. Latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in the peripheral blood of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Raymond P; Kozlova, Elena V; Sams, Clarence F; Pierson, Duane L; Walling, Dennis M

    2011-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent and replicative gene transcription was analyzed in peripheral blood B-lymphocytes from astronauts who flew on short-duration (∼11 days) Shuttle missions and long-duration (∼180 days) International Space Station (ISS) missions. Latent, immediate-early, and early gene replicative viral transcripts were detected in samples from six astronauts who flew on short-duration Shuttle missions, whereas viral gene transcription was mostly absent in samples from 24 healthy donors. Samples from six astronauts who flew on long-duration ISS missions were characterized by expanded expression of latent, immediate-early, and early gene transcripts and new onset expression of late replicative transcription upon return to Earth. These data indicate that EBV-infected cells are no longer expressing the restricted set of viral genes that characterize latency but are expressing latent and lytic gene transcripts. These data also suggest the possibility of EBV-related complications in future long-duration missions, in particular interplanetary travel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus mimics a constitutively active receptor molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Gires, O; Zimber-Strobl, U; Gonnella, R; Ueffing, M; Marschall, G; Zeidler, R; Pich, D; Hammerschmidt, W

    1997-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an integral membrane protein which has transforming potential and is necessary but not sufficient for B-cell immortalization by EBV. LMP1 molecules aggregate in the plasma membrane and recruit tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) -associated factors (TRAFs) which are presumably involved in the signalling cascade leading to NF-kappaB activation by LMP1. Comparable activities are mediated by CD40 and other members of the TNF-R family, which implies that LMP1 could function as a receptor. LMP1 lacks extended extracellular domains similar to beta-adrenergic receptors but, in contrast, it also lacks any motifs involved in ligand binding. By using LMP1 mutants which can be oligomerized at will, we show that the function of LMP1 in 293 cells and B cells is solely dependent on oligomerization of its carboxy-terminus. Biochemically, oligomerization is an intrinsic property of the transmembrane domain of wild-type LMP1 and causes a constitutive phenotype which can be conferred to the signalling domains of CD40 or the TNF-2 receptor. In EBV, immortalized B cells cross-linking in conjunction with membrane targeting of the carboxy-terminal signalling domain of LMP1 is sufficient for its biological activities. Thus, LMP1 acts like a constitutively activated receptor whose biological activities are ligand-independent. PMID:9359753

  3. Absence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in the tumor cells of European hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Junying, Jia; Herrmann, Kathrin; Davies, Gillian; Lissauer, David; Bell, Andrew; Timms, Judith; Reynolds, Gary M; Hubscher, Stefan G; Young, Lawrence S; Niedobitek, Gerald; Murray, Paul G

    2003-02-15

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has recently been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arising in Japanese patients. We analyzed 82 cases of HCC from Germany and the U.K. for the presence of EBV DNA and viral gene products within tumor cells. Initial screening of whole sections using quantitative (Q)-PCR detected EBV DNA in 9/58 U.K. cases and in 9/24 German cases; in positive cases viral load was very low, ranging between 1.4 and 49.1 copies of the EBV genome/1000 cell equivalents, compared to much higher values for EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma controls (range, 714-3259/1000 cells). EBV DNA was not detected in the tumor cells of any of the Q-PCR-positive cases either by Q-PCR of pure tumor cell populations isolated by laser capture microdissection or by isotopic in situ hybridization. Furthermore, none of the German or U.K. HCC tumors tested positive for EBER or EBNAI expression in tumor cells. Our results provide strong evidence that HCCs from the U.K. or Germany are not associated with EBV.

  4. Atypical prediagnosis Epstein-Barr virus serology restricted to EBV-positive Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Lennette, Evelyne T.; Rubertone, Mark V.; Mann, Risa B.; Borowitz, Michael; Weir, Edward G.; Abbondanzo, Susan L.; Mueller, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    An altered anti–Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serologic profile preceding diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. It is unknown whether this atypical pattern predicts Hodgkin lymphoma risk further subdivided by determination of EBV in tumor cells. A nested case-control study of 128 incident Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 368 matched controls from active-duty military personnel with archived serum in the US Department of Defense Serum Repository was conducted to determine whether a panel of anti-EBV antibody titers differed in EBV+ and EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma. Among 40 EBV+ Hodgkin lymphoma cases and matched controls, statistically significant increased risks were associated with elevated anti-EBV VCA IgG antibody titers (relative risk = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.7), and an anti–EBNA-1/anti–EBNA-2 antibody ratio ≤ 1.0 versus > 1.0 (relative risk = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.8). In contrast, no significant associations were found among 88 EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma cases relative to their matched controls. In case-case analysis, EBV+ disease was significantly associated with a low anti–EBNA-1/anti–EBNA-2 antibody ratio. This distinc-tive serologic response to EBV latent antigens, indicative of immune dysfunction in other clinical settings, is associated with an increased risk of developing EBV+ but not EBV− Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:22972983

  5. Epstein-Barr virus genetic variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from Kenyan pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Simbiri, Kenneth O; Smith, Nicholas A; Otieno, Richard; Wohlford, Eric E M; Daud, Ibrahim I; Odada, Sumba P; Middleton, Frank; Rochford, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where endemic BL is common, both the EBV Type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV Type 2 strains (EBV-2) are found. Little is known about genetic variation of EBV strains in areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In the present study, spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were generated from samples obtained from Kenya. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the EBV genome was done using multiple primers and sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Phylogenetic analyses against the published EBV-1 and EBV-2 strains indicated that one sample, LCL10 was closely related to EBV-2, while the remaining 3 LCL samples were more closely related to EBV-1. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses showed clustering of LCL variants. We further show by analysis of EBNA-1, BLLF1, BPLF1, and BRRF2 that latent genes are less conserved than lytic genes in these LCLs from a single geographic region. In this study we have shown that NGS is highly useful for deciphering detailed inter and intra-variations in EBV genomes and that within a geographic region different EBV genetic variations can co-exist, the implications of which warrant further investigation. The findings will enhance our understanding of potential pathogenic variants critical to the development and maintenance of EBV-associated malignancies.

  6. Induction of Epstein-Barr virus kinases to sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Moore, S M; Cannon, J S; Tanhehco, Y C; Hamzeh, F M; Ambinder, R F

    2001-07-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV(+) Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 microM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 microM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 microM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells.

  7. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Kinases To Sensitize Tumor Cells to Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stacy M.; Cannon, Jennifer S.; Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Hamzeh, Fayez M.; Ambinder, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV+ Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 μM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 μM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 μM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells. PMID:11408227

  8. The Essential Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pender, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. This article provides a four-tier hypothesis proposing (1) EBV infection is essential for the development of MS; (2) EBV causes MS in genetically susceptible individuals by infecting autoreactive B cells, which seed the CNS where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells that would otherwise die in the CNS by apoptosis; (3) the susceptibility to develop MS after EBV infection is dependent on a genetically determined quantitative deficiency of the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that normally keep EBV infection under tight control; and (4) sunlight and vitamin D protect against MS by increasing the number of CD8+ T cells available to control EBV infection. The hypothesis makes predictions that can be tested, including the prevention and successful treatment of MS by controlling EBV infection. PMID:21075971

  9. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr virus DNA release from lymphoblastoid cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Yih-Yih; Chu, Wan-Loy; Phang, Siew-Moi; Mohamed, Shar Mariam; Naidu, Rakesh; Lai, Pey-Jiun; Ling, Shui-Nyuk; Mak, Joon-Wah; Lim, Patricia Kim-Chooi; Balraj, Pauline; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the inhibitory activities of methanol extracts from the microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus, and Spirulina platensis against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in three Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) cell lines, namely Akata, B95-8, and P3HR-1. The antiviral activity was assessed by quantifying the cell-free EBV DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The methanol extracts from Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Synechococcus elongatus displayed low cytotoxicity and potent effect in reducing cell-free EBV DNA (EC50<0.01 µg/ml) with a high therapeutic index (>28 000). After fractionation by column chromatography, the fraction from Synechococcus elongatus (SEF1) reduced the cell-free EBV DNA most effectively (EC50=2.9 µg/ml, therapeutic index>69). Upon further fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the sub-fraction SEF1’a was most active in reducing the cell-free EBV DNA (EC50=1.38 µg/ml, therapeutic index>14.5). This study suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds that can be used against EBV. PMID:21528487

  10. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr virus DNA release from lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kok, Yih-Yih; Chu, Wan-Loy; Phang, Siew-Moi; Mohamed, Shar Mariam; Naidu, Rakesh; Lai, Pey-Jiun; Ling, Shui-Nyuk; Mak, Joon-Wah; Lim, Patricia Kim-Chooi; Balraj, Pauline; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the inhibitory activities of methanol extracts from the microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus, and Spirulina platensis against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in three Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell lines, namely Akata, B95-8, and P3HR-1. The antiviral activity was assessed by quantifying the cell-free EBV DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The methanol extracts from Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Synechococcus elongatus displayed low cytotoxicity and potent effect in reducing cell-free EBV DNA (EC(50)<0.01 µg/ml) with a high therapeutic index (>28000). After fractionation by column chromatography, the fraction from Synechococcus elongatus (SEF1) reduced the cell-free EBV DNA most effectively (EC(50)=2.9 µg/ml, therapeutic index>69). Upon further fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the sub-fraction SEF1'a was most active in reducing the cell-free EBV DNA (EC(50)=1.38 µg/ml, therapeutic index>14.5). This study suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds that can be used against EBV.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A contributes to anoikis resistance through ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Dai; Minamitani, Takeharu; Samanta, Mrinal

    2013-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with various malignancies, including epithelial cancers. In this study, we analyzed the effect of EBV infection on epithelial cells by using EBV-converted epithelial cells. In EBV-positive cells, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is constitutively activated. Inhibition of ERK activity leads to reduced anoikis resistance; therefore, EBV-positive cells are more resistant to anoikis, a type of apoptosis induced by cell detachment, than are EBV-negative cells. Among the viral genes expressed in EBV-positive cells, the latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) is responsible for induction of ERK-mediated anoikis resistance, although the expression level of LMP2A is much lower in EBV-positive cells than in EBV-transformed B cells. Further analysis demonstrated that LMP2A downregulation of the proanoikis mediator Bim through proteasomal degradation is dependent on the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). These findings suggest that LMP2A-mediated ERK activation is involved in the generation of EBV-associated epithelial malignancies.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus Type 2 Infects T Cells in Healthy Kenyan Children.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Carrie B; Daud, Ibrahim I; Ogolla, Sidney O; Ritchie, Julie A; Smith, Nicholas A; Sumba, Peter O; Dent, Arlene E; Rochford, Rosemary

    2017-09-15

    The 2 strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV-2, differ in latency genes, suggesting that they use distinct mechanisms to establish latency. We previously reported that EBV-2 infects T cells in vitro. In this study, we tested the possibility that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo. Purified T-cell fractions isolated from children positive for EBV-1 or EBV-2 and their mothers were examined for the presence of EBV and for EBV type. We detected EBV-2 in all T-cell samples obtained from EBV-2-infected children at 12 months of age, with some children retaining EBV-2-positive T cells through 24 months of age, suggesting that EBV-2 persists in T cells. We were unable to detect EBV-2 in T-cell samples from mothers but could detect EBV-2 in samples of their breast milk and saliva. These data suggest that EBV-2 uses T cells as an additional latency reservoir but that, over time, the frequency of infected T cells may drop below detectable levels. Alternatively, EBV-2 may establish a prolonged transient infection in the T-cell compartment. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrate that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo and suggest EBV-2 may use the T-cell compartment to establish latency.

  13. Association between Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Chemoresistance to Docetaxel in Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Jong; Kim, Do Nyun; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with human cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and gastric carcinoma (GC). EBV is associated with about 10% of all GC cases globally. EBV-associated GC has distinct features from EBV-negative GC. However, it is still unclear if EBV infection has any effect on GC chemoresistance. Cell proliferation assay, cell cycle analysis, and active caspase Western blot revealed that the EBV-positive GC cell line (AGS-EBV) showed chemoresistance to docetaxel compared to the EBV-negative GC cell line (AGS). Docetaxel treatment increased expression of Bax similarly in AGS and AGS-EBV cell lines. However, Bcl-2 induction was markedly higher in AGS-EBV cells, after docetaxel treatment. Although docetaxel increased the expression of p53 to a similar extent in both cell lines, induction of p21 in AGS-EBV cells was lower than in AGS cells. Furthermore, expression of survivin was higher in AGS-EBV cells than in AGS cells following docetaxel treatment as well as at basal state. EBVlytic gene expression was induced by docetaxel treatment in AGS-EBV cells. The results suggest that EBV infection and lytic induction confers chemoresistance to GC, possibly by regulating cellular and EBV latent and lytic gene expression. PMID:21626300

  14. Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis.

  15. Impaired Cytokine Responses to Epstein-Barr Virus Antigens in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.

    PubMed

    Draborg, Anette Holck; Sandhu, Noreen; Larsen, Nanna; Lisander Larsen, Janni; Jacobsen, Søren; Houen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed cytokine responses against latent and lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs) to obtain an overview of the distinctive immune regulatory response in SLE patients and to expand the previously determined impaired EBV-directed T-cell response. The concentrations of 14 cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12, IL17, IL18, IL1β, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ, TGFβ, and GM-CSF) were quantified upon stimulation of whole blood with latent state antigen EBNA1, lytic cycle antigen EBV-EA/D, and the superantigen SEB. To avoid results affected by lack of lymphocytes, we focused on SLE patients with normal levels. Decreased induction of IL12, IFNγ, IL17, and IL6 upon EBNA1 stimulation and that of IFNγ, IL6, TNFβ, IL1β, and GM-CSF upon EBV-EA/D stimulation were detected in SLE patients compared to HCs. IFNγ responses, especially, were shown to be reduced. Induction of several cytokines was furthermore impaired in SLE patients upon SEB stimulation, but no difference was observed in basic levels. Results substantiate the previously proposed impaired regulation of the immune response against latent and lytic cycle EBV infection in SLE patients without lymphopenia. Furthermore, results indicate general dysfunction of leukocytes and their cytokine regulations in SLE patients.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus-positive inflammatory pseudotumor of the spleen managed with laparoscopic splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Ise, Norihito; Miyazawa, Hideaki; Satoh, Seiji; Iida, Masatake; Uchinami, Hiroshi; Kume, Makoto; Yoshioka, Masato; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yuzo

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive splenic inflammatory pseudotumor treated by laparoscopic splenectomy. A 66-year-old female without symptoms was found to have a solitary, avascular, solid tumor of the spleen by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The tumor was compatible with a primary tumor of the spleen. A benign splenic tumor was the most likely diagnosis, but malignant lymphoma could not be ruled out because the serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level was elevated. Laparoscopic splenectomy was performed to enable a definite diagnosis. Removal of the whole spleen without injury was possible. Possible contamination of the extirpation orifice by cancer cells was carefully prevented by enclosing the spleen in a plastic bag. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be an EBV-positive inflammatory pseudotumor. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of an EBV-positive splenic inflammatory pseudotumor with an increased serum sIL-2R level. Although EBV-positive inflammatory pseudotumors have been reported to recur, no sign of recurrence has been detected in the present case in the 17 months following splenectomy.

  17. [Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection treated with reduced intensity stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Sakata, Naoki; Sato, Emiko; Sawada, Akihisa; Yasui, Masahiro; Inoue, Masami; Kawa, Keisei

    2004-05-01

    A 31-year-old woman had been suffering from fever and a sore throat since January 1999, and had a left neck lymphadenopathy in December 1999. Pathological findings of the biopsied lymphnode suggested malignant lymphoma. She was finally diagnosed as having a chronic active Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) infection because of abnormal antibody titers against EBV antigens and an increased EBV load in her peripheral blood. After receiving chemotherapy consisting of CHOP and high dose cytarabine, the amount of the EBV genome decreased below the detection limit before BMT. Therefore, instead of a conventional myeloablative transplant, we performed BMT using reduced-intensity conditioning regimens consisting of fludarabine and melphalan from an HLA-identical sibling donor. After 14 months, the patient remained in complete remission. Menstruation occurred on day 83 following BMT, and the serum level of LH and FSH on day 316 were within normal range. Under these circumstances, RIST seems to be one of the curative treatments for the patients with CAEBV with minimal late side effects.

  18. Transient asymptomatic white matter lesions following Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yoon Young; Lee, Kye Hyang

    2011-09-01

    We present the case of a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis who developed abnormal white matter lesions during the chronic phases of the infection. A 2-year-old-boy was admitted for a 2 day history of decreased activity with ataxic gait. The results of the physical examination were unremarkable except for generalized lethargy and enlarged tonsils with exudates. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at admission showed multiple high signal intensities in both basal ganglia and thalami. The result of EBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebral spinal fluid was positive, and a serological test showed acute EBV infection. The patient was diagnosed with EBV encephalitis and recovered fully without any residual neurologic complications. Subsequently, follow-up MRI at 5 weeks revealed extensive periventricular white matter lesions. Since the patient remained clinically stable and asymptomatic during the follow-up period, no additional studies were performed and no additional treatments were provided. At the 1-year follow-up, cranial MRI showed complete disappearance of the abnormal high signal intensities previously seen in the white matter. The patient continued to remain healthy with no focal neurologic deficits on examination. This is the first case of asymptomatic self-limited white matter lesions seen in serial MRI studies in a Korean boy with EBV encephalitis.

  19. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome mimicking chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Keiko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Otsubo, Keisuke; Wakiguchi, Hiroshi; Noda, Yukihiro; Kasahara, Yoshihito; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is defined as a systemic EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly in apparently immunocompetent persons. Recent studies have revealed that EBV infects T or natural killer cells in most patients with CAEBV; the etiology of CAEBV, however, remains unknown. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, and clinically characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most often associated with mutations in the FAS gene, which is an apoptosis-signaling receptor important for homeostasis of the immune system. Based on the clinical similarity between ALPS and CAEBV with respect to lymphoproliferation, we have examined the possibility of the co-occurrence of ALPS in patients with a diagnosis of CAEBV. In this study, we have identified FAS gene mutations in three Japanese patients with lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual EBV infection, who were diagnosed with CAEBV. These observations, which indicate that the clinical development of ALPS may be associated with EBV infection, alert us to a potential diagnostic pitfall of CAEBV.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Stacey L; Hitchcock, Michael A; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana R; Watson, John T; Krause, John R

    2017-10-01

    While the World Health Organization included Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a provisional entity of a lymphoma occurring in older individuals without any known immunodeficiency in 2008, it has since been recognized that this entity may occur in younger individuals. As a result, the 2016 revision has substituted the modifier "elderly" with "not otherwise specified" (NOS). The NOS highlights that there are more specific entities with neoplastic EBV-positive large B cells such as lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Diagnosis requires that there be no other cause of immunodeficiency and that other more specific entities with neoplastic EBV plus large B cells be excluded. We present the case of an 81-year-old woman hospitalized for generalized weakness, increasing confusion, unexplained weight loss, and intermittent fevers. Examination showed lymphadenopathy, lesions in the liver and small intestine, and a very high EBV viral load. She experienced a rapid demise and at autopsy was found to have EBV+ DLBCL, NOS.

  1. Urea-Mediated Cross-Presentation of Soluble Epstein-Barr Virus BZLF1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Barabas, Sascha; Gary, Regina; Bauer, Tanja; Lindner, Juha; Lindner, Petra; Weinberger, Birgit; Jilg, Wolfgang; Wolf, Hans; Deml, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    Soluble extracellular proteins usually do not enter the endogenous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I–dependent presentation pathway of antigen-presenting cells, strictly impeding their applicability for the re-stimulation of protein-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here we present for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1 a novel strategy that facilitates protein translocation into antigen-presenting cells by its solubilisation in high molar urea and subsequent pulsing of cells in presence of low molar urea. Stimulation of PBMC from HLA-matched EBV-seropositive individuals with urea-treated BZLF1 but not untreated BZLF1 induces an efficient reactivation of BZLF1-specific CTL. Urea-treated BZLF1 (uBZLF1) enters antigen-presenting cells in a temperature-dependent manner by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is processed by the proteasome into peptides that are bound to nascent HLA I molecules. Dendritic cells and monocytes but also B cells can cross-present uBZLF1 in vitro. The strategy described here has potential for use in the development of improved technologies for the monitoring of protein-specific CTL. PMID:18989461

  2. Status of Epstein-Barr Virus Coinfection with Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus whose primary infection causes mononucleosis, Burkett's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, autoimmune diseases, and gastric cancer (GC). The persistent infection causes malignancies in lymph and epithelial cells. Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis in human with chronic inflammation. This chronic inflammation is thought to be the cause of genomic instability. About 45%-word population have a probability of having both pathogens, namely, H. pylori and EBV. Approximately 180 per hundred thousand population is developing GC along with many gastric abnormalities. This makes GC the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although lots of research are carried out individually for EBV and H. pylori, still there are very few reports available on coinfection of both pathogens. Recent studies suggested that EBV and H. pylori coinfection increases the occurrence of GC as well as the early age of GC detection comparing to individual infection. The aim of this review is to present status on coinfection of both pathogens and their association with GC. PMID:28421114

  3. Large-scale Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein purification.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-02-01

    The protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) are known to play an important role in the many functions of this viral protein. Large quantities of pure EBNA1 protein would be useful in biochemical assays to elucidate such interactions. In particular, the crystal structure of the full-length protein would be important to show possible regions of interaction and/or post-translational modification. Recently, we described a novel approach to overexpress and purify EBNA1 from Escherichia coli; however, it is not ideal for large-scale production of EBNA1. We were able to optimize this protocol by (1) adding a polyethyleneimine precipitation step prior to Ni-NTA chromatography to reduce complexity of the sample and remove nucleic acid, (2) optimizing the Ni-NTA gradient to further separate EBNA1 from impurities, and (3) concluding with a MonoS cation-exchange chromatography step to further purify and concentrate EBNA1. We were able to recover 10-mg quantities of pure EBNA1 protein.

  4. The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus functionally interacts with Brd4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ammy; Wang, Shan; Nguyen, Tin; Shire, Kathy; Frappier, Lori

    2008-12-01

    The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is essential for EBV latent infection in ensuring the replication and stable segregation of the EBV genomes and in activating the transcription of other EBV latency genes. We have tested the ability of four host proteins (Brd2, Brd4, DEK, and MeCP2) implicated in the segregation of papillomavirus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus to support EBNA1-mediated segregation of EBV-based plasmids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that Brd4 enabled EBNA1-mediated segregation while Brd2 and MeCP2 had a general stimulatory effect on plasmid maintenance. EBNA1 interacted with Brd4 in both yeast and human cells through N-terminal sequences previously shown to mediate transcriptional activation but not segregation. In keeping with this interaction site, silencing of Brd4 in human cells decreased transcriptional activation by EBNA1 but not the mitotic chromosome attachment of EBNA1 that is required for segregation. In addition, Brd4 was found to be preferentially localized to the FR enhancer element regulated by EBNA1, over other EBV sequences, in latently EBV-infected cells. The results indicate that EBNA1 can functionally interact with Brd4 in native and heterologous systems and that this interaction facilitates transcriptional activation by EBNA1 from the FR element.

  5. Regulation of the EBNA1 Epstein-Barr virus protein by serine phosphorylation and arginine methylation.

    PubMed

    Shire, Kathy; Kapoor, Priya; Jiang, Ke; Hing, Margaret Ng Thow; Sivachandran, Nirojini; Nguyen, Tin; Frappier, Lori

    2006-06-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA1 protein is important for the replication and mitotic segregation of EBV genomes in latently infected cells and also activates the transcription of some of the viral latency genes. A Gly-Arg-rich region between amino acids 325 and 376 is required for both the segregation and transcriptional activation functions of EBNA1. Here we show that this region is modified by both arginine methylation and serine phosphorylation. Mutagenesis of the four potentially phosphorylated serines in this region indicated that phosphorylation of multiple serines contributes to the efficient segregation of EBV-based plasmids by EBNA1, at least in part by increasing EBNA1 binding to hEBP2. EBNA1 was also found to bind the arginine methyltransferases PRMT1 and PRMT5. Multiple arginines in the 325-376 region were methylated in vitro by PRMT1 and PRMT5, as was an N-terminal Gly-Arg-rich region between amino acids 41 and 50. EBNA1 was also shown to be methylated in vivo, predominantly in the 325-376 region. Treatment of cells with a methylation inhibitor or down-regulation of PRMT1 altered EBNA1 localization, resulting in the formation of EBNA1 rings around the nucleoli. The results indicate that EBNA1 function is influenced by both serine phosphorylation and arginine methylation.

  6. Clinical Utility of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Testing in the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kelly Y; Le, Quynh-Thu; Yom, Sue S; Ng, Raymond H W; Chan, K C Allen; Bratman, Scott V; Welch, John J; Divi, Rao L; Petryshyn, Raymond A; Conley, Barbara A

    2017-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA analysis has been shown to be useful for early detection, prognostication, and monitoring of treatment response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the recent literature provides growing evidence of the clinical utility of EBV DNA testing, particularly to inform treatment decisions for NPC patients. Despite the fact that NPC is a rare disease, the NRG Oncology cooperative group has successfully activated a phase 2/3 randomized clinical trial for NPC with international partners and in that process has discovered that the development of a harmonized EBV DNA test is absolutely critical for integration into clinical trials and for future deployment in clinical and central laboratories. In November 2015, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened a workshop of international experts in the treatment of NPC and EBV testing to provide a forum for discussing the state of EBV DNA testing and its clinical utility, and to stimulate consideration of future studies and clinical practice guidelines for EBV DNA. This review provides a summary of that discussion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Current State of PCR-Based Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Testing for Nasopharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kelly Y; Le, Quynh-Thu; Yom, Sue S; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Bratman, Scott V; Ng, Raymond H W; El Mubarak, Haja S; Chan, K C Allen; Sander, Miriam; Conley, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Clinical studies have shown plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA level to be an independent prognostic biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the proportion of NPC patients whose tumors are associated with EBV vary with geographic location, and there are a variety of assays for plasma EBV. To develop the level of evidence needed to demonstrate the clinical utility of plasma EBV DNA detection for NPC patients and encourage widespread adoption of this biomarker test in clinical laboratories, validated harmonized assays are needed. In 2015, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened a Workshop on Harmonization of EBV Testing for Nasopharyngeal Cancer, where experts in head and neck oncology and laboratory medicine addressed the limitations of currently available polymerase chain reaction-based EBV DNA quantitation assays and discussed strategies for advancing the development of harmonized EBV DNA assays and their appropriate clinical use. This article presents the key recommendations to direct future efforts in assay harmonization and validation. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Significance of human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in inducing cytokine expression in periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Sabeti, Mohammad; Kermani, Vali; Sabeti, Sara; Simon, James H

    2012-01-01

    Because herpesviruses might be etiologically involved in periapical pathosis of endodontic origin, this study aimed to determine the occurrence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the expression of mRNA transcripts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, γ-interferon (IFN), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 in periapical granulomatous lesions collected in conjunction with apicoectomy. A total of 9 symptomatic and 6 asymptomatic teeth with periapical lesions were studied. Periapical samples were collected in conjunction with apicoectomy, which was being performed because of radiographic evidence of incomplete periapical healing after conventional root canal therapy. By using established polymerase chain reaction primers and procedures, polymerase chain reaction assays were used to identify herpesvirus and cytokine gene expression. The difference in occurrence of HCMV, EBV, and cytokines between symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions was statistically significant: HCMV (P = .048), EBV (P = .002), IFN (P = .001), IL-1 (P = .012), IL-6 (P = .026), IL-10 (P = .026), IL-12 (P = .012), and TNF (P < .001) (Mann-Whitney U test). There was a significant correlation between EBV, HCMV, and TNF, γ-IFN, IL-1, and IL-12 in symptomatic periapical lesions (Spearman test). The present findings provide evidence of a putative role of HCMV and EBV in the pathogenesis of symptomatic periapical pathosis. The release of tissue-destructive cytokines might be of pathogenetic significance. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intrathymic Epstein-Barr virus infection is not a prominent feature of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Maurer, Michael A; Tackenberg, Björn; Münz, Christian; Willcox, Nick; Lünemann, Jan D

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node-type T- and B-cell infiltrates with germinal centers are characteristic features of the hyperplastic thymus in early onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG).Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection confers survival advantages on B cells, and has recently been implicated in tertiary lymphoid tissue formation in EOMG. We evaluated the frequency of intrathymic EBV-infected B-lineage cells and antiviral immune responses in treatment-naive patients with EOMG. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the content of genomic EBV DNA (BamHI-W repeat region) in thymic cell suspensions. Serial paraffin sections of EOMG thymi were analyzed for the presence of EBV-encoded RNA by in situ hybridization and for viral gene expression by immunohistochemistry. Humoral and cellular immune responses to viral antigens were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry-based intracellular cytokine staining. We detected minimal levels of viral DNA-corresponding to single viral genomes-in only 6 of 16 hyperplastic EOMG thymi, indicating extreme rarity of viral copy numbers in the investigated thymic samples. That was confirmed by similar rarity of EBV-encoded RNA and viral proteins identified in thymic sections. Furthermore, EBV-specific T- and B-cell responses were unchanged in patients with EOMG. These findings do not support an etiologic role for EBV in the initiation of EOMG.

  10. Parthenolide induces apoptosis and lytic cytotoxicity in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Yongli; Fu, Mingming; Yao, Qin; Zhuo, Huiqin; Lu, Quanyi; Niu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Peng; Pei, Yihua; Zhang, Kejie

    2012-09-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has been reported to be strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The fact that EBV is generally present in cancer cells but rarely found in healthy cells represents an opportunity for targeted cancer therapy. One approach is to activate the lytic replication cycle of the latent EBV. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is thought to play an essential role in EBV lytic infection. Elevated NF-κB levels inhibit EBV lytic replication. Parthenolide (PN) is a sesquiterpene lactone found in medicinal plants, particularly in feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PN on the survival of Raji EBV-positive lymphoma cells. Raji cells were treated with 0, 4 or 6 µmol/l PN for 48 h. MTT assay and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the findings. Results showd that PN suppressed the growth of the EBV-positive BL cell line, Raji, and activated the transcription of BZLF1 and BRLF1 by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Most notably, when PN was used in combination with ganciclovir (GCV), the cytotoxic effect of PN was amplified. These data suggest that the induction of lytic EBV infection with PN in combination with GCV may be a viral‑targeted therapy for EBV-associated BL.

  11. Parthenolide induces apoptosis and lytic cytotoxicity in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, YUAN; ZHANG, YONGLI; FU, MINGMING; YAO, QIN; ZHUO, HUIQIN; LU, QUANYI; NIU, XIAOQING; ZHANG, PENG; PEI, YIHUA; ZHANG, KEJIE

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has been reported to be strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The fact that EBV is generally present in cancer cells but rarely found in healthy cells represents an opportunity for targeted cancer therapy. One approach is to activate the lytic replication cycle of the latent EBV. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is thought to play an essential role in EBV lytic infection. Elevated NF-κB levels inhibit EBV lytic replication. Parthenolide (PN) is a sesquiterpene lactone found in medicinal plants, particularly in feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PN on the survival of Raji EBV-positive lymphoma cells. Raji cells were treated with 0, 4 or 6 μmol/l PN for 48 h. MTT assay and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the findings. Results showd that PN suppressed the growth of the EBV-positive BL cell line, Raji, and activated the transcription of BZLF1 and BRLF1 by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Most notably, when PN was used in combination with ganciclovir (GCV), the cytotoxic effect of PN was amplified. These data suggest that the induction of lytic EBV infection with PN in combination with GCV may be a viral-targeted therapy for EBV-associated BL. PMID:22735892

  12. Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis. PMID:25400806

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus oncoprotein super-enhancers control B cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hufeng; Schmidt, Stefanie CS; Jiang, Sizun; Willox, Bradford; Bernhardt, Katharina; Liang, Jun; Johannsen, Eric C; Kharchenko, Peter; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Super-enhancers are clusters of gene-regulatory sites bound by multiple transcription factors that govern cell transcription, development, phenotype, and oncogenesis. By examining Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we identified four EBV oncoproteins and five EBV-activated NF-κB subunits co-occupying ~1800 enhancer sites. Of these, 187 had markedly higher and broader histone H3K27ac signals characteristic of super-enhancers, and were designated “EBV super-enhancers”. EBV super-enhancer-associated genes included the MYC and BCL2 oncogenes, enabling LCL proliferation and survival. EBV super-enhancers were enriched for B cell transcription factor motifs and had a high co-occupancy of the transcription factors STAT5 and NFAT. EBV super-enhancer-associated genes were more highly expressed than other LCL genes. Disrupting EBV super-enhancers by the bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1 or conditionally inactivating an EBV oncoprotein or NF-κB decreased MYC or BCL2 expression and arrested LCL growth. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation and identify potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:25639793

  14. Enhanced aerobic glycolysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1.

    PubMed

    Sung, Wei-Wen; Chen, Peir-Rong; Liao, Ming-Hui; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2017-10-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a principal viral oncoprotein in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which acts through regulating tumorigenesis and metabolic reprogramming of cancers. In the presence of oxygen, we demonstrated that glucose consumption, lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly increased upon LMP1 expression in NPC cells and in a LMP1 variant derived from NPC patients-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. The amounts of the α subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), a key regulator of aerobic glycolysis, and its targets, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) and the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform, were also consistently elevated by LMP1. Moreover, in parallel with reductions in the oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, an augmented extracellular lactate concentration was observed due to LMP1 induction. In conclusion, our results proved facilitation of the Warburg effect by LMP1 through alteration of mitochondrial function in NPC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Epstein-Barr virus in human cells.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Wong, Nok-Hei Mickey; Ho, Chau-Ha; Ho, Ting-Hin; Lei, Ting; Deng, Wen; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chen, Honglin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2015-03-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) system is a highly efficient and powerful tool for RNA-guided editing of the cellular genome. Whether CRISPR/Cas9 can also cleave the genome of DNA viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which undergo episomal replication in human cells, remains to be established. Here, we reported on CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome in human cells. Two guide RNAs (gRNAs) were used to direct a targeted deletion of 558 bp in the promoter region of BART (BamHI A rightward transcript) which encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs). Targeted editing was achieved in several human epithelial cell lines latently infected with EBV, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666-1 cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the EBV genome was efficient. A recombinant virus with the desired deletion was obtained after puromycin selection of cells expressing Cas9 and gRNAs. No off-target cleavage was found by deep sequencing. The loss of BART miRNA expression and activity was verified, supporting the BART promoter as the major promoter of BART RNA. Although CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing of the multicopy episome of EBV in infected HEK293 cells was mostly incomplete, viruses could be recovered and introduced into other cells at low m.o.i. Recombinant viruses with an edited genome could be further isolated through single-cell sorting. Finally, a DsRed selectable marker was successfully introduced into the EBV genome during the course of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing. Taken together, our work provided not only the first genetic evidence that the BART promoter drives the expression of the BART transcript, but also a new and efficient method for targeted editing of EBV genome in human cells.

  16. Reliability of the Siemens Enzygnost and Novagnost Epstein-Barr virus assays for routine laboratory diagnosis: agreement with clinical diagnosis and comparison with the Merifluor Epstein-Barr virus immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Christina; Nabeck, Klaus Udo; Levy, H Roma; Daghofer, Elisabeth

    2013-06-03

    Diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is routinely conducted by clinical laboratories, especially to diagnose infectious mononucleosis. At an estimated general population incidence of 1:200, this represents a potentially significant testing burden. We evaluated the reliability of the Siemens Novagnost® and Enzygnost® EBV microtiter assays measuring VCA IgM and IgG, and EBNA-1 IgG for clinical diagnosis of EBV-related infectious mononucleosis. Remnant sera from 537 patients tested for EBV infection were used to compare the Siemens assays to each other and to the Merifluor assay. The Siemens assays are qualitative/semiquantitative, automatable enzyme immunoassays. The Merifluor assays are manual, qualitative indirect immunofluorescent assays. Testing was conducted on the Siemens and Merifluor assays in parallel. All assays were conducted and interpreted according to each manufacturer's specifications. Agreement of serostatus between each of the three assays was assessed. Discrepant results were resolved using a third method (Mikrogen recomLine). Final EBV serostatus indicated 2.9% of the population had an acute infection, 89.6% had a past infection, and 7.5% were EBV naive. All three assays demonstrated 100% agreement with acute infection. Agreement with past-infection serostatus was 99.1% for Enzygnost, between 86% and 98.8% for Novagnost, and 98.1% for Merifluor. Seronegative agreement was 100% for Enzygnost, 89.7% for Novagnost, and 92.3% for Merifluor. The Siemens Enzygnost and Novagnost EBV microtiter assays are suitable for clinical rule-in of acute EBV infection and for identifying EBV-naive individuals. Both assays also adequately identify remote EBV infections. Because these assays can be automated, they can improve speed and efficiency of EBV testing, especially in high-volume laboratories.

  17. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer.

  18. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24131889

  19. Distribution, persistence and interchange of Epstein-Barr virus strains among PBMC, plasma and saliva of primary infection subjects.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Hin; Chan, Koon Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and saliva of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection subjects. Twelve infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and eight asymptomatic individuals (AS) with primary EBV infection were followed longitudinally at several time points for one year from the time of diagnosis, when blood and saliva samples were collected and separated into PBMC, plasma and saliva, representing circulating B cell, plasma and epithelial cell compartments, respectively. To survey the viral strains, genotyping assays for the natural polymorphisms in two latent EBV genes, EBNA2 and LMP1, were performed and consisted of real-time PCR on EBNA2 to distinguish type 1 and 2 viruses, fluorescent-based 30-bp typing assay on LMP1 to distinguish deletion and wild type LMP1, and fluorescent-based heteroduplex tracking assays on both EBNA2 and LMP1 to distinguish defined polymorphic variants. No discernible differences were observed between IM patients and AS. Multiple viral strains were acquired early at the start of infection. Stable persistence of dominant EBV strains in the same tissue compartment was observed throughout the longitudinal samples. LMP1-defined strains, China 1, China 2 and Mediterranean+, were the most common strains observed. EBNA2-defined groups 1 and 3e predominated the PBMC and saliva compartments. Concordance of EBNA2 and LMP1 strains between PBMC and saliva suggested ready interchange of viruses between circulating B cell and epithelial cell pools, whilst discordance of viral strains observed between plasma and PBMC/saliva indicated presence of viral pools in other undetermined tissue compartments. Taken together, the results indicated that the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among the tissue compartments are more complex than those proposed by the current model of EBV life cycle.

  20. Comparative analysis of the transforming mechanisms of Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and Herpesvirus saimiri.

    PubMed

    Damania, B; Jung, J U

    2001-01-01

    Members of the gamma herpesvirus family include the lymphocryptoviruses (gamma-1 herpesviruses) and the rhadinoviruses (gamma-2 herpesviruses). Gammaherpesvirinae uniformly establish long-term, latent, reactivatable infection of lymphocytes, and several members of the gamma herpesviruses are associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein-Barr virus is a lymphocryptovirus, whereas Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Herpesvirus saimiri are members of the rhadinovirus family. Genes encoded by these viruses are involved in a diverse array of cellular signaling pathways. This review attempts to cover our understanding of how viral proteins deregulate cellular signaling pathways that ultimately contribute to the conversion of normal cells to cancerous cells.

  1. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of a juvenile type of Epstein-Barr virus-associated natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Y; Ishihara, S; Tagawa, S; Seo, N; Ohshima, K; Takigawa, M

    2001-10-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites or mosquito allergy is a mysterious disorder that has been reported mainly in Japanese patients (at least 58 patients) in the first two decades of life. The skin lesion at bite sites is typically a bulla that develops into necrosis. Patients simultaneously exhibit a high temperature and general malaise and subsequently may experience lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Recent studies have revealed that this mosquito hypersensitivity is associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. The natural killer cell, infected with monoclonal (or oligoclonal) Epstein-Barr virus, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of the hypersensitivity. Half of the patients reported died of hemophagocytic syndrome (or malignant histiocytosis), granular lymphocyte proliferative disorder, or lymphomas. We propose that this disease, defined as the triad of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma, is a clinical entity mostly seen in Asians.

  2. [Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 oncogene variants in cell lines of different origin].

    PubMed

    Yakovleva, L S; Senyuta, N B; Goncharova, E V; Scherback, L N; Smirnova, R V; Pavlish, O A; Gurtsevitch, V E

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widespread infection in the human population. Typically, infection occurs in early childhood without serious consequences for infected people. At the same time, a secondary infection with an additional EBV strain occurs quite often. During the in vitro cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons infected with multiple strains of the virus, only one of these strains with higher transforming potential becomes dominant, while the others are eliminated. Under certain conditions, such a highly transforming EBV strain apparently is able to be the etiologic agent of EBVassociated diseases. To find out the range of highly transforming EBV strains prevalent among Russians, cell lines from patients with EBV-associated and non-associated tumors, as well as healthy individuals, were established. The structural analysis of the latent membrane protein 1 gene (LMP1), a key oncogene of the virus, isolated from established cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes of blood donors was carried out, and data obtained were compared with the respective data for LMP1 isolates, amplified from cell lines established from African and Japanese patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. The data obtained show a genetic relationship between Russian LMP1 isolates regardless the fact whether they come from patients with tumors or healthy individuals and differ significantly from LMP1 isolates from Burkitt's lymphoma patients. Thus, the results of the study suggest that in nonendemic region for EBV-associated pathology, Russia, any strain of EBV with any structure of LMP1 with concomitant effect of additional factors may become an etiologic agent for EBV-associated neoplasia.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase BGLF4 targets the nucleus through interaction with nucleoporins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chou-Wei; Lee, Chung-Pei; Huang, Yu-Hao; Yang, Pei-Wen; Wang, Jiin-Tarng; Chen, Mei-Ru

    2012-08-01

    BGLF4 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates multiple viral and cellular substrates to optimize the cellular environment for viral DNA replication and the nuclear egress of viral nucleocapsids. BGLF4 is expressed predominantly in the nucleus at early and late stages of virus replication, while a small portion of BGLF4 is distributed in the cytoplasm at the late stage of virus replication and packaged into the virion. Here, we analyzed systematically the functional domains crucial for nuclear localization of BGLF4 and found that both the N and C termini play important modulating roles. Analysis of amino acid substitution mutants revealed that the C terminus of BGLF4 does not contain a conventional nuclear localization signal (NLS). Additionally, deletion of the C-terminal putative helical regions at amino acids 386 to 393 and 410 to 419 diminished the nuclear translocation of BGLF4, indicating that the secondary structure of the C terminus is important for the localization of BGLF4. The green fluorescent protein-fused wild-type or C-terminal helical regions of BGLF4 associate with phenylalanine/glycine repeat-containing nucleoporins (Nups) in nuclear envelope fractionation. Both coimmunoprecipitation and in vitro pull-down assays further demonstrated that BGLF4 binds to Nup62 and Nup153. Remarkably, nuclear import assay with permeabilized HeLa cells demonstrated that BGLF4 translocated into nucleus independent of cytosolic factors. Data presented here suggest that BGLF4 employs a novel mechanism through direct interactions with nucleoporins for its nuclear targeting.

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection is Common in Inflamed Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Julie L.; Shen, You-Jun; Morgan, Douglas R.; Thorne, Leigh B.; Kenney, Shannon C.; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Gulley, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant epithelial cells of 10% of all gastric adenocarcinomas, however localization of the virus in normal gastrointestinal mucosa is largely unexplored. In the current study, we measured EBV DNA and localized viral gene products in gastritis specimens (n=89), normal gastric and colonic mucosa (n=14), Crohn’s disease (n=9), and ulcerative colitis (n=11) tissues. Methods A battery of sensitive and specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeted six disparate regions of the EBV genome: BamH1W, EBNA1, LMP1, LMP2, BZLF1, and EBER1. EBV infection was localized by EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization and by immunohistochemical stains for viral latent proteins LMP1 and LMP2 and for viral lytic proteins BMRF1 and BZLF1. B lymphocytes were identified using CD20 immunostains. Results EBV DNA was essentially undetectable in normal gastric mucosa but was present in 46% of gastritis lesions, 44% of normal colonic mucosa, 55% of Crohn’s disease, and 64% of ulcerative colitis samples. Levels of EBV DNA exceeded what would be expected based on the numbers of B lymphocytes in inflamed tissues, suggesting that EBV is preferentially localized to inflammatory gastrointestinal lesions. Histochemical staining revealed EBER expression in lymphoid cells of some PCR-positive lesions. The viral lytic viral proteins, BMRF1 and BZLF1, were expressed in lymphoid cells of two ulcerative colitis tissues, both of which had relatively high viral loads by quantitative PCR. Conclusion EBV-infected lymphocytes are frequently present in inflamed gastric and colonic mucosa. Active viral replication in some lesions raises the possibility of virus-related perpetuation of gastrointestinal inflammation. PMID:22410851

  5. Epstein-Barr virus-specific methylation of human genes in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Julie L; Jones, Richard J; Kenney, Shannon C; Rivenbark, Ashley G; Tang, Weihua; Knight, Elizabeth Rw; Coleman, William B; Gulley, Margaret L

    2010-12-31

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is found in 10% of all gastric adenocarcinomas but its role in tumor development and maintenance remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine EBV-mediated dysregulation of cellular factors implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. Gene expression patterns were examined in EBV-negative and EBV-positive AGS gastric epithelial cells using a low density microarray, reverse transcription PCR, histochemical stains, and methylation-specific DNA sequencing. Expression of PTGS2 (COX2) was measured in AGS cells and in primary gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. In array studies, nearly half of the 96 human genes tested, representing 15 different cancer-related signal transduction pathways, were dysregulated after EBV infection. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed significant impact on factors having diverse functions such as cell cycle regulation (IGFBP3, CDKN2A, CCND1, HSP70, ID2, ID4), DNA repair (BRCA1, TFF1), cell adhesion (ICAM1), inflammation (COX2), and angiogenesis (HIF1A). Demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the EBV-mediated dysregulation for all 11 genes listed here. For some promoter sequences, CpG island methylation and demethylation occurred in an EBV-specific pattern as shown by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was less sensitive than was western blot for detecting downregulation of COX2 upon EBV infection. Virus-related dysregulation of COX2 levels in vitro was not recapitulated in vivo among naturally infected gastric cancer tissues. EBV alters human gene expression in ways that could contribute to the unique pathobiology of virus-associated cancer. Furthermore, the frequency and reversability of methylation-related transcriptional alterations suggest that demethylating agents have therapeutic potential for managing EBV-related carcinoma.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-specific methylation of human genes in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is found in 10% of all gastric adenocarcinomas but its role in tumor development and maintenance remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine EBV-mediated dysregulation of cellular factors implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. Methods Gene expression patterns were examined in EBV-negative and EBV-positive AGS gastric epithelial cells using a low density microarray, reverse transcription PCR, histochemical stains, and methylation-specific DNA sequencing. Expression of PTGS2 (COX2) was measured in AGS cells and in primary gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. Results In array studies, nearly half of the 96 human genes tested, representing 15 different cancer-related signal transduction pathways, were dysregulated after EBV infection. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed significant impact on factors having diverse functions such as cell cycle regulation (IGFBP3, CDKN2A, CCND1, HSP70, ID2, ID4), DNA repair (BRCA1, TFF1), cell adhesion (ICAM1), inflammation (COX2), and angiogenesis (HIF1A). Demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed the EBV-mediated dysregulation for all 11 genes listed here. For some promoter sequences, CpG island methylation and demethylation occurred in an EBV-specific pattern as shown by bisulfite DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was less sensitive than was western blot for detecting downregulation of COX2 upon EBV infection. Virus-related dysregulation of COX2 levels in vitro was not recapitulated in vivo among naturally infected gastric cancer tissues. Conclusions EBV alters human gene expression in ways that could contribute to the unique pathobiology of virus-associated cancer. Furthermore, the frequency and reversability of methylation-related transcriptional alterations suggest that demethylating agents have therapeutic potential for managing EBV-related carcinoma. PMID:21194482

  7. Conservation of gene organization in the lymphotropic herpesviruses herpesvirus Saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gompels, U A; Craxton, M A; Honess, R W

    1988-01-01

    By analyses of short DNA sequences, we have deduced the overall arrangement of genes in the (A + T)-rich coding sequences of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) relative to the arrangements of homologous genes in the (G + C)-rich coding sequences of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome and the (A + T)-rich sequences of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome. Fragments of HVS DNA from 13 separate sites within the 111 kilobase pairs of the light DNA coding sequences of the genome were subcloned into M13 vectors, and sequences of up to 350 bases were determined from each of these sites. Amino acid sequences predicted for fragments of open reading frames defined by these sequences were compared with a library of the protein sequences of major open reading frames predicted from the complete DNA sequences of VZV and EBV. Of the 13 short amino acid sequences obtained from HVS, only 3 were recognizably homologous to proteins encoded by VZV, but all 13 HVS sequences were unambiguously homologous to gene products encoded by EBV. The HVS reading frames identified by this method included homologs of the major capsid polypeptides, glycoprotein H, the major nonstructural DNA-binding protein, thymidine kinase, and the homolog of the regulatory gene product of the BMLF1 reading frame of EBV. Locally as well as globally, the order and relative orientation of these genes resembled that of their homologs on the EBV genome. Despite the major differences in their nucleotide compositions and in the nature and arrangements of reiterated DNA sequences, the genomes of the lymphotropic herpesviruses HVS and EBV encode closely related proteins, and they share a common organization of these coding sequences which differs from that of the neurotropic herpesviruses, VZV and herpes simplex virus. PMID:2828671

  8. Oral ulceration associated with concurrent herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus infection in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Mainville, Gisele N; Marsh, William L; Allen, Carl M

    2015-06-01

    In immunocompromised patients, oral ulcerations are common and have a wide spectrum of causes, including herpesvirus infection. We report on a case in which an oral ulcer was simultaneously infected by herpes simplex (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a kidney-pancreas transplant recipient. A 46-year-old woman presented with a clinically nonspecific dorsal tongue ulcer of 3 months duration. Histopathologic evaluation indicated keratinocytes exhibiting herpetic viral cytopathic effect. Nuclear and cytologic alterations suggestive of CMV infection were found in endothelial cells subjacent to the ulcer. Immunohistochemistry testing for HSV and CMV was positive in these cells. Large atypical mononuclear cells were also evident in the ulcer bed's inflammatory infiltrate, which had intense nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization. We believe this is the first well-documented report of the definitive concomitant presence of HSV, CMV, and EBV in an immunocompromised patient. Although the pathogenesis of coinfected ulcers remains unknown, a synergistic effect is possible.

  9. Humoral markers of active Epstein-Barr virus infection associate with anti-extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies and plasma galectin-3 binding protein in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, N S; Nielsen, C T; Houen, G; Jacobsen, S

    2016-12-01

    We investigated if signs of active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections associate with certain autoantibodies and a marker of type I interferon activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. IgM and IgG plasma levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse and cytomegalovirus pp52 were applied as humoral markers of ongoing/recently active Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections, respectively. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein served as a surrogate marker of type I interferon activity. The measurements were conducted in 57 systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 29 healthy controls using ELISAs. Regression analyses and univariate comparisons were performed for associative evaluation between virus serology, plasma galectin-3 binding protein and autoantibodies, along with other clinical and demographic parameters. Plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (P = 0.009) and associated positively with Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse-directed antibodies and the presence of autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens in adjusted linear regressions (B = 2.02 and 2.02, P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, systemic lupus erythematosus patients with anti-extractable nuclear antigens had significantly higher antibody levels against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse (P = 0.02). Our study supports a link between active Epstein-Barr virus infections, positivity for anti-extractable nuclear antigens and increased plasma galectin-3 binding protein concentrations/type I interferon activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

  10. Sensitive, microliter PCR with consensus degenerate primers for Epstein Barr virus amplification

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyudam; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Conrardy, Christina; Landers, James P.; Tong, Suxiang; Forest, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive identification of the etiology of viral diseases is key to implementing appropriate prevention and treatment. The gold standard for virus identification is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique that allows for highly specific and sensitive detection of pathogens by exponentially amplifying a specific region of DNA from as little as a single copy through thermocycling a biochemical cocktail. Today, molecular biology laboratories use commercial instruments that operate in 0.5–2 h/analysis using reaction volumes of 5–50 μL contained within polymer tubes or chambers. Towards reducing this volume and maintaining performance, we present a semi-quantitative, systematic experimental study of how PCR yield is affected by tube/chamber substrate, surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA:V), and passivation methods. We perform PCR experiments using traditional PCR tubes as well as using disposable polymer microchips with 1 μL reaction volumes thermocycled using water baths. We report the first oil encapsulation microfluidic PCR method without fluid flow and its application to the first microfluidic amplification of Epstein Barr virus using consensus degenerate primers, a powerful and broad PCR method to screen for both known and novel members of a viral family. The limit of detection is measured as 140 starting copies of DNA from a starting concentration of 3×105 copies/mL, regarded as an accepted sensitivity threshold for diagnostic purposes, and reaction specificity was improved as compared to conventional methods. Also notable, these experiments were conducted with conventional reagent concentrations, rather than commonly spiked enzyme and/or template mixtures. This experimental study of the effects of substrate, SA:V, and passivation, together with sensitive and specific microfluidic PCR with consensus degenerate primers represent advances towards lower cost and higher throughput pathogen screening. PMID:23080522

  11. Quantification of Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus in Chronic Periodontal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Hengameh; Karandish, Maryam; Ziaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although studies focused mainly on the identification of periopathogenic bacteria, recent reports have suggested that various herpes viruses may also be involved in the occurrence and progression of different forms of periodontal diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the prevalence and load of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in subgingival tissue specimens between chronic periodontitis and healthy sites. Patients and Methods: A total of 60 samples from the systematically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis participated in this study (mean age, 35 ± 7). Clinical periodontal evaluation included the plaque index (PI) (Loe and Silness), bleeding on probing (BOP) (O’Leary), bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level measurement. Tissue specimens harvested from > 6 mm periodontal pockets and from ≤ 3 mm sulcus depth in a quadrant of the same patient using periodontal curettes. Moreover, the unstimulated whole saliva was gathered as a shedding medium. A Taq-man Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to identify genomic copies of periodontal HCMV and EBV. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon-signed ranks and Friedman tests using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Out of 60 samples of subgingival tissues taken from the patients with chronic periodontitis, EBV count was the highest in saliva and the least in the tissue sample with PD < 3 mm (P < 0.05). The highest HCMV count was in saliva and tissue samples with PD > 6 mm (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, quantification of HCMV and EBV observed in this study is high in periodontal tissue samples of severe chronic periodontitis. PMID:26322203

  12. Exhausted Cytotoxic Control of Epstein-Barr Virus in Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin; Sauce, Delphine; Deback, Claire; Arnaud, Laurent; Mathian, Alexis; Miyara, Makoto; Boutolleau, David; Parizot, Christophe; Dorgham, Karim; Papagno, Laura; Appay, Victor; Amoura, Zahir; Gorochov, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) pathology has long been associated with an increased Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) seropositivity, viremia and cross-reactive serum antibodies specific for both virus and self. It has therefore been postulated that EBV triggers SLE immunopathology, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigate whether frequent peaks of EBV viral load in SLE patients are a consequence of dysfunctional anti-EBV CD8+ T cell responses. Both inactive and active SLE patients (n = 76 and 42, respectively), have significantly elevated EBV viral loads (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 29). Interestingly, less EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are able to secrete multiple cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and MIP-1β) in inactive and active SLE patients compared to controls (P = 0.0003 and 0.0084, respectively). Moreover, EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are also less cytotoxic in SLE patients than in controls (CD107a expression: P = 0.0009, Granzyme B release: P = 0.0001). Importantly, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific responses were not found significantly altered in SLE patients. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EBV-specific CD8+ T cell impairment is a consequence of their Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) receptor up-regulation, as blocking this pathway reverses the dysfunctional phenotype. Finally, prospective monitoring of lupus patients revealed that disease flares precede EBV reactivation. In conclusion, EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SLE patients are functionally impaired, but EBV reactivation appears to be an aggravating consequence rather than a cause of SLE immunopathology. We therefore propose that autoimmune B cell activation during flares drives frequent EBV reactivation, which contributes in a vicious circle to the perpetuation of immune activation in SLE patients. PMID:22028659

  13. Oesophageal mesenchymal tumours: clinicopathological features and absence of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Lam, K Y

    1999-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with smooth muscle tumours (leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and in organ transplant recipients. Leiomyoma is the most common mensenchymal tumour found in the oesophagus. To report a single institution experience on oesophageal mesenchymal tumours and to determine whether EBV is associated with these tumours. 40 sporadic oesophageal mesenchymal tumours were studied and their diagnosis confirmed on pathological review and immunohistochemical studies. Formalin fixed, paraffin was embedded tissues from these tumours were analysed for EBV using in situ hybridisation for two messenger RNA (mRNA) probes, EBER and BamH1 W. The oesophageal mesenchymal tumours comprised 36 leiomyomas, two undifferentiated stromal tumours, and two gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumours (GANTs). Median age of the patients with leiomyoma (26 men, 10 women) was 62 years (range 30 to 85) and 81% of them had an asymptomatic lesion. The median longitudinal size was 1.2 cm. Multiple leiomyomas were seen in 11% of the patients and calcification was noted in one tumour. Coexisting squamous cell carcinoma was found in one third of cases. The stromal tumours were small, asymptomatic, and located in the lower third of the oesophagus, while the GANTs were large, symptomatic, and found in the upper third of the oesophagus. EBV mRNAs were not detected in all these tumours. The clinicopathological features of oesophageal leiomyoma, undifferentiated stromal tumour, and GANT were different. Some oesophageal leiomyomas were associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. EBV is not associated with sporadic oesophageal mesenchymal tumours.

  14. Efficient replication of Epstein-Barr virus in stratified epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Temple, Rachel M; Zhu, Junjia; Budgeon, Lynn; Christensen, Neil David; Meyers, Craig; Sample, Clare E

    2014-11-18

    Epstein-Barr virus is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus associated with epithelial and lymphoid tumors. EBV is transmitted between human hosts in saliva and must cross the oral mucosal epithelium before infecting B lymphocytes, where it establishes a life-long infection. The latter process is well understood because it can be studied in vitro, but our knowledge of infection of epithelial cells has been limited by the inability to infect epithelial cells readily in vitro or to generate cell lines from EBV-infected epithelial tumors. Because epithelium exists as a stratified tissue in vivo, organotypic cultures may serve as a better model of EBV in epithelium than monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate that EBV is able to infect organotypic cultures of epithelial cells to establish a predominantly productive infection in the suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium, similar to that seen with Kaposi's-associated herpesvirus. These cells did express latency-associated proteins in addition to productive-cycle proteins, but a population of cells that exclusively expressed latency-associated viral proteins could not be detected; however, an inability to infect the basal layer would be unlike other herpesviruses examined in organotypic cultures. Furthermore, infection did not induce cellular proliferation, as it does in B cells, but instead resulted in cytopathic effects more commonly associated with productive viral replication. These data suggest that infection of epithelial cells is an integral part of viral spread, which typically does not result in the immortalization or enhanced growth of infected epithelial cells but rather in efficient production of virus.

  15. Gastric carcinoma: monoclonal epithelial malignant cells expressing Epstein-Barr virus latent infection protein.

    PubMed Central

    Imai, S; Koizumi, S; Sugiura, M; Tokunaga, M; Uemura, Y; Yamamoto, N; Tanaka, S; Sato, E; Osato, T

    1994-01-01

    In 1000 primary gastric carcinomas, 70 (7.0%) contained Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomic sequences detected by PCR and Southern blots. The positive tumors comprised 8 of 9 (89%) undifferentiated lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas, 27 of 476 (5.7%) poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, and 35 of 515 (6.8%) moderately to well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. In situ EBV-encoded small RNA 1 hybridization and hematoxylin/eosin staining in adjacent sections showed that the EBV was present in every carcinoma cell but was not significantly present in lymphoid stroma and in normal mucosa. Two-color immunofluorescence and hematoxylin/eosin staining in parallel sections revealed that every keratin-positive epithelial malignant cell expressed EBV-determined nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) but did not significantly express CD45+ infiltrating leukocytes. A single fused terminal fragment was detected in each of the EBNA1-expressing tumors, thereby suggesting that the EBV-carrying gastric carcinomas represent clonal proliferation of cells infected with EBV. The carcinoma cells had exclusively EBNA1 but not EBNA2, -3A, -3B, and -3C; leader protein; and latent membrane protein 1 because of methylation. The patients with EBV-carrying gastric carcinoma had elevated serum EBV-specific antibodies. The EBV-specific cellular immunity was not significantly reduced; however, the cytotoxic T-cell target antigens were not expressed. These findings strongly suggest a causal relation between a significant proportion of gastric carcinoma and EBV, and the virus-carrying carcinoma cells may evade immune surveillance. Images PMID:8090780

  16. Crystal Structure of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Processivity Factor BMRF1*

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Kazutaka; Nakayama, Sanae; Kato-Murayama, Miyuki; Akasaka, Ryogo; Ohbayashi, Naomi; Kamewari-Hayami, Yuki; Terada, Takaho; Shirouzu, Mikako; Tsurumi, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    The DNA polymerase processivity factor of the Epstein-Barr virus, BMRF1, associates with the polymerase catalytic subunit, BALF5, to enhance the polymerase processivity and exonuclease activities of the holoenzyme. In this study, the crystal structure of C-terminally truncated BMRF1 (BMRF1-ΔC) was solved in an oligomeric state. The molecular structure of BMRF1-ΔC shares structural similarity with other processivity factors, such as herpes simplex virus UL42, cytomegalovirus UL44, and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen. However, the oligomerization architectures of these proteins range from a monomer to a trimer. PAGE and mutational analyses indicated that BMRF1-ΔC, like UL44, forms a C-shaped head-to-head dimer. DNA binding assays suggested that basic amino acid residues on the concave surface of the C-shaped dimer play an important role in interactions with DNA. The C95E mutant, which disrupts dimer formation, lacked DNA binding activity, indicating that dimer formation is required for DNA binding. These characteristics are similar to those of another dimeric viral processivity factor, UL44. Although the R87E and H141F mutants of BMRF1-ΔC exhibited dramatically reduced polymerase processivity, they were still able to bind DNA and to dimerize. These amino acid residues are located near the dimer interface, suggesting that BMRF1-ΔC associates with the catalytic subunit BALF5 around the dimer interface. Consequently, the monomeric form of BMRF1-ΔC probably binds to BALF5, because the steric consequences would prevent the maintenance of the dimeric form. A distinctive feature of BMRF1-ΔC is that the dimeric and monomeric forms might be utilized for the DNA binding and replication processes, respectively. PMID:19801550

  17. Increased Epstein-Barr virus in breast milk occurs with subclinical mastitis and HIV shedding.

    PubMed

    Sanosyan, Armen; Rutagwera, David G; Molès, Jean-Pierre; Bollore, Karine; Peries, Marianne; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Nagot, Nicolas; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast milk and subclinical mastitis (SCM) are both associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding and possibly with postnatal HIV transmission. The objective of this nested case-control study was to investigate the interplay between SCM and EBV replication in breast milk of HIV-infected mothers.The relationships between EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) shedding, HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) level, and SCM were explored in breast milk samples of Zambian mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 trial. Mammary gland inflammation was defined as a breast milk sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K) greater than 0.6 and further subclassified as either "possible SCM" (Na/K ratio 0.6-1.0) or SCM (Na/K ratio ≥ 1.0). Breast milk interleukin 8 (IL-8) was measured as a surrogate marker of mammary gland inflammation.EBV DNA was detected in breast milk samples from 42 out of 83 (51%) participants and was associated with HIV-1 shedding in breast milk (P = 0.006). EBV DNA levels were higher in samples with SCM and "possible SCM" compared to non-SCM breast milk samples (P = 0.06; P = 0.007). An EBV DNA level of >200 copies/mL was independently associated with SCM and "possible SCM" (OR: 2.62; 95%: 1.13-6.10). In patients with SCM, higher EBV replication in the mammary gland was associated with a lower induction of IL-8 (P = 0.013). Resistance to DNase treatment suggests that EBV DNA in lactoserum is encapsidated.SCM and decreased IL-8 responses are associated with an increased EBV shedding in breast milk which may in turn facilitate HIV replication in the mammary gland.

  18. Phosphoproteomic Profiling Reveals Epstein-Barr Virus Protein Kinase Integration of DNA Damage Response and Mitotic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renfeng; Pinto, Sneha M.; Shaw, Patrick G.; Huang, Tai-Chung; Wan, Jun; Qian, Jiang; Gowda, Harsha; Wu, Xinyan; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhang, Kun; Manda, Srikanth S.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Hayward, S. Diane

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to infectious mononucleosis and several human cancers. EBV encodes a conserved protein kinase BGLF4 that plays a key role in the viral life cycle. To provide new insight into the host proteins regulated by BGLF4, we utilized stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics to compare site-specific phosphorylation in BGLF4-expressing Akata B cells. Our analysis revealed BGLF4-mediated hyperphosphorylation of 3,046 unique sites corresponding to 1,328 proteins. Frequency analysis of these phosphosites revealed a proline-rich motif signature downstream of BGLF4, indicating a broader substrate recognition for BGLF4 than its cellular ortholog cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Further, motif analysis of the hyperphosphorylated sites revealed enrichment in ATM, ATR and Aurora kinase substrates while functional analyses revealed significant enrichment of pathways related to the DNA damage response (DDR), mitosis and cell cycle. Phosphorylation of proteins associated with the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) indicated checkpoint activation, an event that inactivates the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome, APC/C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BGLF4 binds to and directly phosphorylates the key cellular proteins PP1, MPS1 and CDC20 that lie upstream of SAC activation and APC/C inhibition. Consistent with APC/C inactivation, we found that BGLF4 stabilizes the expression of many known APC/C substrates. We also noted hyperphosphorylation of 22 proteins associated the nuclear pore complex, which may contribute to nuclear pore disassembly and SAC activation. A drug that inhibits mitotic checkpoint activation also suppressed the accumulation of extracellular EBV virus. Taken together, our data reveal that, in addition to the DDR, manipulation of mitotic kinase signaling and SAC activation are mechanisms associated with lytic EBV replication. All MS data have been deposited in

  19. The Importance Of Epigenetic Alterations In The Development Of Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Maria; Segesdi, Judit; Banati, Ferenc; Koroknai, Anita; Wolf, Hans; Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with a series of malignant tumors. These include lymphomas (Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, T/NK-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, AIDS-associated lymphoma, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome), carcinomas (nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, carcinomas of major salivary glands, thymic carcinoma, mammary carcinoma) and a sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma). The latent EBV genomes persist in the tumor cells as circular episomes, co-replicating with the cellular DNA once per cell cycle. The expression of latent EBV genes is cell type specific due to the strict epigenetic control of their promoters. DNA methylation, histone modifications and binding of key cellular regulatory proteins contribute to the regulation of alternative promoters for transcripts encoding the nuclear antigens EBNA1 to 6 and affect the activity of promoters for transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, LMP2B). In addition to genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, there are also two RNA polymerase III transcribed genes in the EBV genome (EBER 1 and 2). The 5′ and internal regulatory sequences of EBER 1 and 2 transcription units are invariably unmethylated. The highly abundant EBER 1 and 2 RNAs are not translated to protein. Based on the cell type specific epigenetic marks associated with latent EBV genomes one can distinguish between viral epigenotypes that differ in transcriptional activity in spite of having an identical (or nearly identical) DNA sequence. Whereas latent EBV genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic control mechanisms in different cell types, EBV encoded proteins may, in turn, affect the activity of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the very same epigenetic regulatory machinery. There are EBNA1 binding sites in the human genome. Because high affinity binding of EBNA1 to its recognition sites is known to specify sites of DNA demethylation, we

  20. The importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of epstein-barr virus-related lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Maria; Segesdi, Judit; Banati, Ferenc; Koroknai, Anita; Wolf, Hans; Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2009-11-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human gammaherpesvirus, is associated with a series of malignant tumors. These include lymphomas (Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, T/NK-cell lymphoma, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, AIDS-associated lymphoma, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome), carcinomas (nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, carcinomas of major salivary glands, thymic carcinoma, mammary carcinoma) and a sarcoma (leiomyosarcoma). The latent EBV genomes persist in the tumor cells as circular episomes, co-replicating with the cellular DNA once per cell cycle. The expression of latent EBV genes is cell type specific due to the strict epigenetic control of their promoters. DNA methylation, histone modifications and binding of key cellular regulatory proteins contribute to the regulation of alternative promoters for transcripts encoding the nuclear antigens EBNA1 to 6 and affect the activity of promoters for transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, LMP2B). In addition to genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, there are also two RNA polymerase III transcribed genes in the EBV genome (EBER 1 and 2). The 5' and internal regulatory sequences of EBER 1 and 2 transcription units are invariably unmethylated. The highly abundant EBER 1 and 2 RNAs are not translated to protein. Based on the cell type specific epigenetic marks associated with latent EBV genomes one can distinguish between viral epigenotypes that differ in transcriptional activity in spite of having an identical (or nearly identical) DNA sequence. Whereas latent EBV genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic control mechanisms in different cell types, EBV encoded proteins may, in turn, affect the activity of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the very same epigenetic regulatory machinery. There are EBNA1 binding sites in the human genome. Because high affinity binding of EBNA1 to its recognition sites is known to specify sites of DNA demethylation, we

  1. Epstein-barr virus shuttle vector for stable episomal replication of cDNA expression libraries in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Margolskee, R.F.; Kavathas, P.; Berg, P.

    1988-07-01

    Efficient transfection and expression of cDNA libraries in human cells has been achieved with an Epstein-Barr virus-based subcloning vector (EBO-pcD). The plasmid vector contains a resistance marker for hygromcying B to permit selection for transformed cells. The Epstein-Barr virus origin for plasmid replication (oriP) and the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen gene have also been incorporated into the vector to ensure that the plasmids are maintained stably and extrachromosomally. Human lymphoblastodi cells can be stably transformed at high efficiency (10 to 15%) by such plasmids, thereby permitting the ready isolation of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 7/ independent transformants. Consequently, entire high-complexity EBO-pcD expression libraries can be introduced into these cells. Furthermore, since EBP-pcD plasmids are maintained as episomes at two to eight copies per cell, intact cDNA clones can be readily isolated from transformants and recovered by propagation in Escherichia coli. By using such vectors, human cells have been stably transformed with EBO-pcD-hprt to express hypoxanthing-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and with EBO-pcD-Leu-2 to express the human T-cell surface marker Leu-2. Reconstruction experiments with mixtures of EBO-pcD plasmids demonstrated that one clone of EBO-pcD-hprt per 10/sup 6/ total clones or one clone of EBO-pcD-Leu-2 per 2 x 10/sup 4/ total clones can be recovered intact from the transformed cells. The ability to directly select for expression of very rare EBO-pcD clones and to then recover these episomes should make it possible to clone certain genes where hybridization and immunological screening methods are not applicable but where a phenotype can be scored or selected in human cell lines.

  2. Lymphomas in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Immunohistochemical Characterization and Detection of Epstein-Barr virus Encoded RNA

    PubMed Central

    Onwubuya, Ifeyinwa M.; Adelusola, Kayode A.; Durosinmi, Muheez A.; Ezike, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The proper histopathological characterization of malignant lymphomas requires the use of immunohistochemistry along with other molecular pathology techniques. Materials and Methods Malignant lymphomas histologically diagnosed in our hospital were reclassified according to the WHO scheme using immunohistochemistry while in-situ hybridization was performed for the detection of Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA. Results There were 83 cases of lymphoma. The male to female ratio was 1.9:1 while the overall mean age was 41.7 years. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) constituted about 79.5% of cases. The majority of cases (98.8%) were B-cell lymphomas. Nine subtypes of lymphomas were identified with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (56.4% of which were of the germinal centre type) constituting the largest group (47.0%). Intermediate and high grade subtypes were more common. The majority of cases (72.3%) were nodal lymphomas with cervical lymph node being the commonest site (48.2%). Only classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) (20.5%) was seen of which the mixed cellularity subtype was the most common. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) encoded ribonucleic acid was detected in 7 cases (8.4%) including 4 cases of HL, 2 cases of Burkitt lymphoma and the only case of plasmablastic lymphoma. About five cases were reclassified as non-lymphoid malignant lesions. Conclusion Immunohistochemistry is vital to the proper classification of lymphomas even in a resource poor environment. Although nine subtypes of lymphomas were identified, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas formed the largest single group. Epstein-Barr virus probably plays an important role in lymphomatogenesis in this environment. A larger multicentre study is required to prove this. PMID:26266128

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus: From the Detection of Sequence Polymorphisms to the Recognition of Viral Types.

    PubMed

    Feederle, Regina; Klinke, Olaf; Kutikhin, Anton; Poirey, Remy; Tsai, Ming-Han; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus is etiologically linked with the development of benign and malignant diseases, characterized by their diversity and a heterogeneous geographic distribution across the world. The virus possesses a 170-kb-large genome that encodes for multiple proteins and non-coding RNAs. Early on there have been numerous attempts to link particular diseases with particular EBV strains, or at least with viral genetic polymorphisms. This has given rise to a wealth of information whose value has been difficult to evaluate for at least four reasons. First, most studies have looked only at one particular gene and missed the global picture. Second, they usually have not studied sufficient numbers of diseased and control cases to reach robust statistical significance. Third, the functional significance of most polymorphisms has remained unclear, although there are exceptions such as the 30-bp deletion in LMP1. Fourth, different biological properties of the virus do not necessarily equate with a different pathogenicity. This was best illustrated by the type 1 and type 2 viruses that markedly differ in terms of their transformation abilities, yet do not seem to cause different diseases. Reciprocally, environmental and genetic factors in the host are likely to influence the outcome of infections with the same virus type. However, with recent developments in recombinant virus technology and in the availability of high throughput sequencing, the tide is now turning. The availability of 23 complete or nearly complete genomes has led to the recognition of viral subtypes, some of which possess nearly identical genotypes. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that some genetic polymorphisms among EBV strains markedly influence the biological and clinical behavior of the virus. Some virus strains are endowed with biological properties that explain crucial clinical features of patients with EBV-associated diseases. Although we now have a better overview of the genetic

  4. Antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus proteins BFRF3 and BRRF2 cross-react with human proteins.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, J William

    2017-09-15

    We hypothesize that the immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) drives the autoimmune damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated whether antibodies to two EBV proteins targeted by MS patients cross-react with self proteins. Using affinity columns, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry, we found that antibodies to the EBV protein BFRF3 cross-react with the cytoplasmic protein septin-9, and antibodies to BRRF2 also bind mitochondrial proteins. Using Western blots and ELISA, we demonstrated that MS patients were more likely to have high levels of antibodies to one or another of these self antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A child with Epstein-Barr Virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis complicated by coronary artery lesion mimicking Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shogo; Yoshimura, Ken; Tanabe, Yuko; Kimata, Takahisa; Noda, Yukihiro; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2013-10-01

    There is considerable overlap between hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and Kawasaki disease (KD) in terms of aberrant immune response though the etiology of KD remains unknown. We present a case fulfilling the criteria of both HLH and KD complicated by coronary artery dilatation: HLH was confirmed to be triggered by Epstein-Barr virus. This case alarms us the possibility that even patients with HLH may be complicated by coronary artery lesion, which is one of the hallmarks of KD. We would like to draw attention that if features of KD become apparent in patients with HLH, echocardiographic examinations should be performed not to miss coronary artery lesion.

  6. Expression of an early Epstein-Barr virus antigen (EA-D) in E. coli. Brief report.

    PubMed

    Roeckel, D; Boos, H; Mueller-Lantzsch, N

    1987-01-01

    The 1.34 kb BcII-BgIII-fragment of the BamHI-M region of Epstein-Barr virus genome, comprising the complete BMRF1 open reading frame, was cloned into the tryptophan regulated E. coli expression vector pATH1. The resulting fusion protein, having a molecular weight of 80 kd, is recognized not only by anti-early antigen (EA)-positive human sera but also by the monoclonal antibody R3 directed against the diffuse component of EA (EA-D). A possible use for this fusion protein as an indicator protein in diagnosis of IgA antibodies against EA-D is presented.

  7. Identification of new protein kinase-related genes in three herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R F; Smith, T F

    1989-01-01

    By using amino acid sequence patterns (motifs) diagnostic of conserved regions within the catalytic domains of protein kinases, homologous open reading frames of three herpesviruses were identified as protein kinase-related genes. The three sequences, herpes simplex virus gene UL13, varicella-zoster virus gene 47, and Epstein-Barr virus gene BGLF4, resemble serine/threonine kinases rather than tyrosine kinases. PMID:2535748

  8. Human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in oral hairy leukoplakia among HIV positive Venezuelan patients.

    PubMed

    Correnti, María; González, Xiomara; Avila, Maira; Perrone, Marianella; Rivera, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is commonly found in individuals infected with HIV and represents the most frequent oral manifestation. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) in OHL of HIV+ Venezuelan patients. We evaluated 21 HIV+ adult patients with clinically present OHL lesions: 11 under antiretroviral therapy, 10 without therapy, and 10 oral mucosal samples as controls. Nested-PCR was used to detect EBV and HPV infection. The INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping v2 was applied to determine the HPV genotype. The EBV genome was found in 16/21 (76%) of the HIV+ patients with OHL. No difference was observed in EBV+ and EBV- patients related to antiretroviral therapy viral load and CD4+ Tcell coant. HPV-DNA was observed in 7/21 HIV positive cases (33%). The HPV genotypes detected were: 6, 11, 31, 33, 52, and 56/74. The most frequently HPV found was genotype 6 in 7/7, while two cases were HPV-11 and two HPV-52. Of the positive cases, 5/7 (71%) presented co-infection with more than one HPV genotype and 4/7 (57%) had HPV coinfection with high and low risk types. No case was EBV or HPV positive in the control group. In this study, a higher EBV prevalence was observed in OHL-HIV+ patients, confirming the etiologic role in this entity. A considerable number of cases were positive for HPV infection, and many patients presented coinfection with more than one HPV genotype as well as the presence of high oncogenic risk HPV in OHL.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus infection-induced inflammasome activation in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Yuka; Murata, Takayuki; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori

    2017-01-01

    Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic sensors that regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or interleukin-18 (IL-18) in response to foreign molecules, including viral pathogens. They are considered to be an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the mechanism by which inflammasome activation occurs during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection remains unknown. Human B lymphocytes and epithelial cells are major targets of EBV, although it can also infect a variety of other cell types. In this study, we found that EBV could infect primary human monocytes and the monocyte cell line, THP-1, inducing inflammasome activation. We incubated cell-free EBV with THP-1 cells or primary human monocytes, then confirmed EBV infection using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Lytic and latent EBV genes were detected by real-time RT-PCR in EBV-infected monocytes. EBV infection of THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes induced caspase-dependent IL-1β production, while EBV infection of B-cell or T-cell lines did not induce IL-1β production. To identify the sensor molecule responsible for inflammasome activation during EBV infection, we examined the mRNA and the protein levels of NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Increased AIM2 levels were observed in EBV-infected THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes, whereas levels of IFI16 and NLRP3 did not show remarkable change. Furthermore, knockdown of AIM2 by small interfering RNA attenuated caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that EBV infection of human monocytes induces caspase-1-dependent IL-1β production, and that AIM2, acting as an inflammasome, is involved in this response. PMID:28369146

  10. Photodynamic therapy induced production of cytokines by latent Epstein Barr virus infected epithelial tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, H. K.; Lo, K. W.; Lung, M. L.; Chang, C. K. C.; Wong, R. N. S.; Mak, N. K.

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method to treat cancer or non-cancer diseases by activation of the light-sensitive photosensitizers. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the development of certain cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and B cell lymphoma. This study aims to examine the effects of EBV infection on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cells after the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM PDT treatment. Epithelial tumor cell lines HONE-1 and latent EBV-infected HONE-1 (EBV-HONE-1) cells were used in this study. Cells were treated with the photosensitizer Zn-BC-AM for 24 hours before light irradiation. RT-PCR and quantitative ELISA methods were used for the evaluation of mRNA expression and production of cytokines, respectively. Results show that Zn-BC-AM PDT increases the production of IL-1a and IL-1b in EBV-HONE-1. Over a 10-fold increase in the production of IL-6 was observed in the culture supernatant of Zn-BC-AM PDT-treated HONE-1 cells. PDT-induced IL-6 production was observed in HONE-1 cells. EBV-HONE-1 has a higher background level of IL-8 production than the HONE-1. The production of IL-8 was suppressed in EBV-HONE-1cells after Zn-BC-AM PDT. Our results indicate that the response of HONE-1 cells to Zn-BC-AM PDT depends on the presence of latent EBV infection. Since IL-8 is a cytokine with angiogenic activity, Zn-BC-AM PDT may exert an anti-angiogenic effect through the suppression of IL-8 production by the EBV-infected cells.

  11. Monitoring of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Load in Peripheral Blood by Quantitative Competitive PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Servi J. C.; Vervoort, Marcel B. H. J.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Meenhorst, Pieter L.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Middeldorp, Jaap M.

    1999-01-01

    A competitive quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay combined with simple silica-based DNA extraction was developed for monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in unfractionated peripheral blood. The Q-PCR is based on competitive coamplification of a highly conserved 213-bp region of the EBNA-1 open reading frame with an internal standard (IS), added in a known concentration. The IS has the same amplicon length and base composition as the wild-type (WT) EBNA-1 amplicon but differs in 23 internally randomized bases. Competitive coamplification yields two PCR products that are quantified by enzyme immunoassay or by electrochemiluminescence detection, with probes specific for the 23 differing internal nucleotides. The Q-PCR has a sensitivity of 10 copies of either WT or IS plasmid DNA. The Q-PCR was validated by quantification of known amounts of plasmid containing the WT EBNA-1 target. Furthermore, we determined EBV genome copy numbers in different cell lines. For EBV quantification in clinical samples, DNA was isolated from lysed whole blood by silica-affinity purification. Forty-six percent of healthy donor peripheral blood samples were positive by Q-PCR. In most of these samples, viral load was less than 2,000 EBV copies/ml of blood. In peripheral blood samples from two AIDS-related non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients, elevated EBV loads (up to 120,000 copies/ml) were observed, which decreased upon therapy. In Burkitt’s lymphoma patients, up to 4,592,000 EBV genome copies/ml of blood were detected. In conclusion, the EBNA-1-based Q-PCR assay provides a reproducible, accurate, and easy method for studying the relationship between EBV load and clinical parameters. PMID:10449464

  12. Epstein-Barr virus detection in kidney biopsy specimens correlates with glomerular mesangial injury.

    PubMed

    Iwama, H; Horikoshi, S; Shirato, I; Tomino, Y

    1998-11-01

    To determine the relationship between the detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific DNA and glomerular injury, 33 renal needle-biopsy specimens that had been formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with subsequent nonradioactive Southern blot technique. Light microscopic examination and immunofluorescence were also performed. In 30 of 33 renal biopsy specimens, the beta globin gene could be successfully amplified as integrity controls. These 30 patients consisted of 12 patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), 10 patients with minor glomerular abnormalities, 6 patients with membranous nephropathy, and 2 patients with focal/segmental lesions. EBV was detected in 7 of 12 patients with IgAN (58%), 3 of 6 patients with membranous nephropathy (50%), 0 of 10 patients with minor glomerular abnormalities (0%), and 2 of 2 patients with focal/segmental lesions. EBV detection was not disease specific. The EBV detection ratio of the group with glomerular mesangial lesions (64%; 9 of 14 patients) was significantly greater than those without (19%; 3 of 16 patients; P < 0.012, chi-square test). The EBV detection ratio of the group with glomerular lesions (60%; 12 of 20 patients) was significantly greater than those without (0%; 0 of 10 patients; P < 0.0016, Fisher's exact test), and the EBV detection ratio of the group with fibrinogen deposits observed in immunofluorescence (73%; 11 of 15 patients) was significantly greater than those without (7%; 1 of 15 patients; P < 0.0002, chi-square test). The EBV detection ratio of the group with immunoglobulin deposits (57%; 12 of 21 patients) was also significantly greater than those without (0%; 0 of 9 patients; P < 0.0040, Fisher's exact test). These data suggest that EBV can damage the glomerular mesangium beyond disease units and be mediated by immunoglobulin in patients with various chronic glomerulonephritides.

  13. Essential role of Rta in lytic DNA replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    El-Guindy, Ayman; Ghiassi-Nejad, Maryam; Golden, Sean; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2013-01-01

    Two transcription factors, ZEBRA and Rta, switch Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from the latent to the lytic state. While ZEBRA also plays an obligatory role as an activator of replication, it is not known whether Rta is directly required for replication. Rta is dispensable for amplification of an oriLyt-containing plasmid in a transient-replication assay. Here, we assessed the requirement for Rta in activation of viral DNA synthesis from the endogenous viral genome, a function that has not been established. Initially, we searched for a ZEBRA mutant that supports viral replication but not transcription. We found that Z(S186A), a mutant of ZEBRA unable to activate transcription of Rta or viral genes encoding replication proteins, is competent to bind to oriLyt and to function as an origin recognition protein. Ectopic expression of the six components of the EBV lytic replication machinery failed to rescue replication by Z(S186A). However, addition of Rta to Z(S186A) and the mixture of replication factors activated viral replication and late gene expression. Deletion mutagenesis of Rta indicated that the C-terminal 10 amino acids (aa) were essential for the function of Rta in replication. In vivo DNA binding studies revealed that Rta interacted with the enhancer region of oriLyt. In addition, expression of Rta and Z(S186A) together, but not individually, activated synthesis of the BHLF1 transcript, a lytic transcript required for the process of viral DNA replication. Our findings demonstrate that Rta plays an indispensable role in the process of lytic DNA replication.

  14. Targeting Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein LMP1-mediated glycolysis sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, L; Hu, Z-Y; Dong, X; Tan, Z; Li, W; Tang, M; Chen, L; Yang, L; Tao, Y; Jiang, Y; Li, J; Yi, B; Li, B; Fan, S; You, S; Deng, X; Hu, F; Feng, L; Bode, A M; Dong, Z; Sun, L-Q; Cao, Y

    2014-09-11

    Our goal in this work was to illustrate the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-modulated global biochemical profile and provide a novel metabolism-related target to improve the therapeutic regimen of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We used a metabolomics approach to investigate EBV-modulated metabolic changes, and found that the exogenous overexpression of the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) significantly increased glycolysis. The deregulation of several glycolytic genes, including hexokinase 2 (HK2), was determined to be responsible for the reprogramming of LMP1-mediated glucose metabolism in NPC cells. The upregulation of HK2 elevated aerobic glycolysis and facilitated proliferation by blocking apoptosis. More importantly, HK2 was positively correlated with LMP1 in NPC biopsies, and high HK2 levels were significantly associated with poor overall survival of NPC patients following radiation therapy. Knockdown of HK2 effectively enhanced the sensitivity of LMP1-overexpressing NPC cells to irradiation. Finally, c-Myc was demonstrated to be required for LMP1-induced upregulation of HK2. The LMP1-mediated attenuation of the PI3-K/Akt-GSK3beta-FBW7 signaling axis resulted in the stabilization of c-Myc. These findings indicate a close relationship between EBV and glycolysis in NPC. Notably, LMP1 is the key regulator of the reprogramming of EBV-mediated glycolysis in NPC cells. Given the importance of EBV-mediated deregulation of glycolysis, anti-glycolytic therapy might represent a worthwhile avenue of exploration in the treatment of EBV-related cancers.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus down-regulates tumor suppressor DOK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Siouda, Maha; Frecha, Cecilia; Accardi, Rosita; Yue, Jiping; Cuenin, Cyrille; Gruffat, Henri; Manet, Evelyne; Herceg, Zdenko; Sylla, Bakary S; Tommasino, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The DOK1 tumor suppressor gene encodes an adapter protein that acts as a negative regulator of several signaling pathways. We have previously reported that DOK1 expression is up-regulated upon cellular stress, via the transcription factor E2F1, and down-regulated in a variety of human malignancies due to aberrant hypermethylation of its promoter. Here we show that Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B-cells leads to the down-regulation of DOK1 gene expression via the viral oncoprotein LMP1. LMP1 alone induces recruitment to the DOK1 promoter of at least two independent inhibitory complexes, one containing E2F1/pRB/DNMT1 and another containing at least EZH2. These events result in tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) of the DOK1 promoter and gene expression silencing. We also present evidence that the presence of additional EBV proteins leads to further repression of DOK1 expression with an additional mechanism. Indeed, EBV infection of B-cells induces DNA methylation at the DOK1 promoter region including the E2F1 responsive elements that, in turn, lose the ability to interact with E2F complexes. Treatment of EBV-infected B-cell-lines with the methyl-transferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine rescues DOK1 expression. In summary, our data show the deregulation of DOK1 gene expression by EBV and provide novel insights into the regulation of the DOK1 tumor suppressor in viral-related carcinogenesis.

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Down-Regulates Tumor Suppressor DOK1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Maha; Frecha, Cecilia; Accardi, Rosita; Yue, Jiping; Cuenin, Cyrille; Gruffat, Henri; Manet, Evelyne; Herceg, Zdenko; Sylla, Bakary S.; Tommasino, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The DOK1 tumor suppressor gene encodes an adapter protein that acts as a negative regulator of several signaling pathways. We have previously reported that DOK1 expression is up-regulated upon cellular stress, via the transcription factor E2F1, and down-regulated in a variety of human malignancies due to aberrant hypermethylation of its promoter. Here we show that Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection of primary human B-cells leads to the down-regulation of DOK1 gene expression via the viral oncoprotein LMP1. LMP1 alone induces recruitment to the DOK1 promoter of at least two independent inhibitory complexes, one containing E2F1/pRB/DNMT1 and another containing at least EZH2. These events result in tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) of the DOK1 promoter and gene expression silencing. We also present evidence that the presence of additional EBV proteins leads to further repression of DOK1 expression with an additional mechanism. Indeed, EBV infection of B-cells induces DNA methylation at the DOK1 promoter region including the E2F1 responsive elements that, in turn, lose the ability to interact with E2F complexes. Treatment of EBV-infected B-cell-lines with the methyl-transferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescues DOK1 expression. In summary, our data show the deregulation of DOK1 gene expression by EBV and provide novel insights into the regulation of the DOK1 tumor suppressor in viral-related carcinogenesis. PMID:24809689

  17. Classification of Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancers by definition of DNA methylation epigenotypes.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Keisuke; Kaneda, Atsushi; Nagae, Genta; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Kikuchi, Yasuko; Hino, Rumi; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Takada, Kenzo; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, opportunistic lymphomas in immunocompromised hosts, and a fraction of gastric cancers. Aberrant promoter methylation accompanies human gastric carcinogenesis, though the contribution of EBV to such somatic methylation changes has not been fully clarified. We analyzed promoter methylation in gastric cancer cases with Illumina's Infinium BeadArray and used hierarchical clustering analysis to classify gastric cancers into 3 subgroups: EBV(-)/low methylation, EBV(-)/high methylation, and EBV(+)/high methylation. The 3 epigenotypes were characterized by 3 groups of genes: genes methylated specifically in the EBV(+) tumors (e.g., CXXC4, TIMP2, and PLXND1), genes methylated both in EBV(+) and EBV(-)/high tumors (e.g., COL9A2, EYA1, and ZNF365), and genes methylated in all of the gastric cancers (e.g., AMPH, SORCS3, and AJAP1). Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) target genes in embryonic stem cells were significantly enriched among EBV(-)/high-methylation genes and commonly methylated gastric cancer genes (P = 2 × 10(-15) and 2 × 10(-34), respectively), but not among EBV(+) tumor-specific methylation genes (P = 0.2), suggesting a different cause for EBV(+)-associated de novo methylation. When recombinant EBV was introduced into the EBV(-)/low-methylation epigenotype gastric cancer cell, MKN7, 3 independently established subclones displayed increases in DNA methylation. The promoters targeted by methylation were mostly shared among the 3 subclones, and the new methylation changes caused gene repression. In summary, DNA methylation profiling classified gastric cancer into 3 epigenotypes, and EBV(+) gastric cancers showed distinct methylation patterns likely attributable to EBV infection.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Humphries, Romney; Terashita, Dawn; Eshaghian, Shahrooz; Territo, Mary C; Said, Jonathan; Lewinski, Michael; Currier, Judith S; Pegues, David

    2012-05-01

    Data on Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) in adults in the United States remain very limited. A cluster of four cases of EBV-HLH was observed in a 4-month period at a tertiary center in Los Angeles County (LA County) and the clinical and molecular characteristics identified in these cases are being described. EBV typing, immunophenotypic and molecular genetic studies were performed. Diagnostic criteria that may be used to identify EBV as a cause of HLH in adults are also being suggested. Finally, the crude incidence rate for HLH in LA County was determined and was compared to the worldwide crude incidence rate for HLH. The cases each occurred in young male adult residents of California and were associated with evidence of EBV reactivation and ferritin levels of >20,000 µg/L. A higher rate of cases of EBV-HLH in 2010 was found at UCLA Medical Center than for 2007-2009 (4.9/10,000 hospital discharges vs. 0.14/10,000 hospital discharges, respectively; P = 0.0017). The cases were associated with EBV type 1, and the insertion of the codon CTC (leucine) was found in numerous of the EBNA-2 gene sequences. The annual incidence of secondary, non-familial HLH was estimated to be 0.9 cases per million persons >15 years of age in LA County. Although EBV-HLH is a rare disease, the incidence in adults in Western countries may be underestimated.

  19. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus strains and LMP1-deletion variants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco; Marinho-Dias, Joana; Ribeiro, Joana; Esteves, Marlene; Maltez, Elsa; Baldaque, Inês; Breda, Eduardo; Monteiro, Eurico; Medeiros, Rui; Sousa, Hugo

    2015-08-01

    Variations in the genome sequence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) are thought to lead to differential interaction with host cells, immune evasion, and transformation. The discussion regarding EBV strains as having a geographic or disease-association has been increasing and the majority of studies are performed in Asiatic populations. We developed a case-control study with 139 individuals, including 96 subjects with different malignancies and 43 healthy individuals, from the North region of Portugal. We have used PCR protocols for the characterization of EBV strains (type A or B) based on EBNA3C genome variation and for the LMP1 30bp-deletion variants (wt-LMP1 or del-LMP1). Our study showed that type A is the most prevalent in our population (100% of healthy controls, 96.9% of aHSCT patients, 90.8% of HNSCC patients, and 94.9% of NPC patients) and that type B was significantly associated with NPC (P = 0.019; RR = 8.90). Regarding the LMP1 30bp-deletion, we found a similar distribution of both wt- and del-LMP1 variants in controls and dispare results in cases: del-LMP1 was more frequent in aHSCT and HNSCC patients (64.7% and 63.2%, respectively) and wt-LMP1 in NPC patients (100%). In fact, the study reveals that wt-LPM1 was significantly associated with NPC (P < 0.001; RR = 18.4). Hence, our study showed that EBV type B and wt-LMP1 variant seem to be associated with NPC in our population, with a clear disease-association for wt-LMP1. These results contribute for the knowledge of EBV genetic diversity among Caucasian populations.

  20. Elevated antinuclear antibodies and altered anti-Epstein-Barr virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Laura; Cirone, Mara; Di Gregorio, Ana Oliva; Vitillo, Marina; Cattivelli, Marina; Magliocca, Vittoria; Maiorano, Silvana; Meledandri, Marcello; Scagnolari, Carolina; La Rocca, Sebastiano; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-02

    It has been shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is able to alter the immune response towards self-antigens and may enhance risk of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we evaluated the specific antibody immune response against EBV in patients with anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in comparison with ANA-negative healthy controls. For this purpose, 92 patients with an high anti-ANA reactivity with or without concomitant extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) or double stranded DNA (dsDNA) positivity were selected and compared with 146 healthy donors. We found that anti-EBV-VCA and EA IgG concentrations were significantly higher in ANA-positive patients in comparison to the controls (VCA P<0.0001 and EA P<0,03) as well as in those ANA-positive patients that showed a concomitant ENA positivity (P=0.0002). Interestingly, elevated anti-EBNA-1 IgG was found in a group of patients who had anti SSA/Ro antibodies. Anti-VCA IgM Abs were more frequently found in those patients with a very high titer of ANA (P=0.06); moreover detection of anti-VCA IgM/IgG in absence of anti-EBNA-1 IgG was more frequent in the patient than in the control group. Both these conditions correlate with a recent EBV infection or reactivation. The data suggest that EBV, particularly during acute infection or in its reactivation phase, could be involved in the ANA and ENA autoantibody formation.

  1. Hodgkin lymphoma incidence in California Hispanics: influence of nativity and tumor Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Glaser, S L; Clarke, C A; Chang, E T; Yang, J; Gomez, S L; Keegan, T H

    2014-06-01

    For classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), migrant studies could elucidate contributions of environmental factors (including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)) to the lower rates in non-whites. Given the well-described etiologic complexity of HL, this research requires a large, immigrant population, such as California Hispanics. With 1988-2004 California Cancer Registry data (2,595 Hispanic, 8,637 white HL cases) and tumor cell EBV status on a subset (218 Hispanics, 656 whites), we calculated ethnicity- and nativity-specific HL incidence rates simultaneously by age, sex, and histologic subtype, and tumor cell EBV prevalence. Compared with white rates, Hispanic HL rates were lower overall (70 %) and for nodular sclerosis HL, particularly among young adults (60-65 % for females). However, they were higher among children (200 %) and older adults, and for mixed cellularity HL. Compared with rates in foreign-born Hispanics, rates in US-born Hispanics were higher among young adults (>threefold in females), lower for children and adults over age 70, and consistently intermediate compared with rates in whites. EBV tumor prevalence was 67, 32, and 23 % among foreign-born Hispanics, US-born Hispanics, and whites, respectively, although with variation by age, sex, and histology. Findings strongly implicate environmental influences, such as nativity-related sociodemographic differences, on HL occurrence. In addition, lower young adult rates and higher EBV prevalence in US-born Hispanics than in whites raise questions about the duration/extent of environmental change for affecting HL rates and also point to ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility. Lesser variation in mixed cellularity HL rates and greater variation in rates for females across groups suggest less modifiable factors interacting with environmental influences.

  2. Modulation of lung inflammation by the Epstein-Barr virus protein Zta

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, James F.; Cameron, Jennifer E.; Nguyen, Hong T.; Wang, Yu; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Shan, Bin; Lasky, Joseph A.; Flemington, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have implicated gamma-herpesviruses, particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here examine the possible role that EBV plays in the potentiation of this disease by evaluating the pulmonary response to expression of the EBV lytic transactivator protein Zta. Expression of Zta in the lungs of mice via adenovirus-mediated delivery (Adv-Zta) produced profibrogenic inflammation that appeared most pronounced by day 7 postexposure. Relative to mice exposed to control GFP-expressing adenovirus (Adv-GFP), mice exposed to Adv-Zta displayed evidence of lung injury and a large increase in inflammatory cells, predominantly neutrophils, recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Cytokine and mRNA profiling of the BAL fluid and cells recovered from Adv-Zta-treated mice revealed a Th2 and Th17 bias. mRNA profiles from Adv-Zta-infected lung epithelial cells revealed consistent induction of mRNAs encoding Th2 cytokines. Coexpression in transient assays of wild-type Zta, but not a DNA-binding-defective mutant Zta, activated expression of the IL-13 promoter in lung epithelial cells, and detection of IL-13 in Adv-Zta-treated mice correlated with expression of Zta. Induction of Th2 cytokines in Zta-expressing mice corresponded with alternative activation of macrophages. In cell culture and in mice, Zta repressed lung epithelial cell markers. Despite the profibrogenic character at day 7, the inflammation resolves by 28 days postexposure to Adv-Zta without evidence of fibrosis. These observations indicate that the EBV lytic transactivator protein Zta displays activity consistent with a pathogenic role in pulmonary fibrosis associated with herpesvirus infection. PMID:20817778

  3. Solitary plasmacytoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus: a clinicopathologic, cytogenetic study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianchao; Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Min; Chen, Jie; Liu, Weiping

    2017-04-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is an uncommon, indolent tumor of plasma cell neoplasms that presents as a mass lesion in extramedullary sites. Evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is frequently associated with various lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies but is relatively rare in SP. Moreover, it is essential to distinguish EBV-positive plasmacytoma from plasmablastic lymphoma. In this study, we found 4 EBV-encoded RNA (EBER)-positive patients among 46 consecutive immunocompetent patients of SP and compared the clinicopathologic features of these patients with those of the EBER-negative cohort. In the 4 EBER-positive patients, the common presenting feature was a local mass lesion without symptoms of chronic active EBV infection. Upon histologic examination, neoplastic cells demonstrated well-differentiated morphology in the absence of plasmablastic lymphoma components. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that all cases were negative for del13q14, t(11;14)(q13;32) and MYC rearrangement but that 1 case had cytogenetic aberrations involving del17p13. Follow-up data revealed that EBER-positive patients had benign prognoses without aggressive clinical course and that there was no significant difference in the overall survival time between the 2 groups, but EBER-positive patients were more likely to have disease progression (relapse/progression to multiple myeloma) compared with EBER-negative patients. More case studies are needed to better understand the impact of EBV on disease pathogenesis and development in immunocompetent patients of SP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing patterns in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)and Hodgkin lymphoma association in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dhiab, Myriam Ben; Ziadi, Sonia; Saad, Hanene; Louhichi, Teheni; Trimeche, Mounir

    2016-09-01

    We compared the features of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) association in Tunisia in two periods of time, 1991-2001 (111 cases) and 2002-2012 (122 cases). The investigation of the EBV status by EBER in situ hybridization showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of EBV-positive HL from 69.3 % for the period 1991-2001 to 40.1 % for the 2002-2012 period (p = 0.00001). EBV positivity has decreased in all age groups but was more pronounced among young patients, in the 15-24-year age group (46.1 vs 10.3 %, p = 0.003), in the 25-34-year age group (56.2 vs 25 %, p = 0.04), and among children (88.4 vs 59.2 %, p = 0.01). This decrease in EBV-positive HL over time contrasted with a remarkable increase in EBV-negative HL in young adults aged 15-34 years (51.2 vs 83 %; p = 0.001), especially among women (59.1 vs 91.2 %; p = 0.01). The decrease in EBV-positive HL over time concerns particularly the nodular sclerosis histological subtype (69.2 vs 31.6 %, p = 0.000001). These results indicate that the epidemiology of HL and its association with EBV are changing over time, with a trend toward a Western profile, and point toward the emergence of other environmental causative factors, especially among young women, which remain to be identified.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can immortalize B-cll cells activated by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Wendel-Hansen, V; Sällström, J; De Campos-Lima, P O; Kjellström, G; Sandlund, A; Siegbahn, A; Carlsson, M; Nilsson, K; Rosén, A

    1994-03-01

    B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells are inert to the potent transforming action of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The mitogenic action of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC), MP6-thioredoxin, and interleukin 2 (IL-2), agents previously shown to induce proliferation in normal as well as in B-CLL cells, lifted this block, and EBV-positive cell lines could be established. It was not possible to establish cell lines of leukemic origin from cultures that were incubated with EBV alone or cytokine mix alone. CLL-cells infected with EBV only, expressed the viral nuclear antigen complex (EBNA), but not the viral latent membrane protein (LMP). They were not activated as measured by cell size and 3H-thymidine incorporation. In contrast, cells incubated with EBV and cytokine mix expressed both EBNA and LMP in parallel with enlargement and increased 3H-thymidine incorporation. These results emphasize that LMP expression is a prerequisite for growth transformation and immortalization and that cytokine activation signals are required for its expression in B-CLLs. Cells incubated with SAC/MP6-thioredoxin/IL-2 did not express any of the viral antigens, but were activated with regard to the mentioned parameters. Nine cell lines were established from six patients. From each of the three patients, we obtained 'twin'-pair lines: one corresponding to the malignant cell and the other to a normal B-lymphoblastoid cell. Thus, malignant and normal B-cell counterparts, from the very same donor, are at hand for comparative studies. The cell lines have been carried out for more than 12 months in culture. We conclude that B-CLL that are refractory to EBV-transformation can be rendered susceptible through in vitro cytokine activation.

  6. Atypical hydroa vacciniforme-like epstein-barr virus associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Young; Baek, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Rok; Park, Sang Hui; Jeon, In Sang; Roh, Joo Young

    2012-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPDs) accompany severe chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or comprise the CAEBV disease entity. The CAEBV disease entity has the common feature of lymphoproliferation of T or NK cells (primarily), and B cells (rarely), with chronic activation of EBV infection. The disease is rare and seems to be more prevalent in East Asian countries. The CAEBV disease entity encompasses heterogenous disorders, including hydroa vacciniforme (HV), hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and NK-cell leukemia. Atypical HV-like eruptions are present on sun-exposed and nonexposed areas with facial edema, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, unlike classic HV. Recently, it has been suggested that classic HV and atypical HV-like eruptions are variants within the same disease spectrum of EBV-T/NK-LPD. We report a Korean boy with an atypical HV-like eruption and various systemic manifestations, including fever, sore throat, abdominal pain, headaches, seizures, and hematologic abnormalities for 2 years. After the initial mild eruption, which resembled a viral exanthem, ulceronecrotic skin lesions gradually developed and were associated with a high-grade fever and constitutional symptoms. He had a CAEBV infection, which showed a predominant proliferation of NK cells with high EBV DNA levels in the peripheral blood. However, in the skin lesions, there were nonneoplastic CD4 T-cell infiltrations predominantly showing a monoclonal T-cell receptor-γ gene rearrangement and positive EBV in situ hybridization.

  7. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir in liver-transplanted children infected with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Loreto; Díez-Dorado, Ruth; Díaz, Carmen; De la Vega, Angela; Frauca, Esteban; Camarena, Carmen; Muñoz-Bartolo, Gema; González de Zárate, Ana; López Santamaría, Manuel; Jara, Paloma

    2008-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with increased risk of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Lowering immunosuppression is the current method to prevent PTLD in LT children with a high viral load. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of valganciclovir (VGCV) in children with EBV infection after LT. Forty-seven children showing detectable EBV-DNA (72% asymptomatic) were treated with VGCV (520 mg/sqm twice daily) with no immunosuppression decrease (except in 4 cases). VGCV treatment started 17 months (median) after the onset of EBV infection. A 30-day treatment applied to 26 patients led to undetectable EBV-DNA in 11/32 courses (34.3%), with 82% relapsing. A long VGCV treatment (median: 8 months) achieved undetectable EBV-DNA in 20/42 (47.6%), 60% of whom maintained response off therapy. There were no new PTLD cases. Symptoms worsened in 1 (2.1%) in whom PTLD was suspected but not confirmed in liver and jejunum biopsies. Factors associated with achievement of undetectable EBV-DNA were a longer time from LT and a lower rate of intervening infections in comparison with nonresponders. The safety profile for VGCV was excellent. Graft rejection occurred in 6%. In conclusion, in 47 LT children with a sustained increased EBV load treated with VGCV and unchanged immunosuppression, PTLD was suspected in 1 child (2.1%). A viral load decrease could be achieved as EBV-DNA was undetectable in 47% of patients under prolonged treatment.

  8. Evidence of Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Gastric Cancer and Non-Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Juan L.E.; Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger. PMID:24448220

  9. Dynamic Epstein-Barr virus gene expression on the path to B-cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Price, Alexander M; Luftig, Micah A

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus in the γ-herpesvirinae subfamily that contains a 170-180kb double-stranded DNA genome. In vivo, EBV commonly infects B and epithelial cells and persists for the life of the host in a latent state in the memory B-cell compartment of the peripheral blood. EBV can be reactivated from its latent state, leading to increased expression of lytic genes that primarily encode for enzymes necessary to replicate the viral genome and structural components of the virion. Lytic cycle proteins also aid in immune evasion, inhibition of apoptosis, and the modulation of other host responses to infection. In vitro, EBV has the potential to infect primary human B cells and induce cellular proliferation to yield effectively immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines, or LCLs. EBV immortalization of B cells in vitro serves as a model system for studying EBV-mediated lymphomagenesis. While much is known about the steady-state viral gene expression within EBV-immortalized LCLs and other EBV-positive cell lines, relatively little is known about the early events after primary B-cell infection. It was previously thought that upon latent infection, EBV only expressed the well-characterized latency-associated transcripts found in LCLs. However, recent work has characterized the early, but transient, expression of lytic genes necessary for efficient transformation and delayed responses in the known latency genes. This chapter summarizes these recent findings that show how dynamic and controlled expression of multiple EBV genes can control the activation of B cells, entry into the cell cycle, the inhibition of apoptosis, and innate and adaptive immune responses.

  10. Functions of the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein in viral reactivation and lytic infection.

    PubMed

    Sivachandran, Nirojini; Wang, Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2012-06-01

    EBNA1 is the only nuclear Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein expressed in both latent and lytic modes of infection. While EBNA1 is known to play several important roles in latent infection, the reason for its continued expression in lytic infection is unknown. Here we identified two roles for EBNA1 in the reactivation of latent EBV to the lytic cycle in epithelial cells. First, EBNA1 depletion in latently infected cells was shown to positively contribute to spontaneous EBV reactivation, showing that EBNA1 has a role in suppressing reactivation. Second, when the lytic cycle was induced, EBNA1 depletion decreased lytic gene expression and DNA amplification, showing that it positively contributed to lytic infection. Since we have previously shown that EBNA1 disrupts promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, we investigated whether this function could account for the effects of EBNA1 on lytic infection by repeating the experiments with cells lacking PML proteins. In the absence of PML, EBNA1 did not promote lytic infection, indicating that the EBNA1-mediated PML disruption is responsible for promoting lytic infection. In keeping with this conclusion, PML silencing was found to be sufficient to induce the EBV lytic cycle. Finally, by generating cells with single PML isoforms, we showed that individual PML isoforms were sufficient to suppress EBV lytic reactivation, although PML isoform IV (PML IV) was ineffective because it was most efficiently degraded by EBNA1. Our results provide the first function for EBNA1 in lytic infection and show that EBNA1 interactions with PML IV lead to a loss of PML nuclear bodies (NBs) that promotes lytic infection.

  11. DNA ligand designed to antagonize EBNA1 represses Epstein-Barr virus-induced immortalization.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ai; Noguchi, Kohji; Minoshima, Masafumi; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Kanda, Teru; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Junko; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B lymphocytes into immortalized cells in vitro and is associated with various malignancies in vivo. EBNA1, which is expressed in the majority of EBV-infected cells, recognizes specific DNA sequences at the cis-acting latent origin of plasmid replication (oriP) element of the EBV genome. EBNA1 plays a critical role in the viral episome maintenance and transactivates viral transforming genes in latently infected cells. Therefore, DNA-targeting agents that can disrupt the EBNA1-oriP interaction will offer novel functional inhibitors of EBNA1. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides, sequence-specific DNA ligands, can be designed to interfere with the binding of various transcriptional factors. Here, we synthesized pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeting EBNA1-bound DNA sequences and developed an inhibitor for the EBNA1-oriP interaction. A pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, designated as DSE-3, bound adjacent to the EBNA1 recognition sequences located in the dyad symmetry element of oriP, and selectively inhibited EBNA1-oriP binding both in vitro and in vivo. DSE-3 also inhibited the proliferation of established lymphoblastoid cell lines by eradicating EBV episomes from the cells. In addition, DSE-3 repressed the expression of viral transforming genes after infecting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with EBV and, as a consequence, inhibited EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. These results suggest that EBNA1 functions will be an attractive pharmacological target for EBV-associated diseases. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Contributions of the Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein to Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sivachandran, Nirojini; Dawson, Christopher W.; Young, Lawrence S.; Liu, Fei-Fei; Middeldorp, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas (GC) are comprised of cells latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); however, the mechanism by which EBV contributes to the development of this malignancy is unclear. We have investigated the cellular effects of the only EBV nuclear protein expressed in GC, EBNA1, focusing on promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs), which play important roles in apoptosis, p53 activation, and tumor suppression. AGS GC cells infected with EBV were found to contain fewer PML NBs and less PML protein than the parental EBV-negative AGS cells, and these levels were restored by silencing EBNA1. Conversely, EBNA1 expression was sufficient to induce the loss of PML NBs and proteins in AGS cells. Consistent with PML functions, EBNA1 expression decreased p53 activation and apoptosis in response to DNA damage and resulted in increased cell survival. In addition, EBNA1 mutants unable to bind CK2 kinase or ubiquitin-specific protease 7 had decreased ability to induce PML loss and to interfere with p53 activation. PML levels in EBV-positive and EBV-negative GC biopsy specimens were then compared by immunohistochemistry. Consistent with the results in the AGS cells, EBV-positive tumors had significantly lower PML levels than EBV-negative tumors. The results indicate that EBV infection of GC cells leads to loss of PML NBs through the action of EBNA1, resulting in impaired responses to DNA damage and promotion of cell survival. Therefore, PML disruption by EBNA1 is one mechanism by which EBV may contribute to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:22013060

  13. Development of a high-throughput screen for inhibitors of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Scott; Messick, Troy; Schultz, David C; Reichman, Melvin; Lieberman, Paul M

    2010-10-01

    Latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a carcinogenic cofactor in several lymphoid and epithelial cell malignancies. At present, there are no small-molecule inhibitors that specifically target EBV latent infection or latency-associated oncoproteins. EBNA1 is an EBV-encoded sequence-specific DNA binding protein that is consistently expressed in EBV-associated tumors and required for stable maintenance of the viral genome in proliferating cells. EBNA1 is also thought to provide cell survival function in latently infected cells. In this work, the authors describe the development of a biochemical high-throughput screening (HTS) method using a homogeneous fluorescence polarization (FP) assay monitoring EBNA1 binding to its cognate DNA binding site. An FP-based counterscreen was developed using another EBV-encoded DNA binding protein, Zta, and its cognate DNA binding site. The authors demonstrate that EBNA1 binding to a fluorescent-labeled DNA probe provides a robust assay with a Z factor consistently greater than 0.6. A pilot screen of a small-molecule library of ~14,000 compounds identified 3 structurally related molecules that selectively inhibit EBNA1 but not Zta. All 3 compounds had activity in a cell-based assay specific for the disruption of EBNA1 transcription repression function. One of the compounds was effective in reducing EBV genome copy number in Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells. These experiments provide a proof of concept that small-molecule inhibitors of EBNA1 can be identified by biochemical HTS of compound libraries. Further screening in conjunction with medicinal chemistry optimization may provide a selective inhibitor of EBNA1 and EBV latent infection.

  14. Functions of the Epstein-Barr Virus EBNA1 Protein in Viral Reactivation and Lytic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sivachandran, Nirojini; Wang, Xueqi

    2012-01-01

    EBNA1 is the only nuclear Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein expressed in both latent and lytic modes of infection. While EBNA1 is known to play several important roles in latent infection, the reason for its continued expression in lytic infection is unknown. Here we identified two roles for EBNA1 in the reactivation of latent EBV to the lytic cycle in epithelial cells. First, EBNA1 depletion in latently infected cells was shown to positively contribute to spontaneous EBV reactivation, showing that EBNA1 has a role in suppressing reactivation. Second, when the lytic cycle was induced, EBNA1 depletion decreased lytic gene expression and DNA amplification, showing that it positively contributed to lytic infection. Since we have previously shown that EBNA1 disrupts promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, we investigated whether this function could account for the effects of EBNA1 on lytic infection by repeating the experiments with cells lacking PML proteins. In the absence of PML, EBNA1 did not promote lytic infection, indicating that the EBNA1-mediated PML disruption is responsible for promoting lytic infection. In keeping with this conclusion, PML silencing was found to be sufficient to induce the EBV lytic cycle. Finally, by generating cells with single PML isoforms, we showed that individual PML isoforms were sufficient to suppress EBV lytic reactivation, although PML isoform IV (PML IV) was ineffective because it was most efficiently degraded by EBNA1. Our results provide the first function for EBNA1 in lytic infection and show that EBNA1 interactions with PML IV lead to a loss of PML nuclear bodies (NBs) that promotes lytic infection. PMID:22491455

  15. Contributions of the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein to gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sivachandran, Nirojini; Dawson, Christopher W; Young, Lawrence S; Liu, Fei-Fei; Middeldorp, Jaap; Frappier, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas (GC) are comprised of cells latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); however, the mechanism by which EBV contributes to the development of this malignancy is unclear. We have investigated the cellular effects of the only EBV nuclear protein expressed in GC, EBNA1, focusing on promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs), which play important roles in apoptosis, p53 activation, and tumor suppression. AGS GC cells infected with EBV were found to contain fewer PML NBs and less PML protein than the parental EBV-negative AGS cells, and these levels were restored by silencing EBNA1. Conversely, EBNA1 expression was sufficient to induce the loss of PML NBs and proteins in AGS cells. Consistent with PML functions, EBNA1 expression decreased p53 activation and apoptosis in response to DNA damage and resulted in increased cell survival. In addition, EBNA1 mutants unable to bind CK2 kinase or ubiquitin-specific protease 7 had decreased ability to induce PML loss and to interfere with p53 activation. PML levels in EBV-positive and EBV-negative GC biopsy specimens were then compared by immunohistochemistry. Consistent with the results in the AGS cells, EBV-positive tumors had significantly lower PML levels than EBV-negative tumors. The results indicate that EBV infection of GC cells leads to loss of PML NBs through the action of EBNA1, resulting in impaired responses to DNA damage and promotion of cell survival. Therefore, PML disruption by EBNA1 is one mechanism by which EBV may contribute to the development of gastric cancer.

  16. Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus co-infection in Cervical Carcinoma in Algerian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the implication of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis and prognosis of cervical cancer is well established, the impact of a co-infection with high risk HPV (HR-HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is still not fully understood. Methods Fifty eight randomly selected cases of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix, 14 normal cervices specimens, 21 CIN-2/3 and 16 CIN-1 cases were examined for EBV and HPV infections. Detection of HR-HPV specific sequences was carried out by PCR amplification using consensus primers of Manos and by Digene Hybrid Capture. The presence of EBV was revealed by amplifying a 660 bp specific EBV sequence of BALF1. mRNA expression of LMP-1 in one hand and protein levels of BARF-1, LMP-1 and EBNA-1 in the other hand were assessed by RT-PCR and immunoblotting and/or immunohischemistry respectively. Results HR-HPV infection was found in patients with SCC (88%), low-grade (75%) and high grade (95%) lesions compared to only 14% of normal cervix cases. However, 69%, 12.5%, 38.1%, and 14% of SCC, CIN-1, CIN-2/3 and normal cervix tissues, respectively, were EBV infected. The highest co-infection (HR-HPV and EBV) was found in squamous cell carcinoma cases (67%). The latter cases showed 27% and 29% expression of EBV BARF-1 and LMP-1 oncogenes respectively. Conclusion The high rate of HR-HPV and EBV co-infection in SCC suggests that EBV infection is incriminated in cervical cancer progression. This could be taken into account as bad prognosis in this type of cancer. However, the mode of action in dual infection in cervical oncogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:24252325

  17. Plasma Epstein Barr virus (EBV) DNA as a biomarker for EBV associated Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dinand, Veronique; Sachdeva, Anupam; Datta, Sanghamitra; Bhalla, Sunita; Kalra, Manas; Wattal, Chand; Radhakrishnan, Nita

    2015-08-01

    To assess plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA as a biomarker of tumour burden at diagnosis and during therapy in children with Hodgkin lymphoma. Case-control study, with prospective follow-up of the Hodgkin lymphoma cohort (2007-2012). Pediatric Hematology Oncology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Thirty children with Hodgkin lymphoma and 70 sex and age-matched controls (benign lymphadenopathy 19, non-lym-phoid malignancy 29, Burkitt lymphoma 5, healthy children 17). Positive EBV-staining on immunohistochemistry was defined as EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. Plasma EBV real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was tested at presentation, after first and last chemotherapy cycles, and on follow-up. Plasma EBV quantitative PCR was compared between cases and controls. Its kinetics was assessed during and after chemotherapy. EBV quantitative PCR was positive in 19 (63%) Hodgkin lymphoma cases (range 500 to 430,000 copies/mL), with 87.5% accuracy (kappa=0.69) as compared with EBV immunohistochemistry. Sensitivity and specificity of the quantitative PCR were 87.5% and 81.8%, respectively. Only boys showed positive EBV immunohistochemistry and,or quantitative PCR positivity. All controls were quantitative PCR negative. All quantitative PCR positive cases with follow up blood sample showed EBV clearance after the first cycle. A quantitative PCR negative case in long-term remission became positive at relapse. EBV status did not influence survival. Plasma EBV-DNA, detectable in EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma, becomes undetectable early after initiating therapy. It can be used as a biomarker of treatment response in EBV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma.

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Larissa Alves; Moyses, Natalia; Alves, Gilda; Ornellas, Antônio Augusto; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Oliveira, Ledy do Horto dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Silvia Maria Baeta

    2012-02-01

    Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR), type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%), five with HPV 18 (5.5%), 21 with HPV 45 (23.1%) and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%). Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%), while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%). Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%). More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  19. Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus gp42 protein bound to the MHC class II recepter HLA-DR1

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.; Haan, K.M.; Longnecker, R.; Jardetzky, T.

    2010-03-08

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis, establishes long-term latent infections, and is associated with a variety of human tumors. The EBV gp42 glycoprotein binds MHC class II molecules, playing a critical role in infection of B lymphocytes. EBV gp42 belongs to the C-type lectin superfamily, with homology to NK receptors of the immune system. We report the crystal structure of gp42 bound to the human MHC class II molecule HLA-DR1. The gp42 binds HLA-DR1 using a surface site that is distinct from the canonical lectin and NK receptor ligand binding sites. At the canonical ligand binding site, gp42 forms a large hydrophobic groove, which could interact with other ligands necessary for EBV entry, providing a mechanism for coupling MHC recognition and membrane fusion.

  20. Autonomic dysfunction: a unifying multiple sclerosis theory, linking chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, vitamin D(3), and Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Zohara

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with multiple etiologies. The most recent theory of the vascular etiology of MS, Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI), suggests that cerebral venous obstruction could lead to cerebral venous reflux, promoting local inflammatory processes. This review article offers strong evidence that the route of the observed narrowing of cerebral veins arises from autonomic nervous system dysfunction, particularly cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. The dysfunction of this system has two major effects: 1) the reduction of mean arterial blood pressure, which has the potential to reduce the cerebral perfusion pressure and the transmural pressure, and 2) the failure of cerebral autoregulation to maintain constant cerebral blood flow in the face of fluctuations in cerebral perfusion pressure. Alterations in cerebral autoregulation could in turn raise the critical closure pressure, indicated to be the cerebral perfusion pressure at which the transmural pressure will be sub-sufficient to overcome the active tension imparted by the smooth muscle layer of the vessel. These two effects of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (reduction in arterial blood pressure and alterations in cerebral autoregulation), when combined with inflammation-induced high levels of nitric oxide in the brain, will lower transmural pressure sufficiently to the point where the threshold for critical closure pressure is reached, leading to venous closure. In addition, cerebral vessels fail to overcome the closure as a result of low central venous pressure, which is also regulated by autonomic nervous system function. Furthermore, through their neuroregulatory effects, infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D(3) are able to alter the functions of the autonomic nervous system, influencing the rate of CCSVI occurrence. The absence of CCSVI specificity for MS, observed in recent clinical studies, may stem from a high prevalence of autonomic

  1. Pulmonary manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease in a 7-year-old immunodeficient boy with Epstein-Barr virus infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Wojsyk-Banaszak, Irena; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna

    2016-06-08

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. The immunopathogenesis of the disease and the potential role of triggering autoantigens or infectious factors have not been clearly defined. Immunoglobulin G4-related lung disease is a new and emerging condition in pediatric patients and to date, there have been only two reports regarding pulmonary manifestation of IgG4-RD in children recently published. This is the first report of IgG4-related lung disease in an immunodeficient child with Epstein-Barr virus infection. We report on the case of a 7-year old atopic boy who was hospitalized with an initial clinical and radiological diagnosis of pneumonia, positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA in the blood and defective adaptive immunity. The lung CT showed a consolidated mass lesion adjacent to the posterior wall of the chest and the diaphragm. The child underwent surgical resection of the tumor, and the histologic examination of the lung specimens revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with fibrosis and vasculitis correlating with IgG4-related lung disease. Subsequent monitoring of the patient with lung CT, pulmonary function tests and IgG4 levels did not show signs of active disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-related lung disease in children is challenging because of its rarity, nonspecific symptomatology and heterogeneous morphological manifestations. Further studies are required in children with pulmonary presentation of IgG4-RD to better understand pathogenesis of this condition, possible immunological or infectious triggering factors, and finally, to determine pediatric patient-targeted therapeutic interventions.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 is essential for intranuclear capsid assembly and production of gp350.

    PubMed

    Batisse, Julien; Manet, Evelyne; Middeldorp, Jaap; Sergeant, Alain; Gruffat, Henri

    2005-11-01

    Most human herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), express a protein which functions primarily as an mRNA export factor. Previously, we deleted the gene for the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 from the EBV genome and then introduced the mutated genome into 293 cells. Using a transcomplementation assay in which ectopic expression of the transcription factor EB1/ZEBRA was sufficient to induce the EBV productive cycle, we showed that Ori-Lyt-dependent replication of the EBV DNA occurs in the absence of EB2, indicating that EB2 is not essential for the expression and export of early mRNAs. However, in the absence of EB2, no infectious viral particles are produced (H. Gruffat, J. Batisse, D. Pich, B. Neuhierl, E. Manet, W. Hammerschmidt, and A. Sergeant, J. Virol. 76:9635-9644, 2002). In this report, we now show that EB2 is essential for the nuclear export of most, but not all, late mRNAs produced from intronless genes that translate into proteins involved in intranuclear capsid assembly and maturation. As a consequence, we show that EB2 is essential for the proper assembly of intranuclear capsids. Interestingly, the late BLLF1 gene contains an intron, and both unspliced and spliced mRNAs must be exported to the cytoplasm to be translated into gp350 and gp220, respectively (M. Hummel, D. A. Thorley-Lawson, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 49:413-417, 1984). Our results also demonstrate that although BLLF1 spliced mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm independently of EB2, EB2 is essential for the nuclear export of unspliced BLLF1 mRNA. In the same assay, herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 completely inhibited the nuclear export of BLLF1 spliced mRNAs whereas unspliced BLLF1 mRNAs were exported, confirming that in a physiological assay, ICP27 inhibits splicing.

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus mRNA Export Factor EB2 Is Essential for Intranuclear Capsid Assembly and Production of gp350

    PubMed Central

    Batisse, Julien; Manet, Evelyne; Middeldorp, Jaap; Sergeant, Alain; Gruffat, Henri

    2005-01-01

    Most human herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), express a protein which functions primarily as an mRNA export factor. Previously, we deleted the gene for the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 from the EBV genome and then introduced the mutated genome into 293 cells. Using a transcomplementation assay in which ectopic expression of the transcription factor EB1/ZEBRA was sufficient to induce the EBV productive cycle, we showed that Ori-Lyt-dependent replication of the EBV DNA occurs in the absence of EB2, indicating that EB2 is not essential for the expression and export of early mRNAs. However, in the absence of EB2, no infectious viral particles are produced (H. Gruffat, J. Batisse, D. Pich, B. Neuhierl, E. Manet, W. Hammerschmidt, and A. Sergeant, J. Virol. 76:9635-9644, 2002). In this report, we now show that EB2 is essential for the nuclear export of most, but not all, late mRNAs produced from intronless genes that translate into proteins involved in intranuclear capsid assembly and maturation. As a consequence, we show that EB2 is essential for the proper assembly of intranuclear capsids. Interestingly, the late BLLF1 gene contains an intron, and both unspliced and spliced mRNAs must be exported to the cytoplasm to be translated into gp350 and gp220, respectively (M. Hummel, D. A. Thorley-Lawson, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 49:413-417, 1984). Our results also demonstrate that although BLLF1 spliced mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm independently of EB2, EB2 is essential for the nuclear export of unspliced BLLF1 mRNA. In the same assay, herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 completely inhibited the nuclear export of BLLF1 spliced mRNAs whereas unspliced BLLF1 mRNAs were exported, confirming that in a physiological assay, ICP27 inhibits splicing. PMID:16254345

  4. Notch1, Notch2, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 signaling differentially affects proliferation and survival of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlhof, Hella; Hampel, Franziska; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidle, Ulrich H; Hölzel, Michael; Eick, Dirk; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Strobl, Lothar J

    2009-05-28

    The canonical mode of transcriptional activation by both the Epstein-Barr viral protein, Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), and an activated Notch receptor (Notch-IC) requires their recruitment to RBPJ, suggesting that EBNA2 uses the Notch pathway to achieve B-cell immortalization. To gain further insight into the biologic equivalence between Notch-IC and EBNA2, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis, revealing that Notch-IC and EBNA2 exhibit profound differences in the regulation of target genes. Whereas Notch-IC is more potent in regulating genes associated with differentiation and development, EBNA2 is more potent in inducing viral and cellular genes involved in proliferation, survival, and chemotaxis. Because both EBNA2 and Notch-IC induced the expression of cell cycle-associated genes, we analyzed whether Notch1-IC or Notch2-IC can replace EBNA2 in B-cell immortalization. Although Notch-IC could drive quiescent B cells into the cell cycle, B-cell immortalization was not maintained, partially due to an increased apoptosis rate in Notch-IC-expressing cells. Expression analysis revealed that both EBNA2 and Notch-IC induced the expression of proapoptotic genes, but only in EBNA2-expressing cells were antiapoptotic genes strongly up-regulated. These findings suggest that Notch signaling in B cells and B-cell lymphomas is only compatible with proliferation if pathways leading to antiapototic signals are active.

  5. Favorable outcome of Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder complicated by immunoglobulin G4-related disease treated with rituximab-based therapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koki; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuei; Sukegawa, Masumi; Sano, Takahiro; Kimura, Satoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Hashimoto, Yuko; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-08-24

    After acute infection of Epstein-Barr virus, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells survive but usually do not show clonal proliferation. However, Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells occasionally acquire a proliferative capacity that provokes clonal lymphoproliferative disorders. We herein present a case with Epstein-Barr virus-infected CD30+ B cell and immunoglobulin G4+ plasmacytoid cell proliferation in the lymph nodes, suggesting a pathological and clinical interaction between Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease has been recognized as a benign disease with proliferation of IgG4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells. Several studies have recently reported the coexistence of immunoglobulin G4-related disease+ plasmacytoid cells with Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in lymph nodes in some immunoglobulin G4-related disease cases. However, the pathogenic role of the clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in immunoglobulin G4-related disease, as well as the treatments for patients with both Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells and immunoglobulin G4-related disease, have never been discussed. A 50-year-old Japanese man was referred to us for persistent fatigue and lymphadenopathy. His blood examination showed elevated IgG4, and detected high levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA. A lymph node biopsy revealed IgG4+ plasmacytoid cells and infiltration of large lymphoid cells, which were positive for CD20, CD30, Epstein-Barr virus-related late membrane protein 1, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA, and were negative for IgG4. Based on the diagnosis of both Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and IgG4-related disease, the patient received eight cycles of rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, which resulted in the complete disappearance of lymphadenopathy. Moreover, his serum IgG4 level was significantly

  6. Multicenter comparison of laboratory performance in cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus viral load testing using international standards.

    PubMed

    Rychert, Jenna; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Storch, Gregory; Buller, Richard; Sweet, Stewart C; Mehta, Aneesh K; Cheeseman, Jennifer A; Heeger, Peter; Rosenberg, Eric S; Fishman, Jay A

    2014-12-01

    Infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) remain important in solid organ transplantation. Quantitative viral nucleic acid testing is a major advance to patient management. These assays are limited by a lack of standardization, resulting in viral load measurements that differ among clinical laboratories. The variability in viral load measurements makes interpretation of multicenter clinical trials data difficult. This study compares the current practices in CMV and EBV viral load testing at four large transplant centers participating in multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation and the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children (CTOT and CTOTC). Viral load testing was performed on well-defined viral preparations according to standard operating procedures at each site. Among centers, CMV viral load testing was accurate compared to WHO International Standards and within acceptable variation for this testing method. Epstein-Barr virus viral load data were more variable and less accurate despite the use of international standards. These data suggest that comparison of CMV, but not EBV, viral load measurements at these sites is possible using current assays and control standards. Standardization of these assays is facilitated using the WHO International Standards and will allow comparison of viral load results among transplant centers. Assay standardization must be performed prior to initiation of multicenter trials. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Primary hepatic Epstein-Barr virus-associated CD30-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma of cytotoxic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yue; Cai, Junchao; Yue, Changjun; Qing, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Primary hepatic peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is exceedingly rare. We encountered such a case in a 58-year-old Hispanic female with a history of chronic sinusitis and hypothyroidism who presented with 4weeks of fever and weight loss. Laboratory studies showed altered liver function and mild pancytopenia. Hepatitis and HIV infection were excluded by negative serological tests. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed innumerable small low-density lesions throughout the liver without splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. CT-guided liver core biopsy showed scattered small lymphoid aggregates located mainly in the portal tracts and periportal regions. Within the lymphoid aggregates, scattered large pleomorphic lymphoma cells were seen, admixed with smaller lymphoid cells and histiocytes. By immunohistochemistry, the lymphoma cells expressed CD2, CD3, CD8, CD30, CD43, CD45, granzyme B, TIA-1, and negative for CD4, CD5, CD7, CD56, βF1, ALK-1, and B-cell markers. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER) was positive in some lymphoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary hepatic Epstein-Barr virus-associated PTCL with CD30 expression.

  8. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Motohiro; Shimizu, Mariko; Ioi, Aya; Mayumi, Azusa; Higuchi, Kohei; Sawada, Akihisa; Sato, Maho; Yasui, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Keiko; Inoue, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase), we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome.

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a 16-Month-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mariko; Ioi, Aya; Mayumi, Azusa; Higuchi, Kohei; Sawada, Akihisa; Sato, Maho; Yasui, Masahiro; Yanagihara, Keiko; Inoue, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A 16-month-old girl was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and transferred to our hospital on the 58th day of the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after treatment failure according to the Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 protocol. On admission to our hospital, she had a flaccid paralysis of her lower limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed a acute motor axonal neuropathy, and a diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was established. Intravenous immunoglobulin G was started on the 57th day of the Guillain-Barre syndrome. To date, her neurological recovery is incomplete. For hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, after treatment failure of THP-COP regimen (pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) and 2 courses of ESCAP regimen (etoposide, prednisone, cytarabine, L-asparaginase), we are now in the process of coordinating unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, we report the youngest case of Guillain-Barre syndrome accompanied by Epstein-Barr virus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid progression of Guillain-Barre syndrome, the electrophysiological subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome, and treatment delay possibly led to poor neurological outcome. PMID:28503601

  10. In vivo effects of the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER-1 on protein synthesis and cell growth regulation.

    PubMed

    Laing, Kenneth G; Elia, Androulla; Jeffrey, Ian; Matys, Volker; Tilleray, Vivienne J; Souberbielle, Bernard; Clemens, Michael J

    2002-06-05

    Recent studies have suggested a role for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA EBER-1 in malignant transformation. EBER-1 inhibits the activity of the protein kinase PKR, an inhibitor of protein synthesis with tumour suppressor properties. In human 293 cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts, transient expression of EBER-1 promoted total protein synthesis and enhanced the expression of cotransfected reporter genes. However reporter gene expression was stimulated equally well in cells from control and PKR knockout mice. NIH 3T3 cells stably expressing EBER-1 exhibited a greatly increased frequency of colony formation in soft agar, and protein synthesis in these cells was relatively resistant to inhibition by the calcium ionophore A23187. Nevertheless clones containing a high concentration of EBER-1 were not invariably tumourigenic. We conclude that EBER-1 can enhance protein synthesis by a PKR-independent mechanism and that, although this RNA may contribute to the oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus, its expression is not always sufficient for malignant transformation.

  11. Transcriptome-wide analysis of alternative RNA splicing events in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Armero, Victoria E. S.; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Allaire, Andréa; Boudreault, Simon; Martenon-Brodeur, Camille; Duval, Cyntia; Durand, Mathieu; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Tremblay-Létourneau, Maude; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Scott, Michelle S.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple human diseases including cancer have been associated with a dysregulation in RNA splicing patterns. In the current study, modifications to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes were investigated in the context of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer. Global alterations to the RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes was examined in a large-scale screen from 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas using high-throughput RNA sequencing data. RT-PCR analysis, mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation studies were also used to experimentally validate and investigate the differential alternative splicing (AS) events that were observed through RNA-seq studies. Our study identifies alterations in the AS patterns of approximately 900 genes such as tumor suppressor genes, transcription factors, splicing factors, and kinases. These findings allowed the identification of unique gene signatures for which AS is misregulated in both Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer and EBV-negative gastric cancer. Moreover, we show that the expression of Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) leads to modifications in the AS profile of cellular genes and that the EBNA1 protein interacts with cellular splicing factors. These findings provide insights into the molecular differences between various types of gastric cancer and suggest a role for the EBNA1 protein in the dysregulation of cellular AS. PMID:28493890

  12. A Genome-Wide Integrative Genomic Study Localizes Genetic Factors Influencing Antibodies against Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA-1)

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Yolken, Robert; Drigalenko, Eugene; Carless, Melanie A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Bauman, Lara; Melton, Phillip E.; Kent, Jack W.; Harley, John B.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Cole, Shelley A.; Almasy, Laura; Moses, Eric K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Kraig, Ellen; Blangero, John; Leach, Charles T.; Göring, Harald H. H.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly prevalent worldwide, and it has been associated with infectious mononucleosis and severe diseases including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Although EBV has been the focus of extensive research, much still remains unknown concerning what makes some individuals more sensitive to infection and to adverse outcomes as a result of infection. Here we use an integrative genomics approach in order to localize genetic factors influencing levels of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG antibodies, as a measure of history of infection with this pathogen, in large Mexican American families. Genome-wide evidence of both significant linkage and association was obtained on chromosome 6 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and replicated in an independent Mexican American sample of large families (minimum p-value in combined analysis of both datasets is 1.4×10−15 for SNPs rs477515 and rs2516049). Conditional association analyses indicate the presence of at least two separate loci within MHC class II, and along with lymphocyte expression data suggest genes HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 as the best candidates. The association signals are specific to EBV and are not found with IgG antibodies to 12 other pathogens examined, and therefore do not simply reveal a general HLA effect. We investigated whether SNPs significantly associated with diseases in which EBV is known or suspected to play a role (namely nasopharyngeal lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis) also show evidence of associated with EBNA-1 antibody levels, finding an overlap only for the HLA locus, but none elsewhere in the genome. The significance of this work is that a major locus related to EBV infection has been identified, which may ultimately reveal the underlying mechanisms by which the immune system regulates infection with this pathogen

  13. Epstein-Barr virus latently infected cells are selectively deleted in simulated-microgravity cultures.

    PubMed

    Long, J P; Hughes, J H

    2001-04-01

    Rotating-wall vessels (RWVs) allow for the cultivation of cells in simulated microgravity. Previously, we showed that the cultivation of lymphoblastoid cells in simulated microgravity results in the suppression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation. To determine if the suppression generated by simulated microgravity could be reversed by changing to static culture conditions, cells were cultured in an RRWV for 5 d, and then switched to static conditions. Following the switch to static conditions, viral reactivation remained suppressed (significantly lower) relative to static control cultures over a 4-d period. Additionally, experiments were conducted to determine if chemical treatment could induce viral reactivation in cells from simulated-microgravity cultures. Cells were cultured in static flask cultures and in simulated microgravity in RWVs for 4-7 d. The cells were then transferred to 50-cm3 tubes, and treated with 3 mM n-butyrate for 48 h, or 18 ng/ml of phorbol ester, viz., 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA) for either 2 or 48 h, under static conditions. Although EBV was inducible, the cells from simulated-microgravity cultures treated with n-butyrate displayed significantly lower levels of viral-antigen expression compared with the treated cells from static cultures. Also, incubation with TPA for 2-3 h, but not for 48 h, reactivated EBV in cells from RWV cultures. In contrast, EBV was inducible in cells from static cultures treated for either 2-3 or 48 h with TPA. TPA reactivation of EBV following a 2-3-h period of treatment indicates that the protein kinase C signal-transduction pathway is not impaired in lymphoblastoid cells cultured in simulated microgravity. However, the exposure of B-lymphoblastoid cells from simulated-microgravity cultures to TPA for more than 3-4 h triggered a lytic event (apoptosis or necrosis), which prevented replication of the virus. Thus, EBV-infected cells in simulated microgravity were negatively selected in the

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus BGLF4 Kinase Suppresses the Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Signaling Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiin-Tarng; Doong, Shin-Lian; Teng, Shu-Chun; Lee, Chung-Pei; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chen, Mei-Ru

    2009-01-01

    The BGLF4 protein kinase of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the conserved family of herpesvirus protein kinases which, to some extent, have a function similar to that of the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase in regulating multiple cellular and viral substrates. In a yeast two-hybrid screening assay, a splicing variant of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was found to interact with the BGLF4 protein. This interaction was defined further by coimmunoprecipitation in transfected cells and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down in vitro. Using reporter assays, we show that BGLF4 effectively suppresses the activities of the poly(I:C)-stimulated IFN-β promoter and IRF3-responsive element. Moreover, BGLF4 represses the poly(I:C)-stimulated expression of endogenous IFN-β mRNA and the phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr701. In searching for a possible mechanism, BGLF4 was shown not to affect the dimerization, nuclear translocation, or CBP recruitment of IRF3 upon poly(I:C) treatment. Notably, BGLF4 reduces the amount of active IRF3 recruited to the IRF3-responsive element containing the IFN-β promoter region in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. BGLF4 phosphorylates GST-IRF3 in vitro, but Ser339-Pro340 phosphorylation-dependent, Pin1-mediated downregulation is not responsible for the repression. Most importantly, we found that three proline-dependent phosphorylation sites at Ser123, Ser173, and Thr180, which cluster in a region between the DNA binding and IRF association domains of IRF3, contribute additively to the BGLF4-mediated repression of IRF3(5D) transactivation activity. IRF3 signaling is activated in reactivated EBV-positive NA cells, and the knockdown of BGLF4 further stimulates IRF3-responsive reporter activity. The data presented here thus suggest a novel mechanism by which herpesviral protein kinases suppress host innate immune responses and facilitate virus replication. PMID:19052084

  15. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation during pregnancy and postpartum: Effects of race and racial discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.; Iams, Jay D.; Porter, Kyle; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Objective Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, are markedly higher among African-Americans versus Whites. Stress-induced immune dysregulation may contribute to these effects. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation provides a robust model for examining cellular immune competence. This study examined associations of EBV virus capsid antigen immunoglobulin G (VCA IgG) with gestational stage, race, and racial discrimination in women during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods Fifty-six women (38 African-American, 18 White) were included. African-Americans and Whites did not differ in age, education, income, parity, or body mass index (ps ≥.51). During the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester and ~5 weeks postpartum, women completed measures of racial discrimination, perceived stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms and health behaviors. EBV VCA IgG antibody titers were measured via ELISA in serum collected at each visit. Results In the overall sample, EBV VCA IgG antibody titers were lower in the 3rd versus 1st trimester (p=.002). At every timepoint (1st, 2nd, 3rd trimester and postpartum), African-American women exhibited higher serum EBV VCA IgG antibody titers than Whites (ps<.001). This effect was most pronounced among African-Americans reporting greater racial discrimination [p=.03 (1st), .04 (2nd), .12 (3rd), .06 (postpartum)]. Associations of race and racial discrimination with EBV VCA IgG antibody titers were not accounted for by other measures of stress or health behaviors. Conclusions Compared to Whites, African-American women showed higher EBV VCA IgG antibody titers, indicative of impaired cellular immune competence, across pregnancy and postpartum. This effect was particularly pronounced among African-American women reporting greater racial discrimination, supporting a role for chronic stress in this association. In women overall, EBV antibody titers declined during late as compared to early pregnancy. This may be due to pregnancy-related changes in cell

  16. Human Cytomegalovirus II. Lack of Relatedness to DNA of Herpes Simplex I and II, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Nonhuman Strains of Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Eng-Shang; Pagano, Joseph S.

    1974-01-01

    The purified DNA of human cytomegalovirus, radiolabeled in vitro, was examined for homology to Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex type I and II, and simian and murine cytomegalovirus DNA by DNA-DNA reassociation kinetics analyses with the S1 enzyme differential digestion technique. Cross-matching of the DNAs showed no relatedness or less than 5% detectable homology. PMID:4362866

  17. Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoma cells having chromosome 22q11.2 deletion: an autopsy report of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Shigemi; Ohno, Tadayuki; Kakizaki, Shuhei; Ichinohasama, Ryo

    2011-12-01

    Reported herein was the first autopsy case of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoma in a 25-year-old man with DiGeorge syndrome. Systemic lymph nodes demonstrated diffuse encasement by large lymphoma cells positive for CD45, CD2, CD3, CD5, CD7, CD8, TIA1, and granzyme B, accompanied with marked hemophagocytosis. Almost 100% of lymphoma cells were both EBER- and LMP-1-positive, and EBNA2-negative. The rearrangement of T-cell receptor β gene was proved by polymerase chain reaction. Clinical and pathologic features coincided with Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder preceded by chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. A fluorescence in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissues demonstrated a mosaic chromosome 22q11.2 deletion with both host cardiac myocytes and lymphoma cells, suggesting that Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoma was associated with and derived from the cells carrying the chromosomal abnormality. Furthermore, the lymphomagenesis of our case correlated with defect of cellular immunity in DiGeorge syndrome.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein LMP-2A Is Sufficient for Transactivation of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus HERV-K18 Superantigen

    PubMed Central

    Sutkowski, Natalie; Chen, Gang; Calderon, German; Huber, Brigitte T.

    2004-01-01

    Superantigens are microbial proteins that strongly stimulate T cells. We described previously that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transactivates a superantigen encoded by the human endogenous retrovirus, HERV-K18. We now report that the transactivation is dependent upon the EBV latent cycle proteins. Moreover, LMP-2A is sufficient for induction of HERV-K18 superantigen activity. PMID:15220463

  19. Presence of Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease is not exclusive to Reed-Sternberg cells.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, G.; Coates, P. J.; Gupta, R. K.; Kangro, H. O.; Slavin, G.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-three cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD) have been studied for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) using a novel nonisotopic in situ hybridization procedure, based on the detection of Epstein-Barr encoded RNAs with oligonucleotide probes. An intense and morphologically distinct nuclear staining, sparing the nucleolus was seen in a total of 12 cases (36%). In six of these cases, the signal was located to the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells (HR-S); in the other six positive cases, the signal was observed only in the non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. These lymphocytes were few in number and immunocytochemistry results were consistent with a B-cell phenotype. The presence of EBV in those cases characterized by nuclear staining of small lymphocytes was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The authors report the detection of EBV in small lymphocytes in HD by in situ hybridization and discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the proposed etiologic association between EBV and HD. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:1314022

  20. Computational analysis of EBNA1 “druggability” suggests novel insights for Epstein-Barr virus inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Messick, Troy E.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Zauhar, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a critical protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). During latent infection, EBNA1 is essential for DNA replication and transcription initiation of viral and cellular genes and is necessary to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes. Nonetheless, the concept of EBNA1 as drug target is novel. Two EBNA1 crystal structures are publicly available and the first small-molecule EBNA1 inhibitors were recently discovered. However, no systematic studies have been reported on the structural details of EBNA1 “druggable” binding sites. We conducted computational identification and structural characterization of EBNA1 binding pockets, likely to accommodate ligand molecules (i.e. “druggable” binding sites). Then, we validated our predictions by docking against a set of compounds previously tested in vitro for EBNA1 inhibition (PubChem AID-2381). Finally, we supported assessments of pocket druggability by performing induced fit docking and molecular dynamics simulations paired with binding affinity predictions by Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area calculations for a number of hits belonging to druggable binding sites. Our results establish EBNA1 as a target for drug discovery, and provide the computational evidence that active AID-2381 hits disrupt EBNA1:DNA binding upon interacting at individual sites. Lastly, structural properties of top scoring hits are proposed to support the rational design of the next generation of EBNA1 inhibitors. PMID:27048620

  1. Lymphotoxin is an autocrine growth factor for Epstein-Barr virus- infected B cell lines

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Because human lymphotoxin (LT) was originally isolated from a lymphoblastoid cell line, we investigated the role of this molecule in three newly established Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human B cell lines. These lines were derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Z- 6), myelodysplastic syndrome (Z-43), and acute myelogenous leukemia (Z- 55) patients who had a prior EBV infection. Each lymphoblastoid cell line had a karyotype that was different from that of the original parent leukemic cells, and all expressed B cell, but not T cell or myeloid surface markers. In all three lines, rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain joining region (JH) bands were found, and the presence of EBV DNA was confirmed by Southern blotting. Z-6, Z-43, and Z-55 cell lines constitutively produced 192, 48, and 78 U/ml LT, respectively, as assessed by a cytotoxicity assay and antibody neutralization. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were undetectable. Scatchard analysis revealed that all the cell lines expressed high-affinity TNF/LT receptors with receptor densities of 4197, 1258, and 1209 sites/cell on Z-6, Z-43, and Z-55, respectively. Furthermore, labeled TNF binding could be reversed by both unlabeled TNF, as well as by LT. Studies with p60 and p80 receptor-specific antibodies revealed that the three lines expressed primarily the p80 form of the TNF receptor. When studied in a clonogenic assay, exogenous LT stimulated proliferation of all three cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 U/ml. Similar results were obtained with [3H]TdR incorporation. Monoclonal anti-LT neutralizing antibodies at concentrations of 25-500 U/ml inhibited cellular multiplication in a dose-dependent manner. It is interesting that in spite of a common receptor, TNF (1,000 U/ml) had no direct effect on Z-55 cell growth, whereas it partially reversed the stimulatory effect of exogenous LT. In addition, TNF inhibited Z-6 and Z-43 cell proliferation, and its

  2. Dynamic chromatin boundaries delineate a latency control region of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Chau, Charles M; Lieberman, Paul M

    2004-11-01

    The oncogenic potential of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can be regulated by epigenetic factors controlling LMP1 and EBNA2 gene transcription. The EBV latency control region (LCR) constitutes approximately 12 kb of viral sequence spanning the divergent promoters of LMP1 and EBNA2 and encompasses the EBV latent replication origin OriP and RNA polymerase III-transcribed EBV-encoded RNA genes. We have used the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to examine the chromatin architecture of the LCR in different types of EBV latency programs. We have found that histone H3 K4 methylation (H3mK4) was enriched throughout a large domain that extended from internal repeat 1 (IR1) to the terminal repeat in type III latency where EBNA2 and LMP1 genes are expressed. In type I latency where EBNA2 and LMP1 genes are transcriptionally silent, the H3mK4 domain contracts and does not enter the EBNA2 or LMP1 promoters. In contrast, histone H3 K9 methylation (H3mK9), associated with silent heterochromatin, was enriched in the EBNA2 and LMP1 upstream control regions in type I but not type III cells. MTA [5'-deoxy-5'(methylthio)adenosine], a pharmacological inhibitor of protein methylation, globally reduced histone H3mK4 and inhibited EBNA2 transcription in type III cells. 5'-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation that derepresses EBNA2 transcription in type I latency, caused H3mK4 expansion and a corresponding loss of H3mK9 at IR1. The chromatin boundary protein and transcription repressor CCCTC-binding factor was enriched at the EBNA2 transcription control region in type I but not type III cells. We also present evidence that OriP binding factors EBNA1 and ORC2 can interact with sequences outside of OriP including a region within IR1 that may influence EBNA2 transcription status. These results indicate that types I and III latency programs have distinct histone methylation patterns in the LCR and suggest that chromatin architecture coordinates gene expression of LMP1 and EBNA2.

  3. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated with

  4. High Levels of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in Latently Infected Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Julie L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Thorne, Leigh B.; Elmore, Sandra H.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Booker, Jessica K.; Gulley, Margaret L.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant cells of approximately 10% of cases. It is unclear whether EBV is being missed in some gastric adenocarcinomas due to insensitive test methods or partial EBV genome loss. In the current study, we screened 113 gastric adenocarcinomas from low and high incidence regions (United States and Central America) for the presence of EBV using a battery quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays targeting disparate segments of the EBV genome (BamH1W, EBNA1, LMP1, LMP2, BZLF1, EBER1) and histochemical stains targeting EBV-encoded RNA (EBER), the latent proteins LMP1 and LMP2, and the lytic proteins BMRF1 and BZLF1. EBV DNA was detected by Q-PCR in 48/75 United States cancers (64%) and in 38/38 Central American cancers (100%), which was a significant differrence. EBER was localized to malignant epithelial cells in 8/48 (17%) United States and 3/38 (8%) Central American cancers. Viral loads were considerably higher for EBER-positive versus EBER-negative cancers (mean 162,986 versus 62 EBV DNA copies per 100,000 cells). A viral load of 2,000 copies per 100,000 cells is recommended as the threshold distinguishing EBER-positive from EBER-negative tumors. One infected cancer selectively failed to amplify the LMP2 gene because of a point mutation, while another cancer had an atypical pattern of Q-PCR positivity suggesting deletion of large segments of the EBV genome. Three different viral latency profiles were observed in the cancers based on constant expression of EBER and focal or variable expression of LMP1 or LMP2, without lytic protein expression. We conclude that EBV DNA levels generally reflect EBER status, and a panel of at least two Q-PCR assays is recommended for sensitive identification of infected cancers. PMID:19002111

  5. Epstein-Barr Virus Essential Antigen EBNA3C Attenuates H2AX Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem C.; AJ, Mahadesh Prasad; Saha, Abhik; Banerjee, Shuvomoy; Lu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent antigen EBNA3C is implicated in B-cell immortalization and linked to several B-cell malignancies. Deregulation of H2AX can induce genomic instability with increased chromosomal aberrations, which ultimately leads to tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrated that EBNA3C can attenuate H2AX expression at the transcript and protein levels. A reduction of total H2AX levels was clearly observed upon infection of primary B cells with wild-type EBV but not with EBNA3C knockout recombinant EBV. H2AX also interacted with EBNA3C through its N-terminal domain (residues 1 to 100). Furthermore, H2AX mutated at Ser139 failed to interact with EBNA3C. Luciferase-based reporter assays also revealed that the binding domain of EBNA3C is sufficient for transcriptional inhibition of the H2AX promoter. EBNA3C also facilitated H2AX degradation through recruitment of components of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. We further demonstrated that knockdown of H2AX in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) led to the upregulation of the Bub1 oncoprotein and downregulated expression of p53. Overall, our study provides additional insights into EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas, which are linked to the regulation of the DNA damage response system in infected cells. The importance of these insights are as follows: (i) EBNA3C downregulates H2AX expression at the protein and transcript levels in epithelial cells, B cells, and EBV-transformed LCLs, (ii) EBNA3C binds with wild-type H2AX but not with the Ser139 mutant of H2AX, (iii) the N terminus (residues 1 to 100) of EBNA3C is critical for binding to H2AX, (iv) localization of H2AX is predominantly nuclear in the presence of EBNA3C, and (v) H2AX knocked down in LCLs led to enhanced expression of Bub1 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor p53, which are both important for driving the oncogenic process. PMID:24429368

  6. Effect of Interleukins on Antibody Production by Epstein-Barr Virus Transformed B Cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aisheh I; Badran, Yousef R; Hassuneh, Mona R; Sanber, Khaled S; Ismail, Said I

    2015-06-01

    During the past few decades, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have become an increasingly used tool in diagnostics, therapeutics, and biomedical research. Several methods have been employed to produce MAbs, one of which is the immortalization of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Despite its simplicity, this procedure was never routinely adopted due to its poor efficiency and short-lived antibody (Ab) production. Various adjustments to the basic procedure were introduced, including the addition of certain cytokines and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, which were shown to improve EBV infectivity and cloning efficiency. The objective of this study was to manipulate culture conditions of the EBV-transformed human lymphocytes, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), by the timely addition of stimuli including CpG and various interleukins. Such manipulations are aimed at improving LCL proliferative activity and enhancing the cell lines' immortalization potential as well as their Ab production. To accomplish this, IgG(+) B cells were isolated from peripheral blood of a hepatitis B vaccinated, anti-HB Ab-positive volunteer. These cells were infected with EBV and incubated in the presence of CpG DNA 2006 motifs, recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), rhIL-4, rhIL-6, and rhIL-21, individually and in combinations. Cells were then restimulated for 2 weeks with the same ILs. The effect of these ILs on anti-HB Ab production and the proliferation of the EBV-transformed lymphocytes were investigated. The current study demonstrates that treatment of LCL cultures with rhIL-2, rh-IL4, rhIL-6, and rhIL-21, individually and in combination, increased to varying degrees the proliferative activity and Ab production of these cells. The addition of IL-4 alone was able to sustain increase in anti-HB Ab despite IL-4 withdrawal. This study suggests that with further optimization ILs can have an enhancing effect on LCL immortalization potential and Ab production capacity.

  7. Retinoids irreversibly inhibit in vitro growth of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Pomponi, F; Cariati, R; Zancai, P; De Paoli, P; Rizzo, S; Tedeschi, R M; Pivetta, B; De Vita, S; Boiocchi, M; Dolcetti, R

    1996-10-15

    Natural and synthetic retinoids have proved to be effective in the treatment and prevention of various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effect of retinoids on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), since these cells closely resemble those that give rise to EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in the immunosuppressed host. All six compounds tested inhibited LCL proliferation with no significant direct cytotoxicity, but 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), 13-cis-RA, and all-trans-RA (ATRA) were markedly more efficacious than Ro40-8757, Ro13-6298, and etretinate. The antiproliferative action of the three most effective compounds was confirmed in a large panel of LCLs, thus appearing as a generalized phenomenon in these cells. LCL growth was irreversibly inhibited even after 2 days of treatment at drug concentrations corresponding to therapeutically achievable plasma levels. Retinoid-treated cells showed a marked downregulation of CD71 and a decreased S-phase compartment with a parallel accumulation in Gzero/ G1 phases. These cell cycle perturbations were associated with the upregulation of p27 Kip1, a nuclear protein that controls entrance and progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Unlike what is observed in other systems, the antiproliferative effect exerted by retinoids on LCLs was not due to the acquisition of a terminally differentiated status. In fact, retinoid-induced modifications of cell morphology, phenotype (downregulation of CD19, HLA-DR, and s-Ig, and increased expression of CD38 and c-Ig), and IgM production were late events, highly heterogeneous, and often slightly relevant, being therefore only partially indicative of a drug-related differentiative process. Moreover, EBV-encoded EBV nuclear antigen-2 and latent membrane protein-1 proteins were inconstantly downregulated by retinoids, indicating that their growth-inhibitory effect is not mediated

  8. Breast Milk as a Potential Source of Epstein-Barr Virus Transmission Among Infants Living in a Malaria-Endemic Region of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Ibrahim I.; Coleman, Carrie B.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Ogolla, Sidney; Simbiri, Kenneth; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W.; Sumba, Peter O.; Vulule, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Dent, Arlene E.; Rochford, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Background. We previously reported that infants in Kenya were infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) at <6 months of age, suggesting that mothers were the likely source of transmissible virus to the infant. In this study, we investigated whether breast milk contained infectious EBV and the role of malaria in EBV shedding in breast milk. Methods. Breast milk samples were obtained from Kenyan mothers at postpartum weeks 6, 10, 14, and 18 and analyzed for presence of infectious EBV. Results. We found that the prevalence of EBV DNA and the mean EBV load were significantly higher at 6 weeks and decreased through postpartum week 18 (P < .0001). High EBV load in breast milk correlated with mothers who had Plasmodium falciparum malaria at delivery. To determine whether viral DNA was encapsidated, breast milk samples were treated with DNAse before DNA extraction. Sixty percent of samples were DNAse resistant, suggesting that the viral DNA in breast milk was encapsidated. Next, we exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells to breast milk supernatant, which resulted in the generation of EBV-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines, indicating that the virus in breast milk was infectious. Conclusions. Our data suggest that breast milk contains infectious EBV and is a potential source of viral transmission to infants living in malaria-endemic regions. PMID:25985902

  9. Epstein-Barr virus associated acute hepatitis with cross-reacting antibodies to other herpes viruses in immunocompetent patients: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ekta; Bhatia, Vikram; Choudhary, Aashish; Rastogi, Archana; Gupta, Naveen L

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM) which is characterized by the triad of fever, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. Self-limited, mild liver function test abnormalities are seen in IM. Acute hepatitis in primary EBV infection is uncommon. Serum transaminases are elevated but are less than fivefold the normal levels in most cases and rarely exceed 10 times the normal levels in primary EBV infections especially in elderly. Laboratory diagnosis of acute EBV infection is by serological assays confirming the presence of EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies. Due to antigenic cross-reactivity with Herpes viruses, serological assays lack specificity; hence specific molecular diagnostic methods are required for confirmation of the etiology. The present report describes two cases of acute hepatitis caused by infection with EBV which had indistinguishable clinical features and biochemical markers from acute hepatitis caused by hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis viruses A-E. The diagnosis of infection by EBV was confirmed by detection of EBV DNA in blood of both the patients and EBV DNA in the liver tissue of one of the patients.

  10. Modulation of the cell growth regulator mTOR by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A.

    PubMed

    Moody, Cary A; Scott, Rona S; Amirghahari, Nazanin; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Young, Lawrence S; Dawson, Chris W; Sixbey, John W

    2005-05-01

    Control of translation initiation is one means by which cells regulate growth and proliferation, with components of the protein-synthesizing machinery having oncogenic potential. Expression of latency protein LMP2A by the human tumor virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt located upstream of an essential mediator of growth signals, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). We show that mTOR is activated by expression of LMP2A in carcinoma cells, leading to wortmannin- and rapamycin-sensitive inhibition of the negative regulator of translation, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and increased c-Myc protein translation. Intervention by this DNA tumor virus in cellular translational controls is likely to be an integral component of EBV tumorigenesis.

  11. [Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging in a child with Alice in Wonderland syndrome following Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Akasaka, Manami; Chida, Shoichi

    2002-07-01

    Characteristic pathologic changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have never been reported in "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome (AIWS) caused by Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection. We present here a 10-year-old girl with AIWS with an abnormal MR finding. During the course of serologically confirmed EB virus encephalopathy, she had distortion of the body image, visual hallucinations and depersonalization characteristic of AIWS. MRI demonstrated transient T2 prolongation and swelling of the cerebral cortex, especially at the bilateral temporal lobes, bilateral cingulate gyrus, right upper frontal gyrus, bilateral caudate nucleus, and bilateral putamen, whereas CT showed no abnormalities. Transient MRI lesions were occasionally reported in patients with EB virus encephalopathy/encephalitis who presented visual illusions and psychotic reactions, although the diagnosis of AIWS was not described. We consider that any patient with symptoms of AIWS should have MRI because the abnormal MRI findings may disappear in a short period.

  12. The C-Terminus of Epstein-Barr Virus BRRF2 Is Required for its Proper Localization and Efficient Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Sakaida, Keiya; Yoshida, Masahiro; Masud, H. M. Abdullah Al; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murata, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gammaherpesvirus associated with several malignancies. We reported previously that an EBV lytic gene product BRRF2 is involved in the maturation of progeny virus. To analyze the domain(s) needed for efficient production of progeny, we prepared a series of deletion mutants and found two functional domains in the N- and C-terminal regions by complementation assays. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that BRRF2 lacking the C-terminal region demonstrated aberrant localization in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas wild-type BRRF2 was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. We also confirmed that wild-type BRRF2 co-localized with Rab5, an endosomal marker, at least partly. Additionally, serine 511 of BRRF2 was phosphorylated during lytic infection; however, a mutant in which the serine was substituted with alanine still augmented the yield as efficiently as did wild-type BRRF2. These results showed that the C-terminal region of BRRF2 is involved in the predominant localization of BRRF2 to the cytoplasm and in the efficient production of infectious virus. PMID:28197146

  13. Human DNA replication initiation factors, ORC and MCM, associate with oriP of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, B; Xu, H; Todorov, I; Dutta, A; Yates, J L

    2001-08-28

    The 165-kb chromosome of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is replicated by cellular enzymes only once per cell cycle in human cells that are latently infected. Here, we report that the human origin recognition complex, ORC, can be detected in association with an EBV replication origin, oriP, in cells by using antibodies against three different subunits of human ORC to precipitate crosslinked chromatin. Mcm2, a subunit of the MCM replication licensing complex, was found to associate with oriP during G(1) and to dissociate from it during S phase. The detection of ORC and Mcm2 at oriP was shown to require the presence of the 120-bp replicator of oriP. Licensing and initiation of replication at oriP of EBV thus seem to be mediated by ORC. This is an example of a virus apparently using ORC and associated factors for the propagation of its genome.

  14. Viral involvement in Hodgkin's disease: detection of clonal type A Epstein-Barr virus genomes in tumour samples.

    PubMed Central

    Gledhill, S.; Gallagher, A.; Jones, D. B.; Krajewski, A. S.; Alexander, F. E.; Klee, E.; Wright, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Onions, D. E.; Jarrett, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD) were analysed for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) DNA. EBV genomes were detected in 11/35 cases while none of the cases was positive for HHV-6. Ten of the EBV-positive cases were subsequently analysed using a probe for the terminal region of the virus; the results suggested that the EBV-infected cells were clonally expanded. EBV subtypes specific DNA amplification was used to demonstrate that EBV subtype A, and not subtype B was present in the EBV-positive cases. The age distribution of the EBV-positive cases indicated a statistically significant trend for an increase in positivity with increasing age. This is the first indication that EBV is significantly associated with any subset of HD patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:1654072

  15. Co-prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus and high-risk human papillomaviruses in Syrian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Al-Antary, Noor; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Akil, Nizar; Batist, Gerald; Yasmeen, Amber

    2016-07-02

    ABSTRAT We recently performed 2 studies viewing the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 in human breast cancer in the Syrian population. Herein, we report that EBV and high-risk HPVs are co-present in breast cancer in Syrian women. Therefore, and based on our previous studies and present data, we reveal that 35 (32%) of 108 cancer samples are positive for both EBV and high-risk HPVs and their co-presence is associated with high grade invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) with at least one positive lymph nodes, in comparison with EBV and high-risk HPVs-positive samples, which are low to intermediate grade IDCs, respectively. Future studies are needed to confirm the co-presence and the cooperation effect of these onco-viruses in human breast carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  16. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis Note: Javascript is disabled or ... About CDC.gov . EBV and Mono Home About Epstein-Barr Virus About Infectious Mononucleosis For Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing ...

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus, Human Papillomavirus and Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus as Multiple Viruses in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Wendy K.; Heng, Benjamin; Delprado, Warick; Iacopetta, Barry; Whitaker, Noel J.; Lawson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV), high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV) co-exist in some breast cancers. Materials and Methods All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc). Results EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk – EBV (35%), HPV, 20%) and MMTV (32%) of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples. Conclusions We conclude that (i) EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii) the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer. PMID:23183846

  18. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren-Ching; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Hsieh, Yen-Chuan; Huang, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Tseng, Chih-En; Wang, Ming-Chung; Hwang, Wei-Shou; Wang, John; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent

  19. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren-Ching; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Hsieh, Yen-Chuan; Huang, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Tseng, Chih-En; Wang, Ming-Chung; Hwang, Wei-Shou; Wang, John; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent

  20. An Epstein-Barr Virus Encoded Inhibitor of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 Signaling Is an Important Determinant for Acute and Persistent EBV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Makoto; Fogg, Mark H.; Orlova, Nina; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the most common cause of Infectious Mononucleosis. Nearly all adult humans harbor life-long, persistent EBV infection which can lead to development of cancers including Hodgkin Lymphoma, Burkitt Lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients. BARF1 is an EBV replication-associated, secreted protein that blocks Colony Stimulating Factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling, an innate immunity pathway not targeted by any other virus species. To evaluate effects of BARF1 in acute and persistent infection, we mutated the BARF1 homologue in the EBV-related herpesvirus, or lymphocryptovirus (LCV), naturally infecting rhesus macaques to create a recombinant rhLCV incapable of blocking CSF-1 (ΔrhBARF1). Rhesus macaques orally challenged with ΔrhBARF1 had decreased viral load indicating that CSF-1 is important for acute virus infection. Surprisingly, ΔrhBARF1 was also associated with dramatically lower virus setpoints during persistent infection. Normal acute viral load and normal viral setpoints during persistent rhLCV infection could be restored by Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-induced immunosuppression prior to oral inoculation with ΔrhBARF1 or infection of immunocompetent animals with a recombinant rhLCV where the rhBARF1 was repaired. These results indicate that BARF1 blockade of CSF-1 signaling is an important immune evasion strategy for efficient acute EBV infection and a significant determinant for virus setpoint during persistent EBV infection. PMID:23300447

  1. Antigenic cross-reactions among herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, N; Oba, D E; Hutt-Fletcher, L M

    1987-01-01

    Polyvalent rabbit antisera against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), monospecific antisera against affinity-purified HSV-2 glycoproteins gB and gG, and a panel of monoclonal antibodies against HSV and EBV proteins were used to analyze cross-reactive molecules in cells infected with the four herpesviruses. A combination of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting with these reagents was used to determine that all four viruses coded for a glycoprotein that cross-reacted with HSV-1 gB. CMV coded for proteins that cross-reacted with HSV-2 gC, gD, and gE. Both CMV and EBV coded for proteins that cross-reacted with HSV-2 gG. Antigenic counterparts to the p45 nucleocapsid protein of HSV-2 were present in HSV-1 and CMV, and counterparts of the major DNA-binding protein and the ribonucleotide reductase of HSV-1 were present in all the viruses. The EBV virion glycoprotein gp85 was immunoprecipitated by antisera to HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV. Antisera to CMV and EBV neutralized the infectivity of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 at high concentrations. This suggests that cross-reactivity between these four human herpesviruses may have pathogenic as well as evolutionary significance. Images PMID:3029407

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection activates the Epstein-Barr virus replicative cycle via a CREB-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongling; Li, Ting; Zeng, Musheng; Peng, Tao

    2012-04-01

    The reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to lytic replication is important in pathogenesis and requires virus-host cellular interactions. However, the mechanism underlying the reactivation of EBV is not yet fully understood. In the present study, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was shown to induce the reactivation of latent EBV by triggering BZLF1 expression. The BZLF1 promoter (Zp) was not activated by HSV-1 essential glycoprotein-induced membrane fusion. Nevertheless, Zp was activated within 6 h post HSV-1 infection in virus entry-dependent and replication-independent manners. Using a panel of Zp deletion mutants, HSV-1 was shown to promote Zp through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element (CRE) located in ZII. The phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (phos-CREB) protein, the cellular transactivator that binds to CRE, also increased after HSV-1 infection. By transient transfection, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and HSV-1 US3 protein were found to be capable of activating Zp in CREB- and CRE-dependent manners. The relationship between EBV activation and HSV-1 infection revealed a possible common mechanism that stimulated latent EBV into lytic cycles in vivo.

  3. Successful Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for an Adult Case of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saburi, Masuho; Ogata, Masao; Satou, Takako; Yoshida, Natsumi; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Nashimoto, Yuko; Moroga, Yui; Takano, Kuniko; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Shirao, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) was diagnosed based on the findings of elevated EBV antibody titers and positive EBV-DNA in the peripheral blood, and cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBT) was performed. The EBV-DNA levels in the blood fell below the limit of detection. His lymphoma relapsed on Day 165 with the appearance of eruptions, which disappeared after the withdrawal of tacrolimus. One year after transplantation, there were no signs of recurrence. This encouraging result suggests that CBT should be considered for adult cases of CAEBV with aggressive clinical manifestations. PMID:27904117

  4. Exploiting the Interplay between Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Improve Immunotherapeutic Strategies for Epstein-Barr-Virus-Driven Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martorelli, Debora; Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Turrini, Riccardo; Faè, Damiana Antonia; Rosato, Antonio; Dolcetti, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The recent demonstration that immunotherapeutic approaches may be clinically effective for cancer patients has renewed the interest for this strategy of intervention. In particular, clinical trials using adoptive T-cell therapies disclosed encouraging results, particularly in the context of Epstein-Barr-virus- (EBV-) related tumors. Nevertheless, the rate of complete clinical responses is still limited, thus stimulating the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. Considering the relevance of innate immunity in controlling both infections and cancers, innovative immunotherapeutic approaches should take into account also this compartment to improve clinical efficacy. Evidence accumulated so far indicates that innate immunity effectors, particularly NK cells, can be exploited with therapeutic purposes and new targets have been recently identified. We herein review the complex interactions between EBV and innate immunity and summarize the therapeutic strategies involving both adaptive and innate immune system, in the light of a fruitful integration between these immunotherapeutic modalities for a better control of EBV-driven tumors. PMID:22319542

  5. Clonal rearrangement for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in systemic Castleman's disease. Association with Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, C. A.; Frizzera, G.; Patton, D. F.; Peterson, B. A.; McClain, K. L.; Gajl-Peczalska, K. J.; Kersey, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a morphologically and clinically heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder. Both a localized benign variant and an aggressive form with systemic manifestations have been described. To investigate the differences between these variants of Castleman's disease, the authors analyzed lymph node DNA from 4 patients with the localized type and 4 with the systemic type of Castleman's disease for immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was also studied by viral genomic DNA probes. They detected clonal rearrangements in 3 of the 4 patients with the systemic variant of Castleman's; no patients with localized disease had rearrangements. Copies of EBV genome were also detected in 2 of the 3 patients with clonal rearrangements. These results suggest that systemic Castleman's disease is a disorder distinct from the classical localized variant in that it may evolve into a clonal lymphoproliferation. Images Figure 1 PMID:2833104

  6. Unusual Indolent Course of a Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Natural Killer Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Hadabbi, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorders are uncommon and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an important aetiological role in their pathogenesis. We report a 20-year-old male with a chronic active EBV infection associated with a NK cell lymphoproliferative disorder which had an unusual indolent course. He presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in December 2011 with a history of intermittent fever and coughing. Examinations revealed generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, leukocytosis, transaminitis, diffuse bilateral lung infiltrates and bone marrow lymphocyte involvement. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test revealed a high EBV viral load in the peripheral blood cells. The patient received a course of piperacillin-tazobactam for Klebsiella pneumoniae, but no active treatment for the lymphoproliferative disorder. However, his lymphocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase and liver enzymes dropped spontaneously. In addition, EBV PCR copies fluctuated and then decreased significantly. He remained clinically asymptomatic over the following four years. PMID:27226916

  7. Reduced Prevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Lymphocryptovirus Infection in Sera from a New World Primate

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Mark H.; Carville, Angela; Cameron, Jennifer; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphocryptovirus (LCV) naturally infecting common marmosets demonstrated that gamma-1 herpesviruses are not limited to human and Old World nonhuman primate hosts. We developed serologic assays to detect serum antibodies against lytic- and latent-infection marmoset LCV antigens in order to perform the first seroepidemiologic study of LCV infection in New World primates. In three different domestic colonies and in animals recently captured from the wild, we found that the seroprevalence of marmoset LCV infection was not as ubiquitous as with EBV or Old World LCV. These biologic differences in LCV infection of New World versus human and Old World primate hosts correlate with the evolution of the LCV viral gene repertoire. PMID:16014968

  8. Prevalence of salivary epstein-barr virus in potentially malignant oral disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ocete-Monchon, María-Dolores; Leopoldo-Rodado, Manuel; Murillo-Cortes, Judith; Díaz-Fernández, Jose-M.; Medina-Gonzalez, Rafael; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción; Bagan, Jose-V.

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the presence of salivary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant oral disorders. Material and Methods Three groups were studied: Group 1 (12 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC)), Group 2 (12 potentially malignant oral disorders (PMD)) and Group 3 (47 healthy controls). EBV DNA salivary analysis was performed by PCR. Results The highest percentage of positive salivary EBV DNA corresponded to the OSCC group (58.3%), followed by the PMD group (41.7%) and the controls (40.4%). The differences between groups were not statistically significant, however (p>0.05). Conclusions Salivary EBV DNA was more prevalent in OSCC than in PMD or the controls. Key words:EBV DNA, saliva, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia. PMID:26827058

  9. Cell surface alteration in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cells from patients with extreme insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Gorden, D.L.; Robert, A.; Moncada, V.Y.; Taylor, S.I.; Muehlhauser, J.C.; Carpentier, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    An abnormality was detected in the morphology of the cell surface of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes of patients with genetic forms of insulin resistance. In cells from two patients with leprechaunism and two patients with type A extreme insulin resistance, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a decrease in the percentage of the cell surface occupied by microvilli in cells from the patients with leprechaunism and type A insulin resistance compared with control cells. When cells from a healthy control subject and one of the patients with leprechaunism (Lep/Ark-1) were incubated with {sup 125}I-labeled insulin, there was a decrease in the percentage of {sup 125}I-insulin associated with microvilli on the cell surface. Thus, the decreased localization of insulin receptors with the microvillous region of the cell surface was in proportion to the decrease in microvilli.

  10. Cucurbitane glycosides from the fruits of Siraitia gros venorii and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Hayakawa, Yosuke; Tokuda, Harukuni; Banno, Norihiro; Shimizu, Naoto; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2007-05-01

    Six new cucurbitane glycosides, mogroside II B (2), 11-deoxymogroside III (4), 7-oxomogroside II E (5), 7-oxomogroside V (6), 11-oxomogroside II A1 (7), and 11-oxomogroside IV A (8), and two known but new naturally occurring cucurbitane glycosides, mogroside II A1 (1) and mogroside III A2 (3), were isolated from an ethanol extract of the fruits of Siraitia grosvenorii. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-8 for inhibitory effects against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), all compounds exhibited inhibitory effects with IC50 values of 346-400 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA. In addition, compounds 1-8 showed weak inhibitory effects on activation of (+/-)-(E)-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexemide (NOR 1), a nitric oxide (NO) donor.

  11. Reduced prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphocryptovirus infection in sera from a new world primate.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Mark H; Carville, Angela; Cameron, Jennifer; Quink, Carol; Wang, Fred

    2005-08-01

    The recent discovery of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphocryptovirus (LCV) naturally infecting common marmosets demonstrated that gamma-1 herpesviruses are not limited to human and Old World nonhuman primate hosts. We developed serologic assays to detect serum antibodies against lytic- and latent-infection marmoset LCV antigens in order to perform the first seroepidemiologic study of LCV infection in New World primates. In three different domestic colonies and in animals recently captured from the wild, we found that the seroprevalence of marmoset LCV infection was not as ubiquitous as with EBV or Old World LCV. These biologic differences in LCV infection of New World versus human and Old World primate hosts correlate with the evolution of the LCV viral gene repertoire.

  12. Inflammation and epstein-barr virus infection are common features of myasthenia gravis thymus: possible roles in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paola; Maggi, Lorenzo; Colleoni, Lara; Caldara, Rosa; Motta, Teresio; Giardina, Carmelo; Antozzi, Carlo; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato

    2011-01-01

    The thymus plays a major role in myasthenia gravis (MG). Our recent finding of a persistent Epstein-Barr (EBV) virus infection in some MG thymuses, combined with data showing that the thymus is in a proinflammatory state in most patients, supports a viral contribution to the pathogenesis of MG. Aim of this study was to gain further evidence for intrathymic chronic inflammation and EBV infection in MG patients. Transcriptional profiling by low density array and real-time PCR showed overexpression of genes involved in inflammatory and immune response in MG thymuses. Real-time PCR for EBV genome, latent (EBER1, EBNA1, LMP1) and lytic (BZLF1) transcripts, and immunohistochemistry for LMP1 and BZLF1 proteins confirmed an active intrathymic EBV infection, further supporting the hypothesis that EBV might contribute to onset or perpetuation of the autoimmune response in MG. Altogether, our results support a role of inflammation and EBV infection as pathogenic features of MG thymus.

  13. Recombinant production of Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator and characterization of its DNA-binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun Shen; Goh, Siang Ling; Krishnan, Gopala; Ng, Ching Ching

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the recombinant production of a biologically active Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator, i.e., Z-encoded broadly reactive activator (ZEBRA), that recognized specific DNA motifs. We used auto-induction for histidine-tagged BZLF1 expression in Escherichia coli and immobilized cobalt affinity membrane chromatography for protein purification under native conditions. We obtained the purified BZLF1 at a yield of 5.4mg per gram of wet weight cells at 75% purity, in which 27% of the recombinant BZLF1 remained biologically active. The recombinant BZLF1 bound to oligonucleotides containing ZEBRA response elements, either AP-1 or ZIIIB, but not a ZIIIB mutant. The recombinant BZLF1 showed a specific DNA-binding activity which could be useful for functional studies.

  14. [Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Presentation of a case and treatment in the Resuscitation Unit].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo González, O; Iglesias Fernández, M; Río Gómez, A; Ulibarrena Redondo, C; Casas García, M L

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 17 year old male patient, who was admitted to the Resuscitation Unit with the diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome, associated with infection by Epstein-Barr virus with unfavorable outcome. Hemophagocytic syndrome is a pathological immune activation syndrome due to the production/uncontrolled modulation of some cytokines. Its clinical signs and symptoms, defined by consensus criteria HLH-2004, are not pathognomonic, and often appear sequentially, thus suspicion should be followed by aggressive supportive therapy combined with early specific treatment of the triggering factor, as it is the only way to improve survival in patients with multiple organic failure as a result. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and enhances antigen presentation function

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Rhoda A.; Miller, Stephen D.; Longnecker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. The cause of MS is still unknown but epidemiological and immunological studies have implicated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which infects B cells, as a possible etiological agent involved in disease. Of particular interest is EBV latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) because previous studies have demonstrated that LMP2A enhances the expansion and differentiation of B cells upon antigen stimulation, revealing a potential contribution of this protein in autoimmunity. Since B cells are thought to contribute to MS, we examined the role of LMP2A in the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this model, transgenic mice in which B cells express LMP2A show increased severity and incidence of disease. This difference was not due to lymphocyte recruitment into the CNS or differences in T cell activation, rather, we show that LMP2A enhances antigen presentation function. PMID:22616025

  16. Dermatopathic lymphadenitis with generalized erythroderma in a patient with epstein-barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Deok Woo; Kim, Chae Hwa; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan

    2010-06-01

    Here, we describe a patient with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) who simultaneously presented with generalized erythroderma and dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DL). A 63-year-old Korean woman presented at our hospital with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, axillary lymphadenopathy, and generalized erythrodermic eruption. The bone marrow biopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of HLH, and EBV DNA was detected using the polymerase chain reaction. Based on serologic tests that indicated a primary EBV infection, the patient was diagnosed with EBV-associated HLH. Histopathologic analysis of enlarged lymph nodes was consistent with DL, and EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA-positive mononuclear cells were detected. We assume that activated histiocytes, lymphocytes, and proinflammatory cytokines in HLH may have important roles in the development of generalized erythroderma and DL. Disrupted epidermal/dermal junctions owing to erythroderma may also be involved in the development of DL.

  17. Risk factors for Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Uhlin, Michael; Wikell, Helena; Sundin, Mikael; Blennow, Ola; Maeurer, Markus; Ringden, Olle; Winiarski, Jacek; Ljungman, Per; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a successful treatment for hematologic malignancies and a variety of genetic and metabolic disorders. In the period following stem cell transplantation, the immune-compromised milieu allows opportunistic pathogens to thrive. Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease can be a life-threatening complication for transplanted patients because of suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. We analyzed possible risk factors associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in a cohort of over 1,000 patients. The incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 4%. Significant risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were: human leukocyte antigen-mismatch (P<0.001), serological Epstein-Barr virus mismatch recipient-/donor+ (P<0.001), use of reduced intensity conditioning (P=0.002), acute graft-versus-host disease grade II to IV (P=0.006), pre-transplant splenectomy (P=0.008) and infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (P=0.015). The risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease has increased in more recent years, from less than 2% before 1998 to more than 6% after 2011. Additionally, we show that long-term survival of patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is poor despite initial successful treatment. The 3-year survival rate among the 40 patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 20% as opposed to 62% among patients without post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (P<0.001). The study identifies patients at risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after transplantation in need of pre-emptive measures.

  18. MHC II tetramers visualize human CD4+ T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection and demonstrate atypical kinetics of the nuclear antigen EBNA1 response.

    PubMed

    Long, Heather M; Chagoury, Odette L; Leese, Alison M; Ryan, Gordon B; James, Eddie; Morton, Laura T; Abbott, Rachel J M; Sabbah, Shereen; Kwok, William; Rickinson, Alan B

    2013-05-06

    Virus-specific CD4(+) T cells are key orchestrators of host responses to viral infection yet, compared with their CD8(+) T cell counterparts, remain poorly characterized at the single cell level. Here we use nine MHC II-epitope peptide tetramers to visualize human CD4(+) T cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), a disease associated with large virus-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. We find that, while not approaching virus-specific CD8(+) T cell expansions in magnitude, activated CD4(+) T cells specific for epitopes in the latent antigen EBNA2 and four lytic cycle antigens are detected at high frequencies in acute IM blood. They then fall rapidly to values typical of life-long virus carriage where most tetramer-positive cells display conventional memory markers but some, unexpectedly, revert to a naive-like phenotype. In contrast CD4(+) T cell responses to EBNA1 epitopes are greatly delayed in IM patients, in line with the well-known but hitherto unexplained delay in EBNA1 IgG antibody responses. We present evidence from an in vitro system that may explain these unusual kinetics. Unlike other EBNAs and lytic cycle proteins, EBNA1 is not naturally released from EBV-infected cells as a source of antigen for CD4(+) T cell priming.

  19. Herpesvirus DNA (Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus) in circulating monocytes of patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Axel; Blankenberg, Stefan; Weise, Kerstin; Gärtner, Barbara C; Mehrer, Torsten; Peetz, Dirk; Meyer, Juergen; Darius, Harald; Rupprecht, Hans J

    2005-12-01

    The underlying mechanism of the chronic inflammatory process in atherosclerosis is still unknown. As a possible trigger, several studies in recent years have suggested that different viruses and bacteria are associated with atherosclerotic diseases. We applied polymerase chain reaction to analyse whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA could be detected in CD14 + cells from 184 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) (74 patients with stable angina (SAP), 51 patients with unstable angina (UAP), and 59 patients with myocardial infarction (MI)) and from 52 healthy controls. In two patients (one patient with SAP, one patient with UAP) with CAD and one healthy control, DNA from CMV was found (p = 0.469). HSV DNA was detected in one patient (SAP) but not in any controls (p = 0.644). EBV DNA was found in nine patients (three patients with SAP, one patient with UAP, five patients with MI), and two controls (p = 0.752). Our data do not support the hypothesis that herpesvirus-infected monocytes are related to the incidence of human coronary atherosclerosis.

  20. Association of clinical and serological parameters of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients with Epstein-Barr virus antibody profile.

    PubMed

    D, Chougule; M, Nadkar; A, Rajadhyaksha; P, Pandit; P, Surve; N, Dawkar; P, Khadilkar; M, Patwardhan; Sv, Kaveri; K, Ghosh; V, Pradhan

    2017-07-22

    Epstein-Barr viral infection is one of the known environmental factors involved in development of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE). Though not much is known about the exact role of EBV in SLE pathogenesis, the theory of switching of lytic and lysogenic cycles of Epstein-Barr virus in memory B-cells fits well with the periods of waning disease activity and intermittent flares in SLE patients. In this study, we investigate the association of EBV antibody profile with clinical and serological parameters in SLE. Eighty-seven clinically diagnosed SLE patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Classification criteria and fifty healthy individuals were enrolled in this case control study. Anti-VCA IgM, anti-VCA IgG and anti-EBNA IgG were detected by ELISA technique. Antibodies concentrations between two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney whereas the difference in categorical data was compared using Chi-square considering statistical significance at p<0.05. This study demonstrated a significant increase in EBV VCA-IgG, VCA-IgM and EBNA-IgG antibodies levels of SLE patients when compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). High seroprevalence was seen in both the study groups for EBV VCA-IgG and EBNA-IgG antibodies when compared to VCA-IgM antibodies. A significant increase was noted in the anti-VCA-IgG levels with dsDNA autoantibody positivity (p<0.05). Though there was no significant association between EBV antibody profile and clinical manifestations, 100% seropositivity for anti-VCA-IgG was seen in SLE patients with renal manifestations. Association of anti-VCA IgG levels with presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies suggests a possible role of EBV as an environmental trigger in pathogenesis of SLE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Load and Antibodies Against EBNA1 and EA in Sardinian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Erre, Gian Luca; Mameli, Giuseppe; Cossu, Davide; Muzzeddu, Benedetta; Piras, Cristina; Paccagnini, Daniela; Passiu, Giuseppe; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A role for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection in the etiology of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), has long been suggested. However, data about EBV burden in RA patients from Sardinian population, a genetic isolate with high prevalence of autoimmune diseases, have not yet been reported. One hundred thirty-five, Sardinian subjects (77 RA patients and 58 demographically matched healthy donors, HDs) were enrolled in a cross-sectional case-control study. EBV-DNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Prevalence and titers of anti-Early Antigen IgG (anti-EA-IgG) and anti-Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG (anti-EBNA-1 IgG) were determined by immunoenzimatic assay. EBV-DNA positivity was more frequent in RA PBMCs than in HD PBMCs (79.2% vs. 56.9% respectively, p=0.008). Similarly EBV relative load was increased in RA than in HD PBMCs [2.83 (6.5) vs. 0.53 (1) 2(-ΔCt) EBV-DNA, respectively, p=0.02]. Moreover, Sardinian RA patients were found to have increased prevalence of anti-EBNA-1 IgG (90% vs. only 69% of HD, p=0.006) and anti-EA IgG (37% compared with only 10.3% of HD, p=0.002). Subgroup analysis revealed that PBMCs from RA receiving Tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor monoclonal inhibitor, have significantly lower EBV viral loads in comparison to PBMCs from RA under other immunosuppressors (p=0.03). These data suggest an association between EBV infection and RA in the Sardinian population. The potential influence of IL-6 inhibition on EBV viral load in RA patients should be further explored in prospective trials.

  2. Chromatin-binding regions of EBNA1 protein facilitate the enhanced transfection of Epstein-Barr virus-based vectors.

    PubMed

    Howden, Sara E; Wardan, Hady; Voullaire, Lucille; McLenachan, Samuel; Williamson, Robert; Ioannou, Panos; Vadolas, Jim

    2006-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based vectors can stably maintain large genomic fragments in mammalian cells, offering great potential for the treatment/correction of many acquired and inherited disorders. Numerous studies report marked increases in the transfection efficiency of EBV-based vectors after delivery into cell lines constitutively expressing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1), compared with cells not expressing EBNA1. We employ a novel strategy, involving the transfection of mRNA encoding EBNA1, to transiently express EBNA1 protein in human cells. Subsequently we show that the transfection efficiency of a 21-kb EBVbased vector is improved significantly when codelivered with mRNA encoding EBNA1. Similar increases in transfection efficiency were observed after delivery of the plasmid into cells constitutively expressing EBNA1. We also investigate the mechanism by which EBNA1 facilitates the transfection of EBV-based vectors, using mRNA encoding modified versions of the protein. Previous studies suggest that the EBNA1 DNA-binding domain (DBD), together with the nuclear localization signal (NLS), may enhance transfection of EBV plasmids by facilitating their nuclear transport. We demonstrate that an EBNA1 derivative comprising only the NLS and DBD does not facilitate transfection of EBV-based vectors. However, cells expressing an EBNA1 derivative devoid of a functional NLS but retaining the chromatin-binding regions, domains A and B, enhances plasmid transfection efficiency by up to 10-fold. Moreover, a variant of EBNA1 comprising two copies of domain A fused to the DBD enhances DNA transfection to an even greater extent than wild-type EBNA1. We therefore propose that EBNA1-mediated transfection of EBV-based vectors is dependent on the presence of chromatin- binding regions and the DBD, but not the NLS.

  3. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex type 1, cytomegalovirus and measles virus in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb-Stematsky, T; Zonis, J; Arlazoroff, A; Mozes, T; Sigal, M; Szekely, A G

    1981-01-01

    Distribution of antibodies to herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and measles virus (MV) was studied in sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) of 41 patients with schizophrenia, 27 patients with primary affective disorders and 25 control patients with neurological diseases. No significant differences in distribution and mean geometric titers (GMT) of antibodies to HSV1 between the psychiatric and control groups were found. Distribution and GMT of antibodies to EBV were highly significant in psychiatric patients as compared to controls with highest titers in the affective disorder group. Antibodies to HSV1 were present in 15 CSF specimens of psychiatric patients with reduced CSF/serum ratio in 4, and low levels of antibodies were detected in 8 control patients. Antibodies to EBV-VCA were detected in 4 CSFs of psychiatric patients. Total protein levels were determined in CSF specimens and no correlation with antibodies was found. No significant differences in distribution of antibodies to CMV or MV in the three study groups were found. No antibodies to CMV were demonstrated in CSFs and in one specimen from a patient and two controls antibodies to MV were detected.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumours after transplantation, infection with human immunodeficiency virus and congenital immunodeficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Kais; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Donnerstag, Frank; Laenger, Florian; Kreipe, Hans; Jonigk, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumours (SMT) after transplantation (PTSMT) or associated with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes (CI-SMT) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-SMT) are rare. The majority of PTSMT and CI-SMT are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), while some HIV-SMT can be EBV-negative. SMT in immunodeficient states may present with unspecific symptoms which are mainly related to tumour localisation. In PTSMT, >50% of tumours manifest in the liver/transplant liver, but in general PTSMT, HIV-SMT and CI-SMT can occur at any site as single or multiple tumours. Multiple tumour manifestations do not define metastatic disease as PTSMT can occur synchronously and/or metachronously. PTSMT can originate from the recipient as well as from the donor. Morphologically, most tumours, in particular PTSMT, lack marked histological atypia or tumour necrosis, while some HIV-SMT and CI-SMT can present as sarcoma-like variants, but histomorphology does not predict clinical aggressiveness or tumourbiological behaviour. In PTSMT, surgery and reduced immunosuppression show comparable overall survival rates, while poor prognosis is mainly associated with intracranial manifestation and non-resectable tumours. In HIV-SMT and CI-SMT, surgery should be performed. In all 3 tumour types, adverse prognosis is mainly related to comorbidities associated with immunosuppression but not with the extent of histological atypia or tumour size. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  7. The Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 gene product activates the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 5' long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Mallon, R; Borkowski, J; Albin, R; Pepitoni, S; Schwartz, J; Kieff, E

    1990-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product BZLF1 transactivates the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). The BZLF1 gene product caused an 18-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity from an HIV-1 LTR lacZ expression vector, whereas the HIV-1 transactivator tat caused a 44-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity. When cells were transfected with both BZLF1 (pEBV-Z) and tat (pTAT3) expression vectors, as well as HIV-1 LTR lacZ plasmid (pLRON), a 214-fold increase in beta-galactosidase activity was observed. This result suggests a synergistic effect of BZLF1 and tat on HIV-1 LTR-directed lacZ gene expression. Analysis of quantitative BZLF1 and tat requirements for maximal HIV-1 LTR activation indicates that BZLF1 does not reduce the amount of tat required for maximal LTR activation, as would be expected if the BZLF1 synergistic effect was due to increased tat gene expression. Thus, coordinate effects of BZLF1 and tat on the HIV-1 LTR or its transcript are probably responsible for synergistic HIV-1 LTR activation. PMID:2173793

  8. Myopericarditis during a primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in an otherwise healthy young adult. An unusual and insidious complication. Case report and a 60-year literature review.

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Manfredi, Roberto; Ortolani, Paolo; Trapani, Fabio Filippo; Viale, Pierluigi

    2012-06-01

    An otherwise healthy young man had infectious mononucleosis detected after an atypical clinical onset, including myocarditis and pericarditis. Our patient slowly but completely recovered from his cardiac complications after the course of his primary Epstein-Barr infection, as shown by periodical electrocardiographic and ultrasonographic studies, and a simple treatment with aspirin alone. Our case report is briefly reported, and discussed with regard to the existing literature, which has recorded such complications since the mid 1940s.

  9. Dual Infection with Hepatitis B and Epstein-Barr Virus Presenting with Severe Jaundice, Coagulopathy, and Hepatitis B Virus Chronicity Outcome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sirish C; Ashraf, Imran; Mir, Fazia; Samiullah, Sami; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-02-16

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported as a coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CASE REPORT A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with epigastric pain and severe acute hepatitis manifested as jaundice associated with hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, and coagulopathy. The patient was diagnosed with acute HBV with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection leading to subsequent chronic hepatitis B. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this patient case is the first reported case of HBV and EBV coinfection reported in the literature. HBV and EBV coinfection may cause severe acute hepatitis with HBV chronicity.

  10. Multiple sclerosis: the elevated antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus primarily targets, but is not confined to, the glycine-alanine repeat of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Klemens; Wunderlich, Benjamin; Gieß, René; Meyer, Petra; Loebel, Madlen; Lenz, Klaus; Hofmann, Jörg; Rosche, Berit; Wengert, Oliver; Paul, Friedemann; Reimer, Ulf; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2014-07-15

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have elevated antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), but data on the epitope-resolved specificity of these antibodies are scarce. Using a peptide microarray containing 1465 peptides representing 8 full-length EBV proteins, we identified higher (p<0.001) antibody reactivities to 39 EBV-peptides in MS patients (n=29) compared to healthy controls (n=22). Seventeen of the 39 peptides were from EBNA-1 and 13 located within the glycine-alanine repeat of EBNA-1. Further reactivities were directed against EBNA-3, EBNA-4, EBNA-6, VP26, and LMP1. Thus, antibodies against EBV in MS patients primarily target, but are not confined to, the glycine-alanine repeat of EBNA-1.

  11. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  12. The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Glycoprotein B Cytoplasmic C-Terminal Tail Domain Regulates the Energy Requirement for EBV-Induced Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. IMPORTANCE Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV

  13. Structure of Epstein-Barr Virus Glycoprotein 42 Suggests a Mechanism for Triggering Receptor-Activated Virus Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, Austin N.; Sorem, Jessica; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2009-05-26

    Epstein-Barr virus requires glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42 to fuse its lipid envelope with B cells. Gp42 is a type II membrane protein consisting of a flexible N-terminal region, which binds gH/gL, and a C-terminal lectin-like domain that binds to the B-cell entry receptor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II. Gp42 triggers membrane fusion after HLA binding, a process that requires simultaneous binding to gH/gL and a functional hydrophobic pocket in the lectin domain adjacent to the HLA binding site. Here we present the structure of gp42 in its unbound form. Comparisons to the previously determined structure of a gp42:HLA complex reveals additional N-terminal residues forming part of the gH/gL binding site and structural changes in the receptor binding domain. Although the core of the lectin domain remains similar, significant shifts in two loops and an {alpha} helix bordering the essential hydrophobic pocket suggest a structural mechanism for triggering fusion.

  14. Immunization of common marmosets with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) envelope glycoprotein gp340: effect on viral shedding following EBV challenge.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Naylor, B A; Mackett, M; Arrand, J R; Griffin, B E; Wedderburn, N

    1998-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the cause of infectious mononucleosis, is involved in the pathogenesis of several human cancers, the highest frequency of association being found in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. The development of animal models in which potential vaccines can be tested is important. EBV infection of the common marmoset, using the M81 strain originally derived from a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, induces a carrier state in this animal. Persistent infection is characterized by the production of antibodies to viral antigens, and the secretion of EBV DNA into buccal fluids. Following immunization with envelope glycoprotein gp340 derived from a bovine papilloma virus expression vector, prior to EBV infection, viral DNA was detected significantly less frequently in the buccal fluids of immunized, than of nonimmunized, infected animals, indicating that although the carrier state had not been abolished, it had been altered. A reduction in virus load was also observed when offspring of seronegative, and on occasion seropositive, parents were immunized neonatally, before EBV challenge.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis peptides are cross recognized by anti-myelin basic protein antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mameli, Giuseppe; Cossu, Davide; Cocco, Eleonora; Masala, Speranza; Frau, Jessica; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2014-05-15

    Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) have been associated to multiple sclerosis (MS). We searched for antibodies against the homologous peptides Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)400-413, MAP_0106c protein (MAP)121-132, and myelin basic protein (MBP)85-98 on a MS Sardinian cohort, showing that these antibodies are highly prevalent among MS patients compared to healthy controls. Competitive assay demonstrated that antibodies recognizing EBNA1400-413 and MAP121-132 cross-react with MBP85-98, possibly through a molecular mimicry mechanism. Indeed, the fact that peptides from different pathogens can be cross-recognized by antibodies targeting self-epitopes supports the hypothesis that EBV and MAP might trigger autoimmunity through a common target.

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma at the Lesser Curvature of the Upper Gastric Body: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Shou, C; Liu, X; Yu, H; Yu, J

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma (LELGC) is a rare neoplasm of the stomach with dense lymphocytic infiltration. More than 80% of LELGCs are positive for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here, we report a 64-year old Chinese man with swallowing discomfort while eating food. Endoscopy and computed tomography both showed a submucosal lesion at the lesser curvature of the upper gastric body. The first diagnostic impression was a gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Subsequently, the patient received a wedge resection of the stomach. On histopathological examination, the tumour was found to consist of small nests of neoplastic cells within dense lymphocytic infiltration. Additionally, most of the neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA (EBER). Subsequently, the diagnosis of LELGC was made. We believe that physicians should be aware of the diagnosis of submucosal gastric lesions, particularly in older male patients. PMID:25303204

  17. Relative rates of RNA synthesis across the genome of Epstein-Barr virus are highest near oriP and oriLyt.

    PubMed Central

    Metzenberg, S

    1989-01-01

    The rates of Epstein-Barr virus transcription were measured in isolated nuclei from marmoset and human lymphoblasts transformed in vitro. In B95-8, a marmoset B-lymphoid cell line, the most frequently transcribed viral genes are the EBERs (small nuclear RNAs) and BHLF-1 (encoding a lytic-phase gene product). The EBERs and BHLF-1 genes are separated by nearly 50 kilobase pairs on the Epstein-Barr virus genome and lie adjacent to (less than 300 base pairs from) oriP and oriLyt, respectively. oriP and oriLyt are putative origins of viral DNA replication, and each is associated with a transcriptional enhancer element. Among the human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, only the transcription of EBERs predominates. Images PMID:2552173

  18. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus type 1 nuclear antigen 3C sequence patterns of nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guocai; Wang, Yun; Chao, Yan; Jia, Yuping; Zhao, Chengquan; Luo, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen protein 3C (EBNA3C) is a 992-amino-acid protein that has been shown to play a complex regulatory role in the transcription of viral and cellular genes. In this study, we successfully amplified 26 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGCs), 50 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and 27 throat washing (TW) samples from healthy donors. Based on a phylogenetic tree, the samples could be divided into three patterns. 3C-6 was the predominant subtype in northern China, and the variations between the strains sequenced in our study and those from southern China and Japan were similar, but differences were also identified. The distribution of EBNA3C subtypes among EBVaGCs, NPCs and healthy donors was not significantly different. These data suggest that EBNA3C gene variations are geographically restricted rather than tumor-specific polymorphisms.

  19. Effects of mTOR and calcineurin inhibitors combined therapy in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wowro, Sylvia J; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Tong, Giang; Berger, Felix; Schubert, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a severe complication in solid organ transplant recipients, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in pediatric patients and occasionally presents as Burkitt- or Burkitt-like lymphoma. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been described as a possible antitumor target whose inhibition may influence lymphoma development and proliferation after pediatric transplantation. We treated Epstein-Barr virus positive (Raji and Daudi) and negative (Ramos) human Burkitt lymphoma derived cells with mTOR inhibitor everolimus alone and in combination with clinically relevant immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin A). Cell proliferation, toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolic activity were analyzed. The effect on mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets p70 S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, and S6 ribosomal protein activation was also investigated. We observed that treatment with everolimus alone significantly decreased Burkitt lymphoma cell proliferation and mitochondrial metabolic activity. Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin A had a stronger suppressive effect in Epstein-Barr virus negative but not in Epstein-Barr virus positive cells. In contrast, tacrolimus completely abolished the everolimus-mediated suppressive effects. Moreover, we showed a significant decrease in activation of mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets after treatment with everolimus that was attenuated when combined with tacrolimus, but not with cyclosporin A. For the first time we showed the competitive effect between everolimus and tacrolimus when used as combination therapy on Burkitt lymphoma derived cells. Thus, according to our in vitro data, the combination of calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A with everolimus is preferred to the combination of tacrolimus and everolimus.

  20. Reed-Sternberg cells and "bystander" lymphocytes in lymph nodes affected by Hodgkin's disease are infected with different strains of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Meggetto, F; Brousset, P; Selves, J; Delsol, G; Mariame, B

    1997-01-01

    In most cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated Hodgkin's disease (HD), EBV-positive Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and rare EBV-positive reservoir lymphocytes coexist in lymph nodes. Here we show that, in two cases of EBV-associated HD, strains infecting RS cells and reservoir lymphocytes of the same patient have different BNLF-1 genes. This suggests that RS cells and reservoir lymphocytes of the same patient are infected by different EBV strains. PMID:9032398

  1. The Definition of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)’s Role in HTLV-III Infected USAF Personnel as Related to Disease Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-27

    oral hairy leukoplakia , may be a poor prognostic sign when found in HIV infected patients. (4) EBV related lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia may...patients tested so far preclude any analysis of interclass differences. Patients with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL). Twenty- four HIV-l infected males...1988. 4. Greenspan JS, Greenspan D, Lennette ET, et. al. Replication of Epstein-Barr virus within the epithelial cells of oral hairy " leukoplakia , an

  2. Co-infection with Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus in benign upper digestive diseases: An endoscopic and serologic pilot study.

    PubMed

    Buzás, György M; Konderák, Judith

    2016-06-01

    Some gastric cancers are Epstein-Barr virus associated. To assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and viral co-infection in benign upper digestive diseases. One hundred and four outpatients were included in a prospective endoscopic-serologic study. Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M and viral capsid antigen titres were assayed with an ELISA test. Helicobacter pylori was determined by the modified Giemsa stain and by IgG-chemiluminescence. The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was 56.7%. Duodenal ulcer patients were infected in 72.5 % of the cases, with the prevalence being 33.3% in functional dyspepsia (p = 0.0008) and 25.8% in reflux patients (p = 0.0001). Epstein-Barr virus IgG was detected in 70.1% of the whole group, 75% of duodenal ulcer patients, 51.2% of functional dyspepsia patients (p = 0.04) and 51.6% of the reflux disease cases (p = 0.04). Co-infection with both agents was detected in 60% of duodenal ulcer patients, 18.1% of functional dyspepsia (p = 0.00014) and 12.9% of reflux disease patients (p = 0.00012). Anti-viral IgG titre displayed a 31.7 ± 3.0 cut-off index in duodenal ulcer, 20.5 ± 3.5 in functional dyspepsia (p = 0.01) and 21.4 ± 3.6 in reflux cases (p = 0.03). Both Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus, and co-infection with these agents, were significantly more prevalent in duodenal ulcer patients than in dyspeptic/reflux patients.

  3. Pembrolizumab, Capecitabine, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Mismatch-Repair Deficient and Epstein-Barr Virus Positive Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Epstein-Barr Virus Positive; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency; Stage IB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer AJCC v7

  4. Comparative Evaluation of a Commercially Available Automated System for Extraction of Viral DNA from Whole Blood: Application to Monitoring of Epstein-Barr Virus and Cytomegalovirus Load ▿

    PubMed Central

    Pillet, Sylvie; Bourlet, Thomas; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The NucliSENS easyMAG automated system was compared to the column-based Qiagen method for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA extraction from whole blood before viral load determination using the corresponding R-gene amplification kits. Both extraction techniques exhibited a total agreement of 81.3% for EBV and 87.2% for CMV. PMID:19710270

  5. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sapkota, Dipak; Ibrahim, Salah O; Larsson, Per-Anders; Sand, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in many parts of the world, and the major causative agents are thought to be the use of alcohol and tobacco. Oncogenic viruses have also been suggested to be involved in OSCC development. This study investigated the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 155 OSCC from eight different countries from different ethnic groups, continents and with different socioeconomic backgrounds. 41 A total of OSCCs were diagnosed in the tongue (26%) and 23 in the floor of the mouth (15%); the other 91 OSCCs were diagnosed in other locations (59%). The patients were also investigated regarding the use of alcohol and smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. Tissue samples were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of the OSCC. DNA was extracted and the viral genome was examined by single, nested and semi-nested PCR assays. Sequencing of double-stranded DNA from the PCR product was carried out. Following sequencing of the HPV-, HSV- and EBV-positive PCR products, 100% homology between the sampels was found. Of all the 155 OSCCs examined, 85 (55%) were positive for EBV, 54 (35%) for HPV and 24 (15%) for HSV. The highest prevalence of HPV was seen in Sudan (65%), while HSV (55%) and EBV (80%) were most prevalent in the UK. In 34% (52/155) of all the samples examined, co-infection by two (46/155=30%) or three (6/155=4%) virus specimens was detected. The most frequent double infection was HPV with EBV in 21% (32/155) of all OSCCs. There was a statistically significant higher proportion of samples with HSV (p=0.026) and EBV (p=0.015) in industrialized countries (Sweden, Norway, UK and USA) as compared to developing countries (Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and Yemen). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher co-infection of HSV and EBV in samples from industrialized countries (p=0.00031). No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the

  6. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load using a novel quantification standard containing two EBV DNA targets and SYBR Green I dye

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may cause serious, life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. EBV DNA is often detected in EBV-associated disease states, with viral load believed to be a reflection of virus activity. Two separate real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assays using SYBR Green I dye and a single quantification standard containing two EBV genes, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and BamHI fragment H rightward open reading frame-1 (BHRF-1), were developed to detect and measure absolute EBV DNA load in patients with various EBV-associated diseases. EBV DNA loads and viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG antibody titres were also quantified on a population sample. Results EBV DNA was measurable in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. EBV DNA loads were detectable from 8.0 × 102 to 1.3 × 108 copies/ml in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (n = 5), 1.5 × 103 to 2.0 × 105 copies/ml in infectious mononucleosis (n = 7), 7.5 × 104 to 1.1 × 105 copies/ml in EBV-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (n = 1), 2.0 × 102 to 5.6 × 103 copies/ml in HIV-infected patients (n = 12), and 2.0 × 102 to 9.1 × 104 copies/ml in the population sample (n = 218). EBNA-1 and BHRF-1 DNA were detected in 11.0% and 21.6% of the population sample respectively. There was a modest correlation between VCA IgG antibody titre and BHRF-1 DNA load (rho = 0.13, p = 0.05) but not EBNA-1 DNA load (rho = 0.11, p = 0.11). Conclusion Two sensitive and specific real-time PCR assays using SYBR Green I dye and a single quantification standard containing two EBV DNA targets, were developed for the detection and measurement of EBV DNA load in a variety of clinical samples. These assays have application in the investigation of EBV-related illnesses in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:20860842

  7. Immortalization of human B lymphocytes by a plasmid containing 71 kilobase pairs of Epstein-Barr virus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kempkes, B; Pich, D; Zeidler, R; Sugden, B; Hammerschmidt, W

    1995-01-01

    We have assembled derivatives of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) that include 71 kbp of noncontiguous DNA sequences cloned into a prokaryotic F-factor plasmid. These mini-EBVs, when introduced into an EBV-containing lymphoblastoid cell, can be packaged by the endogenous helper virus. One such mini-EBV was found to have a single C residue deleted from its EBNA3a open reading frame. When packaged, this mini-EBV initiates proliferation of infected primary human B lymphocytes only in conjunction with a complementing helper virus. Proliferation of the infected cells, however, was maintained either alone by the mini-EBV containing the mutated EBNA3a open reading frame or alone by its derivative in which the EBNA3a open reading frame had been healed of its lesion by recombination with the helper virus. The mini-EBV with a wild-type EBNA3a open reading frame when packaged alone can both initiate and maintain proliferation upon infection of primary human B lymphocytes. These findings identify 41% of EBV DNA which is sufficient to immortalize primary human B lymphocytes and provide an assay to distinguish virus contributions to initiation or maintenance of cell proliferation or both. They also identify EBNA3a as a transforming gene, which contributes primarily to the initiation of cell proliferation. PMID:7983714

  8. Expression of the Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Cells Mediates Up-Regulation of CCL20 and the Migration of Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baumforth, Karl R.N.; Birgersdotter, Anna; Reynolds, Gary M.; Wei, Wenbin; Kapatai, Georgia; Flavell, Joanne R.; Kalk, Emma; Piper, Karen; Lee, Steve; Machado, Lee; Hadley, Kerry; Sundblad, Anne; Sjoberg, Jan; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Porwit, Anna A.; Yap, Lee-Fah; Teo, Soohwang; Grundy, Richard G.; Young, Lawrence S.; Ernberg, Ingemar; Woodman, Ciaran B.J.; Murray, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    In ∼50% of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL), the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, is present in tumor cells. After microarray profiling of both HL tumors and cell lines, we found that EBV infection increased the expression of the chemokine CCL20 in both primary Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells and Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cell-derived cell lines. Additionally, this up-regulation could be mediated by the EBV nuclear antigen 1 protein. The higher levels of CCL20 in the supernatants of EBV-infected HL cell lines increased the migration of CD4+ lymphocytes that expressed FOXP3, a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are specialized CD4+ T cells that inhibit effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In HL, an increased number of Tregs is associated with the loss of EBV-specific immunity. Our results identify a mechanism by which EBV can recruit Tregs to the microenvironment of HL by inducing the expression of CCL20 and, by doing so, prevent immune responses against the virus-infected tumor population. Further investigation of how EBV recruits and modifies Tregs will contribute not only to our understanding of the pathogenesis of virus-associated tumors but also to the development of therapeutic strategies designed to manipulate Treg activity. PMID:18502823

  9. Expression of VCA (viral capsid antigen) and EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1) genes of Epstein-Barr virus in Pichia pastoris and application of the products in a screening test for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Hong, Guoqiang; Li, Zhaoxia; Xu, Jue; Zhu, Zhenyu; Li, Lin

    2007-05-01

    EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) serological tests have been used for many years as accessory diagnostic predictors of NPC (nasopharyngeal carcinoma). To date, IF (indirect immunofluorescence) assays still serve as the 'gold standard' for EBV serodiagnosis. However, IF assays are time-consuming, unsuitable for automatic handling and difficult to standardize. This makes their application in mass screening of populations inconvenient. Some of the technical difficulties associated with IF have been overcome by the development of specific ELISAs, but, at present, high sensitivity and specificity cannot be achieved simultaneously by using recombinant protein-based ELISAs, as the diagnostic value of different fragments of EBV in NPC is different. In an attempt to determine a suitable recombinant EBV protein for diagnostic purposes, fragments of EBV VCA (viral capsid antigen) and EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1) genes were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and a novel ELISA was established using P. pastoris-expressed VCA-BALF4 [aa (amino acids) 287-623; the BALF4 gene encodes the EBV glycoprotein gp125], EBNA1 (aa 390-641) and VCA-BFRF3 (the gene BFRF3 encodes a viral structural capsid protein or tegument protein VCA p18) proteins. Serum samples were collected from patients with NPC and healthy controls and were tested using this ELISA. The sensitivity of VCA-BFRF3, VCA-BALF4 and EBNA1 tests in the NPC sera were 65.0 (195/300), 76.3 (229/300) and 81.4% (244/300) respectively, whereas the specificity of normal individuals were 92 (460/500), 96 (480/500) and 95.8% (479/500). The optimum combination is VCA-BALF4 plus EBNA1, which identified 90.3% (271/300) of the NPC patients and had a specificity of 92.8% (464/500) for normal individuals. The results obtained from the evaluation of three antibodies to EBV as markers for detecting NPC suggests that a combination of EBNA1 (aa 390-641) and VCA-BALF4 (aa 287-623) assays would give better results

  10. [AIDS related lymphomas: Histopathological subtypes and association with Epstein Barr virus and Human Herpes virus type-8].

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; de Dios Soler, Marcela; Bare, Patricia; Villafañe, María F; De Tezanos Pinto, Miguel; Perez Bianco, Raúl; Narbaitz, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS. Here, we evaluated 48 cases of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARL) diagnosed at the Histopathological Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas of the National Academy of Medicine. Five were females and 43 were males with a median of age of 37 years at the time of the diagnosis. Micrometer sections were prepared and stained with hematoxilin-eosin; immunohistochemical examination for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was carried out in 48/48 cases. Additionally, biotinilated oligonucleotides were used to determine the presence of DNA of the Human Herpes virus type-8 (HHV-8) in 14/14 biopsy smears corresponding to plasmablastic lymphomas (PL). All were fenotype B cell lymphomas with an aggressive course and advanced neoplasm disease at the time of diagnosis. Virological findings showed the strong association between EBV and AIDS-related NHL. According to the histopathological subtype, the EBV genome was detected in 16/21 (76%) diffuse large B cell lymphomas, 1/3 Burkitt lymphoma and 3/4 (75%) of primary central nervous system lymphomas. Globally, EBV genome was detected in 20/28 NHL of this series. Detection of HHV-8 was negative in all cases of PL. Hodgkin lymphoma were more frequent in males 18/20 (90%), with an aggressive clinical course and a significant predominance of the subtypes associated with worse prognosis (90% of cases). We detected a significant association between EBV and HL (90% of cases). We consider that all cases of AIDS related lymphomas should be assessed for the presence of EBV because its presence may play a role in the prognosis.

  11. Detection of Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Duodenal Mucosa of Patients With Refractory Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Vittorio; Baldanti, Fausto; Lenti, Marco Vincenzo; Vanoli, Alessandro; Biagi, Federico; Gatti, Marta; Riboni, Roberta; Dallera, Elena; Paulli, Marco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Refractory celiac disease is characterized by mucosal damage in patients with celiac disease despite a gluten-free diet. Little is known about the mechanisms that cause persistent intestinal inflammation in these patients. We performed a case-control study of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with refractory celiac disease from 2001 through 2014 (median age, 51 y; 10 women) and 24 patients with uncomplicated celiac disease (controls) to determine whether refractory disease is associated with infection by lymphotropic oncogenic viruses. We performed real-time PCR analyses of duodenal biopsy samples from all patients to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-8, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, -II, or -III. We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses to identify infected cells and viral proteins. We did not detect human herpesvirus-8 or human T-cell lymphotropic viruses in any of the biopsy specimens. However, 12 of 17 (70.5%) biopsy specimens from patients with refractory celiac disease were positive for EBV, compared with 4 of 24 (16.6%) biopsy specimens from controls (P < .001). EBV was detected in inflammatory cells and enterocytes. An analysis of latency- and replication-associated proteins confirmed active infection. Further studies are needed to determine whether EBV infection contributes to the pathogenesis of refractory celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glucocorticoids activate Epstein Barr Virus lytic replication through the upregulation of immediate early BZLF1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eric V.; Webster Marketon, Jeanette I.; Chen, Min; Lo, Kwok Wai; Kim, Seung-jae; Glaser, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Psychological stress-associated immune dysregulation has been shown to disrupt the steady state expression and reactivate latent herpes viruses. One such virus is the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with several human malignancies. EBV infects >90% of people living in North America and persists for life in latently infected cells. Although several studies have shown that glucocorticoids (GCs) can directly induce reactivation of the latent virus, the mechanism of stress hormone involvement in the control of EBV gene expression is not well understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GCs can induce the latent EBV genome to lytically replicate through the induction of the EBV immediate early gene BZLF1 which encodes the lytic transactivator protein ZEBRA. We show a dose-dependent upregulation of BZLF1 mRNA expression by hydrocortisone (HC) and dexamethasone (Dex) in Daudi cells, an EBV genome positive Burkitt’s lymphoma cell line, and Dex-induction of the early gene products BLLF3 (encoding for the EBV dUTPase) and BALF5 (encoding for the EBV DNA polymerase). We show that Daudi cells express glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that mediate Dex-dependent upregulation of BZLF1 mRNA levels. This effect was inhibited by both the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 and by cycloheximide. The results suggest that GCs, in addition to inducing stress-related immune dysregulation, can mediate latent EBV reactivation through the induction of the BZLF1 gene. PMID:20466055

  13. Structure and functional basis for an EBNA1 hexameric ring in Epstein-Barr Virus episome maintenance.

    PubMed

    Deakyne, Julianna S; Malecka, Kimberly; Messick, Troy E; Lieberman, Paul M

    2017-07-12

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a stable latent infection that can persist for the life of the host. EBNA1 is required for the replication, maintenance, and segregation of the latent episome but the structural features of EBNA1 that confer each of these functions are not completely understood. Here, we have solved the x-ray crystal structure of an EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD) and discovered a novel hexameric ring oligomeric form. The oligomeric interface pivoted around residue T585 as a joint that links and stabilizes higher order EBNA1 complexes. Substitution mutations around the interface destabilized higher order complex formation and altered the cooperative DNA-binding properties of EBNA1. Mutations had both positive and negative effects on EBNA1-dependent DNA replication and episome maintenance with OriP. We found that one naturally occurring polymorphism in the oligomer interface (T585P) had greater cooperative DNA binding in vitro, minor defects in DNA replication, and pronounced defects in episome maintenance. T585P was compromised for binding to OriP in vivo, as well as for assembling ORC2 and histone H3K4me3 at OriP. T585P was also compromised for forming stable subnuclear foci in living cells. These findings reveal a novel oligomeric structure of EBNA1 with an interface subject to naturally occurring polymoprhisms that modulate EBNA1 functional properties. We propose that EBNA1 dimers can assemble into higher-order oligomeric structures important for diverse functions of EBNA1.IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus is a human gamma herpesvirus that is causally associated with various cancers. Carcinogenic properties are linked to the ability of the virus to persist in the latent form for the life time of the host. EBNA1 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is consistently expressed in EBV tumors and is the only viral protein required to maintain the viral episome during latency. The structural and biochemical mechanisms by which EBNA1 allows for

  14. Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein gM can interact with the cellular protein p32 and knockdown of p32 impairs virus.

    PubMed

    Changotra, Harish; Turk, Susan M; Artigues, Antonio; Thakur, Nagendra; Gore, Mindy; Muggeridge, Martin I; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M

    2016-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein complex gMgN has been implicated in assembly and release of fully enveloped virus, although the precise role that it plays has not been elucidated. We report here that the long predicted cytoplasmic tail of gM is not required for complex formation and that it interacts with the cellular protein p32, which has been reported to be involved in nuclear egress of human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. Although redistribution of p32 and colocalization with gM was not observed in virus infected cells, knockdown of p32 expression by siRNA or lentivirus-delivered shRNA recapitulated the phenotype of a virus lacking expression of gNgM. A proportion of virus released from cells sedimented with characteristics of virus lacking an intact envelope and there was an increase in virus trapped in nuclear condensed chromatin. The observations suggest the possibility that p32 may also be involved in nuclear egress of Epstein-Barr virus.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus protein EB2 contains an N-terminal transferable nuclear export signal that promotes nucleocytoplasmic export by directly binding TAP/NXF1.

    PubMed

    Juillard, Franceline; Hiriart, Edwige; Sergeant, Nicolas; Vingtdeux-Didier, Valérie; Drobecq, Hervé; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri

    2009-12-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM), which allows the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs derived from intronless genes, is essential for the production of infectious virions. An important feature of mRNA export factors is their capacity to shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In a previous study, we identified a novel CRM1-independent transferable nuclear export signal (NES) at the N terminus of EB2, between amino acids 61 and 146. Here we show that this NES contains several small arginine-rich domains that cooperate to allow efficient interaction with TAP/NXF1. Recruitment of TAP/NXF1 correlates with this NES-mediated efficient nuclear export when it is fused to a heterologous protein. Moreover, the NES can export mRNAs bearing MS2 RNA-binding sites from the nucleus when tethered to the RNA via the MS2 phage coat protein RNA-binding domain.

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Protein EB2 Contains an N-Terminal Transferable Nuclear Export Signal That Promotes Nucleocytoplasmic Export by Directly Binding TAP/NXF1▿

    PubMed Central

    Juillard, Franceline; Hiriart, Edwige; Sergeant, Nicolas; Vingtdeux-Didier, Valérie; Drobecq, Hervé; Sergeant, Alain; Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri

    2009-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus early protein EB2 (also called BMLF1, Mta, or SM), which allows the nuclear export of a subset of early and late viral mRNAs derived from intronless genes, is essential for the production of infectious virions. An important feature of mRNA export factors is their capacity to shuttle continuously between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In a previous study, we identified a novel CRM1-independent transferable nuclear export signal (NES) at the N terminus of EB2, between amino acids 61 and 146. Here we show that this NES contains several small arginine-rich domains that cooperate to allow efficient interaction with TAP/NXF1. Recruitment of TAP/NXF1 correlates with this NES-mediated efficient nuclear export when it is fused to a heterologous protein. Moreover, the NES can export mRNAs bearing MS2 RNA-binding sites from the nucleus when tethered to the RNA via the MS2 phage coat protein RNA-binding domain. PMID:19793817

  17. Distinctive Epstein-Barr Virus Variants Associated with Benign and Malignant Pediatric Pathologies: LMP1 Sequence Characterization and Linkage with Other Viral Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gantuz, Magdalena; Altcheh, Jaime; De Matteo, Elena; Chabay, Paola Andrea; Preciado, María Victoria

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is related to the development of lymphoma and is also the etiological agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM). Sequence variations in the gene encoding LMP1 have been deeply studied in different pathologies and geographic regions. Controversial results propose the existence of tumor-related variants, while others argued in favor of a geographical distribution of these variants. Reports assessing EBV variants in IM were performed in adult patients who displayed multiple variant infections. In the present study, LMP1 variants in 15 pediatric patients with IM and 20 pediatric patients with EBV-associated lymphomas from Argentina were analyzed as representatives of benign and malignant infections in children, respectively. A 3-month follow-up study of LMP1 variants in peripheral blood cells and in oral secretions of patients with IM was performed. Moreover, an integrated linkage analysis was performed with variants of EBNA1 and the promoter region of BZLF1. Similar sequence polymorphisms were detected in both pathological conditions, IM and lymphoma, but these differ from those previously described in healthy donors from Argentina and Brazil. The results suggest that certain LMP1 polymorphisms, namely, the 30-bp deletion and high copy number of the 33-bp repeats, are associated with EBV-related pathologies, either benign or malignant, instead of just being tumor related. Additionally, this is the first study to describe the Alaskan variant in EBV-related lymphomas that previously was restricted to nasopharyngeal carcinomas from North America. PMID:22205789

  18. Recent Advances on the Possible Neuroprotective Activities of Epstein-Barr Virus Oncogene BARF1 Protein in Chronic Inflammatory Disorders of Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, Alicia; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Khanna, Rajiv; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases in which cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are lost or damaged are rapidly increasing in frequency, and there is neither effective treatment nor cure to impede or arrest their destructive course. The Epstein-Barr virus is a human gamma-herpesvirus that infects more than 90% of the human population worldwide and persisting for the lifetime of the host. It is associated with numerous epithelial cancers, principally undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma. Individuals with a history of symptomatic primary EBV infection, called infectious mononucleosis, carry a moderately higher risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). It is not known how EBV infection potentially promotes autoimmunity and central nervous system (CNS) tissue damage in MS. Recently it has been found that EBV isolates from different geographic regions have highly conserved BARF1 epitopes. BARF1 protein has the neuroprotective and mitogenic activity, thus may be useful to combat and overcome neurodegenerative disease. BARF1 protein therapy can potentially be used to enhance the neuroprotective activities by combinational treatment with anti-inflammatory antagonists and neuroprotectors in neural disorders. PMID:21358976

  19. Distinctive Epstein-Barr virus variants associated with benign and malignant pediatric pathologies: LMP1 sequence characterization and linkage with other viral gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Mario Alejandro; Gantuz, Magdalena; Altcheh, Jaime; De Matteo, Elena; Chabay, Paola Andrea; Preciado, María Victoria

    2012-03-01

    The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is related to the development of lymphoma and is also the etiological agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM). Sequence variations in the gene encoding LMP1 have been deeply studied in different pathologies and geographic regions. Controversial results propose the existence of tumor-related variants, while others argued in favor of a geographical distribution of these variants. Reports assessing EBV variants in IM were performed in adult patients who displayed multiple variant infections. In the present study, LMP1 variants in 15 pediatric patients with IM and 20 pediatric patients with EBV-associated lymphomas from Argentina were analyzed as representatives of benign and malignant infections in children, respectively. A 3-month follow-up study of LMP1 variants in peripheral blood cells and in oral secretions of patients with IM was performed. Moreover, an integrated linkage analysis was performed with variants of EBNA1 and the promoter region of BZLF1. Similar sequence polymorphisms were detected in both pathological conditions, IM and lymphoma, but these differ from those previously described in healthy donors from Argentina and Brazil. The results suggest that certain LMP1 polymorphisms, namely, the 30-bp deletion and high copy number of the 33-bp repeats, are associated with EBV-related pathologies, either benign or malignant, instead of just being tumor related. Additionally, this is the first study to describe the Alaskan variant in EBV-related lymphomas that previously was restricted to nasopharyngeal carcinomas from North America.

  20. EBNA1 sequences in Argentinean pediatric acute and latent Epstein-Barr virus infection reflect circulation of novel South American variants.

    PubMed

    Lorenzetti, Mario Alejandro; Altcheh, Jaime; Moroni, Samanta; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Chabay, Paola Andrea; Preciado, María Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is related to the development of lymphomas and is also the etiological agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM). Sequence variation of the EBNA1 gene, consistently expressed in all EBV-positive cells, has been widely studied. Based on the amino acid at codon 487 five major EBNA1 variants have been described, two closely related prototypic variants (P-ala and P-thr) and three variant sequences (V-leu, V-val, and V-pro). Sub-variants were then further classified based on mutations other than the originally described. While several studies proposed associations with tumors and/or anatomical compartments, others argued in favor of a geographical distribution of these variants. In the present study, EBNA1 variants in 11 pediatric patients with IM and 19 pediatric EBV lymphomas from Argentina were compared as representatives of benign and malignant infection in children, respectively. A 3-month follow-up study of EBNA1 variants in peripheral blood cells and in oral secretions of patients with IM was performed. A new V-ala variant which includes five V-ala sub-variants and three new V-leu sub-variants was described. These data favor the geographical association hypothesis since no evidence for a preferential compartment distribution of EBNA1 variants and sub-variants was found. This is the first study to characterize EBNA1 variants in pediatric patients with infection mononucleosis worldwide. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.