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Sample records for equi em doente

  1. Update on Streptococcus equi subsp equi infections.

    PubMed

    Mallicote, Martha

    2015-04-01

    There are few diseases that ignite as much fervor among horse owners as strangles. Streptococcus equi subsp equi (strangles) infections frequently require the treating veterinarian to manage not only the clinical cases but also the biosecurity and provision of information to all involved parties. Although the disease is typically characterized by low mortality and high morbidity, restrictions of horse movement that result from appropriate quarantine procedures often frustrate the involved parties. The aims of this article are to provide clinically relevant information for diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity management of strangles infection.

  2. Equi factors in the identification of Corynebacterium equi Magnusson.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F; Lastra, M; Barksdale, L

    1982-01-01

    The production of equi factor(s) by 173 serologically verified Corynebacterium equi isolates was tested by streaking strains at right angles to a culture of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or Staphylococcus aureus on a cattle blood agar plate. All strains produced equi factor(s). This characteristic was more specific than other tests used on the strains. Images PMID:6759534

  3. Rapid diagnosis of strangles (Streptococcus equi subspecies equi) using PCR.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Guido; Williams, Adele; Durham, Andy; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; La Ragione, Roberto M

    2015-10-01

    Strangles is one of the most common equine infectious diseases with serious health, welfare and socio-economic impact. However, the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi can be challenging and persistently infected carriers are common. Furthermore, the use of classical microbiology can result in an underestimation of the prevalence of the disease. The difficulties associated with the slow diagnosis of Strangles can result in rapid spread of the disease. Therefore, rapid and economical diagnostic tests are urgently required. Here, two multiplex assays, were developed and validated for the detection of S. equi and S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus, the most common differential diagnosis. Using 59 S. equi and 59 S. zooepidemicus strains collected from various geographical areas, the PCR tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98%. Furthermore, the assay can be performed directly from clinical swabs. Thus, the assays designed here provide a rapid, reliable and economical solution for the diagnosis of Strangles.

  4. Rhodococcus equi (Prescottella equi) vaccines; the future of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Giles, C; Vanniasinkam, T; Ndi, S; Barton, M D

    2015-09-01

    For decades researchers have been targeting prevention of Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagui/Prescottella equi) by vaccination and the horse breeding industry has supported the ongoing efforts by researchers to develop a safe and cost effective vaccine to prevent disease in foals. Traditional vaccines including live, killed and attenuated (physical and chemical) vaccines have proved to be ineffective and more modern molecular-based vaccines including the DNA plasmid, genetically attenuated and subunit vaccines have provided inadequate protection of foals. Newer, bacterial vector vaccines have recently shown promise for R. equi in the mouse model. This article describes the findings of key research in R. equi vaccine development and looks at alternative methods that may potentially be utilised.

  5. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection (strangles) in horses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Ashley

    2011-03-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (strangles) is a highly contagious upper respiratory infection in horses. The infection is transmitted by inhalation or direct contact with mucopurulent discharge from an infective animal, resulting in fever, depression, and submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph node enlargement that can lead to respiratory distress. Complications include purpura hemorrhagica and metastatic abscessation. Control of outbreaks requires strict isolation protocols and hygiene measures. Detection of carriers is essential for preventing disease recurrence on a farm.

  6. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    PubMed Central

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  7. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    PubMed Central

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi. PMID:27651677

  8. Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Equines of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    MIR, Irfan Ahmad; KUMAR, Bablu; TAKU, Anil; FARIDI, Farah; BHAT, Mohd. Altaf; BABA, Naseer Ahmad; MAQBOOL, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of β-haemolytic streptococci in equine of northern temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred and forty one samples were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of diseased (53) and apparently healthy equine (88) for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 77 isolates of streptococci were recovered from 141 samples with an overall prevalence rate of 54.60%. Out of these 77 isolates, 52 were from diseased and 25 from apparently healthy animals. Of the 77 isolates, 4 were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 56 as S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and 17 as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus the overall prevalence of S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was 2.83, 39.71 and 12.05% respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of S. equi species was found higher when attempted from direct swab samples. PMID:24834002

  9. Use of a novel serological test for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in hospitalised horses.

    PubMed

    Knowles, E J; Mair, T S; Butcher, N; Waller, A S; Wood, J L N

    2010-03-01

    Thirty horses with no external signs of strangles were tested for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S equi) using a new, commercially available serological test. The horses were also tested for persistent carriage of S equi by endoscopy of the guttural pouches and PCR analysis of lavage samples. The owners were questioned about the recent medical history of the horses. Serology suggested that four horses had been recently exposed to S equi. None of the horses had a known history of strangles but three of the four seropositive horses had recently shown non-specific signs of respiratory disease. One asymptomatic horse was positive for S equi by PCR, but none had both guttural pouch abnormalities and a positive PCR result. Ten additional horses known to have strangles were all seropositive by the serological test.

  10. Studies of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Lannergård, Jonas; Flock, Margareta; Johansson, Staffan; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Guss, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. The initiation of S. equi subsp. equi infection is likely to involve cell surface-anchored molecules mediating bacterial adhesion to the epithelium of the host. The present study describes the cloning and characterization of FNEB, a fibronectin-binding protein with cell wall-anchoring motifs. FNEB can thus be predicted as cell surface located, contrary to the two previously characterized fibronectin-binding proteins in S. equi subsp. equi, FNE and SFS. Assays of antibody titers in horses and in experimentally infected mice indicate that the protein is immunogenic and expressed in vivo during S. equi subsp. equi infection. Using Western ligand blotting, it was shown that FNEB binds to the N-terminal 29-kDa fragment of fibronectin, while SFS and FNE both bind to the adjacent 40-kDa fragment. S. equi subsp. equi is known to bind fibronectin to a much lower degree than the closely related S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus, but the binding is primarily directed to the 29-kDa fragment. Inhibition studies using S. equi subsp. equi cells indicate that FNEB mediates cellular binding to fibronectin in this species. PMID:16239519

  11. Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F

    1991-01-01

    Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images PMID:2004346

  12. Detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi using a triplex qPCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Katy; Barker, Colin; Harrison, Tihana; Heather, Zoe; Steward, Karen F.; Robinson, Carl; Newton, J. Richard; Waller, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing data for Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and zooepidemicus were used to develop a novel diagnostic triplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting two genes specific to S. equi (eqbE and SEQ2190) and a unique 100 base pair control DNA sequence (SZIC) inserted into the SZO07770 pseudogene of S. zooepidemicus strain H70. This triplex strangles qPCR assay can provide results within 2 h of sample receipt, has an overall sensitivity of 93.9% and specificity of 96.6% relative to the eqbE singlex assay and detects S. equi at levels below the threshold of the culture assay, even in the presence of contaminating bacteria. PMID:22884566

  13. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nicanor; Guevara, Jose M; Tilley, Drake H; Briceno, Jesus A; Zunt, Joseph R; Montano, Silvia M

    2013-02-01

    A 59-year-old man with a history of fever, unsteadiness, hemiparesis, motor aphasia and consciousness disturbance was hospitalized for Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis. He denied contact with farm animals, but had a practice of consuming unpasteurized goats' cheese from an uncertain source.

  14. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2013-03-23

    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines.

  15. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958

  16. The effectiveness of anti-R. equi hyperimmune plasma against R. equi challenge in thoroughbred Arabian foals of mares vaccinated with R. equi vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

  17. The effectiveness of anti-R. equi hyperimmune plasma against R. equi challenge in thoroughbred Arabian foals of mares vaccinated with R. equi vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erganis, Osman; Sayin, Zafer; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Sakmanoglu, Asli; Pinarkara, Yasemin; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Maden, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012) inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA), as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI) plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares' foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration) was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL), lung samples (CFU/gr), and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares' foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge. PMID:24982958

  18. Lineages of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi in the Irish equine industry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of ‘Strangles’ in horses. This is a debilitating condition leading to economic loss, yard closures and cancellation of equestrian events. There are multiple genotypes of S. equi ssp. equi which can cause disease, but to date there has been no systematic study of strains which are prevalent in Ireland. This study identified and classified Streptococcus equi ssp. equi strains isolated from within the Irish equine industry. Results Two hundred veterinary isolates were subjected to SLST (single locus sequence typing) based on an internal sequence from the seM gene of Streptococcus equi ssp equi. Of the 171 samples which successfully gave an amplicon, 162 samples (137 Irish and 24 UK strains) gave robust DNA sequence information. Analysis of the sequences allowed division of the isolates into 19 groups, 13 of which contain at least 2 isolates and 6 groups containing single isolates. There were 19 positions where a DNA SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) occurs, and one 3 bp insertion. All groups had multiple (2–8) SNPs. Of the SNPs 17 would result in an amino acid change in the encoded protein. Interestingly, the single isolate EI8, which has 6 SNPs, has the three base pair insertion which is not seen in any other isolate, this would result in the insertion of an Ile residue at position 62 in that protein sequence. Comparison of the relevant region in the determined sequences with the UK Streptococcus equi seM MLST database showed that Group B (15 isolates) and Group I (2 isolates), as well as the individual isolates EI3 and EI8, are unique to Ireland, and some groups are most likely of UK origin (Groups F and M), but many more probably passed back and forth between the two countries. Conclusions The strains occurring in Ireland are not clonal and there is a considerable degree of sequence variation seen in the seM gene. There are two major clades causing infection in Ireland and these strains are

  19. Protective effect of vaccination with recombinant proteins from Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in a strangles model in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Flock, M; Karlström, A; Lannergård, J; Guss, B; Flock, J-I

    2006-05-01

    A mouse model resembling Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection in the horse, strangles, was used to assess the protective effect of vaccination with selected recombinant proteins from S. equi subsp. equi. After challenge the infection was monitored by weight loss and by nasal colonisation with S. equi subsp. equi. Vaccination with a collagen-binding protein (CNE) and a collagen-like protein (SclC) resulted in protective antibodies, whereas a novel fibronectin-binding protein (FNEB) did not. Co-administration of CNE with EAG, a poorly immunogenic alpha2-macroglobulin-, albumin- and immunoglobulin G-binding protein, resulted in a significant synergistic effect and enhanced the protective immune response against EAG.

  20. Survival of Streptococcus equi on surfaces in an outdoor environment

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Jarlot, Capucine; Morley, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Management practices to prevent or control outbreaks of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi often include consideration of environment survival, but limited objective data are available. This study involved evaluation of S. equi persistence following inoculation of wood, metal, and rubber surfaces in an outdoor environment. Survival was short, ranging from < 1 to 3 d. There was no effect of rain (P = 0.33) or surface type (P = 0.95), but there was an effect of sunlight (P = 0.002). Outdoor survival of S. equi is poor, and prolonged quarantine of outdoor areas, particularly areas exposed to the sun, is probably unnecessary. PMID:19949559

  1. Isolation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi from thoroughbred horses in a racehorse-breeding area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Anzai, T; Nakanishi, A; Wada, R; Higuchi, T; Hagiwara, S; Takazawa, M; Oobayashi, K; Inoue, T

    1997-11-01

    For determination whether strangles has invaded the Hidaka district of Hokkaido, the main racehorse-breeding area of Japan, a epizootiological survey with bacterial isolation was carried out during the breeding season in 1995. Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, which is the causative agent of strangles, was isolated from two Thoroughbred horses with submandibular lymphadenitis. Isolates were identified by serological grouping, biochemical tests and analysis of cell surface proteins by Western immunoblotting. Through this survey, it revealed that S. equi subsp. equi has invaded the Hidaka district and that strangles has become prevalent in racehorse-breeding farms in this area.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of arthropod-borne apicomplexan parasites that cause disease and result in death or persistent infection represents a major challenge to global human and animal health. First described in 1901 as Piroplasma equi, this re-emergent apicomplexan parasite was renamed Babesia equi and subseq...

  3. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  4. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in horses in Israel: seroprevalence and strain types.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, S; Blum, S E; Steward, K F; Waller, A S; Steinman, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of Streptococcus equi in Israel, to monitor seropositive horses over time and to identify archived strains that were recovered from Israeli horses. A serological survey of 200 healthy horses on 20 farms throughout Israel was performed to detect recent exposure to S equi antigens A and C via indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was 9.5 per cent (19/200) and positive horses were found in 30 per cent (6/20) of the farms. Sixteen horses that returned a positive serology result were retested three and six months later. Most (12/16) positive horses remained positive, which suggests the presence of animals with persistent infection. Molecular characterisation of S equi strains by sequencing of the SeM gene of 16 archived isolates of S equi that were recovered from clinical cases of strangles between 2008 and 2012 identified two strains: SeM-2 and SeM-28. PMID:27651915

  5. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in horses in Israel: seroprevalence and strain types

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh-Levy, S.; Blum, S. E.; Steward, K. F.; Waller, A. S.; Steinman, A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of Streptococcus equi in Israel, to monitor seropositive horses over time and to identify archived strains that were recovered from Israeli horses. A serological survey of 200 healthy horses on 20 farms throughout Israel was performed to detect recent exposure to S equi antigens A and C via indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was 9.5 per cent (19/200) and positive horses were found in 30 per cent (6/20) of the farms. Sixteen horses that returned a positive serology result were retested three and six months later. Most (12/16) positive horses remained positive, which suggests the presence of animals with persistent infection. Molecular characterisation of S equi strains by sequencing of the SeM gene of 16 archived isolates of S equi that were recovered from clinical cases of strangles between 2008 and 2012 identified two strains: SeM-2 and SeM-28.

  6. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in horses in Israel: seroprevalence and strain types

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh-Levy, S.; Blum, S. E.; Steward, K. F.; Waller, A. S.; Steinman, A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of Streptococcus equi in Israel, to monitor seropositive horses over time and to identify archived strains that were recovered from Israeli horses. A serological survey of 200 healthy horses on 20 farms throughout Israel was performed to detect recent exposure to S equi antigens A and C via indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was 9.5 per cent (19/200) and positive horses were found in 30 per cent (6/20) of the farms. Sixteen horses that returned a positive serology result were retested three and six months later. Most (12/16) positive horses remained positive, which suggests the presence of animals with persistent infection. Molecular characterisation of S equi strains by sequencing of the SeM gene of 16 archived isolates of S equi that were recovered from clinical cases of strangles between 2008 and 2012 identified two strains: SeM-2 and SeM-28. PMID:27651915

  7. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in horses in Israel: seroprevalence and strain types.

    PubMed

    Tirosh-Levy, S; Blum, S E; Steward, K F; Waller, A S; Steinman, A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the seroprevalence of Streptococcus equi in Israel, to monitor seropositive horses over time and to identify archived strains that were recovered from Israeli horses. A serological survey of 200 healthy horses on 20 farms throughout Israel was performed to detect recent exposure to S equi antigens A and C via indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence was 9.5 per cent (19/200) and positive horses were found in 30 per cent (6/20) of the farms. Sixteen horses that returned a positive serology result were retested three and six months later. Most (12/16) positive horses remained positive, which suggests the presence of animals with persistent infection. Molecular characterisation of S equi strains by sequencing of the SeM gene of 16 archived isolates of S equi that were recovered from clinical cases of strangles between 2008 and 2012 identified two strains: SeM-2 and SeM-28.

  8. Detection and differentiation of wild-type and a vaccine strain of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi using pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Livengood, Julia L; Lanka, Saraswathi; Maddox, Carol; Tewari, Deepanker

    2016-07-25

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles, is an important equine pathogen. Strangles is a highly contagious disease and a commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) is used for protection, which although effective, may also result in clinical signs of the disease. A rapid means to differentiate between the MLV and wild-type infection is crucial for quarantine release and limiting the disease spread. This study describes the use of a pyrosequencing assay targeting a single nucleotide deletion upstream of the SzPSe gene to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains. A set of 96 characterized clinical specimens and isolates were tested using the assay. The assay was successful in differentiating between wild-type S. equi and the vaccine strains and in discriminating S. equi from other Streptococci. The vaccine strain was identified in 61.7% (29/47) of the strangles cases in horses with a history of MLV vaccination.

  9. Comparison of the Fibronectin-Binding Protein FNE from Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi with FNZ from S. equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Reveals a Major and Conserved Difference

    PubMed Central

    Lindmark, Hans; Nilsson, Martin; Guss, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The gene fnz from Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus encodes a cell surface protein that binds fibronectin (Fn). Fifty tested isolates of S. equi subspecies equi all contain DNA sequences with similarity to fnz. This work describes the cloning and sequencing of a gene, designated fne, with similarity to fnz from two S. equi subspecies equi isolates. The DNA sequences were found to be identical in the two strains, and sequence comparison of the fne and fnz genes revealed only minor differences. However, one base deletion was found in the middle of the fne gene and eight base pairs downstream of the altered reading frame there is a stop codon. An Fn-binding protein was purified from the growth medium of a subspecies equi culture. Determination of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and molecular mass, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed that the purified protein is the gene product of the 5′-terminal half of fne. Fn-binding activity has earlier only been found in the COOH-terminal half of FNZ. By the use of a purified recombinant protein containing the NH2 half of FNZ, we provide here evidence that this half of the protein also harbors an Fn-binding domain. PMID:11292736

  10. Localised mitogenic activity in horses following infection with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    McLean, R; Rash, N L; Robinson, C; Waller, A S; Paillot, R

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious upper respiratory disease of equids. Streptococcus equi produces superantigens (sAgs), which are thought to contribute to strangles pathogenicity through non-specific T-cell activation and pro-inflammatory response. Streptococcus equi infection induces abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck. In some individuals, some abscess material remains into the guttural pouch and inspissates over time to form chondroids which can harbour live S. equi. The aim of this study was to determine the sites of sAg production during infection and therefore improve our understanding of their role. Abscess material, chondroids and serum collected from Equidae with signs of strangles were tested in mitogenic assays. Mitogenic sAg activity was only detected in abscess material and chondroids. Our data support the localised in vivo activity of sAg during both acute and carrier phases of S. equi infection.

  11. The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Dean J; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Chanter, Neil

    2002-04-01

    Streptococcus equi is the aetiological agent of strangles, one of the most prevalent diseases of the horse. The animal suffering and economic burden associated with this disease necessitate effective treatment. Current antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and thus recent attention has focused on vaccine development. A systematic understanding of S. equi virulence, leading to the identification of targets to which protective immunity can be directed, is a prerequisite of the development of such a vaccine. Here, the virulence factors of S. equi are reviewed.

  12. Quantitative Measure of Receptor Agonist and Modulator Equi-Response and Equi-Occupancy Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rumin; Kavana, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an important class of drug targets. Quantitative analysis by global curve fitting of properly designed dose-dependent GPCR agonism and allosterism data permits the determination of all affinity and efficacy parameters based on a general operational model. We report here a quantitative and panoramic measure of receptor agonist and modulator equi-response and equi-occupancy selectivity calculated from these parameters. The selectivity values help to differentiate not only one agonist or modulator from another, but on-target from off-target receptor or functional pathway as well. Furthermore, in conjunction with target site free drug concentrations and endogenous agonist tones, the allosterism parameters and selectivity values may be used to predict in vivo efficacy and safety margins. PMID:27116909

  13. Optimization of an in vitro assay to detect Streptococcus equi subsp. equi.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Ashley G; Boston, Ray C; O'Shea, Kathleen; Young, Sheri; Rankin, Shelley C

    2012-10-12

    Streptococcus equi is the etiologic agent of a highly infectious upper respiratory disease of horses known as strangles. Bacterial culture methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyngeal washes and guttural pouch lavages are used routinely to test clinical and carrier animals for the presence of S. equi but no definitive or gold standard test method has been shown to be optimal. We hypothesized that (i) a flocked swab submerged in ten-fold serial dilution suspensions of S. equi prepared in 0.9% NaCl would detect more colony forming units (CFU) than a rayon swab when used to inoculate a blood agar plate, (ii) centrifugation of a 1 ml aliquot of each suspension would improve the limit of detection (LOD) by bacterial culture and PCR compared to the culture or PCR of submerged swab samples, (iii) PCR of the centrifuged samples from each suspension would be more sensitive than aerobic culture alone, and (iv) PCR of a 1 ml aliquot directly from a sample would be more sensitive than PCR of a sample following submersion of a flocked swab in 1 ml saline. Using 7 ten-fold serial dilutions of S. equi in 0.9% NaCl, the LOD for 4 bacterial culture methods and 3 PCR methods were compared. The LOD of direct PCR and flocked swab culture was determined at 1 cfu/ml. All PCR methods were equivalent to each other and were more sensitive than any of the culture methods at the lower dilutions. At higher cell densities (>100 cfu/ml) flocked swab culture was not statistically better than rayon swab culture, but it was superior to all other methods tested.

  14. An Adenoviral Vector Based Vaccine for Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Giles, Carla; Ndi, Olasumbo; Barton, Mary D; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a respiratory pathogen which primarily infects foals and is endemic on farms around the world with 50% mortality and 80% morbidity in affected foals. Unless detected early and treated appropriately the disease can be fatal. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent this disease. For decades researchers have endeavoured to develop an effective vaccine to no avail. In this study a novel human adenoviral vector vaccine for R. equi was developed and tested in the mouse model. This vaccine generated a strong antibody and cytokine response and clearance of R. equi was demonstrated following challenge. These results show that this vaccine could potentially be developed further for use as a vaccine to prevent R. equi disease in foals. PMID:27008624

  15. Radiological findings in nine AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wicky, S; Cartei, F; Mayor, B; Frija, J; Gevenois, P A; Giron, J; Laurent, F; Perri, G; Schnyder, P

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infections have been incidentally reported as a cause of pulmonary infection in severely immunocompromised hosts, including AIDS patients. Our purpose is to describe the radiological findings in nine AIDS patients with R. equi pneumonia assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), biopsies, cultures of sputum, and hemocultures. All patients were examined by chest radiographs and contrast-medium-enhanced chest CT. Dense pulmonary consolidations with or without cavitations accounted for the most striking radiological patterns. Chest CT also revealed six mediastinal involvements, strongly mimicking a lymphoma. Two of them had multiple bilateral pulmonary nodular opacities. Pleural effusion was not identified. Although intensive therapies were administered, seven among nine patients died within few months. In an AIDS patient living in a rural area or exposed to horses and presenting these radiological patterns, the possibility of R. equi pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis along with other infectious diseases or lymphomas. PMID:8972317

  16. An Adenoviral Vector Based Vaccine for Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Carla; Ndi, Olasumbo; Barton, Mary D.; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a respiratory pathogen which primarily infects foals and is endemic on farms around the world with 50% mortality and 80% morbidity in affected foals. Unless detected early and treated appropriately the disease can be fatal. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent this disease. For decades researchers have endeavoured to develop an effective vaccine to no avail. In this study a novel human adenoviral vector vaccine for R. equi was developed and tested in the mouse model. This vaccine generated a strong antibody and cytokine response and clearance of R. equi was demonstrated following challenge. These results show that this vaccine could potentially be developed further for use as a vaccine to prevent R. equi disease in foals. PMID:27008624

  17. Epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J F

    1987-08-01

    Current understanding of the epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infection on horse farms is reviewed. Infection is widespread in herbivores and their environment, because herbivore manure supplies the simple organic acid substrates on which the organism thrives. There is a progressive development of infection in the soil on horse farms with prolonged use, because: (1) there is a continual supply of nutrients; (2) the organism multiplies progressively as temperatures rise; (3) the bacterium has a robust nature. While this aerobic organism fails to multiply in the largely anaerobic intestine of the adult horse, multiplication to very large numbers may occur in the intestine of a foal in its first 8-12 weeks of life. Farms used for foal breeding over many years may thus become particularly dangerous for foals. Areas for future study include the effectiveness of decontamination, manure-removal programs and dust reduction in reducing challenge to susceptible foals.

  18. Survival and replication of Rhodococcus equi in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hondalus, M K; Mosser, D M

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium of macrophages that can cause serious pneumonia in both young horses and immunocompromised people. Essential to understanding rhodococcus pathogenesis is a quantitative documentation of the intracellular events that follow macrophage phagocytosis of the organism. By using a bacterial immunofluorescence staining assay, we verified the intracellular survival and replicative potential of R. equi in both murine peritoneal macrophages and equine alveolar macrophages in vitro. Following an initial lag period of 6 to 12 h, the intracellular numbers of R. equi begin to rise, often reaching macrophage-compromising levels by 48 h. A quantitative determination of bacterial growth by a novel image analysis cytometry technique confirmed our fluorescence microscopic results. By 48 h postinfection, bacterial numbers had increased by more than fivefold, and the majority of infected macrophages in the monolayer contained 10 or more bacteria per cell. The intracellular organisms were viable, as evidenced by the ability to incorporate radiolabeled uracil. The use of these techniques has identified differences in the in vitro replicative capacities of a virulent strain and an avirulent strain of R. equi. A clinical isolate of R. equi expressing a 17-kDa virulence-associated plasmid-encoded antigen was able to survive and replicate within macrophages, whereas an avirulent, non-plasmid-containing strain replicated poorly. These results suggest that plasmid-encoded bacterial virulence factors may contribute to the ability of R. equi to replicate within its host cell, the macrophage. Images PMID:7927672

  19. The Two-Component Regulatory System VicRK is Important to Virulence of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyao; McClure, Michael J; Zhu, Hui; Xie, Gang; Lei, Benfang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the importance of the two-component regulatory system VicRK to virulence of the horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and the potential of a vicK mutant as a live vaccine candidate using mouse infection models. The vicK gene was deleted by gene replacement. The ΔvicK mutant is attenuated in virulence in both subcutaneous and intranasal infections in mice. ΔvicK grows less slowly than the parent strain but retains the ability of S. equi to resist to phagocytosis by polymorphoneuclear leukocytes, suggesting that the vicK deletion causes growth defect. ΔvicK infection protects mice against reinfection with a wild-type S. equi strain. Intranasal ΔvicK infection induces production of anti-SeM mucosal IgA and systemic IgG. These results indicate that VicRK is important to S. equi growth and virulence and suggest that ΔvicK has the potential to be developed as a live S. equi vaccine. PMID:19088917

  20. IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

    2010-01-01

    The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

  1. Studies of an outbreak of Corynebacterium equi pneumonia in foals.

    PubMed

    Smith, B P; Robinson, R C

    1981-10-01

    Five out of 6 foals between 2 and 4 months old, on a ranch in northern California, developed pneumonia within a 3 week period in June and July 1978. Corynebacterium equi was recovered from each of the 5 foals by transtracheal aspiration. Clinical signs were variable but included increased respiratory rate, fever, cough, nasal discharge, harsh airway sounds over middle sized airways and wheezing over small airways. Cyanosis was present in the most severely affected foal. Radiographic findings included diffusely increased interstitial and peribronchial densities, areas of consolidation and, in 3 cases, dense focal areas indicating abscessation. Foals were treated with several different antimicrobial agents. Most were treated with penicillin and gentamicin. Four of the 5 affected foals recovered within 2 to 3 weeks but the first foal to be affected died 2 days after first receiving veterinary attention. At postmortem examination, pulmonary changes considered typical of C equi pneumonia were found, including wet, heavy dark red lungs which failed to collapse and numerous 1 to 7 cm thin-walled abscesses throughout the parenchyma, containing inspissated exudate. C equi was cultured from the exudate. Samples of soil and dust from 9 of 20 areas inhabited by infected foals yielded C equi of the same serological group as found in the foals. Eight paddocks in which foals had not been kept were negative for C equi. The organism was recovered from cobwebs in the stalls occupied by infected foals. Aerosol infection via dust was considered to be the route of infection. Pharyngeal, vaginal and faecal cultures from the dams of 3 affected foals were negative for C equi. Early diagnosis by transtracheal aspiration and appropriate therapy are considered to be extremely important in the successful treatment of C equi pneumonia. Preventive therapy should include control of environmental dust. PMID:7318800

  2. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods targeting the seM gene for detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi.

    PubMed

    Hobo, Seiji; Niwa, Hidekazu; Oku, Kazuomi

    2012-03-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) constitutes a potentially valuable diagnostic tool for rapid diagnosis of contagious diseases. In this study, we developed a novel LAMP method (seM-LAMP) to detect the seM gene of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles in equids. The seM-LAMP successfully amplified the target sequence of the seM gene at 63°C within 60 min. The sensitivity of the seM-LAMP was slightly lower than the 2nd reaction of the seM semi-nested PCR. To evaluate the species specificity of the seM-LAMP, we tested 100 S. equi and 189 non-S. equi strains. Significant amplification of the DNA originating from S. equi was observed within 60 min incubation, but no amplification of non-S. equi DNA occurred. The results were identical to those of seM semi-nested PCR. To investigate the clinical usefulness of the methods, the seM-LAMP and the seM semi-nested PCR were used to screen 590 nasal swabs obtained during an outbreak of strangles. Both methods showed that 79 and 511 swabs were S. equi positive and negative, respectively, and the results were identical to those of the culture examination. These results indicate that the seM-LAMP is potentially useful for the reliable routine diagnosis of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi infections.

  3. Control of Bovicola Equi (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) with Dimilin and Permethrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lice are wingless ectoparasitic insects that can irritate and injure their hosts and transmit pathogens. Horses and ponies can be infested with a chewing louse, Bovicola equi (Denny) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) that irritates the animals, creates skin lesions, causes hair loss, and generally redu...

  4. Recurrent Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Bacteremia in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Joshua R.; Leber, Amy; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of an infant with recurrent bacteremia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, likely transmitted from mother to infant. Our case highlights the importance of an epidemiological history and molecular diagnostics in ascertaining insights into transmission, pathogenesis, and optimal management. PMID:26179301

  5. Amblyomma cajennense is an intrastadial biological vector of theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The apicomplexan hemoprotozoan parasite Theileria equi is one of the etiologic agents causing equine piroplasmosis (EP), a disease of horses and their relatives that are endemic throughout large parts of the world. Prior to 2009 the United States had been considered to be free of this pa...

  6. In vitro activity of ponazuril against Theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The equid hemoprotozoan parasite Theileria equi is endemic in most regions worldwide. Infection of horses is a cause of significant economic loss due to costs associated with disease and restriction of trade with non-endemic nations. The ability of certain drugs such as imidocarb dipropionate to eli...

  7. Epidemiological survey of Corynebacterium equi infections on five Ontario horse farms.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J F; Travers, M; Yager-Johnson, J A

    1984-01-01

    Corynebacterium equi was cultured from manure or soil on five horse-breeding farms in Ontario at monthly intervals on three occasions during the summer of 1982. The organism was widespread. Contamination by C. equi of the loafing paddock and pasture areas was significantly greater in a farm established 30 years than in two established for four and six years and there was a significant correlation between the C. equi burden in stables, paddocks and pastures and the length of use of the five farms for horses. In all farms, numbers of C. equi in pasture soil exceeded numbers in fresh manure, suggesting that environmental multiplication of the organism might occur. A farm with an endemic C. equi pneumonia problem differed significantly from the other four farms, where disease was not endemic, in the larger number of C. equi isolated in the stable area. By contrast the farm with a C. equi pasture soil burden significantly heavier than on all other farms had no deaths due to C. equi pneumonia. There was a correlation (r = 0.78, p = 0.061) between the number of cases of C. equi pneumonia on the farms and numbers of C. equi in the area of the stables, but not on the paddocks or pastures. About two-thirds of randomly chosen isolates from the farms belonged to the three capsular serotypes most commonly found in pneumonic foals.

  8. Oral Administration of Electron-Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Failed to Protect Foals against Intrabronchial Infection with Live, Virulent R. equi.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana N; Cohen, Noah D; Bordin, Angela I; Brake, Courtney N; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C; Alaniz, Robert C; Lawhon, Sara D; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective. PMID:26828865

  9. Changes in Serum Antibody Levels after Vaccination for Strangles and after Intranasal Challenge with Streptococcus equi subsp. equi in Horses

    PubMed Central

    HOBO, Seiji; NIWA, Hidekazu; ANZAI, Toru; JONES, James H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, to evaluate the influence of strangles vaccination on serological test results, we investigated the changes in strangles serum antibody levels in horses after vaccination and subsequent intranasal challenge with S. equi. The horses were vaccinated for strangles with either a component vaccine (Group C) or a live vaccine (Group L). We measured changes in strangles serum antibody levels weekly for 20 weeks after vaccinating horses twice for strangles over a 3-week interval, and for 7 weeks after intranasal challenge with S. equi in the same horses. Serum antibody responses to the proline-glutamic acid-proline-lysine (PEPK) antigen with five repetitions (PEPK-5R) were higher at all times (up to 2.4-fold) following vaccination in Group C than in Group L, and the value peaked at 2.9-fold above the initial value after the second vaccination in Group C horses. However, the value was lower than that in horses infected with S. equi, and it gradually decreased, reaching the initial (week 0) value by the 15th week. Serum antibody responses to PEPK-5R after challenge with S. equi increased in both groups of horses, but the value tended to be lower than that reported for unvaccinated horses. In addition, the average value in Group C was 2.6-fold higher than that of Group L. These results suggest the serum antibody responses of horses infected with S. equi varies according to the type of vaccine with which they have been vaccinated. Although the serological diagnostic test for strangles in which PEPK-5R is used as an antigen is effective for the investigation of serum antibodies to strangles in vaccinated horses, the present data suggest it is necessary to consider the vaccination history when interpreting the results. PMID:24833976

  10. Efficacy of a Parapoxvirus ovis-based immunomodulator against equine herpesvirus type 1 and Streptococcus equi equi infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Ons, Ellen; Van Brussel, Leen; Lane, Stephen; King, Vickie; Cullinane, Ann; Kenna, Rachel; Lyons, Pamela; Hammond, Toni-Ann; Salt, Jeremy; Raue, Rudiger

    2014-10-10

    The efficacy of Zylexis®, an immunomodulator in horses based on inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO), was assessed using an equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) challenge model in the presence of a natural infection with Streptococcus equi equi (S. equi). Eleven horses were treated with iPPVO and twelve were kept as controls. Six horses were challenged with EHV-1 and commingled with the horses on study. Animals were dosed on Days -2, 0 (just before commingling) and Day 7. On Day 11 significantly less nasal discharge, enlarged lymph nodes, EHV-1 shedding and lower rectal temperatures were observed in the iPPVO-treated group. In addition, iPPVO-treated horses showed significantly fewer enlarged lymph nodes on Days 17 and 19, significantly less lower jaw swelling on Day 3 and significantly lower rectal temperatures on Days 12 and 13. Dyspnoea, depression and anorexia were only recorded for the control group. Following challenge seven out of 11 horses in the iPPVO treated group shed EHV-1 but on Days 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 quantitative virus detection in this group was significantly lower as compared to the controls. All animals shed S. equi but the percentage of animals with positive bacterial detection was lower in the iPPVO group than in the control group from Day 14 through Day 28. This difference was significant on Day 24. No injection site reactions or adverse events were observed. In conclusion, Zylexis administration is safe and reduced clinical signs and shedding related to both EHV-1 and S. equi infections.

  11. Changes in Serum Antibody Levels after Vaccination for Strangles and after Intranasal Challenge with Streptococcus equi subsp. equi in Horses.

    PubMed

    Hobo, Seiji; Niwa, Hidekazu; Anzai, Toru; Jones, James H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, to evaluate the influence of strangles vaccination on serological test results, we investigated the changes in strangles serum antibody levels in horses after vaccination and subsequent intranasal challenge with S. equi. The horses were vaccinated for strangles with either a component vaccine (Group C) or a live vaccine (Group L). We measured changes in strangles serum antibody levels weekly for 20 weeks after vaccinating horses twice for strangles over a 3-week interval, and for 7 weeks after intranasal challenge with S. equi in the same horses. Serum antibody responses to the proline-glutamic acid-proline-lysine (PEPK) antigen with five repetitions (PEPK-5R) were higher at all times (up to 2.4-fold) following vaccination in Group C than in Group L, and the value peaked at 2.9-fold above the initial value after the second vaccination in Group C horses. However, the value was lower than that in horses infected with S. equi, and it gradually decreased, reaching the initial (week 0) value by the 15th week. Serum antibody responses to PEPK-5R after challenge with S. equi increased in both groups of horses, but the value tended to be lower than that reported for unvaccinated horses. In addition, the average value in Group C was 2.6-fold higher than that of Group L. These results suggest the serum antibody responses of horses infected with S. equi varies according to the type of vaccine with which they have been vaccinated. Although the serological diagnostic test for strangles in which PEPK-5R is used as an antigen is effective for the investigation of serum antibodies to strangles in vaccinated horses, the present data suggest it is necessary to consider the vaccination history when interpreting the results.

  12. Antiphagocytic Function of an IgG Glycosyl Hydrolase from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Its Use as a Vaccine Component

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Margareta; Frykberg, Lars; Sköld, Markus; Guss, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    EndoSe from Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is an enzyme hydrolyzing glycosyl groups on IgG, analogous to EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes. We here show that the activity of EndoSe leads to an antiphagocytic function and may thus be a contributory factor to immune evasion of S. equi. Despite the damaging effect that EndoSe has on IgG, antibodies against EndoSe can neutralize its function. Antibodies against EndoSe restored the opsonic activity of specific opsonizing antibodies. Mice infected with either S. equi subsp. equi or subsp. zooepidemicus or S. pyogenes could be protected by vaccination with EndoSe. It is speculated that EndoSe could be a suitable vaccine candidate against streptococcal infections. PMID:22615244

  13. Rhodococcus equi Sepsis in a Renal Transplant Recipient: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Macken, Eline; de Jonge, Hylke; Van Caesbroeck, Daniël; Verhaegen, Jan; Van Kerkhoven, Dana; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Kuypers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rhodococcus equi is an unusual cause of infection in humans, but has emerged as an opportunistic pathogen among immunocompromised patients. Primary pulmonary involvement is the most common clinical presentation, although the spectrum of disease is broad. Diagnosing R. equi infections remains challenging, both from clinical and microbiological view, and no standard treatment has been established. In this report, we present a detailed case of a 57-year-old male renal transplant recipient who developed R. equi bacteremia with a concomitant Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We describe the clinical features of R. equi infections, highlight the importance of an early diagnosis, and briefly review treatment options for this rare infection. PMID:27500216

  14. Immunogenicity of an electron beam inactivated Rhodococcus equi vaccine in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bordin, Angela I; Pillai, Suresh D; Brake, Courtney; Bagley, Kaytee B; Bourquin, Jessica R; Coleman, Michelle; Oliveira, Fabiano N; Mwangi, Waithaka; McMurray, David N; Love, Charles C; Felippe, Maria Julia B; Cohen, Noah D

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals that causes severe pneumonia. To date, there is no licensed vaccine effective against R. equi pneumonia of foals. The objectives of our study were to develop an electron beam (eBeam) inactivated vaccine against R. equi and evaluate its immunogenicity. A dose of eBeam irradiation that inactivated replication of R. equi while maintaining outer cell wall integrity was identified. Enteral administration of eBeam inactivated R. equi increased interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi and generated naso-pharyngeal R. equi-specific IgA in newborn foals. Our results indicate that eBeam irradiated R. equi administered enterally produce cell-mediated and upper respiratory mucosal immune responses, in the face of passively transferred maternal antibodies, similar to those produced in response to enteral administration of live organisms (a strategy which previously has been documented to protect foals against intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi). No evidence of adverse effects was noted among vaccinated foals. PMID:25153708

  15. Immunogenicity of an Electron Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Vaccine in Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Bordin, Angela I.; Pillai, Suresh D.; Brake, Courtney; Bagley, Kaytee B.; Bourquin, Jessica R.; Coleman, Michelle; Oliveira, Fabiano N.; Mwangi, Waithaka; McMurray, David N.; Love, Charles C.; Felippe, Maria Julia B.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals that causes severe pneumonia. To date, there is no licensed vaccine effective against R. equi pneumonia of foals. The objectives of our study were to develop an electron beam (eBeam) inactivated vaccine against R. equi and evaluate its immunogenicity. A dose of eBeam irradiation that inactivated replication of R. equi while maintaining outer cell wall integrity was identified. Enteral administration of eBeam inactivated R. equi increased interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi and generated naso-pharyngeal R. equi-specific IgA in newborn foals. Our results indicate that eBeam irradiated R. equi administered enterally produce cell-mediated and upper respiratory mucosal immune responses, in the face of passively transferred maternal antibodies, similar to those produced in response to enteral administration of live organisms (a strategy which previously has been documented to protect foals against intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi). No evidence of adverse effects was noted among vaccinated foals. PMID:25153708

  16. Rhodococcus equi Sepsis in a Renal Transplant Recipient: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Macken, Eline; de Jonge, Hylke; Van Caesbroeck, Daniël; Verhaegen, Jan; Van Kerkhoven, Dana; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Kuypers, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an unusual cause of infection in humans, but has emerged as an opportunistic pathogen among immunocompromised patients. Primary pulmonary involvement is the most common clinical presentation, although the spectrum of disease is broad. Diagnosing R. equi infections remains challenging, both from clinical and microbiological view, and no standard treatment has been established. In this report, we present a detailed case of a 57-year-old male renal transplant recipient who developed R. equi bacteremia with a concomitant Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We describe the clinical features of R. equi infections, highlight the importance of an early diagnosis, and briefly review treatment options for this rare infection. PMID:27500216

  17. Immunogenicity of an electron beam inactivated Rhodococcus equi vaccine in neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Bordin, Angela I; Pillai, Suresh D; Brake, Courtney; Bagley, Kaytee B; Bourquin, Jessica R; Coleman, Michelle; Oliveira, Fabiano N; Mwangi, Waithaka; McMurray, David N; Love, Charles C; Felippe, Maria Julia B; Cohen, Noah D

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals that causes severe pneumonia. To date, there is no licensed vaccine effective against R. equi pneumonia of foals. The objectives of our study were to develop an electron beam (eBeam) inactivated vaccine against R. equi and evaluate its immunogenicity. A dose of eBeam irradiation that inactivated replication of R. equi while maintaining outer cell wall integrity was identified. Enteral administration of eBeam inactivated R. equi increased interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi and generated naso-pharyngeal R. equi-specific IgA in newborn foals. Our results indicate that eBeam irradiated R. equi administered enterally produce cell-mediated and upper respiratory mucosal immune responses, in the face of passively transferred maternal antibodies, similar to those produced in response to enteral administration of live organisms (a strategy which previously has been documented to protect foals against intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi). No evidence of adverse effects was noted among vaccinated foals.

  18. Equi-Axed Grain Formation in Electrodeposited Sn-Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandnes, E.; Williams, M. E.; Vaudin, M. D.; Stafford, G. R.

    2008-04-01

    Sn is widely used as a coating in the electronics industry because it provides excellent solderability, ductility, electrical conductivity, and corrosion resistance. However, Sn whiskers have been observed to grow spontaneously from Sn electrodeposits and are known to cause short circuits in fine-pitched pre-tinned electrical components. We report here a deposition strategy that produces an equi-axed and size-tunable grain structure in Sn-Bi alloys electrodeposited from a commercial bright Sn electrolyte. An equi-axed grain structure should allow a more uniform creep to relieve compressive stress with no localized surface disturbance. The standard potential for Bi is about 0.45 V more positive than Sn. Pulsed deposition can selectively turn on and off the Sn deposition reaction. During the off cycle, a displacement reaction between metallic Sn on the electrode surface and Bi3+ in solution selectively dissolves Sn and deposits Bi, effectively terminating the growth from the previous cycle and forcing the Sn to nucleate a new grain on the Bi-enriched surface. The grain size is tunable by varying the pulsing conditions, and an equi-axed structure can be obtained with as little as 3 at.% Bi. This surface enrichment of Bi by potential modulation is similar to that which occurs naturally in Sn-Pb, and provides an avenue for breaking up the columnar grain structure inherent to pure Sn, thus providing an additional diffusion path for Sn that may prevent whisker growth.

  19. Oral Administration of Electron-Beam Inactivated Rhodococcus equi Failed to Protect Foals against Intrabronchial Infection with Live, Virulent R. equi

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Joana N.; Cohen, Noah D.; Bordin, Angela I.; Brake, Courtney N.; Giguère, Steeve; Coleman, Michelle C.; Alaniz, Robert C.; Lawhon, Sara D.; Mwangi, Waithaka; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine that protects foals against Rhodococcus equi–induced pneumonia. Oral administration of live, virulent R. equi to neonatal foals has been demonstrated to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with virulent R. equi. Electron beam (eBeam)-inactivated R. equi are structurally intact and have been demonstrated to be immunogenic when administered orally to neonatal foals. Thus, we investigated whether eBeam inactivated R. equi could protect foals against developing pneumonia after experimental infection with live, virulent R. equi. Foals (n = 8) were vaccinated by gavaging with eBeam-inactivated R. equi at ages 2, 7, and 14 days, or gavaged with equal volume of saline solution (n = 4), and subsequently infected intrabronchially with live, virulent R. equi at age 21 days. The proportion of vaccinated foals that developed pneumonia following challenge was similar among the vaccinated (7/8; 88%) and unvaccinated foals (3/4; 75%). This vaccination regimen did not appear to be strongly immunogenic in foals. Alternative dosing regimens or routes of administration need further investigation and may prove to be immunogenic and protective. PMID:26828865

  20. Protective effects of passively transferred merozoite-specific antibodies against Theileria equi in horses with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileria equi immune plasma was infused into young horses (foals) with severe combined immunodeficiency. Although all foals became infected following intravenous challenge with homologous T. equi merozoite stabilate, delayed time-to-peak parasitemia and enhanced survival occurred. Protective effect...

  1. Detection of virulent Rhodococcus equi in exhaled air samples from naturally infected foals.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, G; Gilkerson, J R; Browning, G F

    2009-03-01

    Virulent Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. The route of infection of foals has been considered to be inhalation of aerosolized bacteria from soil that is contaminated with equine feces. Thus, disease caused by R. equi has been regarded as an opportunistic infection of environmental origin and not a contagious disease. In this study, we report the exhalation of virulent R. equi from the respiratory tract of naturally infected foals. A handheld air-monitoring system was used to recover virulent R. equi from the exhaled breath of foals, and the concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air was compared to the concentration in environmental air samples taken from the holding pens and lane areas on farms. R. equi strains carrying the vapA gene of the virulence plasmid were detected by using colony blotting and DNA hybridization techniques in cultures of exhaled air from 67% (37/55) of foals tested. The concentration of virulent R. equi organisms in exhaled air from foals was significantly higher than that in environmental air (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria exhaled by clinically healthy or diseased foals. The high concentrations of virulent R. equi bacteria in exhaled air suggested that aerosol transmission between foals is possible and may have a significant impact on the prevalence of R. equi pneumonia on farms. The air sampling technique described is potentially useful as a noninvasive method for the detection and quantification of virulent R. equi in the respiratory tract of foals.

  2. Streptococcus equi with truncated M-proteins isolated from outwardly healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Chanter, N; Talbot, N C; Newton, J R; Hewson, D; Verheyen, K

    2000-06-01

    The M-protein genes of Streptococcus equi isolated from 17 outwardly healthy horses after 4 strangles outbreaks had ended, including a quarantined animal, were compared with those of S. equi isolates from 167 active cases of strangles across 4 countries. The healthy horses included 16 persistent S. equi carriers, at least one from each of the four outbreaks. These carriers, despite being outwardly healthy, had empyema of the guttural pouch(es), an enlargement of the equine Eustachian tube. A persistent carrier from two of these outbreaks, the quarantined animal and a healthy animal with normal guttural pouches, from which S. equi was isolated only once, were colonized by variant S. equi with truncated M-protein genes (24% of outwardly healthy animals with S. equi). The truncated M-protein genes had in-frame deletions in slightly different positions between the signal sequence and the central repeat region, equivalent to approximately 20% of the mature expressed protein. Immunoblotting with antibody to recombinant M-protein confirmed that the variants expressed a truncated form of the M-protein. In contrast to the outwardly healthy S. equi carriers, only 1/167 of S. equi isolates from strangles cases possessed a truncated M-protein gene (<1%; Fisher's exact test, P=0.0002). Compared with isolates from healthy horses with a truncated M-protein, much more of the N terminus of the truncated M-protein was retained in the variant S. equi from a strangles case. Variant S. equi from outwardly healthy animals were more susceptible to phagocytosis by neutrophils in vitro than typical isolates. This is the first report of detection of S. equi with a truncated M-protein. The distribution of the variants between strangles cases and carriers suggests that the 80% of the M-protein retained in the variants may contribute to colonization whilst the deleted portion of the gene may be needed for full virulence.

  3. Combining two serological assays optimises sensitivity and specificity for the identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi exposure.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carl; Steward, Karen F; Potts, Nicola; Barker, Colin; Hammond, Toni-ann; Pierce, Karen; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Slater, Josh; Newton, J Richard; Waller, Andrew S

    2013-08-01

    The detection of anti-Streptococcus equi antibodies in the blood serum of horses can assist with the identification of apparently healthy persistently infected carriers and the prevention of strangles outbreaks. The aim of the current study was to use genome sequencing data to develop an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) that targets two S. equi-specific protein fragments. The sensitivity and specificity of the antigen A and antigen C iELISAs were compared to an SeM-based iELISA marketed by IDvet - diagnostic Vétérinaire (IDvet). Individually, each assay compromised specificity in order to achieve sufficient sensitivity (SeM iELISA had a sensitivity of 89.9%, but a specificity of only 77.0%) or sensitivity to achieve high specificity. However, combining the results of the antigen A and antigen C iELISAs permitted optimisation of both sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (99.3%), providing a robust assay for the identification of horses exposed to S. equi.

  4. Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a Novel Non-specific Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolase that has broader substrate specificity than the conventional carboxylesterases. PMID:19054107

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain S31A1, Isolated from Equine Infectious Endometritis

    PubMed Central

    Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047. PMID:24009118

  6. Rhodococcus equi hyperimmune plasma decreases pneumonia severity after a randomised experimental challenge of neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M G; Loynachan, A; Horohov, D W

    2016-03-12

    Since a vaccine is not available against Rhodococcus equi, R equi-specific hyperimmune plasma (HIP) is commonly used, although its efficacy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a commercially available HIP to prevent clinical rhodococcal pneumonia in neonatal foals after experimental challenge. PMID:26932206

  7. Rhodococcus equi Infection after Alemtuzumab Therapy for T-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Herman G.; van Assen, Sander; Leduc, Dominique; Daenen, Simon M.G.J.; Arends, Jan P.; van der Werf, Tjip S.

    2007-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, mainly known from veterinary medicine as a pathogen in domestic animals, can also cause infections in immunocompromised humans, especially in those with defects in cellular immunity. Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, causes lymphocytopenia by eliminating CD52-positive cells. We report a patient in whom Rhodococcus equi infection developed after alemtuzumab therapy. PMID:18258054

  8. Pyogenic Liver Abscess Due to Rhodococcus equi in an Immunocompetent Host

    PubMed Central

    Napoleão, Fátima; Vieira Damasco, Paulo; Ferreira Camello, Thereza Cristina; Damasceno do Vale, Márcio; Braga de Andrade, Arnaldo Feitosa; Hirata, Raphael; de Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2005-01-01

    A case of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent individual was successfully treated by combining surgery and antibiotics. The R. equi-targeted antimicrobial agents erythromycin and rifampin were used only after surgical resection of the lesion and identification of the infective organism. PMID:15695730

  9. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in the elimination of Theileria equi in experimentally infected horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a foreign animal disease in the United States. In an effort to exclude T. equi, the U.S. practices stringent serological screening of horses prior to entry. Current regulato...

  10. Molecular surveillance of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in horses from Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Slivinska, Kateryna; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Wróblewski, Zbigniew; Peťko, Branislav; Ragač, Ondrej; Demeshkant, Vitaliy; Karbowiak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-15

    A survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria equi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in some regions of Ukraine, Poland and Slovakia. Using a specific PCR assays, blood samples from 215 horses were tested. The prevalence of T. equi and A. phagocytophilum infection was 13.95% and 1.4%, respectively. BLAST analysis showed the isolates closest to the T. equi 18S rRNA and A. phagocytophilum msp4 gene sequences in GenBank with a similarity of ≥99%. No significant association was found between the T. equi PCR positivity and the age or sex of the horses. There was a significant association between the origin of horses and T. equi-PCR positivity. No significant association was found between the A. phagocytophilum-PCR positivity and the age, sex or origin.

  11. Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infection of equids in Punjab, India: a serological and molecular survey.

    PubMed

    Sumbria, Deepak; Das Singla, Lachhman; Sharma, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Submountain undulating, Undulating plain, Western and Western plain agro-climatic zones of Punjab province, India, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and associated related risk factors of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infection in equids (horses, donkey, mules). An overall prevalence of 14.14 and 0.0% of T. equi and B. caballi was recorded by multiplex polymerase chain reaction targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for both the parasites and 75 and 1.11% by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a representative sample of 180 animals. Only two animals with positive antibody titre from B. caballi and none with PCR indicated T. equi as the predominant haemoprotozoan responsible for equine piroplasmosis in the study area. Among the PCR-positive animals, presence of tick vectors in farm vicinity was the most influential associated with T. equi infection (P = 0.002; odds ratio (OR) 9.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.32-27.10). For animals with higher anti-T. equi antibody titres, strong association of sero-prevalence for T. equi was recorded with age, sex, usage, tick infestation and deworming/vaccination status of host animals and farm management strategies. The study has demonstrated the possible absence of B. caballi in both conducive and non-conducive areas of Punjab and demonstrated T. equi as the potential agent of equine piroplasmosis in Punjab.

  12. An assessment of mucosal immunisation in protection against Streptococcus equi ('Strangles') infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Wallace, F J; Emery, J D; Cripps, A W; Husband, A J

    1995-09-01

    The ability of mucosally administered antigen to provide protection against Streptococcus equi ('Strangles') infections in horses was examined. First, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the immune status of horses to S. equi. This assay was used to select Strangles-naive horses for the study and also to monitor their response to immunisation. Potential vaccine candidates were: (a) orally administered paraformaldehyde killed S. equi; (b) intraperitoneally (IP) administered paraformaldehyde killed S. equi in a non-inflammatory adjuvant; (c) orally administered live avirulent S. equi; (d) orally administered microencapsulated streptococcal M protein. The latter three preparations were first assessed in a rat model, using rate of lung bacterial clearance following intratracheal inoculation of live virulent bacteria as an indication of efficacy. Candidates (a) and (b) were then assessed in an equine model. IP immunisation of horses was shown to effectively induce production of specific antibody in mucosal and systemic sites. Four weeks after initial immunisation, horses were challenged intranasally with live virulent S. equi. Both groups of immunised horses demonstrated partial protection following vaccination. Of the IP immunised horses, only two out of four developed clinical signs of Strangles following live challenge. The orally immunised horses all developed submandibular abscesses containing S. equi. However, none of the immunised horses became as ill as the control horses in terms of fever, anorexia, loss of condition and general malaise.

  13. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T. equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response.

  14. Experimental Transmission of Ehrlichia equi to Horses through Naturally Infected Ticks (Ixodes pacificus) from Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Reubel, Gerhard H.; Kimsey, Robert B.; Barlough, Jeffrey E.; Madigan, John E.

    1998-01-01

    We report the experimental transmission of Ehrlichia equi from naturally infected Ixodes pacificus ticks to horses. Three weeks after exposure to ticks, two of three horses developed clinical signs compatible with E. equi infection, while one horse remained asymptomatic. 16S rRNA gene PCR of blood leukocyte lysates was positive for all horses at various time points; two horses seroconverted. The 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from tick-exposed horses showed more than 99% homology to corresponding fragments of the 16S rRNA genes of E. equi, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. PMID:9650983

  15. Implementing the EQUiPPED Medication Management Program at 5 VA Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Ann E.; Stevens, Melissa; Echt, Katharina V.; Hastings, S. Nicole; Powers, James; Markland, Alayne; Hwang, Ula; Hung, William; Belbis, Stephanie; Vaughan, Camille P.

    2016-01-01

    The Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged From the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED) program aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate medication prescribing to older adults at 5 VAMCs.

  16. Description of an epizootic and persistence of Streptococcus equi infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, C R; Benson, C E; Whitlock, R H; Meirs, D A; Barningham, S O; Whitehead, S C; Cohen, D

    1989-05-01

    The age-specific attack rates of Streptococcus equi infections of the upper respiratory tract and lymph nodes (strangles) in horses for the different age groups were 17.6% for broodmares, 47.5% for 1-year-old horses, and 37.5% for foals. Streptococcus equi was isolated from nasal, pharyngeal, or lymph node specimens in 31 (60.8%) of 51 sick horses. A male 1-year-old horse, shipped from Kentucky to farm A, was considered to be the index case. Six (19.4%) of 31 horses with strangles remained as shedders of S equi after clinical signs of the disease had ended. Shedders of S equi were not identified from horses that were exposed to infected horses but never developed strangles.

  17. Demographic and environmental risk factors for infection by Theileria equi in 590 horses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Zimmerman, Tal; Klement, Eyal; Lensky, Itamar M; Berlin, Dalia; Gottlieb, Yuval; Baneth, Gad

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of Theileria equi infection as well as the environmental and demographic risk factors for infection was studied in 590 healthy horses from 46 farms in Israel. The prevalence of T. equi DNA was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction for a segment of the Theileria 18S rRNA gene. The overall prevalence was 26.4% (156/590). There was a significant geographical variation in the prevalence of T. equi infection, ranging from 9.3% (25/270) in the central lowlands to 81.7% (49/60) in the Golan Heights. The prevalence of T. equi infection was found to be significantly associated with management types with more horses with access to pasture being positive. Breed was identified as a risk factor for T. equi infection in a univariate analysis with relatively high infection rates in the Quarter horse and local breeds (41.1% and 36.3% respectively), while ponies and Arabian horses had a relatively low prevalence (10% and 9.1%, respectively). However, since a correlation between geographic location and breed was found, it is difficult to draw definite conclusions regarding this risk factor. Age and gender were not found as risk factors for T. equi infection in this study. The environmental variables that were significantly associated with positivity were relative humidity and minimum land surface temperature at day which both showed negative correlation with T. equi prevalence. In conclusion, Israel was found to be enzootic for T. equi infection, as indicated by the high sub-clinical infection rate, which differed between geographical areas.

  18. Demographic and environmental risk factors for infection by Theileria equi in 590 horses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Amir; Zimmerman, Tal; Klement, Eyal; Lensky, Itamar M; Berlin, Dalia; Gottlieb, Yuval; Baneth, Gad

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of Theileria equi infection as well as the environmental and demographic risk factors for infection was studied in 590 healthy horses from 46 farms in Israel. The prevalence of T. equi DNA was assessed using a polymerase chain reaction for a segment of the Theileria 18S rRNA gene. The overall prevalence was 26.4% (156/590). There was a significant geographical variation in the prevalence of T. equi infection, ranging from 9.3% (25/270) in the central lowlands to 81.7% (49/60) in the Golan Heights. The prevalence of T. equi infection was found to be significantly associated with management types with more horses with access to pasture being positive. Breed was identified as a risk factor for T. equi infection in a univariate analysis with relatively high infection rates in the Quarter horse and local breeds (41.1% and 36.3% respectively), while ponies and Arabian horses had a relatively low prevalence (10% and 9.1%, respectively). However, since a correlation between geographic location and breed was found, it is difficult to draw definite conclusions regarding this risk factor. Age and gender were not found as risk factors for T. equi infection in this study. The environmental variables that were significantly associated with positivity were relative humidity and minimum land surface temperature at day which both showed negative correlation with T. equi prevalence. In conclusion, Israel was found to be enzootic for T. equi infection, as indicated by the high sub-clinical infection rate, which differed between geographical areas. PMID:22293151

  19. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  20. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    PubMed

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

  1. Characterization of Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Dogs▿

    PubMed Central

    Priestnall, Simon L.; Erles, Kerstin; Brooks, Harriet W.; Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Waller, Andrew S.; Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Darby, Alistair C.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Schöniger, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus has been linked to cases of acute fatal pneumonia in dogs in several countries. Outbreaks can occur in kenneled dog populations and result in significant levels of morbidity and mortality. This highly contagious disease is characterized by the sudden onset of clinical signs, including pyrexia, dyspnea, and hemorrhagic nasal discharge. The pathogenesis of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus infection in dogs is poorly understood. This study systematically characterized the histopathological changes in the lungs of 39 dogs from a large rehoming shelter in London, United Kingdom; the dogs were infected with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. An objective scoring system demonstrated that S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus caused pneumonia in 26/39 (66.7%) dogs, and most of these dogs (17/26 [65.4%]) were classified as severe fibrino-suppurative, necrotizing, and hemorrhagic. Three recently described superantigen genes (szeF, szeN, and szeP) were detected by PCR in 17/47 (36.2%) of the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates; however, there was no association between the presence of these genes and the histopathological score. The lungs of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus-infected dogs with severe respiratory signs and lung pathology did however have significantly higher mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) than in uninfected controls, suggesting a role for an exuberant host immune response in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:20861329

  2. Clinical application of a polymerase chain reaction assay in the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in a horse.

    PubMed

    Vivrette, S L; Sellon, D C; Gibbons, D S

    2000-11-01

    Diagnosis of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi can be made more rapidly by use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay than by use of conventional bacteriologic culture techniques. Use of a PCR assay aids in the differentiation between virulent and avirulent strains of R equi, and the assay may be used to identify R equi in feces and soil of breeding farms. PMID:11061388

  3. Genomic Evidence for the Evolution of Streptococcus equi: Host Restriction, Increased Virulence, and Genetic Exchange with Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Steward, Karen F.; Webb, Katy; Ainslie, Fern; Jourdan, Thibaud; Bason, Nathalie C.; Holroyd, Nancy E.; Mungall, Karen; Quail, Michael A.; Sanders, Mandy; Simmonds, Mark; Willey, David; Brooks, Karen; Aanensen, David M.; Spratt, Brian G.; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Kehoe, Michael; Chanter, Neil; Bentley, Stephen D.; Robinson, Carl; Maskell, Duncan J.; Parkhill, Julian; Waller, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A2 toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci. PMID:19325880

  4. Recombinant Streptococcus equi Proteins Protect Mice in Challenge Experiments and Induce Immune Response in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Flock, Margareta; Jacobsson, Karin; Frykberg, Lars; Hirst, Timothy R.; Franklin, Anders; Guss, Bengt; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2004-01-01

    Horses that have undergone infection caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (strangles) were found to have significantly increased serum antibody titers against three previously characterized proteins, FNZ (cell surface-bound fibronectin binding protein), SFS (secreted fibronectin binding protein), and EAG (α2-macroglobulin, albumin, and immunoglobulin G [IgG] binding protein) from S. equi. To assess the protective efficacy of vaccination with these three proteins, a mouse model of equine strangles was utilized. Parts of the three recombinant proteins were used to immunize mice, either subcutaneously or intranasally, prior to nasal challenge with S. equi subsp. equi. The adjuvant used was EtxB, a recombinant form of the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. It was shown that nasal colonization of S. equi subsp. equi and weight loss due to infection were significantly reduced after vaccination compared with a mock-vaccinated control group. This effect was more pronounced after intranasal vaccination than after subcutaneous vaccination; nearly complete eradication of nasal colonization was obtained after intranasal vaccination (P < 0.001). When the same antigens were administered both intranasally and subcutaneously to healthy horses, significant mucosal IgA and serum IgG antibody responses against FNZ and EAG were obtained. The antibody response was enhanced when EtxB was used as an adjuvant. No adverse effects of the antigens or EtxB were observed. Thus, FNZ and EAG in conjunction with EtxB are promising candidates for an efficacious and safe vaccine against strangles. PMID:15155624

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infection in equids.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Hernández, Esther; Adaszek, Lukasz; Carbonero, Alfonso; Almería, Sonia; Jaén-Téllez, Juan Antonio; Gutiérrez-Palomino, Pedro; Arenas, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on equids (horses, mules and donkeys) in Andalusia, Southern Spain, to assess the level of exposure to equine piroplasmosis and to investigate risk factors associated with these infections. At least one animal seropositive for Theileria equi and/or Babesia caballi was detected in 222/380 (58.4%) herds sampled by competitive inhibition ELISAs. The seroprevalences for B. caballi and T. equi were 13.2% and 56.1%, respectively; there was serological evidence of co-circulation of both piroplasms in 10.8% of herds. Antibodies against equine piroplasms were detected in 286/537 (53.3%) animals; 61 (11.4%) were seropositive for B. caballi, 270 (50.3%) were seropositive for T. equi and 24 (8.4%) were seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. There was a significantly higher seroprevalence of B. caballi in mules (32.1%) compared with donkeys (17.0%) and horses (7.9%), and a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. equi in mules (66.1%) in comparison with horses (48.6%), but not donkeys (47.2%). There were significant differences in prevalence of both piroplasms among locations; the seroprevalence of B. caballi ranged from 0 to 22.5%, while the seropositivity to T. equi ranged from 26.7 to 63.3%. A multiple logistic regression model indicated that the risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were increased age, presence of ticks and vaccination against other diseases. Risk factors associated with a higher seroprevalence of B. caballi were species (mules compared to horses), entry of horses in the last 6months, presence of ticks and presence of shelter. The findings indicate widespread exposure to equine piroplasmosis in Southern Spain.

  6. Identification and characterization of the heme-binding proteins SeShp and SeHtsA of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Tyler K; Liu, Mengyao; McClure, Michael J; Lei, Benfang

    2006-01-01

    Background Heme is a preferred iron source of bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is a bacterial pathogen that causes strangles in horses. Whether S. equi has a heme acquisition transporter is unknown. Results An S. equi genome database was blasted with the heme binding proteins Shp and HtsA of Streptococcus pyogenes, and found that S. equi has the homologue of Shp (designated SeShp) and HtsA (designated SeHtsA). Tag-free recombinant SeShp and SeHtsA and 6xHis-tagged SeHtsA (SeHtsAHis) were prepared and characterized. Purified holoSeShp and holoSeHtsA bind Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (heme) and Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX (hemin) in a 1:1 stoichiometry, respectively, and are designated hemoSeShp and hemiSeHtsA. HemiSeShp and hemiSeHtsAHis can be reconstituted from apoSeShp and apoSeHtsAHis and hemin. HemoSeShp is stable in air and can be oxidized to hemiSeShp by ferricyanide. HemiSeHtsA can be reduced into hemoSeHtsA, which autoxidizes readily. HemoSeShp rapidly transfers its heme to apoSeHtsAHis. In addition, hemoSeShp can also transfer its heme to apoHtsA, and hemoShp is able to donate heme to apoSeHtsAHis. Conclusion The primary structures, optical properties, oxidative stability, and in vitro heme transfer reaction of SeShp and SeHtsA are very similar to those of S. pyogenes Shp and HtsA. The data suggest that the putative cell surface protein SeShp and lipoprotein SeHtsA are part of the machinery to acquire heme in S. equi. The results also imply that the structure, function, and functional mechanism of the heme acquisition machinery are conserved in S. equi and S. pyogenes. PMID:17007644

  7. Influence of Plasmid Type on the Replication of Rhodococcus equi in Host Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Willingham-Lane, Jennifer M.; Berghaus, Londa J.; Giguère, Steeve

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes. Possession of the pVAPA-type virulence plasmid by equine isolates bestows the capacity for intramacrophage replication essential for disease development in vivo. Swine isolates of R. equi are largely unstudied. Here, we show that R. equi isolates from pigs, carrying pVAPB-type plasmids, are able to replicate in a plasmid-dependent manner in macrophages obtained from a variety of species (murine, swine, and equine) and anatomical locations. Similarly, equine isolates carrying pVAPA-type plasmids are capable of replication in swine macrophages. Plasmid swapping between equine and swine strains through conjugation did not alter the intracellular replication capacity of the parental strain, indicating that coevolution of the plasmid and chromosome is not crucial for this attribute. These results demonstrate that while distinct plasmid types exist among R. equi isolates obtained from equine and swine sources, this tropism is not determined by host species-specific intramacrophage replication capabilities. IMPORTANCE This work greatly advances our understanding of the opportunistic pathogen Rhodococcus equi, a disease agent of animals and immunocompromised people. Clinical isolates from diseased foals carry a

  8. Efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in eliminating Theileria equi from experimentally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Grause, Juanita F; Ueti, Massaro W; Nelson, Jeffrey T; Knowles, Donald P; Kappmeyer, Lowell S; Bunn, Thomas O

    2013-06-01

    Theileria equi, one of the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis, is endemic in many regions of the world but is considered a 'foreign' animal disease in the USA. In an effort to prevent the importation of T. equi, stringent serological screening of horses is practiced prior to entry to the USA. Current regulatory options available where horses are found to be infected include permanent quarantine with or without chemotherapy, repatriation, or euthanasia. Chemotherapeutics that eliminate infection and subsequently transmission risk are critical in the management of infected horses. In this study, the efficacy of the drug imidocarb dipropionate against experimental T. equi infection was assessed. Of nine horses experimentally inoculated with T. equi isolated from an animal previously imported from Peru, six were treated with imidocarb dipropionate after the resolution of the acute phase of the disease. Elimination of the parasite was demonstrated in 5/6 by nested PCR, blood transfusions to naïve horses, and reversion to seronegative status. The findings support the use of this drug as a potential treatment option in controlling outbreaks of T. equi, and also suggest that 'combination testing' using both serological and PCR detection methods are necessary to demonstrate clearance of infection. PMID:23199699

  9. High-performance DDFS design using the equi-section division method.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shiann-Shiun; Lin, Hsing-Chen; Wu, Chen-Yu

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, an equi-section division method utilizing the symmetry property and amplitude approximation of a sinusoidal waveform to design a direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) is proposed. The sinusoidal phase of a one-quarter period is divided into equi-sections. The error value between each line segment value and the sinusoidal amplitude value is stored in a read-only memory (ROM) to reconstruct the real sinusoidal waveform. The upper/lower bound of the maximum error value stored in error-compensation ROM will be derived to determine the minimum required memory wordlength relative to the bit number of the equi-sections. In addition, the minimum size of the total ROMs can be computed according to the bit number of the equi-sections. Thus, the equi-section division method is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. As a result, the total compression ratio of the DDFS using the equisection division method is superior to that of the DDFS using the traditional compression methods. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed ROM compression method can effectively achieve a better compression ratio and lower complexity, compared with the DDFS using the traditional compression methods, without affecting the spectrum performance. PMID:21156358

  10. Corynebacterium equi Infections in Horses, 1958-1984: A Review of 131 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zink, M. Christine; Yager, Julie A.; Smart, Nonie L.

    1986-01-01

    Of 131 cases of Corynebacterium equi infection in horses submitted for necropsy to the Ontario Veterinary College or Veterinary Laboratory Services, OMAF, Guelph, Ontario from 1958 to 1984, 115 were diagnosed as suppurative pneumonia, and of these 55 had associated ulcerative enterocolitis. Only five animals had intestinal involvement without pulmonary lesions. The remaining 11 cases included arthritis/cellulitis, skin abscesses and submandibular lymphadenitis. While the lung, intestine and associated lymph nodes yielded C. equi most frequently, in 21% of cases C. equi was also cultured from parenchymatous organs (spleen, liver or kidney) or blood. Corynebacterium equi infection accounted for 10% of all foals submitted for postmortem examination and 45% of all foals with pneumonia. Affected foals were one to four months of age. Submissions occurred between the months of May and August with a peak during July. There was a significantly greater prevalence of C. equi infection in Standardbreds when compared with other breeds. Of foals in this study, 36% were from farms which had had other horses succumb to this disease. Of the foals with pulmonary involvement, 21% did not have fever or clinical signs referable to the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems, findings which indicated that a large percentage of cases were subclinical. PMID:17422658

  11. Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed Central

    Lindmark, H; Jacobsson, K; Frykberg, L; Guss, B

    1996-01-01

    By screening a genomic lambda library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, we have cloned and sequenced a gene, termed fnz, encoding a fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein called FNZ. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence of FNZ, the mature protein has a molecular mass of approximately 61 kDa. Analysis of FNZ reveals a structural organization similar to that of other cell surface proteins from streptococci and staphylococci. The Fn-binding activity is localized to two domains in the C-terminal part of FNZ. One domain is composed of five repeats, which contain a motif similar to what has earlier been found in other Fn-binding proteins in streptococci and staphylococci. The first and second repeats are separated by a short stretch of amino acids, including the motif LAGESGET, which is an important part of the second Fn-binding domain. This motif is also present in an Fn-binding domain (UR) in protein F of Streptococcus pyogenes. A fusion protein covering the Fn-binding domain of FNZ inhibits the binding of the 29-kDa N-terminal fragment of Fn to cells of various streptococcal species as well as to Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:8926060

  12. SFS, a Novel Fibronectin-Binding Protein from Streptococcus equi, Inhibits the Binding between Fibronectin and Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Lindmark, Hans; Guss, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    The obligate parasitic bacterium Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a serious disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. In this study we have, using shotgun phage display, cloned from S. equi subsp. equi and characterized a gene, called sfs, encoding a protein termed SFS, representing a new type of fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein. The sfs gene was found to be present in all 50 isolates of S. equi subsp. equi tested and in 41 of 48 S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates tested. The sfs gene is down-regulated during growth in vitro compared to fnz, a previously characterized gene encoding an Fn-binding protein from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Sequence comparisons revealed no similarities to previously characterized Fn-binding proteins, but high scores were obtained against collagen. Besides similarity due to the high content of glycine, serine, and proline residues present in both proteins, there was a nine-residue motif present both in collagen and in the Fn-binding domain of SFS. By searching the Oklahoma S. pyogenes database, we found that this motif is also present in a potential cell surface protein from S. pyogenes. Protein SFS was found to inhibit the binding between Fn and collagen in a concentration-dependent way. PMID:10225899

  13. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  14. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Edlainne P; Vidotto, Odilon; Almeida, Jonatas C; Ribeiro, Luana P S; Borges, Marcos V; Pequeno, Walter H C; Stipp, Danilo T; de Oliveira, Celso J B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2016-08-01

    Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities. Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. equi infection in sports horses, even in highly endemic areas with no control of infection prior to horse competitions. PMID:27477509

  15. Equid herpesvirus 1 and rhodococcus equi coinfection in a foal with bronchointerstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ-ECIJA, Alejandro; MENDOZA, Francisco Javier; ESTEPA, José Carlos; BAUTISTA, María José; PÉREZ, José

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old foal with septic shock and severe respiratory distress was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Due to poor prognosis, the foal was euthanized. Histopathology showed lesions suggestive of Rhodococcus equi infection associated with a diffuse interstitial infiltrate of foamy macrophages and syncytial cells presenting large acidophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, fibrin exudates and hyaline membranes. Bacteriological examination from lung and respiratory exudates confirmed R. equi infection, whilst immunohistochemistry and PCR yielded a positive result for Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Several etiologies have been proposed for bronchointerstitial pneumonia in foals, although a multifactorial origin for this lesional pattern could be possible. This work is the first one describing a combined EHV-1 and R. equi infection in a foal affected with bronchointerstitial pneumonia. PMID:27264610

  16. Efficacy of alphacypermetrin pour-on against natural Werneckiella equi infestation on donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Neglia, Gianluca; Galietti, Alfredo; Rufrano, Domenico; Bassini, Andrea; Mariani, Ugo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2012-09-01

    The chewing louse Werneckiella equi is an ectoparasite of donkeys and other equids. Alphacypermethrin (ACYP) is a pyrethroid insecticide commonly used for the control of insects of veterinary and public health concerns. A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of ACYP against W. equi on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on 13 animals. On day 0, the donkeys received ACYP pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate for cattle. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. ACYP was completely effective (100 %) from day 7, until the end of the study. ACYP was well tolerated by all animals as there were no observed clinical adverse reactions. ACYP was highly effective, safe, user-friendly, and considered to be suitable for the treatment of donkeys for W. equi infestation.

  17. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    PubMed

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  18. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15-17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85-90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  19. In vitro growth inhibitory efficacy of some target specific novel drug molecules against Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Maji, C; Dahiya, R K; Suthar, A; Kumar, R; Gupta, A K; Dimri, U; Kumar, S

    2016-02-15

    The in vitro growth inhibitory efficacies of five drug molecules against Theileria equi were evaluated in in vitro cultured parasites. A continuous microaerophilic stationary-phase culture (MASP) system was established for propagation of T. equi parasites. This in vitro culture system was used to assess the growth inhibitory effect of harmaline hydrochloride dihydrate (HHD), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTAB), hesparidin methyl chalcone (HMC), andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate against T. equi. The 50% inhibitory concentration value of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, and imidocarb dipropionate for T. equi growth were 17.42 μM, 14.00 μM, 246.34 μM and 0.279 μM (equivalent to 0.139 μg/ml), respectively (P<0.05). The andrographolide was not effective in inhibiting in vitro growth of T. equi in the present study. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these five drugs was evaluated on horse PBMC. At 2000 μM concentration of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate were 8.34, 46.44, 58.53, 31.06, 15.14% cytotoxic on PBMC, respectively. Out of our four tested drug molecules, HHD was having low IC50 value along with least cytotoxicity, as compared to reference drug imidocarb dipropionate. The difference in IC50 value of HDTAB and HHD was significant, but HDTAB was moderately more cytotoxic on PBMC cell lines. HHD and HDTAB are selective inhibitor for heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and choline kinase pathway. It can be concluded that HHD and HDTAB are potential drug molecules against T. equi parasite by acting on Hsp90 and choline kinase pathway. PMID:26827852

  20. Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in five draught equine populated metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Saqib, Muhammad; Raza, Fahad; Muhammad, Ghulam; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Saleem, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul

    2014-05-28

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) caused by intraerythrocytic parasites (Theileria equi and Babesia caballi) is an emerging equine disease of world-wide distribution. In Pakistan, the prevalence and incidence of EP are unknown. In order to obtain the first insights into the prevalence of the disease, a total of 430 equids, including 33 mules, 65 horses and 332 donkeys, aging from ≤ 5 to ≥ 10 years of either sex, from five metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan, were serologically tested for the presence of antibodies directed against B. caballi and T. equi, using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Out of 430 equid serum samples tested, 226 (52.6%, 95% CI 47.7-57.4) were found cELISA positive for EP (T. equi and/or B. caballi infections). The overall seroprevalence of EP was 41.2% (95% CI 36.5-46.0) for T. equi and 21.6% (95% CI 17.8-25.8) for B. caballi. A small proportion of equids (10.2%, 95% CI 7.5-13.5) was seropositive for both T. equi and B. caballi. Seroprevalence of T. equi was significantly higher (P<0.01) in equines from the metropolis of Lahore (66.7%, 95% CI 54.3-77.6) and in horses (56.9%, 95% CI 44.0-69.2). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that factors associated with prevalence of EP were being an equine species kept in metropolis Lahore (OR=4.24, 95% CI 2.28-7.90), horse (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.53-5.20) and male equids (OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.15-2.86).

  1. Foal Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Become Activated upon Rhodococcus equi Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Flaminio, M. Julia B. F.; Nydam, Daryl V.; Marquis, Hélène; Matychak, Mary Beth; Giguère, Steeve

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility of foals to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is exclusive to the first few months of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate immunologic response of foal and adult horse antigen-presenting cells (APCs) upon infection with R. equi. We measured the activation of the antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in monocyte-derived macrophages (mMOs) and dendritic cells (mDCs) of adult horses and foals of different ages (from birth to 3 months of age) infected with virulent R. equi or its avirulent, plasmid-cured derivative. Infection with virulent or avirulent R. equi induced (P ≤ 0.01) the expression of IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNAs in foal mMOs and mDCs at different ages. This response was likely mediated by the higher (P = 0.008) expression of IRF-1 in foal mDCs at birth than in adult horse mDCs. R. equi infection promoted comparable expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 in foal and adult horse cells. The cytokine and costimulatory response by foal mDCs was not accompanied by robust MHC class II molecule expression. These data suggest that foal APCs detect the presence of R. equi and respond with the expression of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12. Nevertheless, there seems to be a limitation to MHC class II molecule expression which we hypothesize may compromise the efficient priming of naïve effector cells in early life. PMID:19109450

  2. In vitro growth inhibitory efficacy of some target specific novel drug molecules against Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Maji, C; Dahiya, R K; Suthar, A; Kumar, R; Gupta, A K; Dimri, U; Kumar, S

    2016-02-15

    The in vitro growth inhibitory efficacies of five drug molecules against Theileria equi were evaluated in in vitro cultured parasites. A continuous microaerophilic stationary-phase culture (MASP) system was established for propagation of T. equi parasites. This in vitro culture system was used to assess the growth inhibitory effect of harmaline hydrochloride dihydrate (HHD), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTAB), hesparidin methyl chalcone (HMC), andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate against T. equi. The 50% inhibitory concentration value of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, and imidocarb dipropionate for T. equi growth were 17.42 μM, 14.00 μM, 246.34 μM and 0.279 μM (equivalent to 0.139 μg/ml), respectively (P<0.05). The andrographolide was not effective in inhibiting in vitro growth of T. equi in the present study. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these five drugs was evaluated on horse PBMC. At 2000 μM concentration of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate were 8.34, 46.44, 58.53, 31.06, 15.14% cytotoxic on PBMC, respectively. Out of our four tested drug molecules, HHD was having low IC50 value along with least cytotoxicity, as compared to reference drug imidocarb dipropionate. The difference in IC50 value of HDTAB and HHD was significant, but HDTAB was moderately more cytotoxic on PBMC cell lines. HHD and HDTAB are selective inhibitor for heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and choline kinase pathway. It can be concluded that HHD and HDTAB are potential drug molecules against T. equi parasite by acting on Hsp90 and choline kinase pathway.

  3. Multiplex PCR for detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria equi in equids of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sumbria, Deepak; Singla, L D; Sharma, Amrita; Bal, M S; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-07-30

    Multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria equi in single-step reaction was optimized and employed on 108 equids (99 horses and 9 donkeys/mules) blood samples collected from two agro-climatic zones (Sub-mountain undulating zone and Undulating plain zone) of Punjab to evaluate the status of concurrent infection and associated risk factors. The amplification products of 257 and 709 bp targeting repetitive nucleotide sequence of variable surface glycoproteins of T. evansi and 18S rRNA gene of T. equi, respectively expressed high fidelity of the primer pairs with sequence homology to neighboring geographic isolates. The overall prevalence of T. evansi and T. equi was 3.7 and 1.85%, with Undulating plain zone at higher infection risk for T. equi (OR=3.24, 95% CI=0.28-83.65); and Sub-mountain undulating zone (OR=∞, 95% CI=0.25-∞) for T. evansi. Multiplex PCR revealed higher risk of infection of both T. equi (OR=6.75, 95% CI=0.58-175.38) and T. evansi (OR=2.11, 95% CI=0.05-80.36) in the farms with inappropriate management system. The risk factor associated with the type of host species had an odds ratio of 12.35 (95% CI=0.29-508.37) for donkeys/mules versus horses for T. evansi infection. This group was also at higher risk of infection with Odds ratio (OR) of 4 (95% CI=0.14-53.99) for T. equi. The current investigation brings out various commodities at risk of infection pertaining to equid trypanosomosis and theileriosis evaluated by a rapid and sensitive multiplex PCR assay.

  4. Identification of genomic loci associated with Rhodococcus equi susceptibility in foals.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Cole M; Doan, Ryan; Dindot, Scott V; Bourquin, Jessica R; Zlatev, Zlatomir Z; Chaffin, M Keith; Blodgett, Glenn P; Ivanov, Ivan; Cohen, Noah D

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of disease and death in foals. Although agent and environmental factors contribute to the incidence of this disease, the genetic factors influencing the clinical outcomes of R. equi pneumonia are ill-defined. Here, we performed independent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)- and copy number variant (CNV)-based genome-wide association studies to identify genomic loci associated with R. equi pneumonia in foals. Foals at a large Quarter Horse breeding farm were categorized into 3 groups: 1) foals with R. equi pneumonia (clinical group [N = 43]); 2) foals with ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary lesions that never developed clinical signs of pneumonia (subclinical group [N = 156]); and, 3) foals without clinical signs or ultrasonographic evidence of pneumonia (unaffected group [N = 49]). From each group, 24 foals were randomly selected and used for independent SNP- and CNV-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The SNP-based GWAS identified a region on chromosome 26 that had moderate evidence of association with R. equi pneumonia when comparing clinical and subclinical foals. A joint analysis including all study foals revealed a 3- to 4-fold increase in odds of disease for a homozygous SNP within the associated region when comparing the clinical group with either of the other 2 groups of foals or their combination. The region contains the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 2 (TRPM2) gene, which is involved in neutrophil function. No associations were identified in the CNV-based GWAS. Collectively, these data identify a region on chromosome 26 associated with R. equi pneumonia in foals, providing evidence that genetic factors may indeed contribute to this important disease of foals. PMID:24892408

  5. Identification of Genomic Loci Associated with Rhodococcus equi Susceptibility in Foals

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Cole M.; Doan, Ryan; Dindot, Scott V.; Bourquin, Jessica R.; Zlatev, Zlatomir Z.; Chaffin, M. Keith; Blodgett, Glenn P.; Ivanov, Ivan; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of disease and death in foals. Although agent and environmental factors contribute to the incidence of this disease, the genetic factors influencing the clinical outcomes of R. equi pneumonia are ill-defined. Here, we performed independent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)- and copy number variant (CNV)-based genome-wide association studies to identify genomic loci associated with R. equi pneumonia in foals. Foals at a large Quarter Horse breeding farm were categorized into 3 groups: 1) foals with R. equi pneumonia (clinical group [N = 43]); 2) foals with ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary lesions that never developed clinical signs of pneumonia (subclinical group [N = 156]); and, 3) foals without clinical signs or ultrasonographic evidence of pneumonia (unaffected group [N = 49]). From each group, 24 foals were randomly selected and used for independent SNP- and CNV-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The SNP-based GWAS identified a region on chromosome 26 that had moderate evidence of association with R. equi pneumonia when comparing clinical and subclinical foals. A joint analysis including all study foals revealed a 3- to 4-fold increase in odds of disease for a homozygous SNP within the associated region when comparing the clinical group with either of the other 2 groups of foals or their combination. The region contains the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 2 (TRPM2) gene, which is involved in neutrophil function. No associations were identified in the CNV-based GWAS. Collectively, these data identify a region on chromosome 26 associated with R. equi pneumonia in foals, providing evidence that genetic factors may indeed contribute to this important disease of foals. PMID:24892408

  6. Genome specialization and decay of the strangles pathogen, Streptococcus equi, is driven by persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Simon R.; Robinson, Carl; Steward, Karen F.; Webb, Katy S.; Paillot, Romain; Parkhill, Julian; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Waller, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide, is caused by Streptococcus equi. Despite its prevalence, the global diversity and mechanisms underlying the evolution of S. equi as a host-restricted pathogen remain poorly understood. Here, we define the global population structure of this important pathogen and reveal a population replacement in the late 19th or early 20th Century. Our data reveal a dynamic genome that continues to mutate and decay, but also to amplify and acquire genes despite the organism having lost its natural competence and become host-restricted. The lifestyle of S. equi within the horse is defined by short-term acute disease, strangles, followed by long-term infection. Population analysis reveals evidence of convergent evolution in isolates from post-acute disease samples as a result of niche adaptation to persistent infection within a host. Mutations that lead to metabolic streamlining and the loss of virulence determinants are more frequently found in persistent isolates, suggesting that the pathogenic potential of S. equi reduces as a consequence of long-term residency within the horse post-acute disease. An example of this is the deletion of the equibactin siderophore locus that is associated with iron acquisition, which occurs exclusively in persistent isolates, and renders S. equi significantly less able to cause acute disease in the natural host. We identify several loci that may similarly be required for the full virulence of S. equi, directing future research toward the development of new vaccines against this host-restricted pathogen. PMID:26160165

  7. Genome specialization and decay of the strangles pathogen, Streptococcus equi, is driven by persistent infection.

    PubMed

    Harris, Simon R; Robinson, Carl; Steward, Karen F; Webb, Katy S; Paillot, Romain; Parkhill, Julian; Holden, Matthew T G; Waller, Andrew S

    2015-09-01

    Strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide, is caused by Streptococcus equi. Despite its prevalence, the global diversity and mechanisms underlying the evolution of S. equi as a host-restricted pathogen remain poorly understood. Here, we define the global population structure of this important pathogen and reveal a population replacement in the late 19th or early 20th Century. Our data reveal a dynamic genome that continues to mutate and decay, but also to amplify and acquire genes despite the organism having lost its natural competence and become host-restricted. The lifestyle of S. equi within the horse is defined by short-term acute disease, strangles, followed by long-term infection. Population analysis reveals evidence of convergent evolution in isolates from post-acute disease samples as a result of niche adaptation to persistent infection within a host. Mutations that lead to metabolic streamlining and the loss of virulence determinants are more frequently found in persistent isolates, suggesting that the pathogenic potential of S. equi reduces as a consequence of long-term residency within the horse post-acute disease. An example of this is the deletion of the equibactin siderophore locus that is associated with iron acquisition, which occurs exclusively in persistent isolates, and renders S. equi significantly less able to cause acute disease in the natural host. We identify several loci that may similarly be required for the full virulence of S. equi, directing future research toward the development of new vaccines against this host-restricted pathogen.

  8. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15–17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85–90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  9. The Hydroxamate Siderophore Rhequichelin Is Required for Virulence of the Pathogenic Actinomycete Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Garry B.; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Aleksandra; Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Hondalus, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that the facultative intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi produces a nondiffusible and catecholate-containing siderophore (rhequibactin) involved in iron acquisition during saprophytic growth. Here, we provide evidence that the rhbABCDE cluster directs the biosynthesis of a hydroxamate siderophore, rhequichelin, that plays a key role in virulence. The rhbC gene encodes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase that is predicted to produce a tetrapeptide consisting of N5-formyl-N5-hydroxyornithine, serine, N5-hydroxyornithine, and N5-acyl-N5-hydroxyornithine. The other rhb genes encode putative tailoring enzymes mediating modification of ornithine residues incorporated into the hydroxamate product of RhbC. Transcription of rhbC was upregulated during growth in iron-depleted medium, suggesting that it plays a role in iron acquisition. This was confirmed by deletion of rhbCD, rendering the resulting strain R. equi SID2 unable to grow in the presence of the iron chelator 2,2-dipyridyl. Supernatant of the wild-type strain rescued the phenotype of R. equi SID2. The importance of rhequichelin in virulence was highlighted by the rapid increase in transcription levels of rhbC following infection and the inability of R. equi SID2 to grow within macrophages. Unlike the wild-type strain, R. equi SID2 was unable to replicate in vivo and was rapidly cleared from the lungs of infected mice. Rhequichelin is thus a key virulence-associated factor, although nonpathogenic Rhodococcus species also appear to produce rhequichelin or a structurally closely related compound. Rhequichelin biosynthesis may therefore be considered an example of cooption of a core actinobacterial trait in the evolution of R. equi virulence. PMID:22966042

  10. A potential role for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Heller, M C; Drew, C P; Jackson, K A; Griffey, S; Watson, J L

    2010-12-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of foals and immunocompromised humans that infects and proliferates within host macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the initial enzyme in the tryptophan catabolism pathway, is upregulated in R. equi infected equine monocyte-derived DC and alveolar macrophages. Tryptophan requirement of R. equi for extracellular and intracellular growth was assessed. Growth of R. equi in minimal media did not require tryptophan and pharmacologic inhibition of IDO had no effect on intracellular proliferation of R. equi in equine alveolar macrophages. To investigate an immune-regulatory role for INDO in R. equi infection, IDO(-/-) (B6.129-(Indotm1Alm)/J) (n=22) and strain matched control (C57BL/6J) (n=20) mice were infected with R. equi by intraperitoneal injection, for 3 and 6 days. There was no difference in bacterial counts in liver or spleen between the two groups. Histological sections of liver and spleen were assigned inflammation scores and RT-PCR for interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-23, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) was performed on liver and spleen. Liver tissue of IDO(-/-) had higher inflammation scores at 6 days post-infection (PI) (P=0.05) and had decreased expression of TGFβ at 3 days PI (P=0.01), and FOXP3 at 3 days (P=0.02) and 6 days (P=0.03) compared to control mice. Immunostaining for FOXP3 showed lower numbers of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in liver of IDO(-/-) mice 6 days PI. Prolonged inflammation in the liver tissue of IDO(-/-) mice corresponded with lower expression of FOXP3 and TGFβ in that tissue, and also with lower numbers of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. We conclude that IDO expression by activated macrophages and DC plays a role in dampening the inflammatory response to R. equi infection in mice.

  11. A mild form of strangles caused by an atypical Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Prescott, J F; Srivastava, S K; deGannes, R; Barnum, D A

    1982-02-01

    A mild form of strangles caused by an atypical Streptococcus equi was recognized on a large horse breeding farm. The organism differed from most S equi isolates by disappearance of the mucoid capsule by 24 hours of culture, leaving a matt-type colony. Typically, the clinical signs were a transient (24-48 hour) fever, profuse nasal discharge, and anorexia. In about half the affected animals, there was moderate mandibular lymph node enlargement, and these glands usually ruptured or were drained. The use of a passive hemagglutination antibody test showed that subclinical infection was widespread in horses on the farm.

  12. A novel method to generate unmarked gene deletions in the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi using 5-fluorocytosine conditional lethality

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; de Jong, W.; Hessels, G. I.; Grommen, A. W. F.; Jacobs, A. A. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to efficiently generate unmarked in-frame gene deletions in Rhodococcus equi was developed, exploiting the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) by the action of cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzymes. The opportunistic, intracellular pathogen R. equi is resistant to high concentrations of 5-FC. Introduction of Escherichia coli genes encoding CD and UPRT conferred conditional lethality to R. equi cells incubated with 5-FC. To exemplify the use of the codA::upp cassette as counter-selectable marker, an unmarked in-frame gene deletion mutant of R. equi was constructed. The supA and supB genes, part of a putative cholesterol catabolic gene cluster, were efficiently deleted from the R. equi wild-type genome. Phenotypic analysis of the generated ΔsupAB mutant confirmed that supAB are essential for growth of R. equi on cholesterol. Macrophage survival assays revealed that the ΔsupAB mutant is able to survive and proliferate in macrophages comparable to wild type. Thus, cholesterol metabolism does not appear to be essential for macrophage survival of R. equi. The CD-UPRT based 5-FC counter-selection may become a useful asset in the generation of unmarked in-frame gene deletions in other actinobacteria as well, as actinobacteria generally appear to be 5-FC resistant and 5-FU sensitive. PMID:18984616

  13. Effects of Administration of Live or Inactivated Virulent Rhodococccus equi and Age on the Fecal Microbiome of Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Bordin, Angela I.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Markel, Melissa E.; Weaver, Kaytee B.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Dowd, Scot E.; Pillai, Suresh; Cohen, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals. Enteral administration of live, virulent R. equi during early life has been documented to protect against subsequent intrabronchial challenge with R. equi, indicating that enteral mucosal immunization may be protective. Evidence exists that mucosal immune responses develop against both live and inactivated micro-organisms. The extent to which live or inactivated R. equi might alter the intestinal microbiome of foals is unknown. This is an important question because the intestinal microbiome of neonates of other species is known to change over time and to influence host development. To our knowledge, changes in the intestinal microbiome of foals during early life have not been reported. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether age (during the first month of life) or administration of either live virulent R. equi (at a dose reported to protect foals against subsequent intrabronchial challenge, viz., 1×1010 colony forming units [CFU]) or inactivated virulent R. equi (at higher doses, viz., 2×1010 and 1×1011 [CFU]) altered the fecal microbiome of foals. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal swab samples from 42 healthy foals after vaccination with low-dose inactivated R. equi (n = 9), high-dose inactivated R. equi (n = 10), live R. equi (n = 6), control with cholera toxin B (CTB, n = 9), and control without CTB (n = 8) were evaluated by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and by qPCR. No impact of treatment was observed among vaccinated foals; however, marked and significant differences in microbial communities and diversity were observed between foals at 30 days of age relative to 2 days of age. Conclusions The results suggest age-related changes in the fecal microbial population of healthy foals do occur, however, mucosal vaccination does not result in major changes of the fecal microbiome in foals. PMID:23785508

  14. Comparison of the sequences and functions of Streptococcus equi M-like proteins SeM and SzPSe.

    PubMed Central

    Timoney, J F; Artiushin, S C; Boschwitz, J S

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi), a Lancefield group C streptococcus, causes strangles, a highly contagious purulent lymphadenitis and pharyngitis of members of the family Equidae. The antiphagocytic 58-kDa M-like protein SeM is a major virulence factor and protective antigen. The amino acid sequence and structure of SeM has been determined and compared to that of a second, 40-kDa M-like protein (SzPSe) of S. equi and to those of other streptococcal proteins. Both SeM and SzPSe are mainly alpha-helical fibrillar molecules with no homology other than that between their signal and membrane anchor sequences and are only distantly related to other streptococcal M and M-like proteins. The sequence of SzPSe indicates that it is an allele of SzP that encodes the variable protective M-like and typing antigens of S. zooepidemicus (S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus). SeM is opsonogenic for S. equi but not for the closely related S. zooepidemicus, whereas SzPSe is strongly opsonogenic for S. zooepidemicus but not for S. equi. Both proteins bind equine fibrinogen. SeM and SzPSe proteins from temporally and geographically separated isolates of S. equi are identical in size. The results taken together support previous evidence that S. equi is a clonal pathogen originating from an ancestral strain of S. zooepidemicus. We postulate that acquisition of SeM synthesis was a key element in the success of the clone because of its effect in enhancing resistance to phagocytosis and because protective immunity entails a requirement for SeM-specific antibody. PMID:9284125

  15. Septic pleuritis and abdominal abscess formation caused by Rhodococcus equi in a foal.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Alejandro; Johnson, Jill R

    2005-09-15

    A 3-month-old female Arabian horse was evaluated because of fever, respiratory distress, lethargy, and decreased appetite of 5 days' duration. Pleural effusion was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonographic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic examination of pleural fluid collected via thoracocentesis revealed septic inflammation; bacteriologic culture of a sample of that fluid yielded Rhodococcus equi. A large intra-abdominal mass adjacent to the body wall was identified ultrasonographically. A specimen of the mass was collected via aspiration; the specimen was identified cytologically as purulent exudate that contained large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria, which confirmed abdominal abscess formation. Bacteriologic culture of a sample of the exudate also yielded R. equi. The foal was treated with azithromycin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 5 days then q 48 h) and rifampin (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for 8 weeks and metronidazole (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 3 weeks. Clinically, the foal responded to antimicrobial treatment within 2 weeks. At 8 weeks after the initial evaluation, ultrasonographic examination of the foal revealed resolution of the pleural effusion and abdominal abscess. In foals, R. equi infection typically results in pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and pleural effusion is an uncommon clinical sign. The combination of azithromycin and rifampin appears to be an effective treatment for R. equi infection in foals. PMID:16190597

  16. Comparison of three techniques for isolation of Rhodococcus (Corynebacterium) equi from contaminated sources.

    PubMed

    Barton, M D; Hughes, K L

    1981-01-01

    Inoculation of a liquid medium comprised of Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems), cycloheximide, nalidixic acid, penicillin, and potassium tellurite and subcultured onto M3 medium plus potassium tellurite was highly successful for the isolation of Rhodococcus (Corynebacterium) equi from soil. PMID:7007424

  17. Molecular detection and prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses of central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association between positivity and age group. T. equi was more prevalent in females and farming horses. This is the first report on the molecular survey of T. equi and B. caballi in central Balkan. Further prevalence studies on definitive host and vectors in this region are necessary. PMID:27078657

  18. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Theileria (Babesia) Equi Infection in Equids of Kurdistan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    HABIBI, Gholamreza; ESMAEILNIA, Kasra; HABLOLVARID, Mohammad Hasan; AFSHARI, Asghar; ZAMEN, Mohsen; BOZORGI, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the cause of persistent tick-borne infection with no symptoms, but the most important problem of EP is due to the persistent carrier state. Carrier animals to Babesia (Theileria) equi (Laveran 1901) and B. caballi (Nuttall, 1910) infestation could be identified by extremely sensitive PCR-based method. The purpose of this study was to identify the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis based on molecular and microscopic assays in equids from Kurdistan Province, Iran. Methods: Thirty one horse and mule blood samples were used with history of living in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The blood specimens were utilized for T. equi and B. caballi DNA identification by PCR and Giemsa stained smears for microscopic observation. Results: The results clearly showed the presence of B. (Theileria) equi DNA in 30 of 31 blood samples (96.77%), but the microscopic examination revealed the 3 of 31 positive Babesia like organisms in the red blood cells (9.67%). Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrated the presence of hidden B. (Theileria) equi infection in horses with previous habitance in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The carrier animals became a main source of infection and can transmit the disease. Therefore, hidden infection might be considered as a health threatening and limiting factor in animals used in therapeutic antisera research and production centers. PMID:27095973

  19. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Xie, Junren; Liu, Guangyuan; Tian, Zhancheng; Luo, Jin

    2013-09-01

    Several approaches have been developed for diagnosis of Theileria equi infection in horses and donkeys but all of them have limitations in practice. Due to numerous strengths including easy operation, cheapness and high sensitivity and specificity, LAMP has been already extensively used for surveillance of a number of diseases. We here set up a LAMP assay based on 18S rRNA gene for T. equi diagnosis. The approach was specific enough to differentiate T. equi from other evolutionary-related protozoa. Moreover, it was sensitive enough that LAMP was capable of detecting as much low as 10 copy target gene and 1 pg/μl blood genomic DNA. It was further demonstrated that LAMP was much more sensitive than canonical blood smear and comparable to PCR using test and field samples. The present results support an idea that LAMP developed in this study is reliable, reproducible and highly sensitive and specific, being a potential to be globally used for surveillance of T. equi infection in the field.

  20. Canine Strangles Case Reveals a New Host Susceptible to Infection with Streptococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Ladlow, Jane; Scase, Timothy; Waller, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We report the first documented case of canine strangles due to infection with Streptococcus equi in a dog with enlarged lymph nodes. Genetic typing, via sequencing of 12 housekeeping genes and the SeM gene, demonstrated the isolate to be a member of a common equine strain type circulating in the United Kingdom. PMID:16825410

  1. Influence of Rhodococcus equi on the respiratory burst of resident alveolar macrophages from horses

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbaugh, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is the etiologic agent of a devastating pneumonia of sporadic incidence in foals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of R. equi on the superoxide anion production, measured spectrophotometrically as the reduction of cytochrome C, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity, measured by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ liberation from /sup 14/C-1-D-glucose, of alveolar macrophages from horses. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 6 anesthetized, healthy, light-breed, adult horses by bronchoalveolar lavage. Following a randomized complete block design, the suspension of cells was divided into aliquots of 10/sup 6/ viable alveolar macrophages which were exposed to 1, 10 or 100 g. of opsonized R. equi or opsonized zymosan A at 37 C for 2 hours. In this study the respiratory burst of equine alveolar macrophages was only evidenced by the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and superoxide anion was not coincidentally produced. Rhodococcus equi did not adversely affect that response. The insignificant superoxide anion production by the alveolar macrophages suggests that this may not be a significant oxygen metabolite in those cells.

  2. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, R Z; Toledo, C Z P; Teixeira, M C A; André, M R; Freschi, C R; Sampaio, P H

    2012-05-25

    Piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognized as a serious problem of major economic importance, since the affected animals manifest loss of appetite and decreased working capacity. The present work is aimed at detecting infection or exposure of donkeys in São Paulo, Brazil to Theileria (T.) equi and Babesia (B.) caballi using molecular and serological approaches. EDTA-blood and serum samples were collected from 88 donkeys (Equus asinus). From 88 sampled donkeys, 65 (73.86%; 95% confidence interval, PI=63.41, 82.65) and 82 (93.2%; 95% confidence interval, PI=85.75, 97.46) animals showed IgG antibodies to T. equi (by ELISA) and B. caballi (by IFAT), respectively. Twenty-eight (31.81%; 95% confidence interval, PI=22.3, 42.61) and 18 (20.45%; 95% confidence interval, PI=12.6, 30.39) donkeys were positive to T. equi and B. caballi nested PCR assays, respectively. The results indicated that T. equi and B. caballi are prevalent among donkeys in Brazil.

  3. Diversion of phagosome trafficking by pathogenic Rhodococcus equi depends on mycolic acid chain length.

    PubMed

    Sydor, Tobias; von Bargen, Kristine; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Huth, Gitta; Holst, Otto; Wohlmann, Jens; Becken, Ulrike; Dykstra, Tobias; Söhl, Kristina; Lindner, Buko; Prescott, John F; Schaible, Ulrich E; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Haas, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a close relative of Mycobacterium spp. and a facultative intracellular pathogen which arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages before the late endocytic stage. We have screened a transposon mutant library of R. equi for mutants with decreased capability to prevent phagolysosome formation. This screen yielded a mutant in the gene for β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein)-synthase A (KasA), a key enzyme of the long-chain mycolic acid synthesizing FAS-II system. The longest kasA mutant mycolic acid chains were 10 carbon units shorter than those of wild-type bacteria. Coating of non-pathogenic E. coli with purified wild-type trehalose dimycolate reduced phagolysosome formation substantially which was not the case with shorter kasA mutant-derived trehalose dimycolate. The mutant was moderately attenuated in macrophages and in a mouse infection model, but was fully cytotoxic.Whereas loss of KasA is lethal in mycobacteria, R. equi kasA mutant multiplication in broth was normal proving that long-chain mycolic acid compounds are not necessarily required for cellular integrity and viability of the bacteria that typically produce them. This study demonstrates a central role of mycolic acid chain length in diversion of trafficking by R. equi. PMID:23078612

  4. Structure of the virulence-associated protein VapD from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    SciTech Connect

    Whittingham, Jean L.; Blagova, Elena V.; Finn, Ciaran E.; Luo, Haixia; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Leech, Andrew P.; Walton, Paul H.; Murzin, Alexey G.; Meijer, Wim G.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2014-08-01

    VapD is one of a set of highly homologous virulence-associated proteins from the multi-host pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The crystal structure reveals an eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel fold and a glycine rich ‘bald’ surface. Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host pathogen that infects a range of animals as well as immune-compromised humans. Equine and porcine isolates harbour a virulence plasmid encoding a homologous family of virulence-associated proteins associated with the capacity of R. equi to divert the normal processes of endosomal maturation, enabling bacterial survival and proliferation in alveolar macrophages. To provide a basis for probing the function of the Vap proteins in virulence, the crystal structure of VapD was determined. VapD is a monomer as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering. The structure reveals an elliptical, compact eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel strand topology and pseudo-twofold symmetry, suggesting evolution from an ancestral dimer. Surface-associated octyl-β-d-glucoside molecules may provide clues to function. Circular-dichroism spectroscopic analysis suggests that the β-barrel structure is preceded by a natively disordered region at the N-terminus. Sequence comparisons indicate that the core folds of the other plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins from R. equi strains are similar to that of VapD. It is further shown that sequences encoding putative R. equi Vap-like proteins occur in diverse bacterial species. Finally, the functional implications of the structure are discussed in the light of the unique structural features of VapD and its partial structural similarity to other β-barrel proteins.

  5. The Intracellular Pathogen Rhodococcus equi Produces a Catecholate Siderophore Required for Saprophytic Growth▿

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl; Prescott, John F.; Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Meijer, Wim G.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the iron acquisition systems of the soilborne facultative intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. We previously reported that expression of iupABC, encoding a putative siderophore ABC transporter system, is iron regulated and required for growth at low iron concentrations. Here we show that disruption of iupA leads to the concomitant accumulation of catecholates and a chromophore with absorption maxima at 341 and 528 nm during growth under iron-replete conditions. In contrast, the wild-type strain produces these compounds only in iron-depleted medium. Disruption of iupU and iupS, encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases, prevented growth of the corresponding R. equi SID1 and SID3 mutants at low iron concentrations. However, only R. equi SID3 did not produce the chromophore produced by the wild-type strain during growth at low iron concentrations. The phenotype of R. equi SID3, but not that of R. equi SID1, could be rescued by coculture with the wild type, allowing growth at low iron concentrations. This strongly suggests that the product of the iupS gene is responsible for the synthesis of a diffusible compound required for growth at low iron concentrations. Transcription of iupU was constitutive, but that of iupS was iron regulated, with an induction of 3 orders of magnitude during growth in iron-depleted compared to iron-replete medium. Neither mutant was attenuated in vivo in a mouse infection model, indicating that the iupU- and iupS-encoded iron acquisition systems are primarily involved in iron uptake during saprophytic life. PMID:18156254

  6. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi Isolated from a Pectoral Abscess of an Oldenburg Horse in California

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Luís C.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Graças, Diego A.; Pinheiro, Kenny C.; Silva, Andreia S. S.; Folador, Edson L.; Benevides, Leandro J.; Viana, Marcus V. C.; Carneiro, Adriana R.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Spier, Sharon J.; Edman, Judy M.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis MB20 bv. equi was sequenced using the Ion Personal Genome Machine (PGM) platform, and showed a size of 2,363,089 bp, with 2,365 coding sequences and a GC content of 52.1%. These results will serve as a basis for further studies on the pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis bv. equi. PMID:25395628

  7. Sequence Variation of the SeM Gene of Streptococcus equi Allows Discrimination of the Source of Strangles Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Charlotte; Bugg, Maxine; Robinson, Carl; Mitchell, Zoe; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Newton, J. Richard; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Waller, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Improved understanding of the epidemiology of Streptococcus equi transmission requires sensitive and portable subtyping methods that can rationally discriminate between strains. S. equi is highly homogeneous and cannot be distinguished by multilocus enzyme electrophoretic or multilocus sequence-typing methods that utilize housekeeping genes. However, on sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the SeM genes of 60 S. equi isolates from 27 strangles outbreaks, we identified 21 DNA codon changes. These resulted in the nonsynonymous substitution of 18 amino acids and allowed the assignment of S. equi strains to 15 distinct subtypes. Our data suggest the presence of multiple epitopes across this region that are subjected to selective immune pressure (nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate [dN/dS] ratio = 3.054), particularly during the establishment of long-term S. equi infection. We further report the application of SeM gene subtyping as a method to investigate potential cases of disease related to administration of a live attenuated S. equi vaccine. SeM gene subtyping successfully differentiated between the vaccine strain and field strains of S. equi responsible for concurrent disease. These results were confirmed by the development and application of a PCR diagnostic test, which identifies the aroA partial gene deletion present in the Equilis StrepE vaccine strain. Although the vaccine strain was found to be responsible for injection site lesions, all seven outbreaks of strangles investigated in recently vaccinated horses were found to be due to concurrent infection with wild-type S. equi and not due to reversion of the vaccine strain. PMID:16455902

  8. Sequence variation of the SeM gene of Streptococcus equi allows discrimination of the source of strangles outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Charlotte; Bugg, Maxine; Robinson, Carl; Mitchell, Zoe; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Newton, J Richard; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; Waller, Andrew S

    2006-02-01

    Improved understanding of the epidemiology of Streptococcus equi transmission requires sensitive and portable subtyping methods that can rationally discriminate between strains. S. equi is highly homogeneous and cannot be distinguished by multilocus enzyme electrophoretic or multilocus sequence-typing methods that utilize housekeeping genes. However, on sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the SeM genes of 60 S. equi isolates from 27 strangles outbreaks, we identified 21 DNA codon changes. These resulted in the nonsynonymous substitution of 18 amino acids and allowed the assignment of S. equi strains to 15 distinct subtypes. Our data suggest the presence of multiple epitopes across this region that are subjected to selective immune pressure (nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate [d(N)/d(S)] ratio = 3.054), particularly during the establishment of long-term S. equi infection. We further report the application of SeM gene subtyping as a method to investigate potential cases of disease related to administration of a live attenuated S. equi vaccine. SeM gene subtyping successfully differentiated between the vaccine strain and field strains of S. equi responsible for concurrent disease. These results were confirmed by the development and application of a PCR diagnostic test, which identifies the aroA partial gene deletion present in the Equilis StrepE vaccine strain. Although the vaccine strain was found to be responsible for injection site lesions, all seven outbreaks of strangles investigated in recently vaccinated horses were found to be due to concurrent infection with wild-type S. equi and not due to reversion of the vaccine strain.

  9. Molecular evidence of Theileria equi infection in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks infested on sero-positive Indian horses.

    PubMed

    Bhagwan, Jai; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Rajender; Goyal, Liza; Goel, Parveen; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    A sizeable Indian equine population is considered to be pre-immune carrier of Theileria equi infection. In this study we confirmed the presence of T. equi specific DNA in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks which were infested on sero-positive horses. Fifty two Indigenous horses were randomly selected from endemic areas and their blood and tick samples were collected. Tick salivary glands and blood samples were processed for separation of DNA and serum, respectively. Serum samples were analyzed by EMA-2ELISA and nine horses were found positive for T. equi specific antibodies. Species-specific primers were designed from EMA-2 gene of T. equi, so as to amplify 398 bp fragment in PCR. The gene fragment was amplified in PCR on the DNA samples (from blood) from these nine sero-positive horses. Corresponding six tick's DNA samples collected from these nine seropositive animals were observed positive in PCR. Further, qPCR assay demonstrated presence of T. equi DNA in infected tick's salivary glands, which was also confirmed by microscopic examination of infected acinar. This study concluded that Hyalomma anatolicum ticks infested on T. equi seropositive horses have sporozoite developmental stage in their salivary glands, which is an evidence for transmitting potential of these tick among Indian horse population.

  10. Prevalence and Acquisition of the Genes for Zoocin A and Zoocin A Resistance in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Anna-Lee D.; Simmonds, Robin S.; Gargis, Amy S.; Sloan, Gary L.

    2009-01-01

    Zoocin A is a streptococcolytic enzyme produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain 4881. The zoocin A gene (zooA) and the gene specifying resistance to zoocin A (zif) are adjacent on the chromosome and are divergently transcribed. Twenty-four S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains were analyzed to determine the genetic difference between three previously characterized as zoocin A producers (strains 4881, 9g and 9h) and the twenty-one non-producers. LT-PCR and Southern hybridization studies revealed that none of the non-producer strains possessed zooA or zif. RAPD and PFGE showed that the 24 strains were a genetically diverse population with 8 RAPD profiles. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains 9g and 9h appeared genetically identical to each other, but quite different from 4881. Sequences derived from 4881 and 9g showed that zooA and zif were integrated into the chromosome adjacent to the gene flaR. A comparison of these sequences with the genome sequences of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains H70 and MGCS10565 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047 suggests that flaR flanks a region of genome plasticity in this species. PMID:19357799

  11. The use of epifluorescence microscopy and fluorescent dyes for visualization of Oxyuris equi eggs.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hélio L; Marques, Sandra M T; Stefani, Valter

    2016-08-15

    This study presents a new method for visualization of Oxyuris equi eggs collected by means of a clear adhesive tape applied to the perianal region of horses. The obtained results indicate that this protocol permits a quick, easy, clear and selective visualization of Oxyuris equi eggs even in the presence of feces and other material. Another advantage of this method is that it can be used with fluorescent dyes solubilized in water, which will stain biologic material without dissolving or altering the adhesive tape and is also environmentally safe. Other dyes currently used for staining biologic materials use organic solvents, which may be combined with acids or bases in their formulation, preventing their use with the tape method. PMID:27514902

  12. Association between radiographic pattern and outcome in foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Steeve; Roberts, Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize the association between types of radiographic findings and outcome in foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. Admission lateral thoracic radiographs of 62 foals with culture-confirmed R. equi pneumonia were reviewed retrospectively. A scoring system was developed to individually assess the severity of alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, and the number of nodular opacities and cavitary lesions. Individual scores were added to obtain a total radiographic score ranging from 0 (normal) to 22. Forty-three of 62 foals (69%) survived to discharge. The median total radiographic score of nonsurvivors (14; range, 9-16) was significantly (P = 0.007) higher than that of survivors (11; range, 4-15). Foals with a total radiographic score of greater than or equal to 15 were 6.15 times (95% CI: 1.35 to 28.2) less likely to survive than foals with a lower score (P = 0.019). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the potential associations between specific types of radiographic lesions and outcome. The model was statistically significant (P = 0.002) and correctly classified 75.8% of foals. Only severity of alveolar pattern and number of cavitary lesions made statistically significant contributions to the model. There was no significant association between concurrent isolation of other bacteria along with R. equi and the types or severity of radiographic lesions. Based on the results of this study, severity of alveolar pattern and number of cavitary lesions are the radiographic findings significantly associated with a poor outcome in foals with R. equi pneumonia. PMID:22742474

  13. Seroepidemiological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in asymptomatic horses and donkeys from southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tel, O Y; Arserim, N B; Keskin, O

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the level of Rhodococcus equi infection in southeast Turkey, 679 sera from healthy foals and adult horses and 78 sera from donkeys were tested by indirect ELISA using a R. equi reference strain (ATCC 33701) as antigen. Eighty (11.7%) sera from horses and 9 (11.5%) sera from donkeys with titres >0.85 were positive. The prevalence of seropositive horses in Sanliurfa Province was higher than in Diyarbakir Province; 56 (13.9%) horses in Sanliurfa Province and 24 (8.7%) horses in Diyarbakir Province were defined as seropositive. In Sanliurfa Province 14.5% of female (n=343) and 10.1% of male (n = 59) horses tested were defined as seropositive, while in Diyarbakir Province more males (11.4%, n=114) were seropositive than females (6.7%, n=163). Horses 1 to 5 years of age were found to have the highest seropositivity rate in both provinces. A total of 78 sera from donkeys were investigated in Sanliurfa Province, of which 9 (11.5%) were positive by ELISA. Among the 9 positive sera, 6 (12.8%) were from donkeys 1-5 years old and 3 (13.6%) were from donkeys >5 years of age. No positive sera were found in donkeys less than 1 year old. Five (12.5%) sera of females and 4 (10.5%) sera of males tested were positive. These results indicate the existence of R. equi in the horse populations in Sanliurfa and Diyarbakir Provinces. Similar infection rates were found for donkeys in Sanliurfa. This suggests the importance of serological surveys to diagnose R. equi infection in the region and to prevent the zoonotic risk.

  14. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Bhardwaj, Rajinder Kumar; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%).

  15. Three new serotypes of Rhodococcus equi in Prescott's serotyping system - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Makrai, László; Fodor, László; Hajtós, István; Varga, János; Dénes, Béla

    2015-09-01

    Three new serotypes were found among Rhodococcus equi strains, which could not be assigned into any of the seven serotypes of Prescott's system. Fortythree R. equi strains out of 44 previously nontypable ones isolated in Hungary could be allocated into one of the three new serotypes using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The three new suggested serotypes are serotype 8 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138003), serotype 9 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138004) and serotype 10 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138005). Hyperimmune sera produced in rabbits against the new serotypes and reference strains gave precipitation only with their homologous antigens, and no crossreactions were observed. All of the previously nontypable isolates from clinical samples of horses (lung abscesses, intestinal lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes) proved to be serotype 8, while strains of serotypes 8, 9 and 10 could be isolated from nasal and rectal swabs of horses and from the soil. Serotype 9 dominated among the previously nontypable strains of swine origin. One of the previously nontypable human strains was serotype 10. This serotype was also isolated from pigs, horses and the soil. The description of the three new serotypes can help us reveal new correlations between the host species, geographical origin and serotype of R. equi isolates.

  16. A novel ROM compression architecture for DDFS utilizing the parabolic approximation of equi-section division.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shiann-Shiun; Lin, Hsing-Chen; Lin, Chi-Huei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose the parabolic approximation of equi-section division (PAESD) utilizing the symmetry property and amplitude approximation of a sinusoidal waveform to design a direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS). The sinusoidal phase of a one-quarter period is divided into equi-sections. The proposed method utilizes the curvature equivalence to derive each parabolic curve function, and then the value of the error function between each parabolic curve function and the sinusoidal function is stored in an error-compensation ROM to reconstruct the real sinusoidal waveform. The upper/lower bound of the maximum error value stored in the error-compensation ROM is derived to determine the minimum required memory word length relative to the number of bits of the equi-sections. Thus, the minimum size of the total ROMs of the DDFS using the PAESD without error-compensation ROM is compressed to 544 bits; the total compression ratio, compared with the minimum size of the total ROMs of the DDFS using the basic look-up table (LUT), is approximately 843:1, achieved by consuming additional circuits [71 adaptive look-up tables (ALUTs), 3 digital signal processor (DSP) block 9-bit elements]. Consequently, the results show that the proposed ROM compression method can effectively achieve a better compression ratio than the state-of-the-art solutions without affecting the spectrum performance of an average spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of -85 dBc.

  17. Viability of Rhodococcus equi and Parascaris equorum eggs exposed to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Laurent; Cauchard, Julien; Doligez, Pauline; Quitard, Lola; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    There is great concern about the potential pathogen contamination of horse manure compost spread in the same fields horses graze in. To ensure that pathogen destruction occurs, temperatures need to be sufficiently high during composting. Here, we investigated the survival rate of two marker organisms, Rhodococcus equi and Parascaris equorum eggs, exposed to temperatures potentially encountered during horse manure composting. Our results show that the time required to achieve a 1 log10 reduction in R. equi population (D-value) are 17.1 h (+/-1.47) at 45 degrees C, 8.6 h (+/-0.28) at 50 degrees C, 2.9 h (+/-0.04) at 55 degrees C and 0.7 h (+/-0.04) at 60 degrees C. For P. equorum eggs we show that at 45 and 50 degrees C, 2 log10 reduction of viability is reached between 8 and 24 h of incubation and that it takes less than 2 h at 55 and 60 degrees C to achieve a viability reduction of 2 log10. These results are useful for identifying composting conditions that will reduce the risk of environmental contamination by R. equi and P. equorum eggs.

  18. Disseminated rhodococcus equi infection in HIV infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R.equi infection (rhodococcosis) is regarded as an opportunistic disease, and its outcome is influenced by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Case presentation We report two cases of HIV-related rhodococcosis that disseminated despite suppressive HAART and anti-rhodococcal treatment; in both cases there was no immunological recovery, with CD4+ cells count below 200/μL. In the first case, pulmonary rhodococcosis presented 6 months after initiation of HAART, and was followed by an extracerebral intracranial and a cerebral rhodococcal abscess 1 and 8 months, respectively, after onset of pulmonary infection. The second case was characterized by a protracted course with spread of infection to various organs, including subcutaneous tissue, skin, colon and other intra-abdominal tissues, and central nervous system; the spread started 4 years after clinical resolution of a first pulmonary manifestation and progressed over a period of 2 years. Conclusions Our report highlights the importance of an effective immune recovery, despite fully suppressive HAART, along with anti-rhodococcal therapy, in order to clear rhodococcal infection. PMID:22168333

  19. A novel ROM compression architecture for DDFS utilizing the parabolic approximation of equi-section division.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shiann-Shiun; Lin, Hsing-Chen; Lin, Chi-Huei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose the parabolic approximation of equi-section division (PAESD) utilizing the symmetry property and amplitude approximation of a sinusoidal waveform to design a direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS). The sinusoidal phase of a one-quarter period is divided into equi-sections. The proposed method utilizes the curvature equivalence to derive each parabolic curve function, and then the value of the error function between each parabolic curve function and the sinusoidal function is stored in an error-compensation ROM to reconstruct the real sinusoidal waveform. The upper/lower bound of the maximum error value stored in the error-compensation ROM is derived to determine the minimum required memory word length relative to the number of bits of the equi-sections. Thus, the minimum size of the total ROMs of the DDFS using the PAESD without error-compensation ROM is compressed to 544 bits; the total compression ratio, compared with the minimum size of the total ROMs of the DDFS using the basic look-up table (LUT), is approximately 843:1, achieved by consuming additional circuits [71 adaptive look-up tables (ALUTs), 3 digital signal processor (DSP) block 9-bit elements]. Consequently, the results show that the proposed ROM compression method can effectively achieve a better compression ratio than the state-of-the-art solutions without affecting the spectrum performance of an average spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of -85 dBc. PMID:23221209

  20. Investigations towards an efficacious and safe strangles vaccine: submucosal vaccination with a live attenuated Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A A; Goovaerts, D; Nuijten, P J; Theelen, R P; Hartford, O M; Foster, T J

    2000-11-11

    As part of a search for a safe and efficacious strangles vaccine, several different vaccines and different vaccination routes were tested in foals. The degree of protection was evaluated after an intranasal challenge with virulent Streptococcus equi by clinical, postmortem and bacteriological examinations. Inactivated vaccines containing either native purified M-protein (500 microg per dose) or whole S equi cells (10(10) cells per dose) administered at least twice intramuscularly at intervals of four weeks, did not protect against challenge. Different live attenuated S equi mutants administered at least twice at intervals of four weeks by the intranasal route were either safe but not protective or caused strangles. In contrast, a live attenuated deletion mutant administered intramuscularly, induced complete protection but also induced unacceptable local reactions at the site of vaccination. Submucosal vaccination in the inner side of the upper lip with the live attenuated mutant at > or =10(8) colony-forming units per dose, appeared to be safe and efficacious in foals as young as four months of age. The submucosal vaccinations caused small transient swellings that resolved completely within two weeks, and postmortem no vaccine remnants or other abnormalities were found at the site of vaccination.

  1. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule

    PubMed Central

    TIMONEY, John F.; SUTHER, Pranav; VELINENI, Sridhar; ARTIUSHIN, Sergey C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule. PMID:25013359

  2. Serum bactericidal responses to Streptococcus equi of horses following infection or vaccination.

    PubMed

    Timoney, J F; Eggers, D

    1985-07-01

    An indirect test based on horse blood was used to study bactericidal responses of the horse to Streptococcus equi following infection or vaccination. Bactericidal antibody appeared in convalescent sera between two and four weeks and high titres were usually attained by eight weeks. Infection without clinical evidence of abscessation was also effective in eliciting strong bactericidal responses. Serum bactericidal activity of horses either recovered from strangles or immunised with commercial bacterin had declined eight months after vaccination. However, horses that developed strangles eight to 10 months after vaccination exhibited rapid and substantial increases in serum bactericidal activity. Groups of yearlings immunised with commercial S equi vaccines consisting either of M protein or bacterin developed clinical strangles within six months of vaccination although the majority of the animals had exhibited strong serum bactericidal activity a few weeks before occurrence of the disease. Similarly, a group of seven yearling ponies hyperimmunised with experimental vaccine, rich in M protein, were found to be highly susceptible to an intranasal challenge of 5 X 10(8) colony forming units of S equi, although their sera exhibited strong bactericidal activity at the time of challenge. These observations suggest that the role of serum bactericidal antibody in protection of the horse against strangles has been overrated.

  3. Control of strangles outbreaks by isolation of guttural pouch carriers identified using PCR and culture of Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Newton, J R; Verheyen, K; Talbot, N C; Timoney, J F; Wood, J L; Lakhani, K H; Chanter, N

    2000-11-01

    Previous use of repeated nasopharyngeal swabbing and culture of Streptococcus equi showed that healthy carriers developed in more than 50% of 'strangles' outbreaks. The guttural pouches were the only detectable site of S. equi colonisation on endoscopic examination of horses during one of these outbreaks and S. equi was sometimes not detected by culture of nasopharyngeal swabs from carriers for up to 2 or 3 months before nasal shedding resumed sporadically. A more sensitive way of detecting S. equi on swabs from established guttural pouch carriers was therefore required. Conveniently selected 'strangles' outbreaks were investigated in detail using endoscopy, in order to develop and assess a suitable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. We report here 3 protracted 'strangles' outbreaks on different kinds of establishments in which between 29 and 52% of sampled horses were infected as detected by culture and/or PCR. Of the infected horses, between 9 and 44% were identified as carrying S. equi after clinical signs had disappeared and the predominant site of carriage was the guttural pouch. Prolonged carriage of S. equi, which lasted up to 8 months, did not cease spontaneously before treatment was initiated to eliminate the infections. The detection and isolation of the carriers, in conjunction with strict hygiene measures, apparently resulted in the control of the outbreaks and allowed the premises to return to normal activity. Comparing PCR and culture, many more swabs were found to be positive using PCR (56 vs. 30% of 61 swabs). Similar results were obtained for guttural pouch samples from 12 established carriers (PCR 76% and culture 59%). These results from repeated samples from relatively few animals need confirming using more long-term carriers. PCR can also detect dead organisms and is, therefore, liable to yield false positive results. Despite this drawback, it is argued that PCR provides a potentially useful adjunct to culture of nasopharyngeal swabs in the

  4. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infection in horses and ixodid ticks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Vali; Razmi, Golamreza; Seifi, Hesam; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2014-04-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a hemoprotozoan tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution that is caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. However, the geographical distribution of equine piroplasmosis in Iran is unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the causative agents and vector ticks of equine piroplasmosis in horses in the North Khorasan Province. In the year 2011, 100 horses were randomly selected from 14 villages. Blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected and examined using microscopical, molecular, and serological methods. Theileria equi infection was microscopically detected in 5 (5%) of the blood smears with low parasitemia, while serum samples were tested by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies against T. equi, B. caballi, and a mixed infection were detected in 48 (48%), 2 (2%), and 3 (3%) of the serum samples, respectively. A multiplex PCR was used to detect T. equi and B. caballi DNA in blood samples. No B. caballi infections could be found, but Theileria equi DNA was detected in 45 (45%) of the blood samples, and a BLAST analysis of the sequenced samples indicated a 99% similarity with T. equi 18S rRNA gene sequences in GenBank. Both molecular and serological results did not identify any significant association between T. equi infection and risk factors. A comparision of the results of 3 diagnostic methods demonstrated a poor agreement between microscopical examination with IFAT and PCR and a moderate agreement between IFAT and PCR. Thirty-seven adult ticks (20 females and 17 males) were collected from 15 horses. The most common tick was Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (n=19), followed by Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (n=10), Rhipicephalus bursa (n=4), Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n=3), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n=1). The salivary glands and ovaries were also examined using PCR. The genomic DNA samples of the salivary glands of 3 ticks, H. a. excavatum (n=2) and R. bursa (n=1), had a

  5. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M.C.; Takai, S.; Leite, D.S.; Pinto, J.P.A.N.; Brandão, P.E.; Santarém, V.A.; Listoni, F.J.P.; Da Silva, A.V.; Ribeiro, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus), parasitic (Toxocara spp.) and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi) origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5%) strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene) or intermediately virulent (vapB gene) profiles. Sixty-three (31.5%) strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%), A (25.4%) and B2 (22.2%). No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places. PMID:24294244

  6. Characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of wild boars (Sus scrofa), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    PubMed

    Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Cisek, Agata A; Stefańska, Ilona; Chrobak, Dorota; Stefaniuk, Elżbieta; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a soil saprophyte and an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in animals, and rarely in humans. The presence of R. equi in tissues and faeces of some wild animal species was demonstrated previously. In this study we characterized R. equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of free-living wild boars (n=23), red deer (n=2) and roe deer (n=2). This is the first description of R. equi strains isolated from tissues of the Cervidae. All isolates were initially recognized as R. equi based on the phenotypic properties. Their identification was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, detection of the choE gene and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The presence of three plasmidic genes (traA, vapA and vapB) associated with R. equi virulence was investigated by PCR. In 16 wild boar isolates the traA and vapB genes were detected and they were located on virulence plasmids type 5, 7 or 11. The isolates from cervids and the remaining wild boar isolates were classified as avirulent based on a genotype traA(-)/vapA(-)B(-). In summary, these results confirm that wild boars can be a source of intermediately virulent R. equi strains, and indicate that red deer and roe deer can be a reservoir of avirulent R. equi strains. PMID:24878324

  7. Tracing outbreaks of Streptococcus equi infection (strangles) in horses using sequence variation in the seM gene and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Susanne; Söderlund, Robert; Frosth, Sara; Pringle, John; Båverud, Viveca; Aspán, Anna

    2011-11-21

    Strangles is a serious respiratory disease in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). Transmission of the disease occurs by direct contact with an infected horse or contaminated equipment. Genetically, S. equi strains are highly homogenous and differentiation of strains has proven difficult. However, the S. equi M-protein SeM contains a variable N-terminal region and has been proposed as a target gene to distinguish between different strains of S. equi and determine the source of an outbreak. In this study, strains of S. equi (n=60) from 32 strangles outbreaks in Sweden during 1998-2003 and 2008-2009 were genetically characterized by sequencing the SeM protein gene (seM), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Swedish strains belonged to 10 different seM types, of which five have not previously been described. Most were identical or highly similar to allele types from strangles outbreaks in the UK. Outbreaks in 2008/2009 sharing the same seM type were associated by geographic location and/or type of usage of the horses (racing stables). Sequencing of the seM gene generally agreed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Our data suggest that seM sequencing as a epidemiological tool is supported by the agreement between seM and PFGE and that sequencing of the SeM protein gene is more sensitive than PFGE in discriminating strains of S. equi.

  8. Prevalence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi in horses and associated risk factors in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Libardoni, Felipe; Machado, Gustavo; Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; Kowalski, Ananda Paula; Diehl, Gustavo Nogueira; dos Santos, Lucila Carboneiro; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine strangles and to identify associated risk factors for this disease through a cross-sectional study of nasal swabs. Nasal swabs (n=1010) from healthy equines (absence of nasal discharge, lymphadenopathy and cough) from 341 farms were plated on 5% blood agar; of these horses, 24 were identified as positive for Streptococcus equi through isolation, PCR and DNA sequencing. The estimated prevalence for individual animals was 2.3%, and for herds, it was 5.86%. Statistical analysis identified the following as associated risk factors: the number of group events that were attended by the equines (PR: 1.06); the sharing of food containers (PR: 3.74); and at least one previous positive diagnosis of strangles on the farm (PR: 3.20). These results constitute an epidemiological contribution to the horse industry and may support measures for the future control of the disease.

  9. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2016-01-01

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool – Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) – which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). PMID:26927591

  10. Contribution of Each of Four Superantigens to Streptococcus equi-Induced Mitogenicity, Gamma Interferon Synthesis, and Immunity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Robinson, Carl; Steward, Karen; Wright, Nicola; Jourdan, Thibaud; Butcher, Nicola; Heather, Zoe; Waller, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of strangles, the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide. The disease is characterized by abscessation and swelling of the lymph nodes of the head and neck, which can literally strangle the horse to death. S. equi produces four recently acquired phage-associated bacterial superantigens (sAgs; SeeH, SeeI, SeeL, and SeeM) that share homology with the mitogenic toxins of Streptococcus pyogenes. The aim of this study was to characterize the contribution of each of these S. equi sAgs to mitogenic activity in vitro and quantify the sAg-neutralizing capacity of sera from naturally infected horses in order to better understand their role in pathogenicity. Each of the sAgs was successfully cloned, and soluble proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. SeeI, SeeL, and SeeM induced a dose-dependent proliferative response in equine CD4 T lymphocytes and synthesis of gamma interferon (IFN-γ). SeeH did not stimulate equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but induced proliferation of asinine PBMC. Allelic replacement mutants of S. equi strain 4047 with sequential deletion of the superantigen genes were generated. Deletion of seeI, seeL, and seeM completely abrogated the mitogenic activity and synthesis of IFN-γ, in equine PBMC, of the strain 4047 culture supernatant. Sera from naturally infected convalescent horses had only limited sAg-neutralizing activities. We propose that S. equi sAgs play an important role in S. equi pathogenicity by stimulating an overzealous and inappropriate Th1 response that may interfere with the development of an effective immune response. PMID:20123710

  11. Vaccination with a live multi-gene deletion strain protects horses against virulent challenge with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Carl; Heather, Zoe; Slater, Josh; Potts, Nicola; Steward, Karen F; Maskell, Duncan J; Fontaine, Michael C; Lee, Jeong-Jin; Smith, Ken; Waller, Andrew S

    2015-02-25

    Strangles, caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses and there remains a significant need to develop new preventative vaccines. We generated a live vaccine strain of S. equi containing deletions in six genes: sagA, hasA, aroB, pyrC, seM and recA, which was administered to nine Welsh mountain ponies via the intramuscular route. Four vaccinated ponies developed adverse reactions following the first vaccination from which the live vaccine strain was isolated. Two of these ponies were withdrawn from the study and seven ponies received a second vaccination, one of which then developed an adverse reaction. Nine control ponies injected with culture media alone developed no adverse reactions. Following challenge with a virulent strain of S. equi, none of the seven vaccinated ponies had developed clinical signs of strangles eleven days post-challenge, compared to six of nine control ponies over the same period (P=0.0114). A lymph node abscess was identified in one of the seven vaccinated ponies at post-mortem examination, whilst all nine control ponies had at least one lymph node abscess (P=0.0009). Three of the six vaccinated ponies that were protected from strangles had not developed an adverse reaction following vaccination, suggesting that a better understanding of the pro-inflammatory responses to S. equi could lead to the development of a live attenuated vaccine against strangles that is safe for administration via intramuscular injection.

  12. Affects of N-terminal variation in the SeM protein of Streptococcus equi on antibody and fibrinogen binding.

    PubMed

    Timoney, John F; DeNegri, Rafaela; Sheoran, Abhineet; Forster, Nathalie

    2010-02-10

    The clonal Streptococcus equi causes equine strangles, a highly contagious suppurative lymphadenopathy and rhinopharyngitis. An important virulence factor and vaccine component, the antiphagocytic fibrinogen binding SeM of S. equi is a surface anchored fibrillar protein. Two recent studies of N. American, Japanese and European isolates have revealed a high frequency of N-terminal amino acid variation in SeM of S. equi CF32 that suggests this region of the protein is subject to immunologic selection pressure. The aims of the present study were firstly to map regions of SeM reactive with convalescent equine IgG and IgA and stimulatory for lymph node cells and secondly to determine effects of N-terminal variation on the functionality of SeM. Variation did not significantly affect fibrinogen binding or susceptibility of S. equi to an opsonic equine serum. Linear epitopes reactive with convalescent IgG and mucosal IgA were concentrated toward the conserved center of SeM. However, IgA but not IgG from every horse reacted with at least one peptide that contained variable sequence. Lymph node cells (CD4+) from horses immunized with SeM were strongly responsive to a peptide (alphaalpha36-138) encoding the entire variable region. SeM (CF32) specific mouse Mab 04D11 which reacted strongly with this larger peptide but not with shorter peptides within that sequence reacted strongly with whole cells of S. equi CF32 but only weakly with cells of any of 14 isolates of S. equi expressing different variants of SeM. These results in combination suggest that N-terminal variation alters a conformational epitope of significance in mucosal IgA and systemic T cell responses but does not affect antibody mediated phagocytosis and killing.

  13. Age-Related Changes following In Vitro Stimulation with Rhodococcus equi of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Seabury, Ashley G.; Liu, Mei; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium primarily known as an equine pathogen that infects young foals causing a pyogranulomatuous pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms mediating the immune response of foals to R. equi are not fully elucidated. Hence, global genomic high-throughput tools like gene expression microarrays might identify age-related gene expression signatures and molecular pathways that contribute to the immune mechanisms underlying the inherent susceptibility of foals to disease caused by R. equi. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to compare the expression profiles at specific ages of blood leukocytes from foals stimulated with virulent R. equi with those of unstimulated leukocytes; and, 2) to characterize the age-related changes in the gene expression profile associated with blood leukocytes in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 6 foals within 24 hours (h) of birth (day 1) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after birth. The samples were split, such that half were stimulated with live virulent R. equi, and the other half served as unstimulated control. RNA was extracted and the generated cDNA was labeled with fluorescent dyes for microarray hybridizations using an equine microarray. Our findings suggest that there is age-related differential expression of genes involved in host immune response and immunity. We found induction of genes critical for host immunity against pathogens (MHC class II) only at the later time-points (compared to birth). While it appears that foals up to 8-weeks of age are able to initiate a protective inflammatory response against the bacteria, relatively decreased expression of various other immune-related genes points toward inherent diminished immune responses closer to birth. These genes and pathways may contribute to disease susceptibility in foals if infected early in life, and might thus be targeted for developing preventative or therapeutic strategies. PMID

  14. Alternation rate in perceptual bistability is maximal at and symmetric around equi-dominance.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Shpiro, Asya; Rinzel, John; Rubin, Nava

    2010-01-01

    When an ambiguous stimulus is viewed for a prolonged time, perception alternates between the different possible interpretations of the stimulus. The alternations seem haphazard, but closer inspection of their dynamics reveals systematic properties in many bistable phenomena. Parametric manipulations result in gradual changes in the fraction of time a given interpretation dominates perception, often over the entire possible range of zero to one. The mean dominance durations of the competing interpretations can also vary over wide ranges (from less than a second to dozens of seconds or more), but finding systematic relations in how they vary has proven difficult. Following the pioneering work of W. J. M. Levelt (1968) in binocular rivalry, previous studies have sought to formulate a relation in terms of the effect of physical parameters of the stimulus, such as image contrast in binocular rivalry. However, the link between external parameters and "stimulus strength" is not as obvious for other bistable phenomena. Here we show that systematic relations readily emerge when the mean dominance durations are examined instead as a function of "percept strength," as measured by the fraction of dominance time, and provide theoretical rationale for this observation. For three different bistable phenomena, plotting the mean dominance durations of the two percepts against the fraction of dominance time resulted in complementary curves with near-perfect symmetry around equi-dominance (the point where each percept dominates half the time). As a consequence, the alternation rate reaches a maximum at equi-dominance. We next show that the observed behavior arises naturally in simple double-well energy models and in neural competition models with cross-inhibition and input normalization. Finally, we discuss the possibility that bistable perceptual switches reflect a perceptual "exploratory" strategy, akin to foraging behavior, which leads naturally to maximal alternation rate at equi

  15. The Steroid Catabolic Pathway of the Intracellular Pathogen Rhodococcus equi Is Important for Pathogenesis and a Target for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; Grommen, A. W. F.; Hessels, G. I.; Jacobs, A. A. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi causes fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised animals and humans. Despite its importance, there is currently no effective vaccine against the disease. The actinobacteria R. equi and the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis are related, and both cause pulmonary diseases. Recently, we have shown that essential steps in the cholesterol catabolic pathway are involved in the pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of a similar cholesterol catabolic gene cluster in R. equi. Orthologs of predicted M. tuberculosis virulence genes located within this cluster, i.e. ipdA (rv3551), ipdB (rv3552), fadA6 and fadE30, were identified in R. equi RE1 and inactivated. The ipdA and ipdB genes of R. equi RE1 appear to constitute the α-subunit and β-subunit, respectively, of a heterodimeric coenzyme A transferase. Mutant strains RE1ΔipdAB and RE1ΔfadE30, but not RE1ΔfadA6, were impaired in growth on the steroid catabolic pathway intermediates 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 3aα-H-4α(3′-propionic acid)-5α-hydroxy-7aβ-methylhexahydro-1-indanone (5α-hydroxy-methylhexahydro-1-indanone propionate; 5OH-HIP). Interestingly, RE1ΔipdAB and RE1ΔfadE30, but not RE1ΔfadA6, also displayed an attenuated phenotype in a macrophage infection assay. Gene products important for growth on 5OH-HIP, as part of the steroid catabolic pathway, thus appear to act as factors involved in the pathogenicity of R. equi. Challenge experiments showed that RE1ΔipdAB could be safely administered intratracheally to 2 to 5 week-old foals and oral immunization of foals even elicited a substantial protective immunity against a virulent R. equi strain. Our data show that genes involved in steroid catabolism are promising targets for the development of a live-attenuated vaccine against R. equi infections. PMID:21901092

  16. EquiTest modification with shank and hip angle measurements: differences with age among normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Speers, R A; Shepard, N T; Kuo, A D

    1999-01-01

    The Sensory Organization Test protocol of the EquiTest system (NeuroCom International, Clackamas Oregon) tests utilization of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensors by manipulating the accuracy of visual and/or somatosensory inputs during quiet stance. In the standard Sensory Organization Test, both manipulation of sensory input (sway-referencing) and assessment of postural sway are based on ground reaction forces measured from a forceplate. The purpose of our investigation was to examine the use of kinematic measurements to provide a more direct feedback signal for sway-referencing and for assessment of sway. We compared three methods of sway-referencing: the standard EquiTest method based on ground reaction torque, kinematic feedback based on servo-controlling to shank motion, and a more complex kinematic feedback based on servo-controlling to follow position of the center of mass (COM) as calculated from a two-link biomechanical model. Fifty-one normal subjects (ages 20-79) performed the randomized protocol. When using either shank or COM angle for sway-referencing feedback as compared to the standard EquiTest protocol, the Equilibrium Quotient and Strategy Score assessments were decreased for all age groups in the platform sway-referenced conditions (SOT 4, 5, 6). For all groups of subjects, there were significant differences in one or more of the kinematic sway measures of shank, hip, or COM angle when using either of the alternative sway-referencing parameters as compared to the standard EquiTest protocol. The increased sensitivities arising from use of kinematics had the effect of amplifying differences with age. For sway-referencing, the direct kinematic feedback may enhance ability to reduce proprioceptive information by servo-controlling more closely to actual ankle motion. For assessment, kinematics measurements can potentially increase sensitivity for detection of balance disorders, because it may be possible to discriminate between body sway

  17. Detection of Theileria equi in spleen and blood of asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabel B; Câmara, Antônio Carlos L; Bittencourt, Marta V; Marçola, Tatiana G; Paludo, Giane R; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic horses naturally infected with Theileria equi retain infected erythrocytes in the spleen and whether the presence of the hemoparasite in this organ is associated with parasitemia. We collected samples from 25 adult horses without clinical signs of any disease. From each animal, we collected whole blood samples from the jugular vein and a splenic puncture blood sample. All samples were submited to blood cell counts and detection of Theileria or Babesia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed in all samples for identification of piroplasm infection (T. equi and B. caballi). From the 25 horses evaluated for piroplasm detection by PCR, seven horses (28%) were positive in jugular vein blood but negative in splenic blood samples, five horses (20%) were positive in splenic blood samples but negative in jugular vein blood samples, and 13 horses (52%) were positive in both jugular vein and splenic blood samples. The hematological evaluation revealed anemia in 13 of 25 (52%) infected horses, lymphopenia in five (20%), neutrophilia in two (8%), neutropenia in one (4%), and thrombocytopenia in one (4%) infected horse. The present study demonstrated that several (20%) of the asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses did not show parasitemia, but show infected erythrocytes in the spleen.

  18. ALTAIR observations of post-sunset E region irregularities during Equis 2 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeki, E.; Wallace, A.

    2006-05-01

    In August/September 2004 the ALTAIR VHF/UHF radar located on Roi-Namur island of the Kwajalein Atoll radar was used to monitor the E- and F-region ionosphere in support of the NASA Equis 2 rocket campaign. The ALTAIR radar operates in two frequency bands centered about 158 MHz and 422 MHz respectively and has a horizon to horizon scanning capability based on mechanical steering of its parabolic reflector. The facility supported the NASA Equis 2 Campaign with a limited number of pulse waveform modes and range resolutions as fine as 150 m. During the September 1-17 window 13 sessions of post-sunset sporadic-E backscatter experiments were conducted. The VHF experiment used 13-baud Barker coded pulses of 1 microsecond baud length while the UHF employed an 88 baud code with the same baud length. The measurements were conducted with an IPP of 10 ms and 2500 range gates were sampled at 60 m intervals beginning at a range of 80 km. The radar beam was typically scanned in the zonal plane from west to east while maintaining a perpendicular orientation to the geomagnetic field in E-region heights. Coherent backscatter response observed at both frequencies (VHF and UHF) was most intense in the period immediately after sunset, although sporadic episodes of unstable layers were observed occasionally as late as local midnight. Absolute cross sections of UHF and VHF echoes from post-sunset E-region irregularities will be presented.

  19. An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in shelter dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soon-Seek; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2009-01-01

    An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia with 70~90% morbidity and 50% mortality occurred in an animal shelter in Yangju, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. Clinically, the affected dogs showed severe respiratory distress within 48 h after arriving in the shelter. The dead were found mainly with nasal bleeding and hematemesis. At necropsy, hemothorax and hemorrhagic pneumonia along with severe pulmonary consolidation was observed, though histopathological analysis showed mainly hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia. Lymphoid depletion was inconsistently seen in the spleen, tonsil and bronchial lymph node. Gram-positive colonies were shown in blood vessels or parenchyma of cerebrum, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. Also, Streptococcus (S.) equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the various organs in which the bacterium was microscopically and histologically detected. In addition, approximately 0.9 Kb specific amplicon, antiphagocytic factor H binding protein, was amplified in the bacterial isolates. In this study, we reported an outbreak of canine hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in an animal shelter in Yangju, Korea. PMID:19687630

  20. Lymphocytes and macrophages are infected by Theileria equi, but T cells and B cells are not required to establish infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua D; Ueti, Massaro W; Johnson, Wendell C; Scoles, Glen A; Knowles, Donald P; Mealey, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata), the intraleukocyte stage (schizont) of Theileria equi does not cause uncontrolled host cell proliferation or other significant pathology. Nevertheless, schizont-infected leukocytes are of interest because of their potential to alter host cell function and because immune responses directed against this stage could halt infection and prevent disease. Based on cellular morphology, Theileria equi has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro, but the specific phenotype of schizont-infected cells has yet to be defined. To resolve this knowledge gap in Theileria equi pathogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected in vitro and the phenotype of infected cells determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. These experiments demonstrated that the host cell range of Theileria equi was broader than initially reported and included B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. To determine if B and T lymphocytes were required to establish infection in vivo, horses affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, were inoculated with Theileria equi sporozoites. SCID horses developed patent erythrocytic parasitemia, indicating that B and T lymphocytes are not necessary to complete the Theileria equi life cycle in vivo. These findings suggest that the factors mediating Theileria equi leukocyte invasion and intracytoplasmic differentiation are common to several leukocyte subsets and are less restricted than for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. These data will greatly facilitate future investigation into the relationships between Theileria equi leukocyte tropism and pathogenesis, breed

  1. Getting to grips with strangles: an effective multi-component recombinant vaccine for the protection of horses from Streptococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Guss, Bengt; Flock, Margareta; Frykberg, Lars; Waller, Andrew S; Robinson, Carl; Smith, Ken C; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2009-09-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a clonal, equine host-adapted pathogen of global importance that causes a suppurative lymphodendopathy of the head and neck, more commonly known as Strangles. The disease is highly prevalent, can be severe and is highly contagious. Antibiotic treatment is usually ineffective. Live attenuated vaccine strains of S. equi have shown adverse reactions and they suffer from a short duration of immunity. Thus, a safe and effective vaccine against S. equi is highly desirable. The bacterium shows only limited genetic diversity and an effective vaccine could confer broad protection to horses throughout the world. Welsh mountain ponies (n = 7) vaccinated with a combination of seven recombinant S. equi proteins were significantly protected from experimental infection by S. equi, resembling the spontaneous disease. Vaccinated horses had significantly reduced incidence of lymph node swelling (p = 0.0013) lymph node abscessation (p = 0.00001), fewer days of pyrexia (p = 0.0001), reduced pathology scoring (p = 0.005) and lower bacterial recovery from lymph nodes (p = 0.004) when compared with non-vaccinated horses (n = 7). Six of 7 vaccinated horses were protected whereas all 7 non-vaccinated became infected. The protective antigens consisted of five surface localized proteins and two IgG endopeptidases. A second vaccination trial (n = 7+7), in which the IgG endopeptidases were omitted, demonstrated only partial protection against S. equi, highlighting an important role for these vaccine components in establishing a protective immune response. S. equi shares >80% sequence identity with Streptococcus pyogenes. Several of the components utilized here have counterparts in S. pyogenes, suggesting that our findings have broader implications for the prevention of infection with this important human pathogen. This is one of only a few demonstrations of protection from streptococcal infection conferred by a recombinant multi-component subunit

  2. Getting to Grips with Strangles: An Effective Multi-Component Recombinant Vaccine for the Protection of Horses from Streptococcus equi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Guss, Bengt; Flock, Margareta; Frykberg, Lars; Waller, Andrew S.; Robinson, Carl; Smith, Ken C.; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a clonal, equine host-adapted pathogen of global importance that causes a suppurative lymphodendopathy of the head and neck, more commonly known as Strangles. The disease is highly prevalent, can be severe and is highly contagious. Antibiotic treatment is usually ineffective. Live attenuated vaccine strains of S. equi have shown adverse reactions and they suffer from a short duration of immunity. Thus, a safe and effective vaccine against S. equi is highly desirable. The bacterium shows only limited genetic diversity and an effective vaccine could confer broad protection to horses throughout the world. Welsh mountain ponies (n = 7) vaccinated with a combination of seven recombinant S. equi proteins were significantly protected from experimental infection by S. equi, resembling the spontaneous disease. Vaccinated horses had significantly reduced incidence of lymph node swelling (p = 0.0013) lymph node abscessation (p = 0.00001), fewer days of pyrexia (p = 0.0001), reduced pathology scoring (p = 0.005) and lower bacterial recovery from lymph nodes (p = 0.004) when compared with non-vaccinated horses (n = 7). Six of 7 vaccinated horses were protected whereas all 7 non-vaccinated became infected. The protective antigens consisted of five surface localized proteins and two IgG endopeptidases. A second vaccination trial (n = 7+7), in which the IgG endopeptidases were omitted, demonstrated only partial protection against S. equi, highlighting an important role for these vaccine components in establishing a protective immune response. S. equi shares >80% sequence identity with Streptococcus pyogenes. Several of the components utilized here have counterparts in S. pyogenes, suggesting that our findings have broader implications for the prevention of infection with this important human pathogen. This is one of only a few demonstrations of protection from streptococcal infection conferred by a

  3. In Vitro Activities of Polycationic Peptides Alone and in Combination with Clinically Used Antimicrobial Agents against Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Giacometti, A.; Cirioni, O.; Ancarani, F.; Del Prete, M. S.; Fortuna, M.; Scalise, G.

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro activities of magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents against six clinical isolates of Rhodococcus equi were investigated by MIC and time-kill studies. All isolates were more susceptible to nisin. A positive interaction was observed when the peptides were combined with ampicillin, ceftriaxone, rifabutin, rifampin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and vancomycin. PMID:10428947

  4. In vitro activities of polycationic peptides alone and in combination with clinically used antimicrobial agents against Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Ancarani, F; Del Prete, M S; Fortuna, M; Scalise, G

    1999-08-01

    The in vitro activities of magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents against six clinical isolates of Rhodococcus equi were investigated by MIC and time-kill studies. All isolates were more susceptible to nisin. A positive interaction was observed when the peptides were combined with ampicillin, ceftriaxone, rifabutin, rifampin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and vancomycin. PMID:10428947

  5. Genetic characterization of theileria equi infecting horses in North America: evidence for a limited source of U.S. introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne Apicomplexan hemoparasite that causes equine piroplasmosis (EP). This parasite has a worldwide distribution, but until recent outbreaks the United States has been considered to be free of EP. Maximum parsimony analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences of North American T. eq...

  6. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  7. Theileria equi isolates vary in susceptibility to imidocarb dipropionate but demonstrate uniform in vitro susceptibility to a bumped kinase inhibitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apicomplexan hemoparasite Theileria equi is a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, eradicated from the United States in 1988. However, recent outbreaks have sparked renewed interest in treatment options for infected horses. Imidocarb dipropionate is the current drug of choice, however variat...

  8. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Posada-Guzmán, María Fernanda; Dolz, Gaby; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan José; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses (n = 285) was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The general condition of the horses (n = 285) in terms of their body and coat was between regular and poor, and hematocrit and hemoglobin average values were low (19% and 10.65 g/dL, resp.). Erythrocyte inclusions were observed in 32 (24.6%) of the samples. Twenty-six samples (20.0%) gave positive results for B. caballi and 60 (46.2%) for T. equi; 10 horses (7.7%) showed mixed infection, when analyzed by PCR. Using c-ELISA, it was found that 90 (69.2%) horses had antibodies against B. caballi and 115 (88.5%) against T. equi, while 81 (62.3%) showed mixed reactions. There were no factors associated with the presence of B. caballi and T. equi. These results contrast with results previously obtained in equines in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. PMID:26649225

  9. Lack of correlation between antibody titers to fibrinogen-binding protein of Streptococcus equi and persistent carriers of strangles.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ann; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Magnuson, Roberta; Hill, Ashley; Irwin, Vivienne; Newton, Richard; Waller, Andrew; Smith, Kenneth; Callan, Robert J; Meehan, Mary; Owen, Peter; Salman, Mo

    2008-07-01

    Previously published studies have neither used nor reported the results of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) to measure serologic responses in natural outbreaks of strangles. The concept of using serologic responses to identify persistent carriers of Streptococcus equi has been proposed but not scientifically evaluated. The specific aims of the current study were to determine the duration and level of truncated fibrinogen-binding protein-specific (SeM allele 1) antibody production in ponies involved in a natural outbreak of strangles and to determine if test results from this serologic iELISA could predict persistent carrier status. Serologic samples were obtained before and after an outbreak of naturally occurring strangles infection. Persistent carriers of S. equi were identified via culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of lavage fluid collected from the guttural pouches and nasopharynx or swabs of the nasopharynx after recovery from acute disease and at postmortem examination. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine if an association existed between serologic response and persistent carrier state. The ELISA reported in the current study definitively confirmed a recent exposure to S. equi. However, the measured serologic response did not predict carrier status in this strangles outbreak. Therefore, a guttural-pouch endoscopy with subsequent culture or PCR testing to detect S. equi remains the most accurate method available for the identification of persistent carriers.

  10. Molecular characterization of a lipid-modified virulence-associated protein of Rhodococcus equi and its potential in protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Tan, C; Prescott, J F; Patterson, M C; Nicholson, V M

    1995-01-01

    Virulent strains of Rhodococcus equi produce plasmid-mediated 15- and 17-kDa proteins, which are thermoregulated and apparently surface-expressed. We demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) that R. equi produce three antigenically-related virulence-associated proteins, a diffuse 18-22-kDa, a 17.5-kDa and a 15-kDa protein. Phase partitioning of whole cells of R. equi strain 103 with Triton X-114 (TX-114) and labelling with [3H]-labelled palmitic acid showed that the two higher molecular weight proteins are hydrophobic and lipid modified. The 15-kDa protein did not partition into TX-114 and was not lipid modified. Cloning and expression of a fragment of the R. equi virulence plasmid in Escherichia coli showed that the three proteins were expressed from a single gene. Sequence analysis of this gene (designated vapA) revealed a 570-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 189 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,175 Da. The mature, nonlipid modified protein had a calculated mass of 16,246 Da. The 17.5- and 18-22-kDa forms of the protein are therefore due to lipid modification. No significant sequence homology of the vapA gene with other reported nucleotide sequences were found. Opsonization of virulent R. equi with an IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb103) to the VapA protein significantly enhanced uptake in the murine macrophage cell line IC-21. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with Mab103 enhanced initial clearance from the liver of mice challenged intravenously with R. equi. Immunization of mice with the lipid-modified VapA purified by SDS-PAGE fractionation or with acetone precipitated VapA protein following TX-114 extraction resulted in significantly enhanced clearance from the liver and spleen following intravenous challenge. The VapA protein of R. equi appears therefore to be a protective immunogen. PMID:7704843

  11. An Invertron-Like Linear Plasmid Mediates Intracellular Survival and Virulence in Bovine Isolates of Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Rello, Ana; Hapeshi, Alexia; Anastasi, Elisa; Alvarez, Sonsiray; Scortti, Mariela; Meijer, Wim G.; MacArthur, Iain

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel host-associated virulence plasmid in Rhodococcus equi, pVAPN, carried by bovine isolates of this facultative intracellular pathogenic actinomycete. Surprisingly, pVAPN is a 120-kb invertron-like linear replicon unrelated to the circular virulence plasmids associated with equine (pVAPA) and porcine (pVAPB variant) R. equi isolates. pVAPN is similar to the linear plasmid pNSL1 from Rhodococcus sp. NS1 and harbors six new vap multigene family members (vapN to vapS) in a vap pathogenicity locus presumably acquired via en bloc mobilization from a direct predecessor of equine pVAPA. Loss of pVAPN rendered R. equi avirulent in macrophages and mice. Mating experiments using an in vivo transconjugant selection strategy demonstrated that pVAPN transfer is sufficient to confer virulence to a plasmid-cured R. equi recipient. Phylogenetic analyses assigned the vap multigene family complement from pVAPN, pVAPA, and pVAPB to seven monophyletic clades, each containing plasmid type-specific allelic variants of a precursor vap gene carried by the nearest vap island ancestor. Deletion of vapN, the predicted “bovine-type” allelic counterpart of vapA, essential for virulence in pVAPA, abrogated pVAPN-mediated intramacrophage proliferation and virulence in mice. Our findings support a model in which R. equi virulence is conferred by host-adapted plasmids. Their central role is mediating intracellular proliferation in macrophages, promoted by a key vap determinant present in the common ancestor of the plasmid-specific vap islands, with host tropism as a secondary trait selected during coevolution with specific animal species. PMID:25895973

  12. Detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in Venezuelan horses using Competitive-Inhibition ELISA and PCR.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Romel; Rangel-Rivas, Ariadna; Escalona, América; Jordan, Luis Segundo; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Aso, Pedro Maria; Perrone, Trina; Silva-Iturriza, Adriana; Mijares, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    The focus of this study was the detection of equine piroplasmosis in Distrito Capital, Miranda, Aragua, Guárico and Apure States from Venezuela, using two methods: Competitive-Inhibition ELISA and multiplex PCR and the analysis of the possible differences in occurrence in relation to the primary purpose of the horses, which is related to varied degrees of exposure to tick. Antibody levels to Babesia caballi and Theileria equi were assessed in 694 equine serum samples using Competitive-Inhibition ELISA, while PCR assays were performed in 136 horses, using two sets of oligonucleotides to establish the presence of T. equi, B. caballi or both. The overall seroprevalence of equine piroplasmosis was 50.2%, antibodies to B. caballi were found in 161 horses (23.2%), whereas 97 (14.0%) were seropositive to T. equi and 90 (13.0%) were positives to both parasites (mixed infections). PCR determinations (n=136) showed a prevalence of 66.2%, distributed in 84 (61.8% positives) for T. equi and, 6 (4.4%) were positive to both parasites. The cELISA showed higher levels of prevalence of B. caballi and mixed infections, as compared to the PCR method. This discrepancy can be explained by the different parameters that are evaluated by each technique, PCR detect the parasite itself, while cELISA detects antibodies to the parasite. By PCR, the highest prevalence was found in Apure state, where 92.3% of the samples were positive to T. equi infections. In this locality, free grazing animals are used for livestock management. This high prevalence may be linked to the tick species present in that area. More epidemiological studies will be necessary to assess the epidemiological status of equine piroplasmosis in Venezuela.

  13. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi from horse-breeding farms by means of multiplex PCR for the vap gene family.

    PubMed

    Monego, Fernanda; Maboni, Franciele; Krewer, Cristina; Vargas, Agueda; Costa, Mateus; Loreto, Elgion

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the molecular characteristics of Rhodococcus equi isolates obtained from horses by a multiplex PCR assay that amplifies the vap gene family (vapA, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, and -H). A total of 180 R. equi isolates were studied from four different sources, namely healthy horse feces (112), soil (12), stalls (23), and clinical isolates (33) from horse-breeding farms. The technique was performed and confirmed by sequencing of amplified vap gene family controls. Thirty-two (17.8%) of the R. equi isolates were positive for the vapA gene and carried at least three other vap genes. All 147 isolates from equine feces, stalls, and soil failed to demonstrate any genes associated with virulence-inducing proteins. About 32 (97.0%) out of the 33 clinical equine isolates tested positive for the multiplex PCR assay for the vap gene family. They demonstrated six molecular profiles: 100% featured the vapA, vapD, and vapG genes, 86.6% vapF, 76.6% vapH, 43.3% vapC, 36.6% vapE, and none vapB. The most frequent molecular profile was vap A, -D, -F, G, and -H, where this profile was present in 37.5% of the strains. Moreover, there was no molecular epidemiological pattern for R. equi isolates that uniquely mapped to each horse-breeding farm studied. Our proposed technique allows the identification of eight members of the vap gene family (vapA, B, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, and -H). It is a practical and efficient method of conducting clinical and epidemiological studies on R. equi isolates.

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in donkeys from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Piantedosi, D; D'Alessio, N; Di Loria, A; Di Prisco, F; Mariani, U; Neola, B; Santoro, M; Montagnaro, S; Capelli, G; Veneziano, V

    2014-12-01

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) has been frequently described in donkeys in subtropical and tropical regions, but published data reflecting large scale surveys are very limited in Europe. The seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi was determined in a donkey population from Campania Region in Southern Italy using a commercial indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the infection were assessed. Of 203 samples, the overall seroprevalence for EP was 57.1% (116/203), with 35.5% (72/203) for B. caballi and 44.3% (90/203) for T. equi. Co-infection was detected in 46 donkeys (22.6%). The distribution of IFAT antibody titres to B. caballi was: 1:80 (n= 67), 1:160 (n= 2), 1:320 (n= 3); while the distribution of IFAT antibody titres to T. equi was: 1:80 (n= 25), 1:160 (n= 42), 1:320 (n= 12), 1:640 (n= 8), 1:1280 (n= 3). All examined donkeys were asymptomatic, except one adult male (with a titre of 1:640 against T. equi) that showed clinical signs corresponding to the acute stage of EP, reported for the first time in Italy. The unique risk factor associated with a higher B. caballi seroprevalence was the presence of horses in the farms, while risk factors associated with a higher T. equi seroprevalence were poor body condition, presence of ruminants in the farms and milk production. The results indicate a high level of exposure in donkeys living in Southern Italy and suggest that donkeys may be an important reservoir of EP.

  15. Isolation of Rhodococcus equi from the feces of indigenous animals and soil from the Lower Zambezi National Park and Lochinvar National Park, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Takai, Shinji; Syakalima, Michelo; Yasuda, Jun; Sasaki, Yukako; Tsutsumi, Hisako; Miyagawa, Emiko; Wada, Kaya; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Tsubaki, Shiro; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2004-06-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen in foals; however, its incidence in African indigenous animals is poorly understood. Fecal samples (92 from nine indigenous species) and 43 soil samples were collected from two Zambian National Parks. The presence of R. equi was investigated and 533 isolates were tested for the presence of 15- to 17-kDa antigens (VapA) and a 20-kDa antigen (VapB) by immunoblotting and PCR. R. equi was isolated (10(2)-10(4) colony forming units/g) from 75% of fecal and 74% of soil samples. Neither antigen was detected; however, about 20% of the isolates contained cryptic plasmids of various sizes. There was no evidence of virulent R. equi, but the avirulent form was widespread in the animals and the soil.

  16. Transmission of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection from horses to humans.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, Sinikka; Lindahl, Susanne B; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen's epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis.

  17. Purulent meningoventriculitis caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, R; Nakamura, S; Hori, H; Kato, Y; Une, Y

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in man and animals. SEZ infections are very rare in felids. This report describes purulent meningoventriculitis caused by SEZ in an approximately 16-year-old male snow leopard (Panthera uncia). The animal exhibited neurological signs and died 1 month after their onset. On necropsy examination, the surface blood vessels of the brain were swollen and there was an increased volume and turbidity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Microscopically, suppurative inflammation accompanied by gram-positive cocci was observed in the meninges and near the ventricles. SEZ was isolated from the brain tissue and CSF. This is the first report of infection with SEZ in a felid other than a domestic cat. This animal had not had direct contact with horses, but it had been fed horse flesh that may have been the source of infection.

  18. Crystalline inclusions in erythrocytes parasitized with Babesia equi following treatment of ponies with imidocarb.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C F; Taylor, W J; Kitchen, H

    1980-08-01

    Four splenectomized Welsh ponies were infected with Babesia equi. Two ponies were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, and two were not treated. By light microscopic examination, 1% to 2% of the parasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies contained crystalline inclusions. The crystals were rectangular, diamond, or burr shaped. They occupied most of the erythrocytic cytoplasm, and, as a result, the remainder of the pale staining cytoplasm was inconspicuous in Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears. The size and shape of intraerythrocytic inclusions varied when examined by electron microscopy, but in most instances they were either adhered to or were located close to the parasite. The sides of crystals were either smooth or serrated, and corners were either sharp or notched. Fractures or faults were common in large crystals. Parasitized erythrocytes of nontreated ponies and nonparasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies did not contain crystals. Four hemoglobulin types were identified in five noninfected, nontreated Welsh ponies from the same herd. PMID:6255836

  19. Vaccination of horses against strangles using recombinant antigens from Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Waller, Andrew; Flock, Margareta; Smith, Ken; Robinson, Carl; Mitchell, Zoe; Karlström, Asa; Lannergård, Jonas; Bergman, Rune; Guss, Bengt; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2007-05-01

    Strangles is an upper respiratory tract infection in horses, which is highly contagious and one of the more costly diseases of the horse. Three recombinant antigens were used to vaccinate horses, which were then experimentally challenged with Streptococcus equi, the causative agent for strangles. The vaccinated horses showed significantly reduced bacterial growth (p=0.02) and nasal discharge (p=0.0004), a typical symptom of strangles. Other clinical signs of strangles were also reduced and at post mortem examination, lower rate of empyaema or scarring of the guttural pouches was found in the vaccinated group (p=0.01). The antigens used were EAG (alpha2-macroglobulin, albumin, and IgG-binding protein), CNE (a collagen-binding protein), and SclC (a collagen-like protein). The adjuvant used was Abisco, a saponin derived matrix. No adverse effects were observed following vaccination with the antigens and adjuvant.

  20. Transmission of Streptococcus equi Subspecies zooepidemicus Infection from Horses to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Susanne B.; Suomala, Päivi; Karhukorpi, Jari; Vuorinen, Sakari; Koivula, Irma; Väisänen, Tia; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Autio, Tiina; Tuuminen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a zoonotic pathogen for persons in contact with horses. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen, but human infections associated with S. zooepidemicus are often severe. Within 6 months in 2011, 3 unrelated cases of severe, disseminated S. zooepidemicus infection occurred in men working with horses in eastern Finland. To clarify the pathogen’s epidemiology, we describe the clinical features of the infection in 3 patients and compare the S. zooepidemicus isolates from the human cases with S. zooepidemicus isolates from horses. The isolates were analyzed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing of the szP gene. Molecular typing methods showed that human and equine isolates were identical or closely related. These results emphasize that S. zooepidemicus transmitted from horses can lead to severe infections in humans. As leisure and professional equine sports continue to grow, this infection should be recognized as an emerging zoonosis. PMID:23777752

  1. Rhodococcus equi peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a first in Australia.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Omar; Crowe, Amy; Sajiv, Cherian; Pawar, Basant

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old Caucasian man with end-stage renal disease secondary to biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy, managed with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD), presented with PD-related peritonitis, the causal organism being a non-branching Gram-positive bacillus, Rhodococcus equi. Initial empirical Gram positive and negative coverage with cefazolin and ceftazidime was unsuccessful, but following isolation of the organism, and conversion to intraperitoneal vancomycin and oral ciprofloxacin, the peritonitis episode resolved. At day 10, vancomycin was switched to azithromycin for a total of 6 weeks of antimicrobial therapy. The PD catheter was preserved, and the patient remained peritonitis-free at 6 months of follow-up.

  2. Purulent meningoventriculitis caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in a snow leopard (Panthera uncia).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, R; Nakamura, S; Hori, H; Kato, Y; Une, Y

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in man and animals. SEZ infections are very rare in felids. This report describes purulent meningoventriculitis caused by SEZ in an approximately 16-year-old male snow leopard (Panthera uncia). The animal exhibited neurological signs and died 1 month after their onset. On necropsy examination, the surface blood vessels of the brain were swollen and there was an increased volume and turbidity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Microscopically, suppurative inflammation accompanied by gram-positive cocci was observed in the meninges and near the ventricles. SEZ was isolated from the brain tissue and CSF. This is the first report of infection with SEZ in a felid other than a domestic cat. This animal had not had direct contact with horses, but it had been fed horse flesh that may have been the source of infection. PMID:22516084

  3. Purification and properties of cholesterol oxidase and choline phosphohydrolase from Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed Central

    Machang'u, R S; Prescott, J F

    1991-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase (CO) and choline phosphohydrolase (CPH) exoenzymes were isolated from culture supernatants of Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 and their hemolytic and cytotoxic activities examined. The purifications involved differential ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. A purification of 32.8-fold and a yield of 0.3% of CO were determined by synergistic hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) presensitized with Staphylococcus aureus beta toxin. The enzymatic activity of CO was also demonstrated by oxidation of aqueous cholesterol suspensions. The activity of CO was reversibly inhibited by concentration. A purification of 412.4-fold and a yield of 1.7% of CPH were determined by hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyphosphorylcholine. Purity of both exoenzymes was confirmed by immunoblotting. On sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the CO had a molecular mass (Mr) of 60 kd and the CPH a Mr of 65 kd. Choline phosphohydrolase did not hydrolyse sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelinase C (SMC) activity was however demonstrated in concentrated culture supernatants. This dissociation of SMC from CPH activity indicates that R. equi produces two distinct phospholipase C exoenzymes, a CPH and a SMC. Both CO and CPH combined, or individually, did not lyse native SRBC even with subsequent chilling of the cells at 4 degrees C ("hot-cold" treatment). Purified CO lysed beta toxin-sensitized SRBC. The CPH showed only minor hemolytic activity against such sensitized SRBC even at high concentrations. Combination of CO and CPH in lysis of beta toxin sensitized SRBC showed only minor additive rather than synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:1790488

  4. Recovering data from historical collections: stratigraphic and spatial reconstruction of the outstanding carnivoran record from the Late Pleistocene Equi cave (Apuane Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzo, Elena; Palchetti, Alessandro; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-07-01

    Equi Terme is a hamlet located in northern Tuscany, in Apuan Alps regional Park. An outstanding fossil vertebrate collection housed in Florence is the result of excavations in the Equi cave and shelter during the period 1911-1919. This faunal assemblage (associated with Mousterian artefacts) may be correlated with the middle of MIS 3. All of the specimens recovered at Equi early in the last century were collected with attention to their stratigraphical positions. Detailed field annotation for nearly every specimen allowed us to organize them and attempt a stratigraphical and spatial reconstruction of the fossiliferous deposits. We present the results of the study of the spatial and stratigraphic distribution of the carnivoran species in the Equi cave and shelter, and re-evaluate the taphonomic agents of accumulation and the fossil distribution within the stratigraphic record. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of Panthera pardus, which, unusually for Europe, is abundant in the Equi cave assemblage. This analysis highlights the importance of the re-evaluation of historical collections and allows for future comparisons with data from more recent excavations at the Equi site. The analysis also provides an account of the distribution of carnivorans throughout the stratigraphic record. The constant presence and the predominance of leopards and wolves over lions and smaller carnivorans, allow for evaluations of their ethology and may be related to a short period of sediment accumulation.

  5. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi Isolates of horse breeding farms from an endemic region in South of Brazil by multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Krewer, Cristina da Costa; Spricigo, Dênis Augusto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schrank, Irene; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coco-bacillus and an intracellular opportunistic pathogen which causes pneumonia in foals. It is widely detected in environment and has been isolated from several sources, as soil, feces and gut from health and sick foals. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological status (endemic, sporadic or no infection) of horse breeding farms from Bage County in South of Brazil, using a multiplex PCR. One hundred and eighteen R. equi isolates were identified by biochemical tests and submitted to a specie-specific and vapA multiplex PCR. These isolates were obtained from: three farms where the R. equi infection has been noticed, two farms where the disease has been not reported and one farm where the disease is frequent. All clinical isolates from horse breeding farms where the disease is endemic and/or sporadic were vapA-positive. None environmental isolates were vapA-positive. In three horse breeding farms with sporadic R. equi infection, 11.54% of the isolates from adult horse feces were vapA-positive. The multiplex PCR technique has proven to be effective for the molecular and epidemiological characterization of the R. equi isolates in horse breeding farms. An important finding in this study was the isolation of vapApositive R. equi from adult horse feces, which is an evidence for other routes of dissemination of this pathogen in the farms. PMID:24031201

  6. Impact of immunization against SpyCEP during invasive disease with two streptococcal species: Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claire E.; Kurupati, Prathiba; Wiles, Siouxsie; Edwards, Robert J.; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2009-01-01

    Currently there is no licensed vaccine against the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The highly conserved IL-8 cleaving S. pyogenes cell envelope proteinase SpyCEP is surface expressed and is a potential vaccine candidate. A recombinant N-terminal part of SpyCEP (CEP) was expressed and purified. AntiCEP antibodies were found to neutralize the IL-8 cleaving activity of SpyCEP. CEP-immunized mice had reduced bacterial dissemination from focal S. pyogenes intramuscular infection and intranasal infection. We also identified a functional SpyCEP-homolog protease SeCEP, expressed by the equine pathogen Streptococcus equi, which was able to cleave both human and equine IL-8. CEP-immunized mice also demonstrated reduced bacterial dissemination from S. equi intramuscular infection. Therefore immunization against SpyCEP may provide protection against other streptococci species with homologous proteases. PMID:19563892

  7. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis. PMID:27084467

  8. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene in Theileria equi from horses presented in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qin; Meli, Marina L; Zhang, Yi; Meili, Theres; Stirn, Martina; Riond, Barbara; Weibel, Beatrice; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-05-15

    A reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was adapted and applied for equine blood samples collected at the animal hospital of the University of Zurich to determine the presence of piroplasms in horses in Switzerland. A total of 100 equine blood samples were included in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed using the RLB assay. Samples from seven horses hybridized to a Theileria/Babesia genus-specific and a Theileria genus-specific probe. Of these, two hybridized also to the Theileria equi-specific probe. The other five positive samples did not hybridize to any of the species-specific probes, suggesting the presence of unrecognized Theileria variants or genotypes. The 18S rRNA gene of the latter five samples were sequenced and found to be closely related to T. equi isolated from horses in Spain (AY534822) and China (KF559357) (≥98.4% identity). Four of the seven horses that tested positive had a documented travel history (France, Italy, and Spain) or lived abroad (Hungary). The present study adds new insight into the presence and sequence heterogeneity of T. equi in Switzerland. The results prompt that species-specific probes must be designed in regions of the gene unique to T. equi. Of note, none of the seven positive horses were suspected of having Theileria infection at the time of presentation to the clinic. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of equine piroplasma infections outside of endemic areas and in horses without signs of piroplasmosis.

  9. A field survey for the seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys from Nuu Division, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Oduori, David O; Onyango, Solomon C; Kimari, Joseph N; MacLeod, Ewan T

    2015-07-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is one of the most significant tick-borne disease of equids. The prevalence of this disease in donkeys of semi-arid Kenya remains largely unexplored. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the extent to which donkeys in Nuu division, Kenya have been exposed to the haemoprotozoans Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, the causative agents of equine piroplasmosis. The study also assessed the effect of age and sex on seroprevalence. A stratified sampling approach was used and three hundred and fourteen donkeys were sampled across nine sub-locations in Nuu division, Mwingi district. Serodiagnosis was via competitive inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA). The seroprevalence of T. equi was 81.2% (95% CI: 76.4-85.4). There was no significant difference in sub-location seropositivity, gender seropositivity or age related seropositivity. Antibodies against B. caballi were not detected (95% CI: 0-1.2). Findings from this study suggest that T. equi infection is endemic in Nuu division, Mwingi where it exists in a state of endemic stability. Existence of the infection should be communicated to animal health practitioners and donkey owning communities in the area.

  10. Development and evaluation of the internal-controlled real-time PCR assay for Rhodococcus equi detection in various clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    STEFAŃSKA, Ilona; WITKOWSKI, Lucjan; RZEWUSKA, Magdalena; DZIECIĄTKOWSKI, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is the causative agent of rhodococcosis in horses, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in foals. This bacterium has also been isolated from a variety of animals and is being increasingly reported as a cause of infection in humans, mainly in immunosuppressed individuals. Laboratory diagnostics of R. equi infections based only on conventional microbiological methods shows low accuracy and can lead to misidentification. The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate a real-time PCR assay for direct detection of R. equi in various clinical specimens, including tissue samples. The species-specific region of the gene encoding R. equi cholesterol oxidase, choE, was used as a qPCR-target. The diagnostic applicability of the assay was confirmed by testing various tissue specimens obtained from horses with clinical signs of rhodoccocal infection and swine submaxillary lymph nodes. The rate of R. equi detection in clinical specimens by the developed assay was higher in comparison to the culture method (90% vs. 60.0% of positive samples) and conventional PCR (90.0% vs. 20.0% of positive samples). In case of 13 samples that were negative in the culture-based method, R. equi was detected by the developed assay. Only in one case, it gave negative result for culture-positive sample. The assay may provide a simple and rapid tool to complement the classical methods of R. equi detection based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolates, as the performed evaluation indicated a high specificity and accuracy of the results. PMID:26655770

  11. Novel description of force of infection and risk factors associated with Theileria equi in horses in Israel and in The Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Rapoport, Adi; Hawari, Ibrahim M; Lensky, Itamar M; Berlin, Dalia; Zivotofsky, Doni; Klement, Eyal; Steinman, Amir

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the force of infection (FOI) for Theileria equi in horses in Israel and to evaluate risk factors associated with seroprevalence a decade after it was last determined by PCR, in 2002. Using a commercial cELISA kit, we demonstrated a widespread and constant exposure to T. equi in Israel (110/216; 50.9%) and the Palestinian Authority (32/108; 29.6%). Owing to the paired samples collected from the same horses approximately one year apart, we were able to determine the FOI rate with which susceptible individuals become infected. Out of the 75 naïve horses in the first collection, four seroconverted during 10-16 months, demonstrating an FOI of 5% for that period. Similar results were obtained by calculating FOI using age-specific seroprevalence (4.2% per year). Housing management type was significantly associated with T. equi seroprevalence with 87.9% seropositivity in horses on pasture and 32.6% seropositivity in horses in stalls/yards. This strong association and the very high seroprevalence found in horses held on pasture, prompted stratification of data accordingly. Geographical location of horses in Israel showed a strong association with seroprevalence to T. equi ranging from 34.5% in central Israel to 80.8% in the northern part of the country. However, when analyzing this association only in horses held in stalls/yards, the lower seroprevalence was noted in the north. In addition, age was significantly associated with seroprevalence for T. equi only in horses held in stalls/yards (R(2)=0.94). Environmental variables were not found to be associated with seroprevalence for T. equi. Here, we report for the first time the FOI for T. equi in horses and highlight the influence housing management type has on the evaluation of risk factors associated with a vector-borne disease, perhaps leading to the discrepancies observed between studies throughout the world.

  12. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates from equine infectious endometritis belong to a distinct genetic group

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the pathogen most commonly isolated from the uterus of mares. S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen and part of the resident flora in the caudal reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a genotypically distinct subpopulation of S. zooepidemicus is associated with endometritis in the mare, by genotyping and comparing uterine S. zooepidemicus strains with isolates from the vagina and clitoral fossa. Mares with (n = 18) or without (n = 11) clinical symptoms of endometritis were included. Uterine samples were obtained using a guarded endometrial biopsy punch, whereas a swab was used to recover samples from the cranial vagina and the clitoral fossa. If S. zooepidemicus was present, up to three colonies were selected from each anatomical location (max. 9 isolates per mare). Bacterial isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. zooepidemicus was isolated from the endometrium of 12 mares. A total of 88 isolates were analyzed by PFGE: 31 from the endometrium, 26 from the cranial vagina and 31 isolates from the clitoral fossa. For MLST 21 isolates were chosen. Results demonstrated a higher genetic similarity of the isolates obtained from infectious endometritis compared to isolates obtained from the caudal reproductive tract. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that a genetically distinct group of S. zooepidemicus is associated with infectious endometritis in the mare. PMID:23597033

  13. Spall Properties of Aluminum 5083 Plate Fabricated using Equi-Channel Angular Extrusion and Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelchel, Ricky; Thadhani, Naresh; Sanders, Thomas; Mathaudhu, Suveen; Kecskes, Laszlo

    2013-06-01

    The spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of aluminum alloy 5083 (Al 5083) are compared for plates fabricated using equi-channel angular extrusion (ECAE) versus rolling. Al 5083 is a light-weight and strain-hardenable aluminum alloy used for armor plating in military transport vehicles, thus requiring the highest achievable spall strength. The spall strength of strain-hardenable alloys is a function of the grain structure and volume fraction of secondary phases, such as brittle inclusions, in addition to the extent of hardening. Materials processed by ECAE have a highly refined grain structure with little texturing and a large degree of plastic deformation, whereas rolled plates have a textured grain structure that aligns along the rolling direction. The spall behavior of Al 5083 for both forms was measured using plate impact gas gun experiments combined with rear free surface velocity measurements employing VISAR. The spall strength varied with impact orientation for the rolled plate but remained uniform for the ECAE material. Despite large differences in the HEL, the spall behavior for Al 5083 made by both processing techniques was controlled by the extent of brittle particles that acted as nucleation sites for damage during tensile failure.

  14. Spall properties of Al 5083 plate fabricated using equi-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelchel, R. L.; Thadhani, N. N.; Sanders, T. H.; Kecskes, L. J.; Williams, C. L.

    2014-05-01

    The spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of aluminum alloy 5083 (Al 5083) are compared for plates fabricated using equi-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and rolling. Al 5083 is a light-weight and strain-hardenable aluminum alloy used for armor plating in military transport vehicles, thus requiring the highest achievable spall strength and HEL. Materials that were processed by ECAP displayed a highly refined grain structure with little texture and a large degree of plastic deformation, whereas subsequent rolling resulted in a textured microstructure with both grains and inclusions aligning along the rolling direction. The spall behavior of Al 5083 was determined using plate-impact gas-gun experiments with rear free surface velocity measurements for a variety of processing conditions involving both ECAP and rolling. The spall strength and HEL increased from that of the as-received material after processing with ECAP. Subsequent rolling further increased the HEL but reduced the spall strength. Rolling also resulted in directional dependence of the spall strength, with the lowest spall strength occurring for impact through the plate thickness and highest spall strength in the rolling direction. The trends in the spall behavior correlate with the size and preferential alignment of manganese dispersoids and iron and silicon rich inclusions that are evolved during processing.

  15. Design of a Novel Equi-Biaxial Stretcher for Live Cellular and Subcellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Imsirovic, Jasmin; Wellman, Tyler J; Mondoñedo, Jarred R; Bartolák-Suki, Elizabeth; Suki, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Cells in the body experience various mechanical stimuli that are often essential to proper cell function. In order to study the effects of mechanical stretch on cell function, several devices have been built to deliver cyclic stretch to cells; however, they are generally not practical for live cell imaging. We introduce a novel device that allows for live cell imaging, using either an upright or inverted microscope, during the delivery of cyclic stretch, which can vary in amplitude and frequency. The device delivers equi-biaxial strain to cells seeded on an elastic membrane via indentation of the membrane. Membrane area strain was calibrated to indenter depth and the device showed repeatable and accurate delivery of strain at the scale of individual cells. At the whole cell level, changes in intracellular calcium were measured at different membrane area strains, and showed an amplitude-dependent response. At the subcellular level, the mitochondrial network was imaged at increasing membrane area strains to demonstrate that stretch can lead to mitochondrial fission in lung fibroblasts. The device is a useful tool for studying transient as well as long-term mechanotransduction as it allows for simultaneous stretching and imaging of live cells in the presence of various chemical stimuli. PMID:26466363

  16. Calibration of the Plasma Impedance Probe for the EQUIS II Sounding Rocket Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C.; Carlson, C.

    2004-12-01

    Two Plasma Impedance Probes (PIP) made nighttime measurements of the low latitude ionosphere as part of the EQUIS II sounding rocket campaign. The rockets were launched from Kwajalein on August 7th and 15th and reached 450 km in altitude. These probes operate by sensing the input impedance of an antenna immersed in the ionospheric plasma. Each probe made measurements using two different antenna geometries, a traditional monopole antenna and a patch antenna located on the rocket surface. There are several analytic theories for the impedance of monopole or dipole antenna in a space plasma. There are no analytic theories for a patch antenna. Utah State has developed a Plasma Fluid Finite Difference Time Domain (PF-FDTD) simulation that can be used to model various antenna geometries. Antenna impedance data from both geometries are presented and compared with analytic and the PF-FDTD simulation. Preliminary results of the extraction of electron density, electron neutral collision frequency, and electron temperature along the rocket trajectory are presented.

  17. Nasal vaccination with attenuated Salmonella expressing VapA: TLR2 activation is not essential for protection against R. equi infection.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Silvia Almeida; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; Trevisani, Marcel Montels; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Hanna, Ebert Seixas; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Soares, Sandro Gomes

    2013-09-23

    Virulent strains of Rhodococcus equi have a large plasmid of 80-90kb, which encodes several virulence-associated proteins (Vap), including VapA, a lipoprotein highly associated with disease. We have previously demonstrated that oral immunisation with attenuated Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain expressing the antigen VapA (STM VapA+) induces specific and long-term humoral and cellular immunity against R. equi. It was shown that VapA activates Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on macrophages by establishing an interaction that ultimately favours immunity against R. equi infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune response triggered by nasal immunisation with STM VapA+ and to determine whether TLR2 supports the vaccine effect. We developed an optimised protocol for a single nasal immunisation that conferred protection against R. equi infection in mice, which was manifested by efficient R. equi clearance in challenged animals. Nasal vaccination with STM VapA+ has also induced protection in Tlr2(-/-) mice and mice with non-functional TLR4. Moreover, spleen cells of vaccinated mice augmented T-bet expression, as well as the production of IL-12, IFN-γ, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. Notably, the population of CD4(+) T cells with memory phenotype significantly increased in the spleens of vaccinated mice challenged 1 or 5 months after immunisation. In these animals, the spleen bacterial burden was also reduced. When similar experimental procedures were performed in TLR2 knockout mice, an increase in CD4(+) T cells with memory phenotype was not observed. Consequently, we conclude that nasal vaccination with attenuated Salmonella expressing the R. equi virulence factor VapA confers long-lasting protection against experimental rhodoccocosis and that TLR2 engagement was not crucial to induce this protection but may be required for a long-term immune response.

  18. Identification of Three Novel Superantigen-Encoding Genes in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, szeF, szeN, and szeP▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Paillot, Romain; Darby, Alistair C.; Robinson, Carl; Wright, Nicola L.; Steward, Karen F.; Anderson, Emma; Webb, Katy; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Broughton, Karen; Jolley, Keith A.; Priestnall, Simon L.; Marotti Campi, Maria C.; Hughes, Margaret A.; Radford, Alan; Erles, Kerstin; Waller, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of superantigen-encoding genes by Streptococcus pyogenes has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in humans, and the gain of four superantigens by Streptococcus equi is linked to the evolution of this host-restricted pathogen from an ancestral strain of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. A recent study determined that the culture supernatants of several S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains possessed mitogenic activity but lacked known superantigen-encoding genes. Here, we report the identification and activities of three novel superantigen-encoding genes. The products of szeF, szeN, and szeP share 59%, 49%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with SPEH, SPEM, and SPEL, respectively. Recombinant SzeF, SzeN, and SzeP stimulated the proliferation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production, in vitro. Although none of these superantigen genes were encoded within functional prophage elements, szeN and szeP were located next to a prophage remnant, suggesting that they were acquired by horizontal transfer. Eighty-one of 165 diverse S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains screened, including 7 out of 15 isolates from cases of disease in humans, contained at least one of these new superantigen-encoding genes. The presence of szeN or szeP, but not szeF, was significantly associated with mitogenic activity in the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus population (P < 0.000001, P < 0.000001, and P = 0.104, respectively). We conclude that horizontal transfer of these novel superantigens from and within the diverse S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus population is likely to have implications for veterinary and human disease. PMID:20713629

  19. Fite stain positivity in Rhodococcus equi: yet another acid-fast organism in respiratory cytology--a case report.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, C; Matherne, J; Jorgensen, J H; Fowler, L J

    2001-04-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an aerobic Gram-positive and acid-fast coccobacillus that may cause cavitary pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts such as HIV-infected patients. Numerous Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS)-positive organisms were initially noted on the direct smear; a minor number of acid-fast organisms were seen in the Thin-Prep slide. Since the abundant mucous material with the attached organisms seen in conventional smears may be lost in liquid-based preparations, more sensitive stains such as Fite, as well as a more diligent search for organisms, is needed. This case illustrates the importance of careful selection and evaluation of special stains in sputum specimens.

  20. Identification of Lipoprotein Homologues of Pneumococcal PsaA in the Equine Pathogens Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Dean J.; Greated, Joanne S.; Chanter, Neil; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus are major etiological agents of upper and lower airway disease in horses. Despite the considerable animal suffering and economic burden associated with these diseases, the factors that contribute to the virulence of these equine pathogens have not been extensively investigated. Here we demonstrate the presence of a homologue of the Streptococcus pneumoniae PsaA protein in both of these equine pathogens. Inhibition of signal peptide processing by the antibiotic globomycin confirmed the lipoprotein nature of the mature proteins, and surface exposure was confirmed by their release from intact cells by mild trypsinolysis. PMID:10992520

  1. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in mares with subclinical endometritis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M R; Skive, B; Christoffersen, M; Lu, K; Nielsen, J M; Troedsson, M H T; Bojesen, A M

    2015-08-31

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing growth of dormant S. zooepidemicus, which subsequently allowed detection by standard diagnostics. To assess the effect of bActivate we compared its ability to activate dormant S. zooepidemicus in a group of potentially infected subfertile mares with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All mares had to test negative for S. zooepidemicus on a low-volume uterine lavage, be negative on endometrial cytology and without clinical signs of endometritis to be included in the investigation. The mares were instilled with bActivate or PBS in the uterus. Growth of S. zooepidemicus was induced by bActivate in 64% (16/25) and PBS in 8% (1/12) of the mares, respectively (p<0.002). In vitro studies supported that some strains of S. zooepidemicus were able to form persister cells tolerating 32-times of the minimal inhibitory concentration of penicillin compared to normal growing cells. Persister cells had not acquired penicillin resistance, but seemed to tolerate the antimicrobial due to dormancy. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of controlled growth induction of dormant bacteria from a subclinical infection. Moreover we demonstrated how endometritis can origin from a reservoir of dormant bacteria residing within the endometrium, and not only as an ascending infection. Further studies should aim at determining the prevalence of dormant S. zooepidemicus, impact of activation on diagnostic and treatment efficacy, uterine health and mare fertility. PMID:26123371

  2. Seasonal evolution of snow permeability under equi-temperature and temperature-gradient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domine, F.; Morin, S.; Brun, E.; Lafaysse, M.; Carmagnola, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The permeability (K) of snow to air flow affects the transfer of energy, water vapor and chemical species between the snow and the atmosphere. Yet today little is known about the temporal evolution of snow permeability as a function of metamorphic regime. Furthermore, our ability to simulate snow permeability over the seasonal evolution of a snowpack has not been tested. Here we have measured the evolution of snow permeability in a subarctic snowpack subject to high temperature-gradient (TG) metamorphism. We have also measured the evolution of the same snowpack deposited over tables so that it evolved in the equi-temperature (ET) regime. Permeability varies in the range 31 × 10-10 (ET regime) to 650 × 10-10 m2 (TG regime). Permeability increases over time in TG conditions and decreases under ET conditions. Using measurements of density ρ and of specific surface area (SSA), from which the equivalent sphere radius r is determined, we show that the equation linking SSA, density ρ and permeability, K = 3.0 r2 e(-0.013 ρ) (with K in m2, r in m and ρ in kg m-3) obtained in a previous study adequately predicts permeability values. The detailed snowpack model Crocus is used to simulate the physical properties of the TG and ET snowpacks. For the most part, all variables are well reproduced. Simulated permeabilities are up to a factor of two greater than measurements for depth hoar layers, which we attribute to snow microstructure and its aerodynamic properties. Finally, the large difference in permeabilities between ET and TG metamorphic regimes will impact atmosphere-snow energy and mass exchanges. These effects deserve consideration in predicting the effect of climate change on snow properties and snow-atmosphere interactions.

  3. Nighttime E-region Electron Density Profiles Measured During the EQUIS II Campaign at Kwajalein Atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D. E.; Pfaff, R. F.; Fourre, R.; Kudeki, E.; Steigies, C. T.; Chau, K.; Sarango, M.

    2005-05-01

    The EQUIS II nighttime E-region rocket and radar measurements were made in order to improve our understanding of the electrodynamics associated with density gradients, neutral wind shear, and enhanced electric fields that develop post-sunset in the near-equatorial region. Four rocket experiments were launched on two separate nights in September, 2004 from Kwajalein Atoll (9.4° N, 167.5° E), while simultaneous E-region radar observations were made with the ALTAIR radar. The focus of this presentation are the electron density profiles measured by two instrumented rockets as they passed through the unstable region on the upleg and downleg. Each rocket used two Langmuir probes and an impedance probe of a new design to measure both the absolute electron density and small-scale density fluctuations with spatial scales on the order of one meter. The impedance probe returned measurements from 7 kHz to 4 MHz, using a new design that excited the plasma using a pseudo-white-noise generator, allowing for an altitude resolution of approximately 40 meters. These impedance curves allow determination of the electron density from the identification of the upper hybrid frequency. In addition, evidence is presented that the impedance probe observed the lower-frequency "series" resonance which is dependent on the electron temperature. Data from the Langmuir probes, a beacon experiment, and the impedance probe are compared and the resulting density profiles are examined to estimate their contribution to the observed electric field irregularities via the gradient-drift and other instabilities.

  4. A major outbreak of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infections in free-range chickens is linked to horses.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, M; Bojesen, A M; Petersen, M R; Christensen, H

    2012-09-01

    Infections of poultry due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus have been rare during the past decades and dissimilarities have been reported as to symptoms and lesions; likewise, the source of serious outbreaks has remained speculative. An outbreak affecting 11,000 free-range chickens at the age of 47 wk is reported. The outbreak manifested itself as acute at the onset and was followed by a chronic stage, resulting in some 80% mortality within 21 wk. Small-colony variants (SCVs) of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus associated with the chronic phase are reported for the first time, and it is discussed whether SCVs might explain the change in lesions observed. Comparison of partial sequences of rpoB, multilocus sequence typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of isolates from chickens and horses kept at the farm showed the isolates to be identical and horses a likely source of infection. The present findings underline the importance of protecting free-range chickens from contact with other animals and birds known to host pathogens of importance to poultry.

  5. Pulmonary disposition of tilmicosin in foals and in vitro activity against Rhodococcus equi and other common equine bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Womble, A; Giguère, S; Murthy, Y V S N; Cox, C; Obare, E

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the serum and pulmonary disposition of tilmicosin in foals and to investigate the in vitro activity of the drug against Rhodococcus equi and other common bacterial pathogens of horses. A single dose of a new fatty acid salt formulation of tilmicosin (10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered to seven healthy 5- to 8-week-old foals by the intramuscular route. Concentrations of tilmicosin were measured in serum, lung tissue, pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells, and blood neutrophils. Mean peak tilmicosin concentrations were significantly different between sampling sites with highest concentrations measured in blood neutrophils (66.01+/-15.97 microg/mL) followed by BAL cells (20.1+/-5.1 microg/mL), PELF (2.91+/-1.15 microg/mL), lung tissue (1.90+/-0.65 microg/mL), and serum (0.19+/-0.09 microg/mL). Harmonic mean terminal half-life in lung tissue (193.3 h) was significantly longer than that of PELF (73.3 h), bronchoalveolar cells (62.2 h), neutrophils (47.9 h), and serum (18.4 h). The MIC90 of 56 R. equi isolates was 32 microg/mL. Tilmicosin was active in vitro against most streptococci, Staphylococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp., and Pasteurella spp. The drug was not active against Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Enterobacteriaceae.

  6. Lymphocytes and macrophages are infected by theileria equi, but T cells and B cells are not required to establish infection in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata), the intraleukocyte s...

  7. Differences in Rhodococcus equi Infections Based on Immune Status and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates in a Case Series of 12 Patients and Cases in the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ribes, Julie A.; Thornton, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P < 0.0001). Mortality in R. equi-infected HIV patients was lower in the HAART era (8%) than in pre-HAART era (56%) (P < 0.0001), suggesting that HAART improves prognosis in these patients. Most (85–100%) of clinical isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, clarithromycin, rifampin, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. Interestingly, there was a marked difference in susceptibility of the isolates to cotrimoxazole between Europe (35/76) and the US (15/15) (P < 0.0001). Empiric treatment of R. equi infection should include a combination of two antibiotics, preferably selected from vancomycin, imipenem, clarithromycin/azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, or cotrimoxazole. Local antibiograms should be checked prior to using cotrimoxazole due to developing resistance. PMID:27631004

  8. Differences in Rhodococcus equi Infections Based on Immune Status and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates in a Case Series of 12 Patients and Cases in the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ribes, Julie A.; Thornton, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P < 0.0001). Mortality in R. equi-infected HIV patients was lower in the HAART era (8%) than in pre-HAART era (56%) (P < 0.0001), suggesting that HAART improves prognosis in these patients. Most (85–100%) of clinical isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, clarithromycin, rifampin, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. Interestingly, there was a marked difference in susceptibility of the isolates to cotrimoxazole between Europe (35/76) and the US (15/15) (P < 0.0001). Empiric treatment of R. equi infection should include a combination of two antibiotics, preferably selected from vancomycin, imipenem, clarithromycin/azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, or cotrimoxazole. Local antibiograms should be checked prior to using cotrimoxazole due to developing resistance.

  9. Differences in Rhodococcus equi Infections Based on Immune Status and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Clinical Isolates in a Case Series of 12 Patients and Cases in the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gundelly, Praveen; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ribes, Julie A; Thornton, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an unusual zoonotic pathogen that can cause life-threatening diseases in susceptible hosts. Twelve patients with R. equi infection in Kentucky were compared to 137 cases reported in the literature. Although lungs were the primary sites of infection in immunocompromised patients, extrapulmonary involvement only was more common in immunocompetent patients (P < 0.0001). Mortality in R. equi-infected HIV patients was lower in the HAART era (8%) than in pre-HAART era (56%) (P < 0.0001), suggesting that HAART improves prognosis in these patients. Most (85-100%) of clinical isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, clarithromycin, rifampin, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem. Interestingly, there was a marked difference in susceptibility of the isolates to cotrimoxazole between Europe (35/76) and the US (15/15) (P < 0.0001). Empiric treatment of R. equi infection should include a combination of two antibiotics, preferably selected from vancomycin, imipenem, clarithromycin/azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, or cotrimoxazole. Local antibiograms should be checked prior to using cotrimoxazole due to developing resistance. PMID:27631004

  10. Illustration of the Difficulty of Identifying Streptococcus equi Strains at the Subspecies Level through a Case of Endocarditis in an Immunocompetent Man

    PubMed Central

    Daubié, Anne Sophie; Defrance, Carine; Renvoisé, Aurélie; Barreda, Eleodoro; D'Alessandro, Cosimo; Brossier, Florence; Jarlier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus equi in an immunocompetent patient who was subsequently cured after appropriate antibiotherapy and cardiac surgery. However, it was challenging to identify the strain to the subspecies level, which highlights the necessity of developing reliable molecular tools to discriminate between the subspecies. PMID:24478515

  11. Composition and Diversity of the Fecal Microbiome and Inferred Fecal Metagenome Does Not Predict Subsequent Pneumonia Caused by Rhodococcus equi in Foals

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan M.; Cohen, Noah D.; Suchodolski, Jan; Chaffin, M. Keith; McQueen, Cole M.; Arnold, Carolyn E.; Dowd, Scot E.; Blodgett, Glenn P.

    2015-01-01

    In equids, susceptibility to disease caused by Rhodococcus equi occurs almost exclusively in foals. This distribution might be attributable to the age-dependent maturation of immunity following birth undergone by mammalian neonates that renders them especially susceptible to infectious diseases. Expansion and diversification of the neonatal microbiome contribute to development of immunity in the gut. Moreover, diminished diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome has been associated with risk of infections and immune dysregulation. We thus hypothesized that varying composition or reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiome of neonatal foals would contribute to increased susceptibility of their developing R. equi pneumonia. The composition and diversity indices of the fecal microbiota at 3 and 5 weeks of age were compared among 3 groups of foals: 1) foals that subsequently developed R. equi pneumonia after sampling; 2) foals that subsequently developed ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscess formation or consolidation but not clinical signs (subclinical group); and, 3) foals that developed neither clinical signs nor ultrasonographic evidence of pulmonary abscess formation or consolidation. No significant differences were found among groups at either sampling time, indicating absence of evidence of an influence of composition or diversity of the fecal microbiome, or predicted fecal metagenome, on susceptibility to subsequent R. equi pneumonia. A marked and significant difference identified between a relatively short interval of time appeared to reflect ongoing adaptation to transition from a milk diet to a diet including available forage (including hay) and access to concentrate fed to the mare. PMID:26305682

  12. Investigation of ionospheric precursors leading to spread F during the EQUIS II campaign on Kwajalein.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D.; Larsen, M.; Swenson, C.; Barjatya, A.; Wheeler, T.

    2005-05-01

    A sounding rocket investigation of bottom-type scattering layers, shear flow, and the factors which may precondition the equatorial F region ionosphere for postsunset instability was carried out in August, 2004 from the Roi Namur range during the EQUIS II campaign on Kwajalein Atoll. Identical experiments were performed on August 7 and 15, each comprised of the launch of an instrumented payload which measured plasma number density and vector electric field profiles along with two chemical release payloads. The latter deployed TMA trails from which vector neutral wind profiles in three locations could be deduced. Ground-based support was provided by the Altair radar, a dual-frequency radar capable of measuring both coherent and incoherent scatter. The purpose of the experiment was 1) to understand and quantify the vertical shear in the zonal plasma drift that occurs each day around sunset, 2) to understand the nature of the bottom-type scattering layers that inhabit westward-drifting strata in the bottomside F region and that serve as precursors for fully developed spread F, and 3) to understand the influence of shear flow on the postsunset ionosphere. Ground-based and in situ data confirm the presence of strong shear in the flow proceeding the emergence of spread F irregularities in both experiments. The bottom-type layers that formed exhibited properties consistent with horizontal wind-driven gradient drift instabilities growing in an inhomogeneous bottomside. Regular 30-50 km structuring similar to what has been observed recently at Jicamarca was also evident in the layers. This structuring was repeated in the spread F depletions that finally appeared. The structuring of the bottom-type layers therefore served as a telltale of the spread F irregularities to come. Moreover, the structuring may have been produced by shear instabilities as described recently by Hysell and Kudeki [2004]. Numerical modeling of the causes of the shear as well as its effects on

  13. The Pan-Genome of the Animal Pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Reveals Differences in Genome Plasticity between the Biovar ovis and equi Strains

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Siomar C.; Silva, Artur; Trost, Eva; Blom, Jochen; Ramos, Rommel; Carneiro, Adriana; Ali, Amjad; Santos, Anderson R.; Pinto, Anne C.; Diniz, Carlos; Barbosa, Eudes G. V.; Dorella, Fernanda A.; Aburjaile, Flávia; Rocha, Flávia S.; Nascimento, Karina K. F.; Guimarães, Luís C.; Almeida, Sintia; Hassan, Syed S.; Bakhtiar, Syeda M.; Pereira, Ulisses P.; Abreu, Vinicius A. C.; Schneider, Maria P. C.; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of several infectious and contagious chronic diseases, including caseous lymphadenitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, mastitis, and edematous skin disease, in a broad spectrum of hosts. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections pose a rising worldwide economic problem in ruminants. The complete genome sequences of 15 C. pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from different hosts and countries were comparatively analyzed using a pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic, and singleton analyses revealed close relationships among pathogenic corynebacteria, the clonal-like behavior of C. pseudotuberculosis and slow increases in the sizes of pan-genomes. According to extrapolations based on the pan-genomes, core genomes and singletons, the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis shows a more clonal-like behavior than the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar equi. Most of the variable genes of the biovar ovis strains were acquired in a block through horizontal gene transfer and are highly conserved, whereas the biovar equi strains contain great variability, both intra- and inter-biovar, in the 16 detected pathogenicity islands (PAIs). With respect to the gene content of the PAIs, the most interesting finding is the high similarity of the pilus genes in the biovar ovis strains compared with the great variability of these genes in the biovar equi strains. Concluding, the polymerization of complete pilus structures in biovar ovis could be responsible for a remarkable ability of these strains to spread throughout host tissues and penetrate cells to live intracellularly, in contrast with the biovar equi, which rarely attacks visceral organs. Intracellularly, the biovar ovis strains are expected to have less contact with other organisms than the biovar equi strains, thereby explaining the significant clonal-like behavior of the biovar ovis strains. PMID:23342011

  14. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals: an assessment of the early diagnostic value of serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in equine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, F; Vardi, D M; Stefanetti, V; Marenzoni, M L; Prato, S; Cévese, P; Coletti, M; Pepe, M; Casagrande Proietti, P; Olea-Popelka, F

    2015-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals represent important goals for equine clinicians. Recent protocols for diagnosis and treatment of Rhodococcosis in foals typically rely on a multimodal approach based on sonographic evidence suggestive of pyogranulomas, sonographic abscess scores and laboratory findings including plasma fibrinogen concentrations, blood biochemistry testing and platelet and leukocyte counts. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of weekly testing of serum amyloid A (SAA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals to achieve early diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia prior to the onset of clinical signs. This testing was used to simulate a clinically practical screening procedure and compared with thoracic ultrasonography performed in parallel. The present study suggests that SAA does not represent a reliable early marker of Rhodococcosis when plasma concentrations are tested weekly. However, when clinical signs of R. equi pneumonia are present, SAA concentrations may allow clinicians to obtain 'real-time' indications concerning both the progress of infection and the effectiveness of therapy. This study raises the possibility that plasma fibrinogen monitoring starting at 1 week of age and repeated on a weekly basis, could serve as a screening test allowing clinicians to identify foals as suspected of R. equi infection. Future investigations regarding both physiological plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals as well as fibrinogen kinetics in foals affected with R. equi pneumonia, including the establishment of appropriate reference intervals for the test method employed in this study, will be necessary in order to clarify this possibility.

  15. The horse pinworm (Oxyuris equi) in archaeology during the Holocene: Review of past records and new data.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Benjamin; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Lepetz, Sébastien; Le Bailly, Matthieu

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the horse pinworm, Oxyuris equi, in archaeology during the Holocene period, and presents an overview of past published occurrences, early mentions in texts, and new data from our paleoparasitology research. This original compilation shows that the most ancient record of the horse pinworm dates to ca. 2500 years before present (ybp) in Central Asia and to ca. 2020 ybp in Western Europe. It also shows that the parasite is not detected on the American continent until contemporary periods. The role of European migrations from 1492 (Christopher Columbus) is discussed to explain the transfer of the horse pinworm from the Old World to the Americas. The absence of any record of this parasite before ca. 2500 ybp in Eurasia could be explained by parasite ecology, unfavorable sampling and scarcity of horse archeological remains. For the Americas, the absence of horse for long periods can be an additional explanation for the absence of the parasite.

  16. Elucidation of simple pathways for reconstructive phase transitions using periodic equi-surfaces (PES) descriptors. II. The strontium disilicide transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, Stefano; Nesper, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    A short topological pathway relating two fundamental three-dimensional, three-connected networks as they are found in α-ThSi 2 and SrSi 2 is proposed. The approach exploits a Fourier function approach based on periodic nodal (PNS) and periodic equi-surface (PES) descriptors. Continuous functions are chosen to represent the networks in question, and a linear transition approach provides a transition model. On this basis, each network is fragmented into a collection of dumb-bells, and the transition is described in terms of a concerted reorientation of the latter. The centers of mass of the dumb-bells are shown to conserve the diamond topology at each stage of the transition, as an underlying motif of the whole process.

  17. Targeted thrombolysis of tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase with extracellular biosynthesis nanoparticles using optimized Streptococcus equi supernatant.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, Ateke; Jamshidi, Reza; Esmaeili, Akbar

    2016-03-30

    Extracellular biosynthesis of nanoparticles have many important advantages such as well dispersed in aqueous solutions, low energy requirements, ecofriendly, non-toxic, low-costs and non-flocculate. This technique have shown significant promise as targeted drug delivery applications. In this investigation, for the first time, we examine the efficacy of targeted therapeutic delivery with t-PA and SK immobilized to biosynthesis of nanoparticles (CuNP) by using Streptococcus equi strains isolated from the horses of Iran and their ability to produce metallic nanoparticles. Also we compared them with their chemical synthesis. The S. equi was screened for its ability to produce MNPs. The minimum size and shapes (23-89 nm) are presented in the formation with good dispersion and high stability. Response Surface methodology was applied for the optimized production of biological CuNPs. The growth factors like pH, temperature and incubation time was changed. The optimum conditions to obtain CuNPs were found with the culture conditions of pH 7.5 in 120 h at 35 °C. To determine some of MNPs structural properties UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer, FTIR, XRD and SEM has characterized. The results provided some parameters may impact on the formation of biological MNPs. Lastly, these MNPs were conjugated with t-PA and SK, as a drug carrier. In addition, effective thrombolysis with magnet-guided SiO2CuNPs-tPA-SK is demonstrated in rat embolism model where 18.6% of the regular t-PA dose and 15.78% of SK dose restored and 15-25 min reductions in blood clot lysis time were observed compared with runs with free t-PA and without magnet-guided and using the same drug dosage. The comparison between CuNPs with MNPs shows that thrombolysis had not been directed to the type of magnetic carrier under the magnetic guide. PMID:26873394

  18. Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses in Central-Southern Italy: Sero-molecular survey and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé Del Pino, Leticia Elisa; Nardini, Roberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Iacoponi, Francesca; Cersini, Antonella; Autorino, Gian Luca; Buono, Francesco; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-04-01

    Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are tick-borne pathogens, etiological agents of equine piroplasmosis that affect different species of Equidae causing relevantly important direct and indirect losses. A field study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of the equine piroplasms in an area of Central-Southern Italy and to identify correlated risk factors. Serum samples of 673 asymptomatic horses were collected during spring-summer of 2013 to estimate the seroprevalence of the parasites within the study area using T. equi and B. caballi Antibody test kit (VMRD(®), Inc, Pullman, WA, USA). The 273 seropositive samples were subsequently tested by real time PCR to verify the presence of the genome of the piroplasms, indicative of the carrier status of the subjects. The variables chosen to identify which were the risk factors associated with the serological and PCR-positivity for each of the equine piroplasms were the following: gender, age, breed, access to pasture, altitude, land cover, climatic zone, soil type and province location (coastal/inland). The resulting overall seroprevalence for T. equi was 39.8% (268/673) and for B. caballi was 8.9% (60/673) while 70.3% of the PCR tested samples (185/263) were positive for T. equi and 10.3% (27/263) for B. caballi. The univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the association of the risk factors with the different outcomes. The risk factors found to be associated with T. equi seropositivity were gender, age, breed, access to pasture, land cover, soil type and province location, while those associated with PCR-positivity were age, soil type and province location. As the number of B. caballi seropositive subjects was limited, the multiple logistic regression model was performed only for the PCR-positive status, identifying climatic zone and soil type as the sole risk factors. In the study area, a major diffusion of T. equi, in terms of seroprevalence and PCR-positivity was present when

  19. Standardisation and comparison of serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using different antigenic preparations of the Babesia (Theileria) equi parasite.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Yogesh; Malhotra, Dharam V; Dhar, Shruti; Nichani, Anil K

    2003-01-01

    Serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were standardised and their sensitivity and specificity were compared for serodiagnosis of Babesia equi infection. The antibody titres of 24 donkey sera of known identity were determined separately by serial dilution ELISA using three different B. equi antigens namely whole merozoite (WM), cell membrane (CM) and high speed supernatant (HSS). The ratios of the optical density (OD) of known positive and known negative sera at different serum dilutions were calculated and termed as the positive/negative (P/N) ratio. The coefficients of correlation (r) were calculated between the P/N ratios at different dilutions of sera and the log10 antibody titres of the same sera were ascertained by serial dilution ELISA. The highest value of 'r' was obtained at a serum dilution of 1:200. From log10 antibody titre of sera (y) and their P/N ratio at a dilution of 1:200 (x), regression equations (y = a + bx) were calculated separately for the three antigens. Test sera were diluted to 1:200, their OD were read in duplicate wells and were converted to the P/N ratio. Antibody titres were predicted from the P/N ratio using a regression equation separately for the three antigens. Titres obtained by both ELISAs were not significantly different from each other, thus confirming that single dilution ELISA could be successfully used to replace conventional serial dilution ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of single dilution ELISA was validated statistically using 42 B. equi disease-positive sera and 106 B. equi disease-negative sera. The WM antigen was found to be the most sensitive with a higher predictive value for negative test sera as compared to the CM or HSS antigens. Sera positive for other equine infections including Babesia caballi showed no cross-reaction with the three B. equi antigens in ELISA, thus the test was immunologically specific. Antibody titres of 109 unknown field donkey

  20. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank, and groESL heat shock operon genes in naturally occurring Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Chae, J S; Foley, J E; Dumler, J S; Madigan, J E

    2000-04-01

    We examined 11 naturally occurring isolates of Ehrlichia equi in horses and two human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates in California for sequence diversity in three genes. Ehrlichia equi isolates were from Sierra (n = 6), Mendocino (n = 3), Sonoma (n = 1), and Marin (n = 1) counties, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent isolates were obtained from Humboldt county. PCR with specific primers for 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank and groESL heat shock operon genes successfully produced amplicons for all 13 clinical samples. The 444 Ep-ank gene of the HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California is different from the eastern U.S. isolates BDS and USG3. The translated amino acid sequence of the groESL heat shock operon gene fragment is identical among E. equi, the HGE agent, and E. phagocytophila, with the exception of the northern Californian equine CASOLJ isolate. Microheterogeneity was observed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California. These results suggest that E. equi and the HGE agent found in California are similar or identical but may differ from the isolates of equine and human origin found in the eastern United States. PMID:10747108

  1. Spectrum of disease caused by Rhodococcus equi in human immunodeficiency virus infection: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Willsie-Ediger, Sandra K; Stanford, James F; Salzman, Gary A; Bamberger, David M

    1990-01-01

    Since the first report of Rhodococcus equi infection in an acquired immune deficiency syndrome patient in 1986, seven additional cases have been described. A patient is described in whom the diagnosis was delayed due to misidentification of the organism as an atypical mycobacterial species. The literature regarding R equi infection in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus is reviewed. The most common presentation is one of a chronic, indolent pulmonary infiltrative disease (78%). Fever (78%), cough (67%), and hemoptysis (44%) are frequently present. Coexistent opportunistic illnesses are common (67%). In the laboratory identification of this organism, it is important to communicate the clinical setting to the microbiologist and to recognize the potential for the organism to be overlooked as normal flora or a contaminant, or misidentified as an organism with similar phenotypic characteristics (Nocardia species or a rapidly growing mycobacterium). Based on experience in foals, therapy with erythromycin and rifampin is suggested. PMID:22553450

  2. Development of a novel mucosal vaccine against strangles by supercritical enhanced atomization spray-drying of Streptococcus equi extracts and evaluation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Miguel A; Figueiredo, Lara; Padrela, Luís; Cadete, Ana; Tiago, João; Matos, Henrique A; Gomes de Azevedo, Edmundo; Florindo, Helena F; Gonçalves, Lídia M D; Almeida, António J

    2012-10-01

    Strangles is an extremely contagious and sometimes deadly disease of the Equidae. The development of an effective vaccine should constitute an important asset to eradicate this worldwide infectious disease. In this work, we address the development of a mucosal vaccine by using a Supercritical Enhanced Atomization (SEA) spray-drying technique. Aqueous solutions containing the Streptococcus equi extracts and chitosan were converted into nanospheres with no use of organic solvents. The immune response in a mouse model showed that the nanospheres induced a well-balanced Th1 and Th2 response characterized by a unitary ratio between the concentrations of IgG2a and IgG1, together with IgA production. This strategy revealed to be an effective alternative for immunization against S. equi, and therefore, it may constitute a feasible option for production of a strangles vaccine.

  3. Mutation of the Maturase Lipoprotein Attenuates the Virulence of Streptococcus equi to a Greater Extent than Does Loss of General Lipoprotein Lipidation▿

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Andrea; Robinson, Carl; Sutcliffe, Iain C.; Slater, Josh; Maskell, Duncan J.; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Smith, Ken; Waller, Andrew; Harrington, Dean J.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of strangles, a prevalent and highly contagious disease of horses. Despite the animal suffering and economic burden associated with strangles, little is known about the molecular basis of S. equi virulence. Here we have investigated the contributions of a specific lipoprotein and the general lipoprotein processing pathway to the abilities of S. equi to colonize equine epithelial tissues in vitro and to cause disease in both a mouse model and the natural host in vivo. Colonization of air interface organ cultures after they were inoculated with a mutant strain deficient in the maturase lipoprotein (ΔprtM138-213, with a deletion of nucleotides 138 to 213) was significantly less than that for cultures infected with wild-type S. equi strain 4047 or a mutant strain that was unable to lipidate preprolipoproteins (Δlgt190-685). Moreover, mucus production was significantly greater in both wild-type-infected and Δlgt190-685-infected organ cultures. Both mutants were significantly attenuated compared with the wild-type strain in a mouse model of strangles, although 2 of 30 mice infected with the Δlgt190-685 mutant did still exhibit signs of disease. In contrast, only the ΔprtM138-213 mutant was significantly attenuated in a pony infection study, with 0 of 5 infected ponies exhibiting pathological signs of strangles compared with 4 of 4 infected with the wild-type and 3 of 5 infected with the Δlgt190-685 mutant. We believe that this is the first study to evaluate the contribution of lipoproteins to the virulence of a gram-positive pathogen in its natural host. These data suggest that the PrtM lipoprotein is a potential vaccine candidate, and further investigation of its activity and its substrate(s) are warranted. PMID:17015455

  4. Wrinkle-to-fold transition in soft layers under equi-biaxial strain: A weakly nonlinear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soft materials can experience a mechanical instability when subjected to a finite compression, developing wrinkles which may eventually evolve into folds or creases. The possibility to control the wrinkling network morphology has recently found several applications in many developing fields, such as scaffolds for biomaterials, stretchable electronics and surface micro-fabrication. Albeit much is known of the pattern initiation at the linear stability order, the nonlinear effects driving the pattern selection in soft materials are still unknown. This work aims at investigating the nature of the elastic bifurcation undertaken by a growing soft layer subjected to a equi-biaxial strain. Considering a skin effect at the free surface, the instability thresholds are found to be controlled by a characteristic length, defined by the ratio between capillary energy and bulk elasticity. For the first time, a weakly nonlinear analysis of the wrinkling instability is performed here using the multiple-scale perturbation method applied to the incremental theory in finite elasticity. The Ginzburg-Landau equations are derived for different superposing linear modes. This study proves that a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation drives the observed wrinkle-to-fold transition in swelling gels experiments, favoring the emergence of hexagonal creased patterns, albeit quasi-hexagonal patterns might later emerge because of an expected symmetry break. Moreover, if the surface energy is somewhat comparable to the bulk elastic energy, it has the same stabilizing effect as for fluid instabilities, driving the formation of stable wrinkles, as observed in elastic bi-layered materials.

  5. [Antigenic drift of a strain of influenza equi virus isolated in France during the winter of 1978-1979].

    PubMed

    Plateau, E; Crucière, C; Gayot, G

    1983-01-01

    A strain of Influenza Equi virus isolated during winter 1978-1979 has been compared with Influenza A/Equine/Miami/1/63 (H3N8) strain by cross reactions performed by radial haemolysis (RH) and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test. Specific antisera were prepared on hens and guinea-pigs. Results differed according to the species on which the sera were prepared and the two methods of titration of the antibodies. Hens sera were unable to differenciate by HAI the newly-isolated strain Influenza A/Equine/Joinville/1/78 from the Influenza A/Equine/Miami/1/63 (H3N8) strain, but an antigenic drift of Influenza A/Joinville/1/78 from the original Influenza A/Equine/Miami/1/63 virus could be demonstrated with guinea-pigs' sera either by HAI or by RH. By HAI, Influenza A/Equine/Joinville/1/78 virus seemed dominant over Influenza A/Equine/Miami/1/63 (H3N8) virus, while in opposite Influenza A/Equine/Miami/1/63 (H3N8) seemed dominant over Influenza A/Equine/Joinville/1/78 when the viruses were compared by RH. Thus, antigenic sites and correspondant antibodies involved in HAI and RH reactions appeared at least partially differents.

  6. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  7. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  8. Vehicle Charging on the 29.036 and 29.037 Rockets of the EQUIS II Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjatya, A.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C.; Hummel, A.; Hysell, D.

    2004-12-01

    The rocket investigation "Scattering Layer in the Bottomside Equatorial F-region Ionosphere", was part of the NASA EQUIS II campaign. Two salvos of sounding rockets were launched from Roi Namur in Kwajalein on August 7th and 15th of 2004. The project's mission was to investigate the thin scattering layers in the post sunset equatorial F region ionosphere that act as precursors to a fully developed equatorial spread F. Each of the salvos consisted of one instrumented and two chemical release payloads. The instrumented rockets were launched westward into equatorial spread F precursor that was first observed from ground using the Altair radar. The instrumented rockets reached an apogee of ~450 km. The instruments consisted of a Sweeping Langmuir Probe (SLP), a fixed bias DC Probe (DCP), a Plasma Impedance Probe consisting of a Plasma Frequency Probe and a Plasma Sweeping Probe built at Utah State University. The instrument suite also included an Electric Field Probe built by Penn State University. This poster presents observations of vehicle charging and preliminary data from the SLP and DCP.

  9. Genomic and Functional Analyses of Rhodococcus equi Phages ReqiPepy6, ReqiPoco6, ReqiPine5, and ReqiDocB7 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Summer, E. J.; Liu, M.; Gill, J. J.; Grant, M.; Chan-Cortes, T. N.; Ferguson, L.; Janes, C.; Lange, K.; Bertoli, M.; Moore, C.; Orchard, R. C.; Cohen, N. D.; Young, R.

    2011-01-01

    The isolation and results of genomic and functional analyses of Rhodococcus equi phages ReqiPepy6, ReqiDocB7, ReqiPine5, and ReqiPoco6 (hereafter referred to as Pepy6, DocB7, Pine5, and Poco6, respectively) are reported. Two phages, Pepy6 and Poco6, more than 75% identical, exhibited genome organization and protein sequence likeness to Lactococcus lactis phage 1706 and clostridial prophage elements. An unusually high fraction, 27%, of Pepy6 and Poco6 proteins were predicted to possess at least one transmembrane domain, a value much higher than the average of 8.5% transmembrane domain-containing proteins determined from a data set of 36,324 phage protein entries. Genome organization and protein sequence comparisons place phage Pine5 as the first nonmycobacteriophage member of the large Rosebush cluster. DocB7, which had the broadest host range among the four isolates, was not closely related to any phage or prophage in the database, and only 23 of 105 predicted encoded proteins could be assigned a functional annotation. Because of the relationship of Rhodococcus to Mycobacterium, it was anticipated that these phages should exhibit some of the features characteristic of mycobacteriophages. Traits that were identified as shared by the Rhodococcus phages and mycobacteriophages include the prevalent long-tailed morphology and the presence of genes encoding LysB-like mycolate-hydrolyzing lysis proteins. Application of DocB7 lysates to soils amended with a host strain of R. equi reduced recoverable bacterial CFU, suggesting that phage may be useful in limiting R. equi load in the environment while foals are susceptible to infection. PMID:21097585

  10. Selective pressure for allelic diversity in SeM of Streptococcus equi does not affect immunoreactive proteins SzPSe or Se18.9.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Muhammad; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F

    2011-07-01

    Streptococcus equi, a clone or biovar of an ancestral Streptococcus zooepidemicus of Lancefield group C causes equine strangles, a highly contagious tonsillitis and lymphadenitis of the head and neck. At least 74 alleles based on N-terminal amino acid sequence of the anti-phagocytic SeM have been observed among isolates of S. equi from N. America, Europe and Japan. A d(N)/d(S) ratio of 5.93 for the 5' region of sem is indicative of positive selective pressure. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM were accompanied by variations in the surface exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9, both of which bind to equine tonsillar epithelium and, along with SeM, elicit strong nasopharyngeal IgA responses during convalescence. Sequences of genes for these proteins from 25 S. equi expressing 19 different SeM alleles isolated over 40 years in different countries were compared. No variation was observed in szpse, except for an Australian isolate with a deletion of a single repeat in the 3' end of the gene. Interestingly, only two SNP loci were detected in se18.9 compared to 93 and 55 in sem and szpse, respectively. The high frequency of nucleotide substitutions in szpse may be related to its mosaic structure since this gene in S. zooepidemicus exists in a variety of combinations of sequence segments and has a central hypervariable region that includes exogenous DNA sequence based on an atypical G-C percentage. In summary, the results of this study document very different responses of streptococcal genes for 3 immunoreactive proteins to selection pressure of the nasopharyngeal mucosal immune response.

  11. First record of protozoan parasites, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi from the edible oyster in Sundarbans region of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tanima; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Several protozoan parasites have been found infecting the edible oysters, hence deteriorating the meat quality. Protozoan parasites such as, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi infested the edible oyster in Sundarbans region, West Bengal, India, are first record from this region. Due to filter feeding habit of the organisms, oysters provides excellent ecological services in regard to efficient cleaning of infectious agents from surrounding water as a potential measure to improve water quality. However, these environmental benefits are associated with public heath risks from contaminated oysters intended for human consumption.

  12. First record of protozoan parasites, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi from the edible oyster in Sundarbans region of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tanima; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Several protozoan parasites have been found infecting the edible oysters, hence deteriorating the meat quality. Protozoan parasites such as, Tetrahymena rostrata and Callimastix equi infested the edible oyster in Sundarbans region, West Bengal, India, are first record from this region. Due to filter feeding habit of the organisms, oysters provides excellent ecological services in regard to efficient cleaning of infectious agents from surrounding water as a potential measure to improve water quality. However, these environmental benefits are associated with public heath risks from contaminated oysters intended for human consumption. PMID:27605821

  13. Structural characterisation of the virulence-associated protein VapG from the horse pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Blagova, Elena V.; Whittingham, Jean L.; Dover, Lynn G.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Virulence and host range in Rhodococcus equi depends on the variable pathogenicity island of their virulence plasmids. Notable gene products are a family of small secreted virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) that are critical to intramacrophagic proliferation. Equine-adapted strains, which cause severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals, produce a cell-associated VapA that is necessary for virulence, alongside five other secreted homologues. In the absence of biochemical insight, attention has turned to the structures of these proteins to develop a functional hypothesis. Recent studies have described crystal structures for VapD and a truncate of the VapA orthologue of porcine-adapted strains, VapB. Here, we crystallised the full-length VapG and determined its structure by molecular replacement. Electron density corresponding to the N-terminal domain was not visible suggesting that it is disordered. The protein core adopted a compact elliptical, anti-parallel β-barrel fold with β1–β2–β3–β8–β5–β6–β7–β4 topology decorated by a single peripheral α-helix unique to this family. The high glycine content of the protein allows close packing of secondary structural elements. Topologically, the surface has no indentations that indicate a nexus for molecular interactions. The distribution of polar and apolar groups on the surface of VapG is markedly uneven. One-third of the surface is dominated by exposed apolar side-chains, with no ionisable and only four polar side-chains exposed, giving rise to an expansive flat hydrophobic surface. Other surface regions are more polar, especially on or near the α-helix and a belt around the centre of the β-barrel. Possible functional significance of these recent structures is discussed. PMID:25746683

  14. Electromyographic latency of postural evoked responses from the leg muscles during EquiTest Computerised Dynamic Posturography: Reference data on healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Perucca, Laura; Caronni, Antonio; Vidmar, Gaj; Tesio, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    No normative data are available for the latencies of the EMG signals from the ankle muscles in response to sudden sagittal tilt (toes-UP or toes-DOWN) or shift (shift-FOR or shift-BACK) of the support surface during standing. In this study the postural evoked response (PER) paradigm on the EquiTest™ force platform was applied to 31 healthy adults (18 women and 13 men; mean age 29 years). The EMG latencies (PEREMG) were computed both through the standard manual procedure and through a specially designed automated algorithm. The manually computed PEREMG onset yielded a 95% tolerance interval between 82ms and 148ms after toes-UP perturbation, between 93ms and 182ms after toes-DOWN perturbation, between 67ms and 107ms after shift-BACK perturbation, and between 73ms and 113ms after shift-FOR perturbation. When comparing the two methods, paired t-tests showed no significant mean difference (Bonferroni-adjusted p-values ranged from 0.440 to 1.000) and all Bland-Altman plots included zero difference within the limits of agreement. Therefore, the manual and the automated methods appear to be sufficiently consistent. These results foster the clinical application of PEREMG testing on the EquiTest platform. PMID:24231039

  15. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H.

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  16. High-Entropy Alloys with a Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure Designed by Equi-Atomic Alloy Strategy and Binary Phase Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Amiya, Kenji; Wada, Takeshi; Yubuta, Kunio; Zhang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) with an atomic arrangement of a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure were found in YGdTbDyLu and GdTbDyTmLu alloys as a nearly single hcp phase. The equi-atomic alloy design for HEAs assisted by binary phase diagrams started with selecting constituent elements with the hcp structure at room temperature by permitting allotropic transformation at a high temperature. The binary phase diagrams comprising the elements thus selected were carefully examined for the characteristics of miscibility in both liquid and solid phases as well as in both solids due to allotropic transformation. The miscibility in interest was considerably narrow enough to prevent segregation from taking place during casting around the equi-atomic composition. The alloy design eventually gave candidates of quinary equi-atomic alloys comprising heavy lanthanides principally. The XRD analysis revealed that YGdTbDyLu and GdTbDyTmLu alloys thus designed are formed into the hcp structure in a nearly single phase. It was found that these YGdTbDyLu and GdTbDyTmLu HEAs with an hcp structure have delta parameter ( δ) values of 1.4 and 1.6, respectively, and mixing enthalpy (Δ H mix) = 0 kJ/mol for both alloys. These alloys were consistently plotted in zone S for disordered HEAs in a δ-Δ H mix diagram reported by Zhang et al. (Adv Eng Mater 10:534, 2008). The value of valence electron concentration of the alloys was evaluated to be 3 as the first report for HEAs with an hcp structure. The finding of HEAs with the hcp structure is significant in that HEAs have been extended to covering all three simple metallic crystalline structures ultimately followed by the body- and face-centered cubic (bcc and fcc) phases and to all four simple solid solutions that contain the glassy phase from high-entropy bulk metallic glasses.

  17. Spatial distribution, risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with Theileria equi infected equids of Punjab (India) diagnosed by indirect ELISA and nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Sumbria, Deepak; Singla, L D; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Amrita; Dahiya, Rajesh K; Setia, Raj

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a febrile, tick-borne disease of equids predominately caused by obligatory intra-erythrocytic protozoa Theileria equi in the Indian sub-continent. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 464 equids (426 horses and 38 donkeys/mules) in Punjab, India to assess the level of exposure to equine piroplasmosis by 18S rRNA gene nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and equine merozoite antigen-2 (EMA2) indirect-ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), to investigate risk factors and haemato-biochemical alterations associated with the infection. The endemicity of the disease was confirmed by positive PCR amplification in 21.77% and positive antibody titers in 49.78% equid samples. There was a fair agreement between these two diagnostic techniques (Kappa coefficient=0.326). The spatial distribution analysis revealed an increasing trend of T. equi prevalence from north-eastern to south-western region of Punjab by both the techniques correspondingly, which proffered a direct relation with temperature and inverse with humidity variables. The relatively prominent risk factor associated with sero-positivity was the presence of other domestic animals in the herd, while the propensity of finding a positive PCR amplification was higher in donkeys/mules, animal kept at unorganised farm or those used for commercial purposes as compared to their counterparts. There was a significant increase in globulins, gamma glutamyl-transferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, glucose levels and decrease in total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume by animals, which were revealed positive by nPCR (may or may not positive by indirect-ELISA) and increase in creatinine, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, glucose and decrease in total erythrocytes count by animals, which were revealed positive by indirect-ELISA (alone). To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, brings out a comprehensive report on the status on spatial

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic properties of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolated from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea during the phocine distemper outbreak in 2002.

    PubMed

    Akineden, O; Hassan, A A; Alber, J; El-Sayed, A; Estoepangestie, A T S; Lämmler, C; Weiss, R; Siebert, U

    2005-09-30

    The present study was designed to identify and compare 32 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from 28 different harbor seals of the German North Sea during the phocine distemper outbreak in 2002. The bacteria were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus based on cultural, biochemical, serological and molecular studies. Epidemiological investigations by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and gene szp and by macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA of the strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that all 32 strains appeared to be identical. These results indicate that a single bacterial clone seemed to be distributed among the harbor seal population of the German North Sea during this outbreak. PMID:16084036

  19. EquiNox2: A new method to measure NADPH oxidase activity and to study effect of inhibitors and their interactions with the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Derochette, Sandrine; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Franck, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Excessive neutrophil stimulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in numerous human or horse pathologies. The modulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX) has a great therapeutic potential since this enzyme produces superoxide anion whose most of the other ROS derive. The measurement of NOX activity by cell-free systems is often used to test potential inhibitors of the enzyme. A major drawback of this technique is the possible interferences between inhibitors and the probe, ferricytochrome c, used to measure the activity. We designed the "EquiNox2", a new pharmacological tool, to determine the direct interaction of potential inhibitors with equine phagocytic NOX and their effect on the enzyme activity or assembly. This method consists in binding the membrane fractions of neutrophils containing flavocytochrome b558 or the entire complex, reconstituted in vitro from membrane and cytosolic fractions of PMNs, onto the wells of a microplate followed by incubation with potential inhibitors or drugs. After incubation, the excess of the drug is simply eliminated or washed prior measuring the activity of the reconstituted complex. This latter step avoid the risk of interference between the inhibitor and the revelation solution and can distinguish if inhibitors, strongly bound or not, could interfere with the assembly of the enzymatic complex or with its activity. The EquiNox2 was validated using diphenyliodonium chloride and Gp91ds-tat, two well-known inhibitors largely described for human NADPH oxidase. The present technique was used to study and understand better the effect of curcumin and its water-soluble derivative, NDS27, on the assembly and activity of NOX. We demonstrated that curcumin and NDS27 can strongly bind to the enzyme and prevents its assembly making these molecules good candidates for the treatment of horse or human pathologies implying an excessive activation of neutrophils.

  20. EquiNox2: A new method to measure NADPH oxidase activity and to study effect of inhibitors and their interactions with the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Derochette, Sandrine; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Franck, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Excessive neutrophil stimulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in numerous human or horse pathologies. The modulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX) has a great therapeutic potential since this enzyme produces superoxide anion whose most of the other ROS derive. The measurement of NOX activity by cell-free systems is often used to test potential inhibitors of the enzyme. A major drawback of this technique is the possible interferences between inhibitors and the probe, ferricytochrome c, used to measure the activity. We designed the "EquiNox2", a new pharmacological tool, to determine the direct interaction of potential inhibitors with equine phagocytic NOX and their effect on the enzyme activity or assembly. This method consists in binding the membrane fractions of neutrophils containing flavocytochrome b558 or the entire complex, reconstituted in vitro from membrane and cytosolic fractions of PMNs, onto the wells of a microplate followed by incubation with potential inhibitors or drugs. After incubation, the excess of the drug is simply eliminated or washed prior measuring the activity of the reconstituted complex. This latter step avoid the risk of interference between the inhibitor and the revelation solution and can distinguish if inhibitors, strongly bound or not, could interfere with the assembly of the enzymatic complex or with its activity. The EquiNox2 was validated using diphenyliodonium chloride and Gp91ds-tat, two well-known inhibitors largely described for human NADPH oxidase. The present technique was used to study and understand better the effect of curcumin and its water-soluble derivative, NDS27, on the assembly and activity of NOX. We demonstrated that curcumin and NDS27 can strongly bind to the enzyme and prevents its assembly making these molecules good candidates for the treatment of horse or human pathologies implying an excessive activation of neutrophils. PMID:26452955

  1. Bivalent Ligation of the Collagen-binding Modules of Fibronectin by SFS, a Non-anchored Bacterial Protein of Streptococcus equi*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjiang; Ma, Hanqing; Fogerty, Frances J.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2015-01-01

    SFS is a non-anchored protein of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi that causes upper respiratory infection in horses. SFS has been shown to bind to fibronectin (FN) and block interaction of FN with type I collagen. We have characterized interactions of a recombinant 60-mer polypeptide, R1R2, with FN. R1R2 contains two copies of collagen-like 19-residue repeats. Experiments utilizing various FN fragments and epitope-mapped anti-FN monoclonal antibodies located the binding site to 8-9FNI modules of the gelatin-binding domain. Fluorescence polarization and competitive enzyme-linked assays demonstrated that R1R2 binds preferentially to compact dimeric FN rather than monomeric constructs containing 8-9FNI or a large dimeric FN construct that is constitutively in an extended conformation. In contrast to bacterial peptides that bind 2–5FNI in addition to 8-9FNI, R1R2 did not cause conformational extension of FN as assessed by a conformationally sensitive antibody. Equilibrium and stopped-flow binding assays and size exclusion chromatography were compatible with a two-step binding reaction in which each of the repeats of R1R2 interacts with one of the subunits of dimeric FN, resulting in a stable complex with a slow koff. In addition to not binding to type I collagen, the R1R2·FN complex incorporated less efficiently into extracellular matrix than free FN. Thus, R1R2 binds to FN utilizing features of compact soluble FN and in doing so interferes with the organization of the extracellular matrix. A similar bivalent binding strategy may underlie the collagen-FN interaction. PMID:25525266

  2. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area. PMID:25380362

  3. Enhancing the Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED): Preliminary Results from Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department, a Novel Multicomponent Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Melissa B; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Powers, James; Vandenberg, Ann E; Echt, Katharina V; Bryan, William E; Peggs, Kiffany; Markland, Alayne D; Hwang, Ula; Hung, William W; Schmidt, Anita J; McGwin, Gerald; Ikpe-Ekpo, Edidiong; Clevenger, Carolyn; Johnson, Theodore M; Vaughan, Camille P

    2015-05-01

    Suboptimal medication prescribing for older adults has been described in a number of emergency department (ED) studies. Despite this, few studies have examined ED-targeted interventions aimed at reducing the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the ED (EQUiPPED) is an ongoing multicomponent, interdisciplinary quality improvement initiative in eight Department of Veterans Affairs EDs. The project aims to decrease the use of PIMs, as identified by the Beers criteria, prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older at the time of ED discharge. Interventions include provider education; informatics-based clinical decision support with electronic medical record-embedded geriatric pharmacy order sets and links to online geriatric content; and individual provider education including academic detailing, audit and feedback, and peer benchmarking. Poisson regression was used to compare the number of PIMs that staff providers prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older discharged from the ED before and after the initiation of the EQUiPPED intervention. Initial data from the first implementation site show that the average monthly proportion of PIMs that staff providers prescribed was 9.4±1.5% before the intervention and 4.6±1.0% after the initiation of EQUiPPED (relative risk=0.48, 95% confidence interval=0.40-0.59, P<.001). Preliminary evaluation demonstrated a significant and sustained reduction of ED-prescribed PIMs in older veterans after implementation of EQUiPPED. Longer follow-up and replication at collaborating sites would allow for an assessment of the effect on health outcomes and costs. PMID:25945692

  4. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi as well as the identification of associated ticks in sympatric Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Elaine; Kock, Richard; McKeever, Declan; Gakuya, Francis; Musyoki, Charles; Chege, Stephen M; Mutinda, Mathew; Kariuki, Edward; Davidson, Zeke; Low, Belinda; Skilton, Robert A; Njahira, Moses N; Wamalwa, Mark; Maina, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    The role of equine piroplasmosis as a factor in the population decline of the Grevy's zebra is not known. We determined the prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in cograzing Grevy's zebras (Equus grevyi) and donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) in northern Kenya and identified the associated tick vectors. Blood samples were taken from 71 donkeys and 16 Grevy's zebras from March to May 2011. A nested PCR reaction using 18s ribosomal (r)RNA primers on 87 blood spots showed 72% (51/71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 60.4-81.0%) of donkeys and 100% (16/16; 95% CI, 77.3-100%) of Grevy's zebras were T. equi positive. No samples were positive for B. caballi. Sequence comparison using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's basic local alignment search tool identified homologous 18s rRNA sequences with a global geographic spread. The T. equi-derived sequences were evaluated using Bayesian approaches with independent Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo runs. The sequences clustered with those found in Sudan, Croatia, Mongolia, and the US, with statistical support greater than 80% for the two main clades. Hyalomma tick species were found on both donkeys and Grevy's zebras, whereas Rhipicephalus pulchellus was found exclusively on Grevy's zebras and Hyalomma marginatum rupfipes on donkeys. The prevalence of T. equi was 100% in Grevy's zebras and 72% in donkeys with common tick vectors identified. Our results suggest that donkeys and Grevy's zebras can be asymptomatic carriers and that piroplasmosis is endemic in the study area.

  5. Relatedness of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains isolated from harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) of various origins of the North Sea during 1988-2005.

    PubMed

    Akineden, O; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Weiss, R; Siebert, U; Foster, G; Tougaard, S; Brasseur, S M J M; Reijnders, P J H

    2007-03-31

    The present study was designed to identify 15 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated during a period between 1988 and 2005 from nine harbour seals and six grey seals from various origins of the North Sea. All isolates were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The bacteria were additionally investigated for relatedness by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and gene szp and by macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA of the strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The molecular analysis yielded identical or closely related patterns within the strains of the present study and with the S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains isolated from harbour seals of German North Sea which were investigated previously [Akineden, O., Hassan, A.A., Alber, J., El-Sayed, A., Estoepangestie, A.T.S., Lämmler, C., Weiss, R., Siebert, U., 2005. Phenotypic and genotypic properties of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolated from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the German North Sea during the phocine distemper outbreak in 2002. Vet. Microbiol. 110, 147-152]. This indicates that this single or closely related bacterial clone existed during both phocine distemper virus epidemics in 1988 and 2002 and that a direct transmission of the strains has occurred between two seal species and between seal populations of far distant regions possibly with grey seals as a vector.

  6. Capsule of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus hampers the adherence and invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells and is attenuated during internalization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Pei, Xiaomeng; Su, Yiqi; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-08-01

    Direct interaction between pathogens and host cells often is a prerequisite for colonization, infection and dissemination. Regulated production of capsular polysaccharide (CPS), which is made of hyaluronic acid, is essential for the pathogenicity of Streptococcus equi subsp. Zooepidemicus (SEZ). Here, we constructed a CPS-deleted mutant and analyzed it along with the parental wild-type strain in attachment and invasion of mammalian epithelial and endothelial cell lines. The CPS-deleted mutant exhibited significant increase in adherence and invasion by several orders of magnitude compared with the wild-type strain through quantitative analysis and electron microscopy observation. After the wild-type strain was recovered from invaded cells, its morphology was analyzed by visual methods and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that its capsule was almost completely absent. Capsule measurements showed a similar result in which CPS production was nearly attenuated to the same extent as in the CPS-deleted mutant. qPCR assays revealed a marked reduction in the transcriptional levels of the CPS biosynthesis genes, has operon. Moreover, the repression in capsular production was stable inheritance. Our findings indicate that SEZ is a facultative intracellular bacterium, capsule attenuation in SEZ contributes to attachment and invasion in interactions with host cells, and the active regulation of capsule breakdown is controlled by SEZ during internalization. PMID:27388015

  7. Policies and Processes for Social Inclusion: Using EquiFrame and EquIPP for Policy Dialogue Comment on "Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development".

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Mannan, Hasheem; Huss, Tessy; Munthali, Alister; Amin, Mutamad

    2015-11-16

    The application of EquiFrame in the analysis of sexual and reproductive health policies by Ivanova et al to a new thematic area, their selection of only some of the Core Concepts of human rights in health service provision and the addition of new vulnerable groups relevant to the purpose of their analysis, are all very welcome developments. We also applaud their application of EquiFrame to policies in countries where it has not previously been used, along with their use of interviews with policy-makers to produce a deeper understanding of policy processes. We argue that clear justification for the inclusion of additional, or replacement of some exiting vulnerable groups within EquiFrame should be accompanied by clear definitions of such groups, along with the evidence-base that justifies their classification as a vulnerable or marginalised group. To illustrate the versatility of EquiFrame, we summarise a range of ways in which it has been used across a number of regions; including a brief Case Study of its use to develop the National Health Policy of Malawi. While EquiFrame focuses on policy content, we preview a new policy analysis tool - Equity and Inclusion in Policy Processes (EquIPP) - which assesses the extent of equity and inclusion in broader policy processes. Together, EquiFrame and EquIPP can be used to help governments and civil society ensure that policies are addressing the much stronger emphasis on social inclusion, now apparent in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  8. Structural definition of trehalose 6-monomycolates and trehalose 6,6'-dimycolates from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi by multiple-stage linear ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fong-Fu; Wohlmann, Jens; Turk, John; Haas, Albert

    2011-12-01

    The cell wall of the pathogenic bacterium Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) contains abundant trehalose monomycolate (TMM) and trehalose dimycolate (TDM), the glycolipids bearing mycolic acids. Here, we describe multiple-stage (MS(n)) linear ion-trap (LIT) mass spectrometric approaches toward structural characterization of TMM and TDM desorbed as [M + Alk](+) (Alk = Na, Li) and as [M + X](-) (X = CH(3)CO(2), HCO(2)) ions by electrospray ionization (ESI). Upon MS(n) (n=2, 3, 4) on the [M + Alk](+) or the [M + X](-) adduct ions of TMM and TDM, abundant structurally informative fragment ions are readily available, permitting fast assignment of the length of the meromycolate chain and of the α-branch on the mycolyl residues. In this way, structures of TMM and TDM isolated from pathogenic R. equi strain 103 can be determined. Our results indicate that the major TMM and TDM molecules possess 6, and/or 6'-mycolyl groups that consist of mainly C14 and C16 α-branches with meromycolate branches ranging from C18 to C28, similar to the structures of the unbound mycolic acids found in the cell envelope. Up to 60 isobaric isomers varying in chain length of the α-branch and of the meromycolate backbone were observed for some of the TDM species in the mixture. This mass spectrometric approach provides a direct method that affords identification of various TMM and TDM isomers in a mixture of which the complexity of this lipid class has not been previously reported using other analytical methods. PMID:21972013

  9. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and…

  10. Simultaneous Measurements of Lower E-region Nighttime Electrodynamics Gathered with Rockets at the Altair Radar During the EQUIS II Campaign at Kwajalein Atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Freudenreich, H.; Kudeki, E.; Larsen, M.; Clemmons, J.; Bishop, R.; Steigies, C.; Chau, J.; Sarango, M.

    2005-05-01

    In order to investigate the complex electrodynamics and neutral-plasma coupling inherent to the unstable nighttime E-region near the earth's magnetic equator, a series of rocket/radar experiments were conducted at Kwajalein Atoll (9.4 deg N, 167.5 deg E) near 5 degrees magnetic latitude in September, 2004, as part of the NASA EQUIS II Campaign. The rocket experiments consisted of two identical, instrumented payloads launched on separate nights with limited apogees so that the payloads "hovered" in the E region below 120 km. Each payload included vector DC and AC electric field detectors, a flux-gate DC magnetometer, a combined Langmuir probe/impedance probe to measure the absolute plasma density and its variations, multi-sensor ionization gauges to measure the neutral density and its variations, and spaced-electric field receivers to measure the wavelength and phase velocity of the unstable plasma waves. Separate rockets launched in conjunction with the instrumented rockets released TMA trails on the upleg and downleg between roughly 90-160 km that revealed the neutral wind and its velocity shear. These payloads also included a beacon experiment that provided an independent measure of the plasma density. In addition to the rocket experiments, coherent and incoherent scatter radar measurements at 160 MHz and 422 MHz were gathered with the fully steerable Altair radar and detected layers of backscatter echoes near 105 km that were both intense and sporadic in their appearance. The layers were narrow in their altitude extent, spatially modulated, and typically lasted for about 30 minutes. The payloads were launched into unstable layers on two nights, one prior to the pre-reversal enhancement (LT 20:00:45) and one near midnight (LT 23:43:53). The initial electric field and plasma density data reveal well-defined layers of waves between 95-105 km altitude with predominant wavelengths of 10's of meters and longer within regions that contained weak to moderate gradients

  11. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  12. Characterization of Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum isolated from spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and plains zebras (Equus burchelli), and identification of a M-like protein (SrM) encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Speck, Stephanie; Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Fickel, Jörns

    2008-04-01

    Thirteen strains of Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum from free-ranging spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and plains zebras (Equus burchelli) in Tanzania were characterized by biochemical and molecular-biological methods. Although the colony appearance of the S.e. ruminatorum wildlife strains differed from that of the S.e. ruminatorum type strain CECT 5772(T), all biochemical reactions of the wildlife strains were similar to those of the type strain. In addition, all wildlife strains produced hyaluronidase and were capable of hydrolysing arginine, three strains (23%) synthesized acetoin, but only eight strains (62%) produced acid from ribose. rep-PCR indicated that different clones of S.e. ruminatorum were distributed among the hyena and zebra populations in the study area. Identical rep-PCR patterns in hyena and zebra strains suggest that a direct transmission of S.e. ruminatorum between these species may occur. The presence of a M-like protein (SrM) gene was demonstrated in all S.e. ruminatorum strains including the type strain. Sequencing of the M-like protein gene revealed a hypervariable region within the deduced amino acid sequence. Most of the strains clustered with previously described strains based on the hypervariable region of the S.e. zooepidemicus SzP protein. Sequencing also demonstrated that identical SrM protein sequences were shared among S.e. ruminatorum strains from different host species.

  13. EMS in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  14. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  15. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  16. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  17. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  18. The National EMS Research strategic plan.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Michael R; White, Lynn J; Brown, Lawrence H; McHenry, Susan D

    2005-01-01

    One of the eight major recommendations put forth by the National EMS Research Agenda Implementation Project in 2002 was the development of an emergency medical services (EMS) research strategic plan. Using a modified Delphi technique along with a consensus conference approach, a strategic plan for EMS research was created. The plan includes recommendations for concentrating efforts by EMS researchers, policy makers, and funding resources with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes. Clinical issues targeted for additional research efforts include evaluation and treatment of patients with asthma, acute cardiac ischemia, circulatory shock, major injury, pain, acute stroke, and traumatic brain injury. The plan calls for developing, evaluating, and validating improved measurement tools and techniques. Additional research to improve the education of EMS personnel as well as system design and operation is also suggested. Implementation of the EMS research strategic plan will improve both the delivery of services and the care of individuals who access the emergency medical system.

  19. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  20. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  1. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  2. EMS: part three. Preventive medicine for EMS maladies

    SciTech Connect

    Hyfantis, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Shakeout problems in the fast-growing field of energy-management systems (EMS) are gorwing pains and neither unexpected nor insoluble. A National Bureau of Standards (NBS) survey found user complaints ranging from problems with food spoilage to poorly trained service people. But blame can be placed on users, manufacturers, and distributors. Involving operators and managers in load-control strategies can alleviate some problems and save some money. Allowing for realistic testing time in the installation phase can also save in the long run, as will initiating a maintenance schedule and maintaining operating logs. Software maintenance can present a serious problem. Another NBS study result indicates there is perceptible improvement in system performance when good training accompanies installation, particularly when the training is provided at the user facility. User education is probably the best key to avoiding most of the potential pitfalls. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  4. Project X RFQ EM Design

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Gennady; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  5. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  6. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs.

  7. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  8. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  9. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  10. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  11. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further.

  15. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  16. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  17. Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

  18. Symptoms and reason for a medical visit in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Falagan, José Antonio; Garcia-Prim, Jose Maria; Valdes, Luis; Carreira, Jose Martin; Pose, Antonio; Canive, Juan Carlos; Anton, Diana; Garcia-Sanz, Maria Teresa; Puga, Amalia; Temes, Enrique; Lopez-Lopes, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Contexto: A Os doentes com o diagnóstico de cancro do pulmão estão habitualmente sintomáticos no momento do diagnóstico, sendo comum que o médico ou o doente não associem essa sintomatologia com a eventualidade de um tumor maligno. Objectivos: Este estudo teve como objectivo a análise dos sintomas de doentes com cancro do pulmão e sua relação com as características pessoais ou com a doença oncológica. Material e Métodos: Foi levado a cabo um estudo retrospectivo englobando todos os doentes com o diagnóstico de cancro do pulmão na Região de Saúde de Pontevedra (Espanha) ao longo de um período de três anos. São analisados os sintomas de apresentação do doente, o motivo de consulta e a concordância entre ambos ou com quaisquer factores correlacionados. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 358 doentes, com uma média etária de 68,7 anos, sendo 87% dos doentes do sexo masculino. Os sintomas iniciais mais comuns foram sintomas constitucionais em 30,4% dos casos, tosse em 20,9% e dor torácica, descrita por 12% dos doentes. O motivo de consulta mais frequente foi dispneia em 22,1% dos doentes, um achado acidental em 15,4% dos doentes e hemoptise em 12,8%. Observou-se uma associação moderada (coeficiente de correlação = 0,495) entre os sintomas iniciais e o motivo de consulta. Conclusões: Uma elevada percentagem de doentes com um diagnóstico de cancro do pulmão apresentou sintomas associados com o tumor no momento do diagnóstico, mesmo num estadio inicial da doença.

  19. [Hypofractionation in locally advanced breast cancer: "flash" scheme].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marisa; Gonçalves, Sara; Fardilha, Carlos; Melo, Gilberto; Miranda, Cristina; Alves, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da mama é uma das principais causas de morte no nosso país. No Serviço de Radioterapia do Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra de Coimbra utilizamos, desde há mais de 30 anos, um esquema de hipofraccionamento de radioterapia, denominado “Flash”, como opção terapêutica em doentes idosos ou com baixo Performance Status, portadores de carcinoma da mama localmente avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, com intenção neoadjuvante ou paliativa. Objectivos: Avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, nomeadamente sobrevivência global aos três anos, resposta local e toxicidades aguda e crónica, no grupo de doentes seleccionados submetidos a esquema de hipofraccionamento, em estudo retrospectivo. Metodologia: Entre Janeiro de 2006 e Dezembro de 2008, um total de 83 doentes com diagnóstico de Carcinoma da Mama Localmente Avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, foi submetido a “Flash” mamário. A dose de radioterapia prescrita foi de 13Gy / 2Fr / 3 dias (em 23 doentes - 27,7%) e 26Gy / 4Fr / 2,5 semanas (em 60 doentes - 72,3%), com fotões de 4 MV, sobre a mama afectada. Foi avaliada sobrevivência global segundo o método de Kaplan-Meier. A análise estatística foi efectuada através da aplicação SPSS, versão 17.0 e os testes estatísticos foram avaliados ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: 80 doentes (96,4%) que efectuaram “Flash” mamário eram do género feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 59 e os 93 anos (idade média 80,72 + 5,87 anos) e Performance Status (Karnosfsky: 0 - 100) entre 90 e 50%. Em 72 doentes (86,7%) o diagnóstico histológico foi Carcinoma Ductal Invasivo. A cirurgia após a realização do “Flash” Mamário foi realizada em 44 doentes (53%) após evidência de resposta local à radioterapia, sendo a Mastectomia Radical Modificada a técnica cirúrgica mais frequente. Efectuou-se o diagnóstico de metastização óssea em 10 doentes (12%), sendo que a taxa de sobrevivência global foi

  20. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  1. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  2. Generation and identification of Arabidopsis EMS mutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2014-01-01

    EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning.

  3. Leukocyte Recognition Using EM-Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colunga, Mario Chirinos; Siordia, Oscar Sánchez; Maybank, Stephen J.

    This document describes a method for classifying images of blood cells. Three different classes of cells are used: Band Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Lymphocytes. The image pattern is projected down to a lower dimensional sub space using PCA; the probability density function for each class is modeled with a Gaussian mixture using the EM-Algorithm. A new cell image is classified using the maximum a posteriori decision rule.

  4. Evaluation of the Ems Estuary ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baretta, J. W.; Ruardij, P.

    1987-11-01

    An ecosystem model is used to calculate and summarize carbon budgets within the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands. The similarity between model calculations and field data is established using a validation procedure. Model results show that the seaward boundary concentration for suspended matter is important in determining whether an estuary is an importer or exporter of carbon. Lowered boundary concentrations of suspended matter enhance pelagic primary production, but reduce sedimentation and hence the carbon flux from pelagic to benthic systems.

  5. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  6. Evaluation of functional recovery by motor functional independence measure test of elderly after hip fracture in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Radosavljevic, Natasa; Nikolic, Dejan; Lazovic, Milica; Radosavljevic, Zoran; Jeremic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: o objectivo do estudo é a avaliação do nível de independência funcional através da aplicação da escala de Medida da Independência Funcional (Functional Independence Measure [FIM]) em doentes com idade superior a 65 anos, após fractura da anca.Material e Métodos: Foram estudados 203 doentes após fractura da anca, aplicando a escala MIF em 3 momentos: admissão do doente no hospital (Período 1), no momento da alta (Período 2) e 3 meses após a alta (Período 3); os doentes foram englobados em 3 grupos etários: Grupo65-74 , Grupo75-84 e Grupo+85 e em dois grupos, consoante o Índice de Gravidade (IG): grupo 0-1,99 (IG1) e grupo ≥ 2 (IG2).Resultados: No grupo de doentes com idêntico IG, observou-se um aumento dos valores da MIF no Período 2 e 3 em ambos osgéneros e nas primeiras duas classes etárias, ao passo que em doentes acima dos 85 anos, com IG mais elevado, observámos uma variação não significativa dos valores da MIF entre o momento da alta hospitalar e 3 meses após a alta.Discussão: A melhoria mais significativa da MIF foi obtida em doentes do sexo feminino no primeiro e terceiro grupos etários e com IG mais elevado.Conclusão: O género não constitui um factor preditivo significativo da recuperação da independência funcional medida através da aplicação da escala MIF em doentes com fractura da anca, embora a MIF no momento da admissão seja um bom indicador de recuperação funcional em doentes do sexo feminino em certos grupos etários (primeiro e terceiro grupos etários).

  7. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  8. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  9. [PET/CT with 18F-Fluorocholine in Patients with Prostatic Cancer in Biochemical Recurrence].

    PubMed

    Lapa, Paula; Silva, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Tiago; Figueiredo, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Rui; Costa, Gracinda; Lima, João Pedroso

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: No carcinoma da próstata, é frequente, após terapêutica com intuito curativo, ocorrer recidiva bioquímica. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 no restadiamento e orientação destes doentes e analisar a influência, da estratificação de risco, dos valores do PSA e da terapêutica de supressão hormonal, na sensibilidade da técnica. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospectiva de 107 doentes com carcinoma da próstata em recidiva bioquímica que realizaram PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 no nosso hospital, entre dezembro de 2009 e maio de 2014. Resultados: A sensibilidade global foi de 63,2% sendo 80,0% quando PSA > 2 ng/mL. Foi possível identificar doença à distância em 28% dos doentes. A sensibilidade aumentou de 40,0% em doentes de risco baixo e intermédio para 55,2% em doentes de alto risco. Sem terapêutica de supressão hormonal, a sensibilidade foi de 61,8% enquanto no grupo sob essa terapêutica, foi de 67,7%. Discussão: A PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 forneceu informações relevantes, mesmo em doentes com baixos valores do PSA, contudo, com incremento significativo da sensibilidade nos doentes com PSA >2 ng/mL. A sensibilidade foi superior nos doentes de alto risco comparativamente com os de risco baixo e intermédio, contudo, sem uma diferença estatisticamente significativa. A terapêutica de supressão hormonal parece não influenciar a captação de Fluorocolina-F18 nos doentes resistentes à castração. Conclusões: Neste estudo, a PET/CT com fluorocolina-F18 apresentou bons resultados no restadiamento de doentes com carcinoma da próstata em recidiva bioquímica, distinguindo entre doença loco-regional e sistémica, informação com importantes consequências na definição da estratégia terapêutica.

  10. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  11. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  12. 7 CFR 1945.35 - Special EM loan training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Designation Staff to the State to assist the State Director in conducting a training meeting(s) with State... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special EM loan training. 1945.35 Section 1945.35...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.35 Special EM loan...

  13. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  14. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  15. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans available... consideration by the Secretary in making determinations under § 1945.6(c)(3) of this subpart. The State...

  16. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  17. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designations. When production losses meet the requirements in § 759.5 and the county has been designated as a disaster area for that reason, or when the discretionary exception to production losses for EM under § 759... eligible producers can receive EM loans. (2) Physical loss notification. When only qualifying...

  18. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  19. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite.

  20. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  1. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  2. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  3. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability.

  4. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  5. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts.

  6. Application of the Chameleon Model to EM Field Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2008-01-01

    The Chameleon scalar field model proposed by Khoury and Weltman presents an alternative mechanism for circumventing the constraints from local tests of gravity by mediating a fifth force for cosmological expansion, which could result in experimental signatures detectable through modest improvements of current laboratory set-ups in the vicinity of oscillating matter. In this paper, the oscillation of a dielectric by a crossed EM field is investigated in light of the Chameleon model. An EM excited Chameleon field-force equation is developed and compared to several EM experiments using the Barium Titanate based dielectric material.

  7. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  8. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture under the Plant Protection Act or the animal quarantine laws, as defined in section 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, automatically authorizes EM for production...

  9. Antibody-based affinity cryo-EM grid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The Affinity Grid technique combines sample purification and cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) grid preparation into a single step. Several types of affinity surfaces, including functionalized lipids monolayers, streptavidin 2D crystals, and covalently functionalized carbon surfaces have been reported. More recently, we presented a new affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, which applies the traditional Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) technique to cryo-EM. This approach significantly simplifies the preparation of affinity grids and directly works with native macromolecular complexes without need of target modifications. With wide availability of high affinity and high specificity antibodies, the antibody-based affinity grid would enable cryo-EM studies of the native samples directly from cell cultures, targets of low abundance, and unstable or short-lived intermediate states.

  10. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  11. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  12. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  13. Reducing stress factors in EMS: report of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Brownstone, J E; Shatoff, D K; Duckro, P N

    1983-01-01

    The existence of stress, coping with stress, and the effects of stress in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are highly current and hotly debated subjects. This article describes in part the results of a national survey of 25 EMS systems in 24 large metropolitan areas. The portion of the survey reported here focused on sources of stress and programs available to promote more effective coping with stres. Results are discussed generally and in terms of the services' organizational affiliations.

  14. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  15. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating. PMID:10458570

  16. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  17. Databases and Archiving for CryoEM.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A; Lawson, C L

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives-EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions, and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed, and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter, we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualizing and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities, and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  18. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  19. Elected medical staff leaders: who needs 'em?

    PubMed

    Thompson, R E

    1994-03-01

    Authority, influence, and power are not synonyms. In working with elected medical staff leaders, a physician executive who chooses to exert authority may soon find him- or herself relatively powerless. But one who chooses to downplay authority, to influence through persuasion, and to coach leaders to lead effectively soon generates support for his or her ideas. The need to coax, cajole, explain, persuade, and "seek input" frustrates many leaders in all kinds of organizations. It would be much easier just to order people about. It's so tempting to think: "Who needs 'em? I'm the 'chief physician.' I know what needs to be done. Let's weigh anchor, take her out, and do what it takes to sail those rough, uncharted seas." If you really enjoy sailing a large ship in rough seas without a crew, go right ahead. Or if you think it makes sense to run an organization with only an executive staff and no knowledgeable middle managers, by all means let clinician leaders know that, now that you're aboard, they're just window-dressing. If you can make this approach work, well and good. Your life will be much less complicated, each day will have far fewer frustrations, and progress toward established goals will be much faster. However, given the reality of traditionally thinking physicians, it would be best to keep an up-dated resume in the locked lower left-hand drawer of your desk.

  20. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  1. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  2. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  3. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  4. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  5. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  6. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

  7. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top.

  8. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,…

  9. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  11. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  12. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  13. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  14. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future.

  15. Virus particle dynamics derived from CryoEM studies.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, Peter C; Gong, Yunye; Xu, Nan; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Johnson, John E

    2016-06-01

    The direct electron detector has revolutionized electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM). Icosahedral virus structures are routinely produced at 4Å resolution or better and the approach has largely displaced virus crystallography, as it requires less material, less purity and often produces a structure more rapidly. Largely ignored in this new era of CryoEM is the dynamic information in the data sets that was not available in X-ray structures. Here we review an approach that captures the dynamic character of viruses displayed in the CryoEM ensemble of particles at the moment of freezing. We illustrate the approach with a simple model, briefly describe the details and provide a practical application to virus particle maturation. PMID:27085980

  16. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  17. The effective molarity (EM)--a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-08-01

    The effective molarity (EM) for 12 intramolecular S(N)2 processes involving the formation of substituted aziridines and substituted epoxides were computed using ab initio and DFT calculation methods. Strong correlation was found between the calculated effective molarity and the experimentally determined values. This result could open a door for obtaining EM values for intramolecular processes that are difficult to be experimentally provided. Furthermore, the calculation results reveal that the driving forces for ring-closing reactions in the two different systems are proximity orientation of the nucleophile to the electrophile and the ground strain energies of the products and the reactants.

  18. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  19. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  20. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  1. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  2. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  3. A modified EM algorithm for estimation in generalized mixed models.

    PubMed

    Steele, B M

    1996-12-01

    Application of the EM algorithm for estimation in the generalized mixed model has been largely unsuccessful because the E-step cannot be determined in most instances. The E-step computes the conditional expectation of the complete data log-likelihood and when the random effect distribution is normal, this expectation remains an intractable integral. The problem can be approached by numerical or analytic approximations; however, the computational burden imposed by numerical integration methods and the absence of an accurate analytic approximation have limited the use of the EM algorithm. In this paper, Laplace's method is adapted for analytic approximation within the E-step. The proposed algorithm is computationally straightforward and retains much of the conceptual simplicity of the conventional EM algorithm, although the usual convergence properties are not guaranteed. The proposed algorithm accommodates multiple random factors and random effect distributions besides the normal, e.g., the log-gamma distribution. Parameter estimates obtained for several data sets and through simulation show that this modified EM algorithm compares favorably with other generalized mixed model methods.

  4. Functionalized anatomical models for EM-neuron Interaction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Cassará, Antonino Mario; Montanaro, Hazael; Kuster, Niels; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of interactions between electromagnetic (EM) fields and nerves are crucial in contexts ranging from therapeutic neurostimulation to low frequency EM exposure safety. To properly consider the impact of in vivo induced field inhomogeneity on non-linear neuronal dynamics, coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling is required. For that purpose, novel functionalized computable human phantoms have been developed. Their implementation and the systematic verification of the integrated anisotropic quasi-static EM solver and neuronal dynamics modeling functionality, based on the method of manufactured solutions and numerical reference data, is described. Electric and magnetic stimulation of the ulnar and sciatic nerve were modeled to help understanding a range of controversial issues related to the magnitude and optimal determination of strength-duration (SD) time constants. The results indicate the importance of considering the stimulation-specific inhomogeneous field distributions (especially at tissue interfaces), realistic models of non-linear neuronal dynamics, very short pulses, and suitable SD extrapolation models. These results and the functionalized computable phantom will influence and support the development of safe and effective neuroprosthetic devices and novel electroceuticals. Furthermore they will assist the evaluation of existing low frequency exposure standards for the entire population under all exposure conditions.

  5. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  6. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of…

  7. A shape constrained MAP-EM algorithm for colorectal segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong; Song, Bowen; Han, Fangfang; Liang, Zhengrong

    2013-02-01

    The task of effectively segmenting colon areas in CT images is an important area of interest in medical imaging field. The ability to distinguish the colon wall in an image from the background is a critical step in several approaches for achieving larger goals in automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). The related task of polyp detection, the ability to determine which objects or classes of polyps are present in a scene, also relies on colon wall segmentation. When modeling each tissue type as a conditionally independent Gaussian distribution, the tissue mixture fractions in each voxel via the modeled unobservable random processes of the underlying tissue types can be estimated by maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm in an iterative manner. This paper presents, based on the assumption that the partial volume effect (PVE) could be fully described by a tissue mixture model, a theoretical solution to the MAP-EM segmentation algorithm. However, the MAP-EM algorithm may miss some small regions which also belong to the colon wall. Combining with the shape constrained model, we present an improved algorithm which is able to merge similar regions and reserve fine structures. Experiment results show that the new approach can refine the jagged-like boundaries and achieve better results than merely exploited our previously presented MAP-EM algorithm.

  8. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity

  9. Retained Textile Foreign Bodies: Experience of 27 Years.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Soykan; Kocakusak, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Introdução e Objetivos: A retenção de materiais têxteis após a cirurgia é uma situação indesejada, tanto para o doente como para o cirurgião. Frequentemente são subnotificados por questões de natureza médico-legal. Apresentamos 14 casos de textilomas (compressoma) que foram tratados ou seguidos pessoalmente por dois cirurgiões gerais num período de 27 anos para descrever e definir as características clínicas e patológicas. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente os dados relativos a uma serie de casos, nomeadamente: características dos doentes (sexo e idade), localização anatómica do corpo estranho, intervalo de tempo até ao diagnóstico, apresentação clínica, queixas, abordagem diagnóstica, motivo de cirurgia, tipo de tratamento cirúrgico e complicações. Resultados: Foram identificados nove doentes do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com uma média de idades de 43,07 ± 15,23 (mediano: 45) anos para o momento do diagnóstico. Em três doentes a cirurgia prévia foi cesariana, em quatro casos herniorrafia inguinal, um doente submetido a laparotomia exploradora por abdome agudo, um doente no qual foi realizado uma sigmoidectomia, uma doente submetida a apendicectomia e salpingooforectomia direita, uma doente na qual a cirurgia anterior tinha sido para corrigir uma hérnia incisional após laparotomia por neoplasia do ovário, um caso de tiroidectomia total, uma herniorrafia por hérnia epigástricae uma doente submetida cirurgia conservadora bilateral da mama com pesquisa de gânglio sentinela. A localização mais frequente dos compressomas foi intra-abdominal em sete casos, em quatro doentes a localização foi inguinal, um caso localizado na incisão da correcção da hérnia epigástrica, um doente com textiloma na loca de tiroidectomia, e no caso da doente submetida a cirurgia conservadora da mama em ambas regiões axilares se encontraram corpos estranhos/compressomas. O intervalo de tempo foi em média14

  10. <em>An Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Cascadian Seismogenic and ETS zones.em>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, B. A.; Livelybrooks, D.; Bedrosian, P.; Egbert, G. D.; Key, K.; Schultz, A.; Cook, A.; Kant, M.; Wogan, N.; Zeryck, A.

    2015-12-01

    The amphibious Magnetotelluric Observations of Cascadia using a Huge Array (MOCHA) experiment seeks to address unresolved questions about the seismogenic locked zone and down-dip transition zone where episodic tremor and slip (ETS) originates. The presence of free fluids is thought to be one of the primary controls on ETS behavior within the Cascadia margin. Since the bulk electrical conductivity in the crust and mantle can be greatly increased by fluids, magnetotelluric(MT) observations can offer unique insights on the fluid distribution and its relation to observed ETS behavior. Here we present preliminary results from the 146 MT stations collected for the MOCHA project. MOCHA is unique in that it is the first amphibious array of MT stations occupied to provide for 3-D interpretation of conductivity structure of a subduction zone. The MOCHA data set comprises 75 onshore stations and 71 offshore stations, accumulated over a two-year period, and located on an approximate 25km grid, spanning from the trench to the Eastern Willamette Valley, and from central Oregon into middle Washington. We present the results of a series of east-west (cross-strike) oriented, two-dimensional inversions created using the MARE2DEM software that provide an initial picture of the conductivity structure of the locked and ETS zones and its along strike variations. Our models can be used to identify correlations between ETS occurrence rates and inferred fluid concentrations. Our modeling explores the impact of various parameterizations on 2-D inversion results, including inclusion of a smoothness penalty reduction along the inferred slab interface. This series of 2-D inversions can then be used collectively to help make and guide an a priori 3-D inversion. In addition we will present a preliminary 3-D inversion of the onshore stations created using the ModEM software. We are currently working on modifying ModEM to support inversion of offshore data. The more computationally intensive 3-D

  11. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  12. Signals Attenuation and Application of EM-MWD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Liu, H.; Yang, Q.; Li, J.; Wu, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the course of drilling utilizes directional well and horizontal well, it is indispensable to master timely and exact geological guide information, and offering services for such complicated drilling is electromagnetic Measurement While Drilling (EM-MWD) which can measure guide data of drilling tool in the hole and formation data while drilling. This knowledge allows the directional driller to make appropriate mechanical corrections in drill string orientation that will allow the advancing drill bit to hit an intended subsurface target area. Based on electromagnetic field theory, the paper has studied the propagation particularity and attenuation regularity that the signals of electromagnetic wave for EM-MWD transmit in stratum. The paper also gives a brief introduction of the containing, the work principle and the main technology parameter of EM-MWD. To check up the performance of EM-MWD, the field test of 5 wells were carried out in Shengli Oilfield and Liaohe Oilfield. Numerical simulation results indicate the signal attenuation will be added with the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10 Hz the stratum absorptivity is tiny and does not add noticeably with the increase of the electromagnetic wave frequency and the decrease of the stratum resistibility. In the frequency range from 1 to 10000 Hz the stratum absorptivity does not increase noticeably with the decrease of the dielectric constant of the stratum. Field test demonstrate that EM-MWD receives successfully signal emitted from depth underground 1600 meters in Shengli oilfield and 2400 meters in Liaohe oilfield. Our results indicate that numerical simulation methods are comparable to field test.

  13. The B and Be States of the Star EM Cepheus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana; Marchev, Dragomir; Sigut, T. A. A.; Dimitrov, Dinko

    2016-09-01

    We present 11 yr of high-resolution, spectroscopic observations for the star EM Cep. EM Cep switches between B and Be star states, as revealed by the level of Hα emission, but spends most of its time in the B star state. EM Cep has been considered to be an eclipsing, near-contact binary of nearly equal-mass B stars in order to reproduce regular photometric variations; however, this model is problematic due to the lack of any observed Doppler shift in the spectrum. Our observations confirm that there are no apparent Doppler shifts in the wide spectral lines Hα and He i λ6678 in either the B or Be star states. The profiles of He i λ6678 typically exhibited a filled-in absorption core, but we detected weak emission in this line during the highest Be state. Given the lack of observed Doppler shifts, we model EM Cep as an isolated Be star with a variable circumstellar disk. We can reproduce the observed Hα emission profiles over the 11 yr period reasonably well with disk masses on the order of 3{--}10× {10}-11 {M}* in the Be state with the circumstellar disk seen at an inclination of 78° to the line of sight. From a disk ejection episode in 2014, we estimate a mass-loss rate of ≈ 3× {10}-9 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The derived disk density parameters are typical of those found for the classical Be stars. We therefore suggest that the EM Cep is a classical Be star and that its photometric variations are the result of β Cep or nonradial pulsations.

  14. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  15. Application of Electromagnetic (EM) Separation Technology to Metal Refining Processes: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Shengqian; Dong, Anping; Gao, Jianwei; Damoah, Lucas Nana Wiredu

    2014-12-01

    Application of electromagnetic (EM) force to metal processing has been considered as an emerging technology for the production of clean metals and other advanced materials. In the current paper, the principle of EM separation was introduced and several schemes of imposing EM field, such as DC electric field with a crossed steady magnetic field, AC electric field, AC magnetic field, and traveling magnetic field were reviewed. The force around a single particle or multi-particles and their trajectories in the conductive liquid under EM field were discussed. Applications of EM technique to the purification of different liquid metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, silicon, copper, and steel were summarized. Effects of EM processing parameters, such as the frequency of imposed field, imposed magnetic flux density, processing time, particle size, and the EM unit size on the EM purification efficiency were discussed. Experimental and theoretical investigations have showed that the separation efficiency of inclusions from the molten aluminum using EM purification could as high as over 90 pct. Meanwhile, the EM purification was also applied to separate intermetallic compounds from metal melt, such as α-AlFeMnSi-phase from the molten aluminum. And then the potential industrial application of EM technique was proposed.

  16. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only.

  17. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress. PMID:25760489

  18. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  19. Em polypeptide and its messenger RNA levels are modulated by abscisic acid during embryogenesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J D; Quatrano, R S; Cuming, A C

    1985-10-15

    The effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the expression of the 'early-methionine-labeled' (Em) polypeptide was examined in cultured, immature wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) embryos and in developing embryos in planta. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from poly(A)-rich RNA from immature embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. ABA-enhanced sequences were first identified by differential colony-blot hybridization, and then verified using RNA slot-blot analysis. Dot-blot hybridization showed that one clone, p1015, was homologous to the previously isolated Em cDNA, pWG432. Electrophoretic analysis of the hybrid-select translation product of p1015 confirmed its identity as an Em sequence. Comparison of the p1015 cDNA insert size and the Em message size, from northern blot analysis, showed that p1015 contained about 87% of the Em sequence. RNA slot-blot analysis and protein electrophoresis showed that Em message, but not Em protein, accumulated at a low, basal level in immature embryos in the absence of ABA. Neither Em message nor Em protein was seen in three-day germinated seedlings. Steady-state levels of Em message and protein increased in immature embryos in the presence of ABA, both in culture and in planta. Regulation appeared to be primarily at the level of transcription or specific message stability. Regulation may also involve specific protein stability, since synthesis of Em protein continued in immature embryos in the absence of ABA, but Em protein did not accumulate in detectable amounts. We conclude that ABA specifically modulates Em message and protein levels in immature embryos, but is probably not responsible for the embryogenic specificity of Em expression.

  20. [Attitudes and beliefs regarding opioid maintenance treatment in Portugal: a survey to physicians, patients and opioid users].

    PubMed

    Goulão, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Existem poucos estudos pan-europeus sobre programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos, tanto da perspectiva dos prescritores, como dos doentes que os recebem e dos utilizadores de opióides que se mantêm fora do sistema de tratamento. O projecto ACCESS, um estudo europeu realizado em 11 países, explorou as atitudes e percepções dos médicos, doentes e utilizadores de opióides quanto à qualidade e ao acesso aos programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos. O presente artigo descreve os principais resultados para Portugal.Material e Métodos: Os médicos que tratam doentes dependentes de opióides com recurso a programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos foram inquiridos por entrevista directa; os doentes em programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos, os doentes que não se encontravam em programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos (em tratamento não farmacológico), e os utilizadores activos (pessoas dependentes de opióides que não se encontram actualmente em tratamento) receberam questionários de auto-preenchimento.Resultados: Verificou-se que, tanto os médicos como os doentes avaliam como ‘Bom’ o tratamento dos dependentes de opióides, em Portugal. O acesso ao tratamento foi considerado ‘Fácil’ pela maioria dos doentes e dos médicos, registando-se um elevado nível de satisfação entre os doentes. Contudo, o conhecimento dos doentes quanto às opções dos programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos em Portugal encontra-se ainda abaixo do nível óptimo e as doses dos fármacos dos programas terapêuticos com agonistas opiáceos são frequentemente baixas.Discussão: Os resultados do projecto ACCESS, no que diz respeito a PTAO, são encorajadores e evidenciam quer as áreas de sucesso, quer as áreas que podem ser melhoradas no futuro, no que diz respeito ao sistema de tratamento de dependências de opióides em Portugal.Conclusões: O projecto ACCESS faz uma avaliação importante das atitudes e percep

  1. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  2. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation.

  3. Advanced communication infrastructure for pre-hospital EMS care.

    PubMed

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mazza, Giovanni; Mazza, Giovanni Giorgio; Shenvi, Rohit; Battles, Marcie

    2008-11-06

    The traditional communication infrastructure of the pre-hospital Emergency Medical System (EMS) is limited to voice communication using radio or cell phone technologies. With the emergence of 3rd Generation wireless networks (3G) and enhanced mobile devices capable of data communication (e.g., mobile tablets, PDAs with cell phones, or cell phones with PDA capabilities), the voice communication can be enhanced with interactive data messaging and perhaps even with interactive video communication. However, video requires substantially more bandwidth which 4th Generation (4G) systems are promising. However, their availability is limited. We present an infrastructure that allows dynamic selection of the best data transport mode in the pre-hospital EMS environment.

  4. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  5. Range Condition and ML-EM Checkerboard Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiangsheng; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the maximum likelihood (ML) image reconstruction criterion generates severe checkerboard artifacts in the presence of noise. A classical remedy is to impose an a priori constraint for a penalized ML or maximum a posteriori probability solution. The penalty reduces the checkerboard artifacts and also introduces uncertainty because a priori information is usually unknown in clinic. Recent theoretical investigation reveals that the noise can be divided into two components: one is called null-space noise and the other is range-space noise. The null-space noise can be numerically estimated using filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm. By the FBP algorithm, the null-space noise annihilates in the reconstruction while the range-space noise propagates into the reconstructed image. The aim of this work is to investigate the relation between the null-space noise and the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstruction from noisy projection data. Our study suggests that removing the null-space noise from the projection data could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the projection data and, therefore, reduce the checkerboard artifacts in the ML-EM reconstructed images. This study reveals an in-depth understanding of the different noise propagations in analytical and iterative image reconstructions, which may be useful to single photon emission computed tomography, where the noise has been a major factor for image degradation. The reduction of the ML-EM checkerboard artifacts by removing the null-space noise avoids the uncertainty of using a priori penalty. PMID:18449363

  6. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules. PMID:26566976

  7. A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures. PMID:22100448

  8. EMS-induced cytomictic variability in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Kumar, G

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were subjected to three treatment durations (3h, 5h and 7h) of 0.5 % Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS). Microsporogenesis was carried out in the control as well as in the treated materials. EMS treated plants showed interesting feature of partial inter-meiocyte chromatin migration through channel formation, beak formation or direct cell fusion. Another interesting feature noticed during the study was the fusion among tetrads due to wall dissolution. The phenomenon of cytomixis was recorded at nearly all the stages of microsporogenesis connecting from a few to several meiocytes. Other abnormalities such as laggards, precocious movement, bridge and non-disjunction of chromosomes were also recorded but in very low frequencies. The phenomenon of cytomixis increased along with the increase in treatment duration of EMS. Cells with these types of cytomictic disturbances may probably result in uneven formation of gametes or zygote, heterogenous sized pollen grains or even loss of fertility in future. PMID:21950142

  9. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  10. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  11. Conjoined Use of EM and NMR in RNA Structure Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zhou; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    More than 40% of the RNA structures have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. NMR mainly provides local structural information of protons and works most effectively on relatively small biomacromolecules. Hence structural characterization of large RNAs can be difficult for NMR alone. Electron microscopy (EM) provides global shape information of macromolecules at nanometer resolution, which should be complementary to NMR for RNA structure determination. Here we developed a new energy term in Xplor-NIH against the density map obtained by EM. We conjointly used NMR and map restraints for the structure refinement of three RNA systems — U2/U6 small-nuclear RNA, genome-packing motif (ΨCD)2 from Moloney murine leukemia virus, and ribosome-binding element from turnip crinkle virus. In all three systems, we showed that the incorporation of a map restraint, either experimental or generated from known PDB structure, greatly improves structural precision and accuracy. Importantly, our method does not rely on an initial model assembled from RNA duplexes, and allows full torsional freedom for each nucleotide in the torsion angle simulated annealing refinement. As increasing number of macromolecules can be characterized by both NMR and EM, the marriage between the two techniques would enable better characterization of RNA three-dimensional structures. PMID:25798848

  12. Minimum-distortion isometric shape correspondence using EM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Yemez, Yücel

    2012-11-01

    We present a purely isometric method that establishes 3D correspondence between two (nearly) isometric shapes. Our method evenly samples high-curvature vertices from the given mesh representations, and then seeks an injective mapping from one vertex set to the other that minimizes the isometric distortion. We formulate the problem of shape correspondence as combinatorial optimization over the domain of all possible mappings, which then reduces in a probabilistic setting to a log-likelihood maximization problem that we solve via the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The EM algorithm is initialized in the spectral domain by transforming the sampled vertices via classical Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Minimization of the isometric distortion, and hence maximization of the log-likelihood function, is then achieved in the original 3D euclidean space, for each iteration of the EM algorithm, in two steps: by first using bipartite perfect matching, and then a greedy optimization algorithm. The optimal mapping obtained at convergence can be one-to-one or many-to-one upon choice. We demonstrate the performance of our method on various isometric (or nearly isometric) pairs of shapes for some of which the ground-truth correspondence is available.

  13. [231 laparoscopic cholecystectomy in ambulatory: what results?].

    PubMed

    Goulart, André; Delgado, Margarida; Antunes, Maria Conceição; Braga Dos Anjos, João

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A colecistectomia laparoscópica é actualmente o gold standard no tratamento da patologia litiásica vesicular e colecistite aguda. A sua realização em regime de cirurgia de ambulatório permanece em discussão. O presente estudo tem por objectivo analisar a qualidade e segurança das colecistectomias laparoscópicas realizadas pela Unidade de Cirurgia de Ambulatório do Hospital de Braga e comparar os resultados com outros centros europeus que realizam colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo de doentes submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório durante 26 meses. Foram recolhidos dados referentes à demografia do doente, complicações peri e pós-operatórias, tempo cirúrgico e tempo de permanência no recobro e internamentos não programados.Resultados: Foram submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório com pernoita (alta < 24h) 231 doentes. Três doentes tiveram intercorrências intra-operatórias com necessidade de conversão para laparotomia e quatro doentes foram internados após a cirurgia. O tempo médio de cirurgia foi de 58 minutos e o tempo médio de recobro de 19h19m. A morbilidade pósoperatória foi de 7,8% tendo, ocorrido dois internamentos não programados.Discussão: Uma das discussões que existe em torno da colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório é a necessidade de vigilância hospitalar durante a primeira noite após a cirurgia. Na nossa unidade, iniciamos a realização da colecistectomia laparoscópica em regime de ambulatório com pernoita hospitalar. Os resultados de mais de dois anos e 231 doentes operados a colecistectomia laparoscópica mostram que é uma técnica perfeitamente segura em regime de ambulatório.Conclusões: Os dados do estudo mostram que a colecistectomia laparoscópica é uma técnica segura em regime de ambulatório, com resultados semelhantes comparativamente com

  14. SubspaceEM: A Fast Maximum-a-posteriori Algorithm for Cryo-EM Single Particle Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dvornek, Nicha C.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Tagare, Hemant D.

    2015-01-01

    Single particle reconstruction methods based on the maximum-likelihood principle and the expectation-maximization (E–M) algorithm are popular because of their ability to produce high resolution structures. However, these algorithms are computationally very expensive, requiring a network of computational servers. To overcome this computational bottleneck, we propose a new mathematical framework for accelerating maximum-likelihood reconstructions. The speedup is by orders of magnitude and the proposed algorithm produces similar quality reconstructions compared to the standard maximum-likelihood formulation. Our approach uses subspace approximations of the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data and projection images, greatly reducing the number of image transformations and comparisons that are computed. Experiments using simulated and actual cryo-EM data show that speedup in overall execution time compared to traditional maximum-likelihood reconstruction reaches factors of over 300. PMID:25839831

  15. Inhomogeneous Media 3D EM Modeling with Integral Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, Q.; Wang, R.; An, Z.; Fu, C.; Xu, C.

    2010-12-01

    In general, only the half space of earth is considered in electromagnetic exploration. However, for the long bipole source, because the length is close to the height of ionosphere and also most offsets between source and receivers are equal or larger than the height of ionosphere, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source. At this point the problem becomes one which should contain ionosphere, atmosphere and earth that is “earth-ionosphere” case. There are a few of literatures to report the electromagnetic field results which is including ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media at the same time. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using integral equation (IE) method for a three layers earth-ionosphere model. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale bipole source can be ignorable. The comparison of small scale three layers earth-ionosphere modeling and half space analytical resolution shows that the IE method can be used to modeling the EM fields for long bipole large offset configuration. In order to discuss EM fields’ characteristics for complicate earth-ionosphere media excited by long bipole source in the far-field and wave-guide zones, we first modeled the decay characters of electromagnetic fields for three layers earth-ionosphere model. Because of the effect of ionosphere, the earth-ionosphere electromagnetic fields’ decay curves with given frequency show that there should be an extra wave guide zone for long bipole artificial source, and there are many different characters between this extra zone and far field zone. They are: 1) the amplitudes of EM fields decay much slower; 2) the polarization patterns change; 3) the positions better to measure Zxy and

  16. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  17. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  19. [Acute gastroenteritis by Cambylobacter spp: a retrospective study of a paediatric emergency department].

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Teresa; Couto, Catarina; Romão, Patrícia; Melo, Isabel Saraiva de; Braga, Manuela; Diogo, José; Calhau, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A infeção por Campylobacter é a principal causa de gastroenterite aguda bacteriana pediátrica na União Europeia.Objetivos: Conhecer a prevalência de isolamento deste agente nas crianças admitidas na urgência com gastroenterite aguda que realizaram coprocultura, caracterizando a microbiologia, epidemiologia, clínica, terapêutica e complicações associadas.Material e Métodos: Casuística por consulta dos processos dos doentes admitidos na Urgência Pediátrica dum hospital distrital, durante 30 meses, com o diagnóstico de gastroenterite aguda e isolamento em coprocultura de Campylobacter.Resultados: Das 216 coproculturas efetuadas, 98 (45%) foram positivas. Identificámos Campylobacter spp. em 49 (50%) doentes. Destes, 30 (61%) eram do género feminino. A mediana de idades foi 23 meses. Catorze doentes tinham idade inferior a um ano, 25 entre um e cinco anos e 10 idade superior a cinco anos. Verificámos diarreia aquosa em cinco (10%) doentes, diarreia com sangue em 44 (90%), sangue e muco em 14 (29%), febre em 23 (47%), dor abdominal em 14 (29%) e vómitos em 11 (22%). Registámos um caso de sépsis. Internámos cinco doentes. Oito doentes foram medicados com azitromicina.Discussão: Esta é a maior casuística nacional publicada de gastroenterite aguda a Campylobacter em idade pediátrica e a primeira no sul do país. Campylobacter foi a principal bactéria identificada, associada maioritariamente a doença auto-limitada. Contudo, há a considerar formas de infeção graves. O aumento da resistência às quinolonas é preocupante.Conclusão: A utilização criteriosa da coprocultura permite a identificação etiológica na gastrenterite aguda bacteriana. O crescente aumento dos casos de Campylobacter diagnosticados reforça a necessidade de maior controlo das medidas de higiene na manipulação dos alimentos.

  20. [Pulmonary aspergilloma surgery: a mono-institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Correia, Sílvia da Silva; Pinto, Carlos; Bernardo, João

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O aspergiloma ou micetoma é resultado da colonização saprofítica de uma cavidade pulmonar pelo Aspergillus. A cirurgia do aspergiloma é o único tratamento eficaz a longo prazo mas a alta incidência de complicações no intra e no pós-operatório fazem desta um tema controverso. Objetivos: Análise da experiência de um Centro de Cirurgia Cardiotorácica nos doentes com aspergiloma pulmonar e avaliação dos fatores que influenciaram o prognóstico após a terapêutica cirúrgica. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospetiva incluindo todos os doentes com diagnóstico de aspergiloma pulmonar sujeitos a cirurgia de ressecção durante um período de 10 anos numa instituição (Junho 2001- Junho 2011). Resultados: Foram incluídos 22 doentes (18 homens), com idade média de 51,0 + 17,4 anos. Destes, 46% dos doentes apresentavam hábitos tabágicos, 41% hábitos alcoólicos acentuados e 50% história pessoal de tuberculose. A maioria dos doentes apresentava um aspergiloma complexo (73%) e 17% um aspergiloma simples. A apresentação clínica mais frequente foi a hemoptise (50%). O procedimento cirúrgico consistiu em ressecção pulmonar atípica em 55%, lobectomia em 27% e pneumectomia em 9%. Dois doentes foram submetidos a toracoplastia. A mortalidade operatória foi de 5% (um doente). Em 36% dos doentes houve complicações no pós-operatório sendo as mais frequentes o pneumotórax (18%) e o empiema (18%). O follow-up médio foi de 52 meses (3 - 116) e a mortalidade aos cinco anos foi de 35%. Destes, quatro doentes faleceram por causas não relacionadas e três eram doentes imunodeprimidos. A mortalidade nos aspergilomas simples foi de 40% e 33% nos aspergilomas complexos. Discussão: A abordagem cirúrgica mais frequente foi a ressecção pulmonar atípica. A taxa de complicações foi sobreponível à da literatura. Conclusão: O tratamento cirúrgico do aspergiloma pulmonar apresenta uma baixa morbilidade e mortalidade pelo que permanece o

  1. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regiões do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidências observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnóstico da perda de massa como da construção de modelos que visam explicá-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvén tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de aceleração de ventos homogêneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contêm grãos sólidos e moléculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interação entre as ondas Alfvén e a poeira e a sua conseqüência na aceleração do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonçalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependência da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parâmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magnético B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referência, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuição em .

  2. EM-Based Multiuser Detection in Fast Fading Multipath Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borran, Mohammad Jaber; Aazhang, Behnaam

    2002-12-01

    We address the problem of multiuser detection in fast fading multipath environments for DS-CDMA systems. In fast fading scenarios, temporal variations of the channel cause significant performance degradation even with the Rake receiver. We use a previously introduced time-frequency (TF) Rake receiver based on a canonical formulation of the channel and signals to simultaneously combat fading and multipath effects. This receiver uses the Doppler spread caused by rapid time-varying channel as another means of diversity. In dealing with multiaccess interference and as an attempt to avoid the prohibitive computational complexity of the optimum maximum-likelihood (ML) detector, we use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to derive an approximate ML detector. The new detector turns out to have an iterative structure very similar to the well-known multistage detector with some extra parameters. At the two extreme values of these parameters, the EM detector reduces to either one-shot TF Rake or generalized multistage detector. For the intermediate values of the parameters, it combines the two estimates to obtain a better decision for the bits of the users. Because of using the EM algorithm, this detector has better convergence properties than the multistage detector; the bit estimates always converge, and if an appropriate initial vector is used, they converge to the global maximizer of the likelihood function. As a result, the new detector provides significantly improved performance while maintaining the low complexity of the multistage detector. Our simulation results confirm the expected performance improvements compared to the base case of the TF Rake as well as the multistage detector used with the TF Rake.

  3. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  4. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  5. Epidemiology of major incidents: an EMS study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major incident is defined as an event that owing to the number of casualties has the potential to overwhelm the available resources. This paper attempts to describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents dealt with by a government-run emergency medical service (EMS) in the Punjab province of Pakistan, a developing country in South Asia. A major incident in this EMS is defined as any incident that produces three or more patients, or any incident in which extraordinary resources are needed. Methods All the calls received by an EMS Rescue 1122 were studied over a 6-month period. Calls that were defined as major incidents were identified, and further details were sought from the districts regarding these incidents. Questions specifically asked were the type of incident, time of the incident, response time for the incident, the resources needed, and the number of dead and injured casualties. Retrospective data were collected from the submitted written reports. Results Road traffic crashes (RTCs) emerged as the leading cause of a major incident in the province of Punjab and also led to the greatest number of casualties, followed by fire incidents. The total number of casualties was 3,380, out of which 73.7% were RTC victims. There was a high rate of death on the scene (10.4%). Certain other causes of major incidents also emerged, including violence, gas explosions and drowning. Conclusion Road traffic crashes are the most common cause of a major incident in developing countries such as Pakistan. Injury prevention initiatives need to focus on RTCs. PMID:21798011

  6. The effective molarity (EM) puzzle in proton transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2009-08-01

    The DFT and HF calculation results for the proton transfer reactions of three different systems reveal that the reaction mechanism (transfer of a proton to a nucleophile) is largely determined by the distance between the two reactive centers (r). Systems with relatively large r values tend to abstract a proton from a molecule of water, whereas, these with a relatively small r values prefer to be engaged intramolecularly and their interaction with water is only via hydrogen bonding. Further, the results indicate that the effective molarity (logEM) for an intramolecular process is strongly correlated with the distance between the two reacting centers (r) in accordance with Menger's "spatiotemporal hypothesis".

  7. EMS Bill of Rights: what every patient deserves.

    PubMed

    Meador, Steven R; Slovis, Corey M; Wrenn, Keith D

    2003-03-01

    Every EMT, paramedic, supervisor and EMS medical director must stress that our job is to treat every patient the way we'd like to be treated or the way we'd want one of our family members treated. Those charged with supervision must ensure that EMTs and paramedics receive the support and training necessary to allow adherence to the 10 objectives outlined in this article. Quality-assurance reviews, quality-improvement programs, provider comments and complaints from the public must all be used to improve the care we deliver. Prehospital care should be constantly improving the delivery of excellent, life-saving care.

  8. On the EM algorithm for overdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, G J

    1997-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of the EM algorithm for the fitting of distributions by maximum likelihood to overdispersed count data. In the course of this, we also provide a review of various approaches that have been proposed for the analysis of such data. As the Poisson and binomial regression models, which are often adopted in the first instance for these analyses, are particular examples of a generalized linear model (GLM), the focus of the account is on the modifications and extensions to GLMs for the handling of overdispersed count data. PMID:9185291

  9. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care. PMID:10143711

  10. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  11. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  12. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient…

  13. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  14. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  15. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  16. Thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults: retrospective review of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Joana; Ribeiro, Cristina; Melo, Miguel; Gomes, Leonor; Costa, Gracinda; Carrilho, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da tiróide é raro em crianças e em adultos jovens. A maior parte das orientações clínicas baseia-se em dados obtidos na população adulta. Persistem diversas controvérsias no que se refere à agressividade da apresentação clínica e da abordagem terapêutica.Objectivo: Avaliar todos os doentes com carcinoma da tiróide com menos de 20 anos no momento da apresentação, reflectindo a experiência da nossa unidade relativamente ao diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento desta entidade.Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo de revisão retrospectiva dos registos clínicos de todas as crianças e adultos jovens seguidos na Consulta de Oncologia do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra entre 1996 e 2012 .Resultados: Foram estudados 19 doentes, com uma média etária de 16 anos, sendo 13 do sexo feminino. Nenhum dos doentes fora previamente submetido a irradiação da região do pescoço. A queixa de apresentação era a presença de uma massa cervical palpável em 84,6% dos casos. Foi realizada citologia aspirativa em 15 doentes, que foi diagnóstica ou suspeita de neoplasia em 71,4% dos casos. A tiroidectomia total foi levada a cabo em 18 casos (94,7%). Em todos estes foi identificada a presença de um carcinoma papilar. A invasão vascular e multicêntrica ocorreu em 21,1% dos casos. A dimensão tumoral média foi de 2,5 cm. O envolvimento ganglionar cervical foi diagnosticado em 31,6% dos casos e a presença de metástases à distância foi identificada em 5,2% dos casos. Na maior parte dos doentes (18 em 19), o quadro foi classificado como doença em estadio I. Todos os doentes fizeram terapêutica supressora com tiroxina e 84,2% dos doentes foram submetidos a ablação pós-operatória com iodo radioactivo (dose média de 85,7mCi). Durante um seguimento médio de cerca de 6 anos, 16 doentes permaneceram em remissão.Conclusão: Na nossa série, as taxas de metastização ganglionar cervical

  17. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  18. Data-adaptive Shrinkage via the Hyperpenalized EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Philip S.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2015-01-01

    We propose an extension of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, called the hyperpenalized EM (HEM) algorithm, that maximizes a penalized log-likelihood, for which some data are missing or unavailable, using a data-adaptive estimate of the penalty parameter. This is potentially useful in applications for which the analyst is unable or unwilling to choose a single value of a penalty parameter but instead can posit a plausible range of values. The HEM algorithm is conceptually straightforward and also very effective, and we demonstrate its utility in the analysis of a genomic data set. Gene expression measurements and clinical covariates were used to predict survival time. However, many survival times are censored, and some observations only contain expression measurements derived from a different assay, which together constitute a difficult missing data problem. It is desired to shrink the genomic contribution in a data-adaptive way. The HEM algorithm successfully handles both the missing data and shrinkage aspects of the problem. PMID:26834856

  19. The Search for Gravitational Wave EM Counterparts with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennea, Jamie; Evans, Phil; Swift GW follow-up Team

    2016-04-01

    We present the plan to search for electromagnetic counterparts of Gravitational Waves (GWs) discovered during the current and upcoming runs of the LIGO and Virgo detectors. As we enter a period where the sensitivity of the current generation of GW detectors approaches a high probability of the first detection of a real GW signal, confirmation of the reality of these triggers will be greatly improved if an EM counterpart can be found. Swift’s ability to rapidly respond to high priority target-of-opportunity observations, it’s multi-wavelength capabilities and low overhead observing make it a seemingly ideal follow-up facility. However comparing the size of the expected GW error regions with the fields of view of the Swift XRT and UVOT telescopes, we find that covering the large GW error regions would require a unreasonably large number of pointings. We present our method of meeting this challenge, by both reducing the problem using Galaxy targeting, and by operating Swift in an entirely new way in order to cover the still large number of fields needed to chase down the EM counterpart before it disappears.

  20. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  1. Contactless ultrasonic treatment of melts using EM induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound Treatment (UT) is commonly used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, or disperse immersed particles. A sonotrode probe introduced into the melt generates sound waves that are strong enough to produce cavitation of dissolved gases. The same method cannot be used in high temperature melts, or for highly reactive alloys, due to probe erosion and melt contamination. An alternative, contactless method of generating sound waves is proposed and investigated theoretically in this paper, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. In addition to strong vibration, the EM induction currents generate strong stirring in the melt that aids distribution of the UT effect to large volumes of material. In a typical application, the same induction coil surrounding the crucible used to melt the alloy may be adopted for UT with suitable frequency tuning. Alternatively - or in addition - a top coil may be used. For industrial use, instead of multiple sonotrodes as has been the practice in scaling up, modelling shows that one simply has to alter the coil geometry and current to suit. To reach sinusoidal pressure fluctuations suitable for cavitation it may be necessary to tune the induction coil frequency for resonance, given the crucible dimensions.

  2. The EM fields in the Solid Generated by a Fault in a Porous Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Huang, Q.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic effect, as one of the most possible generation mechanisms of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenons associated with natural earthquakes, has interested many researchers. Besides, it is also considered as a potential tool for the water/oil exploration. Recently, we numerically investigated the electromagnetic (EM) fields due to the electrokinetic effect in mixed layered model. The mixed model comprises not only porous layers but also solid layers. We firstly tested a two-layer mixed model. The numerical results show that, in addition to the radiation EM fields, another kind of evanescent EM fields can be generated by the seismic waves arriving at the interface with incident angles greater the critical angle. The evanescent EM fields decay faster than the radiation EM fields when getting away from the interface. For the seismic frequency band, the evanescent EM fields in the solid are still measurable at a distance of, e.g., 2km to the interface. We then tested a eight-layer mixed model. The top and bottom layers are solid and the other layers are porous. A finite fault of 20x10km is located in the porous region. The focal depth is 8km. The applied source time function is a ramp fuction with an arise time of 0.8s. Point stacking method was used to compute the wave-fields caused by the finite fault. Our nuemrical results show that, this model can generate the EM fields before the arrival of seismic waves as well as the residual EM fields. Both the two kinds of EM fields have been observed in field observations. There is a possibility that the anomalous EM activities before big earthquakes may be caused by the fluid flow in the shallow Earth as a result of the stress changes.

  3. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  4. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  5. [Surgical treatment of spinal tuberculosis: an orthopedic service experience].

    PubMed

    Soares do Brito, Joaquim; Batista, Nuno; Tirado, António; Fernandes, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A espondilodiscite de etiologia tuberculosa é responsável por mais de 40% do universo destas infeções. Enquanto a quimioterapia tuberculostática se mantém como gold-standard da terapêutica desta patologia, o tratamento cirúrgico tem lugar em situações muito específicas. Neste trabalho apresentam-se os resultados de 33 doentes com espondilodiscite tuberculosa operados no nosso serviço durante os últimos 15 anos.Objetivo: Avaliar retrospetivamente doentes com diagnóstico de espondilodiscite tuberculosa operados num período de 15 anos(1996 a 2011); avaliar opções cirúrgicas tomadas e respetivos resultados relativamente à resolução da infeção, controlo da deformidade e evolução da lesão neurológica.Material e Métodos: Análise retrospetiva dos processos clínicos e avaliações imagiológicas de doentes com diagnóstico de espondilodiscite tuberculosa operados entre 1996 e 2011. Foram identificados 33 doentes com idade média de 46,7 anos; 17 doentes apresentavam infeção torácica, 11 lombar e cinco toraco-lombar. O abcesso paravertebral foi identificado em 26 dos casos estudados, existindo extensão intracanalar em 16 doentes. Nove dos doentes avaliados apresentavam lesão neurológica. A abordagem cirúrgica por via anterior foi utilizada em sete casos, a via posterior em 11 e a abordagem combinada foi a preferida em 15 ocasiões. A quimioterapia antibacilar foi mantida em média por 14 meses, com seguimento médio de 24 meses.Resultados: Verificámos cura da infeção em todos os doentes, sendo documentados critérios de fusão óssea, em média, 10,6 meses pós-cirurgia. A abordagem anterior isolada não permitiu obter correção da deformidade inicial, enquanto a via posterior permitiu uma correção média de 12,7º e a via combinada uma correção média de 8,7º. Cinco dos doentes com lesão neurológica melhoraram 2 a 3 níveis na escala ASIA durante o seguimento pós-operatório. Como complicações referem-se 2

  6. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.; Lidia, S.M.

    2004-12-07

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as 'workhorse' providers of microbunches.

  7. Kaisen. EMS as theater of the streets. Part two.

    PubMed

    Dernocoeur, K; Taigman, M

    1991-03-01

    Passing an EMT or paramedic course is a considerable achievement, as you have had to acquire a huge and fascinating volume of medical knowledge. But, did the program teach you acting skills? Acting? Whoever said that EMS professionals need to know anything about acting? We submit that you do; prehospital workers can gain many unanticipated benefits by using various acting skills and tactics in the field. One such benefit is the avoidance of the "complacency trap," or the boredom that can develop if you adopt the viewpoint that one crisis is much like another. But, more importantly, you will be more effective at delivering prehospital care, and you'll have a lot more fun on the job.

  8. Kaisen. EMS as theater of the streets. Part two.

    PubMed

    Dernocoeur, K; Taigman, M

    1991-03-01

    Passing an EMT or paramedic course is a considerable achievement, as you have had to acquire a huge and fascinating volume of medical knowledge. But, did the program teach you acting skills? Acting? Whoever said that EMS professionals need to know anything about acting? We submit that you do; prehospital workers can gain many unanticipated benefits by using various acting skills and tactics in the field. One such benefit is the avoidance of the "complacency trap," or the boredom that can develop if you adopt the viewpoint that one crisis is much like another. But, more importantly, you will be more effective at delivering prehospital care, and you'll have a lot more fun on the job. PMID:10110186

  9. Three penalized EM-type algorithms for PET image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yueyang; Zhang, Tie

    2012-06-01

    Based on Bayes theory, Green introduced the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm to obtain a smoothing reconstruction for positron emission tomography. This algorithm is flexible and convenient for most of the penalties, but it is hard to guarantee convergence. For a common goal, Fessler penalized a weighted least squares (WLS) estimator by a quadratic penalty and then solved it with the successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm, however, the algorithm was time-consuming and difficultly parallelized. Anderson proposed another WLS estimator for faster convergence, on which there were few regularization methods studied. For three regularized estimators above, we develop three new expectation maximization (EM) type algorithms to solve them. Unlike MAP and SOR, the proposed algorithms yield update rules by minimizing the auxiliary functions constructed on the previous iterations, which ensure the cost functions monotonically decreasing. Experimental results demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  10. Telescópio de patrulhamento solar em 12 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, F.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O telescópio de patrulhamento solar é um instrumento dedicado à observação de explosões solares com início de suas operações em janeiro de 2002, trabalhando próximo ao pico de emissão do espectro girossincrotrônico (12 GHz). Trata-se de um arranjo de três antenas concebido para a detecção de explosões e determinação em tempo real da localização da região emissora. Porém, desde sua implementação em uma montagem equatorial movimentada por um sistema de rotação constante (15 graus/hora) o rastreio apresentou pequenas variações de velocidade e folgas nas caixas de engrenagens. Assim, tornou-se necessária a construção de um sistema de correção automática do apontamento que era de fundamental importância para os objetivos do projeto. No segundo semestre de 2002 empreendemos uma série de tarefas com o objetivo de automatizar completamente o rastreio, a calibração, a aquisição de dados, controle de ganhos, offsets e transferência dos dados pela internet através de um projeto custeado pela FAPESP. O rastreio automático é realizado através de um inversor que controla a freqüência da rede de alimentação do motor de rastreio podendo fazer micro-correções na direção leste-oeste conforme os radiômetros desta direção detectem uma variação relativa do sinal. Foi adicionado também um motor na direção da declinação para correção automática da variação da direção norte-sul. Após a implementação deste sistema a precisão do rastreio melhorou para um desvio máximo de 30 segundos de arco, o que está muito bom para este projeto. O Telescópio se encontra em funcionamento automático desde março de 2003 e já conta com várias explosões observadas após a conclusão desta fase de automação. Estamos apresentando as explosões mais intensas do período e com as suas respectivas posições no disco solar.

  11. Imaging protein three-dimensional nanocrystals with cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Igor; Li, Yao Wang; van Heel, Marin; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Flash-cooled three-dimensional crystals of the small protein lysozyme with a thickness of the order of 100 nm were imaged by 300 kV cryo-EM on a Falcon direct electron detector. The images were taken close to focus and to the eye appeared devoid of contrast. Fourier transforms of the images revealed the reciprocal lattice up to 3 Å resolution in favourable cases and up to 4 Å resolution for about half the crystals. The reciprocal-lattice spots showed structure, indicating that the ordering of the crystals was not uniform. Data processing revealed details at higher than 2 Å resolution and indicated the presence of multiple mosaic blocks within the crystal which could be separately processed. The prospects for full three-dimensional structure determination by electron imaging of protein three-dimensional nanocrystals are discussed. PMID:23633595

  12. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  13. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  14. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  15. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  16. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  17. DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  18. Development of MPD thruster EM for a space test. [Engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiina, K.; Suzuki, H.; Uematsu, K.; Ohtsuka, T.; Toki, K. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa )

    1990-01-01

    An engineering model (EM) of MPD thruster has been developed for a space test on board the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). A thermal vacuum test was conducted, and the following results were obtained: (1) a thermal mathematical model of MPD thruster EM was established, (2) sizing data of thruster heaters were obtained, and (3) thermal characteristics of the MPD thruster EM were confirmed to meet the requirement. The data are going to be reflected in designing a protoflight model of MPD thruster. 8 refs.

  19. Analytical laboratory quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces QA guidance pertaining to design and implementation of laboratory procedures and processes for collecting DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) ESAA (environmental sampling and analysis activities) data. It addresses several goals: identifying key laboratory issues and program elements to EM HQ and field office managers; providing non-prescriptive guidance; and introducing environmental data collection program elements for EM-263 assessment documents and programs. The guidance describes the implementation of laboratory QA elements within a functional QA program (development of the QA program and data quality objectives are not covered here).

  20. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicle’s owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18” and mean measured was 14”. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5” and mean measured was 4”. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph±13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph±12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating

  1. Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

  2. Integration of artificial intelligence applications in the EMS: Issues and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bann, J.; Irisarri, G.; Kirschen, D.; Miller, B.; Mokhtari, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the issues which must be addressed when integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, in particular, expert system applications in an Energy Management System (EMS) environment. It is argued that these issues can be resolved by creating an environment which supports all the interfaces between the Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications and the EMS. This environment should also be responsible for maintaining a model of the power system common to all the AI applications. Once this environment has been created, AI applications can be easily plugged into the EMS. The design of such an environment is described and case studies of its implementation are provided to illustrate its flexibility.

  3. Pulmonary Embolism in Ambulatory Oncologic Patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Rosales, Maria; Milheiro, Maria João; Santos, Luísa L

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A associação entre a doença oncológica e a doença tromboembólica venosa é conhecida. O doente oncológico apresenta um risco de evento trombótico seis a sete vezes superior à população em geral. O tromboembolismo pulmonar é uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade neste grupo de doentes, encontrando-se a sua prevalência subestimada. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de todos os episódios de tromboembolismo pulmonar referenciados num período de cinco anos. Selecionaram-se os doentes oncológicos em regime de ambulatório, tendo sido revistos os dados demográficos, fatores de risco, presença de sintomatologia ao diagnóstico, estratificação de risco de doença tromboembólica venosa pelo modelo de Khorana, probabilidade de mortalidade aos 30 dias e sobrevivência global. O trabalho elaborado está de acordo com a declaração de Helsínquia. Resultados: Avaliaram-se 186 doentes, 55,9% do sexo feminino, mediana de idade de 64 anos. As neoplasias mais prevalentes foram a colo-rectal (24,2%) e a pulmonar (17,7%), sendo que a maioria apresentava metástases (66,1%) ou realizaram quimioterapia (69,4%). O tromboembolismo pulmonar foi um achado imagiológico em 69,4%, sendo que nenhum dado clínico analisado no nosso estudo mostrou ter significado estatístico na apresentação de tromboembolismo pulmonar com sintomatologia clínica evidente. Observou-se uma mortalidade aos 30 dias resultante do tromboembolismo pulmonar de 7,5%, tendo-se verificado que os doentes sintomáticos apresentaram uma sobrevivência média inferior relativamente aos assintomáticos (12 vs. 20 meses; p = 0,029). A aplicação retrospetiva do modelo preditivo de Khorana para doença tromboembólica venosa nos doentes sob quimioterapia permitiu identificar 11% dos indivíduos em alto risco. Discussão: O tromboembolismo pulmonar foi um achado imagiológico na maioria dos doentes, sendo que nenhuma variável clínica se associou à presença ou aus

  4. [Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury].

    PubMed

    Silva, Vinícius Trindade Gomes da; Iglesio, Ricardo; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Siqueira, Mario Gilberto; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O risco de trombose venosa profunda encontra-se aumentado em doentes vítimas de traumatismo cranioencefálico, mas a profilaxia da trombose venosa profunda se confronta com o possível risco de piora de lesões hemorrágicas relacionados ao traumatismo cranioencefálico. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão crítica do tema e propomos um protocolo de profilaxia para estes doentes.Material e Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, e Scielo de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2014 com a expressão de busca âÄúdeep venous thrombosis and prophylaxis and traumatic brain injuryâÄù. Foram encontrados 44 artigos usando os termos MeSH definidos. Destes foram selecionados 23 artigos, usando como critérios: publicação em inglês ou português, fase aguda do traumatismo cranioencefálico moderado e grave, profilaxia mecânica não invasiva ou química.Resultados: O traumatismo cranioencefálico é um fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda e tromboembolismo pulmonar. A chance de trombose venosa profunda é 2,59 vezes maior em doentes com traumatismo cranioencefálico. A prevalência de trombose venosa profunda e embolia pulmonar em doentes que sofreram traumatismo cranioencefálico é de 20%, podendo atingir 30% dos doentes em alguns estudos.Discussão e Conclusão: As diversas formas de traumatismo de forma isolada constituem fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda e tromboembolismo pulmonar. Ensaios clínicos são necessários para estabelecer a eficácia da profilaxia e o melhor momento de iniciar medicação para trombose venosa profunda em doentes com traumatismo craniencefálico.

  5. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Robert M; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-02-23

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness.

  7. Sampling quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces quality assurance guidance pertaining to the design and implementation of sampling procedures and processes for collecting environmental data for DOE`s Office of EM (Environmental Restoration and Waste Management).

  8. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  9. Experimental transmission of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi in horses by house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The route of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insects is suspected. Scientists from CMAVE and Auburn University investigated house flies (Musca domestica L.) as possible vectors. Three ponies were directly inoculated with C. pseudotuber...

  10. Experimental inoculation of house flies Musca domestica with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The exact mechanism of infection remains unknown, but fly transmission is suspected. Scientists at Auburn University and U...

  11. Experimental inoculation of house flies, Musca domestica L., with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis serovar equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (Actinomycetales: Corynebacteriaceae) infection in horses causes three different disease syndromes: external abscesses, infection of internal organs and ulcerative lymphangitis. The route of infection in horses remains undetermined, but transmission by insect vecto...

  12. Repertoire of theileria equi antigens bound by equine antibody during persistent phase of infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileriosis in horses and cattle is caused by tick-borne Apicomplexa parasites that cause death or persist for life in their respective hosts. Due to transmission risk associated with persistence, infection severely limits movement of horses and cattle between countries. The recent reemergence of T...

  13. Whole-Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 262 Biovar equi Isolated from Cow Milk

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Carlos Leonardo de A.; Dias, Larissa M.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; Alves, Jorianne T. C.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Q.; Dowson, Christopher G.; Azevedo, Vasco; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis 262, isolated from a bovine host. C. pseudotuberculosis is an etiological agent of diseases with medical and veterinary relevance. The genome contains 2,325,749 bp, 52.8% G+C content, 2,022 coding sequences (CDS), 50 pseudogenes, 48 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs. PMID:27013052

  14. An efficient process for production and purification of hyaluronic acid from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Vidhya; Jain, Dharmendra

    2008-03-01

    Growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in a 10 l bioreactor with 50 g sucrose/l and 10 g casein hydrolysate/l gave 5-6 g hyaluronic acid/l after 24-28 h. Purification of hyaluronic acid gave a recovery of 65% with the final material having an Mr of approximately 4 x 10(6) Da with less than 0.1% protein.

  15. A Neurologist's Hard Day's Work: Impact of Inpatient Neurology Consultation in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Helena; Monteiro, Ana; Gomes, Tiago; Grilo, Miguel; Carvalho, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A consulta de neurologia realizada a doentes hospitalizados sob a responsabilidade de outras especialidades é um trabalho exigente mas muitas vezes sub-valorizado e pouco documentado. Este estudo pretendeu avaliar o impacto das consultas internas de neurologia num hospital português e, consequentemente, a performance do nosso Serviço no que diz respeito a esta matéria. Material e Métodos: Foi conduzido um estudo retrospetivo durante o ano de 2013 através da revisão de dados clínicos e demográficos. Resultados: Ao longo de um ano, os neurologistas no nosso Serviço avaliaram 632 doentes internados. As principais razões para o pedido de consulta foram a alteração do estado mental/comportamental, défice neurológico focal e crises epiléticas. Os pedidos de avaliação provieram principalmente de serviços médicos mas também de Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos e Intermédios. Os neurologistas sugeriram investigação adicional em cerca de 50% dos doentes; alterações terapêuticas foram efetuadas numa proporção semelhante de doentes. No final da consulta foi possível estabelecer um novo diagnóstico em 63% dos casos, sendo os mais frequentes manifestação neurológica de doenças sistémicas, epilepsia e doença vascular cerebral. Tal intervenção teve impacto no cuidado de 68% dos doentes. Discussão e Conclusão: Diferentes estudos na literatura suportam os nossos achados, enfatizando que esta atividade tem benefícios diretos no tratamento dos doentes e que é custo-efetiva. Os nossos resultados sugerem que a atividade de consultadoria interna da Neurologia resulta em intervenções úteis para a gestão clínica dos doentes internados.

  16. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  17. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear

  18. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias deficientes em hidrogênio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Araújo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais características espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetárias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrogênio. A origem e a evolução dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evolução estelar. Geralmente esses objetos são divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro típico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de população I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxigênio em emissão. Existem evidências que apontam a seguinte sequência evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pré anã-branca). No entanto, tal cenário apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescópio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparação das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados estão de acordo com a sequência evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Além disso, os dados reforçam a afirmação de que as [WCE] são as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrogênio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponíveis na literatura e a necessidade da obtenção de parametros físicos para estes objetos.

  19. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  20. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  1. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns.

  2. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  3. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  4. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as 'movies' made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired.

  5. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint

  6. ModEM: A modular system for inversion of elecgtromagnetic geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbert, G. D.; Kelbert, A.; Meqbel, N.; Weng, A.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a modular system of computer codes for inversion of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical data (ModEM). ModEM allows for rapid adaptation of inversion algorithms developed for one purpose (e.g., three-dimensional magnetotellurics (MT)) to other EM problems (e.g., controlled source EM). The modular approach can also simplify maintenance of the inversion code, as well as development of new capabilities -- e.g., allowing for new data types such as the inter-site transfer functions in MT, or modifying model regularization. Basic data objects (model parameters, solution vectors, data vectors) are treated as abstract data types, with a standard set of methods developed for each class, including creation and destruction, and, as appropriate, linear algebra or other vector space methods. Operators required for gradient computations are developed as mappings between these basic object classes. Only these abstract data objects and mappings are manipulated by higher level Jacobian and inversion routines, with no reference to the problem specific details required for a specific EM method, or for the numerical implementation of the forward solver. Required problem-specific components are instantiated at the lowest levels of the system, with details hidden from generic top-level routines by an interface layer. Parallelization using MPI has been implemented at the top level, and is thus applicable to any problem embedded in ModEM. To illustrate the flexibility of the system, we consider applications to two- and three-dimensional MT inversion, as well as simple controlled source EM problems.

  7. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  8. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  9. Visualizing Proteins and Macromolecular Complexes by Negative Stain EM: from Grid Preparation to Image Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David S.; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Cheng, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Single particle electron microscopy (EM), of both negative stained or frozen hydrated biological samples, has become a versatile tool in structural biology 1. In recent years, this method has achieved great success in studying structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes 2, 3. Compared with electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM), in which frozen hydrated protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice 4, negative staining is a simpler sample preparation method in which protein samples are embedded in a thin layer of dried heavy metal salt to increase specimen contrast 5. The enhanced contrast of negative stain EM allows examination of relatively small biological samples. In addition to determining three-dimensional (3D) structure of purified proteins or protein complexes 6, this method can be used for much broader purposes. For example, negative stain EM can be easily used to visualize purified protein samples, obtaining information such as homogeneity/heterogeneity of the sample, formation of protein complexes or large assemblies, or simply to evaluate the quality of a protein preparation. In this video article, we present a complete protocol for using an EM to observe negatively stained protein sample, from preparing carbon coated grids for negative stain EM to acquiring images of negatively stained sample in an electron microscope operated at 120kV accelerating voltage. These protocols have been used in our laboratory routinely and can be easily followed by novice users. PMID:22215030

  10. An Uncertainty Analysis for Predicting Soil Profile Salinity Using EM Induction Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingyi; Monteiro Santos, Fernando; Triantafilis, John

    2016-04-01

    Proximal soil sensing techniques such as electromagnetic (EM) induction have been used to identify and map the areal variation of average soil properties. However, soil varies with depth owing to the action of various soil forming factors (e.g., parent material and topography). In this work we collected EM data using an EM38 and EM34 meter along a 22-km transect in the Trangie District, Australia.We jointly inverted these data using EM4Soil software and compare our 2-dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (sigma - mS/m) with depth against measured electrical conductivity of a saturated soil-paste extract (ECe - dS/m) at depth of 0-16 m. Through the use of a linear regression (LR) model and by varying forward modelling algorithms (cumulative function and full solution), inversion algorithms (S1 and S2), and damping factor (lambda) we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI) which was optimal when using the full solution, S2 and lambda = 0.6. To evaluate uncertainty of the inversion process and the LR model, we conducted an uncertainty analysis. The distribution of the model misfit shows the largest uncertainty caused by inversion (mostly due to EM34-40) occurs at deeper profiles while the largest uncertainty of the LR model occurs where the soil profile is most saline. These uncertainty maps also illustrate us how the model accuracy can be improved in the future.

  11. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-08-03

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis.

  12. Using Molecular Simulation to Model High-Resolution Cryo-EM Reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Loerke, Justus; Behrmann, Elmar; Spahn, Christian M T; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of new data from high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies has produced a large number of data sets for many species of ribosomes in various functional states over the past few years. While many methods exist to produce structural models for lower resolution cryo-EM reconstructions, high-resolution reconstructions are often modeled using crystallographic techniques and extensive manual intervention. Here, we present an automated fitting technique for high-resolution cryo-EM data sets that produces all-atom models highly consistent with the EM density. Using a molecular dynamics approach, atomic positions are optimized with a potential that includes the cross-correlation coefficient between the structural model and the cryo-EM electron density, as well as a biasing potential preserving the stereochemistry and secondary structure of the biomolecule. Specifically, we use a hybrid structure-based/ab initio molecular dynamics potential to extend molecular dynamics fitting. In addition, we find that simulated annealing integration, as opposed to straightforward molecular dynamics integration, significantly improves performance. We obtain atomistic models of the human ribosome consistent with high-resolution cryo-EM reconstructions of the human ribosome. Automated methods such as these have the potential to produce atomistic models for a large number of ribosome complexes simultaneously that can be subsequently refined manually.

  13. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-02-23

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling.

  14. New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, Steven; Sutter, Herbert; Johnson, Hoyt

    2013-07-01

    A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

  15. An erythromycin derivative, EM-523, induces motilin-like gastrointestinal motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, N; Satoh, H; Maki, Y; Hashimoto, N; Itoh, Z; Omura, S

    1989-11-01

    The effect of an erythromycin derivative, EM-523, on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in conscious dogs and compared with that of motilin cisapride, trimebutine and metoclopramide. In the fasting state, EM-523 given i.v. or i.d. at 3 micrograms/kg or more induced contractions in the stomach that migrated along the small intestine. The pattern of the contractions was very similar to that induced by motilin. In the digestive state, EM-523 increased the amplitude of gastric contractions. Cisapride and metoclopramide increased gastrointestinal motility both in the fasting and digestive states; however, their contractile pattern was different from that of EM-523. Trimebutine did not induce gastric motility in the fasting state but rather decreased gastric motility in the digestive state. The contractions induced by EM-523 and motilin were inhibited by atropine but were not affected by naloxone, suggesting that the cholinergic pathway is important in the exertion of their action. These results indicate that EM-523 mimics motilin in stimulating gastrointestinal motility and that this agent may be useful treat gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric stasis, gastroesophageal reflux, and postoperative ileus, and so forth. PMID:2810120

  16. Fusion to a homo-oligomeric scaffold allows cryo-EM analysis of a small protein

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Francesca; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Hans, Fabienne; Malet, Hélène; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Schoehn, Guy; Petosa, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent technical advances have revolutionized the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). However, most monomeric proteins remain too small (<100 kDa) for cryo-EM analysis. To overcome this limitation, we explored a strategy whereby a monomeric target protein is genetically fused to a homo-oligomeric scaffold protein and the junction optimized to allow the target to adopt the scaffold symmetry, thereby generating a chimeric particle suitable for cryo-EM. To demonstrate the concept, we fused maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40 kDa monomer, to glutamine synthetase, a dodecamer formed by two hexameric rings. Chimeric constructs with different junction lengths were screened by biophysical analysis and negative-stain EM. The optimal construct yielded a cryo-EM reconstruction that revealed the MBP structure at sub-nanometre resolution. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using homo-oligomeric scaffolds to enable cryo-EM analysis of monomeric proteins, paving the way for applying this strategy to challenging structures resistant to crystallographic and NMR analysis. PMID:27485862

  17. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  18. Abundâncias em estrelas de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Bário apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hipótese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar é a de que essas estrelas façam parte de sistemas binários, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluída. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma análise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinação de parâmetros atmosféricos e cálculo de abundâncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotométricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescópio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catálogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 £ Tef £ 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 £ [Fe/H] £ +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilíbrio de ionização e pela relação com a magnitude bolométrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 £ log g £ 4.5. As distâncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxílio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de isócronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrógrafo FEROS no Telescópio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundâncias foram calculadas por meio de síntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relação ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Bário.

  19. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and

  20. The evaluation of QT intervals during diagnosis and after follow-up in acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Baser, Husniye; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Polat, Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Ersoy, Reyhan; Bozkurt, Engin; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O estudo teve como objectivo a determinação do intervalo QT em doentes com acromegália e a análise da correlação entre o intervalo QT e a concentração de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). Material e Métodos: O estudo englobou 41 doentes com acromegália. O grupo de controlo englobou 41 indivíduos com características semelhantes no que se refere a comorbilidades, idade e género. A electrocardiografia de doentes com acromegália foi obtida no início do estudo e após o follow-up. Foi apenas obtido um electrocardiograma no grupo de controlo. Foram calculados o QT máximo, QT mínimo, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido, QT mínimo corrigido e dispersão do intervalo QT corrigido. Resultados: Os valores do QT máximo basal, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais prolongados no grupo de doentes com acromegália do que nos controlos. O QT máximo corrigido e a dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais curtos durante o seguimento clínico, quando comparados com os valores basais dos doentes. O QT máximo, dispersão do QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido durante o seguimento clínico não foram estatisticamente diferentes dos valores obtidos nos controlos. Com excepção de uma correlação negativa entre os valores da hormona do crescimento e a dispersão do QT corrigido em doentes durante o seguimento clínico, nenhuma outra correlação foi assinalada entre os valores do intervalo QT e as concentrações de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1. Concluiu-se que a dispersão do intervalo QT está correlacionada com a duração da doença nos doentes com acromegália. Discussão: Em doentes com acromegália, é importante a detecção de preditores clínicos de arritmia cardíaca. A dispersão do intervalo QT é considerada um preditor relevante de arritmias ventriculares. Os doentes com acromeg

  1. [Atypical femoral fractures and bisphosphonates treatment: is it a risk factor?].

    PubMed

    Geada, Nuno; Mafra, Inês; Barroso, Rogério; Franco, José

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Os bifosfonatos têm eficácia comprovada na prevençÉo das fracturas osteoporóticas. Contudo, têm sido descritas fracturas femorais atípicas associadas à toma prolongada de bifosfonatos com um padrÉo radiológico bem definido. Os objectivos no nosso estudo foram caracterizar os doentes de idade ≥ 65 anos com fracturas femorais (subtrocantéricas/diafisárias) consideradas típicas e atípicas e avaliar a relaçÉo entre a ocorrência das fracturas atípicas e o uso de bifosfonatos.Material e Métodos: Realizámos um estudo caso-controlo com os doentes admitidos no nosso Hospital por fractura subtrocantérica ou diafisária do fémur, num período de cinco anos e meio. Após aplicaçÉo dos critérios de exclusÉo, as 92 fracturas (91 doentes) foram classificadas como atípicas ou típicas. A determinaçÉo do tratamento prévio com bifosfonatos foi obtida através do historial clínico dos doentes.Resultados: Foram encontradas 11 fracturas atípicas (10 doentes) e 81 fracturas típicas (81 doentes). A idade mediana entre os dois grupos foi estatisticamente diferente (72 anos - atípicas vs 80 anos - típicas, p < 0,01). A razÉo do uso de bifosfonatos foi de 0,60 nas fracturas atípicas e de 0,01 nas típicas, traduzindo um odds ratio de 101,1 (p < 0,01).DiscussÉo: Na generalidade, os nossos resultados sÉo apoiados e estÉo de acordo com os estudos publicados referentes à ocorrência de fracturas femorais atípicas associadas à toma de bifosfonatos.ConclusÉo: Apesar do pequeno número de casos foi possível demonstrar a relaçÉo, estatisticamente, significativa entre as fracturas femorais atípicas e a toma de bifosfonatos. De notar que estas fracturas atípicas ocorreram em doentes, significativamente, mais jovens do que os doentes com fracturas típicas.

  2. [HIV infection and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: an outpatient clinic experience].

    PubMed

    Fevereiro, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Os doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana têm um risco elevado de desenvolver diferentes tipos de Neoplasias. Com a introdução da terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, e consequente aumento da sobrevida, assistimos a uma mudança do espectro das patologias relacionadas com a infecção, nomeadamente das doenças Oncológicas, com aumento das Neoplasias Não Definidoras em deterimento das Definidoras de SIDA.Material e Métodos: Caracterização dos doentes com infecção Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e diagnóstico de Neoplasias Não Definidoras acompanhados ao longo de 16 anos na Consulta de Medicina/Imunodeficiência do Hospital de São José, através da consulta dos processos clínicos e avaliação retrospectiva dos aspectos demográficos, epidemiológicos, clínico-laboratoriais, tratamento e sobrevida.Resultados: Nos 1 042 doentes avaliados, foram identificados 34 casos de Neoplasias Não Definidoras, principalmente em homens (78%) e com idade mediana de 55 anos. As neoplasias mais frequentes foram: pulmão (20,6%), bexiga (17,6%), próstata (8,8%) e canal anal (5,9%), sendo o tempo médio entre o diagnóstico da infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e da Neoplasias Não Definidoras de 6,8 ± 4 anos. Na altura do diagnóstico da Neoplasias Não Definidoras a maioria dos doentes (78,8%) estava sob terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, em média desde há 5,7 ± 3 anos, encontrando-se imunovirologicamente controlada. No total verificaram-se 45,5% óbitos, sobretudo em doentes com Neoplasia do pulmão (20%).Conclusão: Perante o risco de desenvolvimento de Neoplasias Não Definidoras nos doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana, torna-se fundamental o investimento em estratégias de prevenção, promoção de cessação tabágica e vacinação, bem como aplicação de protocolos de rastreio ajustados a esta população.

  3. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method.

  4. TRLFS: Analysing spectra with an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinborn, A.; Taut, S.; Brendler, V.; Geipel, G.; Flach, B.

    2008-12-01

    A new approach for fitting statistical models to time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) spectra is presented. Such spectra result from counting emitted photons in defined intervals. Any photon can be described by emission time and wavelength as observable attributes and by component and peak affiliation as hidden ones. Understanding the attribute values of the emitted photons as drawn from a probability density distribution, the model estimation problem can be described as a statistical problem with incomplete data. To solve the maximum likelihood task, an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is derived and tested. In contrast to the well known least squares method, the advantage of the new approach is its ability to decompose the spectrum into its components and peaks using the revealed hidden attributes of the photons as well as the ability to decompose a background-superimposed spectrum into the exploitable signal of the fluorescent chemical species and the background. This facilitates new possibilities for evaluation of the resulting model parameters. The simultaneous detection of temporal and spectral model parameters provides a mutually consistent description of TRLFS spectra.

  5. Primary Mechanism of EM Interaction with the Live Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakhanyan, Viktor

    There is a prevailing opinion that the theoretical explanation of electromagnetic (EM) fields influence on live organisms is impossible to explain theoretically and even the play between parameters of waves and tissues is unknown to us. The explanation of mechanism of this influence is vitally important owing to the development of new types of electronic devices operating in different frequency ranges and due to the still continuing controversy about their adverse health effect. It is shown that the application of newly developed procedure of shutting-on of the interaction of charged particles with electromagnetic fields allows explaining their influence on live tissue by origination of macroscopic polarization currents due to the joint action of electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves. The currents originate in the case of resonance between the proper frequency of the medium and of frequency of external electromagnetic fields. Thus, the experiments to measure these polarization currents can provide information about dangerous frequency ranges and these ranges, with maximal polarization currents, should be excluded during construction of electronic devices.

  6. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in

  7. Specimen Preparation for High-Resolution Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Passmore, L A; Russo, C J

    2016-01-01

    Imaging a material with electrons at near-atomic resolution requires a thin specimen that is stable in the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. For biological samples, this comprises a thin layer of frozen aqueous solution containing the biomolecular complex of interest. The process of preparing a high-quality specimen is often the limiting step in the determination of structures by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we describe a systematic approach for going from a purified biomolecular complex in aqueous solution to high-resolution electron micrographs that are suitable for 3D structure determination. This includes a series of protocols for the preparation of vitrified specimens on various supports, including all-gold and graphene. We also describe techniques for troubleshooting when a preparation fails to yield suitable specimens, and common mistakes to avoid during each part of the process. Finally, we include recommendations for obtaining the highest quality micrographs from prepared specimens with current microscope, detector, and support technology. PMID:27572723

  8. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method. PMID:27572732

  9. Orthogonalizing EM: A design-based least squares algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Shifeng; Dai, Bin; Huling, Jared; Qian, Peter Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an efficient iterative algorithm, intended for various least squares problems, based on a design of experiments perspective. The algorithm, called orthogonalizing EM (OEM), works for ordinary least squares and can be easily extended to penalized least squares. The main idea of the procedure is to orthogonalize a design matrix by adding new rows and then solve the original problem by embedding the augmented design in a missing data framework. We establish several attractive theoretical properties concerning OEM. For the ordinary least squares with a singular regression matrix, an OEM sequence converges to the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse-based least squares estimator. For ordinary and penalized least squares with various penalties, it converges to a point having grouping coherence for fully aliased regression matrices. Convergence and the convergence rate of the algorithm are examined. Finally, we demonstrate that OEM is highly efficient for large-scale least squares and penalized least squares problems, and is considerably faster than competing methods when n is much larger than p. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:27499558

  10. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  11. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui

    2016-09-16

    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice. PMID:27524243

  12. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20μg rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponin–treated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20μg) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponin–treated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-γ) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  13. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  14. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  15. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  16. Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers: concept generation of patient-handling devices.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Karen M; Reichelt, Paul A; Lavender, Steven A; Gacki-Smith, Jessica; Hattle, Sally

    2008-11-01

    Fire service personnel and private ambulance paramedics suffer musculoskeletal injuries as they lift and carry patients while performing emergency medical services (EMS). Engineering changes, such as the design of new EMS patient-handling devices, offer a potential intervention opportunity for combating this problem. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to generate beginning ideas for the design of new EMS patient-handling devices that were framed within the contextual reality of the end user firefighter/paramedics. Guided by an ecological model of musculoskeletal injuries in the fire service, focus groups were conducted with 25 firefighter/paramedics from 13 suburban fire departments. Based on their availability, participants were assigned to one of three groups with each group focusing on a different EMS patient-handling scenario. Each group participated in two focus group sessions: one session to brainstorm ideas for devices and a second session to validate sketches of their design ideas. The sketches were professionally drawn by an industrial designer who attended all focus group sessions. Sketches, photos, videotapes, and written transcripts were content analyzed to describe the phenomena of interest. The ideas centered on EMS devices for lateral transfers, bed-to-stairchair transfers, and stair descent transport, and served as the starting point for the development of EMS devices in subsequent phases of a mixed method research study. The outcomes of this study were an improved understanding of the contextual issues that need to be considered in designing EMS patient handling devices and a set of industrial design sketches that served as a starting point for subsequent development of the devices. End user acceptance criteria for the devices included: affordability, portability/compactness, durability, operability including being quickly ready for use, and cleanability.

  17. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    PubMed

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  18. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  19. [Pulmonary carcinoid: analysis of a single institutional experience and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Correia, Silvia da Silva; Pinto, Carlos; Bernardo, João

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Os tumores carcinóides pulmonares sÉo tumores raros com origem nas células neuro-endócrinas do pulmÉo. Classificam-se de acordo com os critérios da OMS em carcinóides típicos ou atípicos. Quando comparados com outros tipos de neoplasia pulmonar, os tumores carcinóides apresentam melhor prognóstico.Objetivos: CaracterizaçÉo dos doentes com diagnóstico histológico de tumor carcinóide observados numa instituiçÉo. Análise dos fatores que influenciaram o prognóstico.Material e Métodos: Análise retrospetiva incluindo todos os doentes com diagnóstico histológico de tumor carcinóide pulmonar durante um período de 11 anos numa instituiçÉo. Os tumores foram classificados em típicos e atípicos de acordo com a classificaçÉo da OrganizaçÉo Mundial de Saúde de 2004. O estadiamento foi feito com base na classificaçÉo TNM de 2009 para o carcinoma do pulmÉo de nÉo pequenas células: T (Tumor); N (Ganglionar); M (Metástase).Resultados: Foram incluídos 59 doentes: 53 carcinóides típicos e seis carcinóides atípicos. Destes, 90% foram submetidos a cirurgia. O follow-up médio foi de 57 meses. A mortalidade operatória foi de 2% (n = 1) tratando-se de cirurgia paliativa para um doente em estádio IV. Em 49 doentes nÉo se verificou envolvimento ganglionar (N0), um doente apresentava doença N1, oito doença N2 e um doente doença N3. A sobrevivência global aos cinco anos foi de 79,2%: 80,2% nos carcinóides típicos e 66,7% nos carcinóides atípicos (p < 0,05). Nos doentes T1, a sobrevivência foi de 88,1% e de 58,2% nos T2-T4 (p < 0,01). Nos doentes N0 a sobrevivência aos cinco anos de 89,7% e de 36% para os doentes N1-N3 (p < 0,001). Os doentes com doença M0 apresentaram uma sobrevivência aos cinco anos de 85,9% sendo de 0% nos doentes M1 (p < 0,01). Dos 11 doentes que necessitaram de quimioterapia adjuvante, 45,4% eram carcinóides atípicos.DiscussÉo: Na nossa série, a cirurgia no tumor carcinóide pulmonar demonstrou

  20. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same

  1. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  2. Elimination of error factors, affecting EM and seismic inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M.; Zuev, M. A.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    EM or seismic data inversions are affected by many factors, which may conceal the responses from target objects. We address here the contributions from the following effects: 1) Pre-survey spectral sensitivity factor. Preliminary information about a target layer can be used for a pre-survey estimation of the required frequency domain and signal level. A universal approach allows making such estimations in real time, helping the survey crew to optimize an acquisition process. 2) Preliminary velocities' identification and their dispersions for all the seismic waves, arising in a stratified media became a fast working tool, based on the exact analytical solution. 3) Vertical gradients effect. For most layers the log data scatter, requiring an averaging pattern. A linear gradient within each representative layer is a reasonable compromise between required inversion accuracy and forward modeling complexity. 4) An effect from the seismic source's radial component becomes comparable with vertical part for explosive sources. If this effect is not taken into account, a serious modeling error takes place. This problem has an algorithmic solution. 5) Seismic modeling is often based on different representations for a source formulated either for a force or to a potential. The wave amplitudes depend on the formulation, making an inversion result sensitive to it. 6) Asymmetrical seismic waves (modified Rayleigh) in symmetrical geometry around liquid fracture come from S-wave and merge with the modified Krauklis wave at high frequencies. A detail analysis of this feature allows a spectral range optimization for the proper wave's extraction. 7) An ultrasonic experiment was conducted to show different waves appearance for a super-thin water-saturated fracture between two Plexiglas plates, being confirmed by comparison with theoretical computations. 8) A 'sandwich effect' was detected by comparison with averaged layer's effect. This opens an opportunity of the shale gas direct

  3. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Lester, Henry A; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-08-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  4. New Advances for a joint 3D inversion of multiple EM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meqbel, N. M.; Ritter, O.

    2013-12-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) methods are routinely applied to image the subsurface from shallow to regional structures. Individual EM methods differ in their sensitivities towards resistive and conductive structures as well as in their exploration depths. Joint 3D inversion of multiple EM data sets can result in significantly better resolution of subsurface structures than the individual inversions. Proper weighting between different EM data is essential, however. We present a recently developed weighting algorithm to combine magnetotelluric (MT), controlled source EM (CSEM) and DC-geoelectric (DC) data. It is well known that MT data are mostly sensible to regional conductive structures, whereas, CSEM and DC data are more suitable to recover more shallow and resistive structures. Our new scheme is based on weighting individual components of the total data gradient after each model update. Norms of each data residual are used to assess how much weight individual components of the total data gradient must have to achieve an equal contribution of all data sets in the inverse model. A numerically efficient way to search for appropriate weighting factors could be established by applying a bi-diagonalization procedure to the sensitivity matrix. Thereby, the original inverse problem can be projected onto a smaller dimension in which the search of weighting factors is numerically cheap. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed weighting schemes and explore the model domain with synthetic data sets.

  5. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem. PMID:26777304

  6. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment.

    PubMed

    Baker, Mariah R; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca(2+) release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca(2+) release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants.

  7. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets.

  8. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  9. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets. PMID:26087140

  10. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes. By using the same low magnification objective lenses as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period. PMID:27570701

  11. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  12. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  13. [Serum Erythropoietin as Prognostic Marker in Myelodysplastic Syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cortesão, Emília; Tenreiro, Rita; Ramos, Sofia; Pereira, Marta; César, Paula; Carda, José P; Gomes, Marília; Rito, Luís; Magalhães, Emília; Gonçalves, Ana C; Silva, Nuno C E; Geraldes, Catarina; Pereira, Amélia; Ribeiro, Letícia; Nascimento Costa, José M; Ribeiro, Ana B Sarmento

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A síndrome mielodisplásica é uma doença heterogénea caracterizada por displasia, medula hipercelular, citopenias e risco de evolução para leucemia aguda. Outros factores de prognóstico, nomeadamente, fibrose medular, elevação da enzima desidrogenase do lactato e 2-microglobulina têm sido descritos, contudo, a decisão terapêutica baseia-se no score do International Prognostic Scoring System. Material e Métodos: Este trabalho teve como objectivo analisar a relevãncia da eritropoietina sérica ao diagnóstico, em doentes com síndrome mielodisplásica de novo, avaliando o seu impacto na sobrevivência global e a sua implementação como factor de prognóstico. Recolhemos dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 102 doentes com síndrome mielodisplásica de novo diagnosticada entre outubro/2009 e março/2014. A análise de sobrevivência foi efectuada recorrendo à metodologia de Kaplan-Meier, de acordo com os valores de eritropoietina. Resultados: A amostra, de 102 doentes, apresenta uma mediana de idades de 74 anos e relação masculino/feminino igual a 0,8. Os doentes com o subtipo citopenia refratária com displasia unilinha apresentam, em média, valores de eritropoietina significativamente mais baixos, em oposição aos doentes com o subtipo 5q- que apresentam a média de eritropoietina sérica mais elevada (p < 0,05). Onze doentes evoluíram para leucemia aguda; estes têm, em média, eritropoietina sérica superior (p < 0,05). Adicionalmente, a eritropoietina sérica acima do limite superior da normalidade associa-se a menor sobrevivência (p = 0,0336). Após ajuste do modelo de regressão de Cox, o valor preditivo da eritropoietina para a sobrevivência global manteve-se (p < 0,001). Em análise multivariada, a eritropoietina sérica demonstrou ser um factor de prognóstico independente (p < 0,001). Discussão: A eritropoietina sérica é um factor preditivo de resposta à terapêutica com eritropoietina subcut'nea, sendo que os doentes

  14. [Brucellar spondylodiscitis: case series of the last 25 years].

    PubMed

    Lebre, Ana; Velez, Jorge; Seixas, Diana; Rabadão, Eduardo; Oliveira, Joaquim; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Silvestre, A Meliço

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A brucelose é uma zoonose endémica em Portugal, sendo a espondilodiscite brucélica uma das manifestações focaismais frequentes. Pode provocar sequelas graves, apesar da terapêutica dirigida.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo dos processos dos doentes com espondilodiscite brucélica, internados no Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas do Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, num período de 25 anos (1988-2012).Resultados: Foram identificados 54 doentes, 55,6% do sexo masculino, com idade média de 54,8 anos. Em 81,5% identificou-se contexto epidemiológico, maioritariamente contacto com gado ovino e caprino. A duração da sintomatologia prévia ao diagnóstico foi de 5,5 meses. Os sinais e sintomas mais frequentes foram: dor (98,1%), febre (46,3%) e défices neurológicos (25,9%). A ressonância magnética nuclear da coluna foi o exame imagiológico mais usado (77,8%) evidenciando abcessos em 29,6% dos doentes. A localizaçãolombar predominou (77,7%). O diagnóstico etiológico foi confirmado em 47 doentes (87,0%): microbiologicamente (3 doentes), serologicamente (32 doentes) ou por ambos (12 doentes). As associações de doxiciclina com rifampicina (64,8%), ou estreptomicina (24,1%) foram as mais utilizadas, com duração média de 4,4 meses de tratamento. Um doente teve indicação cirúrgica para drenar abcesso. A evolução foi maioritariamente favorável (92,6%), sem óbitos.Discussão: A investigação de contexto epidemiológico revelou ser uma peça importante na suspeita do diagnóstico. O tratamento da brucelose osteoarticular ainda é controverso.Conclusões: A espondilodiscite brucélica deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial dos doentes com lombalgia, mesmo naausência de febre, particularmente em regiões onde a doença é endémica. O esquema antibiótico, sua duração e a necessidade de cirurgia deverão ser individualizados, com vista a um melhor prognóstico. O número de casos tem diminuído ao longo dos

  15. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  16. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  17. Evaluation model calculations with the water reactor analysis package (WRAP-EM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.V.; Beranek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package-Evaluation Model (WRAP-EM) is a modular system of computer codes designed to provide the safety analyst with the capability of performing complete loss-of-coolant calculations for both pressurized- and boiling-water reactor systems. The system provides a licensing-type calculation capability and thus contains most of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-Approved EM options, as described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix K. All phases of an accident (blowdown, refill, and reflood) are modeled. The WRAP consists of modified versions of five preexisting codes (RELAP4/MOD5, GAPCON, FRAP, MOXY, and NORCOOL), the necessary interfaces to permit automatic transition from one code to the next during the transient calculations, plus a host of user-convenience features to aid the analyst faced with a multitude of EM calculations. The WRAP has been verified against both calculated and experimental results.

  18. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  19. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  20. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…