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Sample records for equatorial atlantic ocean

  1. Interannual atmospheric variability forced by the deep equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Hormann, Verena; Dengler, Marcus; Greatbatch, Richard J; Toole, John M

    2011-05-26

    Climate variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is determined by large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, which particularly affect deep atmospheric convection over the ocean and surrounding continents. Apart from influences from the Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, the tropical Atlantic variability is thought to be dominated by two distinct ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability that are characterized by meridional and zonal sea-surface-temperature gradients and are mainly active on decadal and interannual timescales, respectively. Here we report evidence that the intrinsic ocean dynamics of the deep equatorial Atlantic can also affect sea surface temperature, wind and rainfall in the tropical Atlantic region and constitutes a 4.5-yr climate cycle. Specifically, vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength with a period of about 4.5 yr and amplitudes of more than 10 cm s(-1) are observed, in the deep Atlantic, to propagate their energy upwards, towards the surface. They are linked, at the sea surface, to equatorial zonal current anomalies and eastern Atlantic temperature anomalies that have amplitudes of about 6 cm s(-1) and 0.4 °C, respectively, and are associated with distinct wind and rainfall patterns. Although deep jets are also observed in the Pacific and Indian oceans, only the Atlantic deep jets seem to oscillate on interannual timescales. Our knowledge of the persistence and regularity of these jets is limited by the availability of high-quality data. Despite this caveat, the oscillatory behaviour can still be used to improve predictions of sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic. Deep-jet generation and upward energy transmission through the Equatorial Undercurrent warrant further theoretical study.

  2. Layered basic complex in oceanic crust, romanche fracture, equatorial atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Melson, W G; Thompson, G

    1970-05-15

    A layered, basic igneous intrusion, analogous in mineralogy and texture to certain large, continental layered complexes, is exposed in the Romanche Fracture, equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Crustal intrusion of large masses of basic magmas with their subsequent gravity differentiation is probably one of a number of major processes involved in the formation of new oceanic crust during sea-floor spreading.

  3. Anthropogenic CO2 changes in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, N. M.; Guallart, E. F.; Steinfeldt, R.; Ríos, A. F.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Pelejero, C.; Calvo, E.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-05-01

    Methods based on CO2 and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) data are used to describe and evaluate the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) concentrations, Cant specific inventories, and Cant storage rates in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The Cant variability in the water masses is evaluated from the comparison of two hydrographic sections along 7.5°N carried out in 1993 and 2010. During both cruises, high Cant concentrations are detected in the upper layers, with values decreasing progressively towards the deep layers. Overall, the Cant concentrations increase from 1993 to 2010, with a large increment in the upper North Atlantic Deep Water layer of about 0.18 ± 0.03 μmol kg-1 y-1. In 2010, the Cant inventory along the whole section amounts to 58.9 ± 2.2 and 45.1 ± 2.0 mol m-2 using CO2 and CFC based methods, respectively, with most Cant accumulating in the western basin. Considering the time elapsed between the two cruises, Cant storage rates of 1.01 ± 0.18 and 0.75 ± 0.17 mol m-2 y-1 (CO2 and CFC based methods, respectively) are obtained. Below ∼1000 m, these rates follow the pace expected from a progressive increase of Cant at steady state; above ∼1000 m, Cant increases faster, mainly due to the retreat of the Antarctic Intermediate Waters.

  4. A New Starting point for the History of South and Equatorial Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.; Olivet, J.; Labails, C.; Rabineau, M.

    2005-05-01

    The nature and genesis of the large, thinned transitional zone of the continental passive margins is still a matter of debate. Any further progress in that subject must imply an intregrated structural study of homologous margins, replaced in a very precise pre-opening kinematic reconstruction to constraint horizontal movements. In South and Equatorial Atlantic oceans, the pre-opening misfits problem has been already addressed by several authors and requires an assessment of rigidity of african and/or south american continental plates which border those oceans. Nevertheless the lack of magnetic anomalies, the pre-opening fit of the Equatorial Atlantic ocean is well constrained due to the presence of well-defined oceanic fracture zones, homologous Demerara and Guinea Plateaus, paralellism of the coasts and Kandi and Sobral continental lineations. This contraint compels us to resort to intraplate deformation to close the South Atlantic Ocean. Intregrating all continental deformations of both plates described in the litterature, we propose here the closest pre-opening fit for the Central part of the South Atlantic. This pre-opening fit leaves a large pre-drift thinned basin of several hundred kilometers which cannot be explained by any process which implies more horizontal movement (stretching, simple shear.). South of the Walvis-Rio Grande ridges, the pre-opening fit implies intraplate deformation in Paraña, Solado and Colorado basins (South America) as already suggested by Unternehr et al (1988) and Nürnberg & Müller (1991).

  5. Mercury Concentrations in Tuna (Thunnus albacares and Thunnus obesus) from the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Goyanna, F; Bezerra, M F; Silva, G B

    2017-02-01

    Average total Hg concentrations measured in muscle of two species of tuna (Thunnus obesus and T. albacares) captured in the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Ocean varied from 95 to 1748 ng.g(-1) wet weight in T. obesus and 48 to 500 ng.g(-1) wet weight in T. albacares. Higher concentrations in T. obesus are probably related to foraging on deep water carnivorous fish. Smaller individuals of both species showed the lowest concentrations, but a significant positive relationship between fish weight and length and Hg concentrations was found for T. obesus, but not for T. albacares. Largest individuals (>30 kg) of T. obesus showed Hg concentrations ≥1000 ng.g(-1), surpassing the legal limits for human consumption, although the average concentration for this species was much lower (545 ng.g(-1)). Concentrations in T. albacares from the Brazilian Equatorial were lower than those found in the African and in the North Atlantic. No comparison could be made for T. obesus due to few studies for this species in the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    EPA Science Inventory


    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury
    (Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996
    IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseous
    mercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  7. Abyssal ostracods from the South and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Biological and paleoceanographic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Martinez, Arbizu P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the distribution of ostracods from ???5000 m depth from the Southeast and Equatorial Atlantic Ocean recovered from the uppermost 10 cm of minimally disturbed sediments taken by multiple-corer during the R/V Meteor DIVA2 expedition M63.2. Five cores yielded the following major deep-sea genera: Krithe, Henryhowella, Poseidonamicus, Legitimocythere, Pseudobosquetina, and Pennyella. All genera are widely distributed in abyssal depths in the world's oceans and common in Cenozoic deep-sea sediments. The total number of ostracod specimens is higher and ostracod shell preservation is better near the sediment-water interface, especially at the 0-1 cm core depths. Core slices from ???5 to 10 cm were barren or yielded a few poorly preserved specimens. The DIVA2 cores show that deep-sea ostracod species inhabit corrosive bottom water near the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) even though their calcareous valves are rarely preserved as fossils in sediment cores due to postmortem dissolution. Their occurrence at great water depths may partially explain the well-known global distributions of major deep-sea taxa in the world's oceans, although further expeditions using minimal-disturbance sampling devices are needed to fill geographic gaps. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An Early Cenozoic Ichthyolith Record from Demerara Rise (ODP Site 1258: Equatorial Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, R. M.; Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peak global warmth during the early Eocene is a partial analog to the future structure of marine ecosystems in a high pCO2 world. Early Eocene oceans are generally regarded as supporting warmer oceans with lower overall productivity than today owing to the low concentrations of preserved organic matter in pelagic sediments. It has also been proposed that Eocene oceans were about as productive as now, but higher respiration rates in a warmer-than-modern ocean more efficiently recycled organic matter and nutrients. We investigated Eocene export productivity and its link to taxonomic diversity using the pelagic ichthyolith record. Ichthyoliths are calcium phosphate microfossils including fish teeth and shark denticles and their fragments, and are a unique paleoceanographic proxy because they represent a fossil record for marine vertebrates, a charismatic and tangible part of the ecosystem that generally goes unrepresented in the fossil record. Analysis of the ichthyolith record in Ocean Drilling Program Site 1258 (NE South America) shows a remarkable increase in accumulation rate of ichthyoliths from the Paleocene into the Eocene, suggesting that onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum in the equatorial Atlantic was favorable to fish production. Our results suggest that, if anything, the early Eocene maintained higher productivity than in the late Paleocene. These results compare favorably with a record of ichthyolith accumulation in the South Pacific (DSDP 596), which also indicates unusually high rates of fish productivity in the peak of Eocene warm climates. Low resolution data sets from the Pacific suggest an explosion of morphotypes during the warm period associated with an increase in ichthyolith mass accumulation rates. Peak global warmth, therefore, appears to be associated with both higher fish production and higher taxonomic diversity than suggested by previous reconstructions of Eocene primary production. Increasing the amount of continuous records of

  9. Metagenomic analysis of sediments under seaports influence in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Tallita Cruz Lopes; Normando, Leonardo Ribeiro Oliveira; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel

    2016-07-01

    Maritime ports are anthropogenic interventions capable of causing serious alterations in coastal ecosystems. In this study, we examined the benthic microbial diversity and community structure under the influence of two maritime ports, Mucuripe (MUC) and Pecém (PEC), at Equatorial Atlantic Ocean in Northeast Brazil. Those seaports differ in architecture, time of functioning, cargo handling and contamination. The microbiomes from MUC and PEC were also compared in silico to 11 other globally distributed marine microbiomes. The comparative analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) retrieved by PCR-DGGE showed that MUC presents greater richness and β diversity of Bacteria and Archaea than PEC. In line with these results, metagenomic analysis showed that MUC and PEC benthic microbial communities share the main common bacterial phyla found in coastal environments, although can be distinguish by greater abundance of Cyanobacteria in MUC and Deltaproteobacteria in PEC. Both ports differed in Archaea composition, being PEC port sediments dominated by Thaumarchaeota. The microbiomes showed little divergence in their potential metabolic pathways, although shifts on the microbial taxonomic signatures involved in nitrogen and sulphur metabolic pathways were observed. The comparative analysis of different benthic marine metagenomes from Brazil, Australia and Mexico grouped them by the geographic location rather than by the type of ecosystem, although at phylum level seaport sediments share a core microbiome constituted by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericuteres, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes and Euryarchaeota. Our results suggest that multiple physical and chemical factors acting on sediments as a result of at least 60years of port operation play a role in shaping the benthic microbial communities at taxonomic level, but not at functional level.

  10. Vulnerability to longline fisheries of three hammerhead shark Sphyrna species in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, N P A; Travassos, P; Hazin, F H V

    2016-08-01

    Catch and effort data from 29 418 longline sets from Brazilian tuna longline vessels operating in the south-western and equatorial Atlantic Ocean between 2004 and 2011 were analysed to investigate the distribution, catch rate and size of three species of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna mokarran and Sphyrna zygaena). During that period, 6172 hammerhead sharks were caught. Among the elasmobranchs, the highest percentage of hammerhead sharks were caught in 2007, when they accounted for 3·90% of the group, while the lowest value of 0·40% was recorded in 2010. In general, the spatial distribution of the mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) by years and quarters showed a trend of higher catches near the equatorial region and in southern Brazil. The nominal mean CPUE was 0·12 Sphyrna spp. 1000(-1) hooks, with the highest value being recorded in 2007 (0·30 Sphyrna spp. 1000(-1) hooks). The standardized yearly CPUE estimated by a generalized linear model assuming a zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution were not much different from nominal values. Of the 205 sexed specimens, 117 were females and 88 were males, resulting in a sex ratio with a predominance of females (1·30:1·00), although not statistically significant. The total length of females ranged from 1200 to 2800 mm and of males from 1100 to 3100 mm. Juvenile hammerhead sharks represented 82 and 54% of the sexed female and male specimens, respectively.

  11. New dense-grid aeromagnetic map of Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac, northeastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1985-02-01

    As part of a major project to procure miscellaneous geophysical coverage of the entire country, the Geological Survey of Nigeria has acquired aeromagnetic data, presented as contour maps at various scales, over the nation's 7 sedimentary basins. The coverage over the Nigerian continental margin, acquired at 2500 ft above sea level, was flown at 4-km flight-line spacing in a north-northeasterly direction and at 20-km tie-line spacing in a west-northwesterly direction. Another tie line was flown along the coastline. Twenty 1:250,000 one-degree square, total intensity aeromagnetic contour maps covering the marginal basins down to the shelf break were assembled into a single aeromagnetic map of the Gulf of Guinea cul-desac. The map area lies within lat. 3/sup 0/-8/sup 0/N, and long. 2/sup 0/-9/sup 0/E. It covers the Nigerian portion of the Dahomey embayment, the Anambra and Niger delta basins, and the southern portion of the Benue rift. The map covers the location of the postulated Late Cretaceous triple junction involving the Benue Trough aulacogen, the northward-propagating South Atlantic, and the transform-dominated Equatorial Atlantic. In addition to the region seaward of the continental shelf, the map covers the Niger Delta basin, the basement of which is also inferred to consist mainly of oceanic crust prograded by the thick sediments of the Tertiary Niger delta. This areas is also the location of the Late Cretaceous coalescence of the North Atlantic and South Atlantic spreading systems hitherto separate from one another. This new aeromagnetic map fills an important data gap (due to proprietary restrictions and acquisition difficulties) in previous studies of this oil-prolific and geologically unique province. The map would be useful in future structural and tectonics studies of the Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac.

  12. Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Seasonal Occurrence, Abundance and Demographic Structure in the Mid-Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Macena, Bruno C L; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2016-01-01

    Whale sharks are generally associated with environmental factors that drive their movements to specific locations where food availability is high. Consequently, foraging is believed to be the main reason for the formation of whale shark aggregations. Feeding aggregations occur mainly in nearshore areas and are composed primarily of immature individuals. Conversely, aggregations of mature adults are rarely observed, and their occurrence is correlated with oceanic environments. Despite an increase in the number of whale shark studies, information on mating and parturition grounds is still lacking. In the present work, we assessed the ecological and behavioural aspects of the whale sharks that visit the archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo (ASPSP), located ~1,000 km off the coast of Brazil in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Forty-nine whale sharks were recorded from February 2005 to May 2014. The estimated mean ± SD size was 8.27 ± 2.52 m (range: 2.5-14.0 m) with no significant differences in size across the year. The maturational stages were classified by size as immature (<8.0 m; 32.56%) and mature (>9.0 m; 46.51%); with almost half of the observed animals being mature specimens. The majority of sightings occurred between February and June. During this period, the ocean current weakens and the waters are enriched by eggs and larvae of fishes and invertebrates that attract marine life to forage. At the same time, evidence of reproductive activity in adult females (i.e. swollen abdomen and bite marks on the pectoral fins), and the potential mating behaviour exhibited by one male, suggest that the ASPSP area might also have a role in whale shark reproduction. Irrespective of its use for feeding or reproduction, this insular habitat serves as a meeting point for both juvenile and adult whale sharks, and may play an important ecological role for the species.

  13. Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Seasonal Occurrence, Abundance and Demographic Structure in the Mid-Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Fábio H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Whale sharks are generally associated with environmental factors that drive their movements to specific locations where food availability is high. Consequently, foraging is believed to be the main reason for the formation of whale shark aggregations. Feeding aggregations occur mainly in nearshore areas and are composed primarily of immature individuals. Conversely, aggregations of mature adults are rarely observed, and their occurrence is correlated with oceanic environments. Despite an increase in the number of whale shark studies, information on mating and parturition grounds is still lacking. In the present work, we assessed the ecological and behavioural aspects of the whale sharks that visit the archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo (ASPSP), located ~1,000 km off the coast of Brazil in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Forty-nine whale sharks were recorded from February 2005 to May 2014. The estimated mean ± SD size was 8.27 ± 2.52 m (range: 2.5–14.0 m) with no significant differences in size across the year. The maturational stages were classified by size as immature (<8.0 m; 32.56%) and mature (>9.0 m; 46.51%); with almost half of the observed animals being mature specimens. The majority of sightings occurred between February and June. During this period, the ocean current weakens and the waters are enriched by eggs and larvae of fishes and invertebrates that attract marine life to forage. At the same time, evidence of reproductive activity in adult females (i.e. swollen abdomen and bite marks on the pectoral fins), and the potential mating behaviour exhibited by one male, suggest that the ASPSP area might also have a role in whale shark reproduction. Irrespective of its use for feeding or reproduction, this insular habitat serves as a meeting point for both juvenile and adult whale sharks, and may play an important ecological role for the species. PMID:27783634

  14. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  15. Vertical transport of steroid alcohols and ketones measured in a sediment trap experiment in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagosian, Robert B.; Smith, Steven O.; Nigrelli, Gale E.

    1982-07-01

    The vertical flux and free steroid alcohol (sterol) and ketone composition of particulate material was determined using sediment traps deployed at 389, 988, 3755 and 5068 m at a station in the equatorial North Atlantic, PARFLUX E. Cholest-5-en-3β-ol (cholesterol) was found to be the dominant sterol in all the traps. This compound had a maximum flux at 988 m, accounting for more than 90% of the sterols at this depth. Inputs from mesopelagic Zooplankton populations living in or migrating to depths between the 389 and 988 m traps appear to be responsible for this distribution. The deeper two traps exhibited an increased flux of phytosterols relative to cholesterol, probably due to (a) the incorporation of labile phytoplankton remains in fecal pellets and rapid transport into the deep sea and (b) differential dissolution of heterogeneous large particles. A maximum of 5-22% of the sterols produced in the euphotic zone were present in the 389 m trap. This value drops to less than 1% for the 5068 m trap, 200 m above the sediment surface. In general steroid ketone fluxes gradually decreased with depth. Δ4-Stenones were found in greater abundance than their saturated counterparts. Cholest-4-en-3-one was the major steroid ketone detected in all the traps. A five-fold increase with depth in the cholest-4-en-3-one to cholesterol ratio is most likely due to microbial oxidation of sterols to steroid ketones, or higher Δ4-stenone inputs relative to sterols from organisms.

  16. Anomalous opening of the Equatorial Atlantic due to an equatorial mantle thermal minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Enrico

    1996-09-01

    The geology of the Equatorial Atlantic is dominated by a broad east-west megashear belt where a cluster of large fracture zones offsets anomalously deep segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The origin and evolution of this megashear region may lie ultimately in an equatorial mantle thermal minimum. The notion of a mantle thermal minimum in the Equatorial Atlantic is supported by an equatorial minimum of zero-age topography, a maximum in mantle shear waves seismic velocity and a minimum in the degree of melting, indicated by the chemistry of MAR basalts and peridotites. This thermal minimum has probably been a stable feature since before the Cretaceous separation of Africa from South America; it caused a pre-opening equatorial continental lithosphere thicker and colder than normal. The Cretaceous Benue Trough in western Africa and the Amazon depression in South America are interpreted as morphostructural depressions created or rejuvenated by strike-slip, transpressional and transtensional tectonics ducing extension of the cold/thick equatorial lithosphere. The oceanic rift propagating northward from the South Atlantic impinged against the equatorial thicker, colder and, therefore, stronger than normal continental, lithosphere that consequently acted as a 'locked zone'. This, and a low magmatic budget due to the cold upper mantle, caused a lower than normal rate of propagation of the oceanic rift into the equatorial belt, with diffuse deformation during mostly amagmatic extension. The thick/cold lithosphere prevented major Cretaceous igneous activity from the St. Helena plume. Eventually initial 'weak' isolated nuclei oceanic lithosphere were emplaced, separated by E-W continent/continent transforms. Opening occurred largely by strike-slip motion along these initial transforms. The consequences were that the Equatorial Atlantic opened prevalently along an E-W direction, in contrast to the N-S opening of the North and South Atlantic, and that sheared continental

  17. The Cretaceous Thermal Maximum and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the Tropics: Sea- Surface Temperature and Stable Organic Carbon Isotopic Records from the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, A.; Schouten, S.; Baas, M.; Moriya, K.; Wilson, P. A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2) occurring during the Cenomanian/Turonian transition, is evident from a global positive stable carbon isotopic excursion and presumably represents the most extreme carbon cycle perturbation of the last 100 Myr. However, the impact of this major perturbation on and interaction with global climate remains unclear. OAE-2 occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, a time in Earth history characterized by extreme global warmth culminating in the so-called Cretaceous thermal maximum. Thus, records of paleo-sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the mid-Cretaceous oceans are particularly important for understanding greenhouse climate conditions. We will present new high-resolution SST-records based on an organic proxy, the TetraEther indeX of 86 carbon atoms (TEX86), and δ18O of excellently preserved, "glassy" planktic foraminifera, combined with stable organic carbon isotopes generated from marine black shales located offshore Suriname/French Guiana (ODP Site 1260) and Senegal (DSDP Site 367). At Site 1260 a good match between conservative SST estimates from TEX86 and δ18O is observed. Late Cenomanian SSTs in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean (~33°C) were substantially warmer than today (~27-29°C) and the onset of OAE-2 coincided with a rapid shift to an even warmer (~35-36°C) regime. Within the early stages of OAE-2 a marked (~4°C) cooling is observed. However, well before the termination of OAE-2, the warm regime was re-established and persisted into the Turonian. Our findings corroborate the view that the C/T-transition represents the onset of peak Cretaceous warmth, that mid-Cretaceous warmth can be attributed to high levels of atmospheric CO2 and that major OAEs were capable of triggering global cooling through the negative feedback effect of organic carbon burial-led CO2-sequestration. However, the factors that gave rise to the observed shift to a warmer climate regime at the onset of OAE-2 were sufficiently powerful that they were only briefly

  18. North-south compression, active uplift, and abyssal mantle exhumation of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rock, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoki, A.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T. F.; Motoki, K. F.; Szatmari, P.; Poseidon-Colmeia

    2013-05-01

    This article presents near N-S compression, active uplift tectonism, and the consequent abyssal mantle exhumation of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rock, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The mantle peridotite ridge is about 80 km long, 25 km wide, 3800 m high, and of near E-W direction. The ridge flanks are extremely steep with sub-vertical scarps of about 2000 m of relative height. The Flandrian wave-cut and the 14C datings for the carbonaceous algae of the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rock indicate active uplift of 1.5 mm/year. The tectonic factures shows conjugated system of N-S compression tending slightly to NW-ES. Close to the peridotite ridge, the earthquakes with near N-S compression focal mechanism take place. The southern half of the peridotite ridge is constituted by undeformed peridotite. The existence of corrugation morphology indicates that the mantle rocks are originated from old megamullion. On the other hand, the northern half is composed of strongly deformed mylonitic peridotite suggesting that the ultramafic rocks are possibly originated from sub-crustal abyssal mantle of old transform fault. The mylonite structure is intensely perturbed indicating the tectonic events which disturbed the original parallel structure. The Saint Paul transform fault zone is characterized by E-W trend right lateral movement and the near N-S compression is unlikely. Therefore, an unusual local geotectonic process is expected. This tectonism was originated from the plate boundary jump at about 8 Ma, caused by the emergence of a new ridge segment, and the new transform fault is oblique to the relative plate movement. This angular discrepancy causes the compression perpendicular to the oblique transform fault, of near N-S direction, which squeeze out the sub-crustal abyssal mantle up to sea level. Therefore, the peridotite Ridge is considered to be a pressure ridge of the strike-slip movement of the Saint Paul transform fault.

  19. Tropical warming and intermittent cooling during the Cenomanian/Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2: Sea surface temperature records from the equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Astrid; Schouten, Stefan; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Wilson, Paul A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2007-03-01

    Oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE-2) occurring during the Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) transition is evident from a globally recognized positive stable carbon isotopic excursion and is thought to represent one of the most extreme carbon cycle perturbations of the last 100 Myr. However, the impact of this major perturbation on and interaction with global climate remains unclear. Here we report new high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) based on TEX86 and δ18O of excellently preserved planktic foraminifera and stable organic carbon isotopes across the C/T transition from black shales located offshore Suriname/French Guiana (Demerara Rise, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 207 Site 1260) and offshore Senegal (Cape Verde Basin, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 41 Site 367). At Site 1260, where both SST proxy records can be determined, a good match between conservative SST estimates from TEX86 and δ18O is observed. We find that late Cenomanian SSTs in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean (≥33°C) were substantially warmer than today (˜27°-29°C) and that the onset of OAE-2 coincided with a rapid shift to an even warmer (˜35°-36°C) regime. Within the early stages of the OAE a marked (˜4°C) cooling to temperatures lower than pre-OAE conditions is observed. However, well before the termination of OAE-2 the warm regime was reestablished and persisted into the Turonian. Our findings corroborate the view that the C/T transition represents the onset of the interval of peak Cretaceous warmth. More importantly, they are consistent with the hypotheses that mid-Cretaceous warmth can be attributed to high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and that major OAEs were capable of triggering global cooling through the negative feedback effect of organic carbon-burial-led CO2 sequestration. Evidently, however, the factors that gave rise to the observed shift to a warmer climate regime at the onset of OAE-2 were sufficiently powerful that they were only briefly counterbalanced

  20. Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

    2013-10-15

    Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area.

  1. Interannual Variability of Boreal Summer Rainfall in the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic rainfall patterns and variation during boreal summer [June-July-August (JJA)] are quantified by means of a 28-year (1979-2006) monthly precipitation dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Rainfall variability during boreal spring [March-April-May (MAM)] is also examined for comparison in that the most intense interannual variability is usually observed during this season. Comparable variabilities in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) strength and the basin-mean rainfall are found during both seasons. Interannual variations in the ITCZ's latitudinal location during JJA however are generally negligible, in contrasting to intense year-to-year fluctuations during MAM. Sea surface temperature (SST) oscillations along the equatorial region (usually called the Atlantic Nino events) and in the tropical north Atlantic (TNA) are shown to be the two major local factors modulating the tropical Atlantic climate during both seasons. During MAM, both SST modes tend to contribute to the formation of an evident interhemispheric SST gradient, thus inducing anomalous shifting of the ITCZ and then forcing a dipolar structure of rainfall anomalies across the equator primarily in the western basin. During JJA the impacts however are primarily on the ITCZ strength likely due to negligible changes in the ITCZ latitudinal location. The Atlantic Nino reaches its peak in JJA, while much weaker SST anomalies appear north of the equator in JJA than in MAM, showing decaying of the interhemispheric SST mode. SST anomalies in the tropical central-eastern Pacific (the El Nino events) have a strong impact on tropical Atlantic including both the tropical north Atlantic and the equatorial-southern Atlantic. However, anomalous warming in the tropical north Atlantic following positive SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific disappears during JJA because of seasonal changes in the large-scale circulation cutting off the ENSO influence passing through the

  2. Detailed Phosphorus Geochemistry of Sediments from the Equatorial Proto-Atlantic at Demerara Rise During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Latimer, J.; Pugh, E.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic anoxic events (OAE) are associated with increased organic matter burial and possibly major changes in marine nutrient cycling. Phosphorus (P) limits biological productivity on geologic timescales, thus detailed P geochemistry may provide insight into the role of nutrients on the formation of these organic-rich deposits. P geochemical records that encompass the complete OAE 2 interval across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB, ~94 Ma) are rare, and detailed P geochemical records are usually limited to relatively shallow settings. In this study, a sequential extraction (SEDEX) technique is employed to evaluate the sedimentary distribution of P (oxide-associated, authigenic, detrital and organic) in sediments mainly consisting of laminated black shales spanning the CTB/OAE2 interval at a sample resolution of ~2-5 cm collected from Demerara Rise during ODP Leg 207. Intermediate (Site 1260, 2549 m) and deep-sea (Site 1258, 3292 m) water depths will be compared to assess variations in P distribution across the CTB, with paleo-water depths of ~500 to 1000 m respectively. Diagenetic and redox conditions result in alterations of the sedimentary distribution of P in ancient sediments; most notably the effect of "sink-switching" of organic P to authigenic and/or oxide-associated phases. Here we evaluate the impacts of diagenetic remobilization of P through the critical OAE 2 interval. Sequential extraction enables an examination of the dominant pathways of P removal from the ocean thus providing insight into marine P mass balance. Initial results reveal little or undetectable concentrations of oxide-associated and organic P. Authigenic and detrital phases dominate the extractable P. Under anoxic conditions Fe-oxides would no longer be a major sedimentary sink and would likely lead to losses of oxide-associated P from the sediments. Low concentrations of organic P are likely due to diagenetic alteration to authigenic carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) and oxide

  3. Coupled marine productivity and salinity and West African monsoon variability over the last 30,000 years in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marret, F.; Kim, S.-Y.; Scourse, J.; Kennedy, H.

    2009-04-01

    around 20 cal ka BP, and the second from 15.2 to 13.2 cal ka BP, during the deglaciation period, when strengthening of the monsoon occurred in a context of open vegetation, allowing an increased erosion of soil. Evidence of decrease salinity due to strengthening of the monsoon dynamics is also observed from the Sanaga core, with the increased abundance of a marine taxon linked to low saline context from 12.5 cal ka BP onwards (2). The study of these integrated records of marine and terrestrial proxies illustrates the complexity of interactions between land-ocean and atmospheric systems and emphasizes the need for high-resolution records to fully understand the coupled equatorial climate system. References 1- Marret, F., Scourse, J., Kennedy, H. Ufkes, E., and Jansen, J.H.F., 2008. Marine production in the Congo-influenced SE Atlantic over the past 30,000 years: A novel dinoflagellate-cyst based transfer function approach. Marine Micropaleontology 68, 198-222. 2- Kim, S.Y., 2007, Dinoflagellate cyst and pollen stratigraphy of Niger and Ogouée fan sediments covering the last glacial cycle. PhD thesis, Bangor University.

  4. Fertilizing the Amazon and equatorial Atlantic with West African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Charlie S.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Chappell, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays a vital role in Earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles. The Bodélé Depression in Chad has been identified as the single biggest source of atmospheric mineral dust on Earth. Dust eroded from the Bodélé is blown across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. The mineral dust contains micronutrients such as Fe and P that have the potential to act as a fertilizer, increasing primary productivity in the Amazon rain forest as well as the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and thus leading to N2 fixation and CO2 drawdown. We present the results of chemical analysis of 28 dust samples collected from the source area, which indicate that up to 6.5 Tg of Fe and 0.12 Tg of P are exported from the Bodélé Depression every year. This suggests that the Bodélé may be a more significant micronutrient supplier than previously proposed.

  5. Long waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, George; Halpern, David; Hansen, Donald; Legeckis, Richard; Miller, Laury; Watts, Randolph; Wimbush, Mark; Paul, Carl; Watts, Randolph; Weisberg, Robert

    Westward traveling waves, with a period of 3 weeks and a wavelength of ˜1000 km, are observed intermittently in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (see cover). The waves were first detected in 1975 in satellite measurements of the sea surface temperature [Legeckis, 1977]. Since then, additional measurements (under the auspices of the NOAA program Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS)) with a variety of instruments—drifting buoys, current meters and temperature sensors on moorings, and inverted echo sounders—have provided considerable information about these waves and have confirmed the hypothesis that they are caused by instabilities associated primarily with the latitudinal shear of the surface currents near the equator [Philander, 1978a; Cox, 1980].

  6. Models of the Equatorial Ocean Circulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    doctoral committee for their encouragement and advice in the development of this work. I am especially indebted to Dr. Julian P. McCreary of Nova University...large scale wind fluctuations thousands of kilometers to the west in the Central Pacific ( McCreary , 1977). A better understanding of such events could...all equatorial oceans can be found in Knauss (1963); Philander (1973b); Leetmaa, McCreary and Moore (1980); Tsuchiya (1975); Cochrane et al. (1979) and

  7. Why are rings regularly shed in the western equatorial Atlantic but not in the western Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron

    The western equatorial Atlantic is characterized by the formation and shedding of 3-4 large anticyclonic rings per year. These rings originate from the North Brazil Current which, in response to the vanishing wind stress curl (over the ocean interior), retroflects and turns eastward at around 4°N. After their formation and shedding the rings propagate toward the northwest along the South American coast carrying an annual average of about 4Sv. As such, the rings constitute an important part of the meridional heat flux in the Atlantic. The same cannot be said, however, of the western equatorial Pacific. Here, the situation is entirely different even though the South Equatorial Current retroflects at roughly the same latitude as its Atlantic counterpart, the North Brazil Current. Although the South Equatorial Current retroflection is flanked by two quasi-permanent eddies (the so-called Halmahera and the Mindanao eddies), these eddies are an integral part of the current itself and are not shed. Consequently, they are not associated with any meridional heat flux. An important question is, then, why the two oceans behave in such a fundamentally different way even though the source of the rings, the retroflected currents, are very similar in the two oceans. To answer this question, the two oceans are compared using recently developed analytical and numerical models for the western equatorial oceans. It is first pointed out that, according to recent developments in the modelling of the western equatorial Atlantic, the North Brazil Current retroflection rings are formed, shed and drift to the west because, in the Atlantic, this is the only way by which the momentum flux of the approaching and retroflecting current can be balanced. In this scenario, the northwestward flow force exerted by the approaching and retroflecting North Brazil Current (analogous to the force created by a rocket) is balanced by the southwestward force exerted by the rings as they are formed

  8. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  9. A Long, Consistent Surface Wind Dataset for Climate Change Analysis: Application over the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokinaga, H.; Xie, S.

    2010-12-01

    Surface wind change is a principal factor for spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) warming through changes in surface evaporation, ocean vertical mixing and wind-driven ocean circulation. However, historical ship-based measurements of sea surface wind speed displays a spurious upward trend due to increases in anemometer height. To correct this bias, we construct the Wave and Anemometer-based Sea-surface Wind (WASWind) dataset for the last six decades from ICOADS ship reports, applying height correction for anemometer measured winds, rejecting spurious Beaufort winds, and using wind wave height to estimate wind speed. WASWind substantially reduces the upward trend in wind speed and its trend patterns are quite similar to satellite-measured surface wind changes for the recent two decades. Surface wind changes in WASWind are consistent with historical sea level pressure observations over the global oceans, illustrating its utility for climate change analysis. As an example, WASWind captures relaxation of the equatorial trade winds coupled with a weakening of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue over the last six decades. The surface wind changes are also consistent with those in atmospheric convection and subsurface temperature in this region, indicating that thermocline feedback plays a key role in recent climate change over the equatorial Atlantic.

  10. Formerly emerging crustal blocks in the equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Enrico; Chermak, Andy

    1981-02-01

    Anomalous crustal topographic highs, exceeding the level predicted by the thermal contraction model by up to 2-3 km, are observed along the Romanche Transform Zone in the equatorial Atlantic. Previous studies of shallow-water reef limestones recovered from one of the shallowest sites on these crustal highs indicated that this site was at or above sea level 5 million years ago and subsided since at an average rate one order of magnitude faster than the subsidence estimated by thermal contraction of the crust. Seismic reflection profiles obtained across the Romanche Transform Zone suggest that the anomalous highs are capped by reef limestones not only where limestones were actually sampled, but also at other locations. These findings support the idea that long segments of crust reached close to sea level in the past along the Romanche Transform Zone. The vertical crustal motions are probably caused by tectonism typical of long-offset transforms. Inasmuch as the Romanche has been a ridge—ridge transform since the earliest stages of the opening of the equatorial Atlantic, it is likely that intense vertical tectonic motions occurred along it throughout the evolution of the Atlantic. Support for this hypothesis is provided by the recovery during DSDP Leg 4 of shallow water reef limestone of the Eocene Age from the summit of the North Brazilian Ridge along the western extension of the Romanche Fracture Zone. The presence of shallow or emergent crust across the equatorial zone during the early stages of opening had probably important consequences upon the water circulation between the North and the South Atlantic, and may even have provided "land bridges" for faunal migrations between Africa and South America in early Cenozoic times after the two continents had already separated.

  11. Oceanic origin of southeast tropical Atlantic biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Patricola, Christina M.; Chang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Most coupled general circulation models suffer from a prominent warm sea surface temperature bias in the southeast tropical Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. The origin of the bias is not understood and remains highly controversial. Previous studies suggest that the origin of the bias stems from systematic errors of atmospheric models in simulating surface heat flux and coastal wind, or poorly simulated coastal upwelling. In this study, we show, using different reanalysis and observational data sets combined with a set of eddy-resolving regional ocean model simulations, that systematic errors in ocean models also make a significant contribution to the bias problem. In particular (1) the strong warm bias at the Angola-Benguela front that is maintained by the local wind and the convergence of Angola and Benguela Currents is caused by an overshooting of the Angola Current in ocean models and (2) the alongshore warm bias to the south of the front is caused by ocean model deficiencies in simulating the sharp thermocline along the Angola coast, which is linked to biases in the equatorial thermocline, and the complex circulation system within the Benguela upwelling zone.

  12. /sup 14/C distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stuiver, M.

    1980-05-20

    The amount of /sup 14/C produced by nuclear bomb testing that entered the Atlantic Ocean by late 1972 was 1.71 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..mol/cm/sup 2/ of ocean surface area for the west Atlantic (36/sup 0/S-45/sup 0/N) and 1.18 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..mol/cm/sup 2/ for the east Atlantic (50/sup 0/S-28/sup 0/N) Geochemical Ocean Sections Study stations. There are strong latitudinal differences in the integrated amount of bomb /sup 14/C content in Atlantic waters. Bomb-produced /sup 14/C is mostly encountered near the center of the large mid-latitude gyres, whereas the equatorial region has a lower /sup 14/C inventory. The average ocean wide vertical distribution of bomb /sup 14/C in the Atlantic can be explained by a vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of 4.0 cm/sup 2//s in the surface mixed layer plus thermocline gyre reservoirs. The average /sup 14/C activity per unit area measured in the Atlantic yields an atmosphere-ocean CO/sub 2/ exchange rate of 23 mol/m/sup 2/ yr, which is equivalent with an atmospheric CO/sub 2/ residence time of 6.8 years.

  13. Massively parallel implementation of a high order domain decomposition equatorial ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; McCaffrey, J.W.; Piacsek, S.

    1999-06-01

    The present work is about the algorithms and parallel constructs of a spectral element equatorial ocean model. It shows that high order domain decomposition ocean models can be efficiently implemented on massively parallel architectures, such as the Connection Machine Model CM5. The optimized computational efficiency of the parallel spectral element ocean model comes not only from the exponential convergence of the numerical solution, but also from the work-intensive, medium-grained, geometry-based data parallelism. The data parallelism is created to efficiently implement the spectral element ocean model on the distributed-memory massively parallel computer, which minimizes communication among processing nodes. Computational complexity analysis is given for the parallel algorithm of the spectral element ocean model, and the model's parallel performance on the CM5 is evaluated. Lastly, results from a simulation of wind-driven circulation in low-latitude Atlantic Ocean are described.

  14. MASSIVELY PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION OF A HIGH ORDER DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION EQUATORIAL OCEAN MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    MA,H.; MCCAFFREY,J.W.; PIACSEK,S.

    1998-07-15

    The present work is about the algorithms and parallel constructs of a spectral element equatorial ocean model. It shows that high order domain decomposition ocean models can be efficiently implemented on massively parallel architectures, such as the Connection Machine Model CM5. The optimized computational efficiency of the parallel spectral element ocean model comes not only from the exponential convergence of the numerical solution, but also from the work-intensive, medium-grained, geometry-based data parallelism. The data parallelism is created to efficiently implement the spectral element ocean model on the distributed-memory massively parallel computer, which minimizes communication among processing nodes. Computational complexity analysis is given for the parallel algorithm of the spectral element ocean model, and the model's parallel performance on the CM5 is evaluated. Lastly, results from a simulation of wind-driven circulation in low-latitude Atlantic ocean are described.

  15. Sedimentary cover deformations in the equatorial Atlantic and their comparison with geophysical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, S. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    The deformations of the sedimentary cover at near-latitudinal geotraverses west and east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the equatorial part of ocean are compared with potential fields and variations of the V p/ V s attribute at a depth of 470 km. The features of sedimentary cover deformations in abyssal basins are formulated, as well as their differences from the undisturbed bedding of sediments. The elements of chain of phenomena with common spatial manifestations and cause-and-effect relationships have been established, including heterogeneous horizontal movements, which make up macrojointing above "cold" mantle blocks at a depth of 470 km; serpentinization of upper-mantle rocks; the formation of superposed magnetic anomalies; the release of the fluids, which acoustically bleach out the sedimentary sequence in seismic imaging; and decompaction of rocks leading to vertical motions and forced folding. The origin of the Atlantic marginal dislocation zone is explained. The coincidence of the deformation boundary in the equatorial Atlantic with the zero contour line of the V p/ V s attribute is revealed. This coincidence is an indicator of the rheological state of the upper mantle.

  16. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    PubMed

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles.

  17. The seismicity of the equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge and its long-offset transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Dziak, R. P.; Palmiotto, C.; Parnell-Turner, R. E.; Zheleznov, A.

    2012-12-01

    An array of eight hydrophones is monitoring seismicity of the equatorial Atlantic between 20N and 10S. The array is obtaining a two-year, continuous record of seismicity, which will provide an important new view of the spatial and temporal patterns of seismicity at the slow-spreading equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and its long-offset transforms. The hydroacoustically-recorded seismicity, which will be in hand in 2014, can be used to address several key questions concerning the modes of spreading along the strongly offset equatorial MAR, the short-term earthquake predictability on some of the longest transform faults in the oceans, and the dynamics of the NA-SA-AF triple junction whose exact location is not known. In addition, seismic patterns of the entire South Atlantic will be obtained (at reduced location accuracy), and will aid in understanding the dynamics of the southern MAR, Walvis Ridge, Rio Grande Rise, and other prominent seafloor features. The hydroacoustic data will also allow characterization of cetacean populations in the region as well as an assessment of the ambient noise levels due to shipping and oil exploration. To provide additional information on the short-term earthquake predictability (retrospective) on oceanic transform faults, we are identifying all magnitude mb >5 earthquakes in our existing hydroacoustic databases and searching for systematic foreshock activity associated with these events. We have multi-year earthquake databases accumulated from past hydrophone experiments along the Central, Southwest and Southeast Indian Ridges, the Juan de Fuca Ridge system, and the northern MAR. Preliminary results are very promising, and there appear to be several examples of clear foreshocks preceding mainshocks by several hours. Also as part of this project, we are compiling a bathymetric map of the equatorial MAR and its transforms between 20N and 10S. There have been several international mapping efforts in this region and the integration of

  18. Isotopic composition of dissolved iron in the Equatorial Pacific and the Southern oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, A.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.; Poitrasson, F.; Sarthou, G.

    2009-12-01

    Iron is a fundamental element linking ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Iron isotopes are a very promising tool for the study of the iron oceanic cycle, notably for tracing its sources to the ocean and/or for studying its speciation. Several studies reports iron isotopic data in the marine environment: in plankton tows, pore waters, aerosols, seafloor or marginal seas (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006; Severmann et al., 2006; De Jong et al., 2007). To link these isotopic data together and to fully study the iron isotope marine cycle, we need to document the central reservoir in the marine environment : dissolved iron in seawater, espacially in High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (NHLC) areas. So far there are very few comunicated data of dissolved iron isotopic composition in the open ocean (Rouxel, 2008; Lacan et al., 2008; John and Andkins, 2009;). Here, the first profiles in HNLC areas will be presented : 2 full-depth profiles in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (EUCFe 2006), 2 full-depth profiles in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (Bonus-GoodHope 2008) and some data from the Kerguelen area (Southern Ocean, KEOPS 2005). δ56Fe values range from -0.7‰ to more than 1.0‰. All the samples from the Equatorial Pacific Ocean display positive values (heavy iron) whereas samples from the Sourthern Ocean display rather negative values (light iron), especially around 450 m deepth. These results will be discussed in terms of iron sources to ocean. Potential applications of this new tracer for studying internal oceanic processes, such as biological uptake, will be discussed.

  19. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... to only one recurring marine event, held on the Atlantic Ocean, offshore of Atlantic City, New Jersey... Atlantic Ocean near Atlantic City, New Jersey, during the event. DATES: This rule will be effective on...

  20. Hydrogen in the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    Although hydrogen (H2) is considered as one of the most important future energy carriers, little is known about the global biogeochemical cycle of this trace gas (Rhee et al. 2006). In order to assess the potential impact of expected increasing H2 concentrations to the atmosphere a fundamental understanding of the global H2 cycle is indispensable (Tromp et al. 2003, Warwick et al. 2004). Oceans are one source of atmospheric H2, produced by biological processes such as fermentation and N2-fixation and abiotic photochemical processes (Punshon and Moore 2008 and references herein). Further information can be obtained by studying the isotope composition of H2. However, the isotopic ratio of oceanic released H2 is unknown and has so far only been estimated from thermodynamic equilibrium. We investigated the atmospheric D/H isotopic ratio of H2 in the Atlantic Ocean. First results of atmospheric H2 isotope ratios from the West African coast of Mauritania and from a meridional transect over the Atlantic Ocean will be presented. Samples were taken onboard the German research vessel "Poseidon" in February 2007 associated to SOPRAN and during the cruise Ant XXIV-4 with the German research vessel "Polarstern" in April 2008 between Punta Arenas (Chile) and Bremerhaven (Germany). Literature Punshon, S. and R.M. Moore; Aerobic hydrogen production and dinitrogen fixation in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101; Limnol. Oceanogr., 53(6), 2749-2753, 2008. Rhee, T.S., C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, and T. Röckmann; The overwhelming role of soils in the global atmospheric hydrogen cycle, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1611-1625, 2006. Tromp, T.K., Shi, R.-L., Allen, M., Eiler, J.M., and Y. L. Yung1; Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere, Science, 300, 1740-1742, 2003. Warwick, N.J., Bekki, S., Nisbet, E.G., and J.A. Pyle; Impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere and troposphere studied in a 2-D model; Geo.Res.Lett., 31, L05107, doi:10

  1. Westward propagating twin gyres in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.; Deo, A. A.; Ganer, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    A reduced-gravity (1$\\frac{1}{2-layer) model forced by daily climatological winds simulates twin, anticyclonic gyres, which propagate westward on either side of the equator. The gyres form at the beginning of both the Southwest Monsoon and the Northeast monsoon in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean, and subsequently propagate across the basin. Their existence is supported by velocity observations taken during WOCE in 1995 and by TOPEX/Poseidon sea-level observations during 1993. They are also present in the ECCO model/data product. They form at the front of a Rossby-wave packet generated by the reflection of the equatorial jet (EJ) from the eastern boundary of the basin. They are likely either Rossby solitons or result from the nonlinear interaction between the EJ and the Rossby-wave front.

  2. The Low-Frequency Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa; Mo, Kingtse C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Upper ocean temperature variability in the tropical Atlantic is examined from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) as well as from an ocean model simulation forced by COADS anomalies appended to a monthly climatology. Our findings are as follows: Only the sea surface temperatures (SST) in the northern tropics are driven by heat fluxes, while the southern tropical variability arises from wind driven ocean circulation changes. The subsurface temperatures in the northern and southern tropics are found to have a strong linkage to buoyancy forcing changes in the northern North Atlantic. Evidence for Kelvin-like boundary wave propagation from the high latitudes is presented from the model simulation. This extratropical influence is associated with wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) forcing and manifests itself in the northern and southern tropical temperature anomalies of the same sign at depth of 100-200 meters as result of a Rossby wave propagation away from the eastern boundary in the wake of the boundary wave passage. The most apparent association of the southern tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (STA) arises with the anomalous cross-equatorial winds which can be related to both NAO and the remote influence from the Pacific equatorial region. These teleconnections are seasonal so that the NAO impact on the tropical SST is the largest it mid-winter but in spring and early summer the Pacific remote influence competes with NAO. However, NAO appears to have a more substantial role than the Pacific influence at low frequencies during the last 50 years. The dynamic origin of STA is indirectly confirmed from the SST-heat flux relationship using ocean model experiments which remove either anomalous wind stress forcing or atmospheric forcing anomalies contributing to heat exchange.

  3. Seasonal sea surface cooling in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue controlled by ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Moum, James N; Perlin, Alexander; Nash, Jonathan D; McPhaden, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is a critical control on the atmosphere, and numerical models of atmosphere-ocean circulation emphasize its accurate prediction. Yet many models demonstrate large, systematic biases in simulated SST in the equatorial 'cold tongues' (expansive regions of net heat uptake from the atmosphere) of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, particularly with regard to a central but little-understood feature of tropical oceans: a strong seasonal cycle. The biases may be related to the inability of models to constrain turbulent mixing realistically, given that turbulent mixing, combined with seasonal variations in atmospheric heating, determines SST. In temperate oceans, the seasonal SST cycle is clearly related to varying solar heating; in the tropics, however, SSTs vary seasonally in the absence of similar variations in solar inputs. Turbulent mixing has long been a likely explanation, but firm, long-term observational evidence has been absent. Here we show the existence of a distinctive seasonal cycle of subsurface cooling via mixing in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue, using multi-year measurements of turbulence in the ocean. In boreal spring, SST rises by 2 kelvin when heating of the upper ocean by the atmosphere exceeds cooling by mixing from below. In boreal summer, SST decreases because cooling from below exceeds heating from above. When the effects of lateral advection are considered, the magnitude of summer cooling via mixing (4 kelvin per month) is equivalent to that required to counter the heating terms. These results provide quantitative assessment of how mixing varies on timescales longer than a few weeks, clearly showing its controlling influence on seasonal cooling of SST in a critical oceanic regime.

  4. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD....

  5. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City,...

  6. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support...

  7. Dinocyst assemblage constraints on oceanographic and atmospheric processes in the eastern equatorial Atlantic over the last 44 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, William; Penaud, Aurélie; Marret, Fabienne; Bayon, Germain; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    A new 44 kyr long record of dinoflagellate (phytoplanktonic organisms) cysts (dinocysts) is presented from a marine sediment core collected on the Congolese margin with the aim of reconstructing past hydrological changes in the equatorial eastern Atlantic Ocean since Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 3. Our high-resolution dinocyst record indicates that significant temperature and moisture variations occurred across the glacial period, the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The use of specific dinocyst taxa, indicative of fluvial, upwelling and Benguela Current past environments for instance, provides insights into the main forcing mechanisms controlling palaeohydrological changes on orbital timescales. In particular, we are able, for the last 44 kyr, to correlate fluvial-sensitive taxa to monsoonal mechanisms related to precession minima-obliquity maxima combinations. While upwelling mechanisms appear as the main drivers for dinoflagellate productivity during MIS 2, dissolved nutrient-enriched Congo River inputs to the ocean also played a significant role in promoting dinoflagellate productivity between approximately 15.5 and 5 ka BP. Finally, this high-resolution dinocyst study permits us to precisely investigate the suborbital timing of the last glacial-interglacial termination, including an atypical warm and wet oceanic LGM signature, northern high-latitude abrupt climate change impacts in the equatorial eastern Atlantic, as well as a two-step decrease in moisture conditions during the Holocene at around 7-6 and 4-3.5 ka BP.

  8. Biogeography and potential exchanges among the atlantic Equatorial belt cold-seep faunas.

    PubMed

    Olu, Karine; Cordes, Erik E; Fisher, Charles R; Brooks, James M; Sibuet, Myriam; Desbruyères, Daniel

    2010-08-05

    Like hydrothermal vents along oceanic ridges, cold seeps are patchy and isolated ecosystems along continental margins, extending from bathyal to abyssal depths. The Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB), from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of Guinea, was one focus of the Census of Marine Life ChEss (Chemosynthetic Ecosystems) program to study biogeography of seep and vent fauna. We present a review and analysis of collections from five seep regions along the AEB: the Gulf of Mexico where extensive faunal sampling has been conducted from 400 to 3300 m, the Barbados accretionary prism, the Blake ridge diapir, and in the Eastern Atlantic from the Congo and Gabon margins and the recently explored Nigeria margin. Of the 72 taxa identified at the species level, a total of 9 species or species complexes are identified as amphi-Atlantic. Similarity analyses based on both Bray Curtis and Hellinger distances among 9 faunal collections, and principal component analysis based on presence/absence of megafauna species at these sites, suggest that within the AEB seep megafauna community structure is influenced primarily by depth rather than by geographic distance. Depth segregation is observed between 1000 and 2000 m, with the middle slope sites either grouped with those deeper than 2000 m or with the shallower sites. The highest level of community similarity was found between the seeps of the Florida escarpment and Congo margin. In the western Atlantic, the highest degree of similarity is observed between the shallowest sites of the Barbados prism and of the Louisiana slope. The high number of amphi-atlantic cold-seep species that do not cluster according to biogeographic regions, and the importance of depth in structuring AEB cold-seep communities are the major conclusions of this study. The hydrothermal vent sites along the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) did not appear as "stepping stones" for dispersal of the AEB seep fauna, however, the south MAR and off axis regions should be further

  9. Strong middepth warming and weak radiocarbon imprints in the equatorial Atlantic during Heinrich 1 and Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, Syee; Friedrich, Tobias; Timmermann, Axel; Schneider, Ralph R.

    2016-08-01

    We present a benthic foraminiferal multiproxy record of eastern equatorial Atlantic (EEA) middepth water (1295 m) covering the last deglacial. We show that EEA middepth water temperatures were elevated by 3.9 ± 0.5°C and 5.2 ± 1.2°C during Heinrich event 1 (H1) and Younger Dryas (YD), respectively. The radiocarbon content of the EEA middepth during H1 and YD is relatively low and comparable to the values of the pre-H1 episode and Bølling-Allerød, respectively. A transient Earth system model simulation, which mimics the observed deglacial Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) history, qualitatively reproduces the major features of the EEA proxy records. The simulation results suggest that fresh water-induced weakening of the AMOC leads to a vertical shift of the horizon of Southern Ocean-sourced water and a stronger influence of EEA sea surface temperatures via mixing. Our findings reaffirm the lack of a distinctive signature of radiocarbon depletion and therefore do not support the notion of interhemispheric exchanges of strongly radiocarbon-depleted middepth water across the tropical Atlantic during H1 and YD. Our temperature reconstruction presents a critical zonal and water depth extension of existing tropical Atlantic data and documents a large-scale and basin-wide warming across the thermocline and middepth of the tropical Atlantic during H1 and YD. Significant difference in the timing and pace of H1 middepth warming between tropical Atlantic and North Atlantic likely points to a limited role of the tropical Atlantic middepth warming in the rapid heat buildup in the North Atlantic middepth.

  10. Organic matter in eolian dusts over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The elemental and mineralogical composition and the microfossil and detritus content of particulate fallout from the lower troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean have been extensively documented in earlier work, and it was possible to ascribe terrigenous source areas to such fallout. A brief review of the organic geochemistry of eolian dusts is also presented here. The lipids of eolian dusts sampled from the air mass over the eastern Atlantic from about 35 deg N to 30 deg S were analyzed here. These lipids consisted mainly of normal alkanes, carboxylic acids and alcohols. The n-alkanes were found to range from n-C23 to n-C35 with high CPI values and maximizing at n-C27 in the North Atlantic, at n-C29 in the equatorial Atlantic and at n-C31 in the South Atlantic. The n-fatty acids had mostly bimodal distributions, ranging from n-C12 to n-C30 (high CPI), with maxima at n-C16 and in the northern samples at n-C24 and in the southern samples at n-C26. The n-alcohols ranged from n-C12 to n-C32, with high CPI values and maxima mainly at n-C28. The compositions of these lipids indicated that their terrigenous sources were comprised mainly of higher plant vegetation and desiccated lacustrine mud flats on the African continent.

  11. Modeling Mesoscale Eddies in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Yi

    1999-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.

  12. The Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Roi; Dyment, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The separation of South America from Africa during the Cretaceous is poorly understood due to the long period of stable polarity of the geomagnetic field, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, lasted between ∼121 and 83.6 Myr ago). We present a new identification of magnetic anomalies located within the southern South Atlantic magnetic quiet zones that have arisen due to past variations in the strength of the dipolar geomagnetic field. Using these anomalies, together with fracture zone locations, we calculate the first set of magnetic anomalies-based finite rotation parameters for South America and Africa during that period. The kinematic solutions are generally consistent with fracture zone traces and magnetic anomalies outside the area used to construct them. The rotations indicate that seafloor spreading rates increased steadily throughout most of the Cretaceous and decreased sharply at around 80 Myr ago. A change in plate motion took place in the middle of the superchron, roughly 100 Myr ago, around the time of the final breakup (i.e., separation of continental-oceanic boundary in the Equatorial Atlantic). Prominent misfit between the calculated synthetic flowlines (older than Anomaly Q1) and the fracture zones straddling the African Plate in the central South Atlantic could only be explained by a combination of seafloor asymmetry and internal dextral motion (<100 km) within South America, west of the Rio Grande fracture zone. This process has lasted until ∼92 Myr ago after which both Africa and South America (south of the equator) behaved rigidly. The clearing of the continental-oceanic boundaries within the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway was probably completed by ∼95 Myr ago. The clearing was followed by a progressive widening and deepening of the passageway, leading to the emergence of north-south flow of intermediate and deep-water which might have triggered the global cooling of bottom water and the end for the Cretaceous greenhouse period.

  13. Chlorofluoromethane distributions in the deep equatorial Atlantic during January-March 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrié, Chantal; Ternon, Jean-Fran çois; Messias, Marie-José; Memery, Laurent; Bourlès, Bernard

    1998-06-01

    Chlorofluoromethanes were sampled along two zonal sections, at 4°30 S and 7°30 N between the African and American continents (A7 and A6 WOCE sections) and two meridional sections, at 35°W and 3°50W, during the CITHER 1 cruise (part of the French program CITHER (CIrculation THERmohaline) during January-March 1993. The results reported here deal primarily with the North Atlantic Deep Water, just ten years after the first CFM snapshot of the tropical Atlantic ocean obtained during the Transient Tracers in the Ocean Program (TTO) ( Weiss et al., 1985. Nature 314, 608-610). The data provide evidence for the eastward bifurcation of the deep flow near the equator, on both UNADW and LNADW levels. The distributions clearly show the CFM signal corresponding to the UNADW penetrating into the eastern basin: at 3°50W the CFM core extends from 4°S to 3°N with a maximum around 2°S. On both UNADW and LNADW levels, the bifurcation does not occur exactly on the equator but a few degrees south and seems to be partly induced by topographic effects. Previously published circulation schemes for UNADW and LNADW levels are compared to the CITHER 1 CFM data. Great variability is revealed and new patterns from the data are highlighted. The "young" deep component of the AABW flow seems to be stopped by the topography just north of the equatorial channel. TTO and CITHER 1 data set comparison and "apparent" ages lead to minimal values of the propagation rate of the CFC signal at low latitudes.

  14. Rapid ocean wave teleconnections linking Antarctic salinity anomalies to the equatorial ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, C. P.; Wells, N. C.; Blaker, A. T.; Sinha, B.; Ivchenko, V. O.

    2009-04-01

    The coupled climate model FORTE is used to investigate rapid ocean teleconnections between the Southern Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean. Salinity anomalies located throughout the Southern Ocean generate barotropic signals that propagate along submerged topographic features and result in the growth of baroclinic energy anomalies around Indonesia and the tropical Pacific. Anomalies in the Ross, Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas exchange the most barotropic kinetic energy between high and low latitudes. In the equatorial Pacific, baroclinic Kelvin waves are excited which propagate eastwards along the thermocline, resulting in SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific. SST anomalies are subsequently amplified to magnitudes of 1.25°C by air-sea interaction, which could potentially influence other coupled Pacific phenomena.

  15. Intraseasonal mixed-layer heat budget in the equatorial Atlantic during the cold tongue development in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordani, Hervé; Caniaux, Guy; Voldoire, Aurore

    2013-02-01

    Estimating the mixed-layer heat budget is a key issue for understanding the cold tongue development in the eastern equatorial Atlantic. A high-resolution ocean regional model is used to diagnose the mixed-layer heat budget online during the EGEE-3 experiment from May to August 2006. The heat budget shows the major role of the horizontal advection and turbulent mixing in the mixed-layer temperature balance in the cold tongue. The surface net heat flux and entrainment processes play a minor role. The equatorial cooling is mainly induced by low-frequency advection, which is balanced by high-frequency zonal and meridional advections. The high-frequency advections are organized in patterns along the northern edge of the cold tongue, where they are associated with strong sea surface temperature gradients and well-developed tropical instability waves in the western Atlantic. Special attention is paid to the wind energy flux, which controls horizontal advection and turbulent mixing. We suggest that the wind energy flux drives the vertical velocity, which in turn adjusts the mixed-layer depth, its stratification, and the vertical shear of the horizontal current. Although vertical advection is not essential in providing cold water in the Atlantic cold tongue, it is shown that the vertical velocity plays a central role in preconditioning the mixed layer and maximizes the turbulent mixing.

  16. The sources of deep ocean infragravity waves observed in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Wayne; Ballu, Valerie; Bertin, Xavier; Karpytchev, Mikhail

    2015-07-01

    Infragravity waves are long-period (25-250 s) ocean surface gravity waves generated in coastal zones through wave-wave interactions or oscillation of the breaking point. Most of the infragravity wave energy is trapped or dissipated near coastlines, but a small percentage escapes into the open oceans. The source of deep ocean infragravity waves is debated, specifically whether they come mostly from regions with strong source waves or from sites with particular morphologies/orientations. We correlate measurements of infragravity waves in the deep North Atlantic Ocean with infragravity wave generation parameters throughout the Atlantic Ocean to find the dominant sources of deep ocean infragravity wave energy in the North Atlantic Ocean. The deep ocean infragravity wave data are from a 5 year deployment of absolute pressure gauges west of the Azores islands (37°N, 35°W) and shorter data sets from seafloor tsunami gauges (DART buoys). Two main sources are identified: one off of the west coast of southern Europe and northern Africa (25°N-40°N) in northern hemisphere winter and the other off the west coast of equatorial Africa (the Gulf of Guinea) in southern hemisphere winter. These regions have relatively weak source waves and weak infragravity wave propagation paths to the main measurement site, indicating that that the site morphology/orientation dominates the creation of deep ocean infragravity waves. Both regions have also been identified as potential sources of global seismological noise, suggesting that the same mechanisms may be behind the generation of deep ocean infragravity waves and global seismological noise in the frequency band from 0.001 to 0.04 Hz.

  17. Carbon disulfide measurements in the atmosphere of the western North Atlantic and the northwestern South Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Alan R.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) measurements were made over the western and equatorial North Atlantic Ocean and the northwestern and equatorial South Atlantic Ocean. Carbon disulfide was in the range 0.4-50 pptrv in the atmosphere of the western North Atlantic Ocean. Emissions from anthropogenic sources and wet lands were found to be important although anthropogenic sources were 4-6 times larger than biogenic sources. The flux of CS2 from eastern North America between 30 and 39 deg latitude was estimated to be 2 x 10(exp 8)g/yr or sulfur. The anthropogenic contribution was 1.8 x 10(exp 8)g/yr of sulfur whereas the contribution of marshes was 0.2 x 10(exp 8)g/yr of sulfur. Sources of CS2 at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere were comparatively weak. Carbon disulfide levels in the western South Atlantic Ocean between -5 and 1 deg latitude were in the range 0.2-6 pptrv. Most of the CS2 appeared to come from biomass burning in Africa. Carbon disulfide was much higher close to shore suggesting that the South American continent was a significant source although too few data were available to quantify it. On ferry lights from Wallops, Virginia to Natal, Brazil, CS2 levels at the ferry altitude of about 6 km averaged 1.2 pptrv. This background CS2 was adequate to account for all the carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the atmosphere.

  18. Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B; Worthen, Denise L

    2011-11-04

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  19. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multidecadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially 1996 to 2010). It also describes much longer time scale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme pre-greenhouse-gas northern warming of the 1930s to 1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  20. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  1. Tropical Atlantic climate response to different freshwater input in high latitudes with an ocean-only general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Guang; Wan, Xiuquan; Liu, Zedong

    2016-10-01

    Tropical Atlantic climate change is relevant to the variation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) through different physical processes. Previous coupled climate model simulation suggested a dipole-like SST structure cooling over the North Atlantic and warming over the South Tropical Atlantic in response to the slowdown of the AMOC. Using an ocean-only global ocean model here, an attempt was made to separate the total influence of various AMOC change scenarios into an oceanic-induced component and an atmospheric-induced component. In contrast with previous freshwater-hosing experiments with coupled climate models, the ocean-only modeling presented here shows a surface warming in the whole tropical Atlantic region and the oceanic-induced processes may play an important role in the SST change in the equatorial south Atlantic. Our result shows that the warming is partly governed by oceanic process through the mechanism of oceanic gateway change, which operates in the regime where freshwater forcing is strong, exceeding 0.3 Sv. Strong AMOC change is required for the gateway mechanism to work in our model because only when the AMOC is sufficiently weak, the North Brazil Undercurrent can flow equatorward, carrying warm and salty north Atlantic subtropical gyre water into the equatorial zone. This threshold is likely to be model-dependent. An improved understanding of these issues may have help with abrupt climate change prediction later.

  2. Impact of Indian Ocean Dipole on the salinity budget in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Based on ocean reanalysis data sets and observations, this study analyzes the variability of salinity and its associated ocean dynamics in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO). The results show that significant interannual variability of salinity in boreal fall are mainly associated with the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events, especially the positive IOD (pIOD) events. During pIOD events, forced by anomalous easterly winds, westward current anomalies strengthen the westward advection in summer and weaken the eastward advection of Wyrtki Jets in fall. Analysis of salinity budget indicates that salinity anomalies are mainly dominated by advection, in which zonal component is the key. As the zonal current anomalies are symmetric off the equator, mean zonal salinity gradients dominate the asymmetric distribution of low-salinity advection. Low-salinity water advects to the west, shoals mixed layer, favoring SST increasing after the mature phase of pIOD. After the decay phase, low-salinity water advects across the equator to the southwestern IO, which associates with the off-equatorial anticyclonic circulations in the southern IO. When pIOD events concur with El Niño, the low-salinity water advection strengthens and advects northward and southward simultaneously after the decay phase, due to the strong off-equatorial influence from El Niño.

  3. Deep currents and the eastward salinity tongue in the equatorial Atlantic: Results from an eddy-resolving, primitive equation model

    SciTech Connect

    Boening, C.W.; Schott, F.A. )

    1993-04-15

    The authors study the time and spatial dependence of the velocity of deep water circulation in the equatorial Atlantic by using a high resolution model of the wind-driven and thermohaline circulation. The model is the [open quotes]community modeling effort[close quotes], developed for the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, which is here extended to look at deeper waters. In the Atlantic, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) spreads cold, saline water south, the majority of which is carried in the deep western boundary current (DWBC), and this flow is compensated by northward motion of warmer surface waters. The actual flow velocities and patterns of this deep flow water are not well known, or well modelled at present. Salinity measurements indicate a major east west flow of deep water at the equator. The authors extend this ocean circulation model to deeper waters to try to address such flow questions, given surface wind forcing, and thermohaline circulation. The sparse experimental data indicates the presence of zonal currents at different depths, but such little data is available that it is difficult to assess the bearing this should have on model predictions.

  4. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  5. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520... Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. (a) Purpose. Sections 600.520 and 600.525 regulate all foreign fishing conducted under a GIFA within the EEZ in the Atlantic Ocean north of 35°00′ N. lat. (b) Authorized...

  6. Radiocarbon evidence for a possible abyssal front near 3.1 km in the glacial equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Lehman, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the radiocarbon ventilation age in deep equatorial Pacific sediment cores using the difference in conventional 14C age between coexisting benthic and planktonic foraminifera, and integrate those results with similar data from around the North Pacific Ocean in a reconstruction for the last glaciation (15 to 25 conventional 14C ka). Most new data from both the Equatorial Pacific and the Emperor Seamounts in the northwestern Pacific come from maxima in abundance of benthic taxa because this strategy reduces the effect of bioturbation. Although there remains considerable scatter in the ventilation age estimates, on average, ventilation ages in the Equatorial Pacific were significantly greater below 3.2 km (∼ 3080 ± 1125 yrs, n = 15) than in the depth interval 1.9 to 3.0 km (∼ 1610 ± 250 yrs, n = 12). When compared to the average modern seawater Δ14C profile for the North Pacific, the Equatorial Pacific glacial data suggest an abyssal front located somewhere between 3.0 and 3.2 km modern water depth. Above that depth, the data may indicate slightly better ventilation than today, and below that depth, glacial Equatorial Pacific data appear to be as old as last glacial maximum (LGM) deep water ages reported for the deep southern Atlantic. This suggests that a glacial reservoir of aged waters extended throughout the circumpolar Southern Ocean and into the Equatorial Pacific. Renewed ventilation of such a large volume of aged (and, by corollary, carbon-rich) water would help to account for the rise in atmospheric pCO2 and the fall in Δ14C as the glaciation drew to a close.

  7. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  8. Silver in the far North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Duarte, I.; Flegal, A. R.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Véron, A. J.

    Total (unfiltered) silver concentrations in higher latitudes of the North Atlantic (52-68°N) are reported for the second Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Global Investigation of Pollutants in the Marine Environment (GIPME) baseline survey of 1993. These silver concentrations (0.69-7.2 pM) are oceanographically consistent with those (0.24-9.6 pM) previously reported for lower latitudes in the eastern North and South Atlantic ( Flegal et al., 1995). However, surface (⩽200 m) water concentrations of silver (0.69-4.6 pM) in the northern North Atlantic waters are, on average, ten-fold larger than those (0.25 pM) considered natural background concentrations in surface waters of the central Atlantic. In contrast, variations in deep far North Atlantic silver concentrations are associated with discrete water masses. Consequently, the cycling of silver in the far North Atlantic appears to be predominantly controlled by external inputs and the advection of distinct water masses, in contrast to the nutrient-like biogeochemical cycling of silver observed in the central Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

  9. Anisotropic tomography of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, G.; Stutzmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a regional tri-dimensional model of the Atlantic Ocean with anisotropy. The model, derived from Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements, is defined from the Moho down to 300 km depth with a lateral resolution of about 500 km and is presented in terms of average isotropic S-wave velocity, azimuthal anisotropy and transverse isotropy. The cratons beneath North America, Brazil and Africa are clearly associated with fast S-wave velocity anomalies. The Mid Atlantic Ridge is a shallow structure in the North Atlantic corresponding to a negative velocity anomaly down to about 150 km depth. In contrast, the ridge negative signature is visible in the South Atlantic down to the deepest depth inverted, that is 300~km depth. This difference is probably related to the presence of hot-spots along or close to the ridge axis in the South Atlantic and may indicate a different mechanism for the ridge between the North and South Atlantic. Negative velocity anomalies are clearly associated with hot-spots from the surface down to at least 300km depth, they are much broader that the supposed size of the hot-spots and seem to be connected along a North-South direction. Down to 100 km depth, a fast S-wave velocity anomaly is extenting from Africa into the Atlantic Ocean within the zone defined as the Africa superswell area. This result indicates that the hot material rising from below does not reach the surface in this area but may be pushing the lithosphere upward. In most parts of the Atlantic, the azimuthal anisotropy directions remain stable with increasing depth. Close to the ridge, the fast S-wave velocity direction is roughly parallel to the sea floor spreading direction. The hot-spot anisotropy signature is striking beneath Bermuda, Cape Verde and Fernando Noronha islands where the fast S-wave velocity direction seems to diverge radially from the hot-spots. The Atlantic average radial anisotropy is similar to that of the PREM model, that is positive down to about

  10. An Analysis of the ENSO Signal in the Tropical Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Sharon E.

    1997-03-01

    This article examines the time-space evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal in the tropical Atlantic and western Indian Oceans, using harmonic analysis. Composites of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and other variables are examined for a 24-month period beginning 6 months prior to the year of maximum warming in the Pacific (termed year 0). An ENSO signal is apparent in the Atlantic in six out of eight Pacific episodes and in the Indian Ocean in all eight episodes. Warming begins along the south-eastern Atlantic coast early in year 0, some months later elsewhere in the Atlantic and in the Indian Ocean. Maximum warming occurs in the Atlantic in October-December of year 0, but in the following January-March in the Indian Ocean.In these oceans a cold phase occurs synchronously with the first half of the Pacific episode (July of year -1 to June of year 0, in the Rasmusson-Carpenter terminology), a warm phase with the second half. Maximum cooling is 1 year prior to maximum warming in both oceans. In the Atlantic the cold phase occurs most consistently; in the Indian Ocean the warm phase occurs most consistently. There is a season-by-season reversal of SST anomalies and, to a lesser extent, pressure anomalies between the cold and warm phases. This is the basis for the biennial component of the ENSO signal.Our results indicate that the ENSO signal in African rainfall variability is a manifestation of ENSO's influence on SSTs in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and, in turn, their influence on rainfall. The cold and warm phases correspond roughly to enhanced and reduced rainfall over the African continent, respectively. A similar reversal of rainfall anomalies is apparent season-by-season during these phases. The timing of the warming and cooling is relatively constant in the Indian Ocean. However, the onset of the warming and cooling in the south and equatorial Atlantic occurs progressively later from south to north, thus the signal propagates northward

  11. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  12. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  13. Importance of the Equatorial Undercurrent on the sea surface salinity in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Allada, C. Y.; Jouanno, J.; Gaillard, F.; Kolodziejczyk, N.; Maes, C.; Reul, N.; Bourlès, B.

    2017-01-01

    The physical processes implied in the sea surface salinity (SSS) increase in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) region during boreal spring and the lag observed between boreal spring SSS maximum and sea surface temperature (SST) summer minimum are examined using mixed-layer salinity budgets computed from observations and model during the period 2010-2012. The boreal spring SSS maximum is mainly explained by an upward flux of high salinity originating from the core of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) through vertical mixing and advection. The vertical mixing contribution to the mixed-layer salt budget peaks in April-May. It is controlled primarily by (i) an increased zonal shear between the surface South Equatorial Current and the subsurface EUC and (ii) the presence of a strong salinity stratification at the mixed-layer base from December to May. This haline stratification that is due to both high precipitations below the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and zonal advection of low-salinity water from the Gulf of Guinea explains largely the seasonal cycle of the vertical advection contribution to the mixed-layer salt budget. In the ACT region, the SST reaches its maximum in March/April and minimum in July/August. This SST minimum appears 1 month after the maximum of SSS. The 1 month lag observed between the maximum of SSS in June and the minimum of SST in July is explained by the shallowing of the EUC salinity core in June, then the weakening/erosion of the EUC in June-July which dramatically reduces the lateral subsurface supply of high-saline waters.

  14. Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data from multiple species of planktonic foraminifers from the equatorial Pacific and subtropical South Atlantic: Indicators of surface ocean productivity, diagenesis of the shells, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlett, J.; Mekik, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mn/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifers have been purported to be indicators of terrestrial input, marine oxidation-reduction reactions and sea surface productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific. We investigated this hypothesis using Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data from five species of planktonic foraminifers in 32 core tops from the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), five species from 12 core tops in the western equatorial Pacific, and two species from 15 core tops on the Rio Grande Rise. We present Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data from Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardii, Globigerina bulloides, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Globorotalia tumida from the eastern and western equatorial Pacific and from Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Globorotalia inflata on the Rio Grande Rise. We find that the environmental parameter depicted by Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios depends on the species of foraminifer from which the data was derived. Fe/Ca from N. dutertrei in the EEP have statistically significant and quantifiable relationships with apparent oxygen utilization, dissolved phosphate concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration in the habitat depths of this species. The Mn/Ca ratio from P. obliquiloculata and G. tumida are highest in regions of greatest productivity in the EEP. On the Rio Grande Rise, we explored the effect of dissolution in the sediments on Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios from planktonic foraminifers. We used the G. menardii fragmentation index as our sedimentary dissolution indicator, and found that dissolution does not have a strong effect on the Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios measured from foraminifers tests.

  15. Annual and semi-annual cycle of equatorial Atlantic circulation associated with basin mode resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Peter; Claus, Martin; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Kopte, Robert; Toole, John M.; Johns, William E.; Böning, Claus W.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variability of the tropical Atlantic circulation is dominated by the annual cycle, but semi-annual variability is also pronounced, despite weak forcing at that period. Here we use multi-year, full depth velocity measurements from the central equatorial Atlantic to analyze the vertical structure of annual and semi-annual variations of zonal velocity. A baroclinic modal decomposition finds that the annual cycle is dominated by the 4th mode and the semi-annual cycle by the 2nd mode. Similar local behavior is found in a high-resolution general circulation model. This simulation reveals that the annual and semi-annual cycles of the respective dominant baroclinic modes are associated with characteristic basin-wide structures. Using an idealized linear reduced-gravity model to simulate the dynamics of individual baroclinic modes, it is shown that the observed circulation variability can be best explained by resonant equatorial basin modes. Companion simulations using the reduced-gravity model varying the basin geometry, i.e. square basin versus realistic coastlines, and forcing, i.e. spatially uniform versus spatially varying wind forcing, show a structural robustness of the simulated basin modes. A main focus of this study is the seasonal variability of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) as identified in recent observational studies. Main characteristics of the observed EUC including seasonal variability of transport, core depth, and maximum core velocity can be explained by the linear superposition of the dominant equatorial basin modes as obtained from the reduced-gravity model.

  16. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... City, MD to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel...

  17. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity. PMID:27185933

  18. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  19. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years.

    PubMed

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F; Jaccard, Samuel L; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-31

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  20. Air-sea interactions and oceanic processes in the development of different Atlantic Niño patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Rey, Marta; Polo, Irene; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Lazar, Alban

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Niño is the leading mode of inter-annual variability of the tropical Atlantic basin at inter-annual time scales. A recent study has put forward that two different Atlantic Niño patterns co-exist in the tropical Atlantic basin during negative phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The leading mode, Basin-Wide (BW) Atlantic Niño is characterized by an anomalous warming extended along the whole tropical basin. The second mode, the Dipolar (D) Atlantic Niño presents positive Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the central-eastern equatorial band, surrounded by negative ones in the North and South tropical Atlantic. The BW Atlantic Niño is associated with a weakening of both Azores and Sta Helena High, which reduces the tropical trades during previous autumn-winter. On the other hand, the D-Atlantic Niño is related to a strengthening of the Azores and a weakening of Helena High given rise to a meridional Sea Level Pressure (SLP) gradient that originates an intensification of the subtropical trades and anomalous westerlies along the equatorial band. This different wind forcing suggests that different oceanic processes could act in the development of the BW and D Atlantic Niño patterns. For this reason, an inter-annual simulation with the ocean NEMO model has been performed and the heat budget analysis has been analysed for each Atlantic Niño mode. The results suggest that the two Atlantic Nino configurations have different timing. The heat budget analysis reveals that BW Atlantic Nino SST pattern is due to anomalous air-sea heat fluxes in the south tropical and western equatorial Atlantic during the autumn-winter, while vertical processes are responsible of the warming in the central and eastern part of the basin during late-winter and spring. For the D-Atlantic Nino, the subtropical cooling is attributed to turbulent heat fluxes, the equatorial SST signal is mainly forced by vertical entrainment. The role of the oceanic waves in the

  1. NOAA Research Vessel Explores Atlantic Ocean Seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-10-01

    Mike Ford, a biological oceanographer with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), sat rapt in front of a bank of high-definition monitors. They provided live video and data feeds from a tethered pair of instrument-laden remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) that were descending 4692 meters on their deepest dive ever. Their target: an unnamed and unexplored New England seamount discovered in the North Atlantic last year.

  2. Metal quotas of plankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Baines, Stephen B.; Bozard, James B.; Vogt, Stefan; Walker, Elyse A.; Nelson, David M.

    2011-03-01

    The micronutrient metals Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn are required for phytoplankton growth, and their availability influences ocean productivity and biogeochemistry. Here we report the first direct measurements of these metals in phytoplankton and protozoa from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cells representing 4 functional groups (diatoms, autotrophic flagellates, heterotrophic flagellates and autotrophic picoplankton) were collected from the surface mixed layer using trace-metal clean techniques during transects across the equator at 110°W and along the equator between 110°W and 140°W. Metal quotas were determined for individual cells with synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy, and cellular stoichiometries were calculated relative to measured P and S, as well as to C calculated from biovolume. Bulk particulate (>3 μm) metal concentrations were also determined at 3 stations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for comparison to single-cell stoichiometries. Phosphorus-normalized Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn ratios were significantly higher in diatoms than other cell types, while Co stoichiometries were highest in autotrophic flagellates. The magnitude of these effects ranged from approximately 2-fold for Mn in diatoms and autotrophic flagellates to nearly an order of magnitude for Fe in diatoms and picoplankton. Variations in S-normalized metal stoichiometries were also significant but of lower magnitude (1.4 to 6-fold). Cobalt and Mn quotas were 1.6 and 3-fold higher in autotrophic than heterotrophic flagellates. Autotrophic picoplankton were relatively enriched in Ni but depleted in Zn, matching expectations based on known uses of these metals in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Significant spatial variability in metal stoichiometries was also observed. At two stations deviations in Fe stoichiometries reflected features in the dissolved Fe distribution. At these same stations, high Ni stoichiometries in autotrophic flagellates were correlated with elevated ammonium

  3. Sensitivity of the Oceanic Turbulent Boundary Layer to Cyclic Insolation Change with Response Periods of 23 to 2.5 Ky: an Equatorial Atlantic Record for the Last 200 Ka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    Time series of sea-surface temperature in cores sited beneath the region of maximum divergence centered on 10 degrees W are characterized by two sets of periodic signals. The dominant signal is centered on a period of 23 Ky and is coherent with and lags, approx. 2.5 Ky, the precessional component of orbitally controlled insolation. The subdominant periods occur between 4.0 and 2.5 Ky. Both sets of signals record variation in the seasonal intensity of oceanic divergence modulated by variation in tropical easterly intensity. The longer periods are a response to precessional forcing. The forcing responsible for the shorter periods is unknown.

  4. Revisiting the cause of the eastern equatorial Atlantic cold event in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-07-01

    An extreme cold sea surface temperature event occurred in the Atlantic cold tongue region in boreal summer 2009. It was preceded by a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event associated with north-westerly wind anomalies along the equator from March to May. Although classical equatorial wave dynamics suggest that westerly wind anomalies should be followed by a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, an abrupt cooling took place. In the literature two mechanisms—meridional advection of subsurface temperature anomalies and planetary wave reflection—are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Here, for the first time we use in situ measurements in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both mechanisms to the 2009 cold event. Our results suggest that meridional advection is less important in cold events than in corresponding warm events, and, in particular, did not cause the 2009 cold event. Argo float data confirm previous findings that planetary wave reflection contributed to the onset of the 2009 cold event. Additionally, our analysis suggests that higher baroclinic modes were involved.

  5. High connectivity across the fragmented chemosynthetic ecosystems of the deep Atlantic Equatorial Belt: efficient dispersal mechanisms or questionable endemism?

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara; Olu, Karine; Decker, Carole; Cunha, Regina L; Fuchs, Sandra; Hourdez, Stéphane; Serrão, Ester A; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2013-09-01

    Chemosynthetic ecosystems are distributed worldwide in fragmented habitats harbouring seemingly highly specialized communities. Yet, shared taxa have been reported from highly distant chemosynthetic communities. These habitats are distributed in distinct biogeographical regions, one of these being the so-called Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB). Here, we combined genetic data (COI) from several taxa to assess the possible existence of cryptic or synonymous species and to detect the possible occurrence of contemporary gene flow among populations of chemosynthetic species located on both sides of the Atlantic. Several Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) of Alvinocarididae shrimp and Vesicomyidae bivalves were found to be shared across seeps of the AEB. Some were also common to hydrothermal vent communities of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), encompassing taxa morphologically described as distinct species or even genera. The hypothesis of current or very recent large-scale gene flow among seeps and vents was supported by microsatellite analysis of the shrimp species Alvinocaris muricola/Alvinocaris markensis across the AEB and MAR. Two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses may explain these findings. The dispersion of larvae or adults following strong deep-sea currents, possibly combined with biochemical cues influencing the duration of larval development and timing of metamorphosis, may result in large-scale effective migration among distant spots scattered on the oceanic seafloor. Alternatively, these results may arise from the prevailing lack of knowledge on the ocean seabed, apart from emblematic ecosystems (chemosynthetic ecosystems, coral reefs or seamounts), where the widespread classification of endemism associated with many chemosynthetic taxa might hide wider distributions in overlooked parts of the deep sea.

  6. Dissipation effects in North Atlantic Ocean modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, D. E.; Mehra, A.; Haney, R. L.; Bowman, M. J.; Tseng, Y. H.

    2004-03-01

    Numerical experiments varying lateral viscosity and diffusivity between 20 and 150 m2/s in a North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) model having 4th-order accurate numerics, in which the dense deep current system (DCS) from the northern seas and Arctic Ocean is simulated directly show that Gulf Stream (GS) separation is strongly affected by the dissipation of the DCS. This is true even though the separation is highly inertial with large Reynolds number for GS separation flow scales. We show that realistic NAO modeling requires less than 150 m2/s viscosity and diffusivity in order to maintain the DCS material current with enough intensity to get realistic GS separation near Cape Hatteras (CH). This also demands accurate, low dissipation numerics, because of the long transit time (1-10 years) of DCS material from its northern seas and Arctic Ocean source regions to the Cape Hatteras region and the small lateral and vertical scales of DCS.

  7. Impacts of Indonesian Throughflow on seasonal circulation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Dongliang; Zhao, Xia

    2017-03-01

    Impacts of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) on seasonal circulation in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean are investigated using the ocean-only model LICOM by opening and closing ITF passages. LICOM had daily forcing from NCEP reanalysis data during 2000-2011. It can reproduce vertical profiles of mean density and buoyancy frequency of World Ocean Atlas 2013 data. The model also simulates well annual oscillation in the central Indian Ocean and semiannual oscillation in the eastern Indian Ocean of sea level anomalies (SLA) using satellite altimeter data, as well as the semiannual oscillation of surface zonal equatorial currents of Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real Time current data in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The wave decomposition method is used to analyze the propagation and reflection of equatorial long waves based on LICOM output. Wave analysis suggests that ITF blockage mainly influences waves generated from the Indian Ocean but not the Pacific Ocean, and eastern boundary reflections play an important role in semiannual oscillations of SLA and zonal current differences in the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with ITF. Reconstructed ITF-caused SLA using wave decomposition coefficient differences between closed and open ITF-passage experiments suggest both Kelvin and Rossby waves from the first baroclinic mode have comparable contributions to the semiannual oscillations of SLA difference. However, reconstructed ITF-caused surface zonal currents at the equator suggest that the first meridional-mode Rossby wave has much greater contribution than the first baroclinic mode Kelvin wave. Both reconstructed sea level and zonal currents demonstrate that the first baroclinic mode has a greater contribution than other baroclinic modes.

  8. Tropical Atlantic Impacts on the Decadal Climate Variability of the Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Xie, S. P.; Gille, S. T.; Yoo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies revealed atmospheric bridges between the tropical Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. In particular, several recent works indicate that the Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) may contribute to the climate variability over the equatorial Pacific. Inspired by these studies, our work aims at investigating the impact of the tropical Atlantic on the entire tropical climate system, and uncovering the physical dynamics under these tropical teleconnections. We first performed a 'pacemaker' simulation by restoring the satellite era tropical Atlantic SST changes in a fully coupled model - the CESM1. Results reveal that the Atlantic warming heats the Indo-Western Pacific and cools the Eastern Pacific, enhances the Walker circulation and drives the subsurface Pacific to a La Niña mode, contributing to 60-70% of the above tropical changes in the past 30 years. The same pan-tropical teleconnections have been validated by the statistics of observations and 106 CMIP5 control simulations. We then used a hierarchy of atmospheric and oceanic models with different complexities, to single out the roles of atmospheric dynamics, atmosphere-ocean fluxes, and oceanic dynamics in these teleconnections. With these simulations we established a two-step mechanism as shown in the schematic figure: 1) Atlantic warming generates an atmospheric deep convection and induces easterly wind anomalies over the Indo-Western Pacific in the form of Kelvin waves, and westerly wind anomalies over the eastern equatorial Pacific as Rossby waves, in line with Gill's solution. This circulation changes warms the Indo-Western Pacific and cools the Eastern Pacific with the wind-evaporation-SST effect, forming a temperature gradient over the Indo-Pacific basins. 2) The temperature gradient further generates a secondary atmospheric deep convection, which reinforces the easterly wind anomalies over the equatorial Pacific and enhances the Walker circulation, triggering the Pacific to a La Ni

  9. 33 CFR 165.T05-0494 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, NJ. 165.T05-0494 Section 165.T05-0494 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T05-0494 Safety Zone, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, NJ. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  10. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-12-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic.

  11. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.

    2003-12-01

    We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox," for the Jan-Feb-March period, which included initial indications of a very long-distance contribution from South Asia. The approach has been to describe typical periods of significant maximum and minimum tropospheric ozone for early 1999, exploiting TOMS tropospheric ozone estimates jointly with characteristic features of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone soundings. Further investigation of the Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) record for all of 1999 suggests that there are repeated periods of very long-distance Asian influence crossing Africa, with an apparent effect on those portions of the Atlantic Equatorial troposphere which are downwind. Trajectory analyses suggest that the pattern over the Indian Ocean is complex: a sequence invoving multiple or mixed combustion sources, low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and high-level transport to the west seem to be indicated by the TTO record. Biomass burning, fossil and biofuel combustion, and lighting seem to all contribute. For the Atlantic, burning and lighting on adjacent continents as well as episodes of this cross-Africa long-distance transport are all linked in a coordinated seasonal march: all are related by movement of the sun. However, interseasonal tropical variability related to the Madden-Julian oscillation allows intermittent ozone buildups that depart from the seasonal norm.

  12. On the relationship between east equatorial Atlantic SST and ISM through Eurasian wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The dominant mode of July-August (JA) seasonal variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) are obtained by performing empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first dominant mode of ISMR and its relationships with the sea surface temperature (SST), pressure level wind and geopotential height (GPH) fields are examined using gridded datasets for the period 1979-2014. The principal component of the first leading mode (PC1) obtained in the EOF analysis of JA rainfall over Indian landmass is highly correlated with north-west and central India rainfall, and anti-correlated with east-equatorial Atlantic SST (EEASST). The positive EEASST anomaly intensifies the inter-tropical convergence zone over Atlantic and west equatorial Africa which generates stationary wave meridionally, as meridional transfer of energy is strong, as the influence of background jet-streams are minimal over North Africa and Europe. The anomalous positive and negative GPH are generated over sub-tropics and extra-tropics, respectively, due to the stationary wave. This increases the climatological background steep pressure gradient between sub-tropics and extra-tropics consisting of anomalous negative GPH field over north-west (NW) Europe and vice versa for negative EEASST anomaly. The anomalous positive GPH over NW Europe acts as center of action for the propagation of a Rossby wave train to NW India via Europe consisting of anomalous high over NW of India. This intensifies the Tibetan High westward which reinforces the outbreak of monsoon activities over central and NW India.

  13. Forcing of recent decadal variability in the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P. R.; Piecuch, C. G.; Merrifield, M. A.; McCreary, J. P.; Firing, E.

    2016-09-01

    Recent decadal sea surface height (SSH) variability across the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean (ENIO, north of 5°S) is spatially coherent and related to a reversal in basin-scale, upper-ocean-temperature trends. Analysis of ocean and forcing fields from a data-assimilating ocean synthesis (ECCOv4) suggests that two equally important mechanisms of wind-driven heat redistribution within the Indian Ocean account for a majority of the decadal variability. The first is the Cross-Equatorial Cell (CEC) forced by zonal wind stress curl at the equator. The wind stress curl variability relates to the strength and position of the Mascarene High, which is influenced by the phase of the Indian Ocean Subtropical Dipole. The second mechanism is deep (700 m) upwelling related to zonal wind stress at the equator that causes deep, cross-equatorial overturning due to the unique geometry of the basin. The CEC acts to cool the upper ocean throughout most of the first decade of satellite altimetry, while the deep upwelling delays and then amplifies the effect of the CEC on SSH. During the subsequent decade, reversals in the forcing anomalies drive warming of the upper ocean and increasing SSH, with the effect of the deep upwelling leading the CEC.

  14. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  15. Space Radar Image of North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image showing surface features on the open ocean in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. There is no land mass in this image. The purple line in the lower left of the image is the stern wake of a ship. The ship creating the wake is the bright white spot on the middle, left side of the image. The ship's wake is about 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in this image and investigators believe that is because the ship may be discharging oil. The oil makes the wake last longer and causes it to stand out in this radar image. A fairly sharp boundary or front extends from the lower left to the upper right corner of the image and separates two distinct water masses that have different temperatures. The different water temperature affects the wind patterns on the ocean. In this image, the light green area depicts rougher water with more wind, while the purple area is calmer water with less wind. The dark patches are smooth areas of low wind, probably related to clouds along the front, and the bright green patches are likely due to ice crystals in the clouds that scatter the radar waves. The overall 'fuzzy' look of this image is caused by long ocean waves, also called swells. Ocean radar imagery allows the fine detail of ocean features and interactions to be seen, such as the wake, swell, ocean front and cloud effects, which can then be used to enhance the understanding of ocean dynamics on smaller and smaller scales. The image is centered at 42.8 degrees north latitude, 26.2 degrees west longitude and shows an area approximately 35 kilometers by 65 kilometers (22 by 40 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is C-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  16. Imprints of AMOC Perturbation in the Intermediate water of Equatorial Atlantic during the Last Interglacial Improved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeab, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of the last interglacial (LIG) is critical for the assessment of long-term impact of global warming on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and climate. Relative to the Millennium, air temperature over Greenland and eustatic sea-level during the LIG was higher by 8±4˚C and 4-8 m, with a considerable oscillation in the rate of meltwater input (NEEM Community rembers, Nature, v.493, p.489; Kopp et al., Nature, v. 462, p. 863) . The impact of millennial-scale LIG meltwater input on the AMOC and global climate is, however, less understood. Here we present a highly resolved, benthic foraminiferal multi-proxy record from the eastern equatorial Atlantic. The record shows that the LIG was punctuated by at least two episodes of reduced AMOC whose impact on the global climate varied considerably. While the event between 126,000 and 123,800 years ago lacks imprints on available global climate records, the AMOC perturbation between 129,000 and 128,000 years ago provides a causative link to a rapid increase of atmospheric CO2, peak air warming over Antarctica, and a slow down of the rate of global monsoon intensification. We suggest that the rate of meltwater input into the North Atlantic and the size of remanent Greenland ice sheet was critical in determining the degree of AMOC reduction and its effect on the interhemispheric climate.

  17. The tectonic setting of the Seychelles, Mascarene and Amirante Plateaus in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mart, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A system of marine plateaus occurs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, forming an arcuate series of wide and shallow banks with small islands in places. The oceanic basins that surround the Seychelles - Amirante region are of various ages and reflect a complex seafloor spreading pattern. The structural analysis of the Seychelle - Amirante - Mascarene region reflects the tectonic evolution of the western equatorial Indian Ocean. It is suggested that due to the seafloor spreading during a tectonic stage, the Seychelles continental block drifted southwestwards to collide with the oceanic crust of the Mascarene Basin, forming an elongated folded structure at first, and then a subduction zone. The morphological similarity, the lithological variability and the different origin of the Seychelles Bank, the Mascarene Plateau and the Amirante Arc emphasizes the significant convergent effects of various plate tectonic processes on the development of marine plateaus.

  18. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  19. A Tropical Ocean Recharge Mechanism for Climate Variability. Part I: Equatorial Heat Content Changes Induced by the Off-Equatorial Wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wang, Yuqing

    2003-11-01

    A reduced-gravity shallow-water model, an oceanic general circulation model for the Pacific region, and the analytical model of the equatorial β plane bounded in the zonal direction are used to investigate the equatorial thermocline response to tropical and subtropical wind stress forcing. The results show that the wind stress forcing in the tropical and subtropical region can generate a nearly zonal uniform thermocline depth change in the equatorial region. The response timescale is longer when the wind stress is placed farther away from the equator. There exist latitude bands around 10° 15°N and 10° 15°S where the forcing can cause a relatively large equatorial response. When the forcing is located in the eastern basin, the response timescale is longer and its magnitude is larger than the case when the forcing is located in the western basin. Thus the eastern tropical to subtropical region is a relatively effective area for off-equatorial wind stress to generate an equatorial thermocline response. When the wind stress forcing has a longer period, the response of the equatorial thermocline has a larger magnitude. The results from this study's numerical experiments and the analytical solution are consistent. The present study has implications for the broad-scale ocean atmosphere interaction in the tropical region.

  20. Plankton respiration in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carol; Serret, Pablo; Tilstone, Gavin; Teira, Eva; Zubkov, Mikhail V.; Rees, Andrew P.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.

    2002-05-01

    Concurrent measurements of dark community respiration (DCR), gross production (GP), size fractionated primary production ( 14C PP), nitrogen uptake, nutrients, chlorophyll a concentration, and heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial abundance were collected from the upper 200 m of a latitudinal (32°S-48°N) transect in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean during May/June 1998. The mean mixed layer respiration rate was 2.5±2.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=119) for the whole transect, 2.2±1.1 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=32) in areas where chlorophyll a was <0.5 mg m -3 and 1.5±0.7 mmol O 2 m -3 d -1 ( n=10) where chlorophyll a was <0.2 mg m -3. These values lie within the range of published data collected in comparable waters, they co-vary with indicators of heterotrophic and autotrophic biomass (heterotrophic bacterial abundance, chlorophyll a concentration, beam attenuation and particulate organic carbon concentration) and they can be reconciled with accepted estimates of total respiratory activity. The mean and median respiratory quotient (RQ), calculated as the ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon production to dissolved oxygen consumption, was 0.8 ( n=11). At the time of the study, plankton community respiration exceeded GP in the picoautotroph dominated oligotrophic regions (Eastern Tropical Atlantic [15.5°S-14.2°N] and North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre [21.5-42.5°N]), which amounted to 50% of the stations sampled along the 12,100 km transect. These regions also exhibited high heterotrophic: autotrophic biomass ratios, higher turnover rates of phytoplankton than of bacteria and low f ratios. However, the carbon supply mechanisms required to sustain the rates of respiration higher than GP could not be fully quantified. Future research should aim to determine the temporal balance of respiration and GP together with substrate supply mechanisms in these ocean regions.

  1. Thermodynamic Air/Ocean Feedback Mechanisms in the Equatorial Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    statistical interpolation scheme, Monthly Weather Review, 109, 701-721, 1981. McCreary , Julian P. Jr., A model of tropical ocean-atmospheric interaction...Monthly Weather Review, 111, 370-387. McCreary , Julian P. Jr., and Anderson, David L. T., An overview of coupled ocean-atmosphere models of El Nino and...background section, but for now, it is sufficient to say that they are interchangeable. Numerous published theories (Wyrtki, 1975; McCreary , 1983

  2. On the origin of late Holocene sea-level highstands within equatorial ocean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Milne, G. A.

    2002-11-01

    Late Holocene sea-level highstands of amplitude ˜3 m are endemic to equatorial ocean basins. These highstands imply an ongoing and moderate, sub-mm/yr, sea-level fall in the far field of the Late Pleistocene ice cover that has long been linked to the process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA; Clark et al., 1978). Mitrovica and Peltier (1991) coined the term 'equatorial ocean syphoning' to describe the GIA-induced sea-level fall and they provided the first physical explanation for the process. They argued that water migrated away from far-field equatorial ocean basins in order to fill space vacated by collapsing forebulges at the periphery of previously glaciated regions. We provide a complete physical explanation for the origin of equatorial ocean syphoning, and the associated development of sea-level highstands, using numerical solutions of the equation that governs meltwater redistribution on spherical, viscoelastic Earth models. In particular, we separate the total predicted sea-level change into contributions associated with ice and meltwater loading effects, and, by doing so, isolate a second mechanism that contributes significantly to the ocean syphoning process. Ocean loading at continental margins induces a 'levering' of continents and a subsidence of offshore regions that has also long been recognized within the GIA literature (Walcott, 1972). We show that the influx of water into the volume created by this subsidence produces a sea-level fall at locations distant from these margins—indeed over the major ocean basins—that is comparable in amplitude to the syphoning mechanism isolated by Mitrovica and Peltier (1991).

  3. Cenozoic Source-to-Sink of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouby, Delphine; Chardon, Dominique; Huyghe, Damien; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cecile; Loparev, Artiom; Ye, Jing; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Grimaud, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) is to link the dynamics of the erosion of the West African Craton to the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic at geological time scales. This margin, alternating transform and oblique segments from Guinea to Nigeria, shows a strong structural variability in the margin width, continental geology and relief, drainage networks and subsidence/accumulation patterns. We analyzed this system combining onshore geology and geomorphology as well as offshore sub-surface data. Mapping and regional correlation of dated lateritic paleo-landscape remnants allows us to reconstruct two physiographic configurations of West Africa during the Cenozoic. We corrected those reconstitutions from flexural isostasy related to the subsequent erosion. These geometries show that the present-day drainage organization stabilized by at least 29 Myrs ago (probably by 34 Myr) revealing the antiquity of the Senegambia, Niger and Volta catchments toward the Atlantic as well as of the marginal upwarp currently forming a continental divide. The drainage rearrangement that lead to this drainage organization was primarily enhanced by the topographic growth of the Hoggar swell and caused a major stratigraphic turnover along the Equatorial margin of West Africa. Elevation differences between paleo-landscape remnants give access to the spatial and temporal distribution of denudation for 3 time-increments since 45 Myrs. From this, we estimate the volumes of sediments and associated lithologies exported by the West African Craton toward different segments of the margin, taking into account the type of eroded bedrock and the successive drainage reorganizations. We compare these data to Cenozoic accumulation histories in the basins and discuss their stratigraphic expression according to the type of margin segment they are preserved in.

  4. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  5. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean.

  6. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM ) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  7. NAO and extreme ocean states in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Emily; Gallagher, Sarah; Clancy, Colm; Dias, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Large scale atmospheric oscillations are known to have an influence on waves in the North Atlantic. In quantifying how the wave and wind climate of this region may change towards the end of the century due to climate change, it is useful to investigate the influence of large scale oscillations using indices such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO: fluctuations in the difference between the Icelandic low pressure system and the Azore high pressure system). In this study a statistical analysis of the station-based NAO index was carried out using an ensemble of EC-Earth global climate simulations, where EC-Earth is a European-developed atmosphere ocean sea-ice coupled climate model. The NAO index was compared to observations and to projected changes in the index by the end of the century under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. In addition, an ensemble of EC-Earth driven WAVEWATCH III wave model projections over the North Atlantic was analysed to determine the correlations between the NAO and significant wave height (Hs) and the NAO and extreme ocean states. For the most part, no statistically significant differences were found between the distributions of observed and modelled station-based NAO or in projected distributions of the NAO. Means and extremes of Hs are projected to decrease on average by the end of this century. The 95th percentile of Hs is strongly positively correlated to the NAO. Projections of Hs extremes are location dependent and in fact, under the influence of positive NAO the 20-year return levels of Hs were found to be amplified in some regions. However, it is important to note that the projected decreases in the 95th percentile of Hs off the west coast of Ireland are not statistically significant in one of the RCP4.5 and one of the RCP8.5 simulations (me41, me83) which indicates that there is still uncertainty in the projections of higher percentiles.

  8. The Atlantic Equatorial Thermocline as simulated by the Brazilian Earth System Model: known biases and possible causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, E.; Nobre, P.; Malagutti, M.

    2013-05-01

    As a result of a coordinated effort of several institutions in Brazil, the Brazilian Earth System Model has been developed to help the investigation of global climate changes, its effects and impacts on society. The first version of this model, here named Brazilian Earth System Model - Ocean-Atmosphere version 2.3 (BESM-OA2.3), followed the criteria for participation in the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) protocol, simulating the behavior of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on decadal time scales under varying green house gases concentrations in the atmosphere. Extended runs with over 2,000 years of ensemble members showed many coherent results, such as the response of the model to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a consistent manner. In spite of that, the model still has biases and discrepancies when compared to observations, some of them also detected in other global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. As an example of known bias, the thermocline along the Atlantic equator flattens after the second year of simulation. In other words, it anomalously deepens at the eastern region near the African coast after some months. This issue is observed in all CMIP5-based experiments made with the BESM-OA2.3. However, a newer version of the BESM-OA, with updated microphysics parameterizations and the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) included, has shown promising results, i.e., the thermocline tends to maintain its inclination in the second year better than the first version of BESM-OA. In this work we discuss the possible causes of the thermocline flattening comparing simulations of both model versions. We don't have conclusive explanations since the study is still in progress, but some results indicate that the seasonal eastward shift of the zonal wind reversion (represented as the zero zonal wind line) at the Atlantic equator, in April-May, is better represented in the newest version of the model. With more realistic winds at the equator

  9. Mesopelagic fishes across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic: Biogeographical and vertical patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Hulley, P. Alexander; Castellón, Arturo; Emelianov, Mikhail; López, Cristina; Tuset, Víctor M.; Contreras, Tabit; Molí, Balbina

    2017-02-01

    In this investigation we analysed the changes in fish species occurrences and relative abundances across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, and their vertical distribution patterns in relation to the different environmental scenarios. The study covers a wide region encompassing different water masses, and marked differences in productivity, from an oligotrophic zone close to the Brazilian coast, to a very productive upwelling region close to the Northwest African upwelling. Fishes were collected with a medium-sized midwater trawl (Mesopelagos), complemented by hauls made with a macrozooplankton net (MOCNESS). Species richness in the region was higher than in subtropical, temperate and cold regions. The total number of species and their overall abundance was lower in the stations closer to the Brazilian coast. Abundant species across the entire region were the gonostomatids Cyclothone alba, Cyclothone acclinidens, Cyclothone pallida and Cyclothone pseudopallida, the myctophid Lampanyctus alatus, the sternoptychid Sternoptyx diaphana, and the phosichthyid Vinciguerria nimbaria. The occurrences and abundances of C. parapallida, Lampanyctus nobilis and Lepidophanes guentheri were related to zones where AAIW waters occupied the mesopelagic layers, while other species such as Cyclothone livida and Polyipnus polli increased their abundance when AAIW disappears from their living depths. The presence of Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) was associated with the occurrence of several myctophids (Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Diaphus holti, Diaphus rafinesquii, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Myctophum punctatum, Symbolophorus veranyi), and the gonostomatid Cyclothone braueri. In spite of the important differences in hydrographic features across the tropical and equatorial Atlantic, all stations showed either the general night migration into the epipelagic layers carried out by myctophids, phosicthyids, and some stomiids, or the

  10. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

  11. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the

    2016-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic observing by using the Framework of Ocean Observing to obtain an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the AtlantOS initiative will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit arising from this integrated approach. This will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, v) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and vi) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic

  12. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Stuart A; Roberts, Christopher D; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Johns, William E; Hobbs, Will; Palmer, Matthew D; Rayner, Darren; Smeed, David A; McCarthy, Gerard

    2013-12-16

    [1] Observations show that the upper 2 km of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean cooled throughout 2010 and remained cold until at least December 2011. We show that these cold anomalies are partly driven by anomalous air-sea exchange during the cold winters of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 and, more surprisingly, by extreme interannual variability in the ocean's northward heat transport at 26.5°N. This cooling driven by the ocean's meridional heat transport affects deeper layers isolated from the atmosphere on annual timescales and water that is entrained into the winter mixed layer thus lowering winter sea surface temperatures. Here we connect, for the first time, variability in the northward heat transport carried by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to widespread sustained cooling of the subtropical North Atlantic, challenging the prevailing view that the ocean plays a passive role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system on monthly-to-seasonal timescales.

  13. Contributions of the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components to the tropical Atlantic SST bias in CESM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhenya; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai; Kirtman, Ben P.; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify and quantify intrinsic errors in the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1) and their contributions to the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) bias in CESM1, we propose a new method of diagnosis and apply it to a set of CESM1 simulations. Our analyses of the model simulations indicate that both the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components of CESM1 contain large errors in the tropical Atlantic. When the two model components are fully coupled, the intrinsic errors in the two components emerge quickly within a year with strong seasonality in their growth rates. In particular, the ocean-sea ice model contributes significantly in forcing the eastern equatorial Atlantic warm SST bias in early boreal summer. Further analysis shows that the upper thermocline water underneath the eastern equatorial Atlantic surface mixed layer is too warm in a stand-alone ocean-sea ice simulation of CESM1 forced with observed surface flux fields, suggesting that the mixed layer cooling associated with the entrainment of upper thermocline water is too weak in early boreal summer. Therefore, although we acknowledge the potential importance of the westerly wind bias in the western equatorial Atlantic and the low-level stratus cloud bias in the southeastern tropical Atlantic, both of which originate from the atmosphere-land model, we emphasize here that solving those problems in the atmosphere-land model alone does not resolve the equatorial Atlantic warm bias in CESM1.

  14. Surface and subsurface oceanic variability observed in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during three consecutive Indian Ocean dipole events: 2006 - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, I.; Mardiansyah, W.; Setiabudidaya, D.; Affandi, A. K.; Syamsuddin, F.

    2014-09-01

    8-year and 4-year long velocity time series records from the equatorial Indian Ocean successfully captured, for the first time, complete evolution of subsurface currents associated with three consecutive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in 2006 - 2008. It is found that strong eastward subsurface zonal currents in the layer between about 90 m and 150 m were observed, which were opposite to the normal conditions. Vertical structure of the zonal currents resembles that of the typical zonal currents in the equatorial Pacific with an eastward subsurface current lies beneath the surface westward currents. This vertical structure of the zonal currents was associated with anomalous easterly winds along the equatorial Indian Ocean during the maturing phase of the IOD events. In addition, subsurface temperature structures obtained from RAMA buoy network show negative temperature anomalies preceded the surface temperature evolution associated with the IOD events. The negative subsurface temperature anomaly lasted for several months before it changes into positive anomaly as the IOD terminated. The surface temperature structure indicated by the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) revealed that the 2006 IOD was a strong event, while the 2007 and 2008 events were weaker and short-lived events. The evolution of the IOD events were linked to the dynamics of oceanic equatorial wave. It is found that upwelling equatorial Kelvin waves forced by anomalous easterly wind stress play an important role in generating cooling tendency during the development and maturing phase of the IOD events. The demise of the IOD events, on the other hand, was linked to eastern-boundary-reflected Rossby waves that terminated the cooling tendency in the eastern Indian Ocean induced by the wind-forced Kelvin waves. Weakening of the zonal heat advection, then, provided a favor condition for the surface heat flux to warm the sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

  15. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  16. Role of oceanic circulation on contaminant lead distribution in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Church, T. M.; Ganguli, P.; Véron, A. J.; Hamelin, B.; Flegal, A. R.

    Both the relatively high lead concentrations and their characteristic anthropogenic isotopic compositions attest to the widespread contamination of industrial lead in the western Equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean. Spatial gradients in those isotopic signatures evidence the conservative lateral transport of lead in oceanic water masses, while the discrete isotopic signatures in deep oceanic waters substantiate the complementary hypothesis that the release of lead from settling particles is relatively small on a decadal time-scale. Specifically, the relatively low radiogenic lead (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.148±0.009) in the Lower-North Atlantic Deep Water (l-NADW) south of 10° North is primarily attributed to US industrial lead emitted in the Northern Hemisphere prior to 1965, and the more radiogenic lead (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.180±0.006) in the Upper-North Atlantic Deep Water (u-NADW) is primarily attributed to subsequent industrial lead emissions in that hemisphere. In contrast, the relatively radiogenic lead (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.186±0.007) in the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) seemingly reflects a mixture of natural and anthropogenic lead sources within the Southern Hemisphere; and its isotopic dissimilarity with that (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.159±0.002) of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and the AABW may be due to differences in either their aeolian or water-mass inputs.

  17. Structure and dynamics of the Indian-Ocean cross-equatorial cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyama, Toru; McCreary, Julian P.; Jensen, Tommy G.; Loschnigg, Johannes; Godfrey, Stuart; Ishida, Akio

    2003-07-01

    The cross-equatorial cell (CEC) in the Indian Ocean is a shallow ( z≳-500 m) meridional overturning circulation, consisting of northward flow of southern-hemisphere thermocline water, upwelling in the northern hemisphere, and a return flow of surface water. In this study, several types of ocean models, varying in complexity from a 1 1/2-layer analytic model to a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM), are used to investigate CEC structure and its dynamics. Pathways are illustrated by tracking model drifters from the northern-hemisphere upwelling regions, both forwards in time to follow the surface pathways and backwards in time to follow the subsurface flows. In the subsurface branch, cross-equatorial flow occurs via a western-boundary current, where strong horizontal mixing can alter the sign of its potential vorticity. In contrast, surface pathways cross the equator in the interior ocean at almost all longitudes. Sources of CEC water are flow into the basin in the southeastern ocean, subtropical subduction, and the Indonesian Throughflow. The models differ in which source is most prominent, a consequence of their different parameterizations of vertical-mixing processes and basin boundary conditions. The surface, cross-equatorial branch is driven by the annual-mean component of the zonal wind stress τx. It is predominantly antisymmetric about the equator with westerlies (easterlies) north (south) of the equator, and so is roughly proportional to latitude y. The resulting negative wind curl drives a southward Sverdrup flow across the equator. For a τx that is exactly proportional to y, the Ekman pumping velocity is identically zero; as a consequence, no geostrophic currents are generated by the wind, and the Sverdrup transport is equal to the Ekman drift. In GCM solutions, the southward, cross-equatorial flow occurs just below the surface ( z<-100 m), typically beneath a northward surface current, so that there is a shallow, cross-equatorial "roll

  18. The Distribution of Dissolved Iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Schoemann, Véronique; de Jong, Jeroen T. M.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical trace elements in the international GEOTRACES program. Despite the recognized importance of Fe, our present knowledge of its supply and biogeochemical cycle has been limited by mostly fragmentary datasets. Here, we present highly accurate dissolved Fe (DFe) values measured at an unprecedented high intensity (1407 samples) along the longest full ocean depth transect (17500 kilometers) covering the entire western Atlantic Ocean. DFe measurements along this transect unveiled details about the supply and cycling of Fe. External sources of Fe identified included off-shelf and river supply, hydrothermal vents and aeolian dust. Nevertheless, vertical processes such as the recycling of Fe resulting from the remineralization of sinking organic matter and the removal of Fe by scavenging still dominated the distribution of DFe. In the northern West Atlantic Ocean, Fe recycling and lateral transport from the eastern tropical North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) dominated the DFe-distribution. Finally, our measurements showed that the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the major driver of the so-called ocean conveyor belt, contains excess DFe relative to phosphate after full biological utilization and is therefore an important source of Fe for biological production in the global ocean. PMID:24978190

  19. The distribution of dissolved iron in the West Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Middag, Rob; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J A; van Aken, Hendrik M; Schoemann, Véronique; de Jong, Jeroen T M; de Baar, Hein J W

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for marine life. Extremely low Fe concentrations limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large parts of the oceans and consequently influence ocean ecosystem functioning. The importance of Fe for ocean ecosystems makes Fe one of the core chemical trace elements in the international GEOTRACES program. Despite the recognized importance of Fe, our present knowledge of its supply and biogeochemical cycle has been limited by mostly fragmentary datasets. Here, we present highly accurate dissolved Fe (DFe) values measured at an unprecedented high intensity (1407 samples) along the longest full ocean depth transect (17,500 kilometers) covering the entire western Atlantic Ocean. DFe measurements along this transect unveiled details about the supply and cycling of Fe. External sources of Fe identified included off-shelf and river supply, hydrothermal vents and aeolian dust. Nevertheless, vertical processes such as the recycling of Fe resulting from the remineralization of sinking organic matter and the removal of Fe by scavenging still dominated the distribution of DFe. In the northern West Atlantic Ocean, Fe recycling and lateral transport from the eastern tropical North Atlantic Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) dominated the DFe-distribution. Finally, our measurements showed that the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the major driver of the so-called ocean conveyor belt, contains excess DFe relative to phosphate after full biological utilization and is therefore an important source of Fe for biological production in the global ocean.

  20. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multi-Decadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthlen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 20th century atmospheric reanalysis, winters with more frequent blocking, in a band of blocked latitudes from Greenland to Western Europe, are found to persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North Atlantic Ocean, in-phase with Atlantic multi-decadal ocean variability. Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by impacting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a warmer, more saline subpolar ocean. The correspondence between blocked westerly winds and warm ocean holds in recent decadal episodes (especially, 1996-2010). It also describes much longer-timescale Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability (AMV), including the extreme, pre-greenhouse-gas, northern warming of the 1930s-1960s. The space-time structure of the wind forcing associated with a blocked regime leads to weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat-exchange, both of which contribute to the warm phase of AMV.

  1. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520 Section 600.520 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...—(1) Allocations. Foreign vessels may engage in fishing only in accordance with applicable...

  2. 50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northwest Atlantic Ocean fishery. 600.520 Section 600.520 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...—(1) Allocations. Foreign vessels may engage in fishing only in accordance with applicable...

  3. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (<2 μmol kg-1) oxygen environments in the open waters of the tropical North Atlantic, a region where oxygen concentration does normally not fall much below 40 μmol kg-1. The low-oxygen zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  4. On the Cause of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S Variations Associated with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ou; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong; Cheng, Benny

    2004-01-01

    The nature of observed variations in temperature-salinity (T-S) relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino years in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5(deg)S-5(deg)N, 150(deg)W-90(deg)W) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The origin of the subject water mass is identified using the adjoint of a simulated passive tracer. The higher salinity during El Nino is attributed to larger convergence of saltier water from the Southern Hemisphere and smaller convergence of fresher water from the Northern Hemisphere.

  5. Atmospheric Blocking and Atlantic Multi-Decadal Ocean Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5-14 days or more. From a recent 20th century atmospheric reanalysis (1,2) winters with more frequent blocking persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North Atlantic Ocean, in-phase with Atlantic multi-decadal ocean variability (AMV). Ocean circulation is forced by wind-stress curl and related air/sea heat exchange, and we find that their space-time structure is associated with dominant blocking patterns: weaker ocean gyres and weaker heat exchange contribute to the warm phase of AMV. Increased blocking activity extending from Greenland to British Isles is evident when winter blocking days of the cold years (1900-1929) are subtracted from those of the warm years (1939-1968).

  6. Observations of the Mindanao current during the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Roger; Firing, Eric; Hacker, Peter; Richardson, Philip L.; Collins, Curtis A.; Fine, Rana; Gammon, Richard

    1991-04-01

    The Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (WEPOCS) III expedition was conducted from June 18 through July 31, 1988, in the far western equatorial Pacific Ocean to observe the low-latitude western boundary circulation there, with emphasis on the Mindanao Current. This survey provides the first quasi-synoptic set of current measurements which resolve all of the important upper-ocean currents in the western tropical Pacific. Observations were made of the temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and current profiles with depth; of water mass properties including transient tracers; and of evolving surface flows with a dense array of Lagrangian drifters. This paper provides a summary of the measurements and a preliminary description of the results. The Mindanao Current was found to be a narrow, southward-flowing current along the eastward side of the southern Philippine Islands, extending from 14°N to the south end of Mindanao near 6°N, where it then separates from the coast and penetrates into the Celebes Sea. The current strengthens to the south and is narrowest at 10°N. Direct current measurements reveal transports in the upper 300 m increasing from 13 Sv to 33 Sv (1 Sverdrup = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) between 10°N and 5.5°N. A portion of the Mindanao Current appears to recurve cyclonically in the Celebes Sea to feed the North Equatorial Countercurrent, merging with waters from the South Equatorial Current and the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent. Another portion of the Mindanao Current appears to flow directly into the NECC without entering the Celebes Sea. The turning of the currents into the NECC is associated with the Mindanao and Halmahera eddies.

  7. Occurrence of tar balls on the beaches of Fernando de Noronha Island, South Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Baptista Neto, José Antônio; da Costa Campos, Thomas Ferreira; de Andrade, Carala Danielle Perreira; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora; da Fonseca, Estefan Monteiro; Motoki, Akihisa

    2014-12-01

    This work reports on the widespread occurrence of tar balls on a pebble beach of Sueste Bay on Fernando de Noronha Island, a Brazilian national marine park and a preserve in the South Equatorial Atlantic. Environmental regulations preclude regular visitors to the Sueste Bay beach, and the bay is a pristine area without any possible or potential sources of petroleum in the coastal zone. In this work, these tar balls were observed for the first time as they occurred as envelopes around beach pebbles. They are black in color, very hard, have a shell and coral fragment armor, and range in average size from 2 to 6 cm. The shape of the majority of the tar balls is spherical, but some can also be flattened ellipsoids. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses of the collected samples revealed the characteristics of a strongly weathered material, where only the most persistent compounds were detected: chrysene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene.

  8. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphy of ODP Site 709 (equatorial Indian Ocean).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Giuliana; Fioroni, Chiara; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the lower Eocene-Oligocene sediments has shown great potential, through identification of several new nannofossil species and bioevents (e.g. Fornaciari et al., 2010; Bown and Dunkley Jones, 2012; Toffanin et al., 2013). These studies formed the basis for higher biostratigraphic resolution leading to definition of a new nannofossil biozonation (Agnini et al., 2014). In this study, we investigate the middle Eocene-lower Oligocene sediments from ODP Hole 709C (ODP Leg 115) by means of calcareous nannofossils and magnetostratigraphy. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 709 was located in the equatorial Indian Ocean and biostratigraphy has been investigated in the nineties (Okada, 1990; Fornaciari et al., 1990) while paleomagnetic data from the Initial Report provided only a poorly constrained magnetostratigraphic interpretation, thus the cored succession was dated only by means of biostratigraphy. Our goal is to test the reliability in the Indian Ocean of the biohorizons recently identified at Site 711 (Fioroni et al., in press), by means of high resolution sampling, new taxonomic updates, quantitative analyses on calcareous nannofossils allowed to increase the number of useful bioevents and to compare their reliability and synchroneity. The new magnetostratigraphic analyses and integrated stratigraphy allow also to achieve an accurate biochronology of the time interval spanning Chrons C20 (middle Eocene) and C12 (early Oligocene). In addition, this equatorial site represents an opportunity to study the carbonate accumulation history and the large fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the Eocene (e.g. Pälike et al., 2012). The investigated interval encompasses the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO), and the long cooling trend that leads to the Oligocene glacial state. By means of our new bio-magnetostratigraphic data and paleoecological results we provide further insights on

  9. Gas exchange and CO2 flux in the tropical Atlantic Ocean determined from Rn-222 and pCO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethie, W. M., Jr.; Takahashi, T.; Chipman, D. W.; Ledwell, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The piston velocity for the tropical Atlantic Ocean has been determined from 29 radon profiles measured during the TTO Tropical Atlantic Study. By combining these data with the pCO2 data measured in the surface water and air samples, the net flux of CO2 across the sea-air interface has been calculated for the tropical Atlantic. The dependence of the piston velocity on wind speed is discussed, and possible causes for the high sea-to-air CO2 flux observed in the equatorial zone are examined.

  10. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Steinfeldt, R.; Key, R. M.; Brown, P.; Gruber, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Perez, F.; Körtzinger, A.; Velo, A.; Schuster, U.; van Heuven, S.; Bullister, J. L.; Stendardo, I.; Hoppema, M.; Olsen, A.; Kozyr, A.; Pierrot, D.; Schirnick, C.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2010-02-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control - including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data - are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon

  11. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Tanhua, T.; Steinfeldt, R.; Key, Robert; Brown, P.; Gruber, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Perez, F.F.; Kortzinger, A.; Velo, A.; Schuster, U.; Van Heuven, S.; Bullister, J.L.; Stendardo, I.; Hoppema, M.; Olsen, Are; Kozyr, Alexander; Pierrot, D.; Schirnick, C.; Wallace, D.W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon dioxide IN the Atlantic Ocean). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the three data products: merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. These products have been corrected to be internally consistent. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30 S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report the details of the secondary QC (Quality Control) for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA data products are consistent both internally was well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories

  12. Intraseasonal Variability of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Observed from Sea Surface Height, Wind, and Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2007-01-01

    The forcing of the equatorial Indian Ocean by the highly periodic monsoon wind cycle creates many interesting intraseasonal variabilities. The frequency spectrum of the wind stress observations from the European Remote Sensing Satellite scatterometers reveals peaks at the seasonal cycle and its higher harmonics at 180, 120, 90, and 75 days. The observations of sea surface height (SSH) from the Jason and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeters are analyzed to study the ocean's response. The focus of the study is on the intraseasonal periods shorter than the annual period. The semiannual SSH variability is characterized by a basin mode involving Rossby waves and Kelvin waves traveling back and forth in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10(deg)S and 10(deg)N. However, the interference of these waves with each other masks the appearance of individual Kelvin and Rossby waves, leading to a nodal point (amphidrome) of phase propagation on the equator at the center of the basin. The characteristics of the mode correspond to a resonance of the basin according to theoretical models. The theory also calls for similar modes at 90 and 60 days.

  13. Summertime phytoplankton blooms and surface cooling in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Zhan, Haigang; Shi, Ping; Wang, Jia

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll-a (Chla) concentration derived from the Sea viewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) data (January 1998 to December 2010) shows phytoplankton blooms in the western south equatorial Indian Ocean (WSEIO) during the summer monsoon. The mechanism that sustains the blooms is investigated with the high-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) products. The summer blooms in the WSEIO are separated from the coast; they occur in June, reach their maximum in August, and decay in October. With summer monsoon onset, cross-equatorial wind induces open-ocean upwelling in the WSEIO, uplifting the nutricline. The mixed layer heat budget analysis reveals that both thermal forcing and ocean processes are important for the seasonal variations of SST, especially wind-driven entrainment plays a significant role in cooling the WSEIO. These processes cause nutrient enrichment in the surface layer and trigger the phytoplankton blooms. As the summer monsoon develops, the strong wind deepens the mixed layer; the entrainment thus increases the nutrient supply and enhances the bloom. Horizontal advection associated with the Southern Gyre might also be an important process that sustains the bloom. This large clockwise gyre could advect nutrient-rich water along its route, allowing Chla to bloom in a larger area.

  14. Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Stramma, Lothar; Visbeck, Martin

    2008-06-01

    corresponds well to the average oxygen ages for the well ventilated waters. However, in the density ranges of the suboxic OMZs the turn-over time substantially increases. This indicates that reduced ventilation in the outcrop is directly related to the existence of suboxic OMZs, but they are not obviously related to enhanced consumption indicated by the oxygen ages. The turn-over time suggests that the lower thermocline of the North Atlantic would be suboxic but at present this is compensated by the import of water from the well ventilated South Atlantic. The turn-over time approach itself is independent of details of ocean transport pathways. Instead the geographical location of the OMZ is to first order determined by: (i) the patterns of upwelling, either through Ekman or equatorial divergence, (ii) the regions of general sluggish horizontal transport at the eastern boundaries, and (iii) to a lesser extent to regions with high productivity as indicated through ocean colour data.

  15. Toxic Trichodesmium bloom occurrence in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sacilotto Detoni, Amália Maria; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Pacheco, Lucas Abrão; Yunes, João Sarkis

    2016-02-01

    Harmful Trichodesmium blooms have been reported on the continental slope of the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean; we sampled six such blooms. The highest saxitoxin concentration was observed where the number of colonies was proportionally greater relative to the total density of trichomes. Trichodesmium blooms are harmful to shrimp larvae and may lead to plankton community mortality. This study is the first record of neurotoxic blooms in the open waters of the South Atlantic.

  16. Atlantic Ocean CARINA data: overview and salinity adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanhua, T.; Steinfeldt, R.; Key, R. M.; Brown, P.; Gruber, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Perez, F.; Körtzinger, A.; Velo, A.; Schuster, U.; van Heuven, S.; Bullister, J. L.; Stendardo, I.; Hoppema, M.; Olsen, A.; Kozyr, A.; Pierrot, D.; Schirnick, C.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2009-08-01

    Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic). The data have gone through rigorous quality control procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, i.e. three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions, i.e. Arctic, Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Ninety-eight of the cruises in the CARINA database were conducted in the Atlantic Ocean, defined here as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we present an overview of the Atlantic Ocean synthesis of the CARINA data and the adjustments that were applied to the data product. We also report details of the secondary QC for salinity for this data set. Procedures of quality control - including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data - are briefly described. Adjustments to salinity measurements were applied to the data from 10 cruises in the Atlantic Ocean region. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal accuracy of the CARINA-ATL salinity data to be 4.1 ppm. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s (Key et al., 2004), and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation.

  17. An updated anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Choi, S.-D.; Park, G.-H.; Peng, T.-H.; Key, Robert; Sabine, Chris; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J.L.; Millero, F. J.; Kozyr, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the Atlantic Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the DC* method originally developed by Gruber et al. [1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopycnal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20 40, whereas anthropogenic CO2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990 1998 period yielded a total anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 28.4 4.7 Pg C in the North Atlantic (equator-70N) and of 18.5 3.9 Pg C in the South Atlantic (equator-70S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational periods. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 112 17 Pg C that has accumulated

  18. Significance of ODP results on deepwater hydrocarbon exploration Eastern equatorial Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Barry Jay

    2006-11-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has provided access to samples of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in a number of deepwater regions around the globe. The samples are often well constrained stratigraphically and normally free from organic drilling fluid contamination. The focus of this study is the results obtained on one of the Ocean Drilling Program's (ODP) legs - Leg 159, which was located along the Equatorial portion of the West African margin, a region of considerable hydrocarbon exploration interest. Four drilling sites were included in Leg 159 along the continental margins of Côte d'Ivorie and Ghana. Drilling at these sites recovered sediments of Albian to Pleistocene age. Prior studies revealed the presence of a number of organic-rich zones capable of yielding significant quantities of hydrocarbons within both the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections. These intervals could act as hydrocarbon sources, if suitable maturity levels were obtained. Both oil and gas would be expected as their primary products. A shore-based study which focused on Site 959 and to a lesser degree Site 962 provided an opportunity to expand upon the original dataset and to further characterize the organic matter. Detailed characterization of the bitumen fractions from Site 959, provided not only information on the geochemical character of these specific sediments, but permitted them to be placed into a more regional context by comparing them to oils from the Equatorial portion of the West African margin. These data reveal a similarity, but not necessarily a genetic relationship, between the Cretaceous sediments and the majority of the Côte d'Ivoire oils. The Paleogene extracts display similar geochemical attributes as the deepwater oils from the Niger Delta. Although this study is not attempting to establish a definitive correlation, the data suggest a Tertiary source rock system for the deepwater Niger Delta, where deposition occurred under oxic to sub-oxic conditions. This contrasts with

  19. Southern Ocean control of silicon stable isotope distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gregory F.; Reynolds, Ben C.; Rickli, Jörg; Frank, Martin; Saito, Mak A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Bourdon, Bernard

    2012-06-01

    The fractionation of silicon (Si) stable isotopes by biological activity in the surface ocean makes the stable isotope composition of silicon (δ30Si) dissolved in seawater a sensitive tracer of the oceanic biogeochemical Si cycle. We present a high-precision dataset that characterizes the δ30Si distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean from Denmark Strait to Drake Passage, documenting strong meridional and smaller, but resolvable, vertical δ30Si gradients. We show that these gradients are related to the two sources of deep and bottom waters in the Atlantic Ocean: waters of North Atlantic and Nordic origin carry a high δ30Si signature of ≥+1.7‰ into the deep Atlantic, while Antarctic Bottom Water transports Si with a low δ30Si value of around +1.2‰. The deep Atlantic δ30Si distribution is thus governed by the quasi-conservative mixing of Si from these two isotopically distinct sources. This disparity in Si isotope composition between the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean is in marked contrast to the homogeneity of the stable nitrogen isotope composition of deep ocean nitrate (δ15N-NO3). We infer that the meridional δ30Si gradient derives from the transport of the high δ30Si signature of Southern Ocean intermediate/mode waters into the North Atlantic by the upper return path of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). The basin-scale deep Atlantic δ30Si gradient thus owes its existence to the interaction of the physical circulation with biological nutrient uptake at high southern latitudes, which fractionates Si isotopes between the abyssal and intermediate/mode waters formed in the Southern Ocean.

  20. Particle size traces modern Saharan dust transport and deposition across the equatorial North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Does, Michèlle; Korte, Laura F.; Munday, Chris I.; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2016-11-01

    Mineral dust has a large impact on regional and global climate, depending on its particle size. Especially in the Atlantic Ocean downwind of the Sahara, the largest dust source on earth, the effects can be substantial but are poorly understood. This study focuses on seasonal and spatial variations in particle size of Saharan dust deposition across the Atlantic Ocean, using an array of submarine sediment traps moored along a transect at 12° N. We show that the particle size decreases downwind with increased distance from the Saharan source, due to higher gravitational settling velocities of coarse particles in the atmosphere. Modal grain sizes vary between 4 and 32 µm throughout the different seasons and at five locations along the transect. This is much coarser than previously suggested and incorporated into climate models. In addition, seasonal changes are prominent, with coarser dust in summer and finer dust in winter and spring. Such seasonal changes are caused by transport at higher altitudes and at greater wind velocities during summer than in winter. Also, the latitudinal migration of the dust cloud, associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone, causes seasonal differences in deposition as the summer dust cloud is located more to the north and more directly above the sampled transect. Furthermore, increased precipitation and more frequent dust storms in summer coincide with coarser dust deposition. Our findings contribute to understanding Saharan dust transport and deposition relevant for the interpretation of sedimentary records for climate reconstructions, as well as for global and regional models for improved prediction of future climate.

  1. Observations of Equatorial Kelvin Waves and their Convective Coupling with the Atmosphere/Ocean Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Patrick; Fernando, H. J. S.; Leo, Laura; Blomquist, Byron; Amelie, Vincent; Lalande, Nelson; Creegan, Ed; Hocut, Chris; MacCall, Ben; Wang, Yansen; Jinadasa, S. U. P.; Wang, Chien; Yeo, Lik-Khian

    2016-11-01

    Intraseasonal disturbances with their genesis in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) are an important component of global climate. The disturbances, which include Madden-Julian Oscillation and equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves in the atmosphere and ocean, carry energy which affects El Niño, cyclogenesis, and monsoons. A recent field experiment in IO (ASIRI-RAWI) observed disturbances at three sites across IO with arrays of instruments probing from surface layer to lower stratosphere. During the field campaign the most pronounced planetary-scale disturbances were Kelvin waves in tropical tropopause layer. In Seychelles, quasi-biweekly westerly wind bursts were documented and linked to the Kelvin waves aloft, which breakdown in the upper troposphere due to internal shear instabilities. Convective coupling between waves' phase in upper troposphere and surface initiates rapid (turbulent) vertical transport and resultant wind bursts at surface. Such phenomena reveal linkages between planetary-scale waves and small-scale turbulence in the surface layer that can affect air-sea property exchanges and should be parameterized in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Funded by ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0279 and N00014-13-1-0199.

  2. In situ interactions between photosynthetic picoeukaryotes and bacterioplankton in the Atlantic Ocean: evidence for mixotrophy.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Manuela; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, Dave J; Lepère, Cécile

    2013-12-01

    Heterotrophic bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria and phototrophic picoeukaryotes (< 5 μm in size) numerically dominate planktonic oceanic communities. While feeding on bacterioplankton is often attributed to aplastidic protists, recent evidence suggests that phototrophic picoeukaryotes could be important bacterivores. Here, we present direct visual evidence from the surface mixed layer of the Atlantic Ocean that bacterioplankton are internalized by phototrophic picoeukaryotes. In situ interactions of phototrophic picoeukaryotes and bacterioplankton (specifically Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria and the SAR11 clade) were investigated using a combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and dual tyramide signal amplification fluorescence in situ hybridization. Using this method, we observed plastidic Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae cells containing Prochlorococcus, and to a lesser extent SAR11 cells. These microscopic observations of in situ microbial trophic interactions demonstrate the frequency and likely selectivity of phototrophic picoeukaryote bacterivory in the surface mixed layer of both the North and South Atlantic subtropical gyres and adjacent equatorial region, broadening our views on the ecological role of the smallest oceanic plastidic protists.

  3. Chloromethane and dichloromethane in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolusu, Seshagiri Rao; Schlünzen, K. Heinke; Grawe, David; Seifert, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Chloromethane and dichloromethane were measured in the air of marine environment and in seawater during a cruise from the Port of Spain to Rio de Janeiro in the tropical Atlantic Ocean in April and May of 2009. Variation of chloromethane and dichloromethane concentrations was analysed as a function of latitude. There is no correlation observed between chloromethane and dichloromethane concentrations in the seawater suggest that they may not have a common oceanic source. In addition, a relation of concentrations, fluxes and sea surface temperature were studied to determine a dependency of concentrations and fluxes on sea surface temperature. Sea surface temperature does not show any significant effect on dichloromethane concentrations in surface seawater. Chloromethane and dichloromethane are supersaturated in the seawater during the cruise. This implies that the tropical Atlantic Ocean emits chloromethane and dichloromethane into the atmosphere. The tropical Atlantic Ocean mean fluxes of chloromethane and dichloromethane during the cruise were 150 nmol m-2 d-1 and 81 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The backward trajectory analysis revealed that the tropical Atlantic Ocean and African coast were primary and secondary source regions for chloromethane and dichloromethane respectively, during the Meteor cruise.

  4. Coherent heat patterns revealed by unsupervised classification of Argo temperature profiles in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maze, Guillaume; Mercier, Herlé; Fablet, Ronan; Tandeo, Pierre; Lopez Radcenco, Manuel; Lenca, Philippe; Feucher, Charlène; Le Goff, Clément

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative understanding of the integrated ocean heat content depends on our ability to determine how heat is distributed in the ocean and identify the associated coherent patterns. This study demonstrates how this can be achieved using unsupervised classification of Argo temperature profiles. The classification method used is a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) that decomposes the Probability Density Function of a dataset into a weighted sum of Gaussian modes. It is determined that the North Atlantic Argo dataset of temperature profiles contains 8 groups of vertically coherent heat patterns, or classes. Each of the temperature profile classes reveals unique and physically coherent heat distributions along the vertical axis. A key result of this study is that, when mapped in space, each of the 8 classes is found to define an oceanic region, even if no spatial information was used in the model determination. The classification result is independent of the location and time of the ARGO profiles. Two classes show cold anomalies throughout the water column with amplitude decreasing with depth. They are found to be localized in the subpolar gyre and along the poleward flank of the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current (NAC). One class has nearly zero anomalies and a large spread throughout the water column. It is found mostly along the NAC. One class has warm anomalies near the surface (50 m) and cold ones below 200 m. It is found in the tropical/equatorial region. The remaining four classes have warm anomalies throughout the water column, one without depth dependance (in the southeastern part of the subtropical gyre), the other three with clear maximums at different depths (100 m, 400 m and 1000 m). These are found along the southern flank of the North Equatorial Current, the western part of the subtropical gyre and over the West European Basin. These results are robust to both the seasonal variability and to method parameters such as the size of the analyzed domain.

  5. Meso-Cenozoic Source-to-Sink analysis of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Dominique; Rouby, Delphine; Huyghe, Damien; Ye, Jing; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Brown, Roderick; Webster, David

    2015-04-01

    The Transform Source to Sink Project (TS2P) objective is to link the evolution of the offshore sedimentary basins of the African margin of the Equatorial Atlantic and their source areas on the West African Craton. The margin consists in alternating transform and oblique margin portions from Guinea, in the West, to Nigeria, in the East. Such a longitudinal structural variability is associated with variation in the margin width, continental geology and relief, drainage networks and subsidence/accumulation patterns that we analyzed using offshore seismic data and onshore geology and geomorphology. We compare syn- to post rift offshore geometry and long-term stratigraphic history of each of the margin segments. Transform faults appear to play a major role in shaping Early Cretaceous syn-rift basin architectures. Immediate post-rift Late Cretaceous sedimentary wedges record a transgression and are affected by the reactivation of some of transform faults. We produced A new type of inland paleogeographic maps for key periods since the end of the Triassic, allowing delineation of intracratonic basins having accumulated material issued from erosion of the marginal upwarps that have grown since break-up along the margin. We use offshore and onshore basin analysis to estimate sediment accumulation and integrate it in a source-to-sink analysis where Mesozoic onshore denudation will be estimated by low-temperature thermochronology. Cenozoic erosion and drainage history of the continental domain have been reconstructed from the spatial analysis of dated and regionally correlated geomorphic markers. The stationary drainage configuration of the onshore domain since 30 Ma offers the opportunity to correlate the detailed onshore morphoclimatic record based on the sequence of lateritic paleolandsurfaces to offshore stratigraphy, eustasy and global climatic proxies since the Oligocene. Within this framework, we simulate quantitative solute / solid erosional fluxes based on the

  6. Modeling Salinity Exchanges Between the Equatorial Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    of high-salinity water from the equatorial Indian Ocean into the Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon, although it is weaker than during the...southwest monsoon. On average, salt is transported into the Bay of Bengal between 83°E and 95°E, and low-salinity water flows southward near the...that a strong subsurface current with a speed of about 1 m s–1 intrudes into the Bay of Bengal beneath southward-flowing low-salinity water during the

  7. Long-term Paleomagnetic Secular Variation and Excursions from the western Equatorial Pacific Ocean (MIS2-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steve; Schwartz, Martha; Stott, Lowell

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYNew paleomagnetic results are presented for the Pleistocene (MIS2-4) portion of deep-sea core MD98-2181 (MD81; Devao Gulf, Philippine Islands). MD81 is the highest resolution (˜50 cm/ky) PSV record for ˜12-70 ka ever recovered from <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> latitudes (±15°). Magnetic studies indicate that MD81 has a stable natural remanence (NRM) with directional uncertainties (MAD angles) typically less than 3°. We have also recovered a relative paleointensity estimate from these sediments based on normalization to SIRMs. We have correlated our relative paleointensity record with high-resolution relative paleointensity records from the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (Lund et al., 2001a, b). The MD81 ages are always within ± 500 years of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> records over the entire core. We also correlate our PSV record with another published PSV record from Indonesia (MD34; Blanchet et al., 2006). We are able to correlate 25 inclination features, 25 declination features, and 24 relative paleointensity features between MD81 and MD34. We identify three intervals of `anomalous' directions in the cores (based on > 2σ deviation from mean directions). One of these intervals contains true excursional directions and is dated to ˜40.5 ka. We associate this interval with the Laschamp Excursion (e.g., Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969; Lund et al, 2005). We also note two other intervals that have anomalous directions, but no true excursional directions. These intervals occur around ˜34.5 ka and ˜61.5 ka and we associate them with the Mono Lake Excursion (˜33.5-34.5 ka) in western USA (e.g., Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and the Norwegian-Greenland Sea Excursion (˜61 ± 2 ka) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (e.g., Nowaczyk et al., 1994). We view our `anomalous' PSV in the three intervals to be truly anomalous even though most directions are not truly excursional. We think that it is time to reconsider the definition of what is `anomalous' PSV or excursions. To do that we need good</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472908"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clement, Amy; Bellomo, Katinka; Murphy, Lisa N; Cane, Mark A; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Rädel, Gaby; Stevens, Bjorn</p> <p>2015-10-16</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a major mode of climate variability with important societal impacts. Most previous explanations identify the driver of the AMO as the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation, specifically the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Here we show that the main features of the observed AMO are reproduced in models where the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport is prescribed and thus cannot be the driver. Allowing the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation to interact with the atmosphere does not significantly alter the characteristics of the AMO in the current generation of climate models. These results suggest that the AMO is the response to stochastic forcing from the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation, with thermal coupling playing a role in the tropics. In this view, the AMOC and other <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation changes would be largely a response to, not a cause of, the AMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...350..320C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...350..320C"><span>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clement, Amy; Bellomo, Katinka; Murphy, Lisa N.; Cane, Mark A.; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Rädel, Gaby; Stevens, Bjorn</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a major mode of climate variability with important societal impacts. Most previous explanations identify the driver of the AMO as the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation, specifically the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Here we show that the main features of the observed AMO are reproduced in models where the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport is prescribed and thus cannot be the driver. Allowing the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation to interact with the atmosphere does not significantly alter the characteristics of the AMO in the current generation of climate models. These results suggest that the AMO is the response to stochastic forcing from the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation, with thermal coupling playing a role in the tropics. In this view, the AMOC and other <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation changes would be largely a response to, not a cause of, the AMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-20/pdf/2013-22905.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-09-20/pdf/2013-22905.pdf"><span>78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Islamorada, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-20</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Islamorada, Florida during the Pro... jet ski races. The event will be held on the waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Islamorada,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.188 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.185 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> within the area bounded...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> within the area bounded...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.185 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.185 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.188 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.188 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> within the area bounded...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.185 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.188 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-188.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.188 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> within the area bounded...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-185.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.185 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-535.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> within the area bounded...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-18/pdf/2010-14790.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-18/pdf/2010-14790.pdf"><span>75 FR 34643 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-18</p> <p>... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Off John F. Kennedy Space Center... the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off the coast of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The KSC is the...: Sec. 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area. (a) The area....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.104..143T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod.104..143T"><span>North and <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> circulation in the CORE-II hindcast simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tseng, Yu-heng; Lin, Hongyang; Chen, Han-ching; Thompson, Keith; Bentsen, Mats; Böning, Claus W.; Bozec, Alexandra; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Chow, Chun Hoe; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Farneti, Riccardo; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Patara, Lavinia; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yeager, Steve G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We evaluate the mean circulation patterns, water mass distributions, and tropical dynamics of the North and <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> based on a suite of global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-sea ice simulations driven by the CORE-II atmospheric forcing from 1963-2007. The first three moments (mean, standard deviation and skewness) of sea surface height and surface temperature variability are assessed against observations. Large discrepancies are found in the variance and skewness of sea surface height and in the skewness of sea surface temperature. Comparing with the observation, most models underestimate the Kuroshio transport in the Asian Marginal seas due to the missing influence of the unresolved western boundary current and meso-scale eddies. In terms of the Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) in the North Pacific, the two observed maxima associated with Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water formation coalesce into a large pool of deep MLDs in all participating models, but another local maximum associated with the formation of Eastern Subtropical Mode Water can be found in all models with different magnitudes. The main model bias of deep MLDs results from excessive Subtropical Mode Water formation due to inaccurate representation of the Kuroshio separation and of the associated excessively warm and salty Kuroshio water. Further water mass analysis shows that the North Pacific Intermediate Water can penetrate southward in most models, but its distribution greatly varies among models depending not only on grid resolution and vertical coordinate but also on the model dynamics. All simulations show overall similar large scale tropical current system, but with differences in the structures of the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Undercurrent. We also confirm the key role of the meridional gradient of the wind stress curl in driving the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> transport, leading to a generally weak North <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Counter Current in all models due to inaccurate CORE-II <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> wind fields. Most models show a larger</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615628D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615628D"><span>Impact of model resolution on biogeochemical tracers concentration in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duteil, Olaf; Boening, Claus; Oschlies, Andreas</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Representing correctly the distribution of biogeochemical tracers in the interior <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, such as oxygen or phosphate, is hampered by large biases in the representation of circulation in the coarse resolution models. Here we assess the oxygen and phosphate budget in two configurations of a coupled circulation biogeochemical model (NEMO - NPZD), focusing on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. These two configurations have been integrated using realistic atmospheric forcings for the period 1948-2007. While a coarse (0.5°) configuration displays the common bias of too low oxygen associated with too high phosphate concentration, particularly at intermediate depth in the eastern side of the basin, the values are closer to the observations in an eddying (0.1°) configuration. The improvement in the representation of oxygen and phosphate is traced to a stronger transport by a more realistic representation of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> and off-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> undercurrents. The biogeochemical fluxes are less sensitive to the current strength as the phytoplankton growth is mainly limited by the available light in the two configurations. This study emphasizes the need of high resolution models to tackle coupled biogeochemical problematics, such as the extension of oxygen minimum zones or variability in the eastern boundary upwelling system productivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9..989B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9..989B"><span>Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bates, N. R.; Best, M. H. P.; Neely, K.; Garley, R.; Dickson, A. G.; Johnson, R. J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Fossil fuel use, cement manufacture and land-use changes are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, with the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> absorbing 30 %. <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> uptake and chemical equilibration of anthropogenic CO2with seawater results in a gradual reduction in seawater pH and saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals in a process termed <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification. Assessing the present and future impact of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification on marine ecosystems requires detection of the multi-decadal rate of change across <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins and at <span class="hlt">ocean</span> time-series sites. Here, we show the longest continuous record of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> CO2 changes and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre near Bermuda from 1983-2011. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased in surface seawater by ~40 μmol kg-1 and ~50 μatm (~20 %), respectively. Increasing Revelle factor (β) values imply that the capacity of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface waters to absorb CO2 has also diminished. As indicators of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification, seawater pH decreased by ~0.05 (0.0017 yr-1) and Ω values by ~7-8 %. Such data provide critically needed multi-decadal information for assessing the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> CO2sink and the pH changes that determine marine ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.2509B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.2509B"><span>Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bates, N. R.; Best, M. H. P.; Neely, K.; Garley, R.; Dickson, A. G.; Johnson, R. J.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Fossil fuel use, cement manufacture and land-use changes are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, with the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> absorbing approximately 30% (Sabine et al., 2004). <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> uptake and chemical equilibration of anthropogenic CO2 with seawater results in a gradual reduction in seawater pH and saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals in a process termed <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification. Assessing the present and future impact of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification on marine ecosystems requires detection of the multi-decadal rate of change across <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins and at <span class="hlt">ocean</span> time-series sites. Here, we show the longest continuous record of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> CO2 changes and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre near Bermuda from 1983-2011. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased in surface seawater by ~40 μmol kg-1 and ~50 μatm (~20%), respectively. Increasing Revelle factor (β) values imply that the capacity of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface waters to absorb CO2 has also diminished. As indicators of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification, seawater pH decreased by ~0.05 (0.0017 yr-1) and ω values by ~7-8%. Such data provide critically needed multi-decadal information for assessing the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> CO2 sink and the pH changes that determine marine ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576732"><span>Eight centuries of north <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> atmosphere variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Black; Peterson; Overpeck; Kaplan; Evans; Kashgarian</p> <p>1999-11-26</p> <p>Climate in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is controlled largely by variations in the strength of the trade winds, the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and sea surface temperatures. A high-resolution study of Caribbean sediments provides a subdecadally resolved record of tropical upwelling and trade wind variability spanning the past 825 years. These results confirm the importance of a decadal (12- to 13-year) mode of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability believed to be driven by coupled tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere dynamics. Although a well-defined interdecadal mode of variability does not appear to be characteristic of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, there is evidence that century-scale variability is substantial. The tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> may also have been involved in a major shift in Northern Hemisphere climate variability that took place about 700 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol12-sec600-520.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol12-sec600-520.pdf"><span>50 CFR 600.520 - Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> fishery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... the shore at 44°22′ N. lat., 67°52′ W. long. and intersecting the boundary of the EEZ at 44°11′12″ N..., <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salmon, all marlin, all spearfish, sailfish, swordfish, black sea bass, bluefish, croaker, haddock, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> pout, pollock, red hake, scup, sea turtles, sharks (except dogfish), silver hake, spot,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSD....2..177P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSD....2..177P"><span>CARINA TCO2 data in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pierrot, D.; Brown, P.; van Heuven, S.; Tanhua, T.; Schuster, U.; Wanninkhof, R.; Key, R. M.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC) procedures so as to improve the quality and consistency of the data as much as possible. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been tentatively corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic Mediterranean Seas, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>). Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Procedures of quality control - including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data - are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSDD...3....1P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESSDD...3....1P"><span>CARINA TCO2 data in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pierrot, D.; Brown, P.; van Heuven, S.; Tanhua, T.; Schuster, U.; Wanninkhof, R.; Key, R. M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> have been retrieved and merged in a new data base: the CARINA (CARbon IN the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) Project. These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC) procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. Secondary quality control, which involved objective study of data in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values, was performed for the pertinent parameters in the CARINA data base. Systematic biases in the data have been corrected in the data products. The products are three merged data files with measured, adjusted and interpolated data of all cruises for each of the three CARINA regions (Arctic, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>). Ninety-eight cruises were conducted in the "<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>" defined as the region south of the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge and north of about 30° S. Here we report the details of the secondary QC which was done on the total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2) data and the adjustments that were applied to yield the final data product in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Procedures of quality control - including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data - are briefly described. Adjustments were applied to TCO2 measurements for 17 of the cruises in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> region. With these adjustments, the CARINA data base is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the WOCE Hydrographic Program in the 1990s, and is now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, regional <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> carbon inventories, uptake rates and model validation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860042337&hterms=indian+ocean+earthquakes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindian%2Bocean%2Bearthquakes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860042337&hterms=indian+ocean+earthquakes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindian%2Bocean%2Bearthquakes"><span>Historical seismicity near Chagos - A complex deformation zone in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiens, D. A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The historical seismicity of the Chagos region of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is analyzed, using earthquake relocation methods and a moment variance technique to determine the focal mechanisms of quakes occurring before 1964. Moment variance analysis showed a thrust faulting mechanism associated with the earthquake of 1944 near the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge; a strike-slip mechanism was associated with a smaller 1957 event occurring west of the Chagos Bank. The location of the 1944 event, one of the largest intraplate earthquakes known (1.4 x 10 to the 27th dyne/cm), would imply that the Chagos seismicity is due to a zone of tectonic deformation stretching across the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The possibility of a slow diffuse boundary extending west of the Central Indian Ridge is also discussed. This boundary is confirmed by recent plate motion studies which suggest that it separates the Australian plate from a single Indo-Arabian plate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27084202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27084202"><span>Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4951652','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4951652"><span>Anomalous behaviors of Wyrtki Jets in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duan, Yongliang; Liu, Lin; Han, Guoqing; Liu, Hongwei; Yu, Weidong; Yang, Guang; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Haiyuan; Liu, Yanliang; Zahid; Waheed, Hussain</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In-situ measurement of the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> velocity discloses significant abnormal behaviors of two Wyrtki Jets (WJs) respectively in boreal spring and fall, over the tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in 2013. The two WJs both occurred within upper 130 m depth and persisted more than one month. The exceptional spring jet in May was unusually stronger than its counterpart in fall, which is clearly against the previous understanding. Furthermore, the fall WJ in 2013 unexpectedly peaked in December, one month later than its climatology. Data analysis and numerical experiments illustrate that the anomalous changes in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> zonal wind, associated with the strong intra-seasonal oscillation events, are most likely the primary reason for such anomalous WJs activities. PMID:27436723</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.458..327H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.458..327H"><span>Reconstruction of east-west deep water exchange in the low latitude <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> over the past 25,000 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howe, Jacob N. W.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Hu, Rong; Bory, Aloys</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Radiogenic neodymium isotopes have been used as a water mass mixing proxy to investigate past changes in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation. Here we present a new depth transect of deglacial neodymium isotope records measured on uncleaned planktic foraminifera from five cores spanning from 3300 to 4900 m on the Mauritanian margin, in the tropical eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> as well as an additional record from 4000 m on the Ceara Rise in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Despite being located under the Saharan dust plume, the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> records differ from the composition of detrital inputs through time and exhibit similar values to the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> foraminiferal Nd across the deglaciation. Therefore we interpret the foraminiferal values as recording deep water Nd isotope changes. All six cores shift to less radiogenic values across the deglaciation, indicating that they were bathed by a lower proportion of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) relative to the Holocene. The eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> records also show that a neodymium isotope gradient was present during the LGM and during the deglaciation, with more radiogenic values observed at the deepest sites. A homogeneous water mass observed below 3750 m in the deepest eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LGM is attributed to the mixing of deep water by rough topography as it passes from the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> through the fracture zones in the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. This implies that during the LGM the low latitude deep eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was ventilated from the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via advection through fracture zones in the same manner as occurs in the modern <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Comparison with carbon isotopes indicates there was more respired carbon in the deep eastern than deep western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the LGM, as is also seen in the modern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ocgy...55..884L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ocgy...55..884L"><span>Hydrogen sulfide production in surface layers of sediments in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (from radioisotope data)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lein, A. Yu.; Ivanov, M. V.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The report presents the results of 35S-radioisotope researches of sulfate reduction rates in Holocene sediments (0-20 cm) of the shelf and the continental slope at the eastern coasts of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> from 81° N to 25° S, including sediments in the most environmentally hazardous upwelling zones. Data from experiments on the rates of sulfate reduction were used in calculating the production of hydrogen sulfide. The rates of sulfate reduction are comparable at the polar shelf and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> area of the influence of the Congo River (11.9 and 14.96 mg S/m2 day, respectively). It must be acknowledged that the production of microbial diagenetic hydrogen sulfide is first affected by the content and composition of organic matter in the sediments and secondly by the thermal conditions of the basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41D2926S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41D2926S"><span>Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Lithosphere-asthenosphere Boundary Across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, S. C.; Marjanovic, M.; Audhkhasi, P.; Mehouachi, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Until now, the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) has been constrained by teleseismic data, which has resolution of tens of kilometres and sample the LAB sparsely. Seismic reflection imaging technique, in contrast, can provide both lateral and vertical resolution of a few hundred meters, but has not been used for imaging deep structures, thus so far. In March-April 2015, we acquired over 2,750 km of ultra-deep seismic reflection data in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. To image LAB variations as a function of age one of our profiles extends continuously starting from 75 Ma old <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> lithosphere off the margin of Africa, crosses the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge at zero age, to up to 25 Ma old South America lithosphere. To image large differences in the LAB depth we also cross three major fracture zones in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. For imaging deep structures, we used a very large energy source, 10,170 cubic inches, rich in low frequencies and a 12 km long multi-component streamer allowing to record low frequency energy reflected from deep earth and remove reverberation in the water column. Initial results show reflected seismic energy from 50-60 km depth. The seismic reflection experiment will be complemented by seismic refraction study to determine the crustal and upper mantle P-wave velocity, magnetotelluric study to determine resistivity, and broadband <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom seismometer experiment for teleseismic study, collocated with our seismic reflection profiles. In this paper, we will present the design of the seismic reflection experiment and preliminary results from the onboard processed data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..677N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...41..677N"><span>Simulated impacts of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Dipole on summer precipitation at the Guinea Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nnamchi, Hyacinth C.; Li, Jianping; Kang, In-Sik; Kucharski, Fred</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>An intermediate complexity atmospheric general circulation model has been used to investigate the influence of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (SAO) dipole (SAOD) on summer precipitation over the Guinea Coast of West Africa. Two ensemble integrations in which idealized but realistic SAOD-type sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is prescribed only in the SAO, and then globally are performed and inter-compared. Consistently, above (below) the average precipitation is simulated over the Guinea Coast during the positive (negative) phase of the SAOD. Comparison of the two set of experiments reveal that in its active years, the SAOD is a dominant mechanism that shapes the spatial character of summer precipitation at the Guinea coast, the global SST variability merely slightly moderate its effects. During the SAOD, cool SST anomaly in the extra-tropical SAO off the Brazil-Uruguay-Argentina coast gives rise to suppressed convection and mass divergence. In turn, the subsidence tends to amplify the sub-tropical arm of anomalous Hadley-type circulation and consequently large scale convection and mass flux convergence in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>/Gulf of Guinea region bordering on the coastal fringes of West Africa. Precipitation is therefore increased at the Guinea Coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8815M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8815M"><span>Impact of the salt leakage through the Indian-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gateway on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marino, G.; Zahn, R.; Ziveri, P.; Ziegler, M.; Hall, I. R.; Elderfield, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Freshwater perturbation in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> exerts a strong influence on the stability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) with potentially severe impacts on the regional and global climates. The occurrence of ice rafted detritus (IRD) in the glacial sediments of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> testifies to past episodes of Laurentide ice sheet surging that also coincided with AMOC curtailments and prominent climate deterioration in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Western Europe. The equally abrupt warming shifts observed in Greenland ice core and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment core records that characterize the end of each IRD event have been related to the rapid resumption of AMOC and its associated heat transport. The hysteresis response, under glacial boundary conditions, of the AMOC to freshwater forcing suggests that a reduction in this forcing may have been sufficient to trigger the rapid AMOC resumptions revealed by several palaeoceanographic records. But recent modelling studies allude to the potential importance of a salt surplus, originating in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and transported to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> via the Agulhas leakage, that may have acted as a positive feedback on the AMOC strengthening. This possibility, however, has yet to be adequately tested with palaeoproxy reconstructions. We present a suite of multi-centennial-scale palaeoceanographic records spanning a full glacial cycle from the Southwest African margin and Agulhas Plateau that have been generated as part of the EU Marie Curie GATEWAYS project. The sediment cores are positioned such that they monitor the leakage of Agulhas water into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Agulhas Return Current that straddles the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical front on its way to the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Paired Mg/Ca-δ18O analyses on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerina bulloides reveal millennial-scale surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> temperature and salinity changes at the core sites that reflect recurrent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077368','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077368"><span>CARINA (Carbon dioxide in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>) Data from CDIAC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The idea for CARINA developed at a workshop (CO2 in the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) that was held at the HANSE-Wissenschaftskolleg (HANSE Institute for Advanced Study) in Delmenhorst, Germany from June 9 to 11, 1999. While the main scientific focus is the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, some data from the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been included in the project, along with data from the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Data sets go back to 1972, and more than 100 are currently available. The data are also being used in conjunction with other projects and research groups, such as the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Carbon Synthesis Group. See the inventory of data at http://store.pangaea.de/Projects/CARBOOCEAN/carina/data_inventory.htm See a detailed table of information on the cruises at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/<span class="hlt">oceans</span>/CARINA/Carina_table.html and also provides access to data files. The CARBOOCEAN data portal provides a specialized interface for CARINA data, a reference list for historic carbon data, and password protected access to the "Data Underway Warehouse.".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27759016"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> feedback to pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moum, James N; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D</p> <p>2016-10-19</p> <p>Dynamical understanding of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent <span class="hlt">ocean</span> currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075798','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075798"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> feedback to pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moum, James N.; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dynamical understanding of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent <span class="hlt">ocean</span> currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event. PMID:27759016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.511..212C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.511..212C"><span>Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conway, Tim M.; John, Seth G.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Dissolved iron is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, and its availability controls patterns of primary productivity and carbon cycling throughout the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The relative importance of different sources of iron to the <span class="hlt">oceans</span> is not well known, however, and flux estimates from atmospheric dust, hydrothermal vents and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> sediments vary by orders of magnitude. Here we present a high-resolution transect of dissolved stable iron isotope ratios (δ56Fe) and iron concentrations ([Fe]) along a section of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The different iron sources can be identified by their unique δ56Fe signatures, which persist throughout the water column. This allows us to calculate the relative contribution from dust, hydrothermal venting and reductive and non-reductive sedimentary release to the dissolved phase. We find that Saharan dust aerosol is the dominant source of dissolved iron along the section, contributing 71-87 per cent of dissolved iron. Additional sources of iron are non-reductive release from oxygenated sediments on the North American margin (10-19 per cent), reductive sedimentary dissolution on the African margin (1-4 per cent) and hydrothermal venting at the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge (2-6 per cent). Our data also indicate that hydrothermal vents in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are a source of isotopically light iron, which travels thousands of kilometres from vent sites, potentially influencing surface productivity. Changes in the relative importance of the different iron sources through time may affect interactions between the carbon cycle and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26216947"><span>Decadal acidification in the water masses of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ríos, Aida F; Resplandy, Laure; García-Ibáñez, Maribel I; Fajar, Noelia M; Velo, Anton; Padin, Xose A; Wanninkhof, Rik; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Rosón, Gabriel; Pérez, Fiz F</p> <p>2015-08-11</p> <p>Global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification is caused primarily by the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s uptake of CO2 as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. We present observations of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> decrease in pH at the basin scale (50 °S-36 °N) for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> over two decades (1993-2013). Changes in pH associated with the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 (ΔpHCant) and with variations caused by biological activity and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation (ΔpHNat) are evaluated for different water masses. Output from an Institut Pierre Simon Laplace climate model is used to place the results into a longer-term perspective and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for pH change. The largest decreases in pH (∆pH) were observed in central, mode, and intermediate waters, with a maximum ΔpH value in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Central Waters of -0.042 ± 0.003. The ΔpH trended toward zero in deep and bottom waters. Observations and model results show that pH changes generally are dominated by the anthropogenic component, which accounts for rates between -0.0015 and -0.0020/y in the central waters. The anthropogenic and natural components are of the same order of magnitude and reinforce one another in mode and intermediate waters over the time period. Large negative ΔpHNat values observed in mode and intermediate waters are driven primarily by changes in CO2 content and are consistent with (i) a poleward shift of the formation region during the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and (ii) an increase in the rate of the water mass formation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.128..172L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.128..172L"><span>Organic pollutants and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fronts across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lohmann, Rainer; Belkin, Igor M.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Little is known about the effect of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fronts on pollutants dynamics, particularly organic pollutants. Since fronts are associated with convergent currents and productive fishing grounds, any possible convergence of pollutants at fronts would raise concerns. The focus here is on relatively persistent organic pollutants, POPs, as non-persistent organic pollutants are rarely found in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Results from recent cruises in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are examined for POP distributions across <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fronts in (i) the Canary Current; (ii) the Gulf Stream; and (iii) the Amazon and Rio de la Plata Plumes. Few studies achieved a spatial resolution of 10-20 km, while most had 100-300 km between adjacent stations. The majority of the well-resolved studies measured perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which seem particularly well suited for frontal resolution. In the NE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, concentrations of PFCs sharply decreased between SW Europe and NW Africa upon crossing the Canary Current Front at 24-27°N. In the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the PFC concentrations sharply increased upon entering the Amazon River Plume and Rio de la Plata Plume. In the NW <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, concentrations of several pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very high in Rhode Island Sound, decreasing to below detection limit in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The more persistent and already phased-out polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) displayed elevated concentrations in the Gulf Stream and Rhode Island Sound, thereby highlighting the importance of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> fronts, along-front currents, and cross-frontal transport for the dispersal of PCBs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..03R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP22B..03R"><span>Deglacial <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Radiocarbon: A Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, L. F.; Burke, A.; Adkins, J. F.; Chen, T.; Spooner, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>It is widely accepted that the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is an important component of the climate system, acting as a key site for carbon and heat exchange between the atmosphere and <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The deglaciation with its associated millenial climate changes is a key time period for testing the mechanisms behind these exchanges. Ascertaining the precise timing of these events is a challenge given complications from variable and largely unconstrained reservoir ages, dissolution of carbonate hard parts and sediment redistribution by strong currents. Nevertheless improvements to our understanding of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> dynamics in the past requires accurately-dated proxy records that can be embedded in GCM models. Radiocarbon measured in deep-sea corals offers just such an archive and proxy. Using the skeletons of deep-sea corals we are now able to reconstruct aspects of the history of three distinct water masses in the Drake Passage on a precise timescale, allowing direct comparison to U-series dated speleothem terrestrial records and polar ice cores. We present here a new deglacial radiocarbon record from the Drake Passage which more than doubles the resolution of published records. We focus on the deglacial, as well as providing insights from the contrasting period leading up to the LGM. Together with new data from far-field sites we interpret our results as evidence for a Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> control on atmospheric carbon dioxide and radiocarbon evolution during the deglaciation, and a northern hemisphere control during the run up to the LGM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-26/pdf/2013-06800.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-03-26/pdf/2013-06800.pdf"><span>78 FR 18235 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Fort Lauderdale, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-26</p> <p>..., <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the entrance of Port... effective from 10 a.m. on April 18, 2013, until 5:30 p.m. on Sunday, April 21, 2013. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-27/pdf/2012-4452.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-27/pdf/2012-4452.pdf"><span>77 FR 11387 - Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Fort Lauderdale, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-27</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lauderdale Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Fort... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the vicinity of Fort Lauderdale... Lauderdale Air Show will include numerous aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31...81B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31...81B"><span>Global change across the Oligocene-Miocene transition: High-resolution stable isotope records from IODP Site U1334 (<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT) (~23 Ma) is interpreted as a transient global cooling event, associated with a large-scale Antarctic ice sheet expansion. Here we present a 2.23 Myr long high-resolution (~3 kyr) benthic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope (δ18O and δ13C) record from Integrated <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program Site U1334 (eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>), covering the interval from 21.91 to 24.14 Ma. To date, five other high-resolution benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphies across this time interval have been published, showing a ~1‰ increase in benthic foraminiferal δ18O across the OMT. However, these records are still few and spatially limited and no clear understanding exists of the global versus local imprints. We show that trends and the amplitudes of change are similar at Site U1334 as in other high-resolution stable isotope records, suggesting that these represent global deep water signals. We create a benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stack across the OMT by combining Site U1334 with records from ODP Sites 926, 929, 1090, 1264, and 1218 to best approximate the global signal. We find that isotopic gradients between sites indicate interbasinal and intrabasinal variabilities in deep water masses and, in particular, note an offset between the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific, suggesting that a distinct temperature gradient was present during the OMT between these deep water masses at low latitudes. A convergence in the δ18O values between infaunal and epifaunal species occurs between 22.8 and 23.2 Ma, associated with the maximum δ18O excursion at the OMT, suggesting climatic changes associated with the OMT had an effect on interspecies offsets of benthic foraminifera. Our data indicate a maximum glacioeustatic sea level change of ~50 m across the OMT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23538831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23538831"><span>Deglacial pulses of deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> silicate into the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meckler, A N; Sigman, D M; Gibson, K A; François, R; Martínez-García, A; Jaccard, S L; Röhl, U; Peterson, L C; Tiedemann, R; Haug, G H</p> <p>2013-03-28</p> <p>Growing evidence suggests that the low atmospheric CO2 concentration of the ice ages resulted from enhanced storage of CO2 in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> interior, largely as a result of changes in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Early in the most recent deglaciation, a reduction in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation seems to have driven CO2 release from the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, but the mechanism connecting the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> remains unclear. Biogenic opal export in the low-latitude <span class="hlt">ocean</span> relies on silicate from the underlying thermocline, the concentration of which is affected by the circulation of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> interior. Here we report a record of biogenic opal export from a coastal upwelling system off the coast of northwest Africa that shows pronounced opal maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years. These opal peaks are consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> intermediate water (GNAIW). The loss of GNAIW allowed mixing with underlying silicate-rich deep water to increase the silicate supply to the surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. An increase in westerly-wind-driven upwelling in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in response to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> change has been proposed to drive the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 (refs 3, 4). However, such a circulation change would have accelerated the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and sub-Antarctic mode water, which today have as little silicate as North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water and would have thus maintained low silicate concentrations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermocline. The deglacial opal maxima reported here suggest an alternative mechanism for the deglacial CO2 release. Just as the reduction in GNAIW led to upward silicate transport, it should also have allowed the downward mixing of warm, low-density surface water to reach into the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The resulting decrease in the density of the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> relative to the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> surface promoted Antarctic overturning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244079"><span>Terrigenous Fe input and biogenic sedimentation in the glacial and interglacial <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murray, R.W.; Leinen, M.; Knowlton, C.W.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>This study was performed to determine the relationship of particulate iron from land erosion to the accumulation of biogenic matter in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Sediment cores representing the last six glacial-interglacial cycles and previously published mineralogic records were used as data input. Total iron, terrigenous, and biogenic components were determined for three sediment cores. The study determined that there is no relationship between terrigenous iron input and sedimentary carbon sequestering. This is based on chemical, spectral, and stratigraphic anlyses which showed: (1) no consistent pattern of terrigenous input during glacial or interglacial periods, (2) a close relationshipe between the accumulation of particulate iron and the accumulation of terrigenous matter, (3) no coherent spectral correlations between glacial periodicity and iron input, (4) an inverse correlation of iron input and calcium carbonate, and (5) no spectral or linear relationship between iron accumulation and calcium carbonate, organic carbon, or opal. 55 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049301&hterms=photograph&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dphotograph','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049301&hterms=photograph&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dphotograph"><span>Dynamic interpretation of space shuttle photographs: Deepwater internal waves in the western <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Quanan; Klemas, Vic; Yan, Xiao-Hai</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Visible images of deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> internal waves in the western <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> taken by the space shuttle Atlantis during mission STS 44 in 1991 are interpreted and analyzed. The internal waves occurred in the form of a multisoliton packet in which there are about a dozen solitons. The average wavelength of the solitons is 1.8 +/- 0.5 km, ranging from 1.1 to 2.6 km. The crest lines are mostly straight and reach as long as 100 km. The distance between two adjacent packets is about 66 km. Using the deepwater soliton theory, we derived that the mean amplitude of the solitons is 25 m, the nonlinear phase speed is 1.7 m/s, and the average period is 18 min. The internal semidiurnal tides are the principal generating mechanism. The oblique collision of two multisoliton packets shown on photograph STS 44-93-103 is examined. The results show that the deep-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> internal waves obey the general properties of soliton collision. The leading solitons and a few followers exhibit some properties of inelastic collision characterized by a phase shift, and the rest of the solitons exhibits properties of elastic collision under resonance conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.6009F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.6009F"><span>Deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> early warning signals of an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC collapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Qing Yi; Viebahn, Jan P.; Dijkstra, Henk A.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A future collapse of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) has been identified as one of the most dangerous tipping points in the climate system. It is therefore crucial to develop early warning indicators for such a potential collapse based on relatively short time series. So far, attempts to use indicators based on critical slowdown have been marginally successful. Based on complex climate network reconstruction, we here present a promising new indicator for the MOC collapse that efficiently monitors spatial changes in deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation. Through our analysis of the performance of this indicator, we formulate optimal locations of measurement of the MOC to provide early warning signals of a collapse. Our results imply that an increase in spatial resolution of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> MOC observations (i.e., at more sections) can improve early detection, because the spatial coherence in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> arising near the transition is better captured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23B0393G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23B0393G"><span><span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> δ15N biogeography: a novel top-down approach to examine nutrient dynamics in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graham, B. S.; Fry, B.; Popp, B. N.; Allain, V.; Olson, R.; Galvan, F.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>By mapping the δ15N and δ13C values of three top-level pelagic predators, yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) tuna throughout the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, we demonstrated systematic geographic isotopic variation (up to ~12‰ for the δ15N values) that reflect nutrient dynamics that occur at the base of the food web. Remarkably the variation observed in the δ15N values of the tunas is geographically similar to δ15N values previously reported in surface particulate organic matter and deep-sea sediments in the tropical Pacific. We discuss the mechanisms occurring at the base of the food web that could produce the spatial variability observed in tropical tuna δ15N values. We present a simple Rayleigh fractionation model that can explain much of the spatial structure. We also discuss the temporal stability in the isotopic compositions at the base and top of the food web. Overall, this nitrogen isotope cartography or “isoscapes” suggests nitrogen is tightly retained in the marine food web, up to the top predators, and that the uptake of nitrate from the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> upwelling zone, denitrification in the oxygen minimum zones, and nitrogen fixation at the base of the food web play major roles in the observed geographical variation. In addition to providing insight into the nutrient dynamics of the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, these predator isoscapes can begin to be used to characterize regional residency in tropical tunas, which is important for the successful management of tuna fisheries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543573"><span>Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Judkins, David C</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ≥ 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ≥ 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> pelagic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP13E..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP13E..01L"><span>Holocene changes in eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salinity as estimated by water isotopologues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leduc, G.; Sachs, J. P.; Kawka, O.; Schneider, R. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Holocene tropical North African monsoon evolution was controlled at first order by insolation, but the timing and trends of paleo-records sensitive to precipitation substantially differ upon proxies and locations. Salinity reconstructions based on Ba/Ca and δ18Osw from one marine sediment core recovered from the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> close to the Niger River mouth integrate rainfall changes over the river catchment located in the northern tropics, and indicate that the region was wetter during the mid-Holocene relative to the present (Weldeab et al., 2007). A closer look those salinity reconstructions which are derived from the same sedimentary sequence however indicates divergent salinity trends as estimated by Ba/Ca and δ18Osw for the late Holocene (Weldeab et al., 2007). In order to refine better the past changes in the regional hydrologic cycle, we have reevaluated salinity records by measuring δD of C37:2 alkenones from the same sedimentary sequence. A smooth, long-term increase of ~10% in δD between 10 and 3 kyr BP is followed by an equivalent but more rapid decrease between 3 kyr BP and core top, where the δD values are slightly lighter than during the early Holocene. Both δ18Osw and alkenone δD suggest a late Holocene sea surface salinity decrease based on the modern relationship between salinity and isotopic composition of seawater, and this result differs from the salinity record derived from Ba/Ca. We apply the method for reconstructing salinity using water isotopologues described in Rohling (2007) and in LeGrande and Schmidt (2011). The new salinity record derived from paired δ18Osw and alkenone δD modifies the salinity trends as estimated by oxygen and deuterium isotopic ratios alone and indicates monotonous salinity increases over the last 7 ka. This result is in better agreement with both the Ba/Ca salinity record and a pollen record from the Lake M'Balang (Cameroon) which reveals a progressive dessication in the region over the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009088"><span>Coherent Multidecadal Atmospheric and <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: Blocking Corresponds with Warm Subpolar <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hakkinen, Sirpa M.; Rhines, P. B.; Worthen, D. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Winters with frequent atmospheric blocking, in a band of latitudes from Greenland to Western Europe, are found to persist over several decades and correspond to a warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. This is evident in atmospheric reanalysis data, both modern and for the full 20th century. Blocking is approximately in phase with <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal <span class="hlt">ocean</span> variability (AMV). Wintertime atmospheric blocking involves a highly distorted jetstream, isolating large regions of air from the westerly circulation. It influences the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> through windstress-curl and associated air/sea heat flux. While blocking is a relatively high-frequency phenomenon, it is strongly modulated over decadal timescales. The blocked regime (weaker <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gyres, weaker air-sea heat flux, paradoxically increased transport of warm subtropical waters poleward) contributes to the warm phase of AMV. Atmospheric blocking better describes the early 20thC warming and 1996-2010 warm period than does the NAO index. It has roots in the hemispheric circulation and jet stream dynamics. Subpolar <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability covaries with distant AMOC fields: both these connections may express the global influence of the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> on the global climate system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714851R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714851R"><span>Surface salinity variability in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (50°N-10°S) at pluri-annual to interdecadal time scales (1896-2013)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reverdin, Gilles; Kestenare, ELodie; Delcroix, Thierry; ALory, Gael; Boutin, Jacqueline; Gaillard, Fabienne; Martin, Nicolas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Surface salinity data have been collected across the north and tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> often by ships of opportunity (SOP) since the mid-1890s. Until the 1950s and even for some regions after, this SOP remains the main source of knowledge on past surface salinity variability Iin this <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Ship-of-opportunitySOP surface sampling has continued afterwards and up to now, either from buckets or since the 1990s from thermosalinographs, but in parallel with other means of collections, including station bottles, CTD casts, or more recently profiling floats. We will present to which extent these different sets are consistent and with which accuracy. An attempt to reconstruct past pluri-annual variability over vast sub-regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, mostly north of 10°S was is then made for the period 1896 to 2013. It often portrays rather similar pluri-annual variability in the different seasons, as we earlier found in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The pluri-annual deviations from the seasonal cycle are rather different between the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span>, the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and further north at mid latitudes between eastern and western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Pluri-decadal variability seems prominent in most of these regions, and seems unlikely to have originated from residual biases in some of the subsets. When combining data from these different regions, thus through the whole North and <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, there is no significant trend that emerges . Comparisons with SST evolution will be made, in particular for pluri-decennal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178665"><span>Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d(-1) (~10 nmol l(-1 )d(-1)). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (≤20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3-10 nmol l(-1 )d(-1)), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04-0.68 nmol l(-1 )d(-1). Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air-sea exchange scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP41B2229R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP41B2229R"><span>Influence of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Intermediate Water on productivity in the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific on orbital timescale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rippert, N.; Max, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Cacho Lascorz, I.; Mackensen, A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific (EEP) is one of the key areas for studying <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> processes that control atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Southern-sourced water masses (SOIW) are thought to stimulate the biological pump in the EEP and hence contributed to the CO2 drawdown during glacial times. Orbital forcing in combination with local feedback mechanisms are assumed to be the main driver for this water mass advection. Newest studies, however, question the capability of SOIW to stimulate primary productivity during Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS2), as nutrients are rather utilized in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Instead, nutrient-rich Glacial North Pacific Intermediate Waters (GNPIW) seem to be a major component of water masses upwelled in the EEP to enhance productivity in the EEP during MIS2. We present changes in biological productivity in the EEP over the last 190 ka derived from surface-dwelling planktic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber and deep-dwelling planktic foraminifera Globorotaloides hexagonus (ODP Site 1240). The δ13C gradient between surface and sub-thermocline (Δδ13Crub-hex) has been used to assess export production in that area. We compare this with variations in the nutrient gradient (Δδ13Chex-SOIW) between sub-thermocline <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> waters (~350 m) and SOIW. The Δδ13Chex-SOIW variability is dominated by 100 kyr and 23 kyr cycles. This implies a strong response to changes in orbital precession and internal climate forcing related to major changes in ice volume. At times of low precession the difference between the nutrient concentrations of EEP waters and nutrients delivered via SOIW differ substantially, thus indicating that SOIW is not providing sufficient nutrients to stimulate productivity in the EEP. This scenario is most prominent during MIS2 and MIS6. Following the interpretation by Max et al. (submitted) we speculate that similar to MIS2, nutrients were trapped in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> also during MIS6 leaving northward-advected SOIW rather</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/232594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/232594"><span>Interplay between evaporation radiation, and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mixing in the regulation of <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific sea surface temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grossman, R.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Sea surface temperature (SST) regulation in the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> is an important aspect of global climate change. It has been observed that SST in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> zone has not exceeded 304K over, at least, the past 10,000 years, and probably longer. Furthermore, recent satellite observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) suggest that the greenhouse effect associated with mesoscale organized convection increases with increasing SST at a rate faster than this energy can be re-radiated to space. This suggests that a runaway greenhouse effect is possible in those parts of the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> where mesoscale convective systems (MCS) are prevalent. However, this is not observed. A search for mechanism(s) which can account for SST regulation is underway. Observational and theoretical evidence exists to suggest the importance of other feedback mechanisms as opposed to the cirrus shading and `super greenhouse effect` supported by the thermostat hypothesis. At least some of the time warm SSTs are associated with low wind speeds and low SSTs follow periods of high wind speed. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA526502','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA526502"><span>Near-Inertial and Thermal Upper <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Response to Atmospheric Forcing in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>water is then subducted as the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> restratifies during spring, and advected throughout the subtropical gyre by the large scale wind driven circulation...Luther, and W. C. Patzert, 1992: The heat budget in the north <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> subtropical frontal zone . J. Geophys. Res., 97 (C11), 17 947–17 959. 131 Price, J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010929','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010929"><span>Suspended particulate loads and transports in the nepheloid layer of the abyssal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Biscaye, P.E.; Eittreim, S.L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Vertical profiles of light scattering from over 1000 L-DGO nephelometer stations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> have been used to calculate mass concentrations of suspended particles based on a calibration from the western North American Basin. From these data are plotted the distributions of particulate concentrations at clear water and in the more turbid near-bottom water. Clear water is the broad minimum in concentration and light scattering that occurs at varying mid-depths in the water column. Concentrations at clear water are as much as one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than those in surface water but still reflect a similar geographic distribution: relatively higher concentrations at <span class="hlt">ocean</span> margins, especially underneath upwelling areas, and the lowest concentrations underneath central gyre areas. These distributions within the clear water reflect surface-water biogenic productivity, lateral injection of particles from shelf areas and surface circulation patterns and require that the combination of downward vertical and horizontal transport processes of particles retain this pattern throughout the upper water column. Below clear water, the distribution of standing crops of suspended particulate concentrations in the lower water column are presented. The integration of mass of all particles per unit area (gross particulate standing crop) reflects a relative distribution similar to that at the surface and at clear water levels, superimposed on which is the strong imprint of boundary currents along the western margins of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Reducing the gross particulate standing crop by the integral of the concentration of clear water yields a net particulate standing crop. The distribution of this reflects primarily the interaction of circulating abyssal waters with the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom, i.e. a strong nepheloid layer which is coincident with western boundary currents and which diminishes in intensity equatorward. The resuspended particulate loads in the nepheloid layer of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050160237','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050160237"><span><span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Situational Awareness over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Corridor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the <span class="hlt">oceans</span> impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> domain. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over <span class="hlt">oceans</span> where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25008528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25008528"><span>Quantification of dissolved iron sources to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Conway, Tim M; John, Seth G</p> <p>2014-07-10</p> <p>Dissolved iron is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, and its availability controls patterns of primary productivity and carbon cycling throughout the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The relative importance of different sources of iron to the <span class="hlt">oceans</span> is not well known, however, and flux estimates from atmospheric dust, hydrothermal vents and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> sediments vary by orders of magnitude. Here we present a high-resolution transect of dissolved stable iron isotope ratios (δ(56)Fe) and iron concentrations ([Fe]) along a section of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The different iron sources can be identified by their unique δ(56)Fe signatures, which persist throughout the water column. This allows us to calculate the relative contribution from dust, hydrothermal venting and reductive and non-reductive sedimentary release to the dissolved phase. We find that Saharan dust aerosol is the dominant source of dissolved iron along the section, contributing 71-87 per cent of dissolved iron. Additional sources of iron are non-reductive release from oxygenated sediments on the North American margin (10-19 per cent), reductive sedimentary dissolution on the African margin (1-4 per cent) and hydrothermal venting at the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge (2-6 per cent). Our data also indicate that hydrothermal vents in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are a source of isotopically light iron, which travels thousands of kilometres from vent sites, potentially influencing surface productivity. Changes in the relative importance of the different iron sources through time may affect interactions between the carbon cycle and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26624302"><span>Fennerosquilla heptacantha (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucatelli, Débora</p> <p>2015-10-07</p> <p>Fennerosquilla is a monotypic genus that belongs to the family Squillidae, which has the highest generic diversity within Stomatopoda. This genus has been recorded in the north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, between 105 and 458 m depth. The present specimen was collected during the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", in 2011, from the continental slope region of Brazil. In this expedition Fennerosquilla heptacantha was found at 178-193 m depth, and represents the first record of the species in the south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil), expanding the southern limit distribution. The specimen is the largest recorded, measuring 149 mm total length. The pigmentation zone on median region of telson and all diagnostic characters are still preserved and agree with the original description. Fennerosquilla heptacantha has a disjunct deep water distribution (more than 100 m) in the tropical western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, mostly along the continental slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..522P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..522P"><span>Atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> linkages in the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific over the early Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Povea, Patricia; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Menéndez, Melisa; Calvo, Eva; Canals, Miquel; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Méndez, Fernando J.; Flores, Jose-Abel</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Here we present a new set of high-resolution early Pleistocene records from the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific (EEP). Sediment composition from <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program Sites 1240 and 1238 is used to reconstruct past changes in the atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> system. Particularly remarkable is the presence of laminated diatom oozes (LDOs) during glacial periods between 1.85 and 2.25 Ma coinciding with high fluxes of opal and total organic carbon. Relatively low lithic particles (coarse and poorly sorted) and iron fluxes during these glacial periods indicate that the increased diatom productivity did not result from dust-stimulated fertilization events. We argue that glacial fertilization occurred through the advection of nutrient-rich waters from the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. In contrast, glacial periods after 1.85 Ma are characterized by enhanced dust transport of finer lithic particles acting as a new source of nutrients in the EEP. The benthic ecosystem shows dissimilar responses to the high productivity recorded during glacial periods before and after 1.85 Ma, which suggests that the transport processes delivering organic matter to the deep sea also changed. Different depositional processes are interpreted to be the result of two distinct glacial positions of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Before 1.85 Ma, the ITCZ was above the equator, with weak local winds and enhanced wet deposition of dust. After 1.85 Ma, the glacial ITCZ was displaced northward, thus bringing stronger winds and stimulating upwelling in the EEP. The glacial period at 1.65 Ma with the most intense LDOs supports a rapid southward migration of the ITCZ comparable to those glacial periods before 1.85 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.297..355L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.297..355L"><span>An alternative early opening scenario for the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labails, Cinthia; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Aslanian, Daniel; Roest, Walter R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The opening of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> basin that separated North America from northwest Africa is well documented and assumed to have started during the Late Jurassic. However, the early evolution and the initial breakup history of Pangaea are still debated: most of the existing models are based on one or multiple ridge jumps at the Middle Jurassic leaving the oldest crust on the American side, between the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly (ECMA) and the Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (BSMA). According to these hypotheses, the BSMA represents the limit of the initial basin and the footprint subsequent to the ridge jump. Consequently, the evolution of the northwest African margin is widely different from the northeast American margin. However, this setting is in contradiction with the existing observations. In this paper, we propose an alternative scenario for the continental breakup and the Mesozoic spreading history of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The new model is based on an analysis of geophysical data (including new seismic lines, an interpretation of the newly compiled magnetic data, and satellite derived gravimetry) and recently published results which demonstrate that the opening of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> started already during the Late Sinemurian (190 Ma), based on a new identification of the African conjugate to the ECMA and on the extent of salt provinces off Morocco and Nova Scotia. The identification of an African conjugate magnetic anomaly to BSMA, the African Blake Spur Magnetic Anomaly (ABSMA), together with the significant change in basement topography, are in good agreement with that initial reconstruction. The early opening history for the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is described in four distinct phases. During the first 20 Myr after the initial breakup (190-170 Ma, from Late Sinemurian to early Bajocian), <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> accretion was extremely slow (˜ 0.8 cm/y). At the time of Blake Spur (170 Ma, early Bajocian), a drastic change occurred both in the relative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP41C1784K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP41C1784K"><span>Black carbon in deep-sea sediments from the northeastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Hyeong, K.; Yoo, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea sediment core is a good archive for understanding the land-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> interactions via atmosphere, due to it is little influenced by fluvial and continental shelf processes. This study dealt with black carbon(BC) in a 328 cm-long piston core collected from the northeastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (16°12'N, 125°59'W), covering the last 15 Ma (Hyeong at al., 2004). BC is a common name of carbon continuum formed by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant materials. Though it may react with ozone and produce water-soluble organic carbon, BC has commonly refractory nature. Thus BC in preindustrial sediment can be a tracer of forest-fire events. BC is purely terrestrial in origin, and is transported to marine environments by atmospheric and fluvial processes. Therefore, distribution of BC in deep-sea sediments could be used to understand atmospheric circulation. Chemical oxidation was used to determine BC in this study following Lim and Cachier (1996). Concentration of BC varies from 0.010% to 0.233% of total sediments. Mass accumulation rate (MAR) of BC ranged between 0.077 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs and 47.49 mg/cm^21000 yrs. It is noted that MAR in sediments younger than 8 Ma (av. 9.0 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs) is higher than that in sediments older than 8 Ma (av. 3.2 mg/cm^2/1000 yrs). Stable carbon isotope value of BC increases with time from the low δ13C value near 13 Ma until it reaches the highest value near 4 Ma. Change of MAR seems to be related to the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at around 8 Ma in the study area (cf., Hyeong at al., 2004). Accordingly, higher BC content in sediment younger than 8 Ma seems to be accounted for by its derivation from the Northern Hemisphere compared to that from the Southern Hemisphere in older sediment. Increase of carbon isotope value with time seems to be related to expansion of C4 grassland. C4 grassland expansion might have been caused by change of atmosphreic cycle, which moved dry subtropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19453607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19453607"><span>Latitudinal distribution of prokaryotic picoplankton populations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schattenhofer, Martha; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Tarran, Glen A; Pernthaler, Jakob</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Members of the prokaryotic picoplankton are the main drivers of the biogeochemical cycles over large areas of the world's <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. In order to ascertain changes in picoplankton composition in the euphotic and twilight zones at an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basin scale we determined the distribution of 11 marine bacterial and archaeal phyla in three different water layers along a transect across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> from South Africa (32.9 degrees S) to the UK (46.4 degrees N) during boreal spring. Depth profiles down to 500 m at 65 stations were analysed by catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and automated epifluorescence microscopy. There was no obvious overall difference in microbial community composition between the surface water layer and the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layer. There were, however, significant differences between the two photic water layers and the mesopelagic zone. SAR11 (35 +/- 9%) and Prochlorococcus (12 +/- 8%) together dominated the surface waters, whereas SAR11 and Crenarchaeota of the marine group I formed equal proportions of the picoplankton community below the DCM (both approximately 15%). However, due to their small cell sizes Crenarchaeota contributed distinctly less to total microbial biomass than SAR11 in this mesopelagic water layer. Bacteria from the uncultured Chloroflexi-related clade SAR202 occurred preferentially below the DCM (4-6%). Distinct latitudinal distribution patterns were found both in the photic zone and in the mesopelagic waters: in the photic zone, SAR11 was more abundant in the Northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (up to 45%) than in the Southern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyre (approximately 25%), the biomass of Prochlorococcus peaked in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria bloomed in the nutrient-rich northern temperate waters and in the Benguela upwelling. In mesopelagic waters, higher proportions of SAR202 were present in both central gyre regions, whereas Crenarchaeota were clearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..271C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.134..271C"><span>Response of the surface tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> to wind forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castellanos, Paola; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Campos, Edmo J. D.; Rosell-Fieschi, Miquel; Gasser, Marc</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We use 10 years of satellite data (sea level pressure, surface winds and absolute dynamic topography [ADT]) together with Argo-inferred monthly-mean values of near-surface velocity and water transport, to examine how the tropical system of near-surface zonal currents responds to wind forcing. The data is analyzed using complex Hilbert empirical orthogonal functions, confirming that most of the variance has annual periodicity, with maximum amplitudes in the region spanned by the seasonal displacement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ADT mirrors the shape of the upper isopycnals, hence becoming a good indicator of the amount of water stored in the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Within about 3° from the Equator, where the Coriolis force is small, there is year-long meridional Ekman-transport divergence that would lead to the eastward transport of the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Undercurrent and its northern and southern branches. Beyond 3° of latitude, and at least as far as 20°, the convergence of the Ekman transport generally causes a poleward positive ADT gradient, which sustains the westward South <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Current (SEC). The sole exception occurs in summer, between 8°N and 12°N, when an Ekman-transport divergence develops and depletes de amount of surface water, resulting in an ADT ridge-valley system which reverses the ADT gradient and drives the eastward North <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Countercurrent (NECC) at latitudes 4-9°N; in late fall, divergence ceases and the NECC drains the ADT ridge, so the ADT gradient again becomes positive and the SEC reappears. The seasonal evolution of a tilted ITCZ controls the surface water fluxes: the wind-induced transports set the surface divergence-convergence, which then drive the ADT and, through the ADT gradients, create the geostrophic jets that close the water balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174..477Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.174..477Y"><span>North <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Convection and Indian Summer Monsoon June Progression: a Case Study of 2013 and 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yadav, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Bhupendra Bahadur</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The consecutive summer monsoons of 2013 and 2014 over the Indian subcontinent saw very contrasting onsets and progressions during the initial month. While the 2013 monsoon saw the timely onset and one of the fastest progressions during the recent decades, 2014 had a delayed onset and a slower progression phase. The monthly rainfall of June 2013 was +34 %, whereas in 2014 it was -43 % of its long-period average. The progress/onset of monsoon in June is influenced by large-scale circulation and local feedback processes. But, in 2013 (2014), one of the main reasons for the timely onset and fastest progression (delayed onset and slower progression) was the persistent strong (weak) convection over the north <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during May. This resulted in a strong (weak) Hadley circulation with strong (weak) ascent and descent over the north <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the South Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, respectively. The strong (weak) descent over the south Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> intensified (weakened) the Mascarene High, which in turn strengthened (weakened) the cross-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> flow and hence the monsoonal circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS32A..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS32A..03H"><span>Long Range Kelvin Wave Propagation of Transport Variations in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Currents: Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halpern, D.; Fukumori, I.; Menemenlis, D.; Wang, X.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In Part I, Knox and Halpern (Journal of Marine Research, 40 Supplement, 329-339, 1982) vertically integrated zonal current observations recorded in March-May 1980 at seven depths from the thermocline to 15 m at the equator and 75 km north and south of the equator near 152°W and also simultaneously at three similar sites at 110°W. Their in-situ current measurements provided the first persuasive evidence of Kelvin wave motion propagating within the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Undercurrent (EUC). A 7-day decrease in transport at peak amplitude of the Kelvin wave pulse at 152°W and 110°W has remained a curiosity with regards to its repeatability at other times within the year and in other years. The advent of realistic currents generated with an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> general circulation model constrained by observations (excluding current measurements) provided an opportunity to re-explore Kelvin wave motion in the Pacific EUC. We use the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (ECCO) - Ice interactions in Earth System (IcES) solutions or <span class="hlt">ocean</span> state estimates, which represent complete, consistent, and optimal statistical estimates of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> state. ECCO-IcES solutions exist for 2004 and four other years. Twelve 10-m thick layers cover the top 120 m with nine additional layers in the uppermost 400 m. The horizontal grid spacing is 19 km and 3-day averaged quantities are archived. Three longitudes (170°W, 140°W, 110°W) were initially chosen to examine Kelvin wave characteristics; additional longitudes will be described. The large burst in ECCO-IcES EUC transport (defined as eastward flow between the surface and 400 m and from 1.5°S to 1.5°N) in April-May 2004 replicated the well-known annual surfacing of the EUC. The large bursts of EUC transport at 140°W in late January, late April, middle July, and early September and a more modest burst in early November compared exceedingly well with similar bursts at 170°W and 110°W. The average magnitude at 140°W was 50 Sv. Each</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1033&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1033&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor"><span>Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Media and photographers get a close-up view of the Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule after its recovery from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> floor where it lay for 38 years. Launched July 21, 1961, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, until now. Curt Newport, an underwater salvage expert, located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1032&hterms=1032&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D1032','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1032&hterms=1032&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D1032"><span>Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Media and spectators get a close-up view of the Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule after its recovery from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> floor where it lay for 38 years. Launched July 21, 1961, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, until now. Curt Newport, an underwater salvage expert, located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013309','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013309"><span>FERROMANGANESE CRUST RESOURCES IN THE PACIFIC AND <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> <span class="hlt">OCEANS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Commeau, R.F.; Clark, A.; Johnson, Chad; Manheim, F. T.; Aruscavage, P. J.; Lane, C.M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Ferromanganese crusts on raised areas of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor have joined abyssal manganese nodules and hydrothermal sulfides as potential marine resources. Significant volumes of cobalt-rich (about 1% Co) crusts have been identified to date within the US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the Central Pacific: in the NW Hawaiian Ridge and Seamount region and in the seamounts in the Johnston Island and Palmyra Island regions. Large volumes of lower grade crusts, slabs, and nodules are also present in shallow ( greater than 1000 m) waters on the Blake plateau, off Florida-South Carolina in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Data on ferromanganese crusts have been increased by recent German and USGS cruises, but are still sparse, and other regions having crust potential are under current investigation. The authors discuss economic potentials for cobalt-rich crusts in the Central Pacific and Western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, with special reference to US EEZ areas. Additional research is needed before more quantitative resource estimates can be made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.133..165L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.133..165L"><span>Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2 nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15994552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15994552"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> forcing of North American and European summer climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G31A0911V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G31A0911V"><span>Sea Level Variation at the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> from Altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vigo, I.; Sanchez-Reales, J. M.; Belda, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>About twenty years of multi-satellite radar altimeter data are analyzed to investigate the sea-level variation (SLV) of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. In particular seasonal variations and inter-seasonal trends are studied. Sea surface temperature and ice mass lost variations at Greenland are investigated as potential contributors of SLV in the case. It was found a quadratic acceleration term to be significant at some areas mainly located at the sub-polar gyre region. Results are consistent with changes in temperature data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24277830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24277830"><span>Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Mingxi; Nightingale, Philip D; Beale, Rachael; Liss, Peter S; Blomquist, Byron; Fairall, Christopher</p> <p>2013-12-10</p> <p>In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air-sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north-south transect of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The flux of methanol was consistently from the atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Constrained by the aerodynamic limit and measured rate of air-sea sensible heat exchange, methanol transfer resembles a one-way depositional process, which suggests dissolved methanol concentrations near the water surface that are lower than what were measured at ∼5 m depth, for reasons currently unknown. We estimate the global <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> uptake of methanol and examine the lifetimes of this compound in the lower atmosphere and upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> with respect to gas exchange. We also constrain the molecular diffusional resistance above the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface-an important term for improving air-sea gas exchange models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.306....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011E%26PSL.306....1R"><span>Iron isotopes in the seawater of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: New constraints for the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> iron cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radic, Amandine; Lacan, Francois; Murray, James W.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>This study presents the isotopic compositions and concentrations of dissolved and particulate iron from two seawater profiles of the western and central <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, sampled during the EUCFe cruise. Most of the δ 56Fe values are positive (relative to IRMM-14), from + 0.01 to + 0.58‰ in the dissolved fraction (DFe) and from - 0.02 to + 0.46‰ in the particulate fraction (PFe). The mean measurement uncertainty of ± 0.08‰ (2SD) allows the observation of significant variations. Most of the isotope variations occur in the vertical and not in the horizontal direction, implying that each isotope signature is preserved over long distances within a water mass. The thermocline waters of the Papua New Guinea (PNG) area, mostly influenced by sedimentary inputs, display a mean δ 56DFe value of + 0.37‰ (± 0.15‰, 2SD). This isotopic signature suggests that the process releasing dissolved iron into the seawater in this area is a non reductive dissolution of sediments (discharged by local rivers and likely re-suspended by strong boundary currents), rather than Dissimilatory Iron Reduction (DIR) within the sediment (characterized by negative δ 56DFe). These positive δ 56DFe values seem to be the result of a mean isotopic fractionation of Δ 56Fe DFe-PFe = + 0.20‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) produced by the non reductive dissolution. At 0°N, 180°E, the Fe isotope signature of the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Undercurrent (EUC) waters is identical to that of the PNG station within the range of the uncertainty. This suggests that the dissolved iron feeding the EUC, and ultimately the eastern Pacific high nutrient low chlorophyll area, is of PNG origin, likely released by a non reductive dissolution of terrigenous sediments. Significant Fe removals are observed within the thermocline and the intermediate waters between the PNG and the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> stations. The corresponding isotopic fractionations appear to be small, with Δ 56Fe removed-SW Fe values of -0.30 ± 0.31‰ to -0.18 ± 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18258344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18258344"><span>Estimates of upwelling rates in the Arabian Sea and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> based on bomb radiocarbon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhushan, R; Dutta, K; Somayajulu, B L K</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Radiocarbon measurements were made in the water column of the Arabian Sea and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during 1994, 1995 and 1997 to assess the temporal variations in bomb 14C distribution and its inventory in the region with respect to GEOSECS measurements made during 1977-1978. Four GEOSECS stations were reoccupied (three in the Arabian Sea and one in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>) during this study, with all of them showing increased penetration of bomb 14C along with decrease in its surface water activity. The upwelling rates derived by model simulation of bomb 14C depth profile using the calculated exchange rates ranged from 3 to 9 m a(-1). The western region of the Arabian Sea experiencing high wind-induced upwelling has higher estimated upwelling rates. However, lower upwelling rates obtained for the stations occupied during this study could be due to reduced 14C gradient compared to that during GEOSECS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T13A1124C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T13A1124C"><span>Extensional and Transtensional Tectonics of the Manihiki Plateau, Western <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coffin, M. F.; Werner, R.; Hauff, F.; Hoernle, K.; Scientific Party, F.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Standing several kilometers above surrounding seafloor, the submarine Manihiki Plateau, an <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> large igneous province (LIP), encompasses ~800,000 km2 of seafloor in the western <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Of Early Cretaceous (~120 Ma) age, the plateau comprises three major structural highs. The High Plateau to the east contains several islands, including the eponymous Manihiki atoll. To the west, the Western Plateaus lie approximately one kilometer deeper; they are bifurcated by elongated, overall northeast-trending, bathymetric lows known as the Danger Islands troughs (DITs). North of the Western Plateaus is the small, nearly separate North Plateau that is separated from the High Plateau (and contiguous NE portion of the Western Plateaus) by the High-North Basin. In May-June 2007, we acquired extensive multibeam bathymetry and reflectivity over all three structural highs and their flanks during the 40-day F.S. Sonne cruise 193. On the basis of these new as well as pre-existing data, we propose a tectonic model for post-emplacement, probable Late Cretaceous deformation of the Manihiki Plateau involving both extensional and transtensional deformation. In our model, the High-North Basin probably formed by seafloor spreading; the northwestern margin of the contiguous NE portion of the Western Plateaus-High Plateau and the southeastern margin of the North Plateau are conjugate rifted margins, whose separation approximately equals the right-lateral offset between the southern flanks of Western Plateaus on either side of the DITs. The curvilinear southwest boundary of the High-North Basin consists of several pull-apart basins that abut the steep northeast flank of the Western plateaus; LIP and normal <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust are juxtaposed along this boundary. The right-lateral relict plate boundary continues uninterrupted to the south of the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basin as the DITs, which in the study area comprise a series of major en echelon, right- lateral faults that step to the right</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41A1489S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41A1489S"><span>Productivity response to the PETM in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and South Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sime, T.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.; Stoll, H. M.; Shimizu, N.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>During the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), transient changes in climate and the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> carbonate system resulted from a major release of isotopically light C into the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and atmosphere. We examine the productivity response of calcareous planktonic nannofossils to the dramatic climate and ecosystem changes at DSDP Site 401 in the Bay of Biscay, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and ODP Site 738, Southernmost Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. We use the productivity indicator based on Sr/Ca ratios of coccoliths, which is independent of changes in sediment accumulation rate. Sr/Ca is measured in individually picked coccoliths using secondary ion mass spectrometry. At site 401, Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths of Toweius and Coccolithus pelagicus increase during the PETM, indicating an increase in coccolithophore productivity until the PETM isotope recovery. We are working to characterize the background pre-PETM variability at this site to establish if this increase is a unique response to PETM environmental changes. Bulk sediment Sr/Ca ratios from the same depths, measured by ICP-AES, do not covary with Sr/Ca Coccolithus or Toweius but instead increases monotonically towards shallower depths. One possible explanation is a change in proportion of Sr-poor type coccoliths, such as Discoaster sp. and Zygrhab sp. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes at site 401 exhibit extremely similar values among three different coccolith size fractions dominated by different genera, consistent with limited vital effects as observed at other sites. At ODP 738, Sr/Ca ratios in Toweius increase during the later part of the PETM and decrease by the end of the recovery, indicating a brief productivity increase. This increase is clearly beyond the background variability before the PETM or during the first part of the CIE. We are assessing whether a similar pattern is observed in Coccolithus. We will also similarly characterize productivity response to ELMO in the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific and Southernmost Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21E0175A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21E0175A"><span>Systematic errors in Monsoon simulation: importance of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Annamalai, H.; Taguchi, B.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Nagura, M.; Miyama, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>H. Annamalai1, B. Taguchi2, J.P. McCreary1, J. Hafner1, M. Nagura2, and T. Miyama2 International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii, USA Application Laboratory, JAMSTEC, Japan In climate models, simulating the monsoon precipitation climatology remains a grand challenge. Compared to CMIP3, the multi-model-mean (MMM) errors for Asian-Australian monsoon (AAM) precipitation climatology in CMIP5, relative to GPCP observations, have shown little improvement. One of the implications is that uncertainties in the future projections of time-mean changes to AAM rainfall may not have reduced from CMIP3 to CMIP5. Despite dedicated efforts by the modeling community, the progress in monsoon modeling is rather slow. This leads us to wonder: Has the scientific community reached a "plateau" in modeling mean monsoon precipitation? Our focus here is to better understanding of the coupled air-sea interactions, and moist processes that govern the precipitation characteristics over the tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> where large-scale errors persist. A series idealized coupled model experiments are performed to test the hypothesis that errors in the coupled processes along the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during inter-monsoon seasons could potentially influence systematic errors during the monsoon season. Moist static energy budget diagnostics has been performed to identify the leading moist and radiative processes that account for the large-scale errors in the simulated precipitation. As a way forward, we propose three coordinated efforts, and they are: (i) idealized coupled model experiments; (ii) process-based diagnostics and (iii) direct observations to constrain model physics. We will argue that a systematic and coordinated approach in the identification of the various interactive processes that shape the precipitation basic state needs to be carried out, and high-quality observations over the data sparse monsoon region are needed to validate models and further improve model physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4989309','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4989309"><span>Nitrification and its influence on biogeochemical cycles from the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific to the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shiozaki, Takuhei; Ijichi, Minoru; Isobe, Kazuo; Hashihama, Fuminori; Nakamura, Ken-ichi; Ehama, Makoto; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hamasaki, Koji; Furuya, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examined nitrification in the euphotic zone, its impact on the nitrogen cycles, and the controlling factors along a 7500 km transect from the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> to the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Ammonia oxidation occurred in the euphotic zone at most of the stations. The gene and transcript abundances for ammonia oxidation indicated that the shallow clade archaea were the major ammonia oxidizers throughout the study regions. Ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 87.4% (average 55.6%) of the rate of nitrate assimilation in the subtropical oligotrophic region. However, in the shallow Bering and Chukchi sea shelves (bottom ⩽67 m), the percentage was small (0–4.74%) because ammonia oxidation and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers were low, the light environment being one possible explanation for the low activity. With the exception of the shallow bottom stations, depth-integrated ammonia oxidation was positively correlated with depth-integrated primary production. Ammonia oxidation was low in the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll subarctic region and high in the Bering Sea Green Belt, and primary production in both was influenced by micronutrient supply. An ammonium kinetics experiment demonstrated that ammonia oxidation did not increase significantly with the addition of 31–1560 nm ammonium at most stations except in the Bering Sea Green Belt. Thus, the relationship between ammonia oxidation and primary production does not simply indicate that ammonia oxidation increased with ammonium supply through decomposition of organic matter produced by primary production but that ammonia oxidation might also be controlled by micronutrient availability as with primary production. PMID:26918664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.177....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.177....1L"><span>Neodymium isotopic composition and concentration in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Results from the GEOTRACES GA02 section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lambelet, Myriam; van de Flierdt, Tina; Crocket, Kirsty; Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Steinfeldt, Reiner</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater is commonly used as a proxy to study past changes in the thermohaline circulation. The modern database for such reconstructions is however poor and the understanding of the underlying processes is incomplete. Here we present new observational data for Nd isotopes and concentrations from twelve seawater depth profiles, which follow the flow path of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW) from its formation region in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to the northern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Samples were collected during two cruises constituting the northern part of the Dutch GEOTRACES transect GA02 in 2010. The results show that the different water masses in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, which ultimately constitute NADW, have the following Nd isotope characteristics: Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW), εNd = -14.2 ± 0.3; Labrador Sea Water (LSW), εNd = -13.7 ± 0.9; Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NEADW), εNd = -12.5 ± 0.6; Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bottom Water (NWABW), εNd = -11.8 ± 1.4. In the subtropics, where these source water masses have mixed to form NADW, which is exported to the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, upper-NADW is characterised by εNd values of -13.2 ± 1.0 (2sd) and lower-NADW exhibits values of εNd = -12.4 ± 0.4 (2sd). While both signatures overlap within error, the signature for lower-NADW is significantly more radiogenic than the traditionally used value for NADW (εNd = -13.5) due to the dominance of source waters from the Nordic Seas (NWABW and NEADW). Comparison between the concentration profiles and the corresponding Nd isotope profiles with other water mass properties such as salinity, silicate concentrations, neutral densities and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentration provides novel insights into the geochemical cycle of Nd and reveals that different processes are necessary to account for the observed Nd characteristics in the subpolar and subtropical gyres and throughout the vertical water column. While our data set</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050176045','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050176045"><span><span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Situational Awareness Over the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Track Routing System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welch, Bryan; Greenfeld, Israel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the <span class="hlt">oceans</span> impose a limitation on traffic capacity for a given corridor, given the projected traffic growth over the Western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Track Routing System (WATRS). The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over <span class="hlt">oceans</span> where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. This study uses Federal Aviation Administration data from a single day for the WATRS corridor to analyze traffic loading to be used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from the aircraft to the satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.6004E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.6004E"><span>Eddy length scales in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eden, Carsten</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Eddy length scales are calculated from satellite altimeter products and in an eddy-resolving model of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Four different measures for eddy length scales are derived from kinetic energy densities in wave number space and spatial decorrelation scales. Observational estimates and model simulation agree well in all these measures near the surface. As found in previous studies, all length scales are, in general, decreasing with latitude. They are isotropic and proportional to the local first baroclinic Rossby radius (Lr) north of about 30°N, while south of 30°N (or for Lr > 30 km), zonal length scales tend to be larger than meridional ones, and (scalar) length scales show no clear relation to Lr anymore. Instead, they appear to be related to the local Rhines scale. In agreement with a recent theoretical prediction by Theiss [2004], the observed and simulated pattern of eddy length scales appears to be indicative of two different dynamical regimes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: anisotropic turbulence in the subtropics and isotropic turbulence in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Both regions can be roughly characterized by the ration between Lr and the Rhines scales (LR), with LR > Lr in the isotropic region and LR < Lr in the anisotropic region. The critical latitude that separates both regions, i.e., where LR = Lr, is about 30°N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24730134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24730134"><span>Iron bacterial phylogeny and their execution towards iron availability in <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and coastal Arabian Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rajasabapathy, Raju; Mohandass, Chellandi; Vijayaraj, Ajakkalamoole Srinivas; Madival, Varsha Vinayak; Meena, Ram Murti</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Based on distinct colony morphology, color, size, shape and certain other traits, 92 bacterial isolates were investigated to understand their managerial ability on iron from the Arabian Sea and <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> samples. The ARDRA (amplified rDNA restriction analysis) applied to eliminate the duplication of the bacterial strains, resulted 39 different banding patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing data indicate the dominancy of three phylogenetic groups, alpha-Proteobacteria (10.25%), gamma-Proteobacteria (35.89%) and Bacilli (53.84%) in these waters. Marinobacter and Bacillus were the only common genera from both of the regions. Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Rheinheimera, Staphylococcus and Idiomarina were some of the other genera obtained from the Arabian Sea. Erythrobacter, Roseovarius, Sagittula and Nitratireductor were found mostly in <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. In addition, 16S rRNA gene sequence data of some of our iron bacterial strains belong to novel species and one isolate ASS2A could form a new genus. Close to 23% of the isolates were able to produce high affinity sets of ligands like siderophores to mediate iron transport into the cell. The current study indicated that the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> species were well adapted to oxidize iron as an electron acceptor and the Arabian Sea species preferably go through siderophore production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710720W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710720W"><span>Pathways of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Waters into the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Eddy-permitting <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and sea ice simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wekerle, Claudia; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Danilov, Sergey; Jung, Thomas; Kanzow, Torsten; Schauer, Ursula; Timmermann, Ralph; Wang, Qiang</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Fram Strait is the only deep gateway connecting the central Arctic with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Boundary currents on each side are responsible for the exchange of water masses between the Arctic and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The East Greenland Current (EGC) carries fresh and cold Arctic waters and sea ice southward, whereas the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) carries warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Waters (AW) into the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The complex topography in Fram Strait leads to a branching of the northward flowing WSC, with one branch recirculating between 78°N and 81°N which then joins the EGC. To date, the dynamics as well as the precise location of this recirculation are unclear. The goal of this research project is to quantify the amount and variability of AW which recirculates immediately in Fram Strait, and to investigate the role of atmospheric forcing and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> meso-scale eddies for the recirculation. We use simulations carried out with a global configuration of the Finite Element Sea ice-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Model (FESOM) at eddy-permitting scales. The advantage of this model is the finite element discretization of the governing equations, which allows us to locally refine the mesh in areas of interest and keep it coarse in other parts of the global <span class="hlt">oceans</span> without the need for traditional nesting. Here we will show the first results of the model validation. The model has ~9 km resolution in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait and 1 deg south of 50°N. We assess the model capabilities in simulating the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation in the Nordic Seas and Fram Strait by comparing with the available observational data, e.g. with data from the Fram Strait oceanographic mooring array. The <span class="hlt">ocean</span> volume and heat transport from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> into the Nordic Seas and at the Fram Strait are analyzed. Our results show that the model can capture some of the observed key <span class="hlt">ocean</span> properties in our region of interest, while some tuning is required to further improve the model. In the next phase of this project we will focus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712816A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712816A"><span>A description of eddy-mean flow feedbacks in <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> and boundary current systems of the South Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Maas, Leo R. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> accelerating alongstream eddy forces and kinetic energy being transferred from the eddy field to the mean flow. This is the case for 1) the meandering Indonesian Throughflow, ITF (winter and spring); 2) the southward along-slope flow crossing the narrows of the Mozambique Channel and shedding anticyclonic eddies; 3) the southern South East Madagascar Current shedding dipoles; and, 4) the Agulhas Retroflection, shedding Agulhas rings into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Additionally, we observe a well-known feature of the eastward-flowing Agulhas Return Current and the ACC, also along the South <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Countercurrent, the ITF and the North East Madagascar Current. In all cases (either eastward- or westward-flowing), these nearly zonal currents exhibit convergence (divergence) of the cross-stream eddy momentum forces acting over its left-hand (right-hand) side, looking downstream, pointing to a systematic drift of the mean flow towards its left-hand side by cross-stream eddy forces. Quantitative estimates and qualitative spatial patterns from this study provide a unique tool for testing the performance of eddy-resolving models on predicting realistically eddy-mean flow feedbacks in the SIO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-20/pdf/2012-20336.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-20/pdf/2012-20336.pdf"><span>77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Cocoa Beach, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-20</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> located east of Cocoa Beach,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-26/pdf/2012-30913.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-12-26/pdf/2012-30913.pdf"><span>77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Key West, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-26</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Key... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in Key West, Florida, during the Bone..., Questor Multisport, LLC is hosting the Bone Island Triathlon. The event will be held on the waters of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.525 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.390 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-130.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-130.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.130 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.130 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.525 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.525 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.390 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.390 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.525 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-130.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-130.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.130 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.130 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.390 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-T01-0542.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-T01-0542.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.T01-0542 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Boston, MA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Boston, MA. 165.T01-0542 Section 165.T01-0542 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.T01-0542 Safety Zones: Neptune Deepwater Port, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Boston, MA....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-130.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-130.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.130 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.130 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-390.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.390 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. 334.390 Section 334.390 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....390 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay; firing range. (a) The danger zone. A...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-525.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.525 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. 334.525 Section 334.525 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; restricted area. (a) The area....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.714 Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. (a) Location. The following area...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-25/pdf/2010-3848.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-25/pdf/2010-3848.pdf"><span>75 FR 8570 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Restricted Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-25</p> <p>... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space Center... the coast of the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The KSC is the main launch facility for...). 2. Add Sec. 334.525 to read as follows: Sec. 334.525 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off John F. Kennedy Space...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.1913P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PApGe.170.1913P"><span>Long Wave Resonance in Tropical <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> and Implications on Climate: the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinault, Jean-Louis</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p> Kelvin wave, being deflected off the western boundary. The succession of warm and cold waters transferred by baroclinic waves during a cycle leaves the tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> by radiation and contributes to western boundary currents. The main manifestation of the basin modes concerns the variability of the NECC, of the branch of the South <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Current (SEC) along the equator, of the western boundary currents as well as the formation of remote resonances, as will be presented in a future work. Remote resonances occur at midlatitudes, the role of which is suspected of being crucial in the functioning of subtropical gyres and in climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1561P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1561P"><span>THEOS-2 Orbit Design: Formation Flying in <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Orbit and Damage Prevention Technique for the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pimnoo, Ammarin</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) has initiative THEOS-2 project after the THEOS-1 has been operated for more than 7 years which is over the lifetime already. THEOS-2 project requires not only the development of earth observation satellite(s), but also the development of the area-based decision making solution platform comprising of data, application systems, data processing and production system, IT infrastructure improvement and capacity building through development of satellites, engineering model, and infrastructures capable of supporting research in related fields. The developing satellites in THEOS-2 project are THAICHOTE-2 and THAICHOTE-3. This paper focuses the orbit design of THAICHOTE-2 & 3. It discusses the satellite orbit design for the second and third EOS of Thailand. In this paper, both THAICHOTE will be simulated in an <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> orbit as a formation flying which will be compared the productive to THAICHOTE-1 (THEOS-1). We also consider a serious issue in <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> orbit design, namely the issue of the geomagnetic field in the area of the eastern coast of South America, called the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). The high-energy particles of SAMA comprise a radiation environment which can travel through THAICHOTE-2 & 3 material and deposit kinetic energy. This process causes atomic displacement or leaves a stream of charged atoms in the incident particles' wake. It can cause damage to the satellite including reduction of power generated by solar arrays, failure of sensitive electronics, increased background noise in sensors, and exposure of the satellite devices to radiation. This paper demonstrates the loss of ionizing radiation damage and presents a technique to prevent damage from high-energy particles in the SAMA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN13D..05V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMIN13D..05V"><span>Are Global In-Situ <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Observing in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated <span class="hlt">ocean</span> information. In the sciences <span class="hlt">ocean</span> information is needed to support physical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Seas will generate new demands for integrated <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observing from Climate to Fish and from <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated <span class="hlt">ocean</span> information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 <span class="hlt">Atlant</span>OS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Observing System. <span class="hlt">Atlant</span>OS takes advantage of the Framework for <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. <span class="hlt">Atlant</span>OS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. <span class="hlt">Atlant</span>OS will bring <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). <span class="hlt">Atlant</span>OS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. <span class="hlt">Atlant</span>OS will demonstrate the utility of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec162-65.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec162-65.pdf"><span>33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of Chesapeake...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.590 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> immediately offshore...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.590 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> immediately offshore...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.590 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> immediately offshore...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.590 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> immediately offshore...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-500.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sherman Creek; restricted... area and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> restricted area described in paragraphs (a)(2) and (a)(3) of this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-590.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.590 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> immediately offshore...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-24/pdf/2012-17606.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-24/pdf/2012-17606.pdf"><span>77 FR 43158 - Special Local Regulation; Battle on the Bay Powerboat Race <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Fire Island, NY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-24</p> <p>... Race <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Fire Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Smith Point Park, Fire Island, NY during the Battle on the Bay Powerboat Race. This... on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Smith Point Park, Fire Island, NY and will feature six classes of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.6903B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.6903B"><span>The Transient Tracers in the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (TTO) program: The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study, 1981; The Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Study, 1983</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brewer, Peter G.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Smethie, William M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The scientific papers here collected result from the Transient Tracers in the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (TTO) program. The two parts of this major geochemical and physical oceanographie expedition took place in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in 1981 and in the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in 1983 on the research vessel Knorr of the Woods Hole Oceanographie Institution. The expeditions, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Energy (North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> only), were designed to observe the passage of man-made geochemical tracers into the interior of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The foundations for such an experiment were laid in the 1972-1978 GEOSECS program. Here, for the first time, a systematic survey revealed the penetration into the thermocline and deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> of the products of man's military/industrial activities, principally tritium and carbon-14 resulting from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which terminated with the nuclear test ban treaty in 1962.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS24A..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS24A..02S"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-Atmosphere coupling and CO2 exchanges in the Southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Souza, R.; Pezzi, L. P.; Carmargo, R.; Acevedo, O. C.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The establishment of the INTERCONF Program (Air-Sea Interactions at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone) in 2004 and subsequent developing of projects such as the SIMTECO (Integrated System for Monitoring the Weather, the Climate and the <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the South of Brazil) and ACEx (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Carbon Experiment) from 2010 in Brazil brought to light the importance of understanding the impact of the Southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>'s mesoscale variability on the modulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the synoptic scale. Recent results of all these projects showed that the ABL modulation, as well as the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere turbulent (heat, momentum and CO2) fluxes are dependent on the behavior of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s surface thermal gradients, especially those found in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone and at the southern coast off Brazil during the winter. As expected, when atmospheric large scale systems are not present over the study area, stronger heat fluxes are found over regions of higher sea surface temperature (SST) including over warm core eddies shed towards the subantarctic (cold) environment. In the coastal region off southern Brazil, the wintertime propagation of the Brazilian Costal Current (La Plata Plume) acts rising the chlorophyll concentration over the continental shelf as well as diminishing considerably the SST - hence producing prominent across-shore SST gradients towards the offshore region dominated by the Brazil Current waters. Owing to that, heat fluxes are directed towards the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in coastal waters that are also responsible for the carbon sinking off Brazil in wintertime. All this description is dependent on the synoptic atmospheric cycle and strongly perturbed when transient systems (cold fronts, subtropical cyclones) are present in the area. However, remote sensing data used here suggest that the average condition of the atmosphere directly responding to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s mesoscale variability appears to imprint a signal that extends from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1030&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1030&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor"><span>Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Retrieved from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor three miles deep, the Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule is revealed to photographers and the media in Port Canaveral, Fla. The capsule was found and raised by Curt Newport (left), leading an expedition sponsored by the Discovery Channel. After its successful 16-minute suborbital flight on July 21, 1961, the Liberty Bell 7, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, splashed down in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, until now. An underwater salvage expert, Newport located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1036&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1036&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor"><span>Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A close-up of the recently recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor shows the lettering 'United States' still clearly visible on its side. Thirty-eight years ago, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, until now. In an expedition sponsored by the Discovery Channel, underwater salvage expert Curt Newport fulfilled a 14-year dream in finding and, after one abortive attempt, successfully raising the capsule and bringing it to Port Canaveral. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1127M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1127M"><span>Seasonal influence of the sea surface temperature on the low atmospheric circulation and precipitation in the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meynadier, Rémi; de Coëtlogon, Gaëlle; Leduc-Leballeur, Marion; Eymard, Laurence; Janicot, Serge</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The air-sea interaction in the Gulf of Guinea and its role in setting precipitation at the Guinean coast is investigated in the present paper. This study is based on satellite observations and WRF simulations forced by different sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. It shows that the seasonal cold tongue setup in the Gulf of Guinea, along with its very active northern front, tends to strongly constrain the low level atmospheric dynamics between the equator and the Guinean coast. Underlying mechanisms including local SST effect on the marine boundary layer stability and hydrostatically-changed meridional pressure gradient through changes in SST gradient are quantified in WRF regarding observations and CFSR reanalyses. Theses mechanisms strongly impact moisture flux convergence near the coast, leading to the installation of the first rainy season of the West African Monsoon (WAM) system. The current study details the mechanisms by which the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> cold tongue plays a major role in the pre-onset of the boreal WAM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006296','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920006296"><span>GLOBEC (Global <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation, molecular biology and modern acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988GeoRL..15.1393C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988GeoRL..15.1393C"><span>Sulfide in surface waters of the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cutter, Gregory A.; Krahforst, Christian F.</p> <p>1988-11-01</p> <p>Using newly developed techniques, some preliminary data on hydrogen sulfide in surface waters of the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been obtained. Concentrations of total sulfide range from <0.1 to 1.1 nmol/L, and vary on a diel basis. At these concentrations, sulfide may affect the cycling of several trace metals via the formation of stable complexes. Production of sulfide in oxygenated seawater may occur through the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide or by sulfate reduction within macroscopic particles in the water column. Removal mechanisms can include oxidation, complexation with particulate trace metals, and metal sulfide precipitation. However, the temporal and spatial distributions suggest a complex set of processes governing the behavior of sulfide in the surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26336038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26336038"><span>Macroecological patterns of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sintes, Eva; De Corte, Daniele; Ouillon, Natascha; Herndl, Gerhard J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Macroecological patterns are found in animals and plants, but also in micro-organisms. Macroecological and biogeographic distribution patterns in marine Archaea, however, have not been studied yet. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) show a bipolar distribution (i.e. similar communities in the northernmost and the southernmost locations, separated by distinct communities in the tropical and gyral regions) throughout the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, detectable from epipelagic to upper bathypelagic layers (<2000 m depth). This tentatively suggests an influence of the epipelagic conditions of organic matter production on bathypelagic AOA communities. The AOA communities below 2000 m depth showed a less pronounced biogeographic distribution pattern than the upper 2000 m water column. Overall, AOA in the surface and deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters exhibit distance-decay relationships and follow the Rapoport rule in a similar way as bacterial communities and macroorganisms. This indicates a major role of environmental conditions in shaping the community composition and assembly (species sorting) and no, or only weak limits for dispersal in the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> thaumarchaeal communities. However, there is indication of a different strength of these relationships between AOA and Bacteria, linked to the intrinsic differences between these two domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24959907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24959907"><span>Comparison of deep-water viromes from the <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and the mediterranean sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winter, Christian; Garcia, Juan A L; Weinbauer, Markus G; DuBow, Michael S; Herndl, Gerhard J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to compare the composition of two deep-sea viral communities obtained from the Romanche Fracture Zone in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (collected at 5200 m depth) and the southwest Mediterranean Sea (from 2400 m depth) using a pyro-sequencing approach. The results are based on 18.7% and 6.9% of the sequences obtained from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Mediterranean Sea, respectively, with hits to genomes in the non-redundant viral RefSeq database. The identifiable richness and relative abundance in both viromes were dominated by archaeal and bacterial viruses accounting for 92.3% of the relative abundance in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and for 83.6% in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite characteristic differences in hydrographic features between the sampling sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Mediterranean Sea, 440 virus genomes were found in both viromes. An additional 431 virus genomes were identified in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and 75 virus genomes were only found in the Mediterranean Sea. The results indicate that the rather contrasting deep-sea environments of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Mediterranean Sea share a common core set of virus types constituting the majority of both virus communities in terms of relative abundance (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: 81.4%; Mediterranean Sea: 88.7%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22026605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22026605"><span>Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> chondrichthyan capsules is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211270"><span>Abundant proteorhodopsin genes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campbell, Barbara J; Waidner, Lisa A; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a light-driven proton pump that has been found in a variety of marine bacteria, including Pelagibacter ubique, a member of the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The goals of this study were to explore the diversity of PR genes and to estimate their abundance in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). We found that PR genes in the western portion of the Sargasso Sea could be grouped into 27 clusters, but five clades had the most sequences. Sets of specific QPCR primers were designed to examine the abundance of PR genes in the following four of the five clades: SAR11 (P. ubique and other SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria), BACRED17H8 (Alphaproteobacteria), HOT2C01 (Alphaproteobacteria) and an uncultured subgroup of the Flavobacteria. Two groups (SAR11 and HOT2C01) dominated PR gene abundance in oligotrophic waters, but were significantly less abundant in nutrient- and chlorophyll-rich waters. The other two groups (BACRED17H8 and Flavobacteria subgroup NASB) were less abundant in all waters. Together, these four PR gene types were found in 50% of all bacteria in the Sargasso Sea. We found a significant negative correlation between total PR gene abundance and nutrients and chlorophyll but no significant correlation with light intensity for three of the four PR types in the depth profiles north of the Sargasso Sea. Our data suggest that PR is common in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, especially in SAR11 bacteria and another marine alphaproteobacterial group (HOT2C01), and that these PR-bearing bacteria are most abundant in oligotrophic waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794153','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794153"><span>Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Indian and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Indian and Pacific <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Indian and the Pacific <span class="hlt">oceans</span> (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982180"><span>Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Indian and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Indian and Pacific <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Indian and the Pacific <span class="hlt">oceans</span> (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA562752','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA562752"><span>Estimates of Surface Drifter Trajectories in the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>: A Multi-model Ensemble Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">ocean</span> currents at daily or higher frequency. These data are used for search and rescue and object drift applica- tions (Davidson et al. 2009) as well ...larger. In general, the model trajectory errors were similar. Note especially that SURCOUF consistently made the best estimates in the subregion as well ...found agreement well within statistical uncertainty. Hereinafter we will refer to these fields as UV5W. The empirical cumulative density function of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP43B1477P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP43B1477P"><span>Deep <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Circulation and Nutrient Contents from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific Gradients of Neodymium and Carbon Isotopes During the Last 1 Ma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piotrowski, A. M.; Elderfield, H.; Howe, J. N. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The last few million years saw changing boundary conditions to the Earth system which set the stage for bi-polar glaciation and Milankovich-forced glacial-interglacial cycles which dominate Quaternary climate variability. Recent studies have highlighted the relative importance of temperature, ice volume and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation changes during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition at ~900 ka (Elderfield et al., 2012, Pena and Goldstein, 2014). Reconstructing the history of global deep water mass propagation and its carbon content is important for fully understanding the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s role in amplifying Milankovich changes to cause glacial-interglacial transitions. A new foraminiferal-coating Nd isotope record from ODP Site 1123 on the deep Chatham Rise is interpreted as showing glacial-interglacial changes in the bottom water propagation of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-sourced waters into the Pacific via the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during the last 1 million years. This is compared to globally-distributed bottom water Nd isotope records; including a new deep western <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> record from ODP Site 929, as well as published records from ODP 1088 and Site 1090 in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (Pena and Goldstein, 2014), and ODP 758 in the deep Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (Gourlan et al., 2010). <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-to-Pacific gradients in deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> neodymium isotopes are constructed for key time intervals to elucidate changes in deep water sourcing and circulation pathways through the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Benthic carbon isotopes are used to estimate deep water nutrient contents of deep water masses and constrain locations and modes of deep water formation. References: Elderfield et al. Science 337, 704 (2012) Pena and Goldstein, Science 345, 318 (2014) Gourlan et al., Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 2484-2498 (2010)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..254K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..254K"><span>Tropical climate variability: interactions across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajtar, Jules B.; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.; Cai, Wenju</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Complex interactions manifest between modes of tropical climate variability across the Pacific, Indian, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. For example, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extends its influence on modes of variability in the tropical Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>, which in turn feed back onto ENSO. Interactions between pairs of modes can alter their strength, periodicity, seasonality, and ultimately their predictability, yet little is known about the role that a third mode plays. Here we examine the interactions and relative influences between pairs of climate modes using ensembles of 100-year partially coupled experiments in an otherwise fully coupled general circulation model. In these experiments, the air-sea interaction over each tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basin, as well as pairs of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins, is suppressed in turn. We find that Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> variability has a net damping effect on ENSO and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> variability, and conversely they each promote Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> variability. The connection between the Pacific and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is most clearly revealed in the absence of Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> variability. Our model runs suggest a weak damping influence by <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability on ENSO, and an enhancing influence by ENSO on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339976"><span>Comment on "The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Rong; Sutton, Rowan; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Delworth, Thomas L; Kim, Who M; Robson, Jon; Yeager, Stephen G</p> <p>2016-06-24</p> <p>Clement et al (Reports, 16 October 2015, p. 320) claim that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a thermodynamic response of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mixed layer to stochastic atmospheric forcing and that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation changes have no role in causing the AMO. These claims are not justified. We show that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> dynamics play a central role in the AMO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1031&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1031&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor"><span>Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Gunther Wendt takes a turn at the podium after viewing the recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule, seen in the background. At right is Curt Newport who led the expedition to find and retrieve the capsule. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. Wendt worked on the Liberty Bell 7 before its launch July 21, 1961. After its successful 16-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, splashed down in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, until now. An underwater salvage expert, Newport located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1035&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-1035&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor"><span>Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This photograph shows two mercury dimes that were found inside the recently recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule. Thirty-eight years ago, the capsule made a successful 16-minute suborbital flight, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, and splashed down in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor, until now. In an expedition sponsored by the Discovery Channel, underwater salvage expert Curt Newport fulfilled a 14- year dream in finding and, after one abortive attempt, successfully raising the capsule and bringing it to Port Canaveral. The dimes had apparently been placed in the capsule before its launch July 21, 1961. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..115..103B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DSRI..115..103B"><span>Acoustic habitat of an <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> archipelago in the Southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bittencourt, Lis; Barbosa, Mariana; Secchi, Eduardo; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Underwater soundscapes can be highly variable, and in natural conditions are often dominated by biological signals and physical features of the environment. Few studies, however, focused on <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> islands soundscapes. Islands in the middle of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins can provide a good example of how untouched marine soundscapes are. Autonomous acoustic recordings were carried out in two different seasons in Trindade-Martin Vaz Archipelago, Southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, providing nearly continuous data for both periods. Sound levels varied daily and between seasons. During summer, higher frequencies were noisier than lower frequencies, with snapping shrimp being the dominating sound source. During winter, lower frequencies were noisier than higher frequencies due to humpback whale constant singing. Biological signal detection had a marked temporal pattern, playing an important role in the soundscape. Over 1000 humpback whale sounds were detected hourly during winter. Fish vocalizations were detected mostly during night time during both summer and winter. The results show an acoustic habitat dominated by biological sound sources and highlight the importance of the island to humpback whales in winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP53C2024P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP53C2024P"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation in the South-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during the Pliocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Southeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is an important <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gateway because major <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..509P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..509P"><span>Modulation of <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific sea surface temperature response to westerly wind events by the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> background state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puy, Martin; Vialard, Jérôme; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Guilyardi, Eric; Voldoire, Aurore; Madec, Gurvan</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific Westerly Wind Events (WWEs) impact ENSO evolution through their local and remote <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> response. This response depends upon the WWE properties (duration, intensity, fetch…) but also on the underlying <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> state. <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> simulations with an identical idealised western Pacific WWE applied every 3 months on seasonally and interannually varying <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> conditions over the 1980-2012 period allow characterizing and understanding the modulation of the WWE response by the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> background state. These simulations reveal that the amplitude of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) response, which can vary by one order of magnitude, is far more sensitive to the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> background conditions than the dynamical response to WWEs. The amplitude of the surface-flux driven cooling in the western Pacific is strongly modulated by zonal advection, through interannual variations in the background SST zonal gradient. The amplitude of the warming at the warm pool eastern edge is controlled by horizontal advection, and varies as a function of the zonal SST gradient and distance between the WWE and warm pool eastern edge. The amplitude of the eastern Pacific warming varies as a function of the background thermocline depth and local winds. Overall, only the amplitude of the WWE-driven western Pacific cooling can be clearly related to the phase of ENSO, while the WWE driven SST response in the central and eastern Pacific is more diverse and less easily related to large-scale properties. The implications of these findings for ENSO predictability are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26898586"><span>Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Eastern Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A brief summary of the early history of the study of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and adjacent Eastern Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Basin. The most species-rich families in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887431"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> control on surface heat flux on multidecadal timescales.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib; Keenlyside, Noel; Park, Wonsun; Koltermann, Klaus Peter</p> <p>2013-07-25</p> <p>Nearly 50 years ago Bjerknes suggested that the character of large-scale air-sea interaction over the mid-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> differs with timescales: the atmosphere was thought to drive directly most short-term--interannual--sea surface temperature (SST) variability, and the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to contribute significantly to long-term--multidecadal--SST and potentially atmospheric variability. Although the conjecture for short timescales is well accepted, understanding <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal variability (AMV) of SST remains a challenge as a result of limited <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observations. AMV is nonetheless of major socio-economic importance because it is linked to important climate phenomena such as <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane activity and Sahel rainfall, and it hinders the detection of anthropogenic signals in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector. Direct evidence of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> influence of AMV can only be provided by surface heat fluxes, the language of <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere communication. Here we provide observational evidence that in the mid-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and on timescales longer than 10 years, surface turbulent heat fluxes are indeed driven by the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and may force the atmosphere, whereas on shorter timescales the converse is true, thereby confirming the Bjerknes conjecture. This result, although strongest in boreal winter, is found in all seasons. Our findings suggest that the predictability of mid-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> air-sea interaction could extend beyond the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to the climate of surrounding continents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS32A..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS32A..07K"><span>Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS24A..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMOS24A..07S"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Carbon Experiment (acex): Implementation of Eddy Covariance Implementation of Eddy Covariance CO2 Flux Measurements on the SW <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Results from the Second Cruise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, C.; Pezzi, L. P.; Miller, S. D.; Martins, L. G.; Araujo, R. G.; Acevedo, O. C.; Moller, O.; Souza, R.; Tavano, V. M.; Farias, P.; Casagrande, F.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The project observational and numerical study of heat, momentum and CO2 fluxes at the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere interface in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Carbon Experiment (ACEx) combines observational and modeling approaches to characterize heat, momentum and CO2 fluxes at the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere interface in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. This project is part of an innovative initiative aimed at providing a better understanding of the chemical, physical and dynamic processes of <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere interaction in micro and meso-scales at the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, as well as fluxes across this interface. The ACEx project has performed three cruises so far, collecting measurements with CTDs and XBTs, launching radiosondes, and deploying a micro-meteorological tower to make in situ measurements of heat, momentum and CO2 fluxes. Our successful deployment of this tower represents the first use of a CO2 flux measurement system using eddy covariance technique in the Southwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. In this work, we present results from the second ACEx cruise, in which the crew onboard the Hydro-oceanographic Vessel Cruzeiro do Sul took measurements at 31 stations between Paranaguá (PR) and Chuí (RS). In addition to physical data, this cruise collected phytoplankton and nutrient data, allowing carbonic gas fluxes to be analyzed and compared with both physical and biological forcings. The highest chlorophyll concentrations were found in water derived from the La Plata River, which showed low salinity waters close to the surface. The influence of these waters was observed mainly at the southernmost stations of the cruise, coincident with increases on the CO2 fluxes that had remained slightly negative until then. This suggests that the biological forcings might have a significant impact on the gas fluxes in this area, through both respiration and the consumption of organic matter. We are currently working to apply circulation and biogeochemical models to evaluate the importance of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033988&hterms=arctic+ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Darctic%2Bocean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033988&hterms=arctic+ocean&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Darctic%2Bocean"><span>Recent Changes in Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Sea Ice Motion Associated with the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kwok, R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examination of a new ice motion dataset of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> over a recent eighteen year period (1978-1996) reveals patterns of variability that can be linked directly to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6197865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6197865"><span>Early opening of initially closed Gulf of Mexico and central North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Van Siclen, D.C.</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents ideas on the early opening and evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the central North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. It discusses rifting activity, plate tectonics, magnetic anomalies, and the geologic time elements involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.580 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.182 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.580 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.580 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.182 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.182 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-20/pdf/2012-20348.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-20/pdf/2012-20348.pdf"><span>77 FR 50062 - Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Daytona Beach, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-20</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>... Daytona Beach, Florida during the Embry-Riddle Wings and Waves air show. The event is scheduled to take...: Sec. 165.T07-0653 Safety Zone; Embry Riddle Wings and Waves, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Daytona Beach, FL....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.580 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.182 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol1-sec110-182.pdf"><span>33 CFR 110.182 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-580.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.580 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near Port Everglades, Fla. 334.580 Section 334.580 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.580 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRC..109.1003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JGRC..109.1003R"><span>Gulf of Mexico circulation within a high-resolution numerical simulation of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romanou, Anastasia; Chassignet, Eric P.; Sturges, Wilton</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Gulf of Mexico circulation is examined from the results of a high-resolution (1/12°) North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> simulation using the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Model. The motivation for this paper is twofold: first, we validate the model's performance in the Gulf of Mexico by comparing the model fields to past and recent observations, and second, given the good agreement with the observed Gulf of Mexico surface circulation and Loop Current variability, we expand the discussion and analysis of the model circulation to areas that have not been extensively observed/analyzed, such as the vertical structure of the Loop Current and associated eddies, especially the deep circulation below 1500 m. The interval between successive model eddy sheddings is 3 to 15 months, the eddy diameters range between 140 and 500 km, the life span is about 1 year, and the translational speeds are 2-3 km d-1, in good agreement with observations. Areas of high cyclonic eddy occurrence in the model are southwest of Florida, the Loop Current boundary, and the western Campeche Bay area. The cyclonic eddy diameters range between 50 and 375 km, the orbital speeds range between 1 and 55 cm s-1, the translational speeds range between 0.5 and 14 km d-1, and the eddy life spans range between 1 and 3 months. The vertical structure of the temperature and salinity of each modeled eddy, from the moment it is shed until it disintegrates in the western Gulf of Mexico, is in agreement with the few available observations. Below 1500 m, deep cyclonic eddies are associated with the surface Loop Current anticyclones. The eddy variability is consistent with Rossby waves propagating westward, and there is bottom intensification of the flow close to steep topography. Overall, we show that this very high horizontal resolution isopycnic coordinate <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model, which is able to produce a quite realistic surface circulation for the North and <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, is also able to reproduce well the smaller-scale, basin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174500"><span>Depth Profiles of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the North and Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Caoxin; Soltwedel, Thomas; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Adelman, Dave A; Lohmann, Rainer</p> <p>2016-06-21</p> <p>Little is known of the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Polyethylene passive samplers were used to detect the vertical distribution of truly dissolved POPs at two sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Samplers were deployed at five depths covering 26-2535 m in the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, in approximately one year deployments. Samplers of different thickness were used to determine the state of equilibrium POPs reached in the passive samplers. Concentrations of POPs detected in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> near the surface (e.g., sum of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs: 0.84 pg L(-1)) were similar to previous measurements. At both sites, PCB concentrations showed subsurface maxima (tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> -800 m, North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> -500 m). Currents seemed more important in moving POPs to deeper water masses than the biological pump. The ratio of PCB concentrations in near surface waters (excluding PCB-28) between the two sites was inversely correlated with congeners' subcooled liquid vapor pressure, in support of the latitudinal fractionation. The results presented here implied a significant amount of HCB is stored in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (4.8-26% of the global HCB environmental burdens), contrasting traditional beliefs that POPs do not reach the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12891352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12891352"><span>Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> origin for the resumption of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation during deglaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit</p> <p>2003-07-31</p> <p>During the two most recent deglaciations, the Southern Hemisphere warmed before Greenland. At the same time, the northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was exposed to meltwater discharge, which is generally assumed to reduce the formation of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water. Yet during deglaciation, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation became more vigorous, in the transition from a weak glacial to a strong interglacial mode. Here we use a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation model to investigate the impact of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> warming and the associated sea-ice retreat on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation. We find that a gradual warming in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during deglaciation induces an abrupt resumption of the interglacial mode of the thermohaline circulation, triggered by increased mass transport into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> via the warm (Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>) and cold (Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>) water route. This effect prevails over the influence of meltwater discharge, which would oppose a strengthening of the thermohaline circulation. A Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> trigger for the transition into an interglacial mode of circulation provides a consistent picture of Southern and Northern hemispheric climate change at times of deglaciation, in agreement with the available proxy records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24251554','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24251554"><span>Organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere and surface water from the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: enantiomeric signatures, sources, and fate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yumei; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Gan; Cheng, Zhineng; Liu, Junwen; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Nineteen pairs of gaseous and surface seawater samples were collected along the cruise from Malaysia to the south of Bay of Bengal passing by Sri Lanka between April 12 and May 4, 2011 on the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I to investigate the latest OCP pollution status over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Significant decrease of α-HCH and γ-HCH was found in the air and dissolved water phase owing to global restriction for decades. Substantially high levels of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, trans-chlordane (TC), and cis-chlordane (CC) were observed in the water samples collected near Sri Lanka, indicating fresh continental riverine input of these compounds. Fugacity fractions suggest equilibrium of α-HCH at most sampling sites, while net volatilization for DDT isomers, TC and CC in most cases. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-HCH and o,p'-DDT in the air and water samples were determined to trace the source of these compounds in the air. Racemic or close to racemic composition was found for atmospheric α-HCH and o,p'-DDT, while significant depletion of (+) enantiomer was found in the water phase, especially for o,p'-DDT (EFs = 0.310 ± 0.178). 24% of α-HCH in the lower air over the open sea of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is estimated to be volatilized from local seawater, indicating that long-range transport is the main source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28100418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28100418"><span>Persistent organic pollutants in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and southern <span class="hlt">oceans</span> and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> atmosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Cochran, Michele A; Falconer, Renee L; Kylin, Henrik</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007-Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sample concentrations for most POPs in air were higher in the northern hemisphere with the exception of HCB, which had high gas phase concentrations in the northern and southern latitudes and low concentrations near the equator. South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> seawater had a high ratio of α-HCH to γ-HCH, indicating persisting levels from technical grade sources. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> continue to be net sinks for atmospheric α-, γ-HCH, and Endosulfan despite declining usage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31F0166D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A31F0166D"><span>Atmospheric aerosol properties over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeWitt, H. L.; Coffman, D. J.; Schulz, K.; Brewer, A.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The chemical, physical, and optical properties of sub- and supermicrometer aerosols over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> were measured on-board the R/V Revelle during the fall 2011 Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign. During this time both the retreating of the Asian monsoon and two Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events were observed. The R/V Revelle was on station (0.10 N and 80.50 E) to measure atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> conditions between October 4 and October 30, 2011 (Leg 2 of the DYNAMO research cruise) and November 11th and December 4th, 2011 (Leg 3). Throughout the campaign, background marine atmospheric conditions were generally observed with average particle number concentration of less than 300 cm-3 and ozone (O3) <30 ppbv. As the Asian monsoon season retreated over the boreal fall and the general wind direction changed from southerly to northerly transporting, respectively, clean marine and polluted continental air masses, the average submicrometer aerosol mass almost doubled from 1.8 × 1.1 μg m-3 in October to 3.3 × 2.2 μg m-3 in November/December. In addition, the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties appeared to be more influenced by continental sources. The effect of MJO-associated convection anomalies on aerosols in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) were measured during November when a complete MJO convection wave moved over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and during October when a partial MJO event was observed. MJO-associated convection strongly affected the local aerosol population's size, composition, optical properties, and concentration as increased vertical mixing introduced new particles into the MBL, rainout cleared the atmosphere of submicrometer continental aerosol particles while high winds enhanced the concentration sea salt aerosol particles in the local atmosphere. Four stages of MJO-affected aerosol population changes in the remote Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are defined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.5736L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.5736L"><span>Atmospheric aerosol properties over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langley Dewitt, H.; Coffman, Derek J.; Schulz, Kristen J.; Alan Brewer, W.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The chemical, physical, and optical properties of sub- and supermicrometer aerosols over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> were measured on board the R/V Revelle during the fall 2011 Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation field campaign. During this time, both the retreating of the Asian monsoon and two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events were observed. The R/V Revelle was on station (0.1°N and 80.5°E) to measure atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> conditions between 4 October and 30 October 2011 (Leg 2) and 11 November and 4 December 2011 (Leg 3). Throughout the campaign, background marine atmospheric conditions were usually observed. As the Asian monsoon season retreated over the boreal fall and the general wind direction changed from southerly to northerly transporting, respectively, clean marine and polluted continental air masses, the average submicrometer aerosol mass nearly doubled from Leg 2 to Leg 3 and the aerosol appeared to be more influenced by continental sources. The effect of MJO-associated convection anomalies on aerosols in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) was measured during November when a complete MJO convection wave moved over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and during October when a partial MJO event was observed. MJO-associated convection strongly affected the local aerosol as increased vertical mixing introduced new particles into the MBL, rainout cleared the atmosphere of submicrometer aerosol particles, and high winds enhanced the concentration of sea salt aerosol particles in the local atmosphere. Four stages of MJO-affected aerosol population changes in the remote Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are defined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43.3123X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43.3123X"><span>Diagnosing southeast tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation biases in the CMIP5 ensemble</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Zhao; Chang, Ping; Richter, Ingo; Kim, Who; Tang, Guanglin</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Warm sea-surface temperature (SST) biases in the southeastern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (SETA), which is defined by a region from 5°E to the west coast of southern Africa and from 10°S to 30°S, are a common problem in many current and previous generation climate models. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble provides a useful framework to tackle the complex issues concerning causes of the SST bias. In this study, we tested a number of previously proposed mechanisms responsible for the SETA SST bias and found the following results. First, the multi-model ensemble mean shows a positive shortwave radiation bias of ~20 W m-2, consistent with models' deficiency in simulating low-level clouds. This shortwave radiation error, however, is overwhelmed by larger errors in the simulated surface turbulent heat and longwave radiation fluxes, resulting in excessive heat loss from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The result holds for atmosphere-only model simulations from the same multi-model ensemble, where the effect of SST biases on surface heat fluxes is removed, and is not sensitive to whether the analysis region is chosen to coincide with the maximum warm SST bias along the coast or with the main SETA stratocumulus deck away from the coast. This combined with the fact that there is no statistically significant relationship between simulated SST biases and surface heat flux biases among CMIP5 models suggests that the shortwave radiation bias caused by poorly simulated low-level clouds is not the leading cause of the warm SST bias. Second, the majority of CMIP5 models underestimate upwelling strength along the Benguela coast, which is linked to the unrealistically weak alongshore wind stress simulated by the models. However, a correlation analysis between the model simulated vertical velocities and SST biases does not reveal a statistically significant relationship between the two, suggesting that the deficient coastal upwelling in the models is not simply related to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6890342','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6890342"><span>Further case studies of tropical <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> surface atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> patterns associated with sub-Saharan drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lamb, P.J. ); Peppler, R.A. )</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>Sub-Saharan West Africa (10[degrees]20[degrees]N) receives rainfall from westward-propagating disturbance lines that have their base within and receive most of their moisture from the low-level, wedge-shaped, southwest monsoonal flow off the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. This paper identifies the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> patterns that accompany drought in sub-Saharan West Africa. Patterns for the four driest years since 1940 are compared with counterparts for the wettest of the last 20 years and 60-year average fields. The key results for the rainy season of three of the four severe sub-Saharan drought years 1972, 1977, 1984 duplicate those obtained earlier. They include (i) a distinctive basinwide sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern (positive departures to the south of[similar to] 10[degrees]N; negative departures between 10[degrees]- 25[degrees]); (ii) a concomitant southward displacement (relative to the 1911-70 mean) of the zone of maximum SST by 250-500 km; (iii) the North (South) <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical high extending farther (less) equatorward than in the 60-year mean; and (iv) associated southward displacements (by 200-350 km) of the near-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> pressure trough, wind direction discontinuity between Northern and Southern hemisphere trades, and zones of maximum rainfall frequency and total cloud amount. Very deficient sub-Saharan rainy seasons tend to coincide with the southwesterly surface monsoonal flow. Only the SST patterns of the aforementioned results show evidence of evolving during preceding seasons. This indicates the potential for tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> SST to provide the basis for the prediction of sub-Saharan rainy season quality several months in advance. These results were not characteristic of the other extremely deficient sub-Saharan rainy season investigated (1983) or the nondrought rainy season studied for comparative purposes (1975).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS52A..03F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS52A..03F"><span>Seismic Imaging of Thermohaline Circulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falder, M.; White, N. J.; Sheen, K. L.; Caulfield, C. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We present seismic reflection images of the full water column acquired during a 2010 cruise in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> on the RSS James Cook. A total of 2600 km of seismic data with a horizontal resolution of ~10 m were acquired, including two long transects > 1000 km long. These transects extend from Hatton Bank to the Greenland shelf and cross smooth, intermediate and rough bathymetry. Coeval, expendable conductivity-temperature-depth probes and ADCP measurements permit hydrographic calibration of the seismic images. Seismic processing included dense (~ 1.5 km) velocity picking and iterative pre-stack depth migration, which optimised the acoustic velocity model and increased our confidence in the depth conversion. On both transects, we observe thermohaline structures, such as eddies, fronts and internal waves, together with lateral changes in geometry and reflective character. In places, the amplitude and character of the internal waves may be affected by interaction with rough bathymetry. The largest mesoscale eddy is 60 km in diameter, occurring between 300 and 1100 m depth. Asymmetric reflections wrap around this feature. ADCP data demonstrate that this eddy rotates clockwise at 0.4 m/s in agreement with previous studies. Spectral analysis of internal waves show the classic transition from a Garrett-Munk to a Kolmogorov/Bachelor slope, allowing diapycnal diffusivity estimates to be made. In this way, we hope to test the paradigm that enhanced mixing rates occur over rougher bathymetry in <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> basins. These long transects are rich in detail and we hope that a quantitative analysis will yield useful physical oceanographic insights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7100L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7100L"><span>Methane at Ascension Island, southern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: continuous ground measurement and vertical profiling above the Trade-Wind Inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lowry, David; Brownlow, Rebecca; Fisher, Rebecca; Nisbet, Euan; Lanoisellé, Mathias; France, James; Thomas, Rick; Mackenzie, Rob; Richardson, Tom; Greatwood, Colin; Freer, Jim; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola; Pyle, John</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Methane mixing ratios have been rising rapidly worldwide since 2007. At Ascension Island (8oS in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>), a sustained rise has occurred. Prior to 2010, growth was comparable to other regions, but in 2010-11, during a strong la Nina event, the increase was 10ppb year-on-year. Reduced growth followed in 2011-12, but in 2012-13 strong growth resumed and continues. This rise has been accompanied by a shift to lighter δ13CCH4 values in 2010-11 in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> tropics. The most likely cause of this shift is emissions from isotopically 'light' biological sources in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> and savanna tropics. Ascension Island is in the Trade Wind belt of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, perfectly located to measure the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> marine boundary layer. The SE Trade Winds are almost invariant, derived from the deep South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and with little contact with Africa. However, above the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI) at about 1200-2000m asl, the air masses are very different, coming dominantly from tropical Africa and occasionally S. America. Depending on season, air above the TWI is sourced from the African southern savanna grasslands or the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> wetlands of Congo and Uganda, with inputs of air also from southern tropical S. America (Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia). African methane sources are a major contributor to the global methane budget, but although local campaign studies have been made, African emissions are not well studied in bulk. In September 2014, an octocopter was used to retrieve air samples from heights up to 2700m asl on Ascension (see Thomas, R. et al, this volume). This allowed sampling through the marine boundary layer, across the TWI cloud layer, and into the mid-troposphere. Samples were collected in part-filled 5L Tedlar bags, which were analysed for CH4 concentration using Royal Holloway's Picarro 1301 CRDS system at the Met Office, Ascension. This has high precision and accuracy, with a 6-gas calibration suite. Bags were then analysed in the UK for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13A0214W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A13A0214W"><span>Seaglider Observations of <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Rossby Wave Interactions With the Madden-Julian Oscillation During CINDY-DYNAMO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webber, B. G.; Matthews, A. J.; Heywood, K. J.; Stevens, D. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>During the CINDY-DYNAMO field campaign in 2011-12, a Seaglider was deployed at 80°E in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and patrolled between 3° and 4°S over a period of three months. In addition, the periods when the Seaglider was travelling to and from the deployment location at 1.5°S represent two independent sections almost four months apart. The 3-4°S data have been optimally interpolated to generate unique and very high resolution data sets of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and oxygen, along with derived geostrophic velocities in a region that has been under-observed to date. These observations reveal the importance of <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> Rossby waves in generating intraseasonal variability in the subsurface Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, with temperature anomalies of around 0.5°C and salinity anomalies of 0.1 due to such waves. These anomalies extend with only slightly reduced magnitude into the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> up to the maximum observed depth of 1000 m. The latitudinal structure of the temperature, salinity and density anomalies is generally very coherent, consistent with the structure of first meridional mode <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> Rossby waves. The chlorophyll and oxygen data from the Seaglider show how these waves have a substantial impact on biological activity at this location, with the peak productivity shifting vertically by up to 20 metres due to upwelling and downwelling. Linearised numerical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model simulations were conducted for the period around the Seaglider deployment period, to put the observations in context. These model simulations were forced by ERA-Interim winds that were filtered to remove the high-frequency variability while retaining that relating to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Comparison between the model runs and Seaglider observations indicates that the MJO-related winds are directly responsible for a large portion of the observed <span class="hlt">ocean</span> Rossby wave activity, although there is also a role for lower-frequency wind forcing. The model results also highlight</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.521..508M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.521..508M"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> impact on decadal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability revealed by sea-level observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Gerard D.; Haigh, Ivan D.; Hirschi, Joël J.-M.; Grist, Jeremy P.; Smeed, David A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Decadal variability is a notable feature of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content. However, there are no direct observations of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation on decadal timescales. We show that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation responds to the first mode of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> atmospheric forcing, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26017453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26017453"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> impact on decadal <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate variability revealed by sea-level observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Gerard D; Haigh, Ivan D; Hirschi, Joël J-M; Grist, Jeremy P; Smeed, David A</p> <p>2015-05-28</p> <p>Decadal variability is a notable feature of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the climate of the regions it influences. Prominently, this is manifested in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in sea surface temperatures. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO coincide with warmer (colder) North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sea surface temperatures. The AMO is linked with decadal climate fluctuations, such as Indian and Sahel rainfall, European summer precipitation, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricanes and variations in global temperatures. It is widely believed that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation drives the phase changes of the AMO by controlling <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content. However, there are no direct observations of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation of sufficient length to support this, leading to questions about whether the AMO is controlled from another source. Here we provide observational evidence of the widely hypothesized link between <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation and the AMO. We take a new approach, using sea level along the east coast of the United States to estimate <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation on decadal timescales. We show that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation responds to the first mode of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> atmospheric forcing, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation, through circulation changes between the subtropical and subpolar gyres--the intergyre region. These circulation changes affect the decadal evolution of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat content and, consequently, the phases of the AMO. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation is declining and the AMO is moving to a negative phase. This may offer a brief respite from the persistent rise of global temperatures, but in the coupled system we describe, there are compensating effects. In this case, the negative AMO is associated with a continued acceleration of sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8525E..0NR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8525E..0NR"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> color variability in the southern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and southeastern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rudorff, Natalia M.; Frouin, Robert J.; Kampel, Milton</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) of surface waters is commonly retrieved from space using an empirical polynomial function of the maximum band ratio (MBR), i.e., the maximum ratio of remote sensing reflectance in selected spectral bands in the visible. Recent studies have revealed significant deviations in the relation between MBR and Chla across the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. The present work aims at accessing the main sources of MBR variability across the Southern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and South-east Pacific, using in situ data. The data was collected at 19 bio-optical CTD stations and 40 flowthrough stations during a cruise onboard the R/V Melville, from South Africa to Chile (February-March, 2011). The MBR was derived from modeled remote sensing reflectance using absorption and backscattering measurements. The second order MBR variations (MBR*) were obtained after subtraction of a global polynomial fit for CChla and Chla biases. Multivariate analyses were used to explain the variations with bio-optical properties and phytoplankton pigments. Chla overestimations were associated to high specific phytoplankton absorption (0.73), specific particle backscattering coefficient (0.42) and colored dissolved and particle organic matter (CDM) absorption normalized by non-water absorption (0.38), and vice-versa. The overestimations occurred at stations with dominance of small picoplankton, high concentration of bacteria, and high CDM, while underestimations were in microplankton dominated waters and low CDM. The results reveal important relations of the MBR* with the specific coefficient and associated phytoplankton community structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995EOSTr..76...25T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995EOSTr..76...25T"><span>Iberian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Margins Group investigates deep structure of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>The Iberian Atlantic Margins Group; Banda, Enric; Torne, Montserrat</p> <p></p> <p>With recent seismic reflection data in hand, investigators for the Iberian <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Margins project are preparing images of the deep continental and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> margins of Iberia. In 1993, the IAM group collected near vertical incidence seismic reflection data over a total distance of 3500 km along the North and Western Iberian Margins, Gorringe Bank Region and Gulf of Cadiz (Figure 1). When combined with data on the conjugate margin off Canada, details of the Iberian margin's deep structure should aid in distinguishing rift models and improve understanding of the processes governing the formation of margins.The North Iberian passive continental margin was formed during a Permian to Triassic phase of extension and matured during the early Cretaceous by rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to Eurasia. From the late Cretaceous to the early Oligocene period, Iberia rotated in a counterclockwise direction around an axis located west of Lisbon. The plate boundary between Iberia and Eurasia, which lies along the Pyrenees, follows the north Spanish marginal trough, trends obliquely in the direction of the fossil Bay of Biscay triple junction, and continues along the Azores-Biscay Rise [Sibuet et al., 1994]. Following the NE-SW convergence of Iberia and Eurasia, the reactivation of the North Iberian continental margin resulted in the formation of a marginal trough and accretionary prism [Boillot et al., 1971].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22655856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22655856"><span>Multiphase halogen chemistry in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sommariva, Roberto; von Glasow, Roland</p> <p>2012-10-02</p> <p>We used a one-dimensional model to simulate the chemical evolution of air masses in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, with a focus on halogen chemistry. The model results were compared to the observations of inorganic halogen species made in this region. The model could largely reproduce the measurements of most chlorine species, especially under unpolluted conditions, but overestimated sea salt chloride, BrCl, and bromine species. Agreement with the measurements could be improved by taking into account the reactivity with aldehydes and the effects of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and Saharan dust on aerosol pH; a hypothetical HOX → X(-) aqueous-phase reaction could also improve the agreement with measured Cl(2) and HOCl, especially under semipolluted conditions. The results also showed that halogens speciation and concentrations are very sensitive to cloud processing. The model was used to calculate the impact of the observed levels of halogens: Cl atoms accounted for 5.4-11.6% of total methane sinks and halogens (mostly bromine and iodine) accounted for 35-40% of total ozone destruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5177840','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5177840"><span>Microbial growth and macromolecular synthesis in the northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuhel, R.L.; Jannasch, H.W.; Taylor, C.D.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous time-course measurements of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, /sup 32/PO/sup 43 -/, /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/, and (/sup 14/C)acetate, glucose, and glutamate uptake were made at three stations in the northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, using water samples taken from well below the euphotic zone. Marked deviations from linearity were observed in 14 of the 15 cases. At the two most inshore stations uptake of /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/ or incorporation of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into protein was undetectable for 16-30 h, followed by very rapid increases in the rates of activity. The sudden burst of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/and NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake was accompanied by a major increase in the incorporation of /sup 32/P into RNA and lipid fractions of the microbial population at a continental slope station. At a station in Sargasso Sea, all substrates were taken up without lag. Extended incubations led to a growth plateau which may be a measure of the total biologically labile organic nutrient supply. In all cases tested, chloramphenicol severely restricted uptake. One of the inshore stations was revisited a year later with similar results. The combined data demonstrate the utility of using inorganic nutrient uptake and subcellular incorporation patterns to measure microbial growth and metabolism and stress the necessity of time-course rather than end-point incubations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA479261','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA479261"><span>Performance of Mixed Layer Models in Simulating SST in the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-02-23</p> <p>the SST drop (,,7’C) occurring in the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific Antarctic for computational efficiency. Hereinafter, the [Harrison and Vecchi, 2001...based Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/1) clearly HYCOM simulations introduces some error ( z50 W m2) relative to the shortwave radiation measured by...Thi6baux, J., E. Rogers, W. Wang, and B. Katz (2003), A new high-resolu- tion blended real-time global sea surface temperature analysis, Bull. Am. E</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP51B1113R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP51B1113R"><span>A Global Warming Event in Magnetochron C19r: New evidence from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roehl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Donner, B.; Kordesch, W.; Bohaty, S. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Chron C19r event in the late middle Eocene was first described at ODP Site 1260 in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. It is characterized by strong dissolution expressed in a dark, clay-rich layer and a distinct peak in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning Fe intensities as well as by a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in bulk sediment. All similar to early Paleogene hyperthermal events - the Chron C19r event could also be a hyperthermal event but in the late middle Eocene. The dissolution of carbonate at Site 1260 prevented so far to retrieve a benthic stable isotope record with a typical CIE and warming of deep water. The C19r event occurred ~1.0 myr prior to the onset of the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO, 40.5 Ma) and several million years after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, 51 Ma) during a slightly cooler climate. No significant CCD changes have been observed one million years before and after the event as expressed by regular Fe cycles at Site 1260. The duration of the event estimated by orbital calibration is in the order of 40-50 kyr, similar to other transient hyperthermals in the early to middle Eocene. Here we present new high-resolution bulk and benthic stable isotope data revealing the widespread nature of the event. We investigated ODP Sites 702B (~2200m) near the crest of the Islas Orcadas Rise in the southern South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, 1263 (~1800 m) on Walvis Ridge in the SE <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and 1051 (2100 m) on Blake Nose in the NW <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The position of the event was initially narrowed by careful analysis of magnetostratigraphy and XRF scanning data. First results of stable isotope data show a ~0.7 δ13C and ~0.4‰ δ18O excursion very similar to the pattern observed at Site 1260. Although the magnitude of the bulk δ13C excursion is comparable, the bulk δ18O excursion at Site 702B is only a third of that observed at Site 1260 which might be related to diagenetic and/or latitudinal effects. 702B benthic isotope data show a ~0.75 ‰ CIE and a ~0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeoRL..28.2445D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeoRL..28.2445D"><span>The dominant mechanisms of variability in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Heat Transport in a Coupled <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-Atmosphere GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, B.-W.; Sutton, R. T.</p> <p></p> <p>The variability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport (OHT) has been diagnosed from a simulation of a coupled <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere general circulation model (GCM), and the mechanisms responsible for this variability have been elucidated. Interannual variability is dominated by windstress-driven Ekman fluctuations, which account for 50.3% of the OHT variance. By contrast, decadal and multidecadal variability in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> OHT is dominated by a mixed thermohaline/gyre mode driven by variations in buoyancy fluxes and windstress curl. It accounts for 55.6% of low pass filtered OHT variance. The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) has a significant role in both the interannual mode and the low frequency mode, but it is not the only important driver. A notable feature of both modes is significant changes in the tropical atmosphere and <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. We highlight a number of potential mechanisms involved in the tropical-extratropical teleconnections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41H0186O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41H0186O"><span>Distribution of tropospheric ozone over the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oyola, M. I.; Joseph, E.; Nalli, N. R.; Morris, V. R.; Stearns, C. A.; Barnet, C.; Wolfe, D. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> troposphere. We present a comprehensive study of tropospheric ozone based upon an unprecedented dataset of electrochemical cell (ECC) ozone soundings over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> acquired from intensive observation periods (IOP) conducted during seven separate NOAA Aerosols and <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Science Expedition (AEROSE) campaigns (2006-2011, 2013) and the 1999 AEROSOL99 campaign. A composite of well-resolved and accurate (5%) tropospheric profiles retrieved from daily ozonesondes, launched along latitudes between 33N to 34 S, are used to describe the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> ozone geographical and vertical distribution during boreal Winter, Spring and Summer months. Laminae obtained applying the Pierce-Teitelbaum (PT) method are coupled to GW and RW, exploiting their relationship with vertical displacement and quasi-horizontal transport respectively. We apply optical depth measurements, ship-borne tracers, Lagrangian backtrajectory modeling and reanalysis data to characterize the different atmospheric conditions and processes that are believed to ignite the formation of these layers. Furthermore, we present an initial attempt to quantify the contribution of each to the total ozone tropospheric budget due to stratospheric-tropospheric interactions, boundary layer processes, advection of pollutants and regional convection and lightning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22141883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22141883"><span>New data on Lepidion schmidti (Gadiformes: Moridae) from the north-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arronte, J C; Bañón, R; Quigley, D T G; Pis-Millán, J A; Heredia, J</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A new record of Lepidion schmidti (Gadiformes: Moridae) is reported from the Bay of Biscay (north-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>). Lepidion schmidti is a rare and poorly known species, scarcely described in the ichthyological literature. Morphometric and meristic characteristics of the specimen are given. A compilation of the specimens caught in the north-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was carried out and the current status of the species in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters is discussed. Lepidion schmidti is characterized mainly by the presence of an inverted V-shaped patch of vomerine teeth and a V-shaped crest on the dorsal surface of the head with the apex anterior. The presence of supernumerary anal fin rays in this species is described for the first time. The results obtained confirm the presence of L. schmidti from the north-east <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991QuRes..35..144P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991QuRes..35..144P"><span>Source areas and transport mechanisms for freshwater and Brackish-water diatoms deposited in pelagic sediments of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">atlantic</span>*1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pokras, Edward M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Distributions of freshwater and brackish-water diatoms from dust samples and modern sediments of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> demonstrate different transport mechanisms and source areas. Both Melosira spp. and Stephanodiscus spp. are transported via winds from the southern Sahara and Sahel in Northern Hemisphere winter. The core-top distribution of Cyclotella striata delineates the extent of the low-salinity plume formed by runoff from the Zaire River into the extreme eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The transport mechanism and source areas for Melosira spp. during arid phases have not changed appreciably in the last 130,000 yr. There is no evidence for long-distance transport of freshwater diatoms by the southeast trade winds. This study confirms the validity of paleoclimatic research which inferred eolian transport of Melosira spp. in the winter dust plume from source regions north of the equator, although fluviatile input of Melosira valves into nearshore sediments cannot be ruled out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26709321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26709321"><span>Heat content variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> reanalyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Häkkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B; Worthen, Denise L</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>Warming of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> from the 1950s to 2012 is analyzed on neutral density surfaces and vertical levels in the upper 2000 m. Three reanalyses and two observational data sets are compared. The net gain of 5 × 10(22) J in the upper 2000 m is roughly 30% of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> warming over this period. Upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content (OHC) is dominated in most regions by heat transport convergence without widespread changes in the potential temperature/salinity relation. The heat convergence is associated with sinking of midthermocline isopycnals, with maximum sinking occurring at potential densities σ0 = 26.4-27.3, which contain subtropical mode waters. Water masses lighter than σ0 = 27.3 accumulate heat by increasing their volume, while heavier waters lose heat by decreasing their volume. Spatially, the OHC trend is nonuniform: the low latitudes, 0-30°N are warming steadily while large multidecadal variability occurs at latitudes 30-65°N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12541.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-28/pdf/2013-12541.pdf"><span>78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Virginia Beach, VA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO... Concerts Entertainment, Inc. will host an air show event over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in Virginia Beach, VA....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP43E..08Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP43E..08Y"><span>Did the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> sequester more CO2 during the last glacial?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, J.; Thornalley, D. J.; Jin, Z.; Rohling, E. J.; Menviel, L.; McCave, I. N. N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To explain the ~90 ppm lower atmospheric CO2 content during the Last Glacial Maximum, much effort has been focused on the mechanisms that helped to limit the outgassing of CO2 from the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to the atmosphere via the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Field measurements and modeling studies suggest that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> has been an important sink of CO2 during preindustrial and modern times. However, the role of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in sequestering atmospheric CO2 in the past largely remains unconstrained. Here, we use a suite of geochemical proxies to reconstruct nutrient and carbonate ion concentrations of both surface and deep waters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last ~25 kyr. When normalized to the same nutrient levels, we find that the gradient in carbonate ion content between surface and mid-depth waters increased during the last glacial. Although a combination of factors including changes in Redfield ratio and rain ratio and increased CO2 absorption at the air-sea boundary might have caused the observed change, the greater gradient most likely suggests an enhanced sequestration of CO2 in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during the Last Glacial Maximum. Therefore, we infer that, in addition to changes in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, processes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> enhanced the uptake of CO2 and synergistically contributed to the low atmospheric CO2 during ice ages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.2649B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.2649B"><span>Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bates, N. R.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Natural climate variability impacts the multi-decadal uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (Cant) into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> subpolar and subtropical gyres. Previous studies have shown that there is significant uptake of CO2 into subtropical mode water (STMW) of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. STMW forms south of the Gulf Stream in winter and constitutes the dominant upper-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> water mass in the subtropical gyre of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Observations at the Bermuda <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Time-series Study (BATS) site near Bermuda show an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of +1.51 ± 0.08 μmol kg-1 yr-1 between 1988 and 2011, but also an increase in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> acidification indicators such as pH at rates (-0.0022 ± 0.0002 yr-1) higher than the surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> (Bates et al., 2012). It is estimated that the sink of CO2 into STMW was 0.985 ± 0.018 Pg C (Pg = 1015 g C) between 1988 and 2011 (70 ± 1.8% of which is due to uptake of Cant). The sink of CO2 into the STMW is 20% of the CO2 uptake in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> between 14°-50° N (Takahashi et al., 2009). However, the STMW sink of CO2 was strongly coupled to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO), with large uptake of CO2 into STMW during the 1990s during a predominantly NAO positive phase. In contrast, uptake of CO2 into STMW was much reduced in the 2000s during the NAO neutral/negative phase. Thus, NAO induced variability of the STMW CO2 sink is important when evaluating multi-decadal changes in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> CO2 sinks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68718"><span>Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 meters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levitus, S.; Boyer, T.P.; Antonov, J.I.</p> <p>1994-10-07</p> <p>Analyses of historical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> temperature data at a depth of 125 meters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> indicate that from 1950-1990 the subtropical and subartic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean temperature anomaly fields between 20{degrees}N and 70{degrees}N in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> show a characteristic space-time temperature oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first-identified at <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17814003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17814003"><span>Interannual variability of temperature at a depth of 125 meters in the north <span class="hlt">atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levitus, S; Antonov, J I; Boyer, T P</p> <p>1994-10-07</p> <p>Analyses of historical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> temperature data at a depth of 125 meters in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean temperature anomaly fields between 20 degrees N and 70 degrees N in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> show a characteristic space-time temperature oscillation from 1947 to 1990. A quasidecadal oscillation, first identified at <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Weather Station C, is part of a basin-wide feature. Gyre and basin-scale variations such as these provide the observational basis for climate diagnostic and modeling studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.343..607S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Natur.343..607S"><span>Abrupt climate fluctuations in the tropics: the influence of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Perrott, R. Alan</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>Several prolonged droughts in the Sahel and tropical Mexico during the past 14,000 years were coincident with large injections of fresh water into the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The link between these phenomena lies in the thermohaline circulation of the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>: input of fresh water decreases salinity leading to reduced North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water formation and anomalies of sea surface temperature of the kind associated with decreased rainfall in the northern tropics. Ice-sheet disintegration, the most important source of fresh-water input to the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, should therefore be considered explicitly in models of past and future climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5673156','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5673156"><span>Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and North Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.</p> <p>1981-09-20</p> <p>Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.289..393B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010E%26PSL.289..393B"><span>Asthenospheric percolation of alkaline melts beneath the St. Paul region (Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brunelli, Daniele; Seyler, Monique</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Two peridotite suites collected by submersible in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (Hekinian et al., 2000) were studied for textures, modes, and in situ major and trace element compositions in pyroxenes. Dive SP12 runs along the immersed flank of the St. Peter and Paul Rocks islets where amphibole-bearing, ultramafic mylonites enriched in alkalies and incompatible elements are exposed (Roden et al., 1984), whereas dive SP03 sampled a small intra-transform spreading centre situated about 370 km east of the St. Peter and Paul Rocks. Both suites are characterized by undeformed, coarse-grained granular textures typical of abyssal peridotites, derived from residual mantle after ˜ 15% melting of a DMM source, starting in the garnet stability field. Trace element modelling, textures and lack of mineral zoning indicate that the residual peridotites were percolated, reacted and refertilized by ˜ 2.6% partially aggregated melts in the uppermost level of the melting region. This relatively large amount of refertilization is in agreement with the cold and thick lithosphere inferred by previous studies. Freezing of trapped melts occurred as the peridotite entered the conductive layer, resulting in late-stage crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel, ± plagioclase. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns in clinopyroxenes from SP03 indicate that they last equilibrated with (ultra-) depleted partial melts. In contrast, REE concentrations in clinopyroxenes from SP12 display U and S shaped LREE-enriched patterns and the calculated compositions of the impregnating melts span the compositional range of the regional basalts, which vary from normal MORB to alkali basalt sometimes modified by chromatographic fractionation with no, or very limited, mineral reaction. Thus the mylonitic band forming the St. Peter and St. Paul Rocks ridge is not a fragment of subcontinental lithospheric mantle left behind during the opening of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, nor the source of the alkaline basalts</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2810O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.2810O"><span>The signature of low-frequency <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> forcing in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Reilly, Christopher H.; Huber, Markus; Woollings, Tim; Zanna, Laure</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) significantly influences the climate of the surrounding continents and has previously been attributed to variations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation. Recently, however, similar multidecadal variability was reported in climate models without <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation variability. We analyze the relationship between turbulent heat fluxes and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the midlatitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in observations and coupled climate model simulations, both with and without <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation variability. SST anomalies associated with the AMO are positively correlated with heat fluxes on decadal time scales in both observations and models with varying <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation, whereas in models without <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation variability the anomalies are negatively correlated when heat flux anomalies lead. These relationships are captured in a simple stochastic model and rely crucially on low-frequency forcing of SST. The fully coupled models that better capture this signature more effectively reproduce the observed impact of the AMO on European summertime temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B21A0860B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B21A0860B"><span>S and O Isotope Studies of Microbial S Cycling in the Deep Biosphere of Marine Sediments: Eastern <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blake, R. E.; Bottcher, M. E.; Surkov, A. V.; Ferdelman, T. G.; Jorgensen, B. B.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>We have determined the oxygen (18O/16O) and sulfur (34S/32S) isotope ratios of porewater sulfate to depths of over 400 mbsf in sediments from open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> and upwelling sites in the Eastern <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Sulfate δ 18O ranges from near-normal seawater values (9.5 permil) at organic-poor open-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> sites, to approximately 30 permil at sites with higher organic matter content and higher associated microbial activity. Depth-correlative trends of δ 18O, δ 34S, alkalinity, methane, ammonium and the presence of sulfide, indicate significant oxidation of sedimentary organic matter by sulfate-reducing microbial populations as well as anaerobic oxidation of methane. δ 18O-SO4 values at low-activity sites reveal the presence of significant microbial sulfur-cycling activity despite relatively flat sulfate concentration and δ 34S profiles. This activity may include contributions from several processes including: enzyme-catalyzed equilibration between oxygen in sulfate and water superimposed upon microbial sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and bacterial disproportionation of sulfur intermediates. Large isotope enrichment factors observed at low-activity sites (40-80 permil) likely reflect concurrent processes of: kinetic isotope fractionation, equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and water, and sulfide oxidation at low rates of sulfate reduction. Results of this study indicate that coupled measurements of S and O isotope ratios of porewater sulfate are a powerful tool for tracing microbial activity and sulfur cycling in marine sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2734L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....2734L"><span>Data assimilation with the Ensemble Kalman Filter in simple forced and coupled models of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leeuwenburgh, O.; Burgers, G.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">ocean</span> data assimilation and forecast system for the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific is presented. The Ensemble Kalman Filter is used to combine several types of real data with a reduced-gravity shallow-water model containing a simplified SST equation. A preliminary version of this assimilation system has been found in the past to produce skillful forecasts of Nino 3 and Nino 4 SST anomalies when artifical data obtained from model runs are used. The small size and simplicity of the model now allows us to experiment with different types of real data, ensemble sizes, assimilation frequency, etc. Forecasts are made by coupling a statistical atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model. We make a comparison between assimilation of subsurface temperature information and sea surface temperature and height into a model forced by observed winds, and assimilation of both <span class="hlt">ocean</span> data and observed winds into the coupled model. The influence of model error can be studied by introducing changes to the model parameterizations or by comparing the difference in skill between the real data case and a twin experiment setup. The results are compared with the historical record of SST anomalies and will serve as a benchmark for the implementation of the Ensemble Kalman Filter with more elaborate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27339977"><span>Response to Comment on "The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation without a role for <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clement, Amy; Cane, Mark A; Murphy, Lisa N; Bellomo, Katinka; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn</p> <p>2016-06-24</p> <p>Zhang et al interpret the mixed-layer energy budget in models as showing that "<span class="hlt">ocean</span> dynamics play a central role in the AMO." Here, we show that their diagnostics cannot reveal the causes of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and that their results can be explained with minimal <span class="hlt">ocean</span> influence. Hence, we reaffirm our findings that the AMO in models can be understood primarily as the upper-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> thermal response to stochastic atmospheric forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010097','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160010097"><span>SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-<span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Regional Study: THE NORTH <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span> EXPERIMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2754530','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2754530"><span>Population Structure of Humpback Whales from Their Breeding Grounds in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rosenbaum, Howard C.; Pomilla, Cristina; Mendez, Martin; Leslie, Matthew S.; Best, Peter B.; Findlay, Ken P.; Minton, Gianna; Ersts, Peter J.; Collins, Timothy; Engel, Marcia H.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Kotze, Deon P. G. H.; Meÿer, Mike; Barendse, Jaco; Thornton, Meredith; Razafindrakoto, Yvette; Ngouessono, Solange; Vely, Michel; Kiszka, Jeremy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the Southwestern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and Northern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively). Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Southwestern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, followed by rates within the Southeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region. PMID:19812698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.466..100D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DokES.466..100D"><span>The North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation: A dominant factor in variations of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> circulation systems of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dvoryaninov, G. S.; Kubryakov, A. A.; Sizov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.; Shapiro, N. B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>On the basis of altimetry data, the dynamics of the interaction between the subtropical anticyclonic (SA) and subpolar cyclonic (SC) gyres of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is considered. It is shown that the westerlies in the lower troposphere represented by the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation (NAO) index are the main factor responsible for the dynamics of the gyres, which controls the inflow of warm <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water into the Polar basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30..844B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GBioC..30..844B"><span>The influence of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> winds on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon sink</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Observed and predicted increases in Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> winds are thought to upwell deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> carbon and increase atmospheric CO2. However, Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> dynamics affect biogeochemistry and circulation pathways on a global scale. Using idealized Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm) simulations, we demonstrate that an increase in Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> winds reduces the carbon sink in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subpolar gyre. The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to the reduction of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon sink is shown to be of the same magnitude as the increase in atmospheric CO2 due to Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> outgassing. The mechanism can be described as follows: The increase in Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> winds leads to an increase in upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> northward nutrient transport. Biological productivity is therefore enhanced in the tropics, which alters the chemistry of the subthermocline waters that are ultimately upwelled in the subpolar gyre. The results demonstrate the influence of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> winds on the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> carbon sink and show that the effect of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> winds on atmospheric CO2 is likely twice as large as previously thought in past, present, and future climates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19534123"><span>Longitudinal and latitudinal distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in the surface water of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahrens, Lutz; Barber, Jonathan L; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in 2 L surface water samples collected in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> onboard the research vessels Maria S. Merian along the longitudinal gradient from Las Palmas (Spain) to St. Johns (Canada) (15 degrees W to 52 degrees W) and Polarstern along the latitudinal gradient from the Bay of Biscay to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (46 degrees N to 26 degrees S) in spring and fall 2007, respectively. After filtration the dissolved and particulate phases were extracted separately, and PFC concentrationswere determined using high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to tandem mass spectrometry. No PFCs were detected in the particulate phase. This study provides the first concentration data of perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorohexanoic acid, and perfluoroheptanoic acid from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Results indicate that trans-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> currents caused the decreasing concentration gradient from the Bay of Biscay to the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the concentration drop-off close to the Labrador Sea. Maximum concentrations were found for FOSA, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoic acid at 302, 291, and 229 pg L(-1), respectively. However, the concentration of each single compound was usually in the tens of picograms per liter range. South of the equator only FOSA and below 4 degrees S no PFCs could be detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310909C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4310909C"><span>Global linkages originating from decadal <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> variability in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chafik, L.; Häkkinen, S.; England, M. H.; Carton, J. A.; Nigam, S.; Ruiz-Barradas, A.; Hannachi, A.; Miller, L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The anomalous decadal warming of the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (SPNA), and the northward spreading of this warm water, has been linked to rapid Arctic sea ice loss and more frequent cold European winters. Recently, variations in this heat transport have also been reported to covary with global warming slowdown/acceleration periods via a Pacific climate response. We here examine the role of SPNA temperature variability in this <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific climate connectivity. We find that the evolution of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content anomalies from the subtropics to the subpolar region, likely due to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation changes, coincides with a basin-wide <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming/cooling. This induces an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Pacific sea surface temperature seesaw, which in turn, strengthens/weakens the Walker circulation and amplifies the Pacific decadal variability that triggers pronounced global-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies. We conclude that the decadal <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> variability in the SPNA is an essential component of the tropical interactions between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11P..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A11P..08L"><span>Observational Constraints on Atmospheric and <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Cross-<span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Heat Transports: Revisiting the Precipitation Asymmetry Problem in Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loeb, N. G.; Wang, H.; Cheng, A.; Kato, S.; Fasullo, J.; Xu, K. M.; Allan, R. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies have shown strong linkages between hemispheric asymmetries in atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> energy budgets, tropical precipitation and the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The energetics framework has been used to explain why the mean position of the ITCZ is in the Northern Hemisphere and to study large-scale circulation and precipitation responses to changes in the hemispheric distribution of heating. Here, we expand upon these earlier studies by also considering estimates of hemispheric asymmetry in surface and atmospheric radiation budget derived from satellite observations, which enables a decomposition of cross-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> heat transport in terms of radiative and non-radiative (i.e., combined latent and sensible heat) components. Satellite observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiation Budget (CERES) are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Observed radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> cross-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> heat transports are compared with simulations from 30 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results show that most CMIP5 models that overestimate tropical precipitation in the SH have too much net downward surface radiation and combined latent and sensible heat flux in the SH relative to the NH. In addition, many of the models also underestimate atmospheric radiative cooling in the SH compared to the NH. Consequently, the models have excessive heating of the SH atmosphere and anomalous SH to NH cross-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> heat transport. The anomalous northward heat transport occurs via the upper branch of the northern Hadley Cell, while anomalous NH to SH moisture transport occurs in the lower branch of the northern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9573F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9573F"><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> stratification versus vertical mixing in the north <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during the last glacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feldmeijer, Wouter; Ganssen, Gerald; Prins, Maarten</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The fluctuating cover of sea ice and melting glaciers in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region during the most recent three Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) has been well documented. The consequences of this, either seasonal or perennial ice cover, on oceanographic conditions (i.e. mixing or stratification) has yet to be fully unravelled. Within the scope of the Darwin Center project Sensing Seasonality we shed light on the effects of melting sea-ice versus land-ice on the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> conditions during short term (i.e. Heinrich Events) and long term (LGM) cold events. Core T88-3P is strategically located just north of the IRD belt (56°43.8N; 27°79.7W; 2819m water depth). The stable isotope data of different species of planktonic and benthic foraminifera reflect the degree of water mass stratification. As we apply single specimen foraminiferal isotope analysis we are able to extract the full seasonal range (i.e. annual mean, minima and maxima) of sea surface temperatures. Combining stable isotopes with faunal abundance, IRD provenance and other geochemical proxies (e.g. XRF data) the state of the sub-surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> system during Heinrich and Dansgaard/Oeschger Events within the last glacial can be reconstructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535009','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535009"><span>Observational Studies on Association between Eastward <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Jet and Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Dipole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>School sponsored this re- search. References Chang, P., T. Yamagata, P. Schopf, S. K. Behera , J. Carton, W. S. Kessler, G. Meyers, T. Qu, F. Schott...J. Atmos. <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Technol., 24, 688–701. Rao, A. S., S. K. Behera , Y. Masumoto and T. Yamagata (2002): Interannual variability in the subsurface...T., S. K. Behera , J.-J. Luo, S. Masson, M. Jury and S. A. Rao (2004): Coupled <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere variability in the tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. p. 189–212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGC31A0200Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMGC31A0200Z"><span>Emission Corridors Preserving the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Thermohaline Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, K.; Bruckner, T.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation (THC) transports large amounts of heat northward, acting as a heating system for the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and north-western Europe. A large number of model simulations have shown the THC to be self-sustaining within certain limits, with well-defined thresholds where the circulation shuts down. Manabe and Stouffer (1993), for example, have simulated a complete shutdown of the THC for a quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. Because of the possibly severe consequences that a collapse of the THC would have upon the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and north-western Europe, such an event may be considered as "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" that Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls to avoid. Here we present bundles of emission paths (the so called "emission corridors") that preserve the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation. These corridors are calculated on the methodological and conceptual basis of the Tolerable Windows Approach. For this purpose a multi-gas reduced-form climate model has been supplemented by a dynamic Stommel-type boxmodel of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation. Both models allow for the relevant uncertainties (i.e., emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, climate sensitivity, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hydrological sensitivity) to be taken into account. The sensitivity of emissions corridors with respect to the uncertain parameters is explored and the implications for a climate policy committed to the preservation of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> thermohaline circulation in the sense of Article 2 are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRC..108.3306W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRC..108.3306W"><span>Spatial and temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> between 1981 and 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss, Dominik; Boyle, Edward A.; Wu, Jingfeng; Chavagnac, ValéRie; Michel, Anna; Reuer, Matthew K.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Lead concentrations and isotope ratios were measured in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surface water samples collected in 1981 (29°-79°N, 6°E-49°W) and in 1989 (23°-39°N, 29°-68°W). In the early 1980s, 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the North African Basin averaged 1.193 ± 0.005 (1 σ). Similar radiogenic ratios within the level of analytical precision (average 0.29%) were found in the Labrador and Iceland Basins (1.198 ± 0.006) and in the Norwegian Sea (1.196 ± 0.008). These radiogenic mixed layer signatures along with atmospheric global lead emission patterns suggest that most North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> lead in the early 1980s was derived from North American leaded gasoline. Samples in the East Iberian Basin near Portugal and France showed lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios, between 1.167 and 1.182, indicating a significant influence of less radiogenic atmospheric lead transported from Europe and possibly the influence of the Rio Tinto acid mine drainage very close to shore in the Gulf of Cadiz. [Pb] across the entire North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Basin ranged between 54 and 145 pmol/kg, with the lowest values (54-74 pmol/kg) found at high latitudes (>65°N). In the late 1980s, surface waters in the western subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (North American Basin/Sargasso Sea, >47°W) and in the eastern subtropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (North African Basin/Central Iberian Basin, <45°W) showed very similar 206Pb/207Pb signatures with little zonal variation, ranging from 1.177 to 1.192. Lead concentrations ranged between 47 and 137 pmol/kg, increasing slightly from west to east. South of 25°N in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, crossing the subtropical/tropical surface water boundary, the 206Pb/207Pb seawater signatures were significantly less radiogenic (1.170-1.175) and concentrations were lower (≤51 pmol/kg). This difference suggests a relative increase in the atmospheric lead supply from the western Mediterranean/North African continent via Trade Easterlies and illustrates the effective barrier between the subtropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...10010927H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JGR...10010927H"><span>Light response of phytoplankton in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Interpretation of observations and application to remote sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hood, Rayleigh R.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>A simplified, nonspectral derivation of a classical theory in plant physiology is presented and used to derive an absorption-based primary productivity algorithm. Field observations from a meridional transect (4°N to 42°S) in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are then described and interpreted in this theoretical context. The observations include photosynthesis-irradiance curve parameters (α and Pmax), chlorophyll a and phaeopigment concentration, and estimated phytoplankton absorption coefficients at λ = 440 nm (aph (440)). Observations near the top (50% I0) and bottom (6% I0) of the euphotic zone are contrasted. At both light levels, α, Pmax, aph (440), and pigment concentration varied similarly along the transect: values were highest at the equator and at the southern end of the transect and lowest in the central South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. It is concluded that this pattern was related to increased nutrient availability due to <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> upwelling in the north, and increased wind mixing in the south. At the 50% light level, α increased relative to aph at the southern end of the transect. This result appears to reflect a large-scale meridional (southward) increase in the average quantum efficiency of the photosynthetic units of the phytoplankton. A correlation analysis of the data reveals that at the 50% light level, variations in Pmax were more closely related to aph(440) than chlorophyll concentration and that phytoplankton absorption explains 90% of the variability in Pmax. In theory, this shows that the ratio of the average quantum efficiency of the photosynthetic units of the phytoplankton to the product of their average absorption cross section and turnover time is relatively constant. This result is used to simplify the absorption-based primary productivity algorithm derived previously. The feasibility of using this model to estimate production rate from satellite <span class="hlt">ocean</span> color observations is discussed. It is concluded that an absorption-based algorithm should provide more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482868"><span>Ostreopsis cf. ovata (Dinophyta) bloom in an <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> island of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nascimento, Silvia Mattos; França, Julia Vitor; Gonçalves, José E A; Ferreira, Carlos E L</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The epi-benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata Fukuyo has an increasingly global distribution. In Brazil there are reports of O. cf. ovata along the coast from 8°S to 27°S latitude and blooms have been registered on the Rio de Janeiro coastline. In the current study, an O. cf. ovata bloom is reported at Saint Paul's Rocks (0°55'10″N; 29°20'33″W), between the southern and northern hemispheres. The Archipelago is not inhabited and not subjected to eutrophication, due to isolation, and sustains a number of endemic species. Therefore, blooms of O. cf. ovata may potentially cause demise to trophic chains by affecting marine invertebrates and vertebrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000082336&hterms=tto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000082336&hterms=tto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtto"><span>Tropospheric Total Ozone in the Region of the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> south <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidlin, Francis J.; Northam, E. Thomas; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; daSilva, Francisco Raimundo</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>As a consequence of the SHADOZ effort it is possible to examine Tropospheric Total Ozone TTO, over Ascension Island (8S,14W) and compare results with similar ozone soundings for the period July 1990 through October 1992. Because of the nearly 20-year long cooperation between NASA and INPE it is possible to also compare the Ascension Island results with the long-term ozone data set available from Natal, Brazil (6S,35W). The Natal site meets requirements of the SHADOZ program. The tropopause is determined objectively using the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria and the radiosonde's temperature and altitude parameters. Once tropopause heights are determined TTO can be calculated. Time-series profiles illustrate changes in TTO over the period of record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012032','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012032"><span>Tertiary carbonate-dissolution cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dean, W.E.; Gardner, J.V.; Cepek, P.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Most of the Tertiary section on Sierra Leone Rise off northwest Africa consists of chalk, marl, and limestone that show cyclic alterations of clay-rich and clay-poor beds about 20-60 cm thick. On the basis of biostratigraphic accumulation rates, the cycles in Oligocene and Miocene chalk have periods which average about 44,000 years, and those in Eocene siliceous limestone have periods of 4000-27,000 years. Several sections were sampled in detail to further define the cycles in terms of content of CaCO3, clay minerals, and relative abundances of calcareous nannofossils. Extending information gained by analyses of Pleistocene cores from the continental margin of northwest Africa to the Tertiary cycles on Sierra Leone Rise, both dilution by noncarbonate material and dissolution of CaCO3 could have contributed to the observed relative variations in clay and CaCO3. However, dissolution of CaCO3 as the main cause of the carbonate-clay cycles on the Sierra Leone Rise, rather than dilution by clay, is suggested by the large amount of change (several thousand percent) in terrigenous influx required to produce the observed variations in amount of clay and by the marked increase in abundance of dissolution-resistant discoasters relative to more easily dissolved coccoliths in low-carbonate parts of cycles. The main cause of dissolution of CaCO3 was shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the early Neogene and climatically induced fluctuations in the thickness of Antarctic Bottom Water. ?? 1981.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA269946','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA269946"><span>Hurricane Havens Handbook for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Change 5. Naval Stations Mobile, Pascagoula, and Ingleside as Hurricane Havens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>the Gulf of Mexico. A secondary axis extends eastward near 20ON just north of Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico . XXIV-16 CHAME 5 0)0 00." 0- C-4 I 00 0 o...<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast: Gulf of Mexico. Puerto Rico . and 3Lirain Islands. National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration, National <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Survey, Washington, DC...States Coast Pilot 5. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Coast: Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico . and Virgin Iandg. National <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> and Atmospheric Administration, National <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712830M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712830M"><span>Sea-level fluctuations show <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Circulation controls <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Gerard; Haigh, Ivan; Hirschi, Joel; Grist, Jeremy; Smeed, David</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present observational evidence that <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation controls the decadal evolution of heat content and consequently sea-surface temperatures (SST) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. One of the most prominent modes of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> variability is the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal oscillation (AMO) observed in SSTs. Positive (negative) phases of the AMO are associated with warmer (cooler) SSTs. Positive phases of the AMO have been linked with decadal climate fluctuations including increased summer precipitation in Europe; increased northern hemisphere land temperatures, fewer droughts in the Sahel region of Africa and increased <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> hurricane activity. It is widely believed that the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> circulation controls the phases of the AMO by controlling the decadal changes in heat content in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. However, due to the lack of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation observations, this link has not been previously proven. We present a new interpretation of the sea-level gradient along to the east coast of the United States to derive a measure of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation spanning decadal timescales. We use this to estimate heat content changes that we validate against direct estimates of heat content. We use the longevity of the tide gauge record to show that circulation, as interpreted in sea-level gradient changes, drives the major transitions in the AMO since the 1920's. We show that the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Oscillation is highly correlated with this sea-level gradient, indicating that the atmosphere drives the circulation changes. The circulation changes are essentially integrated by the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in the form of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content and returned to the atmosphere as the AMO. An additional consequence of our interpretation is that recently reported accelerations in sea-level rise along the US east coast are consistent with a declining AMO that has been predicted by a number of authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..534H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..534H"><span>Importance of background seasonality over the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific in a coupled atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> response to westerly wind events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Michiya; Watanabe, Masahiro</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Coupled atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> response to westerly wind events (WWEs), which sometimes trigger El Niños, was investigated using a coupled general circulation model to clarify its dependence on the timing and location of WWEs. Twelve sets of 20-member ensembles were made with an idealized single WWE imposed in different months from January to July and at different longitudes from 160° E to 160° W. The initial <span class="hlt">ocean</span> states are set to be near neutral to El Niño/La Niña so that the lagged response to WWEs can be isolated. The results show that sea surface temperature (SST) in the Niño3.4 region increases largely and persistently favorable for El Niño growth when a WWE is imposed in May, whereas a WWE in March increases SST only in the easternmost Pacific. In both cases, an <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> Kelvin wave propagates eastward to warm the eastern Pacific. When forced by the WWE in May, a positive Niño3.4 SST anomaly appears in boreal summer according to the seasonal outcrop of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> thermocline, and it can strongly interact with seasonally active tropical rain belt to amplify the SST response further. A favorable combination of timing and location that maximize the impact of WWEs on El Niños in the subsequent winter is suggested albeit its relevance to nature should severely be tested. Another experiment with initial <span class="hlt">ocean</span> states in El Niño/La Niña years showed that the WWEs in May are efficient to amplify El Niño similar to the neutral case, but are not efficient to suppress La Niña.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcMeS..25..364Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcMeS..25..364Y"><span>Simulated spatiotemporal response of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport to freshwater enhancement in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and associated mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Lei; Gao, Yongqi</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) transports a large amount of heat to northern high latitudes, playing an important role in the global climate change. Investigation of the freshwater perturbation in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (NA) has become one of the hot topics in the recent years. In this study, the mechanism and pathway of meridional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport (OHT) under the enhanced freshwater input to the northern high latitudes in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are investigated by an <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-sea ice-atmosphere coupled model. The results show that the anomalous OHT in the freshwater experiment (FW) is dominated by the meridional circulation kinetic and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> thermal processes. In the FW, OHT drops down during the period of weakened AMOC while the upper tropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> turns warmer due to the retained NA warm currents. Conversely, OHT recovers as the AMOC recovers, and the mechanism can be generalized as: 1) increased <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content in the tropical Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during the early integration provides the thermal condition for the recovery of OHT in NA; 2) the OHT from the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> enters the NA through the equator along the deep Ekman layer; 3) in NA, the recovery of OHT appears mainly along the isopycnic layers of 24.70-25.77 below the mixing layer. It is then transported into the mixing layer from the "outcropping points" in northern high latitudes, and finally released to the atmosphere by the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere heat exchange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840049858&hterms=ocean+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840049858&hterms=ocean+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bpollution"><span>Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25224764','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25224764"><span>Microplastic pollution in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: validated and opportunistic sampling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lusher, Amy L; Burke, Ann; O'Connor, Ian; Officer, Rick</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>Levels of marine debris, including microplastics, are largely un-documented in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Broad scale monitoring efforts are required to understand the distribution, abundance and ecological implications of microplastic pollution. A method of continuous sampling was developed to be conducted in conjunction with a wide range of vessel operations to maximise vessel time. Transects covering a total of 12,700 km were sampled through continuous monitoring of open <span class="hlt">ocean</span> sub-surface water resulting in 470 samples. Items classified as potential plastics were identified in 94% of samples. A total of 2315 particles were identified, 89% were less than 5mm in length classifying them as microplastics. Average plastic abundance in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was calculated as 2.46 particles m(-3). This is the first report to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of microplastic pollution in the Northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and to present a potential method for standardised monitoring of microplastic pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.3973S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.3973S"><span>Movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during the mid-pleistocene transition and the response of atmospheric and surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulations in the central <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seo, Inah; Lee, Yong Il; Kim, Wonnyon; Yoo, Chan Min; Hyeong, Kiseong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the causes of a brief, but prominent, cooling episode (1.1-0.8 Ma) that occurred in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> upwelling region of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) using temporal changes in dust provenance, regional hydrology, and surface productivity recorded in a deep-sea sediment core from the central <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific. The 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd values of the inorganic silicate fraction indicate deposition of dust from Australia and Central/South America before 0.8 Ma, but a gradual increase in Asian dust deposition after 0.8 Ma. The change in dust provenance was accompanied by an increased dust flux and a decrease in surface productivity and salinity. These changes can be explained by the southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and North <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Counter Current (NECC) and the direct influence of these features on the site after 0.8 Ma. Our results, together with previously published <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> data, suggest the northward position of the ITCZ between 1.1 and 0.9 Ma, and the southward position thereafter. The meridional movement of the ITCZ is in phase with the cooling and warming trend in upwelling regions in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which suggests strengthening of southeast trades relative to its northern counterpart between 1.1 and 0.9 Ma as a plausible cause of this brief cooling event. The southward movement of the ITCZ from 0.9 to 0.8 Ma indicates more significant cooling in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) than in the Southern Hemisphere, which is supportive of the interpretation that the NH ice sheet expanded significantly and stabilized after 0.9 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041877&hterms=Temperature+salinity+Arctic+Ocean&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTemperature%2Bsalinity%2BArctic%2BOcean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910041877&hterms=Temperature+salinity+Arctic+Ocean&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DTemperature%2Bsalinity%2BArctic%2BOcean"><span>Arctic contribution to upper-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, John E.; Chapman, William L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The potential climatic leverage of salinity and temperature anomalies in the high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is large. Substantial variations of sea ice have accompanied North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> salinity and temperature anomalies. Atmospheric pressure data are used here to show that the local forcing of high-latitude North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> fluctuations is augmented by antecedent atmospheric circulation anomalies over the central Arctic. These circulation anomalies are consistent with enhanced wind-forcing of thicker older ice into the Transpolar Drift Stream and an enhanced export of sea ice (fresh water) from the Arctic into the Greenland Sea prior to major episodes of ice severity in the Greenland and Iceland seas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000791','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000791"><span>Meridional Distribution of Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kishcha, P.; Silva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, B.; Long, C. N.; Kalashnikova, O.; Alpert, P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Previous studies showed that, over the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, there is hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and no noticeable asymmetry in cloud fraction (CF). In the current study, we focus on the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (30 Deg N 30 Deg S) which is characterized by significant amounts of Saharan dust dominating other aerosol species over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. We found that, by contrast to the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, over a limited area such as the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, strong meridional asymmetry in dust aerosols was accompanied by meridional CF asymmetry. During the 10-year study period (July 2002 June 2012), NASA Aerosol Reanalysis (aka MERRAero) showed that, when the meridional asymmetry in dust aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was the most pronounced (particularly in July), dust AOT averaged separately over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was one order of magnitude higher than dust AOT averaged over the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the presence of such strong meridional asymmetry in dust AOT in July, CF averaged separately over the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> exceeded CF averaged over the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> by 20%. Our study showed significant cloud cover, up to 0.8 - 0.9, in July along the Saharan Air Layer which contributed to above-mentioned meridional CF asymmetry. Both Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) measurements and MERRAero data were in agreement on seasonal variations in meridional aerosol asymmetry. Meridional asymmetry in total AOT over the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was maximal. In September and October, there was no noticeable meridional asymmetry in total AOT and meridional CF distribution over the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> was almost symmetrical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.383..123H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26PSL.383..123H"><span>Refining Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca paleothermometry in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hertzberg, Jennifer E.; Schmidt, Matthew W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Mg/Ca ratio of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) has become a widely used proxy for reconstructing sea surface temperature (SST), as numerous studies have shown that temperature is the primary control on Mg/Ca ratios in foraminiferal calcite. However, a recent study of core-top sediments across an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional transect suggests that salinity might have a stronger control on foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios than previously thought. By analyzing Mg/Ca ratios and δO18 values in G. ruber (white), Arbuszewski et al. (2010) found a 27% increase in G. ruber Mg/Ca ratios per 1 salinity unit increase for seawater salinities above 35.5. Here, we use shell weight analyses and SEM images from a subset of the core-tops used in the Arbuszewski et al. (2010) study across a narrow depth range (3197-3733 m) to show that G. ruber shells from the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> region are highly dissolved compared to those from the subtropical North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres, significantly impacting their Mg/Ca-SSTs. Shell weights from the higher-productivity <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> region of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are on average 20% and 15% lower than those from the oligotrophic North and South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres, respectively. Given the large preservation gradient along the transect studied by Arbuszewski et al. (2010), application of a single dissolution-corrected Mg/Ca:SST calibration equation (Dekens et al., 2002) on cores from the subtropical gyres and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> region is not appropriate. When regional differences in preservation are considered, as well as realistic habitat depths and calcification seasons for G. ruber in temperate latitudes, we find a strong correlation between observational SSTs and calculated G. ruber Mg/Ca-SSTs in core-top samples spanning 43°N to 25°S in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In addition, our re-calibrated Mg/Ca-SSTs are more strongly correlated with isotopic calcification temperatures across the transect than originally reported by Arbuszewski et al. (2010). This study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76..285C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76..285C"><span>The monsoon imprint during the `atypical' MIS 13 as seen through north and <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caley, Thibaut; Malaizé, Bruno; Bassinot, Franck; Clemens, Steven C.; Caillon, Nicolas; Linda, Rossignol; Charlier, Karine; Rebaubier, Helene</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies have suggested that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, recognized as atypical in many paleoclimate records, is marked by the development of anomalously strong summer monsoons in the northern tropical areas. To test this hypothesis, we performed a multi-proxy study on three marine records from the tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in order to reconstruct and analyse changes in the summer Indian monsoon winds and precipitations during MIS 13. Our data confirm the existence of a low-salinity event during MIS 13 in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> but we argue that this event should not be considered as "atypical". Taking only into account a smaller precession does not make it possible to explain such precipitation episode. However, when considering also the larger obliquity in a more complete orbitally driven monsoon "model," one can successfully explain this event. In addition, our data suggest that intense summer monsoon winds, although not atypical in strength, prevailed during MIS 13 in the western Arabian Sea. These strong monsoon winds, transporting important moisture, together with the effect of insolation and Eurasian ice sheet, are likely one of the factors responsible for the intense monsoon precipitation signal recorded in China loess, as suggested by model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462236"><span>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: temporal trend, continental outflow and air-water exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Cheng, Zhineng; Liu, Junwen; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Nineteen pairs of air and seawater samples collected from the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> onboard the Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011 were analyzed for PCBs and HCB. Gaseous concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs (ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas) and HCB were lower than previous data over the study area. Air samples collected near the coast had higher levels of PCBs relative to those collected in the open <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, which may be influenced by proximity to source regions and air mass origins. Dissolved concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs and HCB were 1.4-14 pg L⁻¹ and 0.94-13 pg L⁻¹, with the highest concentrations in the sample collected from Strait of Malacca. Fugacity fractions suggest volatilization of PCBs and HCB from the seawater to air during the cruise, with fluxes of 0.45-34 ng m⁻² d⁻¹ and 0.36-18 ng m⁻² d⁻¹, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920062206&hterms=indian+navy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindian%2Bnavy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920062206&hterms=indian+navy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindian%2Bnavy"><span>The 26-day oscillation observed in the satellite sea surface temperature measurements in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> western Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Pedro T. H.; O'Brien, James J.; Luther, Mark E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A 26-d oscillation in SST data is observed in the western Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, from 52 to 60 deg E and in the vicinity of the equator. The SST data used in this study are obtained from the NOAA 9 satellite and are for the years 1987 and 1988. This fluctuation of SST at a period near 26-d is found to be antisymmetric about the equator and is trapped within the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> waveguide latitude; furthermore, the variance decreases at a faster rate toward the equator than poleward. These characteristics are consistent with the latitudinal structure for the mixed Rossby-gravity (or Yanai) waves as predicted from linear wave theory. The temporal variation of this 26-d oscillation is most energetic during the summer season (July to September), with maximum values of 0.4 C and 0.8 C found during August of 1987 and 1988, respectively. This observation agrees with temporal variation of Yanai waves inferred from drifting buoy observations and numerical studies of the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Thus it is concluded that the Yanai wave is responsible for the 26-d fluctuation observed in the SST data in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039592','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5039592"><span>Phylogenetic Characterization of Marine Benthic Archaea in Organic-Poor Sediments of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (ODP Site 1225)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lauer, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Teske, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sequencing surveys of microbial communities in marine subsurface sediments have focused on organic-rich, continental margins; the database for organic-lean deep-sea sediments from mid-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> regions is underdeveloped. The archaeal community in subsurface sediments of ODP Site 1225 in the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific (3760 m water depth; 1.1 and 7.8 m sediment depth) was analyzed by PCR, cloning and sequencing, and by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. Three uncultured archaeal lineages with different depth distributions were found: Marine Group I (MG-I) within the Thaumarchaeota, its sister lineage Marine Benthic Group A (MBG-A), the phylum-level archaeal lineage Marine Benthic Group B (also known as Deep-Sea Archaeal Group or Lokiarchaeota), and the Deep-Sea Euryarchaeotal Group 3. The MG-I phylotypes included representatives of sediment clusters that are distinct from the pelagic members of this phylum. On the scale from fully oxidized, extremely organic carbon-depleted sediments (for example, those the South Pacific Gyre) to fully reduced, organic carbon-rich marine subsurface sediments (such as those of the Peru Margin), <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1225 falls into the non-extreme organic carbon-lean category, and harbors archaeal communities from both ends of the spectrum. PMID:27681926</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27681926"><span>Phylogenetic Characterization of Marine Benthic Archaea in Organic-Poor Sediments of the Eastern <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (ODP Site 1225).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lauer, Antje; Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Teske, Andreas</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>Sequencing surveys of microbial communities in marine subsurface sediments have focused on organic-rich, continental margins; the database for organic-lean deep-sea sediments from mid-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> regions is underdeveloped. The archaeal community in subsurface sediments of ODP Site 1225 in the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific (3760 m water depth; 1.1 and 7.8 m sediment depth) was analyzed by PCR, cloning and sequencing, and by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. Three uncultured archaeal lineages with different depth distributions were found: Marine Group I (MG-I) within the Thaumarchaeota, its sister lineage Marine Benthic Group A (MBG-A), the phylum-level archaeal lineage Marine Benthic Group B (also known as Deep-Sea Archaeal Group or Lokiarchaeota), and the Deep-Sea Euryarchaeotal Group 3. The MG-I phylotypes included representatives of sediment clusters that are distinct from the pelagic members of this phylum. On the scale from fully oxidized, extremely organic carbon-depleted sediments (for example, those the South Pacific Gyre) to fully reduced, organic carbon-rich marine subsurface sediments (such as those of the Peru Margin), <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1225 falls into the non-extreme organic carbon-lean category, and harbors archaeal communities from both ends of the spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-1460.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-1460.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.1460 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.400 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.595 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its tributaries. 165.511 Section 165.511... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.511 Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.40 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.380 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.40 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its tributaries. 165.511 Section 165.511... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.511 Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.400 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.40 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.100 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.595 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.595 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.400 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.380 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its tributaries. 165.511 Section 165.511... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.511 Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.100 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.380 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.100 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.595 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-595.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.595 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL; restricted area. 334.595 Section 334.595... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.595 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape Canaveral; 45th Space Wing,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.400 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.40 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.100 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.380 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-40.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.40 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-1460.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-1460.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.1460 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its tributaries. 165.511 Section 165.511... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.511 Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-1460.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-1460.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.1460 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra Island; bombing and gunnery target area. 334.1460 Section 334.1460 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1460 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Culebra...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol3-sec334-380.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.380 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam Neck, Virginia; naval firing range. 334.380 Section 334.380 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.380 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Dam...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title33-vol2-sec165-511.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its tributaries. 165.511 Section 165.511... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.511 Security Zone; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-100.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.100 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. 334.100 Section 334.100 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Cape May, N.J.; Coast Guard Rifle Range. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol3-sec334-400.pdf"><span>33 CFR 334.400 - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off Camp Pendleton, Virginia; naval restricted area. 334.400 Section 334.400... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.400 <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> south of entrance to Chesapeake Bay off...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049254&hterms=continents+oceans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontinents%2Boceans','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049254&hterms=continents+oceans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontinents%2Boceans"><span>Advection of sulfur dioxide over the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during CITE 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thornton, D. C.; Bandy, A. R.; Beltz, N.; Driedger, A. R., III; Ferek, R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>During the NASA Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 sulfur intercomparison over the western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, five techniques for the determination of sulfur dioxide were evaluated. The response times of the techniques varied from 3 to 30 min. Based on the ensemble of measurements reported, it was clear that advection of SO2 from the North American continent occurred in the boundary layer (altitude less than 1 km) with only one exception. The vertical distribution of SO2 above the boundary layer for the northern and southern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was remarkably similar duing this experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29..308B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PalOc..29..308B"><span>Bipolar <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deepwater circulation in the middle-late Eocene: Effects of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> gateway openings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borrelli, Chiara; Cramer, Benjamin S.; Katz, Miriam E.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We present evidence for Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)-like effects on <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deepwater circulation beginning in the late-middle Eocene. Modern <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation is characterized by a thermal differentiation between Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> deepwater formation regions. In order to better constrain the timing and nature of the initial thermal differentiation between Northern Component Water (NCW) and Southern Component Water (SCW), we analyze benthic foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18Obf and δ13Cbf) records from <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program Site 1053 (upper deep water, western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>). Our data, compared with published records and interpreted in the context of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation models, indicate that progressive opening of Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> gateways and initiation of a circum-Antarctic current caused a transition to a modern-like deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation characterized by thermal differentiation between SCW and NCW beginning ~38.5 Ma, in the initial stages of Drake Passage opening. In addition, the relatively low δ18Obf values recorded at Site 1053 show that the cooling trend of the middle-late Eocene was not global, because it was not recorded in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The timing of thermal differentiation shows that NCW contributed to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation by the late-middle Eocene, ~1-4 Myr earlier than previously thought. We propose that early NCW originated in the Labrador Sea, based on tectonic reconstructions and changes in foraminiferal assemblages in this basin. Finally, we link further development of meridional isotopic gradients in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific in the late Eocene with the Tasman Gateway deepening (~34 Ma) and the consequent development of a circumpolar proto-ACC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.1397O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.1397O"><span>Troposphere-stratosphere response to large-scale North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> variability in an atmosphere/<span class="hlt">ocean</span> coupled model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omrani, N.-E.; Bader, Jürgen; Keenlyside, N. S.; Manzini, Elisa</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The instrumental records indicate that the basin-wide wintertime North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warm conditions are accompanied by a pattern resembling negative North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> oscillation (NAO), and cold conditions with pattern resembling the positive NAO. This relation is well reproduced in a control simulation by the stratosphere resolving atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> coupled Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Further analyses of the MPI-ESM model simulation shows that the large-scale warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> conditions are associated with a stratospheric precursory signal that propagates down into the troposphere, preceding the wintertime negative NAO. Additional experiments using only the atmospheric component of MPI-ESM (ECHAM6) indicate that these stratospheric and tropospheric changes are forced by the warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> conditions. The basin-wide warming excites a wave-induced stratospheric vortex weakening, stratosphere/troposphere coupling and a high-latitude tropospheric warming. The induced high-latitude tropospheric warming is associated with reduction of the growth rate of low-level baroclinic waves over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, contributing to the negative NAO pattern. For the cold North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> conditions, the strengthening of the westerlies in the coupled model is confined to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparing the coupled and uncoupled model shows that in the cold phase the tropospheric changes seen in the coupled model are not well reproduced by the standalone atmospheric configuration. Our experiments provide further evidence that North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> variability (NAV) impacts the coupled stratosphere/troposphere system. As NAV has been shown to be predictable on seasonal-to-decadal timescales, these results have important implications for the predictability of the extra-tropical atmospheric circulation on these time-scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951381"><span>Invariable biomass-specific primary production of taxonomically discrete picoeukaryote groups across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grob, Carolina; Hartmann, Manuela; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, Dave J</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (< 3 µm) are responsible for > 40% of total primary production at low latitudes such as the North-Eastern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. In the world <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, warmed by climate changes, the expected gradual shift towards smaller primary producers could render the role of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes even more important than they are today. Little is still known, however, about how the taxonomic composition of this highly diverse group affects primary production at the basin scale. Here, we combined flow cytometric cell sorting, NaH¹⁴CO₃ radiotracer incubations and class-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes to determine cell- and biomass-specific inorganic carbon fixation rates and taxonomic composition of two major photosynthetic picoeukaryote groups on a ∼7500-km-long latitudinal transect across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Transect, AMT19). We show that even though larger cells have, on average, cell-specific CO₂ uptake rates ∼5 times higher than the smaller ones, the average biomass-specific uptake is statistically similar for both groups. On the other hand, even at a high taxonomic level, i.e. class, the contributions to both groups by Prymnesiophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Pelagophyceae are significantly different (P < 0.001 in all cases). We therefore conclude that these group's carbon fixation rates are independent of the taxonomic composition of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Because the above applies across different <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> regions the diversity changes seem to be a secondary factor determining primary production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034811','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034811"><span>Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morrison, C.L.; Ross, S.W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between <span class="hlt">ocean</span> regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.safmc.net/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=wjbPRdmE80Y%3D&tabid=247','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.safmc.net/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=wjbPRdmE80Y%3D&tabid=247"><span>Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morrison, Cheryl L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to <span class="hlt">ocean</span> regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between <span class="hlt">ocean</span> regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ClDy...19..485D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ClDy...19..485D"><span>Variability in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat content and heat transport in a coupled <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, B.; Sutton, R. T.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>A coupled <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere general circulation model has been used to study the variations of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content (OHC), sea surface temperature (SST) and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport (OHT), and the relationships between these three quantities. We find that OHC anomalies, and salinity anomalies, propagate anti-cyclonically around the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre. They propagate eastward in midlatitudes and westward in low latitudes. Both the advection of mean temperature by anomalous currents and the advection of temperature anomalies by mean currents are responsible for these zonal propagations. In addition to zonal propagations, upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> temperature anomalies propagate southward in the eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, where subduction plays a dominant role. Variability in the northward OHT in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is primarily governed by variability in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation rather than variability in temperatures. Fluctuations in OHT are the major cause of anomalies in OHC and SST in the Gulf Stream extension region. This is true both for interannual variability and for decadal variability. On interannual time scales, however, surface fluxes also make a significant contribution. Analysis of the relationships of OHT with OHC and SST suggests that a knowledge of OHT fluctuations could be used to predict variations in OHC, and therefore sea surface temperatures, several years in advance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.143...46M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.143...46M"><span>Dynamics of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in an <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model of intermediate complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCreary, Julian P.; Furue, Ryo; Schloesser, Fabian; Burkhardt, Theodore W.; Nonaka, Masami</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A steady-state, variable-density, 2-layer, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model (VLOM) is used to investigate basic dynamics of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation and Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The domain consists of idealized (rectangular) representations of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, Southern, and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. The model equations represent the depth-averaged, layer-1 response (except for one solution in which they represent the depth-integrated flow over both layers). To allow for overturning, water can cross the bottom of layer 1 at the velocity we =wd +wm +wn , the three parts representing: interior diffusion wd that increases the layer-1 thickness h throughout the basin, mixed-layer entrainment wm that ensures h is never less than a minimum value hm , and diapycnal (cooling) processes external to the basin wn that adjust h to hn . For most solutions, horizontal mixing has the form of Rayleigh damping with coefficient ν , which we interpret to result from baroclinic instability through the closure, V∗ = - (ν /f2) ∇P , where ∇P = ∇(1/2 g‧h2) is the depth-integrated pressure gradient, g‧ is the reduced-gravity coefficient, and ν is a mixing coefficient; with this interpretation, the layer-1 flow corresponds to the sum of the Eulerian-mean and eddy-mean (V∗) transport/widths, that is, the "residual" circulation. Finally, layer-1 temperature cools polewards in response to a surface heat flux Q, and the cooling can be strong enough in the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> for g‧ = 0 south of a latitude y0 , in which case layer 1 vanishes and the model reduces to a single layer 2. Solutions are obtained both numerically and analytically. The analytic approach splits fields into interior and boundary-layer parts, from which a coupled set of integral constraints can be derived. The set allows properties of the circulation (upwelling-driven transport out of the Southern <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> M , downwelling transport in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) and stratification (<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17797795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17797795"><span>On Pleistocene Surface Temperatures of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Arctic <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewing, M; Donn, W L</p> <p>1960-01-08</p> <p>Two additional interpretations are given for the important data of D. B. Ericson on the correlation of coiling directions of Globigerina pachyderma in late Pleistocene North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediments with <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface temperatures. One interpretation relates the distribution of this species to the distribution and circulation of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> water masses. On the basis of our ice-age theory, our second interpretation uses the data and correlations of Ericson to establish temperature limits of a thermal node, a line on which glacial and interglacial temperatures were equal, for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. This line crosses the strait between Greenland and Scandinavia. Further, Ericson's interpretation of the 7.2 degrees C isotherm implies that the glacial-stage surface waters of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> were between 0 degrees and 3.5 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OcDyn..60..771G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OcDyn..60..771G"><span>The roles of surface heat flux and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport convergence in determining <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> temperature variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Marsh, Robert; Good, Simon A.; Coward, Andrew. C.; de Cuevas, Beverly A.; Alderson, Steven G.; New, Adrian L.; Madec, Gurvan</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The temperature variability of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is investigated using an eddy-permitting (1/4°) global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model (ORCA-025) forced with historical surface meteorological fields from 1958 to 2001. The simulation of volume-averaged temperature and the vertical structure of the zonally averaged temperature trends are compared with those from observations. In regions with a high number of observations, in particular above a depth of 500 m and between 22° N and 65° N, the model simulation and the dataset are in good agreement. The relative contribution of variability in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport (OHT) convergence and net surface heat flux to changes in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content is investigated with a focus on three regions: the subpolar and subtropical gyres and the tropics. The surface heat flux plays a relatively minor role in year-to-year changes in the subpolar and subtropical regions, but in the tropical North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, its role is of similar significance to the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat transport convergence. The strongest signal during the study period is a cooling of the subpolar gyre between 1970 and 1990, which subsequently reversed as the mid-latitude OHT convergence transitioned from an anomalously weak to an anomalously strong state. We also explore whether model OHT anomalies can be linked to surface flux anomalies through a Hovmöller analysis of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sector. At low latitudes, increased <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat gain coincides with anomalously strong northward transport, whereas at mid-high latitudes, reduced <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat loss is associated with anomalously weak heat transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5021702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5021702"><span>Influence of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> irregularities and precipitations in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> magnetic anomaly on the generation of auroral-type plasma instabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prange, R.; Bruston, P.</p> <p>1980-08-01</p> <p>Observational evidence of upward field-aligned beams in the keV range has been obtained in the sub-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> ionosphere above South America. These events can be related to coupled magnetic and ionospheric activity (magnetic storm, ionospheric irregularities). This result is in opposition with the current theory of the low-latitude ionosphere. Its interpretation must assume that conditions exist for the growth of plasma instabilities. This implies a low plasma density, a close coupling between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, and field-aligned currents. Such suitable conditions have independently been observed in ionospheric irregularities (density, currents) or during magnetic storms (energetic particle precipitation) or they are deduced from the structure of the Anomaly (field-aligned currents). This allows us to suggest that the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Anomaly sometimes compares to the auroral oval and may develop some current-driven plasma instabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G42A..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G42A..03L"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation variations from GRACE <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom pressure anomalie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landerer, F. W.; Wiese, D. N.; Bentel, K.; Boening, C.; Watkins, M. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The important role of the North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridonal Overturning Circulation (AMOC) for regional as well as global climate is well recognized. Concerns about potential future AMOC changes imply the need for a continuous, large-scale observation capability to detect any such changes on interannual to decadal time scales. Here, we present the first measurements of lower North-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Deep-Water (LNADW) monthly transport changes using only space-based time-variable gravity observations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, continuously covering the time period from 2003 until now. Improved monthly gravity field retrievals allow the detection of North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> interannual bottom pressure anomalies and yield LNADW transport estimates that are in good agreement with those from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> in-situ RAPID-MOCA array at 26.5N. Concurrent with the observed AMOC transport anomalies from late-2009 through early-2010, GRACE measured <span class="hlt">ocean</span> bottom pressures changes in the 3000-5000 m deep western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> of -20 mm-H2O, implying a southward volume transport anomaly in that layer of approximately -5.5 Sv. Our results highlight the efficacy of space-gravimetry to observe and detect meridional <span class="hlt">ocean</span> transport variations that can potentially be retrieved over all latitude ranges in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A42B..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A42B..02F"><span>Observed Influence of Amazon rainfall on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, R.; Wang, H.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Most of previous studies on climate variabilities of the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> have been focused on remote and internal <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> processes or atmosphere-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> interaction. In comparison, relatively few studies have examined the influences from adjacent continents, especially the influence of rainfall over the South American continent. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) daily rain-rate dada, the QuikSCAT <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface wind and PIRATA buoy data, we have found that convection developed over the Amazonia appears to propagate eastward across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and then into Africa. Such changes modulate the intensity and location of the convection within the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ITCZ and result in a zonal oscillation of the ITCZ between the west and east <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The eastward propagating disturbances appear to be an atmospheric Kelvin wave with a period of 6 to 7 days and a phase speed of around 12 m s-1. Such convectively coupled Kelvin wave is particularly strong during boreal spring and dominates the synoptic variations of the lower and upper troposphere winds. Our results further suggest that the interannual changes of these convective coupled Kelvin waves have an important influence on trigging the onset of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ninos. In particular, anomalously late northward withdraw of the South American rainfall in boreal spring lead to stronger Kelvin wave activities and stronger westerly wind anomalies in the western <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. The latter triggers a change of the slope of the thermocline in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and induces sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. These changes contribute to the onset of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Nino in earlier boreal summer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP43B0677G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMPP43B0677G"><span>Cenozoic History of the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Recorded by Nd Isotopes: The Closure of the Indonesian Gateway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gourlan, A. T.; Meynadier, L.; Allegre, C. J.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The northward tectonic motion of the Australian plate and the evolution of the Indonesian Island Arcs through the last 20 Ma, generate changes in the flow and the origin of the circulation between the Pacific and the Southern Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. Indeed, the emergence of the Indonesian Archipelago and probably the rapid uplift of the island of Halmahera have dramatically reduced the Indonesian Gateway. However, the precise dating of this event is still a matter of debate. The Neodymium isotopic composition of marine sediments is an extremely good proxy to reconstruct the major changes in the past <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation. The residence time of Nd is shorter than the circulation time of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Therefore, the Nd isotopic composition varies between the different <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins and is function of changes in source provenances, paleocirculation, orogenic processes, and intensity of weathering on the continents as well as on the volcanic arcs. To reconstruct the evolution of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> flow from the Pacific to the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> since the Miocene, we have applied on high carbonates content sediments a leaching technique using acetic acid. The reliability of our technique has been assessed by comparison with the Hydroxylamine hydrochloride technique developed by Bayon et al (1). The Nd isotopic composition is determinated in the past seawater from the record in Fe-Mn oxides. The sedimentary sequences are accurately dated using bio and chimiostratigraphy. Three ODP Sites were chosen in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> with a water depth ranging from 1600 to 2800 m and mutually distant by about 3000 km. From West to East: Site 761 which is at the western edge of the Indonesian Gateway on the central northeastern part of the Wombat Plateau off NW Australia, Site 757 is located on the south of the Ninetyeast ridge and Site 707 is located in the western tropical Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> near the Seychelles Islands. Our data are compared with the first results from Site 807 located in the Pacific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11976679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11976679"><span>Rapid freshening of the deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> over the past four decades.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dickson, Bob; Yashayaev, Igor; Meincke, Jens; Turrell, Bill; Dye, Stephen; Holfort, Juergen</p> <p>2002-04-25</p> <p>The overflow and descent of cold, dense water from the sills of the Denmark Strait and the Faroe Shetland channel into the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is the principal means of ventilating the deep <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, and is therefore a key element of the global thermohaline circulation. Most computer simulations of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> system in a climate with increasing atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations predict a weakening thermohaline circulation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> as the subpolar seas become fresher and warmer, and it is assumed that this signal will be transferred to the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> by the two overflows. From observations it has not been possible to detect whether the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s overturning circulation is changing, but recent evidence suggests that the transport over the sills may be slackening. Here we show, through the analysis of long hydrographic records, that the system of overflow and entrainment that ventilates the deep <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has steadily changed over the past four decades. We find that these changes have already led to sustained and widespread freshening of the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036710','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036710"><span>Detection of Natural Oil Seeps in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Using MODIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reahard, Ross; Jones, Jason B.; Mitchell, Mark</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Natural oil seepage is the release of crude oil into the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> from fissures in the seabed. Oil seepage is a major contributor to the total amount of oil entering the world s <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. According to a 2003 study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 47 percent of oil entering the world s <span class="hlt">oceans</span> is from natural seeps, and 53 percent is from human sources (extraction, transportation, and consumption). Oil seeps cause smooth oil slicks to form on the water s surface. Oil seeps can indicate the location of stores of fossil fuel beneath the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> floor. Knowledge of the effect of oil seepage on marine life and marine ecosystems remains limited. In the past, remote sensing has been used to detect oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and off of the coast of southern California. This project utilized sun glint MODIS imagery to locate oil slicks off of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> coast, an area that had not previously been surveyed for natural oil seeps using remote sensing. Since 1982, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> has been closed to any oil and gas drilling. Recently, however, the U.S. Minerals Management Services (MMS) has proposed a lease for oil and gas drilling off the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina. Determining the location of seepage sites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> will help MMS locate potential deposits of oil and natural gas, thereby reducing the risk of leasing areas for petroleum extraction that do not contain these natural resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026918','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026918"><span>Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McCabe, G.J.; Palecki, M.A.; Betancourt, J.L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>More than half (52%) of the spatial and temporal variance in multidecadal drought frequency over the conterminous United States is attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). An additional 22% of the variance in drought frequency is related to a complex spatial pattern of positive and negative trends in drought occurrence possibly related to increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures or some other unidirectional climate trend. Recent droughts with broad impacts over the conterminous U.S. (1996, 1999-2002) were associated with North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> warming (positive AMO) and north-eastern and tropical Pacific cooling (negative PDO). Much of the long-term predictability of drought frequency may reside in the multidecadal behavior of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Should the current positive AMO (warm North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>) conditions persist into the upcoming decade, we suggest two possible drought scenarios that resemble the continental-scale patterns of the 1930s (positive PDO) and 1950s (negative PDO) drought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714696S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714696S"><span>Strong-mixing induced deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake events in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Somavilla Cabrillo, Raquel; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Schauer, Ursula; Budeus, Gedeon</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The deceleration of the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat storage during the last decade has resulted in an active search for the 'missing heat' in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Modeling work has provided new insights into the role of the central Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> on the present hiatus in global warming and the efficient transfer of heat to the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, but recent studies have highlighted also the large contribution of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin to these processes, mainly based on <span class="hlt">ocean</span> observations. The deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake (below 300 m) in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is not confined to the subpolar gyre region but extends to mid-latitudes of the Eastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (ENA), requiring an additional process for its explanation other than deep convection considered until now. Here, using oceanographic in-situ data, we describe a mechanism of heat and salt injection to the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> after years of warming and saltening at the surface occurred both in regions of mode (43°-48°N) and deep water (74°-76°N) formation in the ENA. The mechanism, although punctual meditated by strong winter mixing events, is between 2 and 6 times higher than the 2000-2010 <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake at depths of mode (300-700m) and deep water (>2000m) formation, contributing significantly to the observed deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Nutrient, hydrographic and reanalysis data indicate that the strong mixing-induced deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake events at areas of mode and deep water formation in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are connected through the northward propagation of salty ENA mode waters triggered by the contraction of the subpolar gyre reinforced by the occurrences of blocking anomalies in the ENA. Such connection is not unique of the last decade but observed also during the 1960s. Natural climate variability seems the ultimate driver of the strong mixing-induced deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat uptake events, although the anthropogenic global warming and its forcing on the Arctic sea-ice retreat and frequency of extreme weather events could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633395','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633395"><span>The diversity of cyanomyovirus populations along a North-South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> transect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jameson, Eleanor; Mann, Nicholas H; Joint, Ian; Sambles, Christine; Mühling, Martin</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Viruses that infect the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus have the potential to impact the growth, productivity, diversity and abundance of their hosts. In this study, changes in the microdiversity of cyanomyoviruses were investigated in 10 environmental samples taken along a North-South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> transect using a myoviral-specific PCR-sequencing approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 630 viral g20 clones from this study, with 786 published g20 sequences, revealed that myoviral populations in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> had higher diversity than previously reported, with several novel putative g20 clades. Some of these clades were detected throughout the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Multivariate statistical analyses did not reveal any significant correlations between myoviral diversity and environmental parameters, although myoviral diversity appeared to be lowest in samples collected from the north and south of the transect where Prochlorococcus diversity was also lowest. The results were correlated to the abundance and diversity of the co-occurring Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations, but revealed no significant correlations to either of the two potential host genera. This study provides evidence that cyanophages have extremely high and variable diversity and are distributed over large areas of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-20/pdf/2012-17779.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-07-20/pdf/2012-17779.pdf"><span>77 FR 42651 - Disestablishment of Restricted Area, Rhode Island Sound, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Approximately 4 Nautical...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-20</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Disestablishment of Restricted Area, Rhode Island Sound, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Approximately 4 Nautical Miles Due South of Lands End in Newport, RI AGENCY:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016994','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016994"><span>Micropaleontological evidence for increased meridional heat transport in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during the pliocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dowsett, H.J.; Cronin, T. M.; Poore, R.Z.; Thompson, R.S.; Whatley, R.C.; Wood, A.M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Middle Pliocene (???3 million years ago) has been identified as the last time the Earth was significantly warmer than it was during the Last Interglacial and Holocene. A quantitative micropaleontological paleotemperature transect from equator to high latitudes in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> indicates that Middle Pliocene warmth involved increased meridional <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G43B1050K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G43B1050K"><span>Heat and Freshwater Convergence Anomalies in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Inferred from Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kelly, K. A.; Drushka, K.; Thompson, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Observations of thermosteric and halosteric sea level from hydrographic data, <span class="hlt">ocean</span> mass from GRACE and altimetric sea surface height are used to infer meridional heat transport (MHT) and freshwater convergence (FWC) anomalies for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. An "unknown control" version of a Kalman filter in each of eight regions extracts smooth estimates of heat transport convergence (HTC) and FWC from discrepancies between the sea level response to monthly surface heat and freshwater fluxes and observed heat and freshwater content. The model is run for 1993-2014. Estimates of MHT anomalies are derived by summing the HTC from north to south and adding a spatially uniform, time-varying MHT derived from updated MHT estimates at 41N (Willis 2010). Estimated anomalies in MHT are comparable to those recently observed at the RAPID/MOCHA line at 26.5N. MHT estimates are relatively insensitive to the choice of heat flux products and are highly coherent spatially. MHT anomalies at 35S resemble estimates of Agulhas Leakage derived from altimeter (LeBars et al 2014) suggesting that the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is the source of the anomalous heat inflow. FWC estimates in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> (67N to 35S) resemble estimates of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> river inflow (de Couet and Maurer, GRDC 2009). Increasing values of FWC after 2002 at a time when MHT was decreasing may indicate a feedback between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation and FWC that would accelerate the AMOC slowdown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-07/pdf/2012-5543.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-07/pdf/2012-5543.pdf"><span>77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Virginia Beach, VA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-07</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-09/pdf/2012-11196.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-09/pdf/2012-11196.pdf"><span>77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Virginia Beach, VA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-09</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, VA to support the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show. This action is necessary to provide for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-17/pdf/2013-08990.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-04-17/pdf/2013-08990.pdf"><span>78 FR 22814 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Miami Beach, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-17</p> <p>..., <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Miami Beach, Florida during the Miami Super Boat Grand Prix. The Miami Super Boat Grand Prix will... Beach, Florida. Approximately 25 high- speed power boats will be participating in the races, and it...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-01/pdf/2013-23966.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-10-01/pdf/2013-23966.pdf"><span>78 FR 60255 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Surfclam and <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Quahog Fisheries; Notice...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... Company. The intent of this notice is to comply with regulations for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> surfclam and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> quahog fisheries and to promote efficient distribution of cage tags. ADDRESSES: Written inquiries may be... given that National Band and Tag Company of Newport, Kentucky, is the authorized vendor of cage...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-27/pdf/2013-28360.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-27/pdf/2013-28360.pdf"><span>78 FR 70901 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Key West, FL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-27</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Key..., during the Bone Island Triathlon on Saturday, January 25, 2014. The safety zone is necessary to provide... Multisport, LLC. is hosting the Bone Island Triathlon. The event will be held on the waters of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6758R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6758R"><span><span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-Arctic exchange in a series of <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model simulations (CORE-II)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roth, Christina; Behrens, Erik; Biastoch, Arne</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this study we aim to improve the understanding of exchange processes between the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The Nordic Sea builds an important connector between these regions, by receiving and modifying warm and saline <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> waters, and by providing dense overflow as a backbone of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Using a hierarchy of global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>/sea-ice models, the specific role of the Nordic Seas, both providing a feedback with the AMOC, but also as a modulator of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water flowing into the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, is examined. The models have been performed under the CORE-II protocol, in which atmospheric forcing of the past 60 years was applied in a subsequent series of 5 iterations. During the course of this 300-year long integration, the AMOC shows substantial changes, which are correlated with water mass characteristics in the Denmark Strait overflow characteristics. Quantitative analyses using Lagrangian trajectories explore the impact of these trends on the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> through the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JMS....46..169T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JMS....46..169T"><span>Definition, properties, and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> distribution of the new tracer TrOCA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Touratier, Franck; Goyet, Catherine</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Natural and anthropogenic tracers in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> are widely used not only to better understand water masses circulation and mixing but also to understand and quantify the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> uptake and storage capacity of greenhouse gases. However, since each tracer is different, it is best to use the complementarity of several tracers to unequivocally identify the various water masses. Here we illustrate the conservative properties and the spatial distribution of the new composite tracer TrOCA ( Tracer combining Oxygen, inorganic Carbon, and total Alkalinity) using oxygen (O 2), dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO 2), and total alkalinity (TA), from the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The significant accuracy improvement of TCO 2 and TA measurements since the 1970s, combined to a large effort in measuring these parameters during large scale cruises throughout the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, makes this tracer TrOCA an additional tool in analyzing water mass distribution. This tracer is shown to be conservative in intermediate, deep, and bottom waters. For instance, we show that the independence of TrOCA from other tracers provides further information on the origin and mixing of the main <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> water masses. Furthermore, TrOCA combined with the composite tracer NO, in particular the ratio TrOCA/NO, can be used to unequivocally identify and separate the Antarctic Intermediate Water, the Antarctic Bottom Water, and the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27397557"><span>Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-21/pdf/2010-14851.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-06-21/pdf/2010-14851.pdf"><span>75 FR 34929 - Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Boston, MA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-06-21</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones: Neptune Deep Water Port, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>... turret loading (STL) buoys and accompanying systems that are part of GDF Suez Energy's Neptune Deepwater... of a final regulatory action, which will be proposed in a separate rulemaking docket titled:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-12/pdf/2013-16713.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-07-12/pdf/2013-16713.pdf"><span>78 FR 41844 - Safety Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sagaponack, NY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-12</p> <p>... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display... Sagaponack, NY for the Fairfield Estates fireworks display. This action is necessary to provide for the... Zone; Fairfield Estates Fireworks Display, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Sagaponack, NY in the Federal Register...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1899i/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/1899i/report.pdf"><span>Streamflow from the United States into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during 1931-1960</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bue, Conrad D.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Streamflow from the United States into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, between the international stream St. Croix River, inclusive, and Cape Sable, Fla., averaged about 355,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) during the 30-year period 1931-60, or roughly 20 percent of the water that, on the average flows out of the conterminous United States. The area drained by streams flowing into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is about 288,000 square miles, including the Canadian part of the St. Croix and Connecticut River basins, or a little less than 10 percent of the area of the conterminous United States. Hence, the average streamflow into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, in terms of cubic feet per second per square mile, is about twice the national average of the flow that leaves the conterminous United States. Flow from about three-fourths of the area draining into the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is gaged at streamflow measuring stations of the U.S. Geological Survey. The remaining one-fourth of the drainage area consists mostly of low-lying coastal areas from which the flow was estimated, largely on the basis of nearby gaging stations. Streamflow, in terms of cubic feet per second per square mile, decreases rather progressively from north to south. It averages nearly 2 cfs along the Maine coast, about 1 cfs along the North Carolina coast, and about 0.9 cfs along the Florida coast.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec165-714.pdf"><span>33 CFR 165.714 - Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Charleston, SC. 165.714 Section 165.714 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-13/pdf/2013-13993.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-13/pdf/2013-13993.pdf"><span>78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Long Beach, NY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-06-13</p> <p>... year. The location and name has changed several time over the past five years. The following rulemaking... were received during the rulemaking. On July 6, 2011 the Coast Guard published a temporary final rule... powerboat racing regatta. The event will be held on the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> off Long Beach, NY and will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217892&keyword=national+AND+oceanic&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78720397&CFTOKEN=88352984','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=217892&keyword=national+AND+oceanic&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78720397&CFTOKEN=88352984"><span>Ecological Condition of Coastal <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Waters Along the U.S. Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight: 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report presents the results of an assessment of ecological condition in coastal-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> waters of the U.S. mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Bight (MAB), along the U.S. continental shelf from Cape Cod, MA and Nantucket Shoals to the northeast to Cape Hatteras to the south, based on sampling conduc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615810K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615810K"><span>Arctic and N <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Crustal Thickness and <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Lithosphere Distribution from Gravity Inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins of the Arctic and N. <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> formed during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as a series of distinct <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins, both small and large, leading to a complex distribution of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust, thinned continental crust and rifted continental margins. The plate tectonic framework of this region was demonstrated by the pioneering work of Peter Ziegler in AAPG Memoir 43 " Evolution of the Arctic-North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the Western Tethys" published in 1988. The spatial evolution of Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and N <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basin geometry and bathymetry are critical not only for hydrocarbon exploration but also for understanding regional palaeo-oceanography and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> gateway connectivity, and its influence on global climate. Mapping crustal thickness and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> lithosphere distribution represents a substantial challenge for the Polar Regions. Using gravity anomaly inversion we have produced comprehensive maps of crustal thickness and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> lithosphere distribution for the Arctic and N <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region, We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning and <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). Gravity anomaly and bathymetry data used in the gravity inversion are from the NGA (U) Arctic Gravity Project and IBCAO respectively; sediment thickness is from a new regional compilation. The resulting maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor are used to determine continent-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> boundary location and the distribution of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> lithosphere. Crustal cross-sections using Moho depth from the gravity inversion allow continent-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> transition structure to be determined and magmatic type (magma poor, "normal" or magma rich). Our gravity inversion predicts thin crust and high continental lithosphere thinning factors in the Eurasia, Canada, Makarov, Podvodnikov and Baffin Basins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51E0100O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A51E0100O"><span>Air-sea fluxes of dimethyl sulfide and carbon dioxide measured by the gradient technique in the subtropical and <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Iwata, T.; Sakuma, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Nakagawa, F.; Ishii, M.; Kosugi, N.; Tsuda, A.; Uematsu, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fluxes of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), acetone and CO2 from the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> to the atmosphere were measured in the subtropical South Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in January-February 2012. Vertical profiles of these gases were obtained above the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface by measurements at 7 heights from 1 to 1400 cm with a profiling buoy aboard R/V Hakuho-Maru during KH-11-10 and KH-12-1 (EqPOS) cruises. The concentrations of DMS, acetone and CO2 in gas samples were simultaneously monitored by a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR), respectively. In addition, DMS and acetone concentrations in the surface seawater and air were continuously measured with PTR-MS during the cruises. Average of seawater DMS concentrations in the subtropical <span class="hlt">ocean</span> (2.1±0.5 nM) was slightly lower than that in the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> (3.2±1.0 nM). The DMS fluxes significantly varied in the range of 3.6-13.1 and 0.1-18.9 μmol m-2 d-1 in the subtropical and <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, respectively. The magnitude of DMS fluxes in both observations was dependent of that of wind speed. The gas transfer velocities of DMS were calculated from the fluxes and the seawater DMS concentrations. The magnitude of the gas transfer velocity mainly depended on that of wind speed. We will discuss the gas transfer velocity including results obtained from the CO2 and acetone observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467961"><span>Direct radiometric observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect over the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Valero, F.P.J.; Collins, W.D.; Bucholtz, A.</p> <p>1997-03-21</p> <p>Airborne radiometric measurements were used to determine tropospheric profiles of the clear sky greenhouse effect. At sea surface temperatures (SSTs) larger than 300 kelvin, the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect was found to increase with SST at a rate of 13 to 15 watts per square meter per kelvin. Satellite measurements of infrared radiances and SSTs indicate that almost 52 percent of the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> between 20{degrees}N and 20{degrees}S are affected during all seasons. Current general circulation models suggest that the increase in the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect with SST may have climatic effects on a planetary scale. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9065397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9065397"><span>Direct Radiometric Observations of the Water Vapor Greenhouse Effect Over the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valero; Collins; Pilewskie; Bucholtz; Flatau</p> <p>1997-03-21</p> <p>Airborne radiometric measurements were used to determine tropospheric profiles of the clear sky greenhouse effect. At sea surface temperatures (SSTs) larger than 300 kelvin, the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect was found to increase with SST at a rate of 13 to 15 watts per square meter per kelvin. Satellite measurements of infrared radiances and SSTs indicate that almost 52 percent of the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> between 20°N and 20°S are affected during all seasons. Current general circulation models suggest that the increase in the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect with SST may have climatic effects on a planetary scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.7771Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.7771Y"><span>Future change in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> productivity: Is the Arctic the new <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Coward, A. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>One of the most characteristic features in <span class="hlt">ocean</span> productivity is the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> spring bloom. Responding to seasonal increases in irradiance and stratification, surface phytopopulations rise significantly, a pattern that visibly tracks poleward into summer. While blooms also occur in the Arctic <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, they are constrained by the sea-ice and strong vertical stratification that characterize this region. However, Arctic sea-ice is currently declining, and forecasts suggest this may lead to completely ice-free summers by the mid-21st century. Such change may open the Arctic up to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>-style spring blooms, and do so at the same time as <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> productivity is threatened by climate change-driven <span class="hlt">ocean</span> stratification. Here we use low and high-resolution instances of a coupled <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-biogeochemistry model, NEMO-MEDUSA, to investigate productivity. Drivers of present-day patterns are identified, and changes in these across a climate change scenario (IPCC RCP 8.5) are analyzed. We find a globally significant decline in North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> productivity (> -20%) by 2100, and a correspondingly significant rise in the Arctic (> +50%). However, rather than the future Arctic coming to resemble the current <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, both regions are instead transitioning to a common, low nutrient regime. The North Pacific provides a counterexample where nutrients remain high and productivity increases with elevated temperature. These responses to climate change in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Arctic are common between model resolutions, suggesting an independence from resolution for key impacts. However, some responses, such as those in the North Pacific, differ between the simulations, suggesting the reverse and supporting the drive to more fine-scale resolutions. This article was corrected on 5 JAN 2016. See the end of the full text for details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.3239L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.3239L"><span>Observational constraints on atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> cross-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> heat transports: revisiting the precipitation asymmetry problem in climate models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Cheng, Anning; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Allan, Richard P.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Satellite based top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget observations are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence and tendency from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Hemispheric contrasts in the energy budget terms are used to determine the radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to the cross-<span class="hlt">equatorial</span> heat transports in the atmosphere (AHTEQ) and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> (OHTEQ). The contrast in net atmospheric radiation implies an AHTEQ from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) (0.75 PW), while the hemispheric difference in sensible and latent heat implies an AHTEQ in the opposite direction (0.51 PW), resulting in a net NH to SH AHTEQ (0.24 PW). At the surface, the hemispheric contrast in the radiative component (0.95 PW) dominates, implying a 0.44 PW SH to NH OHTEQ. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models with excessive net downward surface radiation and surface-to-atmosphere sensible and latent heat transport in the SH relative to the NH exhibit anomalous northward AHTEQ and overestimate SH tropical precipitation. The hemispheric bias in net surface radiative flux is due to too much longwave surface radiative cooling in the NH tropics in both clear and all-sky conditions and excessive shortwave surface radiation in the SH subtropics and extratropics due to an underestimation in reflection by clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032985','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032985"><span>Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Sources and fractionation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rajani, R.P.; Chodankar, A.R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (r = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region-specific chemical characteristics. The platinum group elements (PGE: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au in ANS Fe-Mn crusts are derived from seawater and are mainly of terrestrial origin, with a minor cosmogenic component. The Ru/Rh (0.5-2) and Pt/Ru ratios (7-28) are closely comparable to ratios in continental basalts, whereas Pd/Ir ratios exhibit values ( 0.75) correlations between water depth and Mn/Co, Fe/Co, Ce/Co, Co, and the PGEs. Fractionation of the PGE-Au from seawater during colloidal precipitation of the major-oxide phases is indicated by well-defined linear positive correlations (r > 0.8) of Co and Ce with Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt; Au/Co with Mn/Co; and by weak or no correlations of Pd with water depth, Co-normalized major-element ratios, and with the other PGE (r < 0.5). The strong enrichment of Pt (up to 1 ppm) relative to the other PGE and its positive correlations with Ce and Co demonstrate a common link for the high concentrations of all three elements, which likely involves an oxidation reaction on the Mn-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces. The documented fractionation of PGE-Au and their positive association with redox sensitive Co and Ce may have applications in reconstructing past-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> redox conditions and water masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118..592G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118..592G"><span>From the subtropics to the central <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Neodymium isotopic composition and rare earth element concentration variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grenier, MéLanie; Jeandel, Catherine; Lacan, FrançOis; Vance, Derek; Venchiarutti, CéLia; Cros, Alexandre; Cravatte, Sophie</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Neodymium isotopic compositions (ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured for filtered surface to deep waters (112 samples) in the Southern Tropical Pacific. The relatively detailed picture of these tracer distributions allowed us to refine the areas where <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> ɛNd variations occur. ɛNd values increase for most of the water masses flowing from Samoa to the Solomon Sea and in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) area, as already observed. Furthermore, water masses arriving from the eastern <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific (200-550 m depth) also revealed radiogenic values, possibly acquired in the vicinity of the South American coasts and Galapagos Islands. These ɛNd variations affect the whole water column. The most likely process causing such variations is "boundary exchange" between the numerous radiogenic slopes/margins located in this area and seawater flowing past. Dissolution of atmospheric deposition and/or diffuse streaming of volcanic ash are also suggested to explain the radiogenic ɛNd observed at the surface in the PNG area. Interestingly, a positive europium (Eu) anomaly characterizes the normalized REE patterns of most of the studied water masses. This anomaly is consistent with the REE patterns of sediment and rock samples that are potential sources for the local waters. Such consistency reinforces the hypothesis that lithogenic sources play a major role in the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> REE budget, thanks to "boundary exchange." The data set presented here is a good basis for further sampling that will be realized in the framework of the ongoing GEOTRACES program (www.geotraces.org).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22815928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22815928"><span>Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stampar, Sergio N; Maronna, Maximiliano M; Vermeij, Mark J A; Silveira, Fabio L d; Morandini, André C</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of molecular data for species delimitation in Anthozoa is still a very delicate issue. This is probably due to the low genetic variation found among the molecular markers (primarily mitochondrial) commonly used for Anthozoa. Ceriantharia is an anthozoan group that has not been tested for genetic divergence at the species level. Recently, all three <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> species described for the genus Isarachnanthus of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, were deemed synonyms based on morphological simmilarities of only one species: Isarachnanthus maderensis. Here, we aimed to verify whether genetic relationships (using COI, 16S, ITS1 and ITS2 molecular markers) confirmed morphological affinities among members of Isarachnanthus from different regions across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Results from four DNA markers were completely congruent and revealed that two different species exist in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The low identification success and substantial overlap between intra and interspecific COI distances render the Anthozoa unsuitable for DNA barcoding, which is not true for Ceriantharia. In addition, genetic divergence within and between Ceriantharia species is more similar to that found in Medusozoa (Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa) than Anthozoa and Porifera that have divergence rates similar to typical metazoans. The two genetic species could also be separated based on micromorphological characteristics of their cnidomes. Using a specimen of Isarachnanthus bandanensis from Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> as an outgroup, it was possible to estimate the minimum date of divergence between the clades. The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PalOc..16..479V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PalOc..16..479V"><span>Shifts in the position of the North <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Current and rapid productivity changes in the western Tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the last glacial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vink, Annemiek; Rühlemann, Carsten; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Mulitza, Stefan; Hüls, Matthias; Willems, Helmut</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>High-resolution, well-dated calcareous dinoflagellate cyst and organic carbon records from a 58 kyr sediment core (M35003-4) located southeast of the island of Grenada show that rapid and pronounced changes in cyst association and accumulation and organic carbon deposition occurred, controlled by (1) a significant southward shift in the position of the North <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> Current during the last glacial period and the Younger Dryas cold interval and (2) rapid changes in local productivity in marine isotopic stage 3 that are associated with variations in Orinoco River nutrient discharge and coastal upwelling strength. Prominent cyst accumulation peaks representing extremely oligotrophic and stratified thermocline conditions mimic the Greenland ice core and northern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Dansgaard/Oeschger stadials and Heinrich events. We provide new evidence for a coupled tropical/high-latitude <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> climate system during the last glacial period and suggest that changes in the zonality of the low-latitude winds may play an important role in modulating rapid interhemispheric climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6...34C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6...34C"><span>The impact of polar mesoscale storms on northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Condron, Alan; Renfrew, Ian A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric processes regulate the formation of deep water in the subpolar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and hence influence the large-scale <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation. Every year thousands of mesoscale storms, termed polar lows, cross this climatically sensitive region of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. These storms are often either too small or too short-lived to be captured in meteorological reanalyses or numerical models. Here we present simulations with a global, eddy-permitting <span class="hlt">ocean</span>/sea-ice circulation model, run with and without a parameterization of polar lows. The parameterization reproduces the high wind speeds and heat fluxes observed in polar lows as well as their integrated effects, and leads to increases in the simulated depth, frequency and area of deep convection in the Nordic seas, which in turn leads to a larger northward transport of heat into the region, and southward transport of deep water through Denmark Strait. We conclude that polar lows are important for the large-scale <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation and should be accounted for in short-term climate predictions. Recent studies predict a decrease in the number of polar lows over the northeast <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in the twenty-first century that would imply a reduction in deep convection and a potential weakening of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5385F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5385F"><span>Variability of The Southwest Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> and Connexions To Atmospheric Anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fauchereau, N.; Trzaska, S.; Richard, Y.; Roucou, P.</p> <p></p> <p>Sea-Surface-Temperature variability in the Southern Indian and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> is in- vestigated using Empirical Orthogonal Functions analysis over the 1950-1999 period. It reveals a significant pattern of co-variability between the SouthWest Indian and SouthWest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> (roughly located in the Southwestern branches of the sub- tropical gyres and their retroflection regions). The robustness of this mode is assessed through correlation between box-averaged indices and composite analysis. This mode is phase-locked on the Austral Summer (november to january) and is associated with significant anomalies in the SLP field. A discussion on the potential mechanisms in- volved in such <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Atmosphere anomalies is given and attention is devoted to their impact on the precipitation anomalies over Southern America and mainly Southern Africa. Relations to the SST - atmosphere patterns of variability recently described by Behera et Yamagata (2001. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 2, 327-330) for the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and Venegas et al (1997. Journal of Climate, 19, 2904-2920) for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520331"><span>Spinner dolphin whistle in the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: Is there a geographic variation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moron, Juliana Rodrigues; Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Sucunza, Federico; de Castro, Franciele Rezende; Rossi-Santos, Marcos; Andriolo, Artur</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Acoustic parameters for the spinner dolphins' bioacoustic sounds have previously been described. However, the dolphins in the Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> were only recently studied near the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. Therefore, to contribute to additional knowledge of this cosmopolitan species, this study compares previous results with a Brazilian recording. Despite statistically significant differences, the mean value comparison indicated that Hawaiian and Southwest <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> spinners emit similar whistles. The fact that geographical isolation does not lead the dissemblance nor the similarity of the acoustic variations in this species raises the possibility of other factors influencing those emissions. Here those differences and similarities are discussed, thereby contributing to an understanding of how distinct populations and/or species communicate through different <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27365315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27365315"><span>North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henry, L G; McManus, J F; Curry, W B; Roberts, N L; Piotrowski, A M; Keigwin, L D</p> <p>2016-07-29</p> <p>The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during marine isotope stage 3, the glacial interval 25 thousand to 60 thousand years ago. We examined climate and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation proxies throughout this interval at high resolution in a deep North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer protactinium/thorium (Pa/Th) with the deep water-mass tracer, epibenthic δ(13)C. These indicators suggest reduced <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> overturning circulation during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic Hudson Strait iceberg discharges, while sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>'s persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GeoJI.136..286M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GeoJI.136..286M"><span>RESEARCH NOTE: On the roughness of Mesozoic <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minshull, T. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Seismic reflection profiles from Mesozoic <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust around the Blake Spur Fracture Zone (BSFZ) in the western North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> have been widely used in constraining tectonic models of slow-spreading mid-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> ridges. These profiles have anomalously low basement relief compared to crust formed more recently at the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge at the same spreading rate. Profiles from other regions of Mesozoic <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> crust also have greater relief. The anomalous basement relief and slightly increased crustal thickness in the BSFZ survey area may be due to the presence of a mantle thermal anomaly close to the ridge axis at the time of crustal formation. If so, the intracrustal structures observed may be representative of an atypical tectonic regime.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28007381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28007381"><span>Microplastic abundance, distribution and composition along a latitudinal gradient in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanhai, La Daana K; Officer, Rick; Lyashevska, Olga; Thompson, Richard C; O'Connor, Ian</p> <p>2017-02-15</p> <p>Microplastics in the world's <span class="hlt">oceans</span> are a global concern due to the potential threat they pose to marine organisms. This study investigated microplastic abundance, distribution and composition in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> on a transect from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Town, South Africa. Microplastics were sampled from sub-surface waters using the underway system of the RV Polarstern. Potential microplastics were isolated from samples and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify polymer types. Of the particles analysed, 63% were rayon and 37% were synthetic polymers. The majority of microplastics were identified as polyesters (49%) and blends of polyamide or acrylic/polyester (43%). Overall, fibres (94%) were predominant. Average microplastic abundance in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was 1.15±1.45particlesm(-3). Of the 76 samples, 14 were from the Benguela upwelling and there was no statistically significant difference in microplastic abundance between upwelled and non-upwelled sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"><span>Polyhalogenated Very Short Live Substances in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and their Linkages with <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Primary Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very short lived substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..553B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PalOc..31..553B"><span>Exploring Globorotalia truncatulinoides coiling ratios as a proxy for subtropical gyre dynamics in the northwestern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> during late Pleistocene Ice Ages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Billups, K.; Hudson, C.; Kunz, H.; Rew, I.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We explore the use of the coiling direction of planktic foraminifer Globorotalia truncatulinoides in sediment cores from the northwestern subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> as a proxy for variations in the intensity of the western boundary of the subtropical gyre over the past 280 kyr. Core-top sediments from the study region are dominated by the left coiling variety consistent with the deep permanent thermocline at the study sites (KNR140-37PC and <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling Program Site 1059). Downcore G. truncatulinoides (sinistral) maxima occur in conjunction with 14 out of the 25 (Northern and Southern Hemisphere) precession maxima contained in the study interval. The agreement between the dominance of left coiling tests and the precession index of the Southern Hemisphere, in particular, supports a link between a deep thermocline in the northwestern subtropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and northward flow of <span class="hlt">equatorially</span> sourced warm surface currents, a situation analogous to the Late Holocene. Interglacial marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5 lacks G. truncatulinoides (s) minima attesting to the relative stability of the western boundary during an interval of prolonged global warmth. G. truncatulinoides (s) disappear during the glacial extremes of MIS 2, 6, and 8 implying a weaker western boundary current at these times. Our results support that the coiling direction of this species is sensitive to variations in hydrography of the western boundary of the subtropical gyre. Because of the association between G. truncatulinoides (s) and precession maxima in both hemispheres, results support the importance of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat transport in half-precession climate variability in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..139G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy...45..139G"><span>Higher Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Xun; Zhang, Xiangdong; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Pfeiffer, Madlene</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>During the last glacial-interglacial cycle, changes in the large-scale North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation occurred, and at the same time topography of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets also varied. In this study, we focus on detecting the changes of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres, western boundary current, and the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) corresponding to different Laurentide and Greenland ice sheet topographies. Using an Earth System Model, we conducted simulations for five climate states with different ice sheet topographies: Pre-industrial, Mid Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, 32 kilo years before present and Eemian interglacial. Our simulation results indicate that higher topographies of the Laurentide and Greenland ice sheets strengthen surface wind stress curl over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, intensifying the subtropical and subpolar gyres and the western boundary currents. The corresponding decrease in sea surface height from subtropical to subpolar favors a stronger AMOC. An offshore shift of the Gulf Stream is also identified during the glacial periods relative to that during the Pre-industrial due to lower sea levels, explaining a weaker glacial Gulf Stream detected in proxy data. Meanwhile, the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyres and AMOC demonstrate a positively correlated relation under each of the climate conditions with higher ice sheets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3911604B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3911604B"><span>Contrasting <span class="hlt">ocean</span> changes between the subpolar and polar North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> during the past 135 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauch, Henning A.; Kandiano, Evguenia S.; Helmke, Jan P.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Variations in the poleward-directed <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> heat transfer was investigated over the past 135 ka with special emphasis on the last and present interglacial climate development (Eemian and Holocene). Both interglacials exhibited very similar climatic oscillations during each preceding glacial terminations (deglacial TI and TII). Like TI, also TII has pronounced cold-warm-cold changes akin to events such as H1, Bølling/Allerød, and the Younger Dryas. But unlike TI, the cold events in TII were associated with intermittent southerly invasions of an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> faunal component which underscores quite a different water mass evolution in the Nordic Seas. Within the Eemian interglaciation proper, peak warming intervals were antiphased between the Nordic Seas and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. Moreover, inferred temperatures for the Nordic Seas were generally colder in the Eemian than in the Holocene, and vice versa for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. A reduced intensity of <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> heat transfer to the Arctic therefore characterized the Eemian, requiring a reassessment of the actual role of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere system behind interglacial, but also, glacial climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262815"><span>Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to act as a long-term sink for CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737940','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737940"><span>Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mojica, Kristina D A; Huisman, Jef; Wilhelm, Steven W; Brussaard, Corina P D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Viral lysis of phytoplankton constrains marine primary production, food web dynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Yet, little is known about the biogeographical distribution of viral lysis rates across the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. To address this, we investigated phytoplankton group-specific viral lysis rates along a latitudinal gradient within the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. The data show large-scale distribution patterns of different virus groups across the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> that are associated with the biogeographical distributions of their potential microbial hosts. Average virus-mediated lysis rates of the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were lower than those of the picoeukaryotic and nanoeukaryotic phytoplankton (that is, 0.14 per day compared with 0.19 and 0.23 per day, respectively). Total phytoplankton mortality (virus plus grazer-mediated) was comparable to the gross growth rate, demonstrating high turnover rates of phytoplankton populations. Virus-induced mortality was an important loss process at low and mid latitudes, whereas phytoplankton mortality was dominated by microzooplankton grazing at higher latitudes (>56°N). This shift from a viral-lysis-dominated to a grazing-dominated phytoplankton community was associated with a decrease in temperature and salinity, and the decrease in viral lysis rates was also associated with increased vertical mixing at higher latitudes. <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>-climate models predict that surface warming will lead to an expansion of the stratified and oligotrophic regions of the world's <span class="hlt">oceans</span>. Our findings suggest that these future shifts in the regional climate of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> surface layer are likely to increase the contribution of viral lysis to phytoplankton mortality in the higher-latitude waters of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, which may potentially reduce transfer of matter and energy up the food chain and thus affect the capacity of the northern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> to act as a long-term sink for CO2. PMID:26262815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/338543','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/338543"><span>Reevaluation of plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baksi, A.K.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Plate motion models based on hotspot tracks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> predict minimal movement (less than a few millimeters per year) between these hotspots and their counterparts in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> for the past {approximately}100 m.yr., whereas plate circuit exercises indicate relative motions of {approximately}20 mm/yr. Hotspot-based models also suggest that the Rajmahal Traps, India, were located {approximately}1,000 km away from the Kerguelen hotspot at {approximately}115 Ma, and the Deccan Traps, India, were located a similar distance from the Reunion hotspot at {approximately}65 Ma; this is at odds with conclusions derived from paleomagnetism, plate circuits, and geochemical parameters that suggest a genetic link between flood basalt provinces in India and hotspots in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. These divergent views may be explained by plume action {approximately}1,000 km from its center or errors in the hotspot motion models. The latter hypothesis is scrutinized in this article by examination of the radiometric ages for hotspot tracks in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. The {sup 40}/{sup 39}Ar step-heating data for rocks defining the tracks of the Reunion and Kerguelen hotspots in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and the Great Metero and Tristan da Cunha hotspots in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are critically reexamined. Of {approximately}35 such ages utilized for deriving plate motion models for the past 130 m.yr., at best, only three ({approximately}32, {approximately}50, and {approximately}52 Ma) in the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and one ({approximately}65 Ma) for the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> may be treated as crystallization ages. Conclusions based on hotspot track modeling for Late Cretaceous to Eocene time are suspect, and those for the Early to Late Cretaceous period are untenable. In the absence of precise age data for the tracks of hotspots in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>, and inconsistent age progressions noted within a single volcanic chain, plate circuit models serve as the superior technique</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040068392&hterms=robert+thompson&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Drobert%2Bthompson','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040068392&hterms=robert+thompson&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Drobert%2Bthompson"><span>African <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> and Subtropical Ozone Plumes: Recurrences Timescales of the Brown Cloud Trans-African Plumes and Other Plumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, Robert B.; Thompson, Anne M.; Guan, Hong; Witte, Jacquelyn C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We have found repeated illustrations in the maps of Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) of apparent transport of ozone from the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> to the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Most interesting are examples that coincide with the INDOEX observations of late northern winter, 1999. Three soundings associated with the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network help confirm and quantify degree of influence of pollution, lightning, and stratospheric sources, suggesting that perhaps 40% of increased <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ozone could be Asian pollution during periods of maximum identified in the TTO maps. We outline recurrent periods of apparent ozone transport from Indian to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> regions both during and outside the late-winter period. These are placed in the context of some general observations about factors controlling recurrence timescales for the expression of both <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> and subtropical plumes. Low-level subtropical plumes are often controlled by frontal systems approaching the Namib coast; these direct mid-level air into either easterly <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> plumes or westerly mid- troposphere plumes. <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> plumes of ozone cross Africa on an easterly path due to the occasional coincidence of two phenomena: (1) lofting of ozone to mid and upper levels, often in the Western Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and (2) the eastward extension of an <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> African easterly jet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.A21D..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.A21D..03C"><span>African <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> and Subtropical Ozone Plumes: Recurrence Timescales of the Brown Cloud Trans-African Plume and Other Plumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>We have found repeated illustrations in the maps of Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) of apparent transport of ozone from the Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> to the <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Most interesting are examples that coincide with the INDOEX observations of late northern winter, 1999. Three soundings associated with the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network help confirm and quantify degree of influence of pollution, lightning, and stratospheric sources, suggesting that perhaps 40% of increased <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> ozone could be Asian pollution during periods of maximum identified in the TTO maps. We outline recurrent periods of apparent ozone transport from Indian to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> regions both during and outside the late-winter period. These are placed in the context of some general observations about factors controlling recurrence timescales for the expression of both <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> and subtropical plumes. Low-level subtropical plumes are often controlled by frontal systems approaching the Namib coast; these direct mid-level air into eithier easterly <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> plumes or westerly mid-troposphere plumes. <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> plumes of ozone cross Africa on an easterly path due to the occasional coincidence of two phenomena: (1) lofting of ozone to mid and upper levels, often in the Western Indian <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and (2) the eastward extension of an <span class="hlt">Equatorial</span> African easterly jet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981EOSTr..62R..33.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981EOSTr..62R..33."><span><span class="hlt">Ocean</span> drilling surveys planned</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As a continuation of the International Phase of <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">oceans</span> during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span> crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..865S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..865S"><span>Environmental controls on the biogeography of diazotrophy and Trichodesmium in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snow, J. T.; Schlosser, C.; Woodward, E. M. S.; Mills, M. M.; Achterberg, E. P.; Mahaffey, C.; Bibby, T. S.; Moore, C. M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is responsible for a significant proportion of the annual "new" nitrogen introduced into the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Despite being arguably the best studied marine diazotroph, the factors controlling the distribution and growth of Trichodesmium remain a subject of debate, with sea surface temperature, the partial pressure of CO2, and nutrients including iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P), all suggested to be important. Synthesizing data from seven cruises collectively spanning large temporal and spatial scales across the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, including two previously unreported studies crossing the largely undersampled South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> gyre, we assessed the relationship between proposed environmental drivers and both community N2 fixation rates and the distribution of Trichodesmium. Simple linear regression analysis would suggest no relationship between any of the sampled environmental variables and N2 fixation rates. However, considering the concentrations of iron and phosphorus together within a simplified resource-ratio framework, illustrated using an idealized numerical model, indicates the combined effects these nutrients have on Trichodesmium and broader diazotroph biogeography, alongside the reciprocal maintenance of different biogeographic provinces of the (sub)tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in states of Fe or P oligotrophy by diazotrophy. The qualitative principles of the resource-ratio framework are argued to be consistent with both the previously described North-South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> contrast in Trichodesmium abundance and the presence and consequence of a substantial non-Trichodesmium diazotrophic community in the western South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> subtropical gyre. A comprehensive, observation-based explanation of the interactions between Trichodesmium and the wider diazotrophic community with iron and phosphorus in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> is thus revealed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.1123V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.1123V"><span>Manganese in the west <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> in the context of the first global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation model of manganese</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Hulten, Marco; Middag, Rob; Dutay, Jean-Claude; de Baar, Hein; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Gehlen, Marion; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element. Moreover, its oxidised form is involved in removing itself and several other trace elements from <span class="hlt">ocean</span> waters. Here we report the longest thus far (17 500 km length) full-depth <span class="hlt">ocean</span> section of dissolved Mn in the west <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, comprising 1320 data values of high accuracy. This is the GA02 transect that is part of the GEOTRACES programme, which aims to understand trace element distributions. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with new, state-of-the-art, modelling to give a first assessment of the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. To this end, we simulate the distribution of dissolved Mn using a global-scale circulation model. This first model includes simple parameterisations to account for the sources, processes and sinks of Mn in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Oxidation and (photo)reduction, aggregation and settling, as well as biological uptake and remineralisation by plankton are included in the model. Our model provides, together with the observations, the following insights: - The high surface concentrations of manganese are caused by the combination of photoreduction and sources contributing to the upper <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The most important sources are sediments, dust, and, more locally, rivers. - Observations and model simulations suggest that surface Mn in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> moves downwards into the southward-flowing North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Deep Water (NADW), but because of strong removal rates there is no elevated concentration of Mn visible any more in the NADW south of 40° N. - The model predicts lower dissolved Mn in surface waters of the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> than the observed concentrations. The intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in subsurface waters is deemed to be a major source of dissolved Mn also mixing upwards into surface waters, but the OMZ is not well represented by the model. Improved high-resolution simulation of the OMZ may solve this problem. - There is a mainly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-02/pdf/2013-10226.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-05-02/pdf/2013-10226.pdf"><span>78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Cocoa...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-05-02</p> <p>... Super Boat Grand Prix, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed... <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats are anticipated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS41A1989L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS41A1989L"><span>Interhemispheric Changes in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> Heat Content and Their Link to Global Monsoons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopez, H.; Lee, S. K.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat divergence over the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> resulting in negative <span class="hlt">ocean</span> heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. The effect of eddies on the NH (SH) poleward of 30° is opposite with heat flux divergence (convergence), which must be balanced by sinking (rising) motion, consistent with a poleward (equatorward) displacement of the jet stream and mean storm track. The mechanism described here could easily be interpreted for the case of strong SAMHT, with the reverse influence on the interhemispheric atmospheric circulation and monsoons. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is a potential predictor of global climate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geote..49...75M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geote..49...75M"><span>Development of passive volcanic margins of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and initial opening of <span class="hlt">ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Geological and geophysical data on the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are discussed in order to elucidate the tectonic setting of the initial magmatic activity, rifting, and breakup resulting in the origination of Mesozoic <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The structural, magmatic, and historical aspects of the problem are considered. It has been established that the initial dispersed rifting and low-capacity magmatism at proximal margins was followed by the migration of the process toward the central part of region with the formation of distal zones and the development of vigorous magmmatism, further breakup of the lithosphere and <span class="hlt">ocean</span> opening. Magmatism, its sources, and the features of newly formed magmatic crust at both the rifting and breakup stages of margin development are discussed and compared with subsequent spreading magmatism. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions show that the magmatic evolution of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> proximal margins bears the features of two enriched components, one of which is related to the EM-1 source, developing only at the North American margin. Another enriched component typical of the province as a whole is related to the EM-2 source. To a lesser extent, this component is expressed in igneous rocks of Guyana, which also bear the signature of the MORB-type depleted source typical of spreading tholeiites in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. Similar conditions are assumed for subsequent magmatism at the distal margins and for the early spreading basalts in the adjacent <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> belt, which also contain a small admixture of enriched material. A comparison of the magmatism at the margins of Central and North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> reveals their specificity distinctly expressed in isotopic compositions of igneous rocks. In contrast to the typical region of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the immediate melting of the enriched lithospheric source without the participation of plume-related melts is reconstructed for the proximal margins of the Central <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>. At the same time, decompression and melting in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......353W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......353W"><span>Nitrous oxide in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>: first results from the german SOLAS cruise M55</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter, S.; Bange, H.; Wallace, D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>NITROUS OXIDE IN THE TROPICAL <span class="hlt">ATLANTIC</span>: FIRST RESULTS FROM THE GERMAN SOLAS CRUISE M55 S. Walter, H.W. Bange, D.W.R. Wallace Marine Biogeochemistry Division, Institute for Marine Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany swalter@ifm.uni-kiel.de Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric trace gas which received increased attention in recent years because of its relevance for the Earth's climate and stratospheric chemistry. N2O is formed during microbial processes such as nitrification and denitrification in considerable amounts in the subsurface layer of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Thus, <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> emissions of N2O play a major role for its atmospheric budget. However, measurements of N2O in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> are sparse. The spatial distribution of N2O in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> was determined during the first German SOLAS (Surface <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> - Lower Atmosphere Study) cruise Meteor 55 from Willemstad (Curacao, Netherlands Antilles) to Douala (Cameroon) from 12 October to 17 November 2002. At 21 selected stations about 1200 N2O concentrations measurements were performed with a GC/ECD headspace technique. The mean relative error of the measurements was about 2%. Four general features are visible from the N2O depth profiles: (i) N2O is supersaturated throughout the water column. (ii) There is a considerable accumulation of N2O below the euphotic zone with maximum values at 250-400m water depth associated with lower oxygen concentrations. (iii) An increasing trend in the maximum N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> which is inversely correlated with dissolved oxygen values in the oxygen minimum zone. (iv) An increasing trend in the N2O concentrations from the western to the eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> basin in depths below 2000m which seems to be correlated with the age of the water masses. The inverse correlation with oxygen suggests that N2O in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> is formed mainly by nitrification. Our results will be discussed in view of global-change induced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012515','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012515"><span>Periodic variations of precipitation in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. S. V.; Theon, J. S.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Statistical analysis of the satellite-borne Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer data in the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> region reveals that the rainfall near local noon is higher both in frequency of occurrence and intensity than the rainfall in the same area near local midnight. Another striking feature that stands out from the analysis is an oscillation with a period of 3.3. days in rainfall occurrence and intensity. This periodicty is consistent with easterly waves traveling from the African continent to the region under study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610994O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610994O"><span>Teleconnections of ENSO and the tropical South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> in a CMIP5 model ensemble</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ott, Irena; Lutz, Karin; Jacobeit, Jucundus</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The link between the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> induced by warm and cold water events (El Niño/La Niña and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño/Niña for the Pacific and <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>, respectively) is controversially discussed. On the one hand, a Pacific El Niño in boreal winter can initiate both an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niña and an <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño in the subsequent summer months. Several atmospheric and <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> pre-conditions, for instance, the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> South-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, the SSTs of the northern tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and the strength of the atmospheric signal transport of anomalies decide whether a warm or a cold or no response results in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> mode in summer is assumed to have an influence on the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> SSTs about half a year later. The <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niño reinforces the Pacific Walker circulation and thus the trade winds and the <span class="hlt">equatorial</span> easterlies in the Pacific <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> are strengthened. This induces the shallowing of the thermocline in the eastern Pacific and favors the development of a Pacific La Niña. In our investigation, 15 state-of-the-art fully coupled General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Earth System Models (ESMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) without prescribed SSTs are used to study the mechanisms of the teleconnections between the tropical <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Pacific <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. Not all models simulate each of the teleconnections described above. In particular, the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Niña event following a Pacific El Niño is only present in 10 of the 15 analyzed models. This is likely due to strong SST biases in the cold upwelling regions off the coast of southwest Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374975"><span>Directly measured mid-depth circulation in the northeastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bower, A S; Le Cann, B; Rossby, T; Zenk, W; Gould, J; Speer, K; Richardson, P L; Prater, M D; Zhang, H-M</p> <p>2002-10-10</p> <p>The circulation of water masses in the northeastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> has a strong influence on global climate owing to the northward transport of warm subtropical water to high latitudes. But the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation at depths below the reach of satellite observations is difficult to measure, and only recently have comprehensive, direct observations of whole <span class="hlt">ocean</span> basins been possible. Here we present quantitative maps of the absolute velocities at two levels in the northeastern North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> as obtained from acoustically tracked floats. We find that most of the mean flow transported northward by the Gulf Stream system at the thermocline level (about 600 m depth) remains within the subpolar region, and only relatively little enters the Rockall trough or the Nordic seas. Contrary to previous work, our data indicate that warm, saline water from the Mediterranean Sea reaches the high latitudes through a combination of narrow slope currents and mixing processes. At both depths under investigation, currents cross the Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge preferentially over deep gaps in the ridge, demonstrating that sea-floor topography can constrain even upper-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> circulation patterns.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25689742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25689742"><span>High connectivity of the crocodile shark between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southwest Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>: highlights for conservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331560','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331560"><span>High Connectivity of the Crocodile Shark between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Southwest Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>: Highlights for Conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>da Silva Ferrette, Bruno Lopes; Mendonça, Fernando Fernandes; Coelho, Rui; de Oliveira, Paulo Guilherme Vasconcelos; Hazin, Fábio Hissa Vieira; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Oliveira, Claudio; Santos, Miguel Neves; Foresti, Fausto</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Among the various shark species that are captured as bycatch in commercial fishing operations, the group of pelagic sharks is still one of the least studied and known. Within those, the crocodile shark, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, a small-sized lamnid shark, is occasionally caught by longline vessels in certain regions of the tropical <span class="hlt">oceans</span> worldwide. However, the population dynamics of this species, as well as the impact of fishing mortality on its stocks, are still unknown, with the crocodile shark currently one of the least studied of all pelagic sharks. Given this, the present study aimed to assess the population structure of P. kamoharai in several regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span> using genetic molecular markers. The nucleotide composition of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 255 individuals was analyzed, and 31 haplotypes were found, with an estimated diversity Hd = 0.627, and a nucleotide diversity π = 0.00167. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a fixation index ΦST = -0.01118, representing an absence of population structure among the sampled regions of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, and between the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> and Indian <span class="hlt">Oceans</span>. These results show a high degree of gene flow between the studied areas, with a single genetic stock and reduced population variability. In panmictic populations, conservation efforts can be concentrated in more restricted areas, being these representative of the total biodiversity of the species. When necessary, this strategy could be applied to the genetic maintenance of P. kamoharai. PMID:25689742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1029P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1029P"><span>Wintertime atmospheric response to <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal variability: effect of stratospheric representation and <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peings, Yannick; Magnusdottir, Gudrun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The impact of the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> multidecadal variability (AMV) on the wintertime atmosphere circulation is investigated using three different configurations of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). Realistic SST and sea ice anomalies associated with the AMV in observations are prescribed in CAM5 (low-top model) and WACCM5 (high-top model) to assess the dependence of the results on the representation of the stratosphere. In a third experiment, the role of <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere feedback is investigated by coupling CAM5 to a slab-<span class="hlt">ocean</span> model in which the AMV forcing is prescribed through <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> heat flux anomalies. The three experiments give consistent results concerning the response of the NAO in winter, with a negative NAO signal in response to a warming of the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. This response is found in early winter when the high-top model is used, and in late winter with the low-top model. With the slab-<span class="hlt">ocean</span>, the negative NAO response is more persistent in winter and shifted eastward over the continent due to the damping of the atmospheric response over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Additional experiments suggest that both tropical and extratropical SST anomalies are needed to obtain a significant modulation of the NAO, with small influence of sea ice anomalies. Warm tropical SST anomalies induce a northward shift of the ITCZ and a Rossby-wave response that is reinforced in the mid-latitudes by the extratropical SST anomalies through eddy-mean flow interactions. This modeling study supports that the positive phase of the AMV promotes the negative NAO in winter, while illustrating the impacts of the stratosphere and of the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>-atmosphere feedbacks in the spatial pattern and timing of this response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4929901','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4929901"><span>Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050051686','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050051686"><span>Enhanced <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Situational Awareness for the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Corridor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welch, Bryan; Greenfield, Israel</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Air traffic control (ATC) mandated, aircraft separations over the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, impose a limitation of traffic capacity for a given corridor. The separations result from a lack of acceptable situational awareness over <span class="hlt">oceans</span> where radar position updates are not available. This study considers the use of Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) data transmitted over a commercial satellite communications system as an approach to provide ATC with the needed situational awareness and thusly allow for reduced aircraft separations. Traffic loading from a specific day are used as a benchmark against which to compare several approaches for coordinating data transmissions from aircraft to the satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400625"><span>Resolving the abundance and air-sea fluxes of airborne microorganisms in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayol, Eva; Jiménez, María A; Herndl, Gerhard J; Duarte, Carlos M; Arrieta, Jesús M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Airborne transport of microbes may play a central role in microbial dispersal, the maintenance of diversity in aquatic systems and in meteorological processes such as cloud formation. Yet, there is almost no information about the abundance and fate of microbes over the <span class="hlt">oceans</span>, which cover >70% of the Earth's surface and are the likely source and final destination of a large fraction of airborne microbes. We measured the abundance of microbes in the lower atmosphere over a transect covering 17° of latitude in the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span> and derived estimates of air-sea exchange of microorganisms from meteorological data. The estimated load of microorganisms in the atmospheric boundary layer ranged between 6 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(7) microbes per m(2) of <span class="hlt">ocean</span>, indicating a very dynamic air-sea exchange with millions of microbes leaving and entering the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> per m(2) every day. Our results show that about 10% of the microbes detected in the boundary layer were still airborne 4 days later and that they could travel up to 11,000 km before they entered the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> again. The size of the microbial pool hovering over the North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> indicates that it could play a central role in the maintenance of microbial diversity in the surface <span class="hlt">ocean</span> and contribute significantly to atmospheric processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..775S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatGe...6..775S"><span>Slow-spreading submarine ridges in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> as a significant <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> iron source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saito, Mak A.; Noble, Abigail E.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Goepfert, Tyler J.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Jenkins, William J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Low levels of the micronutrient iron limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large areas of the global <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. The location and magnitude of <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> iron sources remain uncertain, however, owing to a scarcity of data, particularly in the deep <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. Although deep-sea hydrothermal vents along fast-spreading ridges have been identified as important contributors to the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> iron inventory, slow-spreading ridges, which contribute more than half of the submarine ridge-crest environment, are assumed to be less significant and remain relatively unexplored. Here, we present measurements of dissolved iron and manganese concentrations along a full-depth section in the South <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, running from offshore of Brazil to Namibia. We detect a large dissolved iron- and manganese-rich plume over the slow-spreading southern Mid-<span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Ridge. Using previously collected measurements of helium-3 concentrations--a tracer of hydrothermal activity--we calculate the ratio of dissolved iron to hydrothermal helium in the plume waters and find that it is 80-fold higher than that reported for plume waters emanating from faster-spreading ridges in the southeastern Pacific. Only the application of a higher ratio in global <span class="hlt">ocean</span> model simulations yields iron fluxes from these slow-spreading submarine ridges that are in line with our observations. We suggest that global iron contributions from hydrothermal vents are significantly higher than previously thought, owing to a greater contribution from slow-spreading regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875447"><span>Helminth parasites of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> <span class="hlt">Ocean</span>, Portugal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The helminth parasite fauna of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span>, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> islands and to a low density of the fish population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS51C1065P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS51C1065P"><span>Modelling the <span class="hlt">Oceanic</span> Nd Isotopic Composition With a North <span class="hlt">Atlantic</span> Eddy Permitting Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peronne, S.; Treguier, A.; Arsouze, T.; Dutay, J.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> water masses differ by their temperatures, salinity, but also a number of geochemical tracers characterized by their weak concentrations and their ability to quantify <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> processes (mixing, scavenging rates etc). Among these tracers, the Nd isotopic composition (hereafter epsilon-Nd) is a (quasi) conservative tracer of water mass mixing in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span> interior, far from any lithogenic inputs. It has been recently established that exchange of Nd at the <span class="hlt">oceanic</span> margins could be the dominant process controlling both its concentration and isotopic composition distribution in the <span class="hlt">ocean</span>. This was demonstrated using in situ measurements and