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Sample records for equilateral triangular grids

  1. Implementations of the optimal multigrid algorithm for the cell-centered finite difference on equilateral triangular grids

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.E.; Saevareid, O.; Shen, J.

    1994-12-31

    A multigrid algorithm for the cell-centered finite difference on equilateral triangular grids for solving second-order elliptic problems is proposed. This finite difference is a four-point star stencil in a two-dimensional domain and a five-point star stencil in a three dimensional domain. According to the authors analysis, the advantages of this finite difference are that it is an O(h{sup 2})-order accurate numerical scheme for both the solution and derivatives on equilateral triangular grids, the structure of the scheme is perhaps the simplest, and its corresponding multigrid algorithm is easily constructed with an optimal convergence rate. They are interested in relaxation of the equilateral triangular grid condition to certain general triangular grids and the application of this multigrid algorithm as a numerically reasonable preconditioner for the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas mixed triangular finite element method. Numerical test results are presented to demonstrate their analytical results and to investigate the applications of this multigrid algorithm on general triangular grids.

  2. TLC scheme for numerical solution of the transport equation on equilateral triangular meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    A new triangular linear characteristic TLC scheme for numerically solving the transport equation on equilateral triangular meshes has been developed. This scheme uses the analytic solution of the transport equation in the triangle as its basis. The data on edges of the triangle are assumed linear as is the source representation. A characteristic approach or nodal approach is used to obtain the analytic solution. Test problems indicate that the new TLC is superior to the widely used DITRI scheme for accuracy.

  3. Effective side length formula for resonant frequency of equilateral triangular microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Kerim; Kurt, Erhan

    2016-02-01

    A novel and accurate expression is obtained by employing the differential evolution algorithm for the effective side length (ESL) of the equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (ETMA). This useful formula allows the antenna engineers to accurately calculate the ESL of the ETMA. The computed resonant frequencies (RFs) show very good agreement with the experimental RFs when this accurate ESL formula is utilised for the computation of the RFs for the first five modes.

  4. The magnetic structure on the ground state of the equilateral triangular spin tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Goto, Takayuki; Manaka, Hirotaka; Miura, Yoko

    2016-12-01

    The ground state of the frustrated equilateral triangular spin tube CsCrF4 is still hidden behind a veil though NMR spectrum broaden into 2 T at low temperature. In order to investigate the spin structure in an ordered state by 19F-NMR, we have determined the anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors for each three fluorine sites in the paramagnetic state. The measurement field was raised up to 10 T to achieve highest resolution. The preliminary analysis using the obtained hyperfine tensors has shown that the archetypal 120°-type structure in ab-plane does not accord with the NMR spectra of ordered state.

  5. Equilateral triangular ferroelectric closure domains in (111)-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Shin, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Ehara, Y.; Funakubo, H.; Yoon, J.-G.; Scott, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Over 60 years ago, Charles Kittel predicted that intriguing quadrant flux-closure domains could spontaneously form in small ferromagnetic platelets. Such quadrant flux-closure domains are considered as a precursor for the true vortex states, having attracted particular interest for storing memory devices. Although the vortex states are now ubiquitous and rather well understood in ferromagnets, even the flux-closure domains as their precursors are much less established in ferroelectrics (FEs). Here we report the generation of novel equilateral triangular FE closure domains. We generated such intriguing states by using the high crystalline anisotropy energy of a (111)-oriented epitaxial PbZr0.35Ti0.65O3 thin film. Vector piezoresponse force microscopy analysis showed clearly the equilateral triangular closure states, consisting of three stripe domain bundles with three 120 degree orientation differences. Interestingly, the observed two closure states had the different rotation direction around the core, i.e., clockwise and anti-clockwise.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Nanofluid Laminar Forced Convective Heat Transfer inside an Equilateral Triangular Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etminan, Amin; Harun, Zambri; Sharifian, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    In this article distilled water and CuO particles with volume fraction of 1%, 2% and 4% are studied numerically. The steady state flow regime is considered laminar with Reynolds number of 100 and nanoparticles diameters (dp) are set in the range of 20 nm and 80 nm. The hydraulic diameter and the length of equilateral triangular channel are 8 mm and 1000 mm respectively. The problem is solved using finite volume method with constant heat flux for two sides and constant temperature for one side. Convective heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number and convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on walls are investigated in details. The fluid flow is supposed to be one phase flow. It can be observed that nanofluid leads to a remarkable enhancement on heat transfer coefficient pressure loss through the channel. The computations reveal that the size of nanoparticles has no significant influence on heat transfer properties. Besides, the study shows a good agreement between current results and experimental data in the literatures.

  7. Radix Representation of Triangular Discrete Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, J.; Li, Y. L.; Wang, R.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGSs) are spatial references that use a hierarchical tessellation of cells to partition and address the entire globe. It provides an organizational structure that permits fast integration between multiple sources of large and variable geospatial data. Although many endeavors have been done to describe certain discrete grid systems, there still lack of a uniform mathematical framework for them. This paper simplifies the planar class I aperture 4 triangular discrete grid system into a hierarchical lattice model which is proved to be a radix system in the complex number plane. Mathematical properties of the radix system reveal the discrete grid system is equivalent to the set of complex numbers with special form. The conclusion provides a potential way to build a uniform mathematical framework of DGGS and can be used to design efficient encoding and spatial operation scheme for DGGS.

  8. Theoretical study of two-element array of equilateral triangular patch mi- crostrip antenna on ferrite substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, K. K.; Soni, K. R.

    2005-09-01

    The radiation characteristics of a two-element array of equilateral triangular patch microstrip antenna on a ferrite substrate are studied theoretically by considering the presence of bias magnetic field in the direction of propagation of electromagnetic waves. It is found that the natural modes of propagation in the direction of magnetic field are left- and right-circularly polarized waves and these modes have different propagation constants. In loss-less isotropic warm plasma, this array antenna geometry excites both electromagnetic (EM) and electroacoustic plasma (P) waves in addition to a nonradiating surface wave. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the EM- and P-waves can be decoupled into two independent modes, the electroacoustic mode is longitudinal while the electromagnetic mode is transverse. The far-zone EM-mode and P-mode radiation fields are derived using vector wave function techniques and pattern multiplication approaches. The results are obtained in both plasma medium and free space. Some important antenna parameters such as radiation conductance, directivity and quality factor are plotted for different values of plasma-to-source frequency.

  9. A non-uniform grid for triangular differential quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, HongZhi; Xu, Jia

    2016-12-01

    The triangular differential quadrature method based on a non-uniform grid is proposed in the paper. Explicit expressions of the non-uniform grid point coordinates are given and the weighting coefficients of the triangular differential quadrature method are determined with the aid of area coordinates. Two typical examples are presented to testify the effectiveness of the non-uniform grid. It is shown that rapid convergence is achieved under the non-uniform grid in comparison with those from the uniform grid with the same order of approximation.

  10. Static and dynamical properties of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Jie; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Hong, Tao; ...

    2016-02-24

    We present single-crystal neutron scattering measurements of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9. Besides confirming that the Co2+ magnetic moments lie in the ab plane for zero magnetic field and then determining all the exchange parameters of the minimal quasi-2D spin Hamiltonian, we provide conclusive experimental evidence of magnon decay through observation of intrinsic line broadening. Through detailed comparisons with the linear and nonlinear spin-wave theories, we also point out that the large-S approximation, which is conventionally employed to predict magnon decay in noncollinear magnets, is inadequate to explain our experimental observation. Hence, our results call for a new theoreticalmore » framework for describing excitation spectra in low-dimensional frustrated magnets under strong quantum effects.« less

  11. Study of coherent and continuous terahertz wave emission in equilateral triangular mesas of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfanazari, Kaveh; Asai, Hidehiro; Tsujimoto, Manabu; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Kitamura, Takeo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sawamura, Masashi; Ishida, Kazuya; Tachiki, Masashi; Klemm, Richard A.; Hattori, Toshiaki; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    We report on intense and coherent terahertz (THz) electromagnetic (EM) waves emitted from equilateral triangular mesa structures of the intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) in single crystalline high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The focused ion beam milling technique is used for mesa fabrication. THz radiation is observed when the emission frequency is in the vicinity of the primary cavity resonance frequency determined by the mesa geometry. We also investigated numerically the THz radiation from such mesas using the finite difference time domain method. We found an apparent EM mode similar to the known TM(1, 0) = TM(0, 1) cavity mode during the THz emission.

  12. Self-Avoiding Walks over Adaptive Triangular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to constructing a "self-avoiding" walk through a triangular mesh. Unlike the popular approach of visiting mesh elements using space-filling curves which is based on a geometric embedding, our approach is combinatorial in the sense that it uses the mesh connectivity only. We present an algorithm for constructing a self-avoiding walk which can be applied to any unstructured triangular mesh. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n x log(n)), where n is the number of triangles in the mesh. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the run-time partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

  13. The upwind control volume scheme for unstructured triangular grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Michael; Anderson, W. Kyle; Roberts, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    A new algorithm for the numerical solution of the Euler equations is presented. This algorithm is particularly suited to the use of unstructured triangular meshes, allowing geometric flexibility. Solutions are second-order accurate in the steady state. Implementation of the algorithm requires minimal grid connectivity information, resulting in modest storage requirements, and should enhance the implementation of the scheme on massively parallel computers. A novel form of upwind differencing is developed, and is shown to yield sharp resolution of shocks. Two new artificial viscosity models are introduced that enhance the performance of the new scheme. Numerical results for transonic airfoil flows are presented, which demonstrate the performance of the algorithm.

  14. Factorizable Upwind Schemes: The Triangular Unstructured Grid Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidilkover, David; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    The upwind factorizable schemes for the equations of fluid were introduced recently. They facilitate achieving the Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) and are expected also to result in the solvers of unparalleled robustness. The approach itself is very general. Therefore, it may well become a general framework for the large-scale, Computational Fluid Dynamics. In this paper we outline the triangular grid formulation of the factorizable schemes. The derivation is based on the fact that the factorizable schemes can be expressed entirely using vector notation. without explicitly mentioning a particular coordinate frame. We, describe the resulting discrete scheme in detail and present some computational results verifying the basic properties of the scheme/solver.

  15. Cavity mode enhancement of terahertz emission from equilateral triangular microstrip antennas of the high-T c superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerkoney, Daniel P.; Reid, Candy; Doty, Constance M.; Gramajo, Ashley; Campbell, Tyler D.; Morales, Manuel A.; Delfanazari, Kaveh; Tsujimoto, Manabu; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Klemm, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the transverse magnetic (TM) electromagnetic cavity mode wave functions for an ideal equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (MSA) exhibiting C 3v point group symmetry. When the C 3v operations are imposed upon the antenna, the TM(m,n) modes with wave vectors \\propto \\sqrt{{{m}2}+nm+{{n}2}} are much less dense than commonly thought. The R 3 operations restrict the integral n and m to satisfy |m-n| =3p , where p≥slant 0 and p≥slant 1 for the modes even and odd under reflections about the three mirror planes, respectively. We calculate the forms of representative wave functions and the angular dependence of the output power when these modes are excited by the uniform and non-uniform ac Josephson current sources in thin, ideally equilateral triangular MSAs employing the intrinsic Josephson junctions in the high transition temperature T c superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2 {{\\text{O}}8+δ} , and fit the emissions data from an earlier sample for which the C 3v symmetry was apparently broken.

  16. Exit Times from Equilateral Triangles

    SciTech Connect

    Alabert, Aureli Farre, Merce Roy, Rahul

    2003-12-15

    In this paper we obtain a closed form expression of the expected exit time of a Brownian motion from equilateral triangles. We consider first the analogous problem for a symmetric random walk on the triangular lattice and show that it is equivalent to the ruin problem of an appropriate three player game. A suitable scaling of this random walk allows us to exhibit explicitly the relation between the respective exit times. This gives us the solution of the related Poisson equation.

  17. Static and dynamical properties of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jie; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Hong, Tao; Cao, H. B.; Ehlers, Georg; Tian, Wei; Batista, C. D.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsuda, Masaaki

    2016-02-24

    We present single-crystal neutron scattering measurements of the spin-1/2 equilateral triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba3CoSb2O9. Besides confirming that the Co2+ magnetic moments lie in the ab plane for zero magnetic field and then determining all the exchange parameters of the minimal quasi-2D spin Hamiltonian, we provide conclusive experimental evidence of magnon decay through observation of intrinsic line broadening. Through detailed comparisons with the linear and nonlinear spin-wave theories, we also point out that the large-S approximation, which is conventionally employed to predict magnon decay in noncollinear magnets, is inadequate to explain our experimental observation. Hence, our results call for a new theoretical framework for describing excitation spectra in low-dimensional frustrated magnets under strong quantum effects.

  18. Elementary dispersion analysis of some mimetic discretizations on triangular C-grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, P.; Danilov, S.

    2017-02-01

    Spurious modes supported by triangular C-grids limit their application for modeling large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. Their behavior can be modified within a mimetic approach that generalizes the scalar product underlying the triangular C-grid discretization. The mimetic approach provides a discrete continuity equation which operates on an averaged combination of normal edge velocities instead of normal edge velocities proper. An elementary analysis of the wave dispersion of the new discretization for Poincaré, Rossby and Kelvin waves shows that, although spurious Poincaré modes are preserved, their frequency tends to zero in the limit of small wavenumbers, which removes the divergence noise in this limit. However, the frequencies of spurious and physical modes become close on shorter scales indicating that spurious modes can be excited unless high-frequency short-scale motions are effectively filtered in numerical codes. We argue that filtering by viscous dissipation is more efficient in the mimetic approach than in the standard C-grid discretization. Lumping of mass matrices appearing with the velocity time derivative in the mimetic discretization only slightly reduces the accuracy of the wave dispersion and can be used in practice. Thus, the mimetic approach cures some difficulties of the traditional triangular C-grid discretization but may still need appropriately tuned viscosity to filter small scales and high frequencies in solutions of full primitive equations when these are excited by nonlinear dynamics.

  19. High-Order Residual-Distribution Schemes for Discontinuous Problems on Irregular Triangular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop second- and third-order non-oscillatory shock-capturing hyperbolic residual distribution schemes for irregular triangular grids, extending our second- and third-order schemes to discontinuous problems. We present extended first-order N- and Rusanov-scheme formulations for hyperbolic advection-diffusion system, and demonstrate that the hyperbolic diffusion term does not affect the solution of inviscid problems for vanishingly small viscous coefficient. We then propose second- and third-order blended hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes with the extended first-order Rusanov-scheme. We show that these proposed schemes are extremely accurate in predicting non-oscillatory solutions for discontinuous problems. We also propose a characteristics-based nonlinear wave sensor for accurately detecting shocks, compression, and expansion regions. Using this proposed sensor, we demonstrate that the developed hyperbolic blended schemes do not produce entropy-violating solutions (unphysical stocks). We then verify the design order of accuracy of these blended schemes on irregular triangular grids.

  20. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct high-order hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for general advection-diffusion problems on arbitrary triangular grids. We demonstrate that the second-order accuracy of the hyperbolic schemes can be greatly improved by requiring the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. We also show that the improved second-order scheme can be easily extended to third-order by further requiring the exactness for cubic solutions. We construct these schemes based on the LDA and the SUPG methodology formulated in the framework of the residual-distribution method. For both second- and third-order-schemes, we construct a fully implicit solver by the exact residual Jacobian of the second-order scheme, and demonstrate rapid convergence of 10-15 iterations to reduce the residuals by 10 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate also that these schemes can be constructed based on a separate treatment of the advective and diffusive terms, which paves the way for the construction of hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results show that these schemes produce exceptionally accurate and smooth solution gradients on highly skewed and anisotropic triangular grids, including curved boundary problems, using linear elements. We also present Fourier analysis performed on the constructed linear system and show that an under-relaxation parameter is needed for stabilization of Gauss-Seidel relaxation.

  1. Analysis of triangular C-grid finite volume scheme for shallow water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhani, Hamidreza; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Seidou, Ousmane; Qiblawey, Hazim

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a dispersion relation analysis is employed to investigate the finite volume triangular C-grid formulation for two-dimensional shallow-water equations. In addition, two proposed combinations of time-stepping methods with the C-grid spatial discretization are investigated. In the first part of this study, the C-grid spatial discretization scheme is assessed, and in the second part, fully discrete schemes are analyzed. Analysis of the semi-discretized scheme (i.e. only spatial discretization) shows that there is no damping associated with the spatial C-grid scheme, and its phase speed behavior is also acceptable for long and intermediate waves. The analytical dispersion analysis after considering the effect of time discretization shows that the Leap-Frog time stepping technique can improve the phase speed behavior of the numerical method; however it could not damp the shorter decelerated waves. The Adams-Bashforth technique leads to slower propagation of short and intermediate waves and it damps those waves with a slower propagating speed. The numerical solutions of various test problems also conform and are in good agreement with the analytical dispersion analysis. They also indicate that the Adams-Bashforth scheme exhibits faster convergence and more accurate results, respectively, when the spatial and temporal step size decreases. However, the Leap-Frog scheme is more stable with higher CFL numbers.

  2. Preliminary design and manufacturing feasibility study for a machined Zircaloy triangular pitch fuel rod support system (grids) (AWBA development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwood, W A

    1981-07-01

    General design features and manufacturing operations for a high precision machined Zircaloy fuel rod support grid intended for use in advanced light water prebreeder or breeder reactor designs are described. The grid system consists of a Zircaloy main body with fuel rod and guide tube cells machined using wire EDM, a separate AM-350 stainless steel insert spring which fits into a full length T-slot in each fuel rod cell, and a thin (0.025'' or 0.040'' thick) wire EDM machined Zircaloy coverplate laser welded to each side of the grid body to retain the insert springs. The fuel rods are placed in a triangular pitch array with a tight rod-to-rod spacing of 0.063 inch nominal. Two dimples are positioned at the mid-thickness of the grid (single level) with a 90/sup 0/ included angle. Data is provided on the effectiveness of the manufacturing operations chosen for grid machining and assembly.

  3. Unstructured viscous grid generation by advancing-front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1993-01-01

    A new method of generating unstructured triangular/tetrahedral grids with high-aspect-ratio cells is proposed. The method is based on new grid-marching strategy referred to as 'advancing-layers' for construction of highly stretched cells in the boundary layer and the conventional advancing-front technique for generation of regular, equilateral cells in the inviscid-flow region. Unlike the existing semi-structured viscous grid generation techniques, the new procedure relies on a totally unstructured advancing-front grid strategy resulting in a substantially enhanced grid flexibility and efficiency. The method is conceptually simple but powerful, capable of producing high quality viscous grids for complex configurations with ease. A number of two-dimensional, triangular grids are presented to demonstrate the methodology. The basic elements of the method, however, have been primarily designed with three-dimensional problems in mind, making it extendible for tetrahedral, viscous grid generation.

  4. BatTri: A two-dimensional bathymetry-based unstructured triangular grid generator for finite element circulation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgili, Ata; Smith, Keston W.; Lynch, Daniel R.

    2006-06-01

    A brief summary of Delaunay unstructured triangular grid refinement algorithms, including the recent "off-centers" method, is provided and mesh generation requirements that are imperative to meet the criteria of the circulation modeling community are defined. A Matlab public-domain two-dimensional (2-D) mesh generation package (BatTri) based on these requirements is then presented and its efficiency shown through examples. BatTri consists of a graphical mesh editing interface and several bathymetry-based refinement algorithms, complemented by a set of diagnostic utilities to check and improve grid quality. The final output mesh node locations, node depths and element incidence list are obtained starting from only a basic set of bathymetric data. This simple but efficient setup allows fast interactive mesh customization and provides circulation modelers with problem-specific flexibility while satisfying the usual requirements on mesh size and element quality. A test of the "off-centers" method performed on 100 domains with randomly generated coastline and bathymetry shows an overall 25% reduction in the number of elements with only slight decrease in element quality. More importantly, this shows that BatTri is easily upgradeable to meet the future demands by the addition of new grid generation algorithms and Delaunay refinement schemes as they are made available.

  5. Improved second-order hyperbolic residual-distribution scheme and its extension to third-order on arbitrary triangular grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we construct second- and third-order hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for general advection-diffusion problems on arbitrary triangular grids. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the second-order hyperbolic schemes in [J. Comput. Phys. 227 (2007) 315-352] and [J. Comput. Phys. 229 (2010) 3989-4016] can be greatly improved by requiring the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. The improved second-order scheme can be easily extended to a third-order scheme by further requiring the exactness for cubic solutions. These schemes are constructed based on the SUPG methodology formulated in the framework of the residual-distribution method, and thus can be considered as economical and powerful alternatives to high-order finite-element methods. For both second- and third-order schemes, we construct a fully implicit solver by the exact residual Jacobian of the proposed second-order scheme, and demonstrate rapid convergence, typically with no more than 10-15 Newton iterations (and about 200-800 linear relaxations per Newton iteration), to reduce the residuals by ten orders of magnitude. We also demonstrate that these schemes can be constructed based on a separate treatment of the advective and diffusive terms, which paves the way for the construction of hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results show that these schemes produce exceptionally accurate and smooth solution gradients on highly skewed and anisotropic triangular grids even for a curved boundary problem, without introducing curved elements. A quadratic reconstruction of the curved boundary normals and a high-order integration technique on curved boundaries are also provided in details.

  6. The ICON-1.2 hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical core on triangular grids - Part 1: Formulation and performance of the baseline version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, H.; Giorgetta, M. A.; Zängl, G.; Restelli, M.; Majewski, D.; Bonaventura, L.; Fröhlich, K.; Reinert, D.; Rípodas, P.; Kornblueh, L.; Förstner, J.

    2013-06-01

    As part of a broader effort to develop next-generation models for numerical weather prediction and climate applications, a hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical core is developed as an intermediate step to evaluate a finite-difference discretization of the primitive equations on spherical icosahedral grids. Based on the need for mass-conserving discretizations for multi-resolution modelling as well as scalability and efficiency on massively parallel computing architectures, the dynamical core is built on triangular C-grids using relatively small discretization stencils. This paper presents the formulation and performance of the baseline version of the new dynamical core, focusing on properties of the numerical solutions in the setting of globally uniform resolution. Theoretical analysis reveals that the discrete divergence operator defined on a single triangular cell using the Gauss theorem is only first-order accurate, and introduces grid-scale noise to the discrete model. The noise can be suppressed by fourth-order hyper-diffusion of the horizontal wind field using a time-step and grid-size-dependent diffusion coefficient, at the expense of stronger damping than in the reference spectral model. A series of idealized tests of different complexity are performed. In the deterministic baroclinic wave test, solutions from the new dynamical core show the expected sensitivity to horizontal resolution, and converge to the reference solution at R2B6 (35 km grid spacing). In a dry climate test, the dynamical core correctly reproduces key features of the meridional heat and momentum transport by baroclinic eddies. In the aqua-planet simulations at 140 km resolution, the new model is able to reproduce the same equatorial wave propagation characteristics as in the reference spectral model, including the sensitivity of such characteristics to the meridional sea surface temperature profile. These results suggest that the triangular-C discretization provides a reasonable basis for

  7. A Sacred Geometry of the Equilateral Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, E. P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the construction of spirals on an equilateral triangle and prove that these spirals are geometric. In further analysing these spirals we show that both the male (straight line segments) and female (curves) forms of the spiral exhibit exactly the same growth ratios and that these growth ratios are constant…

  8. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  9. Courant-Sharp Eigenvalues for the Equilateral Torus, and for the Equilateral Triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérard, Pierre; Helffer, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    We address the question of determining the eigenvalues {λn} (listed in nondecreasing order, with multiplicities) for which Courant's nodal domain theorem is sharp i.e., for which there exists an associated eigenfunction with {n} nodal domains (Courant-sharp eigenvalues). Following ideas going back to Pleijel (1956), we prove that the only Courant-sharp eigenvalues of the flat equilateral torus are the first and second, and that the only Courant-sharp Dirichlet eigenvalues of the equilateral triangle are the first, second, and fourth eigenvalues. In the last section we sketch similar results for the right-angled isosceles triangle and for the hemiequilateral triangle.

  10. Fourth class of convex equilateral polyhedron with polyhedral symmetry related to fullerenes and viruses

    PubMed Central

    Schein, Stan; Gayed, James Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The three known classes of convex polyhedron with equal edge lengths and polyhedral symmetry––tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral––are the 5 Platonic polyhedra, the 13 Archimedean polyhedra––including the truncated icosahedron or soccer ball––and the 2 rhombic polyhedra reported by Johannes Kepler in 1611. (Some carbon fullerenes, inorganic cages, icosahedral viruses, geodesic structures, and protein complexes resemble these fundamental shapes.) Here we add a fourth class, “Goldberg polyhedra,” which are also convex and equilateral. We begin by decorating each of the triangular facets of a tetrahedron, an octahedron, or an icosahedron with the T vertices and connecting edges of a “Goldberg triangle.” We obtain the unique set of internal angles in each planar face of each polyhedron by solving a system of n equations and n variables, where the equations set the dihedral angle discrepancy about different types of edge to zero, and the variables are a subset of the internal angles in 6gons. Like the faces in Kepler’s rhombic polyhedra, the 6gon faces in Goldberg polyhedra are equilateral and planar but not equiangular. We show that there is just a single tetrahedral Goldberg polyhedron, a single octahedral one, and a systematic, countable infinity of icosahedral ones, one for each Goldberg triangle. Unlike carbon fullerenes and faceted viruses, the icosahedral Goldberg polyhedra are nearly spherical. The reasoning and techniques presented here will enable discovery of still more classes of convex equilateral polyhedra with polyhedral symmetry. PMID:24516137

  11. Heat transfer enhancement in a tube with equilateral triangle cross sectioned coiled wire inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Gunes, Sibel; Ozceyhan, Veysel; Buyukalaca, Orhan

    2010-09-15

    The heat transfer and pressure drop were experimentally investigated in a coiled wire inserted tube in turbulent flow regime. The coiled wire has equilateral triangular cross section and was inserted separately from the tube wall. The experiments were carried out with three different pitch ratios (P/D = 1, 2 and 3) and two different ratio of equilateral triangle length side to tube diameter (a/D = 0.0714 and 0.0892) at a distance (s) of 1 mm from the tube wall in the range of Reynolds number from 3500 to 27,000. Uniform heat flux was applied to the external surface of the tube and air was selected as fluid. The experimental results obtained from a smooth tube were compared with those from the studies in literature for validation of experimental set-up. The use of coiled wire inserts leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and pressure drop over the smooth tube. The Nusselt number rises with the increase of Reynolds number and wire thickness and the decrease of pitch ratio. The highest overall enhancement efficiency of 36.5% is achieved for the wire with a/D = 0.0892 and P/D = 1 at Reynolds number of 3858. Consequently, the experimental results reveal that the best operating regime of all coiled wire inserts is detected at low Reynolds number, leading to more compact heat exchanger. (author)

  12. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  13. Motion and stability of triangular equilibrium points in elliptical restricted three body problem under the radiating primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, A.; Singh, Nutan

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the motion and orbital stability of the infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of the equilateral (triangular) Lagrangian points of the elliptic restricted three body problem, considering photo gravitational effects of both the primaries. The stability of the triangular points is studied under the effects of radiating primaries around the binary system (Achird, Luyten, αCen AB, Kruger-60, Xi-Bootis); using simulation technique by drawing different curves of zero velocity.

  14. Halo/galaxy bispectrum with equilateral-type primordial trispectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Shuntaro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effect of equilateral-type primordial trispectrum on the halo/galaxy bispectrum. We consider three types of equilateral primordial trispectra which are generated by quartic operators naturally appearing in the effective field theory of inflation and can be characterized by three nonlinearity parameters, gNLσ˙ 4 , gNLσ˙ 2(∂σ )2 , and gNL(∂σ )4 . Recently, constraints on these parameters have been investigated from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations by using WMAP9 data. In order to consider the halo/galaxy bispectrum with the equilateral-type primordial trispectra, we adopt the integrated perturbation theory in which the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity are wholly encapsulated in the linear primordial polyspectrum for the evaluation of the biased polyspectrum. We show the shapes of the halo/galaxy bispectrum with the equilateral-type primordial trispectra and find that the primordial trispectrum characterized by gNLσ˙ 4 provides the same scale dependence as the gravity-induced halo/galaxy bispectrum. Hence, it would be difficult to obtain the constraint on gNLσ˙ 4 from the observations of the halo/galaxy bispectrum. On the other hand, the primordial trispectra characterized by gNLσ˙ 2(∂σ )2 and gNL(∂σ )4 provide the common scale dependence which is different from that of the gravity-induced halo/galaxy bispectrum on large scales. Hence, future observations of the halo/galaxy bispectrum would give constraints on the nonlinearity parameters, gNLσ˙ 2(∂σ )2 and gNL(∂σ )4 independently from CMB observations.

  15. Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.

  16. The average crossing number of equilateral random polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Y.; Dobay, A.; Kusner, R. B.; Millett, K.; Stasiak, A.

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we study the average crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons. We show that the mean average crossing number ACN of all equilateral random walks of length n is of the form \\frac{3}{16} n \\ln n +O(n) . A similar result holds for equilateral random polygons. These results are confirmed by our numerical studies. Furthermore, our numerical studies indicate that when random polygons of length n are divided into individual knot types, the \\langle ACN({\\cal K})\\rangle for each knot type \\cal K can be described by a function of the form \\langle ACN({\\cal K})\\rangle=a (n-n_0) \\ln (n-n_0)+b (n-n_0)+c where a, b and c are constants depending on \\cal K and n0 is the minimal number of segments required to form \\cal K . The \\langle ACN({\\cal K})\\rangle profiles diverge from each other, with more complex knots showing higher \\langle ACN({\\cal K})\\rangle than less complex knots. Moreover, the \\langle ACN({\\cal K})\\rangle profiles intersect with the langACNrang profile of all closed walks. These points of intersection define the equilibrium length of \\cal K , i.e., the chain length n_e({\\cal K}) at which a statistical ensemble of configurations with given knot type \\cal K —upon cutting, equilibration and reclosure to a new knot type \\cal K^\\prime —does not show a tendency to increase or decrease \\langle ACN({\\cal K^\\prime)}\\rangle . This concept of equilibrium length seems to be universal, and applies also to other length-dependent observables for random knots, such as the mean radius of gyration langRgrang.

  17. Synthetic RNA-protein complex shaped like an equilateral triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hirohisa; Kobayashi, Tetsuhiro; Kabata, Rinko; Endo, Kei; Iwasa, Takuma; Yoshimura, Shige H.; Takeyasu, Kunio; Inoue, Tan; Saito, Hirohide

    2011-02-01

    Synthetic nanostructures consisting of biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids have been constructed using bottom-up approaches. In particular, Watson-Crick base pairing has been used to construct a variety of two- and three-dimensional DNA nanostructures. Here, we show that RNA and the ribosomal protein L7Ae can form a nanostructure shaped like an equilateral triangle that consists of three proteins bound to an RNA scaffold. The construction of the complex relies on the proteins binding to kink-turn (K-turn) motifs in the RNA, which allows the RNA to bend by ~60° at three positions to form a triangle. Functional RNA-protein complexes constructed with this approach could have applications in nanomedicine and synthetic biology.

  18. Guided plasmon polaritons for triangular metallic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuntian; Xiao, Sanshui; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2008-11-01

    The properties of guided plasmon polaritons supported by a triangular metallic waveguide are presented. The waveguide examined is a metal core with equilateral triangular cross section embedded in an infinite lossless dielectric media. Based on the rotation symmetry of the waveguide, the sketch of the supported fundament modes is given. The fundamental modes can be constructed by a proper combination of the corner modes and surface modes, which can be supported by isolated metal corners and metallic-dielectric interface respectively. The mode properties of the metallic waveguide, e.g., the dispersion and propagation length with the size of the metal core, mode field orientation and field distribution profiles are addressed by using a finite element method. The numerical singularities of the optical field are removed by smoothing the corners with an appropriate arc at the nano meter scale. The guided modes supported by the structure are determined and characterized for both subwavelength and suprawavelength. We find that the corner modes exist in both regimes, while the surface modes only appear in the suprawavelenth. Our results also show that the mode properties preserve a certain kind of symmetry of the waveguides. The degenerate modes exist both for the corner guided modes and for surface guided modes. The first fundamental corner modes is a polarization-independent mode without the cut-off size of the waveguides. Calculations also show how sensitively the mode changes with the corner sharpness. The propagation constant of the corner modes is sensitive to the corner sharpness, while the side modes are unaffected.

  19. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  20. Perturbation of circumsolar dust ring on stability of Sun- Earth triangular libration points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    Asteroid collisions and cometary outgassing produce grains and dust that cause to fill the interplanetary space. The particles are temporarily trapped into orbit of the Earth to develop a circumsolar dust ring. The ring encloses the Sun-Earth equilateral triangular libration points in terms of Restricted Three-Body Problem (RTBP). On the other hand, regions close to the triangular points are preferable as locations for placing astronomical satellite. Here we study the planar-circular RTBP of Sun-Earth system with considers the oblateness of Earth and the presence of a circumsolar dust ring. Perturbation of the dust ring on linear stability of the points is discussed and we find that the points are still stable. However, in general the presence of the circumsolar (resonant) dust ring decreases value of the critical mass parameter.

  1. The generalized triangular decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Hager, William W.; Li, Jian

    2008-06-01

    Given a complex matrix mathbf{H} , we consider the decomposition mathbf{H} = mathbf{QRP}^* , where mathbf{R} is upper triangular and mathbf{Q} and mathbf{P} have orthonormal columns. Special instances of this decomposition include the singular value decomposition (SVD) and the Schur decomposition where mathbf{R} is an upper triangular matrix with the eigenvalues of mathbf{H} on the diagonal. We show that any diagonal for mathbf{R} can be achieved that satisfies Weyl's multiplicative majorization conditions: prod_{iD1}^k \\vert r_{i}\\vert le prod_{iD1}^k sigma_i, ; ; 1 le k < K, quad prod_{iD1}^K \\vert r_{i}\\vert = prod_{iD1}^K sigma_i, where K is the rank of mathbf{H} , sigma_i is the i -th largest singular value of mathbf{H} , and r_{i} is the i -th largest (in magnitude) diagonal element of mathbf{R} . Given a vector mathbf{r} which satisfies Weyl's conditions, we call the decomposition mathbf{H} = mathbf{QRP}^* , where mathbf{R} is upper triangular with prescribed diagonal mathbf{r} , the generalized triangular decomposition (GTD). A direct (nonrecursive) algorithm is developed for computing the GTD. This algorithm starts with the SVD and applies a series of permutations and Givens rotations to obtain the GTD. The numerical stability of the GTD update step is established. The GTD can be used to optimize the power utilization of a communication channel, while taking into account quality of service requirements for subchannels. Another application of the GTD is to inverse eigenvalue problems where the goal is to construct matrices with prescribed eigenvalues and singular values.

  2. Batten augmented triangular beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.

  3. Triangular G2-Splines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    energy [1]. Judging the visual ap- pearance of the surfaces by their isophotes we got the best results with the 340 H. Prautzsch and G. Umlauf Fig. 7...An initial control net (left), parameter lines of the resulting G2-surface (middle), top-view of the surface showing isophotes (right). functional F...construction. The initial triangular control net has an irregular vertex of valence 5. The isophotes confirm that the resulting surface is G 2. Fig. 8

  4. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A; Samirov, D V

    2014-09-30

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  5. Triangular rogue wave cascades.

    PubMed

    Kedziora, David J; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Akhmediev, Nail

    2012-11-01

    By numerically applying the recursive Darboux transformation technique, we study high-order rational solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation that appear spatiotemporally as triangular arrays of Peregrine solitons. These can be considered as rogue wave cascades and complement previously discovered circular cluster forms. In this analysis, we reveal a general parametric restriction for their existence and investigate the interplay between cascade and cluster forms. As a result, we demonstrate how to generate many more hybrid rogue wave solutions, including semicircular clusters that resemble claws.

  6. The growth of the mean average crossing number of equilateral polygons in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsuaga, J.; Borgo, B.; Diao, Y.; Scharein, R.

    2009-11-01

    The physical and biological properties of collapsed long polymer chains as well as of highly condensed biopolymers (such as DNA in all organisms) are known to be determined, at least in part, by their topological and geometrical properties. With this purpose of characterizing the topological properties of such condensed systems equilateral random polygons restricted to confined volumes are often used. However, very few analytical results are known. In this paper, we investigate the effect of volume confinement on the mean average crossing number (ACN) of equilateral random polygons. The mean ACN of knots and links under confinement provides a simple alternative measurement for the topological complexity of knots and links in the statistical sense. For an equilateral random polygon of n segments without any volume confinement constrain, it is known that its mean ACN langACNrang is of the order \\frac{3}{16}n\\ln n +O(n). Here we model the confining volume as a simple sphere of radius R. We provide an analytical argument which shows that langACNrang of an equilateral random polygon of n segments under extreme confinement (meaning R Lt n) grows as O(n2). We propose to model the growth of langACNrang as a(R)n2 + b(R)nln(n) under a less-extreme confinement condition, where a(R) and b(R) are functions of R with R being the radius of the confining sphere. Computer simulations performed show a fairly good fit using this model.

  7. Triangular bubble spline surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kapl, Mario; Byrtus, Marek; Jüttler, Bert

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for generating a Gn-surface from a triangular network of compatible surface strips. The compatible surface strips are given by a network of polynomial curves with an associated implicitly defined surface, which fulfill certain compatibility conditions. Our construction is based on a new concept, called bubble patches, to represent the single surface patches. The compatible surface strips provide a simple Gn-condition between two neighboring bubble patches, which are used to construct surface patches, connected with Gn-continuity. For n≤2, we describe the obtained Gn-condition in detail. It can be generalized to any n≥3. The construction of a single surface patch is based on Gordon–Coons interpolation for triangles. Our method is a simple local construction scheme, which works uniformly for vertices of arbitrary valency. The resulting surface is a piecewise rational surface, which interpolates the given network of polynomial curves. Several examples of G0, G1 and G2-surfaces are presented, which have been generated by using our method. The obtained surfaces are visualized with reflection lines to demonstrate the order of smoothness. PMID:22267872

  8. Multigrid solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on triangular meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Jameson, Antony; Martinelli, Luigi

    1989-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes algorithm for use on unstructured triangular meshes is presented. Spatial discretization of the governing equations is achieved using a finite element Galerkin approximation, which can be shown to be equivalent to a finite volume approximation for regular equilateral triangular meshes. Integration steady-state is performed using a multistage time-stepping scheme, and convergence is accelerated by means of implicit residual smoothing and an unstructured multigrid algorithm. Directional scaling of the artificial dissipation and the implicit residual smoothing operator is achieved for unstructured meshes by considering local mesh stretching vectors at each point. The accuracy of the scheme for highly stretched triangular meshes is validated by comparing computed flat-plate laminar boundary layer results with the well known similarity solution, and by comparing laminar airfoil results with those obtained from various well-established structured quadrilateral-mesh codes. The convergence efficiency of the present method is also shown to be competitive with those demonstrated by structured quadrilateral-mesh algorithms.

  9. Ising antiferromagnet on a finite triangular lattice with free boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon

    2015-11-01

    The exact integer values for the density of states of the Ising model on an equilateral triangular lattice with free boundary conditions are evaluated up to L = 24 spins on a side for the first time by using the microcanonical transfer matrix. The total number of states is 2 N s = 2300 ≈ 2.037 × 1090 for L = 24, where N s = L( L+1)/2 is the number of spins. Classifying all 2300 spin states according to their energy values is an enormous work. From the density of states, the exact partition function zeros in the complex temperature plane of the triangular-lattice Ising model are evaluated. Using the density of states and the partition function zeros, we investigate the properties of the triangularlattice Ising antiferromagnet. The scaling behavior of the ground-state entropy and the form of the correlation length at T = 0 are studied for the triangular-lattice Ising antiferromagnet with free boundary conditions. Also, the scaling behavior of the Fisher edge singularity is investigated.

  10. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Hyperbolic Prismatic Grid Generation and Solution of Euler Equations on Prismatic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, S. A.; Chattot, JJ; Hafez, M. M.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyperbolic grid generation method is used to generate prismatic grids and an approach using prismatic grids to solve the Euler equations is presented. The theory of the stability and feasibility of the hyperbolic grid generation method is presented. The hyperbolic grid generation method of Steger et al for structured grids is applied to a three dimensional triangularized surface definition to generate a grid that is unstructured on each successive layer. The grid, however, retains structure in the body-normal direction and has a computational cell shaped like a triangular prism. In order to take advantage of the structure in the normal direction, a finite-volume scheme that treats the unknowns along the normal direction implicitly is introduced and the flow over a sphere is simulated.

  12. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  13. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  14. Ba8CoNb6O24 : A spin-1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet in the two-dimensional limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawl, R.; Ge, L.; Agrawal, H.; Kamiya, Y.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Butch, N. P.; Sun, X. F.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Oitmaa, J.; Batista, C. D.; Mourigal, M.; Zhou, H. D.; Ma, J.

    2017-02-01

    The perovskite Ba8CoNb6O24 comprises equilateral effective spin-1/2 Co2 + triangular layers separated by six nonmagnetic layers. Susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements combined with high-temperature series expansions and spin-wave calculations confirm that Ba8CoNb6O24 is basically a two-dimensional magnet with no detectable spin anisotropy and no long-range magnetic ordering down to 0.06 K. In other words, Ba8CoNb6O24 is very close to be a realization of the paradigmatic spin-1/2 triangular Heisenberg model, which is not expected to exhibit symmetry breaking at finite temperatures according to the Mermin and Wagner theorem.

  15. Revealing the basins of convergence in the planar equilateral restricted four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2017-01-01

    The planar equilateral restricted four-body problem where two of the primaries have equal masses is used in order to determine the Newton-Raphson basins of convergence associated with the equilibrium points. The parametric variation of the position of the libration points is monitored when the value of the mass parameter m3 varies in predefined intervals. The regions on the configuration (x,y) plane occupied by the basins of attraction are revealed using the multivariate version of the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. The correlations between the attracting domains of the equilibrium points and the corresponding number of iterations needed for obtaining the desired accuracy are also illustrated. We perform a thorough and systematic numerical investigation by demonstrating how the dynamical parameter m3 influences the shape, the geometry and the degree of fractality of the converging regions. Our numerical outcomes strongly indicate that the mass parameter is indeed one of the most influential factors in this dynamical system.

  16. Trispectrum estimation in various models of equilateral type non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Keisuke; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Koyama, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the shape correlations between trispectra in various equilateral non-Gaussian models, including Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation, ghost inflation and Lifshitz scalars, using the full trispectrum as well as the reduced trispectrum. We find that most theoretical models are distinguishable from the shapes of primordial trispectra except for several exceptions where it is difficult to discriminate between the models, such as single field Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation and a Lifshitz scalar model. We introduce an estimator for the amplitude of the trispectrum, gNLequil and relate it to model parameters in various models. Using constraints on gNLequil from WMAP5, we give constraints on the model parameters.

  17. High precision triangular waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1983-01-01

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  18. Unstructured Cartesian/prismatic grid generation for complex geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karman, Steve L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of a hybrid grid system for discretizing complex three dimensional (3D) geometries is described. The primary grid system is an unstructured Cartesian grid automatically generated using recursive cell subdivision. This grid system is sufficient for computing Euler solutions about extremely complex 3D geometries. A secondary grid system, using triangular-prismatic elements, may be added for resolving the boundary layer region of viscous flows near surfaces of solid bodies. This paper describes the grid generation processes used to generate each grid type. Several example grids are shown, demonstrating the ability of the method to discretize complex geometries, with very little pre-processing required by the user.

  19. INTEGRATING A LINEAR INTERPOLATION FUNCTION ACROSS TRIANGULAR CELL BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. WISEMAN; J. S. BROCK

    2000-04-01

    Computational models of particle dynamics often exchange solution data with discretized continuum-fields using interpolation functions. These particle methods require a series expansion of the interpolation function for two purposes: numerical analysis used to establish the model's consistency and accuracy, and logical-coordinate evaluation used to locate particles within a grid. This report presents discrete-expansions for a linear interpolation function commonly used within triangular cell geometries. Discrete-expansions, unlike a Taylor's series, account for interpolation discontinuities across cell boundaries and, therefore, are valid throughout a discretized domain. Verification of linear discrete-expansions is demonstrated on a simple test problem.

  20. Generation and enumeration of compact conformations on the two-dimensional triangular and three-dimensional fcc lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peto, Myron; Sen, Taner Z.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    We enumerated all compact conformations within simple geometries on the two-dimensional (2D) triangular and three-dimensional (3D) face centered cubic (fcc) lattice. These compact conformations correspond mathematically to Hamiltonian paths and Hamiltonian circuits and are frequently used as simple models of proteins. The shapes that were studied for the 2D triangular lattice included m ×n parallelograms, regular equilateral triangles, and various hexagons. On the 3D fcc lattice we generated conformations for a limited class of skewed parallelepipeds. Symmetries of the shape were exploited to reduce the number of conformations. We compared surface to volume ratios against protein length for compact conformations on the 3D cubic lattice and for a selected set of real proteins. We also show preliminary work in extending the transfer matrix method, previously developed by us for the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices, to the 2D triangular lattice. The transfer matrix method offers a superior way of generating all conformations within a given geometry on a lattice by completely avoiding attrition and reducing this highly complicated geometrical problem to a simple algebraic problem of matrix multiplication.

  1. Magnetism and multiferroicity of an isosceles triangular lattice antiferromagnet Sr3NiNb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Ma, J.; Sinclair, R.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Zhou, H. D.

    2016-11-01

    Various experimental measurements were performed to complete the phase diagram of a weakly distorted triangular lattice system, Sr3NiNb2O9 with Ni2+ , spin-1 magnetic ions. This compound possesses an isosceles triangular lattice with two shorter bonds and one longer bond. It shows a two-step magnetic phase transition at {{T}\\text{N1}}∼ 5.1 K and {{T}\\text{N2}}∼ 5.5 K at zero magnetic field, characteristic of an easy-axis anisotropy. In the magnetization curves, a series of magnetic phase transitions was observed such as an up-up-down phase at {μ0}{{H}c1}∼ 10.5 T with 1/3 of the saturation magnetization (M sat) and an oblique phase at {μ0}{{H}c2}∼ 16 T with \\sqrt{3} /3 M sat. Intriguingly, the magnetic phase transition below T N2 is in tandem with the ferroelectricity, which demonstrates multiferroic behaviors. Moreover, the multiferroic phase persists in all magnetically ordered phases regardless of the spin structure. The comparison between the phase diagrams of Sr3NiNb2O9 and its sister compound with an equilateral triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ba3NiNb2O9 (Hwang et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 257205), illustrates how a small imbalance among exchange interactions change the magnetic ground states of the TLAFs.

  2. Fabrication of terahertz wire-grid polarizers.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Anni; Väyrynen, Juha; Hassinen, Sami; Tuovinen, Hemmo; Mutanen, Jarkko; Itkonen, Tommi; Silfsten, Pertti; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Kuittinen, Markku; Mönkkönen, Kari; Venäläinen, Tapani

    2012-12-10

    Wire-grid polarizers for terahertz region were fabricated by manufacturing triangular grating using a ruling-based, ultraprecision diamond machining process and replicating the pattern into polymethylpentene (TPX) and cyklo-olefin copolymer (COC) sheets using hot embossing. On top of the imprinted structures, aluminum was evaporated in an oblique angle, forming an aluminum wire grid. The achieved extinction rate was over 150 for TPX polarizers and near 1000 for COC polarizers.

  3. Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.

  4. Structured background grids for generation of unstructured grids by advancing front method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar

    1991-01-01

    A new method of background grid construction is introduced for generation of unstructured tetrahedral grids using the advancing-front technique. Unlike the conventional triangular/tetrahedral background grids which are difficult to construct and usually inadequate in performance, the new method exploits the simplicity of uniform Cartesian meshes and provides grids of better quality. The approach is analogous to solving a steady-state heat conduction problem with discrete heat sources. The spacing parameters of grid points are distributed over the nodes of a Cartesian background grid by interpolating from a few prescribed sources and solving a Poisson equation. To increase the control over the grid point distribution, a directional clustering approach is used. The new method is convenient to use and provides better grid quality and flexibility. Sample results are presented to demonstrate the power of the method.

  5. Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.

  6. Opening the Door on Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMartin, Kimberley; McMaster, Heather

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to looking solely at linear functions, a three-lesson learning progression developed for Year 6 students that incorporates triangular numbers to develop children's algebraic thinking is described and evaluated.

  7. Numerical simulation of laminar forced convection of water-CuO nanofluid inside a triangular duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghanajafi, Amir; Toghraie, Davood; Mehmandoust, Babak

    2017-01-01

    In this article, distilled water and CuO particles with volume fraction of 1%, 2% and 4% are numerically studied. The steady state flow regime is considered laminar with Reynolds number of 100, and nano-particles diameters are assumed 20 nm and 80 nm. The hydraulic diameter and the length of equilateral triangular channel are 8 mm and 1000 mm, respectively. The problem is solved for two different boundary conditions; firstly, constant heat flux for all sides as a validation approach; and secondly, constant heat flux for two sides and constant temperature for one side (hot plate). Convective heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, pressure loss through the channel, velocity distribution in cross section and temperature distribution on walls are investigated in detail. The fluid flow is supposed to be one-phase flow. It can be observed that nano-fluid leads to a remarkable enhancement on heat transfer coefficient. Furthermore, CuO particles increase pressure loss through the channel and velocity distribution in fully developed cross section of channel, as well. The computations reveal that the size of nano-particles has no significant influence on heat transfer properties. Besides, the study shows a good agreement between provided outcomes and experimental data available in the literature.

  8. Natural formations at the Earth-Moon triangular point in perturbed restricted problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E.; Masdemont, J. J.; Gómez, G.

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies for small formation flying dynamics about triangular libration points have determined the existence of regions of zero and Minimum Relative Radial Acceleration with respect to the nominal trajectory, that prevent from the expansion or contraction of the constellation. However, these studies only considered the gravitational force of the Earth and the Moon using the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CRTBP) scenario. Although the CRTBP model is a good approximation for the dynamics of spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system, the nominal trajectories around equilateral libration points are strongly affected when the primary orbit eccentricity and solar gravitational force are considered. In this manner, the goal of this work is the analysis of the best regions to place a formation that is flying close a bounded solution around L4 , taking into account the Moon's eccentricity and Sun's gravity. This model is not only more realistic for practical engineering applications but permits to determine more accurately the fuel consumption to maintain the geometry of the formation.

  9. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  10. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  11. The use of digital technology in finding multiple paths to solve and extend an equilateral triangle task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Reyes-Rodriguez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical tasks are crucial elements for teachers to orient, foster and assess students' processes to comprehend and develop mathematical knowledge. During the process of working and solving a task, searching for or discussing multiple solution paths becomes a powerful strategy for students to engage in mathematical thinking. A simple task that involves the construction of an equilateral triangle is used to present and discuss multiple solution approaches that rely on a variety of concepts and ways of reasoning. To this end, the use of a Dynamic Geometry System (GeoGebra) became instrumental in constructing and exploring dynamic models of the task. These model explorations provided a means to generate novel mathematical results.

  12. P-SV-wave propagation in heterogeneous media: grid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianfeng, Zhang; Tielin, Liu

    1999-02-01

    We present a new numerical modelling algorithm for P-SV-wave propagation in heterogeneous media, which is named the grid method in this paper. Similar to the finite-element method in the discretization of a numerical mesh, the grid method is flexible in incorporating surface topography and curved interfaces. The grid method, in the same way as the staggered-grid finite-difference scheme, is developed from the first-order velocity-stress hyperbolic system of elastic wave equations. The free-surface conditions are satisfied naturally for the grid method. The method, with its small numerical dispersion and good stability, is of high accuracy and low computational cost. Each time step needs 34M+N multiplication operations and 26M+N addition operations for N nodes and M triangular grids. In this paper, the triangular grid method is discussed in detail, and the numerical dispersion, stability criterion and numerical simulations are presented. The grid method based on triangular grids and quadrangular grids is also studied here.

  13. A triangular thin shell finite element: Linear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The formulation of the linear stiffness matrix for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell element, using a modified potential energy principle, is described. The strain energy component of the potential energy is expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients by use of consistent Koiter strain-displacement equations. The element inplane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. The interelement displacement admissibility conditions are met in the global representation by imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Errors due to the nonzero strains under rigid body motion are shown to be of small importance for practical grid refinements through performance of extensive comparison analyses.

  14. Domain decomposition by the advancing-partition method for parallel unstructured grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z. (Inventor); Banihashemi, legal representative, Soheila (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In a method for domain decomposition for generating unstructured grids, a surface mesh is generated for a spatial domain. A location of a partition plane dividing the domain into two sections is determined. Triangular faces on the surface mesh that intersect the partition plane are identified. A partition grid of tetrahedral cells, dividing the domain into two sub-domains, is generated using a marching process in which a front comprises only faces of new cells which intersect the partition plane. The partition grid is generated until no active faces remain on the front. Triangular faces on each side of the partition plane are collected into two separate subsets. Each subset of triangular faces is renumbered locally and a local/global mapping is created for each sub-domain. A volume grid is generated for each sub-domain. The partition grid and volume grids are then merged using the local-global mapping.

  15. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-03-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  16. Localized lasing modes of triangular organic microlasers.

    PubMed

    Lafargue, C; Lebental, M; Grigis, A; Ulysse, C; Gozhyk, I; Djellali, N; Zyss, J; Bittner, S

    2014-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the ray-wave correspondence in organic microlasers of various triangular shapes. Triangular billiards are of interest since they are the simplest cases of polygonal billiards and the existence and properties of periodic orbits in triangles are not yet fully understood. The microlasers with symmetric shapes that were investigated exhibited states localized on simple periodic orbits, and their lasing characteristics like spectra and far-field distributions could be well explained by the properties of the periodic orbits. Furthermore, asymmetric triangles that do not feature simple periodic orbits were studied. Their lasing properties were found to be more complicated and could not be explained by periodic orbits.

  17. Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…

  18. Transport Code for Regular Triangular Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-09

    DIAMANT2 solves the two-dimensional static multigroup neutron transport equation in planar regular triangular geometry. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective or input specified boundary flux conditions are solved. Anisotropy is allowed for the scattering source. Volume and surface sources are allowed for inhomogeneous problems.

  19. Solutions to the Triangular Bicycle Flags Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartweg, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Students in a fifth-grade general education class and a second-grade gifted class participated in the Triangular Bicycle Flags problem. The results indicated that providing students with geometric experiences at the correct van Hiele level is necessary for helping students move from one level of understanding to the next.

  20. Optimal parallel solution of sparse triangular systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, Fernando L.; Schreiber, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A method for the parallel solution of triangular sets of equations is described that is appropriate when there are many right-handed sides. By preprocessing, the method can reduce the number of parallel steps required to solve Lx = b compared to parallel forward or backsolve. Applications are to iterative solvers with triangular preconditioners, to structural analysis, or to power systems applications, where there may be many right-handed sides (not all available a priori). The inverse of L is represented as a product of sparse triangular factors. The problem is to find a factored representation of this inverse of L with the smallest number of factors (or partitions), subject to the requirement that no new nonzero elements be created in the formation of these inverse factors. A method from an earlier reference is shown to solve this problem. This method is improved upon by constructing a permutation of the rows and columns of L that preserves triangularity and allow for the best possible such partition. A number of practical examples and algorithmic details are presented. The parallelism attainable is illustrated by means of elimination trees and clique trees.

  1. Grid Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pointwise Inc.'s, Gridgen Software is a system for the generation of 3D (three dimensional) multiple block, structured grids. Gridgen is a visually-oriented, graphics-based interactive code used to decompose a 3D domain into blocks, distribute grid points on curves, initialize and refine grid points on surfaces and initialize volume grid points. Gridgen is available to U.S. citizens and American-owned companies by license.

  2. Collisional diffusion in toroidal plasmas with elongation and triangularity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Haines, M. G.

    2007-05-15

    Collisional diffusion is analyzed for plasma tokamaks with different ellipticities and triangularities. Improved nonlinear equations for the families of magnetic surfaces are used here. Dimensionless average velocities are calculated as a function of the inductive electric field, elongation, triangularity, and Shafranov shift. Confinement has been found to depend significantly on triangularity.

  3. MAGNETIC GRID

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1960-08-01

    An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

  4. Scatter integration with right triangular fields.

    PubMed

    Siddon, R L; Dewyngaert, J K; Bjärngard, B E

    1985-01-01

    The concept of the equivalent field is used extensively in radiotherapy dose calculation algorithms. The rationale for using equivalent fields is to allow dose calculations for a wide variety of field shapes, while maintaining dose calculational data for only a few, very regularly shaped fields. A common example is the table of equivalent squares of rectangular fields presented by Day in the British Journal of Radiology. Recently, in searching for fast dose calculation algorithms for irregular fields, we introduced the concept of the equivalent square of a right triangular field. It is shown that an arbitrary irregular field of N vertices may be decomposed into 2N right triangular fields, each with a precalculated equivalent square. The scatter at the point of calculation due to the irregular field is then obtained as a sum of the scatter contributions from the equivalent squares. The scatter integration with right triangles is compared with scatter integration using program IRREG.

  5. Kinetic antiferromagnetism in the triangular lattice.

    PubMed

    Haerter, Jan O; Shastry, B Sriram

    2005-08-19

    We show that the motion of a single hole in the infinite-U Hubbard model with frustrated hopping leads to weak metallic antiferromagnetism of kinetic origin. An intimate relationship is demonstrated between the simplest versions of this problem in one and two dimensions, and two of the most subtle many body problems, namely, the Heisenberg Bethe ring in one dimension and the two-dimensional triangular lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  6. High-precision triangular-waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, T.R.

    1981-11-14

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and decending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  7. Hash functions and triangular mesh reconstruction*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrádek, Jan; Kuchař, Martin; Skala, Václav

    2003-07-01

    Some applications use data formats (e.g. STL file format), where a set of triangles is used to represent the surface of a 3D object and it is necessary to reconstruct the triangular mesh with adjacency information. It is a lengthy process for large data sets as the time complexity of this process is O( N log N), where N is number of triangles. Triangular mesh reconstruction is a general problem and relevant algorithms can be used in GIS and DTM systems as well as in CAD/CAM systems. Many algorithms rely on space subdivision techniques while hash functions offer a more effective solution to the reconstruction problem. Hash data structures are widely used throughout the field of computer science. The hash table can be used to speed up the process of triangular mesh reconstruction but the speed strongly depends on hash function properties. Nevertheless the design or selection of the hash function for data sets with unknown properties is a serious problem. This paper describes a new hash function, presents the properties obtained for large data sets, and discusses validity of the reconstructed surface. Experimental results proved theoretical considerations and advantages of hash function use for mesh reconstruction.

  8. Ray tracing for point distribution in unstructured grid generation

    SciTech Connect

    Khamayseh, A.; Ortega, F.; Trease, H.

    1995-12-31

    We present a procedure by which grid points are generated on surfaces or within three-dimensional volumes to produce high quality unstructed grids for complex geometries. The virtue of this method is based on ray-tracing approach for curved polyhedra whose faces may lie on natural quadrics (planes, cylinders, cones, or spheres) or triangular faceted surfaces. We also present an efficient point location algorithm for identifying points relative to various regions with classification of inside/on/outside.

  9. Orbital Distribution Arbitrarily Close to the Homothetic Equilateral Triple Collision in the Free-Fall Three-Body Problem with Equal Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umehara, Hiroaki; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    The existence of escape and nonescape orbits arbitrarily close to the homothetic equilateral triple-collision orbit is considered analytically in the three-body problem with zero initial velocities and equal masses. It is proved that escape orbits in the initial condition space are distributed around three kinds of isosceles orbits. It is also proved that nonescape orbits are distributed in between the escape orbits where different particles escape. In order to show this, it is proved that the homothetic-equilateral orbit is isolated from other triple-collision orbits as far as the collision at the first triple encounter is concerned. Moreover, the escape criterion is formulated in the planar-isosceles problem and translated into the words of regularizing variables. The result obtained by us explains the orbital structure numerically.

  10. Psyplot: Visualizing rectangular and triangular Climate Model Data with Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    The development and use of climate models often requires the visualization of geo-referenced data. Creating visualizations should be fast, attractive, flexible, easily applicable and easily reproducible. There is a wide range of software tools available for visualizing raster data, but they often are inaccessible to many users (e.g. because they are difficult to use in a script or have low flexibility). In order to facilitate easy visualization of geo-referenced data, we developed a new framework called "psyplot," which can aid earth system scientists with their daily work. It is purely written in the programming language Python and primarily built upon the python packages matplotlib, cartopy and xray. The package can visualize data stored on the hard disk (e.g. NetCDF, GeoTIFF, any other file format supported by the xray package), or directly from the memory or Climate Data Operators (CDOs). Furthermore, data can be visualized on a rectangular grid (following or not following the CF Conventions) and on a triangular grid (following the CF or UGRID Conventions). Psyplot visualizes 2D scalar and vector fields, enabling the user to easily manage and format multiple plots at the same time, and to export the plots into all common picture formats and movies covered by the matplotlib package. The package can currently be used in an interactive python session or in python scripts, and will soon be developed for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the psyplot framework enables flexible configuration, allows easy integration into other scripts that uses matplotlib, and provides a flexible foundation for further development.

  11. Overture: The grid classes

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W.

    1997-01-01

    Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

  12. Fibonacci Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

  13. New plate and shell elements for NASTRAN. [development of higher order triangular plate-bending finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.

    1973-01-01

    A new higher order triangular plate-bending finite element is presented which possesses high accuracy for practical mesh subdivisions and which uses only translations and rotations as grid point degrees of freedom. The element has 18 degrees of freedom, the transverse displacement and two rotations at the vertices and mid-side grid points of the triangle. The transverse displacement within the element is approximated by a quintic polynomial; the bending strains thus vary cubically within the element. Transverse shear flexibility is taken into account in the stiffness formulation. Two examples of static and dynamic analysis are included to show the behavior of the element.

  14. Grids = Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Linda; Carter, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that narrow columns provide a flexible system of organization for designers. Notes that grids serve the content on the pages, help to develop a layout that will clearly direct the reader to information; and prevent visual monotony. Concludes when grid layouts are used, school publications look as good as professional ones. (PM)

  15. [Frenectomy associated with a triangular gingival graft].

    PubMed

    Borghetti, A; Guy, J P; Cesano, B

    1991-11-01

    In periodontal therapy, frenectomy is indicated when the frenum exerts tension on the gingival margin and interferes with proper oral hygiene. The procedure is also employed when the frenum prevents closure of a diastema during orthodontic therapy. Frenectomy should be done after the canines have erupted and before retention is started to prevent separation of the teeth. For an improved surgical and cosmetic result, the authors propose a triangular-shaped gingival graft after the frenum has been excised. The advantage of the procedure is to create an area of attached gingiva and enhance healing.

  16. Use of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of temporal triangular alopecia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jullyene Gomes de; Oliveira, Cláudia Marina Puga Barbosa; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reyes; Klein, Ana Paula; Akel, Patricia Bandeira de Melo; Pinto, Giselle Martins

    2015-01-01

    Temporal triangular alopecia, also referred as congenital triangular alopecia, is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by a non-scarring, circumscribed alopecia often located unilaterally in the frontotemporal region. It usually emerges at ages 2-9 years. Alopecia areata is the main differential diagnosis, especially in atypical cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that helps distinguish temporal triangular alopecia from aloepecia areata. Such procedure prevents invasive diagnostic methods as well as ineffective treatments.

  17. Graphene Triangular Ballistic Rectifier: Fabrication and Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auton, Gregory; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that graphene can demonstrate ballistic transport at room temperature. This opens up a range of practical applications that do not require graphene to have a band gap, which is one of the most significant challenges for its use in the electronics industry. Here, the very latest high mobility graphene (>100,000 cm2 V-1 s-1) fabrication techniques will be demonstrated so that one such device, called the triangular ballistic rectifier (TBR), can be characterised. The TBR is a four-terminal device with a triangular anti-dot at their intersection; two sides of the triangle are positioned and angled such that ballistic carriers from the two input electrodes are redirected like billiard balls to one of the two output contacts irrespective of the instantaneous polarity of the input. A responsivity of 2400 mV mW-1 is demonstrated at room temperature from a low-frequency input signal. The ballistic nature of the device is justified and explained in more detail with low-temperature measurements.

  18. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  19. Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  20. The coordination chemistry of tartronic acid with copper: magnetic studies of a quasi-equilateral tricopper triangle.

    PubMed

    Pascu, Gabriel; Deville, Claire; Clifford, Sarah E; Guenée, Laure; Besnard, Céline; Krämer, Karl W; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Winpenny, Richard E P; Williams, Alan F

    2014-01-14

    The coordination chemistry of tartronic acid, , with copper(ii) has been investigated. Structures of two complexes are reported containing respectively the complex [Cu(-2H)2Cl](3-) where acts as a bidentate ligand through carboxylates, and [Cu3(-3H)3](3-) where the alcohol function is deprotonated to bridge two coppers in a triangular trinuclear complex. The latter species undergoes facile oxidation leading to carbon-carbon bond formation. The magnetic and EPR properties of the trinuclear complex have been studied in detail.

  1. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.

  2. Sznajd Sociophysics Model on a Triangular Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Iksoo

    The Sznajd sociophysics model is generalized on the triangular lattice with pure antiferromagnetic opinion and also with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic opinions. The slogan of the trade union ``united we stand, divided we fall'' can be realized via the propagation of ferromagnetic opinion of adjacent people in the union, but the propagation of antiferromagnetic opinion can be observed among the third countries between two big super powers or among the family members of conflicting parents. Fixed points are found in both models. The distributions of relaxation time of the mixed model are dispersed and become closer to log-normal as the initial concentration of down spins approaches 0.5, whereas for pure antiferromagnetic spins, they are collapsed into one master curve, which is roughly log-normal. We do not see the phase transition in the model.

  3. Shuttle-launch triangular space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C. (Inventor); Berka, R. B. (Inventor); Kavanaugh, C. (Inventor); Nagy, K. (Inventor); Parish, R. C. (Inventor); Schliesing, J. A. (Inventor); Smith, P. D. (Inventor); Stebbins, F. J. (Inventor); Wesselski, C. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A triangular space station deployable in orbit is described. The framework is comprized of three trusses, formed of a pair of generally planar faces consistine of foldable struts. The struts expand and lock into rigid structural engagement forming a repetition of equilater triangles and nonfolding diagonal struts interconnecting the two faces. The struts are joined together by node fittings. The framework can be packaged into a size and configuration transportable by a space shuttle. When deployed, the framework provides a large work/construction area and ample planar surface area for solar panels and thermal radiators. A plurity of modules are secured to the framework and then joined by tunnels to make an interconnected modular display. Thruster units for the space station orientation and altitude maintenance are provided.

  4. Excitonic susceptibility in near triangular quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, A.; Arulmozhi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Diamagnetic susceptibility and binding energy of an exciton in a near triangular quantum well, with potential profile proportional to |z|2/3 composed of GaAs/Ga1- x Al x As and ZnO/Zn1- x Mg x O are calculated as a function of the wellwidth and concentration of Al and Mg respectively varying the magnetic field applied along growth direction (i.e. z-axis). Diamagnetic susceptibility of light hole exciton and heavy hole exciton, shows inverse behaviors in the two materials below 20 nm wellwidth and the binding energy of both excitons increases, as the magnetic field increases. The results obtained, are compared with those of quantum wells with varied potential profiles and the experimental results reported in the literature.

  5. Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, S. Shiv; Rai, Akhilesh; Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Singh, Amit; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2004-07-01

    The optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of nanoscale matter are a strong function of particle size. Nanoparticle shape also contributes significantly to modulating their electronic properties. Several shapes ranging from rods to wires to plates to teardrop structures may be obtained by chemical methods; triangular nanoparticles have been synthesized by using a seeded growth process. Here, we report the discovery that the extract from the lemongrass plant, when reacted with aqueous chloroaurate ions, yields a high percentage of thin, flat, single-crystalline gold nanotriangles. The nanotriangles seem to grow by a process involving rapid reduction, assembly and room-temperature sintering of 'liquid-like' spherical gold nanoparticles. The anisotropy in nanoparticle shape results in large near-infrared absorption by the particles, and highly anisotropic electron transport in films of the nanotriangles.

  6. A triangular heterometallic siloxide containing barium

    SciTech Connect

    Coan, P.S.; Streib, W.E.; Caulton, K.G. )

    1991-12-25

    Reaction of KOSiPh[sub 3] with Ba[sub 3](OSiPh[sub 3])[sub 6](THF) in THF displaces barium from the triangular reagent to yield a colorless solid. Recrystallization in the presence of MeOC[sub 2]H[sub 4]OMe(DME) yields KBa[sub 2](OSiPh[sub 3])[sub 5](DME)[sub 2], characterized by [sup 1]H and [sup 29]Si NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The molecule contains a triangular KBa[sub 2]([mu][sub 3]-OSiPh[sub 3])[sub 2]([mu][sub 2]-OSiPh[sub 3])[sub 3] core with [eta][sup 1] and [eta][sup 2]-DME ligation on each barium. The benzene-soluble molecule is fluxional in solution at both the OSiPh[sub 3] and the DME groups. At -70C in CH[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]/C[sub 6]D[sub 6], both [eta][sup 1]-DME/[eta][sup 2]-DME site exchange and intramolecular siloxide migration have been slowed, and the spectra are in agreement with retention of the solid-state structure in solution. Crystallographic data for KBa[sub 2](OSiPh[sub 3])[sub 5](DME)[sub 2] (-159C): a = 15.474 (3) [angstrom], b = 26.466 (6) [angstrom], c = 23.783 (5) [angstrom], [beta] = 99.80 (1)[degree] with Z = 4 in space group P2[sub 1]/n.

  7. Convergence Analysis of Triangular MAC Schemes for Two Dimensional Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Zhong, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of H(div) elements in the velocity–pressure formulation to discretize Stokes equations in two dimensions. We address the error estimate of the element pair RT0–P0, which is known to be suboptimal, and render the error estimate optimal by the symmetry of the grids and by the superconvergence result of Lagrange inter-polant. By enlarging RT0 such that it becomes a modified BDM-type element, we develop a new discretization BDM1b–P0. We, therefore, generalize the classical MAC scheme on rectangular grids to triangular grids and retain all the desirable properties of the MAC scheme: exact divergence-free, solver-friendly, and local conservation of physical quantities. Further, we prove that the proposed discretization BDM1b–P0 achieves the optimal convergence rate for both velocity and pressure on general quasi-uniform grids, and one and half order convergence rate for the vorticity and a recovered pressure. We demonstrate the validity of theories developed here by numerical experiments. PMID:26041948

  8. Unveiling square and triangular optical lattices: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juarez G; Jesus-Silva, Alcenísio J; Alencar, Márcio A R C; Hickmann, Jandir M; Fonseca, Eduardo J S

    2014-02-15

    We study square and triangular optical lattice formation using a diffraction technique with light-possessing orbital angular momentum (OAM). We demonstrate that it is possible to use Fraunhofer diffraction of light by a square aperture to unveil OAM about two times bigger than would be possible with a triangular aperture. We notice that the pattern remains truncated until a topological charge (TC) equal to 20 with good precision. Even though a square pattern cannot be used to determine the TC sign, it is possible to measure high order of the modulus and sign of the TC up to 20, combining patterns of the triangular and square apertures.

  9. Tests of Predictions of the Algebraic Cluster Model: the Triangular D 3h Symmetry of 12C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Moshe

    2016-07-01

    A new theoretical approach to clustering in the frame of the Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) has been developed. It predicts rotation-vibration structure with rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular symmetric spinning top with a D 3h symmetry characterized by the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with a degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Our measured new 2+ 2 in 12C allows the first study of rotation-vibration structure in 12C. The newly measured 5- state and 4- states fit very well the predicted ground state rotational band structure with the predicted sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D 3h symmetry is characteristic of triatomic molecules, but it is observed in the ground state rotational band of 12C for the first time in a nucleus. We discuss predictions of the ACM of other rotation-vibration bands in 12 C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode with prediction of (“missing 3- and 4-”) states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or non observation) of the predicted (“missing”) states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.6542 MeV in 12C. We discuss proposed research programs at the Darmstadt S-DALINAC and at the newly constructed ELI-NP facility near Bucharest to test the predictions of the ACM in isotopes of carbon.

  10. Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D M; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-02-16

    Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials.

  11. 29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view of small triangular openings from opposite side of wall. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  12. 7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  13. The Centre of Mass of a Triangular Plate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slusarenko, Viktor; Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    We present a derivation for the coordinates of the centre of mass--or centre of gravity--of a homogeneous triangular plate by using scaling and symmetry. We scale the triangular plate by a factor of 2 and divide its area into four plates identical to the original. By symmetry, we assert that the centre of mass of two identical masses lies at the…

  14. A triangular covariance factorization for sequential filtering algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Peters, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    A method for propagating the square-root of the state error covariance matrix in lower triangular UDU form is described. This update method can be combined with the UDU transformation used by Bierman to obtain the equations of a square-root free triangular estimation algorithm. The method is compared with the state transition matrix time update algorithm on the basis of integration accuracy, computational efficiency and storage requirements.

  15. On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

  16. An algorithm for propagating the square-root covariance matrix in triangular form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Choe, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    A method for propagating the square root of the state error covariance matrix in lower triangular form is described. The algorithm can be combined with any triangular square-root measurement update algorithm to obtain a triangular square-root sequential estimation algorithm. The triangular square-root algorithm compares favorably with the conventional sequential estimation algorithm with regard to computation time.

  17. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  18. The triangular maps with closed sets of periodic points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Jiri

    2006-07-01

    In a recent paper we provided a characterization of triangular maps of the square, i.e., maps given by F(x,y)=(f(x),gx(y)), satisfying condition (P1) that any chain recurrent point is periodic. For continuous maps of the interval, there is a list of 18 other conditions equivalent to (P1), including (P2) that there is no infinite [omega]-limit set, (P3) that the set of periodic points is closed and (P4) that any regularly recurrent point is periodic, for instance. We provide an almost complete classification among these conditions for triangular maps, improve a result given by C. Arteaga [C. Arteaga, Smooth triangular maps of the square with closed set of periodic points, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 196 (1995) 987-997] and state an open problem concerning minimal sets of the triangular maps. The paper solves partially a problem formulated by A.N. Sharkovsky in the eighties. The mentioned open problem, the validity of (P4) => (P3), is related to the question whether some regularly recurrent point lies in the fibres over an f-minimal set possessing a regularly recurrent point. We answered this question in the positive for triangular maps with nondecreasing fiber maps. Consequently, the classification is completed for monotone triangular maps.

  19. Complete coverage of space favors modularity of the grid system in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzeni, A.; Balasubramanian, V.; Tiana, G.; Vergassola, M.

    2016-12-01

    Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex fire when animals that are exploring a certain region of space occupy the vertices of a triangular grid that spans the environment. Different neurons feature triangular grids that differ in their properties of periodicity, orientation, and ellipticity. Taken together, these grids allow the animal to maintain an internal, mental representation of physical space. Experiments show that grid cells are modular, i.e., there are groups of neurons which have grids with similar periodicity, orientation, and ellipticity. We use statistical physics methods to derive a relation between variability of the properties of the grids within a module and the range of space that can be covered completely (i.e., without gaps) by the grid system with high probability. Larger variability shrinks the range of representation, providing a functional rationale for the experimentally observed comodularity of grid cell periodicity, orientation, and ellipticity. We obtain a scaling relation between the number of neurons and the period of a module, given the variability and coverage range. Specifically, we predict how many more neurons are required at smaller grid scales than at larger ones.

  20. Complete coverage of space favors modularity of the grid system in the brain.

    PubMed

    Sanzeni, A; Balasubramanian, V; Tiana, G; Vergassola, M

    2016-12-01

    Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex fire when animals that are exploring a certain region of space occupy the vertices of a triangular grid that spans the environment. Different neurons feature triangular grids that differ in their properties of periodicity, orientation, and ellipticity. Taken together, these grids allow the animal to maintain an internal, mental representation of physical space. Experiments show that grid cells are modular, i.e., there are groups of neurons which have grids with similar periodicity, orientation, and ellipticity. We use statistical physics methods to derive a relation between variability of the properties of the grids within a module and the range of space that can be covered completely (i.e., without gaps) by the grid system with high probability. Larger variability shrinks the range of representation, providing a functional rationale for the experimentally observed comodularity of grid cell periodicity, orientation, and ellipticity. We obtain a scaling relation between the number of neurons and the period of a module, given the variability and coverage range. Specifically, we predict how many more neurons are required at smaller grid scales than at larger ones.

  1. A multigrid method for steady Euler equations on unstructured adaptive grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemslagh, Kris; Dick, Erik

    1993-01-01

    A flux-difference splitting type algorithm is formulated for the steady Euler equations on unstructured grids. The polynomial flux-difference splitting technique is used. A vertex-centered finite volume method is employed on a triangular mesh. The multigrid method is in defect-correction form. A relaxation procedure with a first order accurate inner iteration and a second-order correction performed only on the finest grid, is used. A multi-stage Jacobi relaxation method is employed as a smoother. Since the grid is unstructured a Jacobi type is chosen. The multi-staging is necessary to provide sufficient smoothing properties. The domain is discretized using a Delaunay triangular mesh generator. Three grids with more or less uniform distribution of nodes but with different resolution are generated by successive refinement of the coarsest grid. Nodes of coarser grids appear in the finer grids. The multigrid method is started on these grids. As soon as the residual drops below a threshold value, an adaptive refinement is started. The solution on the adaptively refined grid is accelerated by a multigrid procedure. The coarser multigrid grids are generated by successive coarsening through point removement. The adaption cycle is repeated a few times. Results are given for the transonic flow over a NACA-0012 airfoil.

  2. A 2D finite element wave equation solver based on triangular base elements

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Evrard, M.

    2009-11-26

    A finite element method based on the subdivision of the physical domain in triangular sub-domains in which simple local 'areale' coordinates are adopted is explored. The advantage of the method is that it straightforwardly allows grid refinement in regions where higher precision is required. The plasma model was kept simple for this 'proof-of-principle' exercise. Rather than accounting for the actual differential or integro-differential dielectric tensor, its locally uniform plasma equivalent was adopted for 3 possible choices: the cold plasma response, the full hot Stix/Swanson plasma tensor retaining all orders in finite Larmor radius (FLR) and the more common hot tensor, truncated at terms of second order in the Larmor radius.

  3. An upwind multigrid method for solving viscous flows on unstructured triangular meshes. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonhaus, Daryl Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    A multigrid algorithm is combined with an upwind scheme for solving the two dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations on triangular meshes resulting in an efficient, accurate code for solving complex flows around multiple bodies. The relaxation scheme uses a backward-Euler time difference and relaxes the resulting linear system using a red-black procedure. Roe's flux-splitting scheme is used to discretize convective and pressure terms, while a central difference is used for the diffusive terms. The multigrid scheme is demonstrated for several flows around single and multi-element airfoils, including inviscid, laminar, and turbulent flows. The results show an appreciable speed up of the scheme for inviscid and laminar flows, and dramatic increases in efficiency for turbulent cases, especially those on increasingly refined grids.

  4. Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Tunisie Grid, Sud Algerie Grid, Sud Maroc Grid, and Sud Tunisie Grid. 4-1.1.8 The...REFERENCES ON THE SUD ALGERIE AND SUD TUNISIE GRIDS 6-8.5.2 When oil reference boxes cannot be accommodated in the margin, the excess is shown in expanses...GIVING REFERENCES ON THE SUD ALGERIE AND SUD TUNISIE GRIDS 6-21 DMA TM 8358.1 I CHAPTER 7 GRIDS ON MAPS AT 1:250,000 AND 1:500,000 SCALE 7.1 GENERAL.

  5. First Cross-Sectional Study of Attainment of the Concepts "Equilateral Triangle", "Cutting Tool" and "Noun" by Children 5 to 16 of City A. Report from the Program on Children's Learning and Development. Technical Report No. 287.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    Theory and research regarding four levels of concept attainment and three uses of concepts as specified by the conceptual learning and development (CLD) model are described. Assessment batteries were developed to assess each child's level of concept attainment and also the related use of the concepts equilateral triangle, cutting tool, and noun.…

  6. Second Cross-Sectional Study of Attainment of the Concepts "Equilateral Triangle,""Cutting Tool,""Noun," and "Tree" by Children Age 6 to 16 of City B. Technical Report No. 347.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    For this study, the second in the cross sectional series, based on the Conceptual Learning and Development (CLD) model, assessment batteries were developed to determine each child's level of attainment and related use of the concepts "equilateral triangle,""cutting tool,""noun," and "tree." Batteries were…

  7. Second Cross-Sectional Study of Attainment of the Concepts "Equilateral Triangle,""Cutting Tool,""Noun," and "Tree" by Children Age 6 to 16 of City A. Technical Report No. 367.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    For this study, the second in the cross sectional series, based on the Conceptual Learning and Development (CLD) model, assessment batteries were developed to determine each child's level of concept attainment and also the related use of the concepts "equilateral triangle,""cutting tool,""noun," and "tree."…

  8. Direct recordings of grid-like neuronal activity in human spatial navigation

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Miller, Jonathan F.; Solway, Alec; Burke, John; Wei, Xue-Xin; Suthana, Nanthia; Sperling, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini D.

    2013-01-01

    Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex appear to represent spatial location via a triangular coordinate system. Such cells, which have been identified in rats, bats, and monkeys, are believed to support a wide range of spatial behaviors. By recording neuronal activity from neurosurgical patients performing a virtual-navigation task we identified cells exhibiting grid-like spiking patterns in the human brain, suggesting that humans and simpler animals rely on homologous spatial-coding schemes. PMID:23912946

  9. Direct Replacement of Arbitrary Grid-Overlapping by Non-Structured Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1994-01-01

    A new approach that uses nonstructured mesh to replace the arbitrarily overlapped structured regions of embedded grids is presented. The present methodology uses the Chimera composite overlapping mesh system so that the physical domain of the flowfield is subdivided into regions which can accommodate easily-generated grid for complex configuration. In addition, a Delaunay triangulation technique generates nonstructured triangular mesh which wraps over the interconnecting region of embedded grids. It is designed that the present approach, termed DRAGON grid, has three important advantages: eliminating some difficulties of the Chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and/or bad quality of interpolation stencils; making grid communication in a fully conservative way; and implementation into three dimensions is straightforward. A computer code based on a time accurate, finite volume, high resolution scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations has been further developed to include both the Chimera overset grid and the nonstructured mesh schemes. For steady state problems, the local time stepping accelerates convergence based on a Courant - Friedrichs - Leury (CFL) number near the local stability limit. Numerical tests on representative steady and unsteady supersonic inviscid flows with strong shock waves are demonstrated.

  10. Algebraic turbulence models for the computation of two-dimensional high speed flows using unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostand, Philippe

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of algebraic turbulence models in a solver for the 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations using triangular grids is described. A practical way to use the Cebeci Smith model, and to modify it in separated regions is proposed. The ability of the model to predict high speed, perfect gas boundary layers is investigated from a numerical point of view.

  11. Absence of Visual Input Results in the Disruption of Grid Cell Firing in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guifen; Manson, Daniel; Cacucci, Francesca; Wills, Thomas Joseph

    2016-09-12

    Grid cells are spatially modulated neurons within the medial entorhinal cortex whose firing fields are arranged at the vertices of tessellating equilateral triangles [1]. The exquisite periodicity of their firing has led to the suggestion that they represent a path integration signal, tracking the organism's position by integrating speed and direction of movement [2-10]. External sensory inputs are required to reset any errors that the path integrator would inevitably accumulate. Here we probe the nature of the external sensory inputs required to sustain grid firing, by recording grid cells as mice explore familiar environments in complete darkness. The absence of visual cues results in a significant disruption of grid cell firing patterns, even when the quality of the directional information provided by head direction cells is largely preserved. Darkness alters the expression of velocity signaling within the entorhinal cortex, with changes evident in grid cell firing rate and the local field potential theta frequency. Short-term (<1.5 s) spike timing relationships between grid cell pairs are preserved in the dark, indicating that network patterns of excitatory and inhibitory coupling between grid cells exist independently of visual input and of spatially periodic firing. However, we find no evidence of preserved hexagonal symmetry in the spatial firing of single grid cells at comparable short timescales. Taken together, these results demonstrate that visual input is required to sustain grid cell periodicity and stability in mice and suggest that grid cells in mice cannot perform accurate path integration in the absence of reliable visual cues.

  12. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  13. Ray picture and ray-wave correspondence in triangular microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockschläder, Pia; Kreismann, Jakob; Hentschel, Martina

    2016-12-01

    We apply ray-optical methods to dielectric optical microcavities in the shape of triangles made of low refractive index material. We find ray trajectories that maximize the intensity inside the cavity to determine the far-field emission characteristics and to complement the concept of the unstable manifold applicable to chaotic microlasers. As these maximum intensity trajectories need not be periodic, we suggest that they provide a more general explanation for emission patterns of microlasers than short periodic orbits. Further, the geometrical optics description is extended by the inclusion of intensity amplification along the optical path to achieve a better description of active, lasing cavities. Far-field emission patterns of equilateral triangle cavities obtained in this way agree well with our full electromagnetic wave simulations and with previously reported experimental results.

  14. Field-design optimization with triangular heliostat pods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Bravo, Carmen-Ana; Bode, Sebastian-James; Heiming, Gregor; Richter, Pascal; Carrizosa, Emilio; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Frank, Martin; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the optimization of a heliostat field with triangular heliostat pods is addressed. The use of structures which allow the combination of several heliostats into a common pod system aims to reduce the high costs associated with the heliostat field and therefore reduces the Levelized Cost of Electricity value. A pattern-based algorithm and two pattern-free algorithms are adapted to handle the field layout problem with triangular heliostat pods. Under the Helio100 project in South Africa, a new small-scale Solar Power Tower plant has been recently constructed. The Helio100 plant has 20 triangular pods (each with 6 heliostats) whose positions follow a linear pattern. The obtained field layouts after optimization are compared against the reference field Helio100.

  15. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali . E-mail: msastry@tatachemicals.com

    2007-07-03

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules.

  16. The Space-Time CESE Method Applied to Viscous Flow Computations with High-Aspect Ratio Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji

    2016-11-01

    Flow physics near the viscous wall is intrinsically anisotropic in nature, namely, the gradient along the wall normal direction is much larger than that along the other two orthogonal directions parallel to the surface. Accordingly, high aspect ratio meshes are employed near the viscous wall to capture the physics and maintain low grid count. While such arrangement works fine for structured-grid based methods with dimensional splitting that handles derivatives in each direction separately, similar treatments often lead to numerical instability for unstructured-mesh based methods when triangular or tetrahedral meshes are used. The non-splitting treatment of near-wall gradients for high-aspect ratio triangular or tetrahedral elements results in an ill-conditioned linear system of equations that is closely related to the numerical instability. Altering the side lengths of the near wall tetrahedrons in the gradient calculations would make the system less unstable but more dissipative. This research presents recent progress in applying numerical dissipation control in the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method to reduce or alleviate the above-mentioned instability while maintaining reasonable solution accuracy.

  17. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-22

    overcome the difficulty, we implemented an Automatic Differentiation (AD) tool based on an operator-overloading technique to evaluate the exact ...the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. We also show that the improved second- order scheme can be easily extended to the third-order by...further requiring the exact - ness for cubic solutions. We construct these schemes based on the Low-Diffusion-A and the Streamwise-Upwind-Petrov

  18. Three-dimensional hybrid grid generation using advancing front techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinbrenner, John P.; Noack, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    A new 3-dimensional hybrid grid generation technique has been developed, based on ideas of advancing fronts for both structured and unstructured grids. In this approach, structured grids are first generate independently around individual components of the geometry. Fronts are initialized on these structure grids, and advanced outward so that new cells are extracted directly from the structured grids. Employing typical advancing front techniques, cells are rejected if they intersect the existing front or fail other criteria When no more viable structured cells exist further cells are advanced in an unstructured manner to close off the overall domain, resulting in a grid of 'hybrid' form. There are two primary advantages to the hybrid formulation. First, generating blocks with limited regard to topology eliminates the bottleneck encountered when a multiple block system is used to fully encapsulate a domain. Individual blocks may be generated free of external constraints, which will significantly reduce the generation time. Secondly, grid points near the body (presumably with high aspect ratio) will still maintain a structured (non-triangular or tetrahedral) character, thereby maximizing grid quality and solution accuracy near the surface.

  19. Double triangular resection for a widely prolapsed posterior mitral leaflet†

    PubMed Central

    Sawazaki, Masaru; Tomari, Shiro; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Izawa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    A wide and redundant prolapse of the posterior mitral leaflet in active infective endocarditis cannot be easily repaired. A sliding plasty can be attempted, but the range of annular plication is often too large. Chordal replacement is another option, but is prone to long-term degeneration because the redundant leaflet still exists. Here, we describe a simple resection technique that utilizes only two small triangular resections. The resections are sutured with no need to shorten the annulus. The leaflet tissue between the two triangular resections must be preserved to make an appropriately shaped posterior leaflet. PMID:23223672

  20. Case for diagnosis. Alopecia areata and congenital triangular alopecia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lorena Cassia de Carvalho; Miranda, Amanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Sebastião Alves; Ianhez, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    A 6 year-old patient began to experience localized hairloss in the right temporal region three years ago. During the first appointment, diagnoses of alopecia areata and congenital triangular alopecia were made. After one year, there was no change. Upon dermatological examination, non-scarring alopecia was noted in the right temporal region, revealing extremely fine and fair hair follicles. A dermoscopy revealed only thin vellus-type hairs. Congenital triangular alopecia is a condition commonly confused with alopecia areata and is thus underdiagnosed. However, well-established clinical parameters and dermoscopic criteria can be used to distinguish skin diseases that affect hair and define the diagnosis.

  1. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  2. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  3. View of the demilune, a triangular piece of land that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the demilune, a triangular piece of land that protected the rear of gorge wall of the fort. After the civil war, large earthen mounds were built in the demilune area. These mounds overlay four powder magazines and passageways to several gun emplacements. - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Detail view of small triangular openings (perhaps for ventilation) in top of S wall in center bay of N room of mill. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  5. Triangular blasting into limited voids for vertical free face retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1981-04-21

    Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, the retort is formed by excavating a narrow vertical slot diagonally across a retort site of rectangular horizontal crosssection, leaving separate triangular zones of unfragmented formation within the retort site on opposite sides of the diagonal slot. Explosive is placed in a plurality of vertical blasting holes drilled in each triangular zone of formation, and such explosive is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the triangular zones toward vertical free faces adjacent the slot for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. Detonation of explosive in the blasting holes expands separate wedge-shaped segments of formation toward the diagonal slot, owing to the natural cratering effect of each blast, causing the wedge-shaped segments being expanded to conform generally to the side boundaries of each triangular zone, and producing reasonably good fragmentation and movement of expanded formation toward the slot from formation throughout the retort site. Several such slots can be employed in forming a retort.

  6. Stability derivatives of triangular wings at supersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, Herbert S; Malvestuto, Frank S , Jr

    1948-01-01

    The analysis of the stability derivatives of low-aspect-ratio triangular wings at subsonic and supersonic speeds, given in NACA TN no. 1423, is extended to apply to triangular wings having large vertex angles and traveling at supersonic speeds. The lift, rolling moment due to sideslip, and damping in roll and pitch for this more general case have been treated elsewhere on the basis of the theory of small disturbances. The surface potentials for angle of attack and rolling taken therefrom are used to obtain the several side-force and yawing-moment derivatives that depend on leading-edge suction, and a tentative value for the rolling moment due to yawing. The lift and moment due to downward acceleration are obtained on the basis of an unpublished unsteady-flow solution. All the known stability derivatives of the triangular wing at supersonic speeds, regardless of source, are summarized for convenience and presented with respect to both body axes and stability axes. The results are limited to Mach numbers for which the triangular wing is contained within the Mach cone for its vertex. The spanwise variation of Mach number in the case of yawing is neglected, although the effect must be of importance.

  7. 6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTH EXTERIOR SIDE SHOWING TRIANGULAR KNEE BRACE SUPPORTS AND ENCLOSED PORCH SCREENED WINDOWS. ON BASIC FLOOR-PLAN FOR THE SIX-ROOM HOUSE THIS END WAS THE FRONT ENTRANCE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  8. Middle Passage in the Triangular Slave Trade: The West Indies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawh, Ruth; Scales, Alice M.

    2006-01-01

    Our narrative focuses on the middle passage of the slave trade in the West Indies. Herein we describe why more men, women, and children were imported in the West Indies than other islands. Specifically, our aim was to address how slaves in the middle passage of the triangular slave trade were treated, how they sustained themselves, and how they…

  9. Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…

  10. Using adaptive sampling and triangular meshes for the processing and inversion of potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foks, Nathan Leon

    The interpretation of geophysical data plays an important role in the analysis of potential field data in resource exploration industries. Two categories of interpretation techniques are discussed in this thesis; boundary detection and geophysical inversion. Fault or boundary detection is a method to interpret the locations of subsurface boundaries from measured data, while inversion is a computationally intensive method that provides 3D information about subsurface structure. My research focuses on these two aspects of interpretation techniques. First, I develop a method to aid in the interpretation of faults and boundaries from magnetic data. These processes are traditionally carried out using raster grid and image processing techniques. Instead, I use unstructured meshes of triangular facets that can extract inferred boundaries using mesh edges. Next, to address the computational issues of geophysical inversion, I develop an approach to reduce the number of data in a data set. The approach selects the data points according to a user specified proxy for its signal content. The approach is performed in the data domain and requires no modification to existing inversion codes. This technique adds to the existing suite of compressive inversion algorithms. Finally, I develop an algorithm to invert gravity data for an interfacing surface using an unstructured mesh of triangular facets. A pertinent property of unstructured meshes is their flexibility at representing oblique, or arbitrarily oriented structures. This flexibility makes unstructured meshes an ideal candidate for geometry based interface inversions. The approaches I have developed provide a suite of algorithms geared towards large-scale interpretation of potential field data, by using an unstructured representation of both the data and model parameters.

  11. DEM Based Modeling: Grid or TIN? The Answer Depends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, F. L.; Moreno, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing power has enabled process-based hydrological simulations on large watersheds and two-way coupling with mesoscale atmospheric models. Of course with increasing watershed scale come corresponding increases in watershed complexity, including wide ranging water management infrastructure and objectives, and ever increasing demands for forcing data. Simulations of large watersheds using grid-based models apply a fixed resolution over the entire watershed. In large watersheds, this means an enormous number of grids, or coarsening of the grid resolution to reduce memory requirements. One alternative to grid-based methods is the triangular irregular network (TIN) approach. TINs provide the flexibility of variable resolution, which allows optimization of computational resources by providing high resolution where necessary and low resolution elsewhere. TINs also increase required effort in model setup, parameter estimation, and coupling with forcing data which are often gridded. This presentation discusses the costs and benefits of the use of TINs compared to grid-based methods, in the context of large watershed simulations within the traditional gridded WRF-HYDRO framework and the new TIN-based ADHydro high performance computing watershed simulator.

  12. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  13. Accuracy of Gradient Reconstruction on Grids with High Aspect Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, James

    2008-01-01

    Gradient approximation methods commonly used in unstructured-grid finite-volume schemes intended for solutions of high Reynolds number flow equations are studied comprehensively. The accuracy of gradients within cells and within faces is evaluated systematically for both node-centered and cell-centered formulations. Computational and analytical evaluations are made on a series of high-aspect-ratio grids with different primal elements, including quadrilateral, triangular, and mixed element grids, with and without random perturbations to the mesh. Both rectangular and cylindrical geometries are considered; the latter serves to study the effects of geometric curvature. The study shows that the accuracy of gradient reconstruction on high-aspect-ratio grids is determined by a combination of the grid and the solution. The contributors to the error are identified and approaches to reduce errors are given, including the addition of higher-order terms in the direction of larger mesh spacing. A parameter GAMMA characterizing accuracy on curved high-aspect-ratio grids is discussed and an approximate-mapped-least-square method using a commonly-available distance function is presented; the method provides accurate gradient reconstruction on general grids. The study is intended to be a reference guide accompanying the construction of accurate and efficient methods for high Reynolds number applications

  14. Grid generation for the solution of partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    A general survey of grid generators is presented with a concern for understanding why grids are necessary, how they are applied, and how they are generated. After an examination of the need for meshes, the overall applications setting is established with a categorization of the various connectivity patterns. This is split between structured grids and unstructured meshes. Altogether, the categorization establishes the foundation upon which grid generation techniques are developed. The two primary categories are algebraic techniques and partial differential equation techniques. These are each split into basic parts, and accordingly are individually examined in some detail. In the process, the interrelations between the various parts are accented. From the established background in the primary techniques, consideration is shifted to the topic of interactive grid generation and then to adaptive meshes. The setting for adaptivity is established with a suitable means to monitor severe solution behavior. Adaptive grids are considered first and are followed by adaptive triangular meshes. Then the consideration shifts to the temporal coupling between grid generators and PDE-solvers. To conclude, a reflection upon the discussion, herein, is given.

  15. Hierarchically triangular prism structured Co3O4: Self-supported fabrication and photocatalytic property

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...

  16. Prediction of the position of an animal based on populations of grid and place cells: a comparative simulation study.

    PubMed

    Guanella, Alexis; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2007-09-01

    The grid cells of the rodent medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) show activity patterns correlated with the animal's position. Unlike hippocampal place cells that are activated at only one specific location in the environment, MEC grid cells increase firing frequency at multiple regions in space, or subfields, that are arranged in regular triangular grids. It has been recently shown that a conjunction of MEC grid cells can lead to unique spatial representations. However, it remains unclear what the key properties of the grids are that allow for an accurate reconstruction of the position of the animal and what the comparison with hippocampal place cells is. Here we use a theoretical approach based on data from electrophysiological recordings of the MEC to simulate the neural activity of grid cells. Our simulations account for the accurate reproduction of grid cell mean firing rates, based on only three grid parameters, that is grid phase, spacing and orientation. The analysis of the key properties of the grids first reveals that for an accurate position reconstruction, it is necessary to combine cells with different grid spacings (which are found at different dorsoventral locations of the MEC) or orientations. Second, the relationship between grid spacing and subfield size observed in physiological data is optimal to predict the animal's position. Third, the regular triangular tessellating patterns of grid cells lead to the best position reconstruction results when compared with all other regular tessellations of two-dimensional space. Finally, the comparison of grid cells with place cells shows that populations of MEC grid cells can better predict the animal's position than equally-sized populations of hippocampal place cells with similar but unique spatial fields. Taken together, our results suggest that the MEC provides highly compact representations of the animal's position, which may be subsequently integrated by the place cells of the hippocampus.

  17. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: equilateral triangle and collinear configurations.

    PubMed

    Salam, A

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R(-11) dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R(-13) behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R(-1) in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  18. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: Equilateral triangle and collinear configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R{sup −11} dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R{sup −13} behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R{sup −1} in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  19. Algebraic turbulence models for the computation of two-dimensional high-speed flows using unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostand, Philippe

    1989-01-01

    The incorporation of algebraic turbulence models in a solver for the 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations using triangular grids is described. A practial way to use the Cebeci Smith model, and to modify it in separated regions is proposed. The ability of the model to predict high speed, perfect gas boundary layers is investigated from a numerical point of view.

  20. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  1. Density functional theory and simulations of colloidal triangular prisms.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Matthieu; Dussi, Simone; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-03-28

    Nanopolyhedra form a versatile toolbox to investigate the effect of particle shape on self-assembly. Here we consider rod-like triangular prisms to gauge the effect of the cross section of the rods on liquid crystal phase behavior. We also take this opportunity to implement and test a previously proposed version of fundamental measure density functional theory (0D-FMT). Additionally, we perform Monte Carlocomputer simulations and we employ a simpler Onsager theory with a Parsons-Lee correction. Surprisingly and disappointingly, 0D-FMT does not perform better than the Tarazona and Rosenfeld's version of fundamental measure theory (TR-FMT). Both versions of FMT perform somewhat better than the Parsons-Lee theory. In addition, we find that the stability regime of the smectic phase is larger for triangular prisms than for spherocylinders and square prisms.

  2. A Novel Triangular Shaped UWB Fractal Antenna Using Circular Slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahu, Babu Lal; Pal, Srikanta; Chattoraj, Neela

    2016-03-01

    The article presents the design of triangular shaped fractal based antenna with circular slot for ultra wideband (UWB) application. The antenna is fed using microstrip line and has overall dimension of 24×24×1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is covering the wide frequency bandwidth of 2.99-11.16 GHz and is achieved using simple fractal based triangular-circular geometries and asymmetrical ground plane. The antenna is designed and parametrical studies are performed using method of moment (MOM) based Full Wave Electromagnetic (EM) software Simulator Zeland IE3D. The prototype of proposed antenna is fabricated and tested to compare the simulated and measured results of various antenna parameters. The antenna has good impedance bandwidth, nearly constant gain and stable radiation pattern. Measured return loss shows fair agreement with simulated one. Also measured group delay variation obtained is less than 1.0 ns, which proves good time domain behavior of the proposed antenna.

  3. Spin-electric Berry phase shift in triangular molecular magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi Mousolou, Vahid; Canali, C. M.; Sjöqvist, Erik

    2016-12-01

    We propose a Berry phase effect on the chiral degrees of freedom of a triangular magnetic molecule. The phase is induced by adiabatically varying an external electric field in the plane of the molecule via a spin-electric coupling mechanism present in these frustrated magnetic molecules. The Berry phase effect depends on spin-orbit interaction splitting and on the electric dipole moment. By varying the amplitude of the applied electric field, the Berry phase difference between the two spin states can take any arbitrary value between zero and π , which can be measured as a phase shift between the two chiral states by using spin-echo techniques. Our result can be used to realize an electric-field-induced geometric phase-shift gate acting on a chiral qubit encoded in the ground-state manifold of the triangular magnetic molecule.

  4. Edge-dependent selection rules in magic triangular graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akola, J.; Heiskanen, H. P.; Manninen, M.

    2008-05-01

    The electronic shell and supershell structure of triangular graphene quantum dots has been studied using density functional and tight-binding methods. The density functional calculations demonstrate that the electronic structure close to the Fermi energy is correctly described with a simple tight-binding model, where only the pz orbitals perpendicular to the graphene layer are included. The results show that (i) both at the bottom and at the top of the pz band, a supershell structure similar to that of free electrons confined in a triangular cavity is seen, (ii) close to the Fermi level, the shell structure is that of free massless particles, (iii) triangles with armchair edges show an additional sequence of levels (“ghost states”) absent for triangles with zigzag edges while the latter exhibit edge states, and (iv) the observed shell structure is rather insensitive to the edge roughness.

  5. Scientific Grid computing.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V

    2005-08-15

    We introduce a definition of Grid computing which is adhered to throughout this Theme Issue. We compare the evolution of the World Wide Web with current aspirations for Grid computing and indicate areas that need further research and development before a generally usable Grid infrastructure becomes available. We discuss work that has been done in order to make scientific Grid computing a viable proposition, including the building of Grids, middleware developments, computational steering and visualization. We review science that has been enabled by contemporary computational Grids, and associated progress made through the widening availability of high performance computing.

  6. Vibration immunity for a triangular Faraday current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Norman E.; Jackson, David A.

    1996-10-01

    We demonstrate a common-mode rejection scheme for a bulk- optic triangular Faraday current sensor that can eliminate optical noise induced by fiber-link vibration. The noise floor before applying common rejection was about 30 dB for a 100A Faraday signal and transceiver vibration levels of approximately 30 g. This was reduced to about 60 dB for the same vibration levels. The sensor's exploitation of Ampere's circuital law is also demonstrated.

  7. Triangular-shaped bulk optic glass Faraday current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Beatrice C.; Ning, Yanong N.; Jackson, David A.

    1993-03-01

    A new triangular topology for a bulk optic Faraday current sensor is presented with a demonstrated resolution of 20 mA/(root)Hz over a measurement range from 1 to 3000 A. The sensitivity of the system was 2.35 X 10-5 rad/A. This sensor is relatively easy to fabricate and overcome problems encountered using current sensors based upon bulk optic 'square' configurations and all fiber systems.

  8. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  9. New triangular and quadrilateral plate-bending finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.

    1974-01-01

    A nonconforming plate-bending finite element of triangular shape and associated quadrilateral elements are developed. The transverse displacement is approximated within the element by a quintic polynomial. The formulation takes into account the effects of transverse shear deformation. Results of the static and dynamic analysis of a square plate, with edges simply supported or clamped, are compared with exact solutions. Good accuracy is obtained in all calculations.

  10. Quantum oscillation and decoherence in triangular antidot lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, M.; Endo, A.; Katsumoto, S.; Iye, Y.

    2004-04-01

    Quantum oscillation phenomena in triangular antidot lattice have been investigated. Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations and Aharonov-Bohm (AB)-type oscillations are observed at low magnetic field, and AB-type oscillations due to edge channels are observed in the quantum Hall regime. Measurements of the temperature dependence of these oscillations furnish information on the mechanism of decoherence in the antidot lattice, which is compared with the single ring case.

  11. Evaluation of the triangular plate element of Zienkiewcz and Lefebvre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettes, P.; Peseux, B.; Quevat, J. P.

    1989-05-01

    A new triangular finite element characterized by interpolation which is independent of normal displacements, of rotation, and of strong forces is proposed. This element allows the treatment of bending problems with the Kirchhoff hypothesis as well as with the Reissner-Mindlin hypothesis. In addition, it satisfies the patch test for the three fields. To evaluate the performance of this element, it was used to treat problems in statics and of vibration of plates in water and in air. Triangular element results are compared with those obtained on the same problem using the Mindlin 8 node quadrilateral, the 9 node heterosis quadrilateral, the Ahmad-type 9 node quadrilateral, and Bogner 4 node rectangular elements. In addition, it was evaluated against experimental results for coupled fluid structure problems. For static comparisons, displacements and constraints were calculated for a perforated circular plate. For dynamic calculations, vibration modes of a rectangular free-free plate were derived. The mixed triangular element was found to be effective and sufficiently precise in all cases.

  12. Antiferromagnetic magnons in diluted triangular and Kagome lattices (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.L. ); Ching, W.Y. )

    1993-05-15

    Numerical results are presented for the local field distribution and the distribution of linearized magnon modes in diluted triangular and Kagome lattices. A nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian is assumed, and the linearization is carried out with respect to classical ground states obtained by means of an energy minimization algorithm.[sup 1] In the case of the triangular lattice, the density of states associated with a 20% vacancy concentration is used to calculate the magnon contribution to the specific heat. With an exchange integral inferred from the Curie--Weiss constant, quantitative agreement is obtained with the experimental results for La[sub 0.2]Gd[sub 0.8]CuO[sub 2] reported by Ramirez [ital et] [ital al].[sup 2] over the interval 0.1 K[le][ital T][le]0.2 K. The behavior of the diluted Kagome lattice is compared with that of the triangular array. In contrast to the latter, the local fields in the diluted Kagome lattice take on the discrete values 2[ital JS], [ital JS], and 0. In the case of a 14% vacancy concentration, the distribution of magnon modes resembles that of the fully occupied array with a noncoplanar ground state. The relevance of these results to the behavior of SrCr[sub 8]Ga[sub 4]O[sub 19] is discussed.[sup 3

  13. Parabolic similariton Yb-fiber laser with triangular pulse evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sijia; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel mode-locked fiber laser design which features a passive nonlinear triangular pulse formation and self-similar parabolic pulse amplification intra cavity. Attribute to the nonlinear reshaping progress in the passive fiber, a triangular-profiled pulse with negative-chirp is generated and paved the way for rapid and efficient self-similar parabolic evolution in a following short-length high-gain fiber. In the meanwhile, the accompanied significantly compressed narrow spectrum from this passive nonlinear reshaping also gives the promise of pulse stabilization and gain-shaping robustness without strong filtering. The resulting short average intra-cavity pulse duration, low amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and low intra-cavity power loss are essential for the low-noise operation. Simulations predict this modelocked fiber laser allows for high-energy ultra-short transform-limited pulse generation exceeding the gain bandwidth. The output pulse has a de-chirped duration (full-width at half maximum, FWHM) of 27 fs. In addition to the ultrafast laser applications, the proposed fiber laser scheme can support low-noise parabolic and triangular pulse trains at the same time, which are also attractive in optical pulse shaping, all-optical signal processing and high-speed communication applications.

  14. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Top, Philip; Woodward, Carol; Smith, Steve; Banks, Lawrence; Kelley, Brian

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  15. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  16. Parallel unstructured grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, Rainald; Camberos, Jose; Merriam, Marshal

    1991-01-01

    A parallel unstructured grid generation algorithm is presented and implemented on the Hypercube. Different processor hierarchies are discussed, and the appropraite hierarchies for mesh generation and mesh smoothing are selected. A domain-splitting algorithm for unstructured grids which tries to minimize the surface-to-volume ratio of each subdomain is described. This splitting algorithm is employed both for grid generation and grid smoothing. Results obtained on the Hypercube demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms developed.

  17. IPG Power Grid Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.

  18. AstroGrid-PL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowski, Greg; Kundera, Tomasz; Ciecielag, Paweł; AstroGridPL Team

    2016-06-01

    We summarise the achievements AstroGrid-PL project, which aims to provide an infrastructure grid computing, distributed storage and Virtual Observatory services to the Polish astronomical community. It was developed from 2011-2015 as a domain grid component within the large PLGrid Plus project for scientific computing in Poland.

  19. GridKit

    SciTech Connect

    Peles, Slaven

    2016-11-06

    GridKit is a software development kit for interfacing power systems and power grid application software with high performance computing (HPC) libraries developed at National Labs and academia. It is also intended as interoperability layer between different numerical libraries. GridKit is not a standalone application, but comes with a suite of test examples illustrating possible usage.

  20. Chimera Grid Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  1. Adaptive grid finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuprat, A.P.; Glasser, A.H.

    1995-07-01

    The authors discuss unstructured grids for application to transport in the tokamak edge SOL. They have developed a new metric with which to judge element elongation and resolution requirements. Using this method, the authors apply a standard moving finite element technique to advance the SOL equations while inserting/deleting dynamically nodes that violate an elongation criterion. In a tokamak plasma, this method achieves a more uniform accuracy, and results in highly stretched triangular finite elements, except near separatrix X-point where transport is more isotropic.

  2. An Upwind Multigrid Algorithm for Calculating Flows on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonhaus, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is described that calculates inviscid, laminar, and turbulent flows on triangular meshes with an upwind discretization. A brief description of the base solver and the multigrid implementation is given, followed by results that consist mainly of convergence rates for inviscid and viscous flows over a NACA four-digit airfoil section. The results show that multigrid does accelerate convergence when the same relaxation parameters that yield good single-grid performance are used; however, larger gains in performance can be realized by doing less work in the relaxation scheme.

  3. Estimating surface flow paths on a digital elevation model using a triangular facet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiming; Pilesjö, Petter; Chen, Yumin

    2011-07-01

    This study attempts to develop a method for the simulation of surface flow paths on a digital elevation model (DEM). The objective is to use a facet-based algorithm to estimate the surface flow paths on a raster DEM. A grid DEM was used to create a triangular facet network (TFN) over which the surface flow paths were determined. Since each facet in the network has a constant slope and aspect, the estimations of, for example, flow direction and divergence/convergence are less complicated compared to traditional raster-based solutions. Experiments were undertaken by estimating the specific catchment area (SCA) over a number of mathematical surfaces, as well as on a real-world DEM. Comparisons were made between the derived SCA by the TFN algorithm with some algorithms reported in the literature. The results show that the TFN algorithm produced the closest outcomes to the theoretical values of the SCA compared with other algorithms, deriving more consistent outcomes and being less influenced by surface shapes. The real-world DEM test also shows that the TFN was capable of modeling flow distribution without noticeable "artifacts," and its ability of tracking flow paths makes it an appropriate platform for dynamic surface flow simulation.

  4. Addressing the Big-Earth-Data Variety Challenge with the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rilee, Michael L.; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Oloso, Amidu; Brown, Paul G.; Yu, Honfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented an updated Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM) as the basis for a unified data model and an indexing scheme for geoscience data to address the variety challenge of Big Earth Data. We observe that, in the absence of variety, the volume challenge of Big Data is relatively easily addressable with parallel processing. The more important challenge in achieving optimal value with a Big Data solution for Earth Science (ES) data analysis, however, is being able to achieve good scalability with variety. With HTM unifying at least the three popular data models, i.e. Grid, Swath, and Point, used by current ES data products, data preparation time for integrative analysis of diverse datasets can be drastically reduced and better variety scaling can be achieved. In addition, since HTM is also an indexing scheme, when it is used to index all ES datasets, data placement alignment (or co-location) on the shared nothing architecture, which most Big Data systems are based on, is guaranteed and better performance is ensured. Moreover, our updated HTM encoding turns most geospatial set operations into integer interval operations, gaining further performance advantages.

  5. Validation of an Adaptive Triangular Discontinuous Galerkin Shallow Water Model for the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vater, Stefan; Behrens, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    We apply a tsunami simulation framework, which is based on depth-integrated hydrodynamic model equations, to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. While this model has been previously validated for analytic test cases and laboratory experiments, here it is applied to earthquake sources which are based on seismic inversion. Simulated wave heights and runup at the coast are compared to actual measurements. The discretization is based on a second-order Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme on triangular grids and features a robust wetting and drying scheme for the simulation of inundation events at the coast. Adaptive mesh refinement enables the efficient computation of large domains, while at the same time it allows for high local resolution and geometric accuracy. This work is part of the ASCETE (Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events) project, which aims at an improved understanding of the coupling between the earthquake and the generated tsunami event. In this course, a coupled simulation framework has been developed which couples physics-based rupture generation with the presented hydrodynamic tsunami propagation and inundation model.

  6. FermiGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.

  7. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  8. Which grids are Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Hedetniemi, S. M.; Hedetniemi, S. T.; Slater, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A complete grid G/sub m,n/ is a graph having m x n pertices that are connected to form a rectangular lattice in the plane, i.e., all edges of G/sub m,n/ connect vertices along horizontal or vertical lines. A grid is a subgraph of a complete grid. As an illustration, complete grids describe the basic pattern of streets in most cities. This paper examines the existence of Hamiltonian cycles in complete grids and complete grids with one or two vertices removed. It is determined for most values of m,n greater than or equal to 1, which grids G/sub m,n/ - (u) and G/sub m,n/ - (u,v) are Hamiltonian. 12 figures. (RWR)

  9. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  10. Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

  11. Two Spin Liquid phases in the anisotropic triangular Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorella, Sandro

    2005-03-01

    Recently there have been rather clean experimental realizations of the quantum spin 1/2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian on a 2D triangular lattice geometry in systems like Cs2Cu Cl4 and organic compounds like k-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3. These materials are nearly two dimensional and are characterized by an anisotropic antiferromagnetic superexchange. The strength of the spatial anisotropy can increase quantum fluctuations and can destabilize the magnetically ordered state leading to non conventional spin liquid phases. In order to understand these interesting phenomena we have studied, by Quantum Monte Carlo methods, the triangular lattice Heisenberg model as a function of the strength of this anisotropy, represented by the ratio r between the intra-chain nearest neighbor coupling J' and the inter-chain one J. We have found evidence of two spin liquid regions, well represented by projected BCS wave functions[1,2] of the type proposed by P. W. Anderson at the early stages of High temperature superconductivity [3]. The first spin liquid phase is stable for small values of the coupling r 0.6 and appears gapless and fractionalized, whereas the second one is a more conventional spin liquid, very similar to the one realized in the quantum dimer model in the triangular lattice[4]. It is characterized by a spin gap and a finite correlation length, and appears energetically favored in the region 0.6 r 0.9. The various phases are in good agreement with the experimental findings and supports the existence of spin liquid phases in 2D quantum spin-half systems. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 1cm *[1] L. Capriotti F. Becca A. Parola and S. Sorella , Phys. Rev. Letters 87, 097201 (2001). *[2] S. Yunoki and S. Sorella Phys. Rev. Letters 92, 15003 (2004). *[3] P. W. Anderson, Science 235, 1186 (1987). *[4] P. Fendley, R. Moessner, and S. L. Sondhi Phys. Rev. B 66, 214513 (2002).

  12. Triangular fibrocartilage complex injuries in the elite athlete.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jason H; Wiedrich, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Injuries to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in athletes can be caused by acute trauma, chronic repetitive loading, or a combination of both. Regardless of cause, the management of TFCC injuries in the high-performance athlete is often different from the basic tenets applied to the general population. The diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation regimen should be individualized and sport-specific in athletes, taking into consideration the priorities and needs of the athlete while striking a balance between healing, return to play, and long-term well-being.

  13. Triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems with a penalty term

    SciTech Connect

    Klawonn, A.

    1996-12-31

    Triangular preconditioners for a class of saddle point problems with a penalty term are considered. An important example is the mixed formulation of the pure displacement problem in linear elasticity. It is shown that the spectrum of the preconditioned system is contained in a real, positive interval, and that the interval bounds can be made independent of the discretization and penalty parameters. This fact is used to construct bounds of the convergence rate of the GMRES method used with an energy norm. Numerical results are given for GMRES and BI-CGSTAB.

  14. Properties of the magnetopolaron in a triangular quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Li; Shuping, Shan

    2015-08-01

    We study the properties of the magnetopolaron in a triangular quantum well within LLP variational method. At different electron-phonon coupling strength, we derive the relations between the ground state energy, the ground state binding energy with the electron areal density and the cyclotron frequency of magnetic field, respectively. Our numerical results show that the ground state energy is an increasing function of the electron areal density and the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic field. However, the ground state binding energy is a decreasing function of those.

  15. Modelling of Motion of Bodies Near Triangular Lagrangian Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrov, O. A.

    In this paper, we consider a system of three bodies connected by gravity, two of which are of comparable mass (the Sun and Jupiter), and the third is negligible and it is located in one of the triangular Lagrange points (restricted 3 - body problem). We used the equations of motion in a planar coordinate system that rotates together with massive bodies. Several programs have been written in the programming environment Pascal ABC, in order to build the trajectory of a small body, to indicate the osculating orbit around a massive body, to display equipotential surfaces.

  16. A triangular element based on generalized potential energy concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Stiffness equations are formulated for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell finite element. The strain energy component of the potential energy is first expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients with the aid of consistent deep shell strain-displacement equations. The element in-plane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. These functions do not satisfy the interelement displacement admissibility conditions. Satisfaction is forced by the imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Some numerical results for a pinched cylinder, a cylindrical sphere, and a pinched sphere are examined.

  17. Diffraction pattern of triangular grating in the resonance domain.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tetsuya; Banerjee, Saswatee; Itoh, Masahide; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2009-03-01

    We propose a combination of ray optics and Fraunhofer multiple-slit diffraction theory for calculating the two-dimensional triangular periodic grating in the resonance domain. The peak of the envelope pattern of angular distribution of diffraction efficiency is calculated by ray optics while the peak width is calculated using Fraunhofer theory. It was clarified, using rigorous coupled-wave analysis and a nonstandard-finite-difference time-domain method, that the envelope pattern of the diffraction of the grating could be calculated easily and understood intuitively for the design of displays and lighting.

  18. Collapse of triangular channels in a soft elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepáyotl-Ramírez, Daniel; Lu, Tong; Park, Yong-Lae; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We extend classical solutions in contact mechanics to examine the collapse of channels in a soft elastomer. These channels have triangular cross-section and collapse when pressure is applied to the surrounding elastomer. Treating the walls of the channel as indenters that penetrate the channel base, we derive an algebraic mapping between pressure and cross-sectional area. These theoretical predictions are in strong agreement with results that we obtain through finite element analysis and experimental measurements. This is accomplished without data fitting and suggests that the theoretical approach may be generalized to a broad range of cross-sectional geometries in soft microfluidics.

  19. Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more

  20. A METHOD OF TREATING UNSTRUCTURED CONCAVE CELLS IN STAGGERED-GRID LAGRANGIAN HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    C. ROUSCULP; D. BURTON

    2000-12-01

    A method is proposed for the treatment of concave cells in staggered-grid Lagrangian hydrodynamics. The method is general enough to be applied to two- and three-dimensional unstructured cells. Instead of defining a cell-point as the geometric average of its nodes (a cell-center), the cell-point is that which equalizes the triangular/tetrahedral area/volume in two/three dimensions. Examples are given.

  1. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  2. The making of a Global Grid - Remembering my escape from flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, G.

    2016-04-01

    Quaternary Triangular Mesh (QTM) is a spherical subdivision scheme for encoding vector geodata across a planet as recursive triangular subdivisions of an octahedron. This model of location and its hierarchical coordinate system evolved from experiments with a hierarchical raster data structure for encoding terrain relief named DEPTH (Delta Encoded Polynomial Terrain Hierarchy). This 2D pyramid- type structure encoded attributes (surface elevations) explicitly and locations (grid cell indices) implicitly. The paper describes how DEPTH evolved into QTM through a global discrete data grid called Geodesic Elevation Model (GEM), which more resembled QTM than a raster model. It used DEPTH to encode surface elevations in a forest of geodesic triangular quadtrees instead of in a planar rectangular quadtree. All three models were designed to make limitations of data accuracy and scale explicit. DEPTH and GEM capture elevations as ranges of values that decrease as the structure densifies, and perform limited interpolation. QTM captures vector data by encoding spherical 2D locations to the extent that their positional accuracy, certainty, or precision warrant, but did not use DEPTH. This paper is a memoir that summarizes the thinking that went into these data models and explores how properties and deficiencies of one led to the other. It does not present any breakthroughs or new applications. Rather, it documents inventions that influenced subsequent developments of discrete global grids, and might still do so.

  3. Honeycomb and triangular domain wall networks in heteroepitaxial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, K. R.; Chen, Z.; Elder, K. L. M.; Hirvonen, P.; Mkhonta, S. K.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study is presented for the influence of misfit strain, adhesion strength, and lattice symmetry on the complex Moiré patterns that form in ultrathin films of honeycomb symmetry adsorbed on compact triangular or honeycomb substrates. The method used is based on a complex Ginzburg-Landau model of the film that incorporates elastic strain energy and dislocations. The results indicate that different symmetries of the heteroepitaxial systems lead to distinct types of domain wall networks and phase transitions among various surface Moiré patterns and superstructures. More specifically, the results show a dramatic difference between the phase diagrams that emerge when a honeycomb film is adsorbed on substrates of honeycomb versus triangular symmetry. It is also shown that in the small deformation limit, the complex Ginzburg-Landau model reduces to a two-dimensional sine-Gordon free energy form. This free energy can be solved exactly for one dimensional patterns and reveals the role of domains walls and their crossings in determining the nature of the phase diagrams.

  4. Triangular covariance factorizations for. Ph.D. Thesis. - Calif. Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    An improved computational form of the discrete Kalman filter is derived using an upper triangular factorization of the error covariance matrix. The covariance P is factored such that P = UDUT where U is unit upper triangular and D is diagonal. Recursions are developed for propagating the U-D covariance factors together with the corresponding state estimate. The resulting algorithm, referred to as the U-D filter, combines the superior numerical precision of square root filtering techniques with an efficiency comparable to that of Kalman's original formula. Moreover, this method is easily implemented and involves no more computer storage than the Kalman algorithm. These characteristics make the U-D method an attractive realtime filtering technique. A new covariance error analysis technique is obtained from an extension of the U-D filter equations. This evaluation method is flexible and efficient and may provide significantly improved numerical results. Cost comparisons show that for a large class of problems the U-D evaluation algorithm is noticeably less expensive than conventional error analysis methods.

  5. Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn

    2016-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors. PMID:27026070

  6. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong

    2001-10-01

    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  7. Corrosion processes of triangular silver nanoparticles compared to bulk silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keast, V. J.; Myles, T. A.; Shahcheraghi, N.; Cortie, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Excessive corrosion of silver nanoparticles is a significant impediment to their use in a variety of potential applications in the biosensing, plasmonic and antimicrobial fields. Here we examine the environmental degradation of triangular silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in laboratory air. In the early stages of corrosion, transmission electron microscopy shows that dissolution of the single-crystal, triangular, AgNP (side lengths 50-120 nm) is observed with the accompanying formation of smaller, polycrystalline Ag particles nearby. The new particles are then observed to corrode to Ag2S and after 21 days nearly full corrosion has occurred, but some with minor Ag inclusions remaining. In contrast, a bulk Ag sheet, studied in cross section, showed an adherent corrosion layer of only around 20-50 nm in thickness after over a decade of being exposed to ambient air. The results have implications for antibacterial properties and ecotoxicology of AgNP during corrosion as the dissolution and reformation of Ag particles during corrosion will likely be accompanied by the release of Ag+ ions.

  8. Ellipticity and triangularity effects in tokamak Alfven spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio; Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Valdeblanquez, Eder

    2006-10-01

    Plasma configurations with ellipticity and triangularity are usual in tokamak experiments. These plasmas can be studied using a new system of coordinates of recent publications. Here this method has been applied to study Alfven spectrum in axisymmetric tokamaks with different values of ellipticity and triangularity [1-3]. Previous authors have developed numerical methods to obtain the Alfven spectrum using the Shafranov-Solove'v equilibrium flux function where the parameter ellipticity is also included [3]. Here more general configurations are treated and compared with the results of these authors, as well as those derived for the geometric optics or WKBJ approximation. The Alfven wave dispersion relation is obtained by the linearization of the MHD equations around a stationary equilibrium and the results are obtained by numerical calculations. [1] P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasma 12, 082506 (2005) [2] L. L. Lao, S. P. Hishman and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981); H. Weitzner's Appendix. [3] G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) [4] S. Novo, M. N'uñez and J. Rojo, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2967 (1991)

  9. An equatorially enhanced grid with smooth resolution distribution generated by a spring dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iga, Shin-ichi

    2017-02-01

    An equatorially enhanced grid is applicable to atmospheric general circulation simulations with better representations of the cumulus convection active in the tropics. This study improved the topology of previously proposed equatorially enhanced grids (Iga, 2015) [1], which had extremely large grid intervals around the poles. The proposed grids in this study are of a triangular mesh and are generated by a spring dynamics method with stretching around singular points, which are connected to five or seven neighboring grid points. The latitudinal distribution of resolution is nearly proportional to the combination of the map factors of the Mercator, Lambert conformal conic, and polar stereographic projections. The resolution contrast between the equator and pole is 2.3 ∼ 4.5 for the sampled cases, which is much smaller than that for the LML grids. This improvement requires only a small amount of additional grid resources, less than 11% of the total. The proposed grids are also examined with shallow water tests, and were found to perform better than the previous LML grids.

  10. Understanding the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-14

    The electric power grid has been rightly celebrated as the single most important engineering feat of the 20th century. The grid powers our homes, offices, hospitals, and schools; and, increasingly, it powers our favorite devices from smartphones to HDTVs. With those and other modern innovations and challenges, our grid will need to evolve. Grid modernization efforts will help the grid make full use of today’s advanced technologies and serve our needs in the 21st century. While the vast majority of upgrades are implemented by private sector energy companies that own and operate the grid, DOE has been investing in technologies that are revolutionizing the way we generate, store and transmit power.

  11. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  12. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  13. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  14. Unstructured surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on unstructured surface grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: requirements for curves, surfaces, solids, and text; surface approximation; triangulation; advancing; projection; mapping; and parametric curves.

  15. Adaptive unstructured triangular mesh generation and flow solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations at high Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashford, Gregory A.; Powell, Kenneth G.

    1995-01-01

    A method for generating high quality unstructured triangular grids for high Reynolds number Navier-Stokes calculations about complex geometries is described. Careful attention is paid in the mesh generation process to resolving efficiently the disparate length scales which arise in these flows. First the surface mesh is constructed in a way which ensures that the geometry is faithfully represented. The volume mesh generation then proceeds in two phases thus allowing the viscous and inviscid regions of the flow to be meshed optimally. A solution-adaptive remeshing procedure which allows the mesh to adapt itself to flow features is also described. The procedure for tracking wakes and refinement criteria appropriate for shock detection are described. Although at present it has only been implemented in two dimensions, the grid generation process has been designed with the extension to three dimensions in mind. An implicit, higher-order, upwind method is also presented for computing compressible turbulent flows on these meshes. Two recently developed one-equation turbulence models have been implemented to simulate the effects of the fluid turbulence. Results for flow about a RAE 2822 airfoil and a Douglas three-element airfoil are presented which clearly show the improved resolution obtainable.

  16. The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ellen Saeter

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…

  17. Electron sharing and anion-π recognition in molecular triangular prisms.

    PubMed

    Schneebeli, Severin T; Frasconi, Marco; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Gardner, Daniel M; Strutt, Nathan L; Cheng, Chuyang; Carmieli, Raanan; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2013-12-02

    Stacking on a full belly: Triangular molecular prisms display electron sharing among their triangularly arranged naphthalenediimide (NDI) redox centers. Their electron-deficient cavities encapsulate linear triiodide anions, leading to the formation of supramolecular helices in the solid state. Chirality transfer is observed from the six chiral centers of the filled prisms to the single-handed helices.

  18. Collision-geometry fluctuations and triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Roland, G.

    2010-05-15

    We introduce the concepts of participant triangularity and triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions, analogous to the definitions of participant eccentricity and elliptic flow. The participant triangularity characterizes the triangular anisotropy of the initial nuclear overlap geometry and arises from event-by-event fluctuations in the participant-nucleon collision points. In studies using a multiphase transport model (AMPT), a triangular flow signal is observed that is proportional to the participant triangularity and corresponds to a large third Fourier coefficient in two-particle azimuthal correlation functions. Using two-particle azimuthal correlations at large pseudorapidity separations measured by the PHOBOS and STAR experiments, we show that this Fourier component is also present in data. Ratios of the second and third Fourier coefficients in data exhibit similar trends as a function of centrality and transverse momentum as in AMPT calculations. These findings suggest a significant contribution of triangular flow to the ridge and broad away-side features observed in data. Triangular flow provides a new handle on the initial collision geometry and collective expansion dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1502-30 - Stock basis after certain triangular reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock basis after certain triangular... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules § 1.1502-30 Stock basis after certain triangular reorganizations. (a) Scope. This section provides...

  20. Self-assembly of triangular quantum dots on (111)A substrates by droplet epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, M.; Mano, T.; Abbarchi, M.; Kuroda, T.; Sakoda, K.

    2014-05-15

    We report the self-assembly of triangular GaAs quantum dots (QDs) on (111)A substrates using droplet epitaxy. Shape transition from hexagonal to triangular QDs is observed with increasing crystallizing temperature. The mechanism of the morphological change is discussed in terms of different growth rates of step edges on a (111)A substrate.

  1. Constrained CVT Meshes and a Comparison of Triangular Mesh Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hoa; Burkardt, John; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili; Saka, Yuki

    2009-01-01

    Mesh generation in regions in Euclidean space is a central task in computational science, and especially for commonly used numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations, e.g., finite element and finite volume methods. We focus on the uniform Delaunay triangulation of planar regions and, in particular, on how one selects the positions of the vertices of the triangulation. We discuss a recently developed method, based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) concept, for effecting such triangulations and present two algorithms, including one new one, for CVT-based grid generation. We also compare several methods, including CVT-based methods, for triangulating planar domains. To this end, we define several quantitative measures of the quality of uniform grids. We then generate triangulations of several planar regions, including some having complexities that are representative of what one may encounter in practice. We subject the resulting grids to visual and quantitative comparisons and conclude that all the methods considered produce high-quality uniform grids and that the CVT-based grids are at least as good as any of the others.

  2. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  3. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  4. Geometric grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

  5. Quantum simulation of frustrated classical magnetism in triangular optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Struck, J; Ölschläger, C; Le Targat, R; Soltan-Panahi, P; Eckardt, A; Lewenstein, M; Windpassinger, P; Sengstock, K

    2011-08-19

    Magnetism plays a key role in modern technology and stimulates research in several branches of condensed matter physics. Although the theory of classical magnetism is well developed, the demonstration of a widely tunable experimental system has remained an elusive goal. Here, we present the realization of a large-scale simulator for classical magnetism on a triangular lattice by exploiting the particular properties of a quantum system. We use the motional degrees of freedom of atoms trapped in an optical lattice to simulate a large variety of magnetic phases: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and even frustrated spin configurations. A rich phase diagram is revealed with different types of phase transitions. Our results provide a route to study highly debated phases like spin-liquids as well as the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.

  6. Triplet superfluidity on a triangular ladder with dipolar fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Bradraj; Pati, Swapan K.

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental progress in the field of dipolar-Fermi gases, we investigate the quantum phases of dipolar fermions on a triangular ladder at half filling. Using density matrix renormalization group method, in the presence of onsite repulsion and intersite attractive interaction, we find an exotic spin-triplet superfluid phase in addition to the usual spin-density and charge-density waves. We examine the stability of the spin-triplet superfluid phase by varying hopping along the rungs of the triangle. The possibility of fermionic supersolidity has also been discussed, by considering three-body interaction in the Hamiltonian. We also study the effect of spin-dependent hopping on the stability of the spin-triplet superfluid phase.

  7. Triangular de Rham cohomology of compact Kahler manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Brudnyi, A Yu; Onishchik, A L

    2001-02-28

    The de Rham H{sup 1}{sub DR}(M,G) of a smooth manifold M with values in a group Lie G is studied. By definition, this is the quotient of the set of flat connections in the trivial principal bundle MxG by the so-called gauge equivalence. The case under consideration is the one when M is a compact Kahler manifold and G is a soluble complex linear algebraic group in a special class containing the Borel subgroups of all complex classical groups and, in particular, the group of all triangular matrices. In this case a description of the set H{sup 1}{sub DR}(M,G) in terms of the cohomology of M with values in the (Abelian) sheaves of flat sections of certain flat Lie algebra bundles with fibre g (the tangent Lie algebra of G) or, equivalently, in terms of the harmonic forms on M representing this cohomology is obtained.

  8. Triangular de Rham cohomology of compact Kahler manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudnyi, A. Yu; Onishchik, A. L.

    2001-02-01

    The de Rham H^1_{DR}(M,G) of a smooth manifold M with values in a group Lie G is studied. By definition, this is the quotient of the set of flat connections in the trivial principal bundle M\\times G by the so-called gauge equivalence. The case under consideration is the one when M is a compact Kahler manifold and G is a soluble complex linear algebraic group in a special class containing the Borel subgroups of all complex classical groups and, in particular, the group of all triangular matrices. In this case a description of the set H^1_{DR}(M,G) in terms of the cohomology of M with values in the (Abelian) sheaves of flat sections of certain flat Lie algebra bundles with fibre \\mathfrak{g} (the tangent Lie algebra of G) or, equivalently, in terms of the harmonic forms on M representing this cohomology is obtained.

  9. Tuning the magnetic ground state of a triangular lattice system

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Savici, Andrei T; Jin, Rongying

    2011-01-01

    The anisotropic triangular lattice of the crednerite system Cu(Mn$_{1-x}$Cu$_{x}$)O$_{2}$ is used as a basic model for studying the influence of spin disorder on the ground state properties of a two-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet. Neutron diffraction measurements show that the undoped phase (x=0) undergoes a transition to antiferromagnetic long-range order that is stabilized by a frustration-relieving structural distortion. Small deviation from the stoichiometric composition alters the magnetoelastic characteristics and reduces the effective dimensionality of the magnetic lattice. Upon increasing the doping level, the interlayer coupling changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic, while the structural distortion is fully suppressed. Concomitantly, the long-range magnetic order is gradually transformed into a two-dimensional order.

  10. Quantum Paramagnet in a π Flux Triangular Lattice Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachel, Stephan; Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    We propose the π flux triangular lattice Hubbard model (π THM) as a prototypical setup to stabilize magnetically disordered quantum states of matter in the presence of charge fluctuations. The quantum paramagnetic domain of the π THM that we identify for intermediate Hubbard U is framed by a Dirac semimetal for weak coupling and by 120° Néel order for strong coupling. Generalizing the Klein duality from spin Hamiltonians to tight-binding models, the π THM maps to a Hubbard model which corresponds to the (JH,JK)=(-1 ,2 ) Heisenberg-Kitaev model in its strong coupling limit. The π THM provides a promising microscopic testing ground for exotic finite-U spin liquid ground states amenable to numerical investigation.

  11. Higher-order hybrid stress triangular Mindlin plate element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tan; Ma, Xu; Xili, Jing; Chen, Wanji

    2016-12-01

    A 6-node triangular hybrid stress element is presented for Mindlin plate in this paper. The proposed element, denoted by TH6-27β, can pass both the zero shear stress patch test and the non-zero constant shear stress enhanced patch test and, it can be employed to analyze very thin plate. To accomplish this purpose, special attention is devoted to selecting boundary displacement interpolation and stress approximation in domain. The arbitrary order Timoshenko beam function is used successfully to derive the displacement interpolation along each side of the element. According to the equilibrium equations, an appropriate stress approximation is rationally obtained. The assumed stress field is modified by using 27β instead of 15β to improve the accuracy. Numerical results show that the element is free of shear locking, and reliable for thick and thin plates. Moreover, it has no spurious zero energy modes and with geometric invariance (coordinate invariance, node sequencing independence).

  12. A triangular thin shell finite element: Nonlinear analysis. [structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of the formulation of a triangular thin shell finite element which pertain to geometrically nonlinear (small strain, finite displacement) behavior are described. The procedure for solution of the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations combines a one-step incremental (tangent stiffness) approach with one iteration in the Newton-Raphson mode. A method is presented which permits a rational estimation of step size in this procedure. Limit points are calculated by means of a superposition scheme coupled to the incremental side of the solution procedure while bifurcation points are calculated through a process of interpolation of the determinants of the tangent-stiffness matrix. Numerical results are obtained for a flat plate and two curved shell problems and are compared with alternative solutions.

  13. Dimer site-bond percolation on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, L. S.; De la Cruz Félix, N.; Centres, P. M.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    A generalization of the site-percolation problem, in which pairs of neighbor sites (site dimers) and bonds are independently and randomly occupied on a triangular lattice, has been studied by means of numerical simulations. Motivated by considerations of cluster connectivity, two distinct schemes (denoted as S{\\cap}B and S{\\cup}B ) have been considered. In S{\\cap}B (S{\\cup}B ), two points are said to be connected if a sequence of occupied sites and (or) bonds joins them. Numerical data, supplemented by analysis using finite-size scaling theory, were used to determine (i) the complete phase diagram of the system (phase boundary between the percolating and nonpercolating regions), and (ii) the values of the critical exponents (and universality) characterizing the phase transition occurring in the system.

  14. Aharonov-Bohm-type Effects in Triangular Antidot Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iye, Yaushiro; Ueki, Masaaki; Endo, Akira; Katsumoto, Shingo

    2004-12-01

    Three kinds of Aharonov-Bohm (AB)-type oscillation have been investigated in triangular antidot lattice fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas sample. The oscillation periods of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) effect and AB-type effect near zero magnetic field are determined by the unit cell area, whereas those of AB-type oscillations in the quantum Hall plateau transition regime are governed by the effective area of antidot. The evolution of the high-field AB-type oscillation as a function of gate voltage gives infomation on the profile of the self-consistent potential associated with compressible edge channels formed around antidot. The temperature dependences and decoherence mechanisms of the AAS and AB-type oscillations near zero magnetic field as well as the high-field AB-type oscillation are discussed.

  15. Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E

    2011-04-27

    We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.

  16. A transient, quadratic nodal method for triangular-Z geometry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLorey, T.F.

    1993-06-01

    Many systematically-derived nodal methods have been developed for Cartesian geometry due to the extensive interest in Light Water Reactors. These methods typically model the transverse-integrated flux as either an analytic or low order polynomial function of position within the node. Recently, quadratic nodal methods have been developed for R-Z and hexagonal geometry. A static and transient quadratic nodal method is developed for triangular-Z geometry. This development is particularly challenging because the quadratic expansion in each node must be performed between the node faces and the triangular points. As a consequence, in the 2-D plane, the flux and current at the points of the triangles must be treated. Quadratic nodal equations are solved using a non-linear iteration scheme, which utilizes the corrected, mesh-centered finite difference equations, and forces these equations to match the quadratic equations by computing discontinuity factors during the solution. Transient nodal equations are solved using the improved quasi-static method, which has been shown to be a very efficient solution method for transient problems. Several static problems are used to compare the quadratic nodal method to the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) method. The quadratic method is shown to give more accurate node-averaged fluxes. However, it appears that the method has difficulty predicting node leakages near reactor boundaries and severe material interfaces. The consequence is that the eigenvalue may be poorly predicted for certain reactor configurations. The transient methods are tested using a simple analytic test problem, a heterogeneous heavy water reactor benchmark problem, and three thermal hydraulic test problems. Results indicate that the transient methods have been implemented correctly.

  17. Optimization Of A Computational Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    In improved method of generation of computational grid, grid-generation process decoupled from definition of geometry. Not necessary to redefine boundary. Instead, continuous boundaries in physical domain specified, and then grid points in computational domain mapped onto continuous boundaries.

  18. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  19. Lagrangian ADER-WENO finite volume schemes on unstructured triangular meshes based on genuinely multidimensional HLL Riemann solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscheri, Walter; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we use the genuinely multidimensional HLL Riemann solvers recently developed by Balsara et al. in [13] to construct a new class of computationally efficient high order Lagrangian ADER-WENO one-step ALE finite volume schemes on unstructured triangular meshes. A nonlinear WENO reconstruction operator allows the algorithm to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while high order of accuracy in time is obtained by the use of an ADER time-stepping technique based on a local space-time Galerkin predictor. The multidimensional HLL and HLLC Riemann solvers operate at each vertex of the grid, considering the entire Voronoi neighborhood of each node and allow for larger time steps than conventional one-dimensional Riemann solvers. The results produced by the multidimensional Riemann solver are then used twice in our one-step ALE algorithm: first, as a node solver that assigns a unique velocity vector to each vertex, in order to preserve the continuity of the computational mesh; second, as a building block for genuinely multidimensional numerical flux evaluation that allows the scheme to run with larger time steps compared to conventional finite volume schemes that use classical one-dimensional Riemann solvers in normal direction. The space-time flux integral computation is carried out at the boundaries of each triangular space-time control volume using the Simpson quadrature rule in space and Gauss-Legendre quadrature in time. A rezoning step may be necessary in order to overcome element overlapping or crossing-over. Since our one-step ALE finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, the remapping stage is not needed, making our algorithm a so-called direct ALE method.

  20. The open science grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE & NSF Laboratories and Universities & Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus.

  1. A Generalization of the Formula for the Triangular Number of the Sum and Product of Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    This note generalizes the formula for the triangular number of the sum and product of two natural numbers to similar results for the triangular number of the sum and product of "r" natural numbers. The formula is applied to derive formula for the sum of an odd and an even number of consecutive triangular numbers.

  2. 26 CFR 1.1032-2 - Disposition by a corporation of stock of a controlling corporation in certain triangular...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controlling corporation in certain triangular reorganizations. 1.1032-2 Section 1.1032-2 Internal Revenue... Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1032-2 Disposition by a corporation of stock of a controlling corporation in certain... gain or loss. For purposes of § 1.1032-1(a), in the case of a forward triangular merger, a triangular...

  3. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:17254294

  4. Grid Connected Functionality

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baker, Kyri; Jin, Xin; Vaidynathan, Deepthi; Jones, Wesley; Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Woods, Jason; Sorensen, Harry; Lunacek, Monte

    2016-08-04

    Dataset demonstrating the potential benefits that residential buildings can provide for frequency regulation services in the electric power grid. In a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation, simulated homes along with a physical laboratory home are coordinated via a grid aggregator, and it is shown that their aggregate response has the potential to follow the regulation signal on a timescale of seconds. Connected (communication-enabled), devices in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) received demand response (DR) requests from a grid aggregator, and the devices responded accordingly to meet the signal while satisfying user comfort bounds and physical hardware limitations.

  5. Magnetically tunable Kondo-Aharonov-Bohm effect in a triangular quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y

    2006-02-03

    The role of discrete orbital symmetry in mesoscopic physics is manifested in a system consisting of three identical quantum dots forming an equilateral triangle. Under a perpendicular magnetic field, this system demonstrates a unique combination of Kondo and Aharonov-Bohm features due to an interplay between continuous [spin-rotation SU(2)] and discrete (permutation C3v) symmetries, as well as U(1) gauge invariance. The conductance as a function of magnetic flux displays sharp enhancement or complete suppression depending on contact setups.

  6. Classification of ulnar triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. A treatment algorithm for Palmer type IB tears.

    PubMed

    Atzei, A; Luchetti, R; Garagnani, L

    2017-01-01

    The classical definition of 'Palmer Type IB' triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, includes a spectrum of clinical conditions. This review highlights the clinical and arthroscopic criteria that enable us to categorize five classes on a treatment-oriented classification system of triangular fibrocartilage complex peripheral tears. Class 1 lesions represent isolated tears of the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex without distal radio-ulnar joint instability and are amenable to arthroscopic suture. Class 2 tears include rupture of both the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex and proximal attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea. Class 3 tears constitute isolated ruptures of the proximal attachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea; they are not visible at radio-carpal arthroscopy. Both Class 2 and Class 3 tears are diagnosed with a positive hook test and are typically associated with distal radio-ulnar joint instability. If required, treatment is through reattachment of the distal radio-ulnar ligament insertions to the fovea. Class 4 lesions are irreparable tears due to the size of the defect or to poor tissue quality and, if required, treatment is through distal radio-ulnar ligament reconstruction with tendon graft. Class 5 tears are associated with distal radio-ulnar joint arthritis and can only be treated with salvage procedures. This subdivision of type IB triangular fibrocartilage complex tear provides more insights in the pathomechanics and treatment strategies.

  7. Surface grid generation for multi-block structured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekreijse, S. P.; Boerstoel, J. W.; Kuyvenhoven, J. L.; van der Marel, M. J.

    A new grid generation technique for the computation of a structured grid on a generally curved surface in 3D is discussed. The starting assumption is that the parameterization of the surface exists, i.e. a smooth geometrical shape function exists which maps the parametric space (the unit square) one-to-one on the surface. The grid generation system computes a grid on the surface with as boundary conditions the following data specified along the four edges of the surface: (1) the position of the boundary grid points, (2) the grid line slopes at the boundary grid points, (3) the first grid cell lengths at the boundary grid points. The fourth-order elliptic biharmonic equations are used to compute the two families of grid lines in the parametric space. After that, each grid point in the parametric space is found as the intersection point between two individual grid lines, one from each family. The grid points on the surface are finally found by mapping the grid points in the parametric space on the surface via the geometrical shape function. Results are shown for an O-type 2D Euler grid, a C-type 2D Navier-Stokes grid and on some curved surfaces in 3D space.

  8. Grid Computing Education Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  9. Space Development Grid Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.

  10. Implementing Production Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

  11. Random array grid collimator

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-08-22

    A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.

  12. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  13. Exploring Hypersonic, Unstructured-Grid Issues through Structured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Kleb, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Pure-tetrahedral unstructured grids have been shown to produce asymmetric heat transfer rates for symmetric problems. Meanwhile, two-dimensional structured grids produce symmetric solutions and as documented here, introducing a spanwise degree of freedom to these structured grids also yields symmetric solutions. The effects of grid skewness and other perturbations of structured-grids are investigated to uncover possible mechanisms behind the unstructured-grid solution asymmetries. By using controlled experiments around a known, good solution, the effects of particular grid pathologies are uncovered. These structured-grid experiments reveal that similar solution degradation occurs as for unstructured grids, especially for heat transfer rates. Non-smooth grids within the boundary layer is also shown to produce large local errors in heat flux but do not affect surface pressures.

  14. Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

  15. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  16. Fraunhofer diffraction of Laguerre-Gaussian beam caused by a dynamic superposed dual-triangular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinzhong; Tai, Yuping; Nie, Zhaogang; Wang, Hui; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Fraunhofer diffraction of a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam incident on a dynamic superposed dual-triangular aperture. The evolution of the diffraction pattern from this aperture is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. A special aperture, called the hex-star triangular aperture, demonstrates interesting diffraction patterns. Further, the diffraction properties of integer, half-integer, and fractional orders of topological charges at the Fraunhofer zone are studied by using the hex-star triangular aperture. This study can provide additional information to enhance the understanding of the diffraction properties of the LG beam transmitted through a complex aperture.

  17. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  18. Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.

  19. Arc Length Based Grid Distribution For Surface and Volume Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Techniques are presented for distributing grid points on parametric surfaces and in volumes according to a specified distribution of arc length. Interpolation techniques are introduced which permit a given distribution of grid points on the edges of a three-dimensional grid block to be propagated through the surface and volume grids. Examples demonstrate how these methods can be used to improve the quality of grids generated by transfinite interpolation.

  20. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  1. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  2. High-performance parallel sparse-direct triangular solves (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulson, J.; Ying, L.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical inverse problems are increasingly posed in the frequency domain in a manner which requires solving many challenging heterogeneous 3D Helmholtz or linear elastic wave equations at each iteration. One effective means of solving such problems, at least when there is no large-scale internal resonance, is to use moving-PML "sweeping preconditioners". Each application of the sweeping preconditioner involves performing many modest-sized sparse-direct triangular solves -- unfortunately, one at a time. While P. et al. have shown that, with a careful implementation of a distributed sparse-direct solver [1,2], challenging 3D problems approaching a billion degrees of freedom can be solved in a few minutes using less than 10,000 cores, this talk discusses how to leverage the existence of many right-hand sides in order to increase the performance of the preconditioner applications by orders of magnitude. [1] http://github.com/poulson/Clique [2] http://github.com/poulson/PSP

  3. Spin-dynamics simulations of the triangular antiferromagnetic XY model*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.

    2003-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have studied the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. We calculated the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_KT (Kosteritz-Thouless transition), both the in-plane (S^xx) and out-of-plane (S^zz) components exhibit very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks. Well above T_KT, S^xx and S^zz apparently display a central peak, and spin-wave signatures are still seen in S^zz. In addition, we also observed an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w below Tc (Ising transition), where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1]. We found that our results demonstrate the consistency of the dynamic finite-size scaling theory for the characteristic frequency wm and S(q,w). *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)

  4. Spin-dynamics simulations of the antiferromagnetic triangular XY model*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.

    2002-03-01

    Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have simulated the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. From space-and time-displaced spin-spin correlation functions and their space-time Fourier transforms we obtained the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_c, where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1], S(q,w) exhibits very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks in the in-plane-component S^xx. We also observe two-spin-wave peaks at low w and an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w. Above T_c, a weak spin-wave peak persists but the domain-wall peak disappears for all q. We have calculated the dispersion relation and the linewidth of the spin-wave peak in S^xx by fitting the line shape to simple Lorentzians. *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation in a frustrated triangular optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Peter; Huang, Wen-Min; Mathey, L.

    2016-12-01

    The recent experimental condensation of ultracold atoms in a triangular optical lattice with a negative effective tunneling parameter paves the way for the study of frustrated systems in a controlled environment. Here, we explore the critical behavior of the chiral phase transition in such a frustrated lattice in three dimensions. We represent the low-energy action of the lattice system as a two-component Bose gas corresponding to the two minima of the dispersion. The contact repulsion between the bosons separates into intra- and intercomponent interactions, referred to as V0 and V12, respectively. We first employ a Huang-Yang-Luttinger approximation of the free energy. For V12/V0=2 , which corresponds to the bare interaction, this approach suggests a first-order phase transition, at which both the U (1 ) symmetry of condensation and the Z2 symmetry of the emergent chiral order are broken simultaneously. Furthermore, we perform a renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order. We demonstrate that the coupling regime 0 1 we show that V0 flows to a negative value, while V12 increases and remains positive. This results in a breakdown of the effective quartic-field theory due to a cubic anisotropy and, again, suggests a discontinuous phase transition.

  6. Low-Reynolds number compressible flow around a triangular airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Phillip; Taira, Kunihiko; Suwa, Tetsuya; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke

    2013-11-01

    We report on the combined numerical and experimental effort to analyze the nonlinear aerodynamics of a triangular airfoil in low-Reynolds number compressible flow that is representative of wings on future Martian air vehicles. The flow field around this airfoil is examined for a wide range of angles of attack and Mach numbers with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at Re = 3000 . Companion experiments are conducted in a unique Martian wind tunnel that is placed in a vacuum chamber to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Computational findings are compared with pressure sensitive paint and direct force measurements and are found to be in agreement. The separated flow from the leading edge is found to form a large leading-edge vortex that sits directly above the apex of the airfoil and provides enhanced lift at post stall angles of attack. For higher subsonic flows, the vortical structures elongate in the streamwise direction resulting in reduced lift enhancement. We also observe that the onset of spanwise instability for higher angles of attack is delayed at lower Mach numbers. Currently at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki.

  7. Thermoviscoplastic analysis of fibrous periodic composites using triangular subvolumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Freed, Alan D.; Jordan, Eric H.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear viscoplastic behavior of fibrous periodic composites is analyzed by discretizing the unit cell into triangular subvolumes. A set of these subvolumes can be configured by the analyst to construct a representation for the unit cell of a periodic composite. In each step of the loading history, the total strain increment at any point is governed by an integral equation which applies to the entire composite. A Fourier series approximation allows the incremental stresses and strains to be determined within a unit cell of the periodic lattice. The nonlinearity arising from the viscoplastic behavior of the constituent materials comprising the composite is treated as fictitious body force in the governing integral equation. Specific numerical examples showing the stress distributions in the unit cell of a fibrous tungsten/copper metal matrix composite under viscoplastic loading conditions are given. The stress distribution resulting in the unit cell when the composite material is subjected to an overall transverse stress loading history perpendicular to the fibers is found to be highly heterogeneous, and typical homogenization techniques based on treating the stress and strain distributions within the constituent phases as homogeneous result in large errors under inelastic loading conditions.

  8. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ < β3 < β2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  9. Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F; Sun, Young

    2016-02-04

    Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.

  10. Three-sublattice skyrmion crystal in the antiferromagnetic triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, H. D.; Cabra, D. C.; Pujol, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The frustrated classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions on the triangular lattice is studied under a magnetic field by means of semiclassical calculations and large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. We show that even a small DM interaction induces the formation of an antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystal (AF-SkX) state. Unlike what is observed in ferromagnetic materials, we show that the AF-SkX state consists of three interpenetrating skyrmion crystals (one by sublattice), and most importantly, the AF-SkX state seems to survive in the limit of zero temperature. To characterize the phase diagram we compute the average of the topological order parameter which can be associated with the number of topological charges or skyrmions. As the magnetic field increases this parameter presents a clear jump, indicating a discontinuous transition from a spiral phase into the AF-SkX phase, where multiple Bragg peaks coexist in the spin structure factor. For higher fields, a second (probably continuous) transition occurs into a featureless paramagnetic phase.

  11. Thermal Deformation of Very Slender Triangular Rollable and Collapsible Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlman, Olive R.; Loper, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    Metallic triangular rollable and collapsible (TRAC) booms have deployed two Cubesat-based solar sails in low Earth orbit, making TRAC booms the most popular solar sail deployment method in practice. This paper presents some concerns and solutions surrounding the behavior of these booms in the space thermal environment. A 3.5-cm-tall, 4-meter-long TRAC boom of Elgiloy cobalt alloy, when exposed to direct sunlight in a 1 AU deep space environment, has a predicted tip motion of as much as 0.5 meters. Such large thermal deflections could generate unacceptable distortions in the shape of a supported solar sail, making attitude control of the solar sail spacecraft difficult or impossible. As a possible means of mitigating this issue, the thermal distortion behaviors of three alternative material TRAC booms are investigated and compared with the uncoated Elgiloy baseline boom. A tenfold decrease in induced curvature is shown to be possible relative to the baseline boom. Potential thermal distortions of the LightSail-A solar sail TRAC booms are also examined and compared, although inconclusively, with available on-orbit camera imagery.

  12. Fluid Interfaces of Triangular Containers in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guttromson, Jayleen; Manning, Robert; Collicott, Steven H.

    2002-01-01

    Capillary dominated fluid dynamics will be examined in a reduced-gravity environment onboard the KC-135; in particular, the behavior of the lower portion of the meniscus in triangular tank geometries. Seven clear acrylic tanks were constructed to view seven angles of the four geometries. Silicon oil with two different viscosities, 2cs and 5cs silicon oil, were used on different days of the flight. Six tanks and one control tank are filled with a certain viscosity fluid for each flight day. During each parabola, three tanks are tested at time. The experimental tanks are exchanged between parabola sets on the KC-135. The 60deg -60deg -60deg control tank is viewed throughout the flight. To gather data, two digital video cameras and one digital still camera are placed perpendicular the viewing surface. To provide a greater contrast in the meniscus, an EL backlighting sheet was used to backlight the tanks. These images and video are then digitized, passed through NASA's mini-tracker software, and compared to a theory published my M. M. Weislogel, "Fluid Interface Phenomena in a Low-Gravity Environment: Recent Results from Drop Tower Experimentation." By focusing on a lower portion of the meniscus and using longer periods of reduced gravity, this experiment may confirm that a stationary point exists on the fluid surface. This information will enable better designing of propellant management devices, especially satellite propellant refilling and gas venting. Also, biological and material processing systems in reduced gravity environments will benefit from this data.

  13. Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young

    2016-02-01

    Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.

  14. Stability, electronic and magnetic properties of embedded triangular graphene nanoflakes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Q Q; Zhu, Y F; Jiang, Q

    2012-01-21

    Stability, electronic and magnetic properties of triangular graphene nanoflakes embedded in graphane (graphane-embedded TGNFs) are investigated by density functional theory. It is found that the interface between the embedded TGNF and graphane is stable since the diffusion of H atoms from the graphane region to the embedded TGNF is energetically unfavorable with high energy barriers. The electronic and magnetic properties of the system completely depend on the embedded TGNF. The band gaps of graphane-embedded ATGNFs (armchair-edged TGNFs) arise due to the quantum confinement, while the special characteristics of nonbonding states of graphane-embedded ZTGNFs (zigzag-edged TGNFs) play an important role in their electronic properties. As the edge sizes increase, the differences of band gaps between graphane-embedded TGNFs and the isolated ones decrease. Furthermore, owing to the partially paired p(z) orbitals of edge C atoms, graphane-embedded ZTGNFs exhibit a ferrimagnetic ground state with size-dependant total spin being consistent with Lieb's theorem. Our work provides a possible way to obtain TGNFs without physical cutting.

  15. Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young

    2016-01-01

    Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics. PMID:26843363

  16. Tridirectional polarization routing of light by a single triangular plasmonic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshito Y; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2017-04-07

    Achieving high directionality of scattered light in combination with high flexibility of the direction using plasmonic nanoparticles is desirable for future optical nanocircuits and on-chip optical links. The plasmonic characteristics of nanoparticles strongly depend on their geometry. Here, we studied directional light scattering by a single-element triangular plasmonic nanoparticle. Our experimental and simulation results demonstrated that the triangular nanoparticle spatially sorted the incoming plane wave photons into three different scattering directions according to their polarization direction, including circular polarization, despite its compact overall volume of ~λ(3)/300. The broken mirror symmetry and rotational symmetry of the triangular nanoparticle enabled such passive tridirectional polarization routing through the constructive and destructive interference of different plasmon modes. Our findings should markedly broaden the versatility of triangular plasmonic nanodevices, extending their possible practical applications in photon couplers and sorters, and chemo-/biosensors.

  17. Frequency-doubled triangular-shaped waveform generation based on spectrum manipulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sun, Jian; Xu, Weiwei; Ning, Tigang; Pei, Li; Yuan, Jin; Li, Yueqin

    2016-01-15

    In this approach, spectrum manipulation is employed in triangular-shaped waveform generation. By aligning the power of five primary modulation sidebands, optical intensity with expression corresponding to the first two-term Fourier expansion of triangular-shaped waveform can be obtained. It is found that the modulation index in this Letter is no longer a fixed one, but should be within a proper range (2-3). Triangular-shaped waveform signals can be generated by using a single-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator, a standard optical interleaver, and a grating. The principle is illustrated by theory, simulation, and experiment. A 20 GHz triangular-shaped waveform signal is experimentally generated by using a 10 GHz sinusoid signal, which agrees well with the theoretical prediction and shows great potential in generating a high-quality intensity profile.

  18. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Vibration immunity and Ampere's circuital law for a near perfect triangular Faraday current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, N. E.; Jackson, D. A.

    1996-08-01

    We report a common-mode rejection scheme for a bulk-optic triangular Faraday current sensor that can eliminate optical noise induced by fibre-link vibration. The sensor's exploitation of Ampere's circuital law is also demonstrated.

  19. A mixed volume grid approach for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coirier, William J.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    1996-01-01

    An approach for solving the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations upon meshes composed of nearly arbitrary polyhedra is described. Each polyhedron is constructed from an arbitrary number of triangular and quadrilateral face elements, allowing the unified treatment of tetrahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and hexahedral cells, as well the general cut cells produced by Cartesian mesh approaches. The basics behind the numerical approach and the resulting data structures are described. The accuracy of the mixed volume grid approach is assessed by performing a grid refinement study upon a series of hexahedral, tetrahedral, prismatic, and Cartesian meshes for an analytic inviscid problem. A series of laminar validation cases are made, comparing the results upon differing grid topologies to each other, to theory, and experimental data. A computation upon a prismatic/tetrahedral mesh is made simulating the laminar flow over a wall/cylinder combination.

  20. Complex Volume Grid Generation Through the Use of Grid Reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of surface and volume grid generation techniques which reuse existing surface and volume grids. These methods use combinations of data manipulations to reduce grid generation time, improve grid characteristics, and increase the capabilities of existing domain discretization software. The manipulation techniques utilize physical and computational domains to produce basis function on which to operate and modify grid character and smooth grids using Trans-Finite Interpolation, a vector interpolation method and parametric re-mapping technique. With these new techniques, inviscid grids can be converted to viscous grids, multiple zone grid adaption can be performed to improve CFD solver efficiency, and topological changes to improve modeling of flow fields can be done simply and quickly. Examples of these capabilities are illustrated as applied to various configurations.

  1. Are the Color Gamuts of CRT and LCD Triangular? An Experimental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO113 31 TITLE: Are the Color Gamuts of CRT and LCD Triangular? An...ADP011297 thru ADP011332 UNCLASSIFIED Are the Color Gamuts of CRT and LCD Triangular? An Experimental Study Guan-wei Leea and Chao-hua Wenb aDepartment of...Tube) display. This study describes the difference of color gamuts in different luminance level and the accuracy of color between CRT and LCD. In the

  2. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  3. Modelling and simulation of parallel triangular triple quantum dots (TTQD) by using SIMON 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathany, Maulana Yusuf; Fuada, Syifaul; Lawu, Braham Lawas; Sulthoni, Muhammad Amin

    2016-04-01

    This research presents analysis of modeling on Parallel Triple Quantum Dots (TQD) by using SIMON (SIMulation Of Nano-structures). Single Electron Transistor (SET) is used as the basic concept of modeling. We design the structure of Parallel TQD by metal material with triangular geometry model, it is called by Triangular Triple Quantum Dots (TTQD). We simulate it with several scenarios using different parameters; such as different value of capacitance, various gate voltage, and different thermal condition.

  4. Error estimates of triangular finite elements under a weak angle condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shipeng; Shi, Zhongci

    2009-08-01

    In this note, by analyzing the interpolation operator of Girault and Raviart given in [V. Girault, P.A. Raviart, Finite element methods for Navier-Stokes equations, Theory and algorithms, in: Springer Series in Computational Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,1986] over triangular meshes, we prove optimal interpolation error estimates for Lagrange triangular finite elements of arbitrary order under the maximal angle condition in a unified and simple way. The key estimate is only an application of the Bramble-Hilbert lemma.

  5. Origin of Compact Triangular Islands in Metal-on-Metal Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bogicevic, Alexander; Lundqvist, Bengt I.; Ovesson, Staffan

    1999-07-12

    The microscopic origin of compact triangular islands on close-packed surfaces is identified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations with energy barriers obtained from density-functional calculations. In contrast to earlier accounts, corner diffusion anisotropy is found to control the shape of compact islands at intermediate temperatures. We rationalize the correlation between the orientation of dendrites grown at low temperatures and triangular islands grown at higher temperatures, and explain why in some systems dendrites grow fat before turning compact.

  6. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  7. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1999-01-01

    An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

  8. Reliability and flexural behavior of triangular and T-reinforced concrete beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Mohammed S.

    2015-12-01

    The paper studied the behavior of reinforced concrete triangular and T-beams. Three reinforced concrete beams were tested experimentally and analyzed analytically using the finite element method. Their reliability was also assessed using the reliability index approach. The results showed that the finite element vertical displacements compared well with those obtained experimentally. They also showed that the vertical displacements obtained using the finite element method were larger than those obtained experimentally. This is a strong indication that the finite element results were conservative and reliable. The results showed that the triangular beams exhibited higher ductility at failure than did the T-beam. The plastic deformations at failure of the triangular beams were higher than that of the T-beam. This is a strong indication of the higher ductility of the triangular beams compared to the T-beam. Triangular beams exhibited smaller cracks than did T-beams for equal areas of steel and concrete. The design moment strengths M c computed using the American Concrete Institute (ACI) design formulation were safe and close to those computed using experimental results. The experimental results validated the reliability analysis results, which stated that the triangular beams are more reliable than T-beams for equal areas of steel and concrete.

  9. Fusion Data Grid Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  10. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  11. Arthroscopic foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.

    PubMed

    Atzei, Andrea; Luchetti, Riccardo; Braidotti, Federica

    2015-02-01

    Background Foveal disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is associated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. TFCC fixation onto the fovea is the suitable treatment, which is not achieved by conventional arthroscopic techniques. We describe an all-inside arthroscopic technique that uses a suture anchor through distal DRUJ arthroscopy for foveal repair of the TFCC. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients with TFCC foveal tear and DRUJ instability were selected according to the Atzei-European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) algorithm of treatment. Retrospective evaluation included pain, DRUJ instability, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score. Description of Technique DRUJ arthroscopy was performed to débride the TFCC and the foveal area. Under arthroscopic guidance, a suture anchor was inserted via the distal foveal portal to repair the TFCC onto the fovea. Sutures were tied on the radiocarpal surface of the TFCC. Postoperative immobilization of forearm rotation was maintained for 4 weeks. Heavy tasks were allowed after 3 months. Results After a mean follow-up of 33 months, pain improved significantly but remained moderate in four patients, severe in one. DRUJ instability resolved in 44 patients. Wrist ROM increased. Grip strength, MMWS, and DASH score improved significantly. Excellent and good MMWS equaled 83.3%. Forty-one patients (85.5%) resumed previous work and sport activities. As a postoperative complication, five patients experienced neuroapraxia of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) with full spontaneous recovery. Conclusions With appropriate indications and patient selection, arthroscopic foveal repair of the TFCC may restore DRUJ stability and provide satisfactory results without significant complications.

  12. Arthroscopic Foveal Repair of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex

    PubMed Central

    Atzei, Andrea; Luchetti, Riccardo; Braidotti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Background Foveal disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is associated with distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability. TFCC fixation onto the fovea is the suitable treatment, which is not achieved by conventional arthroscopic techniques. We describe an all-inside arthroscopic technique that uses a suture anchor through distal DRUJ arthroscopy for foveal repair of the TFCC. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients with TFCC foveal tear and DRUJ instability were selected according to the Atzei–European Wrist Arthroscopy Society (EWAS) algorithm of treatment. Retrospective evaluation included pain, DRUJ instability, range of motion (ROM), grip strength, Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score. Description of Technique DRUJ arthroscopy was performed to débride the TFCC and the foveal area. Under arthroscopic guidance, a suture anchor was inserted via the distal foveal portal to repair the TFCC onto the fovea. Sutures were tied on the radiocarpal surface of the TFCC. Postoperative immobilization of forearm rotation was maintained for 4 weeks. Heavy tasks were allowed after 3 months. Results After a mean follow-up of 33 months, pain improved significantly but remained moderate in four patients, severe in one. DRUJ instability resolved in 44 patients. Wrist ROM increased. Grip strength, MMWS, and DASH score improved significantly. Excellent and good MMWS equaled 83.3%. Forty-one patients (85.5%) resumed previous work and sport activities. As a postoperative complication, five patients experienced neuroapraxia of the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (DSBUN) with full spontaneous recovery. Conclusions With appropriate indications and patient selection, arthroscopic foveal repair of the TFCC may restore DRUJ stability and provide satisfactory results without significant complications. PMID:25709875

  13. Age changes in the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist joint.

    PubMed Central

    Mikić, Z D

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a study of 180 wrist joints from 100 fresh cadavers of individuals ranging in age from fetuses to 94 years, it is concluded that the triangular fibro-cartilage is very liable to degenerative alterations associated with ageing. Degeneration begins in the third decade and progressively increases in frequency and severity in subsequent decades. The changes comprise reduced cellularity, loss of elastic fibres, mucoid degeneration of the ground substance, exposure of collagen fibres, fibrillation, erosion, ulceration, abnormal thinning, and, ultimately, disc perforation. The changes are more frequent and more intense on the ulnar surface, and they are always situated in the central part of the disc. It appears that disc perforation is degenerative and age-related: thus there were no perforations in the first two decades of life; in the third there were 7.6%, in the fourth 18.1%, in the fifth 40.0%, in the sixth 42.8%, and in the over sixties 53.1%. There was an associated pattern of degenerative changes in the wrist joint as a whole. The structures adjacent to the articular disc (discal surface of the ulnar head, discal part of the lunate) were much more often involved, and the changes were much more advanced, than on non-discal surfaces. It is argued that this is because of more intensive biomechanical forces, particularly rotational forces, in the disc compartment of the joint. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 (cont.) Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:670069

  14. Dorsal Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex: Clinical Features and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yukio; Moriya, Atsushi; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Several different triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear patterns have been classified through the use of wrist arthroscopy. A tear of the dorsal aspect of the TFCC has been previously reported, but it is not included in Palmer original classification. Our purpose was to describe this type of tear pattern along with the clinical presentation. Methods An isolated dorsal TFCC tear was encountered in seven wrists of six patients (three men and three women; average age was 31 years). All patients were evaluated by physical exam, X-ray, plain axial computed tomography with pronation, neutral and supination position, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with coronal, sagittal, and axial section and arthroscopy. Results The clinical findings varied and included the following: tenderness at the dorsoulnar aspect of the wrist was positive in all wrists, fovea sign was positive in five wrists, and tenderness at the dorsal aspect of the distal radioulnar joint was present in one wrist. Pain with forearm rotation was positive in all wrists. The ulnar head ballottement test induced pain in all wrists, whereas dorsal instability of the ulnar head was present in one wrist with this test. The ulnocarpal stress test was positive in five wrists. Axial and sagittal images on MRI revealed the dorsal tear in five wrists. All wrists were treated with an arthroscopic capsular repair. The final functional outcome at an average follow-up of 16.1 months was four excellent and one good wrist according to the modified Mayo wrist score. Conclusions The aim of this article is to describe our experiences with tears involving the dorsal aspect of the TFCC, which may be misdiagnosed if the surgeon is not cognizant of this injury. Type of study/level of evidence Diagnostic/level IV PMID:26855835

  15. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  16. Calculation of Inter-Subchannel Turbulent Mixing Rate and Heat Transfer in a Triangular-Arrayed Rod Bundle Using Direct Numerical Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yudov, Yury V.

    2006-07-01

    The direct numerical simulation, extended to boundary - fitted coordinate, has been carried out for a fully-developed turbulent flow thermal hydraulics in a triangular rod bundle. The rod bundle is premised to be an infinite array. The spacer grid effects are ignored. The purpose of this work is to verify DNS methodology to be applied for deriving coefficients for inter-subchannel turbulent mixing and heat transfer on a rod. These coefficients are incorporated in subchannel analysis codes. To demonstrate the validity of this methodology, numerical calculation was performed for the bundle with the pitch to diameter ratio 1.2, at friction Reynolds number of 600 and Prandtl number of 1. The results for the hydraulic parameters are compared with published DNS data, and the results for the heat exchange coefficients -- with those obtained using semi-empirical correlations. (authors)

  17. Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

  18. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  19. Distributed Accounting on the Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; Hacker, Thomas J.; McGinnis, Laura F.; Athey, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    By the late 1990s, the Internet was adequately equipped to move vast amounts of data between HPC (High Performance Computing) systems, and efforts were initiated to link together the national infrastructure of high performance computational and data storage resources together into a general computational utility 'grid', analogous to the national electrical power grid infrastructure. The purpose of the Computational grid is to provide dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to computational resources for the computing community in the form of a computing utility. This paper presents a fully distributed view of Grid usage accounting and a methodology for allocating Grid computational resources for use on a Grid computing system.

  20. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

  1. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David

    2011-12-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  2. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  3. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  4. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  5. The surveillance error grid.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  6. Accuracy Analysis for Finite-Volume Discretization Schemes on Irregular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2010-01-01

    A new computational analysis tool, downscaling test, is introduced and applied for studying the convergence rates of truncation and discretization errors of nite-volume discretization schemes on general irregular (e.g., unstructured) grids. The study shows that the design-order convergence of discretization errors can be achieved even when truncation errors exhibit a lower-order convergence or, in some cases, do not converge at all. The downscaling test is a general, efficient, accurate, and practical tool, enabling straightforward extension of verification and validation to general unstructured grid formulations. It also allows separate analysis of the interior, boundaries, and singularities that could be useful even in structured-grid settings. There are several new findings arising from the use of the downscaling test analysis. It is shown that the discretization accuracy of a common node-centered nite-volume scheme, known to be second-order accurate for inviscid equations on triangular grids, degenerates to first order for mixed grids. Alternative node-centered schemes are presented and demonstrated to provide second and third order accuracies on general mixed grids. The local accuracy deterioration at intersections of tangency and in flow/outflow boundaries is demonstrated using the DS tests tailored to examining the local behavior of the boundary conditions. The discretization-error order reduction within inviscid stagnation regions is demonstrated. The accuracy deterioration is local, affecting mainly the velocity components, but applies to any order scheme.

  7. Equil: A Global Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Sebastian; Reimer, Christioph; Paulik, Christoph; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Geophysical parameters derived from space-borne Earth Observation Systems are either assigned to discrete points on a fixed Earth grid (e.g. regular lon/lat grid) or located on orbital point nodes with a customized arrangement, often in-line with the instrument's measurement geometry. The driving factors of the choice and structure of a spatial reference system (i.e. the grid) are typically spatial resolution, instrument geometry, measurement technique or application.In this study we propose a global grid system, the so- called Equil grid, and demonstrate its realization and structure. An exemplary Equil grid with a base sampling distance of 12.5 km is compared against two other grids commonly used in the domain of remote sensing of soil moisture. The simple nearly-equidistant grid design makes it interesting for a wide range of other geophysical parameters as well.

  8. Effects of athletic training on heart rate variability triangular index.

    PubMed

    Kouidi, E; Haritonidis, K; Koutlianos, N; Deligiannis, A

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate variability triangular index (HRVI) in elite track and field athletes. Sixty healthy males (mean aged 22.1 +/- 3.5 years) -15 long distance runners (group A), 15 speed runners (Group B), 15 throwers (Group C) and 15 non-trained subjects (Group D) were submitted to spiroergometric test, m-mode echocardiography and 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. The HRVI, mean heart rate, mean interval between two consecutive R waves of the QRS complexes (R-R interval) and standard deviation of the R-R (SDRR) were assessed through time domain method on computed 24-h Holter recordings. The HRVI and the SDRR were 62.2 +/- 9.6 and 220 +/- 40 ms correspondingly in group A, 52.7 +/- 6.0 and 210 +/- 40 ms in B, 44.5 +/- 5.3 and 180 +/- 40 ms in C, 39.3 +/- 6.4 and 180 +/- 30 ms in D. The HRVI and the mean R-R were found to differ statistically between groups A, B and C versus D (P < 0.05). However, the higher value in HRVI was found in group A. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was 62.0 +/- 4.4 ml kg-1 min-1 in group A, 52.7 +/- 6.0 in group B, 44.6 +/- 5.3 in C and 41.6 +/- 6.0 in D. The higher value in VO2max was also found in group A. The left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) were 136 g m-2 and 83 ml m-2 correspondingly in group A, 136 and 79 in B, 124 and 56 in C and 88 and 55 in group D. The HRVI was found to have a significant relationship with VO2max and EDVI only in group A. On the other hand, no significant relationships were found between HRVI and LVMI in all groups. It is concluded, that the enhanced HRVI in athletes is affected by exercise training pattern. Moreover, HRVI depends on the level of VO2max in endurance-trained, but is independent from the extent of myocardial hypertrophy in all types of training.

  9. Enhancement of photovoltaic cell performance using periodic triangular gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Dey, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    The solar energy industry strives to produce more efficient and yet cost effective solar panels each consisting of an array of photovoltaic (PV) cells. The goal of this study was to enhance the performance of PV cells through increasing the cells' optical efficiency defined as a percentage of surface incident light that reaches the PV material. This was achieved through the reduction of waveguide decoupling loss and Fresnel reflection losses by integrating specific nonimaging micro-optical structures on the top surface of existing PV cells. Due to this integration, optical efficiency and performance were increased through the enhancement of light trapping, light guiding, and in-coupling functionalities. Periodic triangular gratings (PTGs) were designed, nonsequentially modeled, optimized, and fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane as proposed micro-optical structures. Then the performance of PV cells with and without integrated PTGs was evaluated and compared. Initial optical simulation results show that an original PV cell (without PTG) exhibits an average optical efficiency of 32.7% over a range of incident light angles between 15 and 90 deg. Integration of the PTG allows the capture of incoming sunlight by total internal reflection (TIR), whence it is reflected back onto the PV cell for multiple consecutive chances for absorption and PV conversion. Geometry of the PTG was optimized with respect to an angle of light incidence of {15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90} deg. Optical efficiency of the geometrically optimized PTGs was then analyzed under the same set of incident light angles and a maximum optical efficiency of 54.1% was observed for a PV cell with integrated PTG optimized at 90 deg. This is a 53.3% relative improvement in optical performance when compared to an original PV cell. Functional PTG prototypes were then fabricated with optical surface quality (below 10 nm Ra) and integrated with PV cells demonstrating an increase in maximum power by 1.08 mW/cm (7

  10. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  11. Photofabricated Wire-Grid Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Dengler, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Freestanding metallic grids for use as polarizers for electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths made by simple modification of designs of freestanding square- and nearly-square cell metallic grids, according to proposal. Cross wires provide mechanical support, but distance between cross wires made greater than one wavelength so cross wires have little effect on polarizing characteristics of grid. Possible to fabricate grids commercially for frequencies up to several terahertz.

  12. Applications of algebraic grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques and applications of algebraic grid generation are described. The techniques are univariate interpolations and transfinite assemblies of univariate interpolations. Because algebraic grid generation is computationally efficient, the use of interactive graphics in conjunction with the techniques is advocated. A flexible approach, which works extremely well in an interactive environment, called the control point form of algebraic grid generation is described. The applications discussed are three-dimensional grids constructed about airplane and submarine configurations.

  13. A grid spacing control technique for algebraic grid generation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which controls the spacing of grid points in algebraically defined coordinate transformations is described. The technique is based on the generation of control functions which map a uniformly distributed computational grid onto parametric variables defining the physical grid. The control functions are smoothed cubic splines. Sets of control points are input for each coordinate directions to outline the control functions. Smoothed cubic spline functions are then generated to approximate the input data. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where control inputs and grid displays are nearly instantaneous. The technique is illustrated with the two-boundary grid generation algorithm.

  14. Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.

  15. Application of an unstructured grid flow solver to planes, trains and automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spragle, Gregory S.; Smith, Wayne A.; Yadlin, Yoram

    1993-01-01

    Rampant, an unstructured flow solver developed at Fluent Inc., is used to compute three-dimensional, viscous, turbulent, compressible flow fields within complex solution domains. Rampant is an explicit, finite-volume flow solver capable of computing flow fields using either triangular (2d) or tetrahedral (3d) unstructured grids. Local time stepping, implicit residual smoothing, and multigrid techniques are used to accelerate the convergence of the explicit scheme. The paper describes the Rampant flow solver and presents flow field solutions about a plane, train, and automobile.

  16. FEM-FCT - Combining unstructured grids with high resolution. [Flux Corrected Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohner, R.; Morgan, K.; Vahdati, M.; Boris, J. P.; Book, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The extension of flux-corrected transport (FCT) schemes to unstructured grids is presented. The spatial discretization is performed via finite elements. In particular, triangular elements in two dimensions have been chosen. The limiting procedure is based on Zalesak's (1979) extension to more than one dimension of the FCT schemes developed by Boris and Book (1973). The resulting scheme, FEM-FCT, is capable of resolving moving and stationary shocks within two elements, and several examples are given that demonstrate the accuracy attainable, even for complicated geometries.

  17. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  18. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  19. Shuttle computational grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ing, Chang

    1987-01-01

    The well known Karman-Trefftz conformal transformation, consisting of repeated applications of the same basic formula, were found to be quite successful to body, wing, and wing-body cross sections. This grid generation technique is extended to cross sections of more complex forms, and also more automatic. Computer programs were written for the selection of hinge points on cross section with angular shapes, the Karman-Trefftz tranformation of arbitrary shapes, and the special transform of hinge point on the imaginary axis. A feasibility study is performed for the future application of conformal mapping grid generation to complex three dimensional configurations. Examples such as Orbiter vehicle section and a few others were used.

  20. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  1. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  2. Data Structure and Parallel Decomposition Considerations on a Fibonacci Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalakes, John; Purser,James; Swinbank, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Fibonacci grid, proposed by Swinbank and Purser (see companion abstract), provides attractive properties for global numerical atmospheric prediction by offering an optimally homogeneous, geometrically regular, and approximately isotropic discretization, with only the polar regions requiring special numerical treatment. It is a mathematical idealization, applied to the sphere, of the multi-spiral patterns often found in botanical structures, such as in pine cones and sunflower heads. Computationally, it is natural to organize the domain, into zones, in each of which the same pair, or triple, of "Fibonacci spirals" dominate. But the further subdivision of such zones into "tiles" of a shape and size suitable for distribution to the processors of a massively parallel computer requires very careful consideration if the subsequent spatial computations along the respective spirals, especially those computations (such as compact differencing schemes) that involve recursion, can be implemented in an efficient "load-balanced "manner without requiring excessive amounts of inter-processor communications. In this paper we show how certain "number theoretic" properties of the Fibonacci sequence (whose numbers prescribe the multiplicity of successive spirals) may be exploited in the decomposition of grid zones into tidy arrangements of triangular grid tiles, each tile possessing one side approximately parallel to the constant-latitude zone boundary. We also describe how the spatially recursive processes may be decomposed across such a tiling, and the directionality of the recursions reversed on alternate grid lines, to ensure a very high degree of load balancing throughout the execution of the computations required for one time step of a global model.

  3. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  4. 3D Structured Grid Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

  5. Constructing the ASCI computational grid

    SciTech Connect

    BEIRIGER,JUDY I.; BIVENS,HUGH P.; HUMPHREYS,STEVEN L.; JOHNSON,WILBUR R.; RHEA,RONALD E.

    2000-06-01

    The Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) computational grid is being constructed to interconnect the high performance computing resources of the nuclear weapons complex. The grid will simplify access to the diverse computing, storage, network, and visualization resources, and will enable the coordinated use of shared resources regardless of location. To match existing hardware platforms, required security services, and current simulation practices, the Globus MetaComputing Toolkit was selected to provide core grid services. The ASCI grid extends Globus functionality by operating as an independent grid, incorporating Kerberos-based security, interfacing to Sandia's Cplant{trademark},and extending job monitoring services. To fully meet ASCI's needs, the architecture layers distributed work management and criteria-driven resource selection services on top of Globus. These services simplify the grid interface by allowing users to simply request ''run code X anywhere''. This paper describes the initial design and prototype of the ASCI grid.

  6. Effective Photo- and Triboluminescent Europium(III) Coordination Polymers with Rigid Triangular Spacer Ligands.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Tateno, Shiori; Yamamoto, Masanori; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji

    2017-02-21

    Luminescent Eu(III) coordination polymers with rigid triangular spacer ligands are reported. The Eu(III) coordination polymer, [Eu3 (hfa)9 (tppb)2 ]n (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, tppb: tris(4-diphenylphosphorylphenyl)benzene), shows high thermo-stability (decomposition temperature=354 °C) and photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ4f-4f =82 %, photosensitized energy transfer efficiency=78 %). The triboluminescence efficiency of Eu(III) coordination polymer with triangular spacers under laser pulse irradiation (Nd:YAG, λ=1064 nm, pulse width=5 ns, pulse energy=0.1 mJ) is calculated to be 49 %. Characteristic triangular structure, high emission quantum yield, effective photosensitized energy transfer, and remarkable triboluminescence properties of Eu(III) coordination polymers are demonstrated for the first time.

  7. Heat transfer in a large triangular-roof enclosure based on the second law analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Dehnavi, Resam

    2014-11-01

    Application of entropy generation minimization method for the optimization of natural convection in triangular-roof enclosures can be helpful in enhancing the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. In this paper, the numerical solution of the entropy production was performed due to natural convection of laminar air flow in a large isosceles triangular-roof enclosure with different boundary conditions such as the greenhouses conjugate boundary conditions. The simulation results showed that the entropy generation number in an enclosure with partially heated from bottom wall center, is less than an enclosure with partially heated from bottom wall corner. Also, in a large triangular-roof greenhouse, the entropy generation number decreases with increasing of the greenhouse aspect ratio (L/H).

  8. Characterisation and determination of in vitro antioxidant potential of betalains from Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R

    2013-12-15

    Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries.

  9. Ethanol Vapor Sensing Properties of Triangular Silver Nanostructures Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenying; Yang, Huan; Wang, Weimin; Gao, Ping; Yao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive volatile organic vapor sensor based on the LSPR properties of silver triangular nanoprisms is proposed in this paper. The triangular nanoprisms were fabricated by a nanosphere lithography (NSL) method. They have sharp vertices and edges, and are arranged in an ideal hexangular array. These characteristics ensure that they exhibit an excellent LSPR spectrum and a high sensitivity to the exterior environment changes. The LSPR spectra responding to ethanol vapor and four other volatile organic vapors—acetone, benzene, hexane and propanol—were measured with a UV-vis spectrometer in real time. Compared with the other four vapors, ethanol exhibits the highest sensitivity (∼0.1 nm/mg L−1) and the lowest detection limit (∼10 mg/L) in the spectral tests. The ethanol vapor test process is also fast (∼4 s) and reversible. These insights demonstrate that the triangular nanoprism based nano-sensor can be used in ethanol vapor detection applications. PMID:22164096

  10. Interpreting medium ring canonical conformers by a triangular plane tessellation of the macrocycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Pegah; Barnett, Christopher B.; Naidoo, Kevin J.

    2013-05-01

    Cyclic conformational coordinates are essential for the distinction of molecular ring conformers as the use of Cremer-Pople coordinates have illustrated for five- and six-membered rings. Here, by tessellating medium rings into triangular planes and using the relative angles made between triangular planes we are able to assign macrocyclic pucker conformations into canonical pucker conformers such as chairs, boats, etc. We show that the definition is straightforward compared with other methods popularly used for small rings and that it is computationally simple to implement for complex macrocyclic rings. These cyclic conformational coordinates directly couple to the motion of individual nodes of a ring. Therefore, they are useful for correlating the physical properties of macrocycles with their ring pucker and measuring the dynamic ring conformational behavior. We illustrate the triangular tessellation, assignment, and pucker analysis on 7- and 8-membered rings. Sets of canonical states are given for cycloheptane and cyclooctane that have been previously experimentally analysed.

  11. Closed-loop experiment of resonator integrated optic gyro with triangular wave phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yichuang; Liu, Huilan; Zhi, Yinzhou; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie

    2014-10-01

    A closed-loop resonator integrated optic gyro (RIOG) scheme based on triangular wave phase modulation is proposed. Only one integrated optic modulator (IOM) is employed. Triangular wave is applied on the IOM to modulate the passing light wave, and the feedback serrodyne wave is superimposed upon the triangular wave to compensate the resonant frequency-difference. The experimental setup is established and the related measurements are performed. The results show that the proposed scheme can realize the closed-loop RIOG employing an IOM, which has the advantage of miniature size. A bias stability of 0.39 deg/s (10 s integration time) over 1 hour is achieved. Moreover, good linearity and large dynamic range are also experimental demonstrated.

  12. On Modeling and Analysis of MIMO Wireless Mesh Networks with Triangular Overlay Topology

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Zhanmao; Wu, Chase Q.; Zhang, Yuanping; ...

    2015-01-01

    Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) wireless mesh networks (WMNs) aim to provide the last-mile broadband wireless access to the Internet. Along with the algorithmic development for WMNs, some fundamental mathematical problems also emerge in various aspects such as routing, scheduling, and channel assignment, all of which require an effective mathematical model and rigorous analysis of network properties. In this paper, we propose to employ Cartesian product of graphs (CPG) as a multichannel modeling approach and explore a set of unique properties of triangular WMNs. In each layer of CPG with a single channel, we design a node coordinate scheme thatmore » retains the symmetric property of triangular meshes and develop a function for the assignment of node identity numbers based on their coordinates. We also derive a necessary-sufficient condition for interference-free links and combinatorial formulas to determine the number of the shortest paths for channel realization in triangular WMNs.« less

  13. Polarizing beam splitter of deep-etched triangular-groove fused-silica gratings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiangjun; Zhou, Changhe; Feng, Jijun; Wang, Bo

    2008-07-15

    We investigated the use of a deep-etched fused-silica grating with triangular-shaped grooves as a highly efficient polarizing beam splitter (PBS). A triangular-groove PBS grating is designed at a wavelength of 1550 nm to be used in optical communication. When it is illuminated in Littrow mounting, the transmitted TE- and TM-polarized waves are mainly diffracted in the minus-first and zeroth orders, respectively. The design condition is based on the average differences of the grating mode indices, which is verified by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The designed PBS grating is highly efficient over the C+L band range for both TE and TM polarizations (>97.68%). It is shown that such a triangular-groove PBS grating can exhibit a higher diffraction efficiency, a larger extinction ratio, and less reflection loss than the binary-phase fused-silica PBS grating.

  14. Effectiveness of Rotation-free Triangular and Quadrilateral Shell Elements in Sheet-metal Forming Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, M.; Sabourin, F.

    2005-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the effectiveness of triangular 3-node shell element without rotational d.o.f. and the extension to a new 4-node quadrilateral shell element called S4 with only 3 translational degrees of freedom per node and one-point integration. The curvatures are computed resorting to the surrounding elements. Extension from rotation-free triangular element to a quadrilateral element requires internal curvatures in order to avoid singular bending stiffness. Two numerical examples with regular and irregular meshes are performed to show the convergence and accuracy. Deep-drawing of a box, spring-back analysis of a U-shape strip sheet and the crash simulation of a beam-box complete the demonstration of the bending capabilities of the proposed rotation-free triangular and quadrilateral elements.

  15. Effectiveness of Rotation-free Triangular and Quadrilateral Shell Elements in Sheet-metal Forming Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, M.; Sabourin, F.

    2005-08-05

    This paper is concerned with the effectiveness of triangular 3-node shell element without rotational d.o.f. and the extension to a new 4-node quadrilateral shell element called S4 with only 3 translational degrees of freedom per node and one-point integration. The curvatures are computed resorting to the surrounding elements. Extension from rotation-free triangular element to a quadrilateral element requires internal curvatures in order to avoid singular bending stiffness. Two numerical examples with regular and irregular meshes are performed to show the convergence and accuracy. Deep-drawing of a box, spring-back analysis of a U-shape strip sheet and the crash simulation of a beam-box complete the demonstration of the bending capabilities of the proposed rotation-free triangular and quadrilateral elements.

  16. Mechanical Properties of 3-D Printed Cellular Foams with triangular cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunga, Pratap Kumar

    In the present work, poly lactic acid (PLA) is used as a model system to investigate the mechanical behavior of 3-D printed foams with triangular cells. Solid PLA tension and compression specimens and foams made of PLA were fabricated using fused deposition 3-D printing technique. The solid PLA tension specimens were characterized for their densities and found to be about 10% lower in density as compared to their bulk counter parts. The triangular foams had a relative density of about 64%. The relationships between the structure of the foams and its deformation behavior under compression along two in-plane directions were characterized. Furthermore, simple finite element models were developed to understand the observed deformation behavior of triangular foams.

  17. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  18. GridTool: A surface modeling and grid generation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1995-01-01

    GridTool is designed around the concept that the surface grids are generated on a set of bi-linear patches. This type of grid generation is quite easy to implement, and it avoids the problems associated with complex CAD surface representations and associated surface parameterizations. However, the resulting surface grids are close to but not on the original CAD surfaces. This problem can be alleviated by projecting the resulting surface grids onto the original CAD surfaces. GridTool is designed primary for unstructured grid generation systems. Currently, GridTool supports VGRID and FELISA systems, and it can be easily extended to support other unstructured grid generation systems. The data in GridTool is stored parametrically so that once the problem is set up, one can modify the surfaces and the entire set of points, curves and patches will be updated automatically. This is very useful in a multidisciplinary design and optimization process. GridTool is written entirely in ANSI 'C', the interface is based on the FORMS library, and the graphics is based on the GL library. The code has been tested successfully on IRIS workstations running IRIX4.0 and above. The memory is allocated dynamically, therefore, memory size will depend on the complexity of geometry/grid. GridTool data structure is based on a link-list structure which allows the required memory to expand and contract dynamically according to the user's data size and action. Data structure contains several types of objects such as points, curves, patches, sources and surfaces. At any given time, there is always an active object which is drawn in magenta, or in their highlighted colors as defined by the resource file which will be discussed later.

  19. Characterization of PSD of activated carbons by using slit and triangular pore geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, D. C. S.; Rios, R. B.; López, R. H.; Torres, A. E. B.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Toso, J. P.; Zgrablich, G.

    2010-06-01

    A mixed geometry model for activated carbons, representing the porous space as a collection of an undetermined proportion of slit and triangular pores, is developed, evaluated theoretically and applied to the characterization of a controlled series of samples of activated carbon obtained from the same precursor material. A method is proposed for the determination of the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) for such a mixed geometry model, leading to the unique determination of the proportion of pores of the two geometries fitting adsorption data. By using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation method in the continuum space, families of N2 adsorption isotherms are generated both for slit and triangular geometry corresponding to different pore sizes. The problem of the uniqueness in the determination of the PSD by fitting an adsorption isotherm using the mixed geometry model is then discussed and the effects of the addition of triangular pores on the PSD are analyzed by performing a test where the adsorption isotherm corresponding to the known PSD is generated and used as the "experimental" isotherm. It is found that a pure slit geometry model would widen the PSD and shift it to smaller sizes, whereas a pure triangular geometry model would produce the opposite effect. The slit and triangular geometry families of isotherms are finally used to the fit experimental N 2 adsorption data corresponding to a family of activated carbons obtained from coconut shells through a one-step chemical activation process with phosphoric acid in air, allowing for the determination of the micropore volume, the proportion of slit and triangular pores and the PSD corresponding to the mixed geometry. The same experimental data were fit using both the conventional slit pore model and the mixed geometry model. From the analysis of the effect of different preparation procedures on the resulting PSDs, it is concluded that the proposed mixed geometry model may probably better capture the

  20. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  1. Balanced Central Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional, well-balanced, central-upwind scheme for approximating solutions of the shallow water equations in the presence of a stationary bottom topography on triangular meshes. Our starting point is the recent central scheme of Kurganov and Petrova (KP) for approximating solutions of conservation laws on triangular meshes. In order to extend this scheme from systems of conservation laws to systems of balance laws one has to find an appropriate discretization of the source terms. We first show that for general triangulations there is no discretization of the source terms that corresponds to a well-balanced form of the KP scheme. We then derive a new variant of a central scheme that can be balanced on triangular meshes. We note in passing that it is straightforward to extend the KP scheme to general unstructured conformal meshes. This extension allows us to recover our previous well-balanced scheme on Cartesian grids. We conclude with several simulations, verifying the second-order accuracy of our scheme as well as its well-balanced properties.

  2. Controllable galvanic synthesis of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes for efficient electrocatalytic methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Yu, Sijia; Chen, Junze; Liao, Yusen; Xue, Can

    2015-06-08

    Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes were successfully synthesized through galvanic replacement by using Ag nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The ridge thickness of the Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes could be readily tuned by adjusting the amount of the Pd source during the reaction. These obtained triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the methanol oxidation reaction as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst due to the alloyed Ag-Pd composition as well as the hollow-framed structures. This work would be highly impactful in the rational design of future bimetallic alloy nanostructures with high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems.

  3. Effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on polaron in RbCl triangular quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Tiotsop; A, J. Fotue; S, C. Kenfack; N, Issofa; H, Fotsin; L, C. Fai

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the time evolution of the quantum mechanical state of a polaron is examined using the Pekar type variational method on the condition of the electric-LO-phonon strong-coupling and polar angle in RbCl triangular quantum dot. We obtain the eigenenergies, and the eigenfunctions of the ground state, and the first excited state respectively. This system in a quantum dot can be treated as a two-level quantum system qubit and the numerical calculations are performed. The effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on the polaron in the RbCl triangular quantum dot are also studied.

  4. Magnetic Flux Effect on a Kondo-Induced Electric Polarization in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki

    2014-08-01

    A magnetic flux effect is studied theoretically on an electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is connected to a metallic lead. This electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux penetrating through the triangular loop. The numerical renormalization group analysis reveals how the oscillation pattern depends on the Kondo coupling of a local spin with lead electrons, which is sensitive to the point contact with the lead. It provides an experimental implication that the Kondo effect is the origin of the emergent electric polarization.

  5. Palmar reconstruction of the triangular fibrocartilage complex for static instability of the distal radioulnar joint.

    PubMed

    Moritomo, Hisao; Kataoka, Toshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    This study describes a new technique that can be used for reconstructing the triangular fibrocartilage complex to correct the static palmar radius instability of the distal radioulnar joint. In the abovementioned condition, the radius is extremely unstable with respect to the ulna and dislocates palmarly in the resting position. Using a palmar approach, a palmaris longus tendon graft was sutured to the remnant of the disrupted palmar radioulnar and ulnocarpal ligaments and then anchored to the bone tunnel that was created at the ulnar fovea. This technique predominantly reinforces the palmar structure of triangular fibrocartilage complex because the palmar radioulnar ligament is the most critical stabilizer of palmar radius instability.

  6. Design and analysis of highly efficient reflective 1×3 splitting grating with triangular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhou, Changhe; Ma, Jianyong; Zong, Yonghong; Lu, Yancong; Jia, Wei

    2016-10-01

    A highly efficient reflective 1×3 splitting grating with triangular structure operating in 1.064μm wavelength under normal incidence for TE polarization is designed. The schematic of the grating has four layers. The first layer with SiO2 is triangular structure. Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm are adopted to design and analyze the properties. The theoretical efficiency is nearly about 99%. The bigger error tolerance is also analyzed by rigorous coupled wave analysis. These reflective gratings as splitters should be useful optical elements in the field of high-power laser as well as other reflective applications.

  7. Theoretical characteristics in supersonic flow of two types of control surfaces on triangular wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Warren A; Nelson, Robert L

    1949-01-01

    Methods based on the linearized theory for supersonic flow were used to find the characteristics of two types of control surfaces on thin triangular wings. The first type, the constant-chord partial-span flap, was considered to extend either outboard from the center of the wing or inboard from the wing tip. The second type, the full-triangular-tip flap, was treated only for the case in which the Mach number component normal to the leading edge is supersonic. For each type, expressions were found for the lift, rolling-moment, pitching-moment, and hinge-moment characteristics.

  8. Current density and poloidal magnetic field for toroidal elliptic plasmas with triangularity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.; Haines, M.G.; Castro, E.

    2005-08-15

    Changes in the poloidal magnetic field around a tokamak magnetic surface due to different values of triangularity and ellipticity are analyzed in this paper. The treatment here presented allows the determination of the poloidal magnetic field from knowledge of the toroidal current density. Different profiles of these currents are studied. Improvements in the analytic forms of the magnetic surfaces have also been found. The treatment has been performed using a recent published system of coordinates. Suitable analytic equations have been used for the elliptic magnetic surfaces with triangularity and Shafranov shift.

  9. Grid crusher apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniels, J.D. Jr.

    1994-01-11

    A grid crusher apparatus and method are provided for a nuclear fuel rod consolidation system. Spacer grids are crushed within a basket which is then placed in a storage canister. The grid crusher apparatus has a ram assembly and a basket driving mechanism. The ram assembly has a sleeve ram and a central ram. The sleeve ram surrounds the central ram which is longitudinally movable within the sleeve ram. The central ram protrudes from the sleeve ram at a ram contact end and is retractable upon application of a preselected force to the central ram so that the central ram is flush with the sleeve ram at the ram contact end. The basket driving mechanism is configured to move the basket containing a spacer grid towards the ram contact end so that the spacer grid is crushed within the basket. The spacer grid is crushed by the combination of successive forces from the central ram and the sleeve ram, respectively. Essentially, the central portion of the spacer grid is crushed first, and then the remaining outer portion of the spacer grid is crushed to complete the crushing action of the spacer grid. The foregoing process is repeated for other spacer grids until the basket reaches a predetermined allowable capacity, and then the basket is stored in a storage canister. 11 figs.

  10. Multi-Resolution Unstructured Grid-Generation for Geophysical Applications on the Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engwirda, Darren

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm for the generation of non-uniform unstructured grids on ellipsoidal geometries is described. This technique is designed to generate high quality triangular and polygonal meshes appropriate for general circulation modelling on the sphere, including applications to atmospheric and ocean simulation, and numerical weather predication. Using a recently developed Frontal-Delaunay-refinement technique, a method for the construction of high-quality unstructured ellipsoidal Delaunay triangulations is introduced. A dual polygonal grid, derived from the associated Voronoi diagram, is also optionally generated as a by-product. Compared to existing techniques, it is shown that the Frontal-Delaunay approach typically produces grids with near-optimal element quality and smooth grading characteristics, while imposing relatively low computational expense. Initial results are presented for a selection of uniform and non-uniform ellipsoidal grids appropriate for large-scale geophysical applications. The use of user-defined mesh-sizing functions to generate smoothly graded, non-uniform grids is discussed.

  11. Evaluating the Information Power Grid using the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaartm Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) are a collection of synthetic distributed applications designed to rate the performance and functionality of computational grids. We compare several implementations of the NGB to determine programmability and efficiency of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG), whose services are mostly based on the Globus Toolkit. We report on the overheads involved in porting existing NGB reference implementations to the IPG. No changes were made to the component tasks of the NGB can still be improved.

  12. Multistep soft chemistry method for valence reduction in transition metal oxides with triangular (CdI2-type) layers.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Colin K; Bruno, Shaun R; Poltavets, Viktor V

    2014-03-14

    Transition metal (M) oxides with MO2 triangular layers demonstrate a variety of physical properties depending on the metal oxidation states. In the known compounds, metal oxidation states are limited to either 3+ or mixed-valent 3+/4+. A multistep soft chemistry synthetic route for novel phases with M(2+/3+)O2 triangular layers is reported.

  13. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-14T - Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary). 1.367(b)-14T Section 1.367(b)-14T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.367(b)-14T Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary)....

  14. 26 CFR 1.367(b)-14T - Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary). 1.367(b)-14T Section 1.367(b)-14T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.367(b)-14T Acquisition of parent stock for property in triangular reorganizations (temporary)....

  15. The Volume Grid Manipulator (VGM): A Grid Reusability Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a manual describing how to use the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) software. The code is specifically designed to alter or manipulate existing surface and volume structured grids to improve grid quality through the reduction of grid line skewness, removal of negative volumes, and adaption of surface and volume grids to flow field gradients. The software uses a command language to perform all manipulations thereby offering the capability of executing multiple manipulations on a single grid during an execution of the code. The command language can be input to the VGM code by a UNIX style redirected file, or interactively while the code is executing. The manual consists of 14 sections. The first is an introduction to grid manipulation; where it is most applicable and where the strengths of such software can be utilized. The next two sections describe the memory management and the manipulation command language. The following 8 sections describe simple and complex manipulations that can be used in conjunction with one another to smooth, adapt, and reuse existing grids for various computations. These are accompanied by a tutorial section that describes how to use the commands and manipulations to solve actual grid generation problems. The last two sections are a command reference guide and trouble shooting sections to aid in the use of the code as well as describe problems associated with generated scripts for manipulation control.

  16. Experience in grid optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. W.; Soni, B. K.; Mcclure, M. D.

    1987-01-01

    Two optimization methods for solving a variational problem in grid generation are described and evaluated. The smoothness, cell volumes, and orthogonality of the variational integrals are examined. The Jacobi-Newton iterative method is compared to the Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient method. It is observed that a combination of the Jacobi-Newton iteration and the direct solution of the variational problem produces an algorithm which is easy to program and requires less storage and computer time/iteration than the conjugate gradient method.

  17. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    SciTech Connect

    and Drayton Munster, Miroslav Stoyanov

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library that provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.

  18. Adventures in Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes one supercomputer is not enough. Or your local supercomputers are busy, or not configured for your job. Or you don't have any supercomputers. You might be trying to simulate worldwide weather changes in real time, requiring more compute power than you could get from any one machine. Or you might be collecting microbiological samples on an island, and need to examine them with a special microscope located on the other side of the continent. These are the times when you need a computational grid.

  19. Smooth, seamless, and structured grid generation with flexibility in resolution distribution on a sphere based on conformal mapping and the spring dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iga, Shin-ichi

    2015-09-01

    A generation method for smooth, seamless, and structured triangular grids on a sphere with flexibility in resolution distribution is proposed. This method is applicable to many fields that deal with a sphere on which the required resolution is not uniform. The grids were generated using the spring dynamics method, and adjustments were made using analytical functions. The mesh topology determined its resolution distribution, derived from a combination of conformal mapping factors: polar stereographic projection (PSP), Lambert conformal conic projection (LCCP), and Mercator projection (MP). Their combination generated, for example, a tropically fine grid that had a nearly constant high-resolution belt around the equator, with a gradual decrease in resolution distribution outside of the belt. This grid can be applied to boundary-less simulations of tropical meteorology. The other example involves a regionally fine grid with a nearly constant high-resolution circular region and a gradually decreasing resolution distribution outside of the region. This is applicable to regional atmospheric simulations without grid nesting. The proposed grids are compatible with computer architecture because they possess a structured form. Each triangle of the proposed grids was highly regular, implying a high local isotropy in resolution. Finally, the proposed grids were examined by advection and shallow water simulations.

  20. Empower your Smart Grid Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    TWITTER: #seiwebinar © 2011 Carnegie Mellon University Empower your Smart Grid Transformation David White SGMM Project Manager 10 March 2011 Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Empower your Smart Grid Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...and a core development team member for the SEI Smart Grid Maturity Model (SGMM), a business tool to assist utilities with planning and tracking

  1. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  2. Augmenting data rate performance for higher order modulation in triangular index profile multicore fiber interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.

  3. Relationships between Prime-Rich Euler Type Equations and a Triangular Array of the Odd Integers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    8217 Primitive ’ cell arrays are derived from the above array. Each such array consists of a prime value p(of c) which is substituted for every integer in the...relationships between the triangular array, the equations x squared - x + c, c=1,3,5,... and the derived primitive cell arrays are brought out. These show how

  4. Breaking away from the Pack: Positioning the Marketing Discipline through a Triangular Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Joseph L.; Reddy, Allan C.

    1993-01-01

    College and university marketing departments should use the technique of positioning to increase enrollments. The triangular approach to positioning uses close scrutiny of the student profile, the benefits marketing courses offer, and the competition the department faces within and outside the business school. The technique can also be used by…

  5. 76 FR 28890 - Treatment of Property Used To Acquire Parent Stock or Securities in Certain Triangular...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... provisions that apply to triangular reorganizations, such as Sec. 1.358-6 and Sec. 1.1032-2, shall apply to... example, Sec. 1.358-6(d) and Sec. 1.1032-2(c)). (c) Collateral adjustments. This paragraph (c)...

  6. Investigation of localization of DNA molecules using triangular metal electrodes with varying separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, D. Nagendra; Ghonge, Sudarshan; Banerjee, Souri

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of separation of triangular metal electrodes with both convex and concave geometries, on the localization of suspended DNA molecules under the combined effect of dielectrophoresis and AC electro-osmosis through simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics. Trapping points are realized within the electrodes which are found to vary with the separation of the electrodes.

  7. Electronic structure of triangular, hexagonal and round graphene flakes near the Fermi level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiskanen, H. P.; Manninen, M.; Akola, J.

    2008-10-01

    The electronic shell structure of triangular, hexagonal and round graphene quantum dots (flakes) near the Fermi level has been studied using a tight-binding method. The results show that close to the Fermi level the shell structure of a triangular flake is that of free massless particles, and that triangles with an armchair edge show an additional sequence of levels ('ghost states'). These levels result from the graphene band structure and the plane wave solution of the wave equation, and they are absent for triangles with a zigzag edge. All zigzag triangles exhibit a prominent edge state at epsilonF, and few low-energy conduction electron states occur both in triangular and hexagonal flakes due to symmetry reasons. Armchair triangles can be used as building blocks for other types of flakes that support the ghost states. Edge roughness has only a small effect on the level structure of the triangular flakes, but the effect is considerably enhanced in the other types of flakes. In round flakes, the states near the Fermi level depend strongly on the flake radius, and they are always localized on the zigzag parts of the edge.

  8. A simple method for understanding the triangular growth patterns of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Siya; Wang, Qian

    2015-10-15

    Triangular nanoflake growth patterns have been commonly observed in synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets and their hybrid structures. Triangular nanoflakes not only show exceptional properties, but also can serve as building blocks for two or three dimensional structures. In this study, taking the MoS{sub 2} system as a test case, we propose a Matrix method to understand the mechanism of such unique growth pattern. Nanoflakes with different edge types are mathematically described with configuration matrices, and the total formation energy is calculated as the sum of the edge formation energies and the chemical potentials of sulfur and molybdenum. Based on energetics, we find that three triangular patterns with the different edge configurations are energetically more favorable in different ranges of the chemical potential of sulfur, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Our algorithm has high efficiency and can deal with nanoflakes in microns which are beyond the ability of ab-initio method. This study not only elucidates the mechanism of triangular nanoflake growth patterns in experiment, but also provides a clue to control the geometric configurations in synthesis.

  9. OGC and Grid Interoperability in enviroGRIDS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Rodila, Denisa; Bacu, Victor; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    EnviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is a 4-years FP7 Project aiming to address the subjects of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management. The project develops a Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Black Sea Catchment region. The geospatial technologies offer very specialized functionality for Earth Science oriented applications as well as the Grid oriented technology that is able to support distributed and parallel processing. One challenge of the enviroGRIDS project is the interoperability between geospatial and Grid infrastructures by providing the basic and the extended features of the both technologies. The geospatial interoperability technology has been promoted as a way of dealing with large volumes of geospatial data in distributed environments through the development of interoperable Web service specifications proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with applications spread across multiple fields but especially in Earth observation research. Due to the huge volumes of data available in the geospatial domain and the additional introduced issues (data management, secure data transfer, data distribution and data computation), the need for an infrastructure capable to manage all those problems becomes an important aspect. The Grid promotes and facilitates the secure interoperations of geospatial heterogeneous distributed data within a distributed environment, the creation and management of large distributed computational jobs and assures a security level for communication and transfer of messages based on certificates. This presentation analysis and discusses the most significant use cases for enabling the OGC Web services interoperability with the Grid environment and focuses on the description and implementation of the most promising one. In these use cases we give a special attention to issues such as: the relations between computational grid and

  10. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  11. The new approach for captopril detection employing triangular gold nanoparticles-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingshuo; Bai, Shouli; Lu, Chao

    2012-01-30

    In this work, we utilize the triangular gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) prepared by trisodium citrate reduction of HAuCl(4) in presence of nonionic fluorosurfactant (FSN) as a novel chemiluminescence (CL) probe for the determination of captopril. Captopril can induce a sharp decrease in CL intensity from the triangular AuNPs-catalyzed luminol system. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the logarithm of CL intensity and the logarithm of concentration of captopril in the range of 23.0-920 nM, and the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for captopril was 4.6 nM. The as-prepared triangular AuNPs were easier to synthesize, stable at a wider pH range and high ionic strength, and exhibited a high selectivity and an excellent sensitivity toward captopril. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining captopril in commercial pharmaceutical formulations and human urine samples with satisfactory results. The recoveries for captopril in spiked samples were found to be between 95.0% and 103.5%. The method shows promise for routine control analysis of pharmaceutical preparations and human urine samples. Moreover, based on the CL spectra, UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements, a possible CL mechanism was proposed. The mechanism of high selectivity toward captopril is supposed to originate from the tight binding of the sulphydryl groups of captopril to the active site of the as-prepared triangular AuNPs, leading to oxygen-related radicals cannot easily be generated from H(2)O(2) on the surface of triangular AuNPs.

  12. NAS Grid Benchmarks: A Tool for Grid Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an approach for benchmarking services provided by computational Grids. It is based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called NAS Grid Benchmark (NGB) in this paper. We present NGB as a data flow graph encapsulating an instance of an NPB code in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending/receiving initialization data. These nodes may be mapped to the same or different Grid machines. Like NPB, NGB will specify several different classes (problem sizes). NGB also specifies the generic Grid services sufficient for running the bench-mark. The implementor has the freedom to choose any specific Grid environment. However, we describe a reference implementation in Java, and present some scenarios for using NGB.

  13. Accurate path integration in continuous attractor network models of grid cells.

    PubMed

    Burak, Yoram; Fiete, Ila R

    2009-02-01

    Grid cells in the rat entorhinal cortex display strikingly regular firing responses to the animal's position in 2-D space and have been hypothesized to form the neural substrate for dead-reckoning. However, errors accumulate rapidly when velocity inputs are integrated in existing models of grid cell activity. To produce grid-cell-like responses, these models would require frequent resets triggered by external sensory cues. Such inadequacies, shared by various models, cast doubt on the dead-reckoning potential of the grid cell system. Here we focus on the question of accurate path integration, specifically in continuous attractor models of grid cell activity. We show, in contrast to previous models, that continuous attractor models can generate regular triangular grid responses, based on inputs that encode only the rat's velocity and heading direction. We consider the role of the network boundary in the integration performance of the network and show that both periodic and aperiodic networks are capable of accurate path integration, despite important differences in their attractor manifolds. We quantify the rate at which errors in the velocity integration accumulate as a function of network size and intrinsic noise within the network. With a plausible range of parameters and the inclusion of spike variability, our model networks can accurately integrate velocity inputs over a maximum of approximately 10-100 meters and approximately 1-10 minutes. These findings form a proof-of-concept that continuous attractor dynamics may underlie velocity integration in the dorsolateral medial entorhinal cortex. The simulations also generate pertinent upper bounds on the accuracy of integration that may be achieved by continuous attractor dynamics in the grid cell network. We suggest experiments to test the continuous attractor model and differentiate it from models in which single cells establish their responses independently of each other.

  14. The Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wurthwein, Frank; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  15. Grid generation using classical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical review of conformal mapping and its applications to problems in fluid mechanics and electromagnetism is presented. The use of conformal mapping as a grid generator is described. The philosophy of the 'closed form' approach and its application to a Neumann problem is discussed. Karman-Trefftz mappings and grids for ablated, three dimensional bodies are also discussed.

  16. Some Observations on Grid Convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    It is claimed that current practices in grid convergence studies, particularly in the field of external aerodynamics, are flawed. The necessary conditions to properly establish grid convergence are presented. A theoretical model and a numerical example are used to demonstrate these ideas.

  17. Intelligent automated surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Ke-Thia; Gelsey, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The goal of our research is to produce a flexible, general grid generator for automated use by other programs, such as numerical optimizers. The current trend in the gridding field is toward interactive gridding. Interactive gridding more readily taps into the spatial reasoning abilities of the human user through the use of a graphical interface with a mouse. However, a sometimes fruitful approach to generating new designs is to apply an optimizer with shape modification operators to improve an initial design. In order for this approach to be useful, the optimizer must be able to automatically grid and evaluate the candidate designs. This paper describes and intelligent gridder that is capable of analyzing the topology of the spatial domain and predicting approximate physical behaviors based on the geometry of the spatial domain to automatically generate grids for computational fluid dynamics simulators. Typically gridding programs are given a partitioning of the spatial domain to assist the gridder. Our gridder is capable of performing this partitioning. This enables the gridder to automatically grid spatial domains of wide range of configurations.

  18. LAPS Grid generation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliantini, Cecilia; Delzanno, Gia Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu; Chacon, Luis

    2011-10-01

    LAPS uses a common-data framework in which a general purpose grid generation and adaptation package in toroidal and simply connected domains is implemented. The initial focus is on implementing the Winslow/Laplace-Beltrami method for generating non-overlapping block structured grids. This is to be followed by a grid adaptation scheme based on Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport method [Delzanno et al., J. Comput. Phys,227 (2008), 9841-9864], that equidistributes application-specified error. As an initial set of applications, we will lay out grids for an axisymmetric mirror, a field reversed configuration, and an entire poloidal cross section of a tokamak plasma reconstructed from a CMOD experimental shot. These grids will then be used for computing the plasma equilibrium and transport in accompanying presentations. A key issue for Monge-Kantorovich grid optimization is the choice of error or monitor function for equi-distribution. We will compare the Operator Recovery Error Source Detector (ORESD) [Lapenta, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng,59 (2004) 2065-2087], the Tau method and a strategy based on the grid coarsening [Zhang et al., AIAA J,39 (2001) 1706-1715] to find an ``optimal'' grid. Work supported by DOE OFES.

  19. Synthesis and functionalization of heteroatom-bridged bicyclocalixaromatics, large molecular triangular prisms with electron-rich and -deficient aromatic interiors.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam; Wang, De-Xian; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Zhi-Tang; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2011-03-18

    The synthesis and functionalization of oxygen and nitrogen atom bridged bicyclocalixaromatics of triangular prism structures are reported. By means of a fragment coupling approach, molecular triangular prisms of electron-rich and electron-deficient aromatic interiors were prepared using 1,3,5-tri(p-hydroxyphenyl)benzene and 2,4,6-tri(p-aminophenyl)triazine as base units and chlorotriazines as pillars. Aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction of chlorotriazine moieties with functionalized amines led to triangular prisms with functionalizations on the peripheral edge positions, while functionalized triangular prisms on the vertex nitrogen positions were obtained using 2,4,6-tri[(p-allylamino)phenyl]triazine derivative as a starting material. Symmetrical and distorted molecular triangular prisms in the solid state were revealed by X-ray crystallography. As evidenced by NMR spectroscopic data, however, all cage molecules synthesized most probably adopted highly symmetric triangular prism structures in solution phase. The functionalized shape-persistent triangular prism structures might find applications in molecular recognition and in the construction of higher and more sophisticated molecular architectures in supramolecular chemistry.

  20. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; De Martini, Paul

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  1. Single grid accelerator for an ion thrustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margosian, P. M.; Nakanishi, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A single grid accelerator system for an ion thrustor is discussed. A layer of dielectric material is interposed between this metal grid and the chamber containing an ionized propellant for protecting the grid against sputtering erosion.

  2. Grid Integration Studies: Data Requirements, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    A grid integration study is an analytical framework used to evaluate a power system with high penetration levels of variable renewable energy (VRE). A grid integration study simulates the operation of the power system under different VRE scenarios, identifying reliability constraints and evaluating the cost of actions to alleviate those constraints. These VRE scenarios establish where, how much, and over what timeframe to build generation and transmission capacity, ideally capturing the spatial diversity benefits of wind and solar resources. The results help build confidence among policymakers, system operators, and investors to move forward with plans to increase the amount of VRE on the grid.

  3. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US

  4. High energy collimating fine grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Victor M.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Laferla, Raffaele

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the fabrication of extremely tight tolerance collimating grids using a high-Z material, specifically tungsten. The approach taken was to fabricate grids by a replication method involving the coating of a silicon grid substrate with tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A negative of the desired grid structure was fabricated in silicon using highly wafering techniques developed for the semiconductor industry and capable of producing the required tolerances. Using diamond wafering blades, a network of accurately spaced slots was machined into a single-crystal silicon surface. These slots were then filled with tungsten by CVD, via the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Following tungsten deposition, the silicon negative was etched away to leave the tungsten collimating grid structure. The project was divided into five tasks: (1) identify materials of construction for the replica and final collimating grid structures; (2) identify and implement a micromachining technique for manufacturing the negative collimator replicas (performed by NASA/JPL); (3) develop a CVD technique and processing parameters suitable for the complete tungsten densification of the collimator replicas; (4) develop a chemical etching technique for the removal of the collimator replicas after the tungsten deposition process; and (5) fabricate and deliver tungsten collimating grid specimens.

  5. High energy collimating fine grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrieta, Victor M.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Laferla, Raffaele

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the fabrication of extremely tight tolerance collimating grids using a high-Z material, specifically tungsten. The approach taken was to fabricate grids by a replication method involving the coating of a silicon grid substrate with tungsten by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A negative of the desired grid structure was fabricated in silicon using highly wafering techniques developed for the semiconductor industry and capable of producing the required tolerances. Using diamond wafering blades, a network of accurately spaced slots was machined into a single-crystal silicon surface. These slots were then filled with tungsten by CVD, via the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Following tungsten deposition, the silicon negative was etched away to leave the tungsten collimating grid structure. The project was divided into five tasks: (1) identify materials of construction for the replica and final collimating grid structures; (2) identify and implement a micromachining technique for manufacturing the negative collimator replicas (performed by NASA/JPL); (3) develop a CVD technique and processing parameters suitable for the complete tungsten densification of the collimator replicas; (4) develop a chemical etching technique for the removal of the collimator replicas after the tungsten deposition process; and (5) fabricate and deliver tungsten collimating grid specimens.

  6. A Java commodity grid kit.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.; Foster, I.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we report on the features of the Java Commodity Grid Kit. The Java CoG Kit provides middleware for accessing Grid functionality from the Java framework. Java CoG Kit middleware is general enough to design a variety of advanced Grid applications with quite different user requirements. Access to the Grid is established via Globus protocols, allowing the Java CoG Kit to communicate also with the C Globus reference implementation. Thus, the Java CoG Kit provides Grid developers with the ability to utilize the Grid, as well as numerous additional libraries and frameworks developed by the Java community to enable network, Internet, enterprise, and peer-to peer computing. A variety of projects have successfully used the client libraries of the Java CoG Kit to access Grids driven by the C Globus software. In this paper we also report on the efforts to develop server side Java CoG Kit components. As part of this research we have implemented a prototype pure Java resource management system that enables one to run Globus jobs on platforms on which a Java virtual machine is supported, including Windows NT machines.

  7. GridOPTICS Software System

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Bora A; Ciraci, PNNL Selim; Gibson, PNNL Tara; Rice, PNNL Mark; Sharma, PNNL Poorva; Yin, PNNL Jian; Allwardt, PNNL Craig; PNNL,

    2014-02-24

    GridOPTICS Software System (GOSS) is a middleware that facilitates creation of new, modular and flexible operational and planning platforms that can meet the challenges of the next generation power grid. GOSS enables Department of Energy, power system utilities, and vendors to build better tools faster. GOSS makes it possible to integrate Future Power Grid Initiative software products/prototypes into existing power grid software systems, including the PNNL PowerNet and EIOC environments. GOSS is designed to allow power grid applications developed for different underlying software platforms installed in different utilities to communicate with ease. This can be done in compliance with existing security and data sharing policies between the utilities. GOSS not only supports one-to-one data transfer between applications, but also publisher/subscriber scheme. To support interoperability requirements of future EMS, GOSS is designed for CIM compliance. In addition to this, it supports authentication and authorization capabilities to protect the system from cyber threats. In summary, the contributions of the GOSS middleware are as follows: • A platform to support future EMS development. • A middleware that promotes interoperability between power grid applications. • A distributed architecture that separates data sources from power grid applications. • Support for data exchange with either one-to-one or publisher/subscriber interfaces. • An authentication and authorization scheme for limiting the access to data between utilities.

  8. Holliday Triangle Hunter (HolT Hunter): Efficient Software for Identifying Low Strain DNA Triangular Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, W.B.

    2012-04-16

    Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.

  9. Buildings-to-Grid Technical Opportunities: From the Grid Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kropski, Ben; Pratt, Rob

    2014-03-28

    This paper outlines the nature of the power grid, lists challenges and barriers to the implementation of a transactive energy ecosystem, and provides concept solutions to current technological impediments.

  10. Running medical image analysis on GridFactory desktop grid.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Frederik; Niinimaki, Marko; Zhou, Xin; Rosendahl, Peter; Müller, Henning; Waananen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    At the Geneva University Hospitals work is in progress to establish a computing facility for medical image analysis, potentially using several hundreds of desktop computers. Typically, hospitals do not have a computer infrastructure dedicated to research, nor can the data leave the hospital network for the reasons of privacy. For this purpose, a novel batch system called GridFactory has been tested along-side with the well-known batch system Condor. GridFactory's main benefits, compared to other batch systems, lie in its virtualization support and firewall friendliness. The tests involved running visual feature extraction from 50,000 anonymized medical images on a small local grid of 20 desktop computers. A comparisons with a Condor based batch system in the same computers is then presented. The performance of GridFactory is found satisfactory.

  11. Geometrical spin frustration in Pr5Ni2Si3 composed of triangular crystal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, B. H.; Hong, J. I.; Kwon, Y. S.

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the transport, magnetic and thermal properties of Pr5Ni2Si3 with complex triangular lattices under various magnetic fields. The ferromagnetic transitions in the basal plane were observed at TC1 = 52 K and TC2 = 65 K. A decrease in magnetization below 30 K and the reduced paramagnetic Curie temperature θP are indicative of the development of antiferromagnetic correlation. These features are well understood by the frustration effect of the magnetic moments of Pr ions which constitute the triangular structural unit. The frustration caused the rapid rise of electrical resistivity below 30 K and an enormous entropy in low-temperature regions. The antiferromagnetic correlation acting between the frustrated Pr ions never causes any long-range order down to 0.6 K.

  12. A basic study of a triangular magnet chain for locomotion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2011-04-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical (magnetic and robotic) and experimental study of a robotic locomotion principle utilizing a triangular artificial magnetic chain with a rotating magnetic field for biomedical applications. A three-axis Helmholtz coil system with external controller (joystick) controls the moving direction of the proposed magnet chain according to changes of the plane of the rotating magnetic field. The proposed magnet chain consists of three NdFeB magnets, and its magnetic property depends on dipoles interaction. Also, motion dynamics bring about a magnetic torque analyzed by robotics. A total magnetic moment on the triangular magnet chain provides magnetic torque in the rotating magnetic field, and a geometric property produces a stable movement for robotic locomotion.

  13. Paraxial ray-tracing equations for optical systems containing triangular prisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain; Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Conventional paraxial ray-tracing procedures are widely used for optical systems design and analysis. However, they are not applicable to multiple-dispersion-prism systems. Accordingly, the present study simplifies the equations given by the present group in a previous paper [Optik117, 329 (2006)OTIKAJ0030-402610.1016/j.ijleo.2005.10.004] to the form of 3×3 matrix equations for tracing paraxial rays in optical systems containing triangular prisms. The accuracy and validity of the proposed approach are demonstrated by means of four numerical examples. The results confirm that the proposed equations provide a convenient and practical tool for analyzing paraxial rays traveling through non-axially symmetrical optical systems containing triangular and rectangular prisms.

  14. Synthesis of gold hexagonal bipyramids directed by planar-twinned silver triangular nanoprisms.

    PubMed

    Personick, Michelle L; Langille, Mark R; Wu, Jinsong; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-03-13

    The direct growth of planar-twinned Au nanoparticles (NPs) in high yield remains a challenge in shape-controlled NP synthesis largely because suitable planar-twinned seeds for Au NP growth have not been identified to date. Herein we describe the use of planar-twinned Ag triangular nanoprisms as a means to dictate Au NP twin structure. In a one-pot process, the Ag triangular nanoprisms first undergo oxidative Au replacement, forming Ag-Au alloy nanoframes and concomitantly releasing Ag(+) into solution, which then directs subsequent Au NP growth through an underpotential deposition process. The planar-twinned structure of the initial Ag nanoprism is maintained throughout particle growth. Using this method, we have successfully synthesized Au hexagonal bipyramids in high yield for the first time.

  15. Random Ising antiferromagnet on Bethe-like lattices with triangular loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Terufumi

    2016-04-01

    Phase diagrams for a random Ising antiferromagnet on Bethe-like lattices with triangular loops are obtained. Triangular loops cause strong geometrical frustration for the Ising antiferromagnet. Spin glass states appear by introducing randomness in the interaction between Ising spins. The random Ising antiferromagnet is studied by the replica method using global order parameter. The phase diagrams are compared with those for the corresponding random Ising ferromagnet to see the effects of the geometrical frustration. Antiferromagnetic phase does not appear for M ≤ 4 where M is the number of the corner sharing triangles on the Bethe-like lattices. In these cases, spin glass phase appears with a reentrant behavior. Spin glass phase in the random antiferromagnet appears for much weaker randomness than that in the corresponding random ferromagnet.

  16. Natural vibrations of shear deformable cantilevered skewed trapezoidal and triangular thick plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, O. G.; Butalia, T. S.

    1992-12-01

    The efficacy of higher-order shear deformable, C exp 0, continuous, Lagrangian isoparametric plate finite element analyses has been demonstrated on cantilevered skewed (parallelogram) thick plates. The present work extends the method to include skewed thick plates having trapezoidal and triangular planforms. Extensive and accurate nondimensional frequency tables and graphical charts are presented for a series of trapezoidal plates showing the effect of aspect ratio, chord ratio, thickness ratio, and skew angle. The need for the present higher-order shear deformable plate finite element method for skewed trapezoidal plate vibrations increases as the skew angle increases and as the aspect ratio, chord ratio, and thickness ratio decreases. Some theoretical and experimental data hitherto published for delta and skewed triangular cantilevered plates are compared with results obtained using the present finite element method.

  17. Triangular and Fibonacci Number Patterns Driven by Stress on Core/Shell Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaorong; Zhang, Xiaona; Cao, Zexian

    2005-08-01

    Fibonacci number patterns and triangular patterns with intrinsic defects occur frequently on nonplanar surfaces in nature, particularly in plants. By controlling the geometry and the stress upon cooling, these patterns can be reproduced on the surface of microstructures about 10 micrometers in diameter. Spherules of the Ag core/SiOx shell structure, possessing markedly uniform size and shape, self-assembled into the Fibonacci number patterns (5 by 8 and 13 by 21) or the triangular pattern, depending on the geometry of the primary supporting surface. Under proper geometrical constraints, the patterns developed through self-assembly in order to minimize the total strain energy. This demonstrates that highly ordered microstructures can be prepared simultaneously across large areas by stress engineering.

  18. Low-frequency photonic band structures in graphene-like triangular metallic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang

    2016-11-01

    We study the low frequency photonic band structures in triangular metallic lattice, displaying Dirac points in the frequency spectrum, and constructed upon the lowest order regular polygonal tiles. We show that, in spite of the unfavourable geometrical conditions intrinsic to the structure symmetry, the lowest frequency photonic bands are formed by resonance modes sustained by local structure patterns, with the corresponding electric fields following a triangular distribution at low structure filling rate and a honeycomb distribution at high filling rate. For both cases, the lowest photonic bands, and thus the plasma gap, can be described in the framework of a tight binding model, and analysed in terms of local resonance modes and their mutual correlations. At high filling rate, the Dirac points and their movement following the structure deformation are described in the same framework, in relation with local structure patterns and their variations, as well as the particularity of the metallic lattice that enhances the topological anisotropy.

  19. Stability of triangular lagrangian points in elliptical restricted three body problem under the radiating binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, A.; Singh, Nutan

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the stability of Triangular Lagrangian points in the model of elliptical restricted three body problem, under the assumption that both the primaries are radiating. The model proposed is applicable to the well known binary systems Achird, Luyten, αCen AB, Kruger-60, Xi-Bootis. Conditional stability of the motion around the triangular points exists for 0≤ μ≤ μ ∗, where μ is the mass ratio. The method of averaging due to Grebenikov has been exploited throughout the analysis of stability of the system. The critical mass ratio depends on the combined effects of radiation of both the primaries and eccentricity of this orbit. It is found by adopting the simulation technique that the range of stability decreases as the radiation pressure parameter increases.

  20. Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms: rational synthesis with high-efficiency for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Li, Hai; Zhang, Hua; Xue, Can

    2014-10-21

    We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag(+)/Pd(2+) is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems.

  1. Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; ...

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization Pc ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. Pc is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in Pc at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a newmore » mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.« less

  2. Modal characteristics in a single-nanowire cavity with a triangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Kyo; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Hong-Gyu; Qian, Fang; Ee, Ho-Seok; No, You-Shin; Leet, Yong-Hee

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the modal characteristics of a single-GaN nanowire cavity with a triangular cross section surrounded by air or located on a silicon dioxide substrate have been analyzed. Two transverse resonant modes, transverse electric-like and transverse magnetic-like modes, are dominantly excited for nanowire cavities that have a small cross-sectional size of <300 nm and length of 10 microm. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation method, quality factors, confinement factors, single-mode conditions, and far-field emission patterns are investigated for a nanowire cavity as a function of one length of the triangular cross section. The results of these simulations provide information that will be vital for the design and development of efficient nanowire lasers and light sources in ultracompact nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  3. Discovery of the K4 Structure Formed by a Triangular π Radical Anion.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Asato; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Suizu, Rie; Matsushita, Michio M; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Reta Mañeru, Daniel; Illas, Francesc; Robert, Vincent; Awaga, Kunio

    2015-06-24

    The K4 structure was theoretically predicted for trivalent chemical species, such as sp(2) carbon. However, since attempts to synthesize the K4 carbon have not succeeded, this allotrope has been regarded as a crystal form that might not exist in nature. In the present work, we carried out electrochemical crystallization of the radical anion salts of a triangular molecule, naphthalene diimide (NDI)-Δ, using various electrolytes. X-ray crystal analysis of the obtained crystals revealed the K4 structure, which was formed by the unique intermolecular π overlap directed toward three directions from the triangular-shape NDI-Δ radical anions. Electron paramagnetic resonance and static magnetic measurements confirmed the radical anion state of NDI-Δ and indicated an antiferromagnetic intermolecular interaction with the Weiss constant of θ = -10 K. The band structure calculation suggested characteristic features of the present material, such as a metallic ground state, Dirac cones, and flat bands.

  4. Orbital degeneracy removed by charge order in triangular antiferromagnet AgNiO2.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, E; Coldea, R; Wheeler, E M; Mazin, I I; Johannes, M D; Sörgel, T; Jansen, M; Ibberson, R M; Radaelli, P G

    2007-10-12

    We report a high-resolution neutron diffraction study on the orbitally degenerate spin-1/2 hexagonal metallic antiferromagnet AgNiO2. A structural transition to a tripled unit cell with expanded and contracted NiO6 octahedra indicates sqrt[3]xsqrt[3] charge order on the Ni triangular lattice. This suggests charge order as a possible mechanism of lifting the orbital degeneracy in the presence of charge fluctuations, as an alternative to the more usual Jahn-Teller distortions. A novel magnetic ground state is observed at low temperatures with the electron-rich S=1 Ni sites arranged in alternating ferromagnetic rows on a triangular lattice, surrounded by a honeycomb network of nonmagnetic and metallic Ni ions. We also report first-principles band-structure calculations that explain microscopically the origin of these phenomena.

  5. Apex-angle-dependent resonances in triangular split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Max A.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2016-02-01

    Along with other frequency selective structures (Pendry et al. in IEEE Trans Microw Theory Tech 47(11):2075-2084, 1999) (circles and squares), triangular split-ring resonators (TSRRs) only allow frequencies near the center resonant frequency to propagate. Further, TSRRs are attractive due to their small surface area (Vidhyalakshmi et al. in Stopband characteristics of complementary triangular split ring resonator loaded microstrip line, 2011), comparatively, and large quality factors ( Q) as previously investigated by Gay-Balmaz et al. (J Appl Phys 92(5):2929-2936, 2002). In this work, we examine the effects of varying the apex angle on the resonant frequency, the Q factor, and the phase shift imparted by the TSRR element within the GHz frequency regime.

  6. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  7. Triangular and Fibonacci number patterns driven by stress on core/shell microstructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaorong; Zhang, Xiaona; Cao, Zexian

    2005-08-05

    Fibonacci number patterns and triangular patterns with intrinsic defects occur frequently on nonplanar surfaces in nature, particularly in plants. By controlling the geometry and the stress upon cooling, these patterns can be reproduced on the surface of microstructures about 10 micrometers in diameter. Spherules of the Ag core/SiOx shell structure, possessing markedly uniform size and shape, self-assembled into the Fibonacci number patterns (5 by 8 and 13 by 21) or the triangular pattern, depending on the geometry of the primary supporting surface. Under proper geometrical constraints, the patterns developed through self-assembly in order to minimize the total strain energy. This demonstrates that highly ordered microstructures can be prepared simultaneously across large areas by stress engineering.

  8. Rational design of crystalline supermicroporous covalent organic frameworks with triangular topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Addicoat, Matthew; Jin, Shangbin; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Gao, Jia; Xu, Hong; Irle, Stephan; Seki, Shu; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-07-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of highly ordered porous polymers with many potential applications. They are currently designed and synthesized through hexagonal and tetragonal topologies, limiting the access to and exploration of new structures and properties. Here, we report that a triangular topology can be developed for the rational design and synthesis of a new class of COFs. The triangular topology features small pore sizes down to 12 Å, which is among the smallest pores for COFs reported to date, and high π-column densities of up to 0.25 nm-2, which exceeds those of supramolecular columnar π-arrays and other COF materials. These crystalline COFs facilitate π-cloud delocalization and are highly conductive, with a hole mobility that is among the highest reported for COFs and polygraphitic ensembles.

  9. Tailoring graphene magnetism by zigzag triangular holes: A first-principles thermodynamics study

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Muhammad Ejaz; Zhang, P.; Sun, Yi -Yang; ...

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we discuss the thermodynamic stability and magnetic property of zigzag triangular holes (ZTHs) in graphene based on the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations. We find that ZTHs with hydrogen-passivated edges in mixed sp2/sp3 configurations (z211) could be readily available at experimental thermodynamic conditions, but ZTHs with 100% sp2 hydrogen-passivation (z1) could be limitedly available at high temperature and ultra-high vacuum conditions. Graphene magnetization near the ZTHs strongly depends on the type and the size of the triangles. While metallic z1 ZTHs exhibit characteristic edge magnetism due to the same-sublattice engineering, semiconducting z211 ZTHs do showmore » characteristic corner magnetism when the size is small < 2 nm. Our findings could be useful for experimentally tailoring metal-free carbon magnetism by simply fabricating triangular holes in graphene.« less

  10. Spin-Chirality-Driven Ferroelectricity on a Perfect Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Mitamura, H.; Watanuki, R.; Kaneko, Koji; Onozaki, N.; Amou, Y.; Kittaka, S.; Kobayashi, Riki; Shimura, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Suzuki, K.; Chi, Songxue; Sakakibara, T.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic field (B) variation of the electrical polarization Pc ( ∥c) of the perfect triangular lattice antiferromagnet RbFe(MoO4)2 is examined up to the saturation point of the magnetization for B⊥c. Pc is observed only in phases for which chirality is predicted in the in-plane magnetic structures. No strong anomaly is observed in Pc at the field at which the spin modulation along the c axis, and hence the spin helicity, exhibits a discontinuity to the commensurate state. These results indicate that the ferroelectricity in this compound originates predominantly from the spin chirality, the explanation of which would require a new mechanism for magnetoferroelectricity. Lastly, the obtained field-temperature phase diagrams of ferroelectricity well agree with those theoretically predicted for the spin chirality of a Heisenberg spin triangular lattice antiferromagnet.

  11. Erosion Triangular Facets as Markers of Order in an Open Dissipative System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliaga, Guido

    2015-07-01

    The complexity and non-linearity of the morphogenetic system which is responsible for shaping the Earth's surface have been widely recognised by many authors who have documented the fractal nature of erosion. In this paper, two peculiar kinds of landforms are compared to point out ordered structures, i.e. triangular facets that arise in different geomorphic systems, due to the principle of morphologic convergence. Occurrence of triangular facets has been documented in mountainous areas in relation to base level changes and hydrographical network evolution; similarly shaped landforms are present even in recent tectonic uplift areas along faults. The spatial distribution of the two kinds of facets has been investigated in two river basins located in Liguria (northern Italy) and in a mountainous area in Oman. The results of this analysis document the different spatial features of the two kinds of facets.

  12. Grid Visualization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Schaffer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The Grid Visualization Tool (GVT) is a computer program for displaying the path of a mobile robotic explorer (rover) on a terrain map. The GVT reads a map-data file in either portable graymap (PGM) or portable pixmap (PPM) format, representing a gray-scale or color map image, respectively. The GVT also accepts input from path-planning and activity-planning software. From these inputs, the GVT generates a map overlaid with one or more rover path(s), waypoints, locations of targets to be explored, and/or target-status information (indicating success or failure in exploring each target). The display can also indicate different types of paths or path segments, such as the path actually traveled versus a planned path or the path traveled to the present position versus planned future movement along a path. The program provides for updating of the display in real time to facilitate visualization of progress. The size of the display and the map scale can be changed as desired by the user. The GVT was written in the C++ language using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) software. It has been compiled for both Sun Solaris and Linux operating systems.

  13. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  14. Grid flexibility and patching techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G.; Smith, L. W.; Yung, C. N.; Barthelson, S. H.; Dewitt, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical determination of combustor flowfields is of great value to the combustor designer. An a priori knowledge of the flow behavior can speed the combustor design process and reduce the number of experimental test rigs required to arrive at an optimal design. Even 2-D steady incompressible isothermal flow predictions are of use; many codes of this kind are available, each employing different techniques to surmount the difficulties arising from the nonlinearity of the governing equations and from typically irregular combustor geometries. Mapping techniques (algebraic and elliptic PDE), and adaptive grid methods (both multi-grid and grid embedding) as applied to axisymmetric combustors are discussed.

  15. Grid technologies empowering drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Chien, Andrew; Foster, Ian; Goddette, Dean

    2002-10-15

    Grid technologies enable flexible coupling and sharing of computers, instruments and storage. Grids can provide technical solutions to the volume of data and computational demands associated with drug discovery by delivering larger computing capability (flexible resource sharing), providing coordinated access to large data resources and enabling novel online exploration (coupling computing, data and instruments online). Here, we illustrate this potential by describing two applications: the use of desktop PC grid technologies for virtual screening, and distributed X-ray structure reconstruction and online visualization.

  16. Elastic-plastic analysis using a triangular ring element in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C. T.

    1980-01-01

    An elastic plastic triangular ring element is implemented in NASTRAN computer program. The plane strain problem of partially plastic thick walled cylinder under internal pressure is solved and compared with the earlier finite difference solution. A very good agreement has been reached. In order to demonstrate its application to more general problems, an overloaded thread problem for the British Standard Buttress is examined. The maximum axial and principal stresses are located and their values are determined as functions of loadings.

  17. Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms: rational synthesis with high-efficiency for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Li, Hai; Zhang, Hua; Xue, Can

    2014-09-01

    We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag+/Pd2+ is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems.We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag+/Pd2+ is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03600j

  18. Phase transition in Heisenberg stacked triangular antiferromagnets: end of a controversy.

    PubMed

    Ngo, V Thanh; Diep, H T

    2008-09-01

    By using the Wang-Landau flat-histogram Monte Carlo (MC) method for very large lattice sizes never simulated before, we show that the phase transition in the frustrated Heisenberg stacked triangular antiferromagnet is of first order, contrary to results of earlier MC simulations using old-fashioned methods. Our result lends support to the conclusion of a nonperturbative renormalization group performed on an effective Hamiltonian. It puts an end to a 20-year -long controversial issue.

  19. Cluster Monte Carlo dynamics for the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. M.; Yang, C. Z.

    1994-11-01

    Within the general cluster framework of Kandel, Ben-Av, and Domany, we develop a cluster algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a triangular lattice. The algorithm does not suffer from problems of metastability and is extremely efficient even at T=0, which allows us to extract the static exponent η=0.5 as well as the effective dynamical critical exponent of the algorithm z=0.64+/-0.02.

  20. On performance analysis of ADRC for a class of MIMO lower-triangular nonlinear uncertain systems.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenchao; Huang, Yi

    2014-07-01

    This paper designs the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to achieve desired performance for a class of MIMO lower-triangular nonlinear systems with large uncertainties under un-matched condition. We develop the ADRC with a set of extended state observers, and prove that the closed-loop system can achieve satisfied dynamic performance. The theoretical results illustrate the relationship between the bound of the concerned error and the bandwidth of extend state observers.

  1. Triangular with Ala nasi (TAN) repair of unilateral cleft lips: a personal technique and early outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Onder; Atik, Bekir

    2007-01-01

    The triangular flap repair is one of the most common techniques used in cleft lip surgery. However, inability to address the nasal deformity and loss of orbicularis wholeness accompanied with incomplete reorientation have been two major handicaps of the triangular repair. Therefore, we developed our personal technique, called the triangular with ala nasi (TAN) repair, including a perialar incision and a distinct approach to the skin and muscle. We applied the TAN technique to 32 consecutive (19 male and 13 female) patients with unilateral cleft. The mean age at repair was 2.5 (1-32) years. The cleft lip appeared completely and incompletely in 11 and 21 patients, respectively. The postoperative outcomes were assessed subjectively by Williams test and objectively by Lindsay-Farkas method.The mean follow-up time was 17.1 months. No early complication involving hematoma, infection, wound dehiscence, or partial or total flap loss was encountered. The recoveries of 79.1% and 86.2% on average, when compared with the noncleft side, were obtained postoperatively. With our technique, we aimed at combining the useful properties of the two popular techniques, Millard and Tennison-Randall. The TAN repair lengthens the vertical lip using a triangular flap, resulting in a nonlinear, zig-zag scar on the philtral ridge and forming a symmetrical cupid's bow, superiorities of the Tennison-Randall repair. On the other hand, our method also presents an excellent approximation of both the deep and superficial muscle groups and reduces the nasal deformity with a perialar incision, features of the Millard's technique.

  2. Pressure drop reduction and heat transfer deterioration of slush nitrogen in triangular and circular pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Katsuhide; Kurose, Kizuku; Okuyama, Jun; Saito, Yutaro; Takahashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Slush fluids such as slush hydrogen and slush nitrogen are characterized by superior properties as functional thermal fluids due to their density and heat of fusion. In addition to allowing efficient hydrogen transport and storage, slush hydrogen can serve as a refrigerant for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) equipment using MgB2, with the potential for synergistic effects. In this study, pressure drop reduction and heat transfer deterioration experiments were performed on slush nitrogen flowing in a horizontal triangular pipe with sides of 20 mm under the conditions of three different cross-sectional orientations. Experimental conditions consisted of flow velocity (0.3-4.2 m/s), solid fraction (0-25 wt.%), and heat flux (0, 10, and 20 kW/m2). Pressure drop reduction became apparent at flow velocities exceeding about 1.3-1.8 m/s, representing a maximum amount of reduction of 16-19% in comparison with liquid nitrogen, regardless of heating. Heat transfer deterioration was seen at flow velocities of over 1.2-1.8 m/s, for a maximum amount of deterioration of 13-16%. The authors of the current study compared the results for pressure drop reduction and heat transfer deterioration in triangular pipe with those obtained previously for circular and square pipes, clarifying differences in flow and heat transfer properties. Also, a correlation equation was obtained between the slush Reynolds number and the pipe friction factor, which is important in the estimation of pressure drop in unheated triangular pipe. Furthermore, a second correlation equation was derived between the modified slush Reynolds number and the pipe friction factor, enabling the integrated prediction of pressure drop in both unheated triangular and circular pipes.

  3. Quantum Phase Transition of a Triangular Lattice Spin Tube and Edge Spin Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunishi, Kouichi; Yoshikawa, Shin-Ichiro; Sakai, Tôru; Miyashita, Seiji

    We study the low-energy excitation of the quantum spin tube with the triangular lattice structure, using density matrix renormalization group. Taking account of the edge spin effect, we particularly investigate the spin gap behavior and the low-field magnetization curve near the quantum phase transition point in contrast with the usual free boundary condition. We then find that the bulk behavior of the spin tube can be extracted easier for the single spin termination.

  4. Triangular Monometallic Cyanide Cluster Entrapped in Carbon Cage with Geometry-Dependent Molecular Magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fupin; Gao, Cong-Li; Deng, Qingming; Zhu, Xianjun; Kostanyan, Aram; Westerström, Rasmus; Wang, Song; Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Tao, Jun; Xie, Su-Yuan; Popov, Alexey A.; Greber, Thomas; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Clusterfullerenes are capable of entrapping a variety of metal clusters within carbon cage, for which the entrapped metal cluster generally keeps its geometric structure (e.g., bond distance and angle) upon changing the isomeric structure of fullerene cage, and whether the properties of the entrapped metal cluster is geometry-dependent remains unclear. Herein we report an unusual triangular monometallic cluster entrapped in fullerene cage by isolating several novel terbium cyanide clusterfullerenes (TbNC@C82) with different cage isomeric structures. Upon varying the isomeric structure of C82 cage from C2(5) to Cs(6) and to C2v(9), the entrapped triangular TbNC cluster exhibits significant distortions as evidenced by the changes of Tb–C(N) and C–N bond distances and variation of the Tb–C(N)–N(C) angle by up to 20°, revealing that the geometric structure of the entrapped triangular TbNC cluster is variable. All three TbNC@C82 molecules are found to be single-ion magnets, and the change of the geometric structure of TbNC cluster directly leads to the alternation of the magnetic relaxation time of the corresponding TbNC@C82 clusterfullerene. PMID:27755875

  5. Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Ideal graphene antidot lattices are predicted to show promising band gap behavior (i.e., EG≃500 meV) under carefully specified conditions. However, for the structures studied so far this behavior is critically dependent on superlattice geometry and is not robust against experimentally realistic disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag-edged antidots give rise to large band gaps compared to armchair-edged antidots, irrespective of the rules which govern the existence of gaps in armchair-edged antidot lattices. In addition the zigzag-edged antidots appear more robust than armchair-edged antidots in the presence of geometrical disorder. The inclusion of spin polarization within a mean-field Hubbard approach gives rise to a large overall magnetic moment at each antidot due to the sublattice imbalance imposed by the triangular geometry. Half-metallic behavior arises from the formation of spin-split dispersive states near the Fermi energy, reducing the band gaps compared to the unpolarized case. This behavior is also found to be robust in the presence of disorder. Our results highlight the possibilities of using triangular perforations in graphene to open electronic band gaps in systems with experimentally realistic levels of disorder, and furthermore, of exploiting the strong spin dependence of the system for spintronic applications.

  6. Triangular mesh establishment of 3D laser scanning data based on ellipsoidal projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, De-hua; Xu, Jia; Li, Jia; Wang, Xin-sen

    2011-10-01

    The establishment of high quality triangular mesh is one of the key steps in 3D laser scanning data processing. Traditional triangulation algorithms have been proposed directly on the basis of adjacency relation between points in 3D space. However, when the point density is non-uniform or the noise exists, the problems such as surface hole, dough sheet overlapping and inconsistent normal appear easily. In this paper, a triangular mesh establishing algorithm based on ellipsoidal projection is proposed. After comparing the theory of ellipsoidal projection and cylindrical projection, the proposed triangular mesh establishing algorithm is analyzed in detail including basic idea and implementation method. To evaluate the performance and efficiency of the proposed algorithm, two experiments are then carried out on the 3D point cloud data of a foundation pit. The results indicate that though the computational efficiency of proposed algorithm is a little inferior to the algorithm based on cylindrical projection, the proposed algorithm is more effective for establishing point cloud of both top and bottom of the object and the original topological relation of 3D scanning points can be maintained better.

  7. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, R.; Batzoglou, S.; Dancik, V.

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  8. Electrowetting actuated microfluidic transport in surface grooves with triangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Barman, Jitesh; Swain, Digendranath; Law, Bruce M; Seemann, Ralf; Herminghaus, Stephan; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2015-01-27

    Liquids show different static wetting morphologies in open triangular grooves depending upon the wedge angle (ψ) of the groove and the liquid contact angle (θ) with the substrate. Switching between different morphologies can be achieved either by varying the contact angle of the liquid or by changing the wedge angle of the groove. In the present work we manipulate the apparent contact angle of a liquid by electrowetting to switch between liquid morphologies, from droplet to filament, to achieve microfluidic transport of the liquid into open triangular grooves. The static length of liquid filaments in grooves is analyzed as a function of applied voltage for different applied ac frequencies. The dynamic advancement of the filament lengths in grooves is analyzed as a function of time for different applied voltages for two different liquids: first with contact angle greater than the wedge angle and second with contact angle smaller than the wedge angle. Later an exact electrical model is derived to explain the liquid transport in triangular grooves actuated by electrowetting which includes the precise geometry of the liquid morphology.

  9. Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular subchannel in Zirconia-water nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandian, N. P.; Alkharboushi, A. A. K.; Kamajaya, K.

    2015-09-01

    Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular sub-channel has important role in cooling mechanism of the APWR and the PHWR nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, natural convection correlation equations for such geometry are scarcely available. Recent studies showed that ZrO2-water nanofluid has a good prospect to be used in the nuclear reactor technology due to its low neutron absorption cross section. Although several papers have reported transport properties of ZrO2-water nanofluids, practically there is no correlation equation for predicting natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel in ZrO2-water nanofluid. Therefore, a study for finding such heat transfer correlation equation has been done by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics software and reported in this paper. In the study, natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel has been simulated at several values of heat transfer flux within 9.1 to 30.9 kW/m2 range and ZrO2 concentrations of 0 (pure water), 0.27, and 3 volume-% of ZrO2. The study shows that the ZrO2 concentration has no significant influence to the natural convection heat transfer at those concentration levels. The obtained theoretical heat transfer correlation equations were verified through experiment, and they showed very similar results. The correlation equations are reported in this paper.

  10. Tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Wan, Wenqiang; Liu, Yanhua; Ye, Yan; Wu, Shaolong; Chen, Linsen

    2016-08-01

    A continuously tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The triangular-lattice resonator was initially fabricated through multiple interference exposure and was then replicated into a low refractive index polymer via UV-nanoimprinting. The blend of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one was used as the gain medium. Three periods in the scalene triangular-lattice structure yield stable tri-wavelength laser emission (625.5 nm, 617.4 nm and 614.3 nm) in six different directions. A uniformly aligned liquid crystal (LC) layer was incorporated into the cavity as the top cladding layer. Upon heating, the orientation of LC molecules and thus the effective refractive index of the lasing mode changes which continuously shifts the lasing wavelength. A maximum tuning range of 12.2 nm was observed for the lasing mode at 625.5 nm. This tunable tri-wavelength polymer laser is simple constructed and cost-effective. It may find application in the fields of biosensors and photonic integrated circuits.

  11. A New Surgical Technique for Closure of Pilonidal Sinus Defects: Triangular Closure Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mutaf, Mehmet; Temel, Metin; Koç, Mustafa Nihat

    2017-01-01

    Background We present a clinical experience with a new local flap procedure, namely the triangular closure technique, for reconstruction of sacrococcygeal skin defects resulting from excision of the pilonidal sinus. Material/Methods In this technique, the defect is surgically converted to a triangle in shape. Then, the triangular defect is closed by transposition of 2 skin flaps designed in an unequal z-plasty manner. Over 6 years, this technique has been used for closure of defects of chronic pilonidal sinus disease in 27 patients (6 females, 21 males). The size of the defect ranged between 3.5 cm and 12 cm in dimension. Results A tension-free defect closure was obtained in all patients. All flaps except one healed with no complications. A mean follow-up of 3.62±1.77 months revealed aesthetically and functionally acceptable results with the obliteration of the natal cleft in all patients. No recurrence was observed in the follow-up period. Conclusions The triangular closure technique was found to be a useful technique for the treatment of pilonidal sinus with favorable results regarding the time before return to work. PMID:28238003

  12. Effect of Triangular Fins on Critical Heat Flux in Ethanol-cooled Combustion Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegoshi, Masao; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Saito, Toshihito; Ono, Fumiei; Hiraiwa, Tetsuo; Tomioka, Sadatake

    A pressure-fed engine with a regeneratively-cooled combustion chamber is studied in JAXA. Operation chamber pressure is approximately 1 MPa. A proposed propellant combination is liquid oxygen and ethanol. However, it is necessary to understand the critical heat flux when ethanol is used as a coolant for regeneratively-cooled combustion chamber because the saturation pressure of it is 6.3 MPa. In general, it is known that the cooling wall with fins improves the cooling performance. In this study, the effect of triangular fins on critical heat flux of ethanol in ethanol-cooled combustion chamber was investigated. As the result, it was found that the critical heat flux of cooling wall with triangular fins was 23 % higher than that of that without fin in the same velocity condition of the coolant. The critical heat flux increases by the triangular fins on the cooling surface due to the effect of the combination cooling with film boiling and nucleate boiling.

  13. Enantioselective self-assembly of triangular Dy3 clusters with single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuang-Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Lang; Tang, Jinkui

    2014-12-01

    Three pairs of enantiopure chiral triangular Ln3 clusters, [Ln3LRRRRRR/SSSSSS(μ3-OH)2(H2O)2(SCN)4]⋅xCH3OH⋅yH2O (R-Dy3, Ln=Dy, x=6, y=0; S-Dy3, Ln=Dy, x=6, y=1; R-Ho3, Ln=Ho, x=6, y=1; S-Ho3, Ln=Ho, x=6, y=1; R-Er3, Ln=Er, x=6, y=0; S-Er3, Ln=Er, x=6, y=1), have been successfully synthesized by a rational enantioselective synthetic strategy. The core of triangular Ln3 is bound in the central N6O3 of the macrocyclic ligand, and the coordination spheres of Ln ions are completed by four SCN(-) anions and two H2O molecules in axial positions of the macrocycle. The circular dichroism (CD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the enantiomers demonstrate that the chirality is successfully transferred from the ligands to the resulting Ln3 clusters. Ac susceptibility measurements reveal that single-molecule magnet behavior occurs for both enantiopure clusters of R-Dy3 and S-Dy3. This work is one of the few examples of the successful design of a pair of triangular Dy3 clusters showing simultaneously slow magnetic relaxation and optical activity, and this might open up new opportunities to develop novel multifunctional materials.

  14. Spacecraft stability, dynamics and control near the triangular Lagrange points influenced by multiple Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, Olga

    2007-04-01

    In view of the importance of Lagrange points to the exploration and development of space, the dynamics and stability of a satellite were studied under multiple Trojan asteroids influence. Through the use of a numerical simulator developed in MATLAB, consideration was given to the effects of gravitational forces exerted by the asteroids themselves, simulating the resulting insignificant influence of the Trojan asteroids on a satellite placed at the triangular Lagrange points. The study of optimized satellite transfers between triangular Lagrange points allowed the enforcement of multiple, specific, non-linear constraints on critical mission parameters of maximum thrust, mission duration, propellant consumption and accelerations. The optimized transfer trajectory between the two triangular Lagrange points was direction sensitive. That is, the minimum thrust optimized transfer trajectory for a satellite from L4 to L5 was unique and vastly different to that from L5 to L4. A further exciting discovery highlighted that superposition of the latter trajectories formed a perfectly smooth, uninterrupted kidney-shaped loop, fused at the two relevant points of connection. Implications for this phenomenon extend directly to future mission planning.

  15. Stacking illumination of a confocal reflector light emitting diode automobile headlamp with an asymmetric triangular prism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Zhou, Jia-Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-02-01

    A confocal reflector lamp with an asymmetric triangular prism was designed for a stacking illumination of a light emitting diode (LED) automobile headlamp fitting ECE R112 asymmetrical regulation. The optical system includes three 1st elliptic reflectors, three 2nd parabolic reflectors, and one asymmetric triangular prism. Three elliptic and parabolic reflectors were assembled with three confocal reflector modules; two modules projected the cut-off line of a 0° angle, and the other module projected the cut-off line of a 15° angle using of an asymmetric triangular prism. The ray tracing, optical simulation, and mockup experiment results exhibited that the illumination distribution met the regulation of ECE R112 class B, and the ideal efficiency could reach 96.8% in theory. The tolerance analysis showed the efficiency remained above 98% under the error values of ±0.2  mm of the position of the LED light source, and the y direction of the up-down movement was more sensitive than the x and z directions. The measurement results of the mockup sample safety factor were all larger than 1.15 and supported the regulation of the ECE R112 Class B.

  16. FDTD analysis of 2D triangular-lattice photonic crystals with arbitrary-shape inclusions based on unit cell transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zetao; Ogusu, Kazuhiko

    2009-04-01

    A finite-difference time-domain method based on Yee's orthogonal cell is utilized to calculate the band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based photonic crystals through a simple modification to properly shifting the boundaries of the original unit cell. A strategy is proposed for transforming the triangular unit cell into an orthogonal one, which can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PhCs with various shapes of inclusions, such as triangular, quadrangular, and hexagonal shapes, to overcome the shortage of plane-wave expansion method for circular one. The band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based PhCs with hexagonal air-holes are calculated and discussed for different values of its radius and rotation angle. The obtained results provide an insight to manipulate the band structures of PhCs.

  17. A photonic-assisted periodic triangular-shaped pulses generator based on FWM effect in an SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Chen, Hongyao; Li, Yueqin; Zhang, Chan

    2016-12-01

    We propose a photonic-assisted triangular-shaped pulse train generator based on four-wave mixing effect (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). A dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder operated at quadrupling RF modulation is employed to generate two primary sidebands (±2nd) in spectrum of the triangular-shaped pulse. Then the FWM effect leads to generation of two new frequency components. By setting the modulation index and bias current of the SOA properly, the generated harmonics of optical intensity can be corresponding to the Fourier components of typical periodic triangular pulses. Finally, a triangular pulse train with tunable repetition rate can be obtained. Numerical simulations have been taken to evaluate the impact of several key parameters to make the scheme more practical.

  18. Exact Integrations of Polynomials and Symmetric Quadrature Formulas over Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two important elements in the high-order accurate spatial discretization of finite volume equations over arbitrary grids. One element is the integration of basis functions over arbitrary domains, which is used in expressing various spatial integrals in terms of discrete unknowns. The other consists of quadrature approximations to those integrals. Only polynomial basis functions applied to polyhedral and polygonal grids are treated here. Non-triangular polygonal faces are subdivided into a union of planar triangular facets, and the resulting triangulated polyhedron is subdivided into a union of tetrahedra. The straight line segment, triangle, and tetrahedron are thus the fundamental shapes that are the building blocks for all integrations and quadrature approximations. Integrals of products up to the fifth order are derived in a unified manner for the three fundamental shapes in terms of the position vectors of vertices. Results are given both in terms of tensor products and products of Cartesian coordinates. The exact polynomial integrals are used to obtain symmetric quadrature approximations of any degree of precision up to five for arbitrary integrals over the three fundamental domains. Using a coordinate-free formulation, simple and rational procedures are developed to derive virtually all quadrature formulas, including some previously unpublished. Four symmetry groups of quadrature points are introduced to derive Gauss formulas, while their limiting forms are used to derive Lobatto formulas. Representative Gauss and Lobatto formulas are tabulated. The relative efficiency of their application to polyhedral and polygonal grids is detailed. The extension to higher degrees of precision is discussed.

  19. Assistive Awareness in Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourazeri, Aikaterini; Almajano, Pablo; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Lopez-Sanchez, Maite

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Background * The User-Infrastructure Interface * User Engagement through Assistive Awareness * Research Impact * Serious Games for Smart Grids * Serious Game Technology * Game scenario * Game mechanics * Related Work * Summary and Conclusions

  20. Modal Analysis for Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-03

    MANGO software is to provide a solution for improving small signal stability of power systems through adjusting operator-controllable variables using PMU measurement. System oscillation problems are one of the major threats to the grid stability and reliability in California and the Western Interconnection. These problems result in power fluctuations, lower grid operation efficiency, and may even lead to large-scale grid breakup and outages. This MANGO software aims to solve this problem by automatically generating recommended operation procedures termed Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) to improve damping of inter-area oscillation modes. The MANGO procedure includes three steps: recognizing small signal stability problems, implementing operating point adjustment using modal sensitivity, and evaluating the effectiveness of the adjustment. The MANGO software package is designed to help implement the MANGO procedure.

  1. Revised Extended Grid Library

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Roger L.

    2016-07-15

    The Revised Eolus Grid Library (REGL) is a mesh-tracking library that was developed for use with the MCNP6TM computer code so that (radiation) particles can track on an unstructured mesh. The unstructured mesh is a finite element representation of any geometric solid model created with a state-of-the-art CAE/CAD tool. The mesh-tracking library is written using modern Fortran and programming standards; the library is Fortran 2003 compliant. The library was created with a defined application programmer interface (API) so that it could easily integrate with other particle tracking/transport codes. The library does not handle parallel processing via the message passing interface (mpi), but has been used successfully where the host code handles the mpi calls. The library is thread-safe and supports the OpenMP paradigm. As a library, all features are available through the API and overall a tight coupling between it and the host code is required. Features of the library are summarized with the following list: • can accommodate first and second order 4, 5, and 6-sided polyhedra • any combination of element types may appear in a single geometry model • parts may not contain tetrahedra mixed with other element types • pentahedra and hexahedra can be together in the same part • robust handling of overlaps and gaps • tracks element-to-element to produce path length results at the element level • finds element numbers for a given mesh location • finds intersection points on element faces for the particle tracks • produce a data file for post processing results analysis • reads Abaqus .inp input (ASCII) files to obtain information for the global mesh-model • supports parallel input processing via mpi • support parallel particle transport by both mpi and OpenMP

  2. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  3. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2016-07-12

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  4. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2016-07-12

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  5. Parallel Power Grid Simulation Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steve; Kelley, Brian; Banks, Lawrence; Top, Philip; Woodward, Carol

    2015-09-14

    ParGrid is a 'wrapper' that integrates a coupled Power Grid Simulation toolkit consisting of a library to manage the synchronization and communication of independent simulations. The included library code in ParGid, named FSKIT, is intended to support the coupling multiple continuous and discrete even parallel simulations. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and current Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  6. AstroGrid-D: Grid technology for astronomical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enke, Harry; Steinmetz, Matthias; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Beck-Ratzka, Alexander; Breitling, Frank; Brüsemeister, Thomas; Carlson, Arthur; Ensslin, Torsten; Högqvist, Mikael; Nickelt, Iliya; Radke, Thomas; Reinefeld, Alexander; Reiser, Angelika; Scholl, Tobias; Spurzem, Rainer; Steinacker, Jürgen; Voges, Wolfgang; Wambsganß, Joachim; White, Steve

    2011-02-01

    We present status and results of AstroGrid-D, a joint effort of astrophysicists and computer scientists to employ grid technology for scientific applications. AstroGrid-D provides access to a network of distributed machines with a set of commands as well as software interfaces. It allows simple use of computer and storage facilities and to schedule or monitor compute tasks and data management. It is based on the Globus Toolkit middleware (GT4). Chapter 1 describes the context which led to the demand for advanced software solutions in Astrophysics, and we state the goals of the project. We then present characteristic astrophysical applications that have been implemented on AstroGrid-D in chapter 2. We describe simulations of different complexity, compute-intensive calculations running on multiple sites (Section 2.1), and advanced applications for specific scientific purposes (Section 2.2), such as a connection to robotic telescopes (Section 2.2.3). We can show from these examples how grid execution improves e.g. the scientific workflow. Chapter 3 explains the software tools and services that we adapted or newly developed. Section 3.1 is focused on the administrative aspects of the infrastructure, to manage users and monitor activity. Section 3.2 characterises the central components of our architecture: The AstroGrid-D information service to collect and store metadata, a file management system, the data management system, and a job manager for automatic submission of compute tasks. We summarise the successfully established infrastructure in chapter 4, concluding with our future plans to establish AstroGrid-D as a platform of modern e-Astronomy.

  7. Algebraic grid generation for complex geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An efficient computer program called GRID2D/3D has been developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation. The distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions and grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For 2D spatial domains the boundary curves are constructed by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3D spatial domains the boundary surfaces are constructed by using a new technique, developed in this study, referred to as 3D bidirectional Hermite interpolation.

  8. Ion beamlet vectoring by grid translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homa, J. M.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beamlet vectoring is investigated by collecting deflection and divergence angle data for two-grid systems as a function of the relative displacement of these grids. Results show that at large displacements, accelerator grid impingement becomes a limiting factor and this determines the useful range of beamlet deflection. Beamlet deflection was shown to vary linearly with grid offset angle over this range. Values of deflection-to-offset angle ratio and useful range of deflection are presented as functions of grid-hole geometries, perveance levels, and accelerating voltages. It is found that the divergence of the beamlets is unaffected by deflection over the useful range of beamlet deflection. The grids of a typical dished-grid ion thruster are examined to determine where over the grid surface the grid offsets exceed the useful range, which indicates the regions on the surface where high accelerator grid impingment is probably occurring.

  9. High throughput continuous titration based on a flow ratiometry controlled with feedback-based variable triangular waves and subsequent fixed triangular waves.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideji; Baba, Tsutomu

    2005-10-15

    We propose a new approach for high-throughput continuous titration based on a flow ratiometry. The method was applied to potentiometric titrations of acids and bases. A base solution, the flow rate F(B) of which was varied in response to controller output voltage V(c), was merged with an acid solution under constant total (acid+base) flow rate. Downstream, the pH of the mixed solution was measured with a flow-through glass electrode. Initially, V(c), and thus F(B) was increased linearly. At the instant the equivalence point (EP) was sensed, the ramp direction of V(c) was reversed from upward to downward. The direction was reversed to upward when EP was sensed again. Such the feedback-based operation gives a triangular waveform of V(c), because there is a delay corresponding mainly to the transit time of merged solutions to reach the sensor. The value of V(c) that gives EP composition, V(E), was estimated by averaging the most recent maximum and minimum values of V(c). Next, fixed triangular waves of V(c) was used to control F(B). The amplitude and the scan rate of the waves were fixed narrower and faster, respectively, than those in the feedback-based operation in order to improve the throughput rate. The EP can be located as long as the scan range covers V(E). These automated processes limited the titration to just the narrow range around EP, and thus realized extremely high throughput rate of maximally 17.6 titrations per minute (=3.4s per titration) at R.S.D.=0.35%.

  10. A fast direct method for block triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal block systems from time-fractional partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Rihuan; Ng, Michael K.; Sun, Hai-Wei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the block lower triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal blocks system which arises from the time-fractional partial differential equation. Existing fast numerical solver (e.g., fast approximate inversion method) cannot handle such linear system as the main diagonal blocks are different. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a fast direct method for solving this linear system, and to illustrate that the proposed method is much faster than the classical block forward substitution method for solving this linear system. Our idea is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy and together with the fast Fourier transforms for calculating Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplication. The complexity needs O (MNlog2 ⁡ M) arithmetic operations, where M is the number of blocks (the number of time steps) in the system and N is the size (number of spatial grid points) of each block. Numerical examples from the finite difference discretization of time-fractional partial differential equations are also given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  12. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  13. Improved direct torque control of an induction generator used in a wind conversion system connected to the grid.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, Radia; Rekioua, Djamila; Rekioua, Toufik; Tounzi, Abdelmounaïm

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a modulated hysteresis direct torque control (MHDTC) applied to an induction generator (IG) used in wind energy conversion systems (WECs) connected to the electrical grid through a back-to-back converter. The principle of this strategy consists in superposing to the torque reference a triangular signal, as in the PWM strategy, with the desired switching frequency. This new modulated reference is compared to the estimated torque by using a hysteresis controller as in the classical direct torque control (DTC). The aim of this new approach is to lead to a constant frequency and low THD in grid current with a unit power factor and a minimum voltage variation despite the wind variation. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison was made with classical DTC and field oriented control method (FOC). The obtained simulation results, with a variable wind profile, show an adequate dynamic of the conversion system using the proposed method compared to the classical approaches.

  14. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Saifur

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  15. Power grid reliability and security

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Anjan; Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan; Hauser, Carl; Bakken, David; Anderson, David; Zhao, Chuanlin; Liu, Dong; Yang, Tao; Meng, Ming; Zhang, Lin; Ning, Jiawei; Tashman, Zaid

    2015-01-31

    This project has led to the development of a real-time simulation platform for electric power grids called Grid Simulator or GridSim for simulating the dynamic and information network interactions of large- scale power systems. The platform consists of physical models of power system components including synchronous generators, loads and control, which are simulated using a modified commercial power simulator namely Transient Stability Analysis Tool (TSAT) [1] together with data cleanup components, as well as an emulated substation level and wide-area power analysis components. The platform also includes realistic representations of communication network middleware that can emulate the real-time information flow back and forth between substations and control centers in wide-area power systems. The platform has been validated on a realistic 6000-bus model of the western American power system. The simulator GridSim developed in this project is the first of its kind in its ability to simulate real-time response of large-scale power grids, and serves as a cost effective real-time stability and control simulation platform for power industry.

  16. Triangular Nests!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, R. I.

    2002-01-01

    Shows how integer-sided triangles can be nested, each nest having a single enclosing isosceles triangle. Brings to light what can be seen as a relatively simple generalization of Pythagoras' theorem, a result that should be readily accessible to many secondary school pupils. (Author/KHR)

  17. 75 FR 63462 - Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Interoperability Standards; Notice of Docket Designation for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards October 7, 2010. 1. The Energy Independence and Security Act of... interoperability of smart grid devices and systems, including protocols and model standards for...

  18. TIGGERC: Turbomachinery Interactive Grid Generator for 2-D Grid Applications and Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-block grid generator has been developed for a new design and analysis system for studying multiple blade-row turbomachinery problems. TIGGERC is a mouse driven, interactive grid generation program which can be used to modify boundary coordinates and grid packing and generates surface grids using a hyperbolic tangent or algebraic distribution of grid points on the block boundaries. The interior points of each block grid are distributed using a transfinite interpolation approach. TIGGERC can generate a blocked axisymmetric H-grid, C-grid, I-grid or O-grid for studying turbomachinery flow problems. TIGGERC was developed for operation on Silicon Graphics workstations. Detailed discussion of the grid generation methodology, menu options, operational features and sample grid geometries are presented.

  19. A microcomputer program for energy assessment and aggregation using the triangular probability distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A general risk-analysis method was developed for petroleum-resource assessment and other applications. The triangular probability distribution is used as a model with an analytic aggregation methodology based on probability theory rather than Monte-Carlo simulation. Among the advantages of the analytic method are its computational speed and flexibility, and the saving of time and cost on a microcomputer. The input into the model consists of a set of components (e.g. geologic provinces) and, for each component, three potential resource estimates: minimum, most likely (mode), and maximum. Assuming a triangular probability distribution, the mean, standard deviation, and seven fractiles (F100, F95, F75, F50, F25, F5, and F0) are computed for each component, where for example, the probability of more than F95 is equal to 0.95. The components are aggregated by combining the means, standard deviations, and respective fractiles under three possible siutations (1) perfect positive correlation, (2) complete independence, and (3) any degree of dependence between these two polar situations. A package of computer programs named the TRIAGG system was written in the Turbo Pascal 4.0 language for performing the analytic probabilistic methodology. The system consists of a program for processing triangular probability distribution assessments and aggregations, and a separate aggregation routine for aggregating aggregations. The user's documentation and program diskette of the TRIAGG system are available from USGS Open File Services. TRIAGG requires an IBM-PC/XT/AT compatible microcomputer with 256kbyte of main memory, MS-DOS 3.1 or later, either two diskette drives or a fixed disk, and a 132 column printer. A graphics adapter and color display are optional. ?? 1991.

  20. Geometric Triangular Chiral Hexagon Crystal-Like Complexes Organization in Pathological Tissues Biological Collision Order

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Jairo A.; Jaramillo, Natalia A.; Murillo, Mauricio F.

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues.The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must

  1. Electronic properties of gated triangular graphene quantum dots: Magnetism, correlations, and geometrical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potasz, P.; Güçlü, A. D.; Wójs, A.; Hawrylak, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present a theory of electronic properties of gated triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges as a function of size and carrier density. We focus on electronic correlations, spin, and geometrical effects using a combination of atomistic tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, and configuration interaction methods (TB + HF + CI), including long-range Coulomb interactions. The single-particle energy spectrum of triangular dots with zigzag edges exhibits a degenerate shell at the Fermi level with a degeneracy Nedge proportional to the edge size. We determine the effect of the electron-electron interactions on the ground state, the total spin, and the excitation spectrum as a function of a shell filling and the degeneracy of the shell using TB + HF + CI for Nedge<12 and approximate CI method for Nedge⩾12. For a half-filled neutral shell we find spin-polarized ground state for structures up to N=500 atoms in agreement with previous ab initio and mean-field calculations and in agreement with Lieb's theorem for a Hubbard model on a bipartite lattice. Adding a single electron leads to the complete spin depolarization for Nedge⩽9. For larger structures, the spin depolarization is shown to occur at different filling factors. Away from half-fillings excess electrons(holes) are shown to form Wigner-like spin-polarized triangular molecules corresponding to large gaps in the excitation spectrum. The validity of conclusions is assessed by a comparison of results obtained from different levels of approximations. While for the charge-neutral system all methods give qualitatively similar results, away from the charge neutrality an inclusion of all Coulomb scattering terms is necessary to produce results presented here.

  2. Variational Monte Carlo study of chiral spin liquid in quantum antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    By using Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with the first-neighbor (J1), second-neighbor (J2), and additional scalar chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) on the triangular lattice. In the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model with 0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.16 , recent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies [Zhu and White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105 and Hu, Gong, Zhu, and Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403] find a possible gapped spin liquid with the signal of a competition between a chiral and a Z2 spin liquid. Motivated by the DMRG results, we consider the chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) as a perturbation for this nonmagnetic phase. We find that with growing Jχ, the gapless U(1) Dirac spin liquid, which has the best variational energy for Jχ=0 , exhibits the energy instability towards a gapped spin liquid with nontrivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order. We calculate topological Chern number and ground-state degeneracy, both of which identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with fractionalized Chern number C =1 /2 and twofold topological degeneracy. Our results indicate a positive direction to stabilize a chiral spin liquid near the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model.

  3. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Jairo A; Jaramillo, Natalia A; Murillo, Mauricio F

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC) in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further interdisciplinary studies must

  4. Partitioning a chordal graph into transitive subgraphs for parallel sparse triangular solution

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.; Pothen, A.; Yuan, Xiaoqing

    1992-12-01

    A recent approach for solving sparse triangular systems of equations on massively parallel computers employs a factorization of the triangular coefficient matrix to obtain a representation of its inverse in product form. The number of general communication steps required by this approach is proportional to the number of factors in the factorization. The triangular matrix can be symmetrically permuted to minimize the number of factors over suitable classes of permutations, and thereby the complexity of the parallel algorithm can be minimized. Algorithms for minimizing the number of factors over several classes of permutations have been considered in earlier work. Let F = L+L{sup T} denote the symmetric filled matrix corresponding to a Cholesky factor L, and let G{sub F} denote the adjacency graph of F. In this paper we consider the problem of minirriizing the number of factors over all permutations which preserve the structure of G{sub F}. The graph model of this problem is to partition the vertices G{sub F} into the fewest transitively closed subgraphs over all perfect elimination orderings while satisfying a certain precedence relationship. The solution to this chordal graph partitioning problem can be described by a greedy scheme which eliminates a largest permissible subgraph at each step. Further, the subgraph eliminated at each step can be characterized in terms of lengths of chordless paths in the current elimination graph. This solution relies on several results concerning transitive perfect elimination orderings introduced in this paper. We describe a partitioning algorithm with {Omicron}({vert_bar}V{vert_bar} + {vert_bar}E{vert_bar}) time and space complexity.

  5. Partitioning a chordal graph into transitive subgraphs for parallel sparse triangular solution

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W. ); Pothen, A. . Dept. of Computer Science); Yuan, Xiaoqing )

    1992-12-01

    A recent approach for solving sparse triangular systems of equations on massively parallel computers employs a factorization of the triangular coefficient matrix to obtain a representation of its inverse in product form. The number of general communication steps required by this approach is proportional to the number of factors in the factorization. The triangular matrix can be symmetrically permuted to minimize the number of factors over suitable classes of permutations, and thereby the complexity of the parallel algorithm can be minimized. Algorithms for minimizing the number of factors over several classes of permutations have been considered in earlier work. Let F = L+L[sup T] denote the symmetric filled matrix corresponding to a Cholesky factor L, and let G[sub F] denote the adjacency graph of F. In this paper we consider the problem of minirriizing the number of factors over all permutations which preserve the structure of G[sub F]. The graph model of this problem is to partition the vertices G[sub F] into the fewest transitively closed subgraphs over all perfect elimination orderings while satisfying a certain precedence relationship. The solution to this chordal graph partitioning problem can be described by a greedy scheme which eliminates a largest permissible subgraph at each step. Further, the subgraph eliminated at each step can be characterized in terms of lengths of chordless paths in the current elimination graph. This solution relies on several results concerning transitive perfect elimination orderings introduced in this paper. We describe a partitioning algorithm with [Omicron]([vert bar]V[vert bar] + [vert bar]E[vert bar]) time and space complexity.

  6. A quantum fidelity study of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular lattice Heisenberg model.

    PubMed

    Thesberg, Mischa; Sørensen, Erik S

    2014-10-22

    Ground- and excited-state quantum fidelities in combination with generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilites, obtained from exact diagonalizations, are used to explore the phase diagram of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular Heisenberg model. Specifically, the J'-J2 plane of this model, which connects the J1-J2 chain and the anisotropic triangular lattice Heisenberg model, is explored using these quantities. Through the use of a quantum fidelity associated with the first excited-state, in addition to the conventional ground-state fidelity, the BKT-type transition and Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 chain (J'=0) are found to extend into the J'-J2 plane and connect with points on the J2=0 axis thereby forming bounded regions in the phase diagram. These bounded regions are then explored through the generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilities χρ, χ₁₂₀°, χD and χCAF which are associated with the spin stiffness, 120° spiral order parameter, dimer order parameter and collinear antiferromagnetic order parameter respectively. These quantities are believed to be extremely sensitive to the underlying phase and are thus well suited for finite-size studies. Analysis of the fidelity susceptibilities suggests that the J', J2≪J phase of the anisotropic triangular model is either a collinear antiferromagnet or possibly a gapless disordered phase that is directly connected to the Luttinger phase of the J1-J2 chain. Furthermore, the outer region is dominated by incommensurate spiral physics as well as dimer order.

  7. Grids: The Top Ten Questions

    DOE PAGES

    Schopf, Jennifer M.; Nitzberg, Bill

    2002-01-01

    The design and implementation of a national computing system and data grid has become a reachable goal from both the computer science and computational science point of view. A distributed infrastructure capable of sophisticated computational functions can bring many benefits to scientific work, but poses many challenges, both technical and socio-political. Technical challenges include having basic software tools, higher-level services, functioning and pervasive security, and standards, while socio-political issues include building a user community, adding incentives for sites to be part of a user-centric environment, and educating funding sources about the needs of this community. This paper details the areasmore » relating to Grid research that we feel still need to be addressed to fully leverage the advantages of the Grid.« less

  8. Anisotropic grid adaptation in LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The modeling errors depend directly on the grid (or filter) spacing in turbulence-resolving simulations (LES, DNS, DES, etc), and are typically at least as significant as the numerical errors. This makes adaptive grid-refinement complicated, since it prevents the estimation of the local error sources through numerical analysis. The present work attempts to address this difficulty with a physics-based error-source indicator that accounts for the anisotropy in the smallest resolved scales, which can thus be used to drive an anisotropic grid-adaptation process. The proposed error indicator is assessed on a sequence of problems, including turbulent channel flow and flows in more complex geometries. The formulation is geometrically general and applicable to complex geometries.

  9. Wavelet-Based Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

  10. Spectral (Finite) Volume Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids II: Extension to Two Dimensional Scalar Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The framework for constructing a high-order, conservative Spectral (Finite) Volume (SV) method is presented for two-dimensional scalar hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured triangular grids. Each triangular grid cell forms a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal control volumes (CVs) to supported high-order data reconstructions. Cell-averaged solutions from these CVs are used to reconstruct a high order polynomial approximation in the SV. Each CV is then updated independently with a Godunov-type finite volume method and a high-order Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. A universal reconstruction is obtained by partitioning all SVs in a geometrically similar manner. The convergence of the SV method is shown to depend on how a SV is partitioned. A criterion based on the Lebesgue constant has been developed and used successfully to determine the quality of various partitions. Symmetric, stable, and convergent linear, quadratic, and cubic SVs have been obtained, and many different types of partitions have been evaluated. The SV method is tested for both linear and non-linear model problems with and without discontinuities.

  11. TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.

  12. A point implicit unstructured grid solver for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thareja, Rajiv R.; Stewart, James R.; Hassan, Obey; Morgan, Ken; Peraire, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    An upwind finite element technique that uses cell centered quantities and implicit and/or explicit time marching has been developed for computing hypersonic laminar viscous flows using adaptive unstructured triangular grids. A structured grid of quadrilaterals is laid out near the body surface. For inviscid flows the method is stable at Courant numbers of over 100,000. A first order basic scheme and a higher order flux corrected transport (FCT) scheme have been implemented. This technique has been applied to the problem of predicting type III and IV shock wave interactions on a cylinder, with a view of simulating the pressure and heating rate augmentation caused by an impinging shock on the leading edge of a cowl lip of an engine inlet. The predictions of wall pressure and heating rates compare very well with experimental data. The flow features are very distinctly captured with a sequence of adaptively generated grids. The adaptive mesh generator and the upwind Navier-Stokes solver are combined in a set of programs called LARCNESS, an acronym for Langley Adaptive Remeshing Code and Navier-Stokes Solver.

  13. Resonances in reflection, transmission and absorption of 1-D triangular-relief metallic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, Imed; Dhibi, Abdelhak; Oumezzine, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    We present numerical simulations in order to investigate the resonances in reflection, transmission, and absorption of surface plasmons for triangular gratings. The results reveal a number of resonances depending of grating geometrical parameters, surface materials, and characteristics of incident light. For metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt, the intensive weakly flat grating-resonance at TM-polarized incident light under normal direction is at wavelength λ = 0.83 ± 0.01 μ{m}, and a weaker grating resonance is at wavelength around 0.46 &mu{m}. For strongly flat grating weak resonances appear for some metals, and disappear for others.

  14. Size dependence of melting of GaN nanowires with triangular cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2007-02-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the melting of GaN nanowires with triangular cross-sections. The curve of the potential energy, along with the atomic configuration is used to monitor the phase transition. The thermal stability of GaN nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. The melting temperature of the GaN nanowires increases with the increasing of area cross-section of the nanowires to a saturation value. An interesting result is that of the nanowires start to melt from the edges, then the surface, and extends to the inner regions of nanowires as temperature increases.

  15. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo António, N.; Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.

    2014-12-01

    We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.

  16. Quantum spin fluctuations and ellipticity for a triangular-lattice antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Randy S.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of quantum spin fluctuations are investigated for the three-sublattice spin configurations of a geometrically frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet in a magnetic field with easy-axis anisotropy. Because quantum fluctuations reduce the tilt of the spins toward the easy axis, the predicted distortion of the noncollinear state at zero field is too small to explain the ellipticity reported for the multiferroic state of CuCrO2. Due to the change in spin angles, quantum fluctuations shift the boundaries between the collinear and noncollinear phases and open a gap in field between the two types of noncollinear phases.

  17. Bose-Hubbard model on a triangular lattice with diamond ring exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, V. G.; Hettiarachchilage, K.; Tam, K.-M.; Jarrell, M.; Moreno, J.

    2016-10-01

    Ring-exchange interactions have been proposed as a possible mechanism for a Bose-liquid phase at zero temperature, a phase that is compressible with no superfluidity. Using the stochastic Green function algorithm (SGF), we study the effect of these interactions for bosons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We show that the supersolid phase that is known to exist in the ground state for a wide range of densities is rapidly destroyed as the ring-exchange interactions are turned on. We establish the ground-state phase diagram of the system, which is characterized by the absence of the expected Bose-liquid phase.

  18. Variational Monte Carlo study of chiral spin liquid in quantum antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenjun; Gong, Shoushu; Sheng, Donna; Donna Sheng Team

    We investigate the Heisenberg model with chiral coupling on the triangular lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. As the chiral coupling grows, a gapped spin liquid with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order is stabilized. Furthermore, we calculate the topological Chern number and the degeneracy of the ground state, both of which lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with C = 1 / 2 fractionalized Chern number. Finally, we add spatial anisotropy in the model to study the effects for the chiral order.

  19. Damping in Pitch and Roll of Triangular Wings at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clinton E; Adams, Mac C

    1948-01-01

    The expressions for the damping derivatives in pitch and roll of triangular wings are derived by means of the linearized theory. In the method used, the wing is represented by an unknown distribution of doublets. An integral equation containing the unknown distribution is set up and solved by analogy with known incompressible flow relations. It is pointed out that the results may be used to obtain damping coefficients of a limited series of sweptback wings, the most interesting of which are the so-called "arrow wings."

  20. Controllable Goos-Hänchen shift in graphene triangular double barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkaoui, Miloud; Jellal, Ahmed; Bahlouli, Hocine

    2017-03-01

    We study the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts for Dirac fermions in graphene scattered by a triangular double barrier potential. The massless Dirac-like equation was used to describe the scattered fermions by such potential configuration. Our results show that the GH shifts is affected by the geometrical structure of the double barrier. In particular the GH shifts change sign at the transmission zero energies and exhibit enhanced peaks at each bound state associated with the double barrier when the incident angle is less than the critical angle associated with total reflection.

  1. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  2. Scientific Computing on the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Gabrielle; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John

    2001-12-12

    Computer simulations are becoming increasingly important as the only means for studying and interpreting the complex processes of nature. Yet the scope and accuracy of these simulations are severely limited by available computational power, even using today's most powerful supercomputers. As we endeavor to simulate the true complexity of nature, we will require much larger scale calculations than are possible at present. Such dynamic and large scale applications will require computational grids and grids require development of new latency tolerant algorithms, and sophisticated code frameworks like Cactus to carry out more complex and high fidelity simulations with a massive degree of parallelism.

  3. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  4. GENI: Grid Hardware and Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: The 15 projects in ARPA-E’s GENI program, short for “Green Electricity Network Integration,” aim to modernize the way electricity is transmitted in the U.S. through advances in hardware and software for the electric grid. These advances will improve the efficiency and reliability of electricity transmission, increase the amount of renewable energy the grid can utilize, and provide energy suppliers and consumers with greater control over their power flows in order to better manage peak power demand and cost.

  5. IGB grid: User's manual (A turbomachinery grid generation code)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, T. A.; Hoffman, G.

    1992-01-01

    A grid generation code called IGB is presented for use in computational investigations of turbomachinery flowfields. It contains a combination of algebraic and elliptic techniques coded for use on an interactive graphics workstation. The instructions for use and a test case are included.

  6. The effect of visible-light intensity on shape evolution and antibacterial properties of triangular silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar

    2016-08-01

    Triangular silver nanostructures represent a novel class of nanomaterials with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By controlling the size and geometry of these structures, their SPR peaks could be tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region with numerous applications in optoelectronic, sensors, nanomedicine and specially cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, triangular silver nanostructures were prepared by photoinducing of spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) with an average diameter of 10 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were used to characterize silver triangles. We have found that uniform triangular silver nanostructures can be obtained using an appropriate visible-light illumination to the primary spherical silver NPs. TEM images indicated that formation of triangular structures depends on the intensity of light source. The effect of intensity of visible-light source on the geometry and size distribution of silver triangles was investigated. It was found that formation of triangular structures in addition to their size and shape evolution strongly depends on the intensity of the light illumination. Furthermore, a comparative study on the antibacterial activities of silver triangles of different sizes reveals that silver triangles experience a size-dependent interaction with the gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria.

  7. Influence of jets and decays of resonances on the triangular flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crkovská, J.; Bielčík, J.; Bravina, L.; Johansson, B. H. Brusheim; Zabrodin, E.; Eyyubova, G.; Korotkikh, V. L.; Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Triangular flow v3 of identified and inclusive particles in Pb +Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV is studied as a function of centrality and transverse momentum within the hydjet++ model. The model enables one to investigate the influence of both hard processes and final-state interactions on the harmonics of particle anisotropic flow. Decays of resonances are found to increase the magnitude of the v3(pT) distributions at pT≥2 GeV/c and shift their maxima to higher transverse momenta. The pT-integrated triangular flow, however, becomes slightly weakened for all centralities studied. The resonance decays also modify the spectra towards the number-of-constituent-quark scaling fulfillment for the triangular flow, whereas jets are the main source of the scaling violation at the energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Comparison with the corresponding spectra of elliptic flow reveals that resonance decays and jets act in a similar manner on both v3(pT) and v2(pT) behavior. Obtained results are also confronted with the experimental data on differential triangular flow of identified hadrons, ratio v31 /3(pT) /v21 /2(pT) , and pT-integrated triangular flow of charged hadrons.

  8. MrGrid: A Portable Grid Based Molecular Replacement Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Cyril F.; Androulakis, Steve G.; Phan, Jennifer M. N.; Whisstock, James C.; Goscinski, Wojtek J.; Abramson, David; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The crystallographic determination of protein structures can be computationally demanding and for difficult cases can benefit from user-friendly interfaces to high-performance computing resources. Molecular replacement (MR) is a popular protein crystallographic technique that exploits the structural similarity between proteins that share some sequence similarity. But the need to trial permutations of search models, space group symmetries and other parameters makes MR time- and labour-intensive. However, MR calculations are embarrassingly parallel and thus ideally suited to distributed computing. In order to address this problem we have developed MrGrid, web-based software that allows multiple MR calculations to be executed across a grid of networked computers, allowing high-throughput MR. Methodology/Principal Findings MrGrid is a portable web based application written in Java/JSP and Ruby, and taking advantage of Apple Xgrid technology. Designed to interface with a user defined Xgrid resource the package manages the distribution of multiple MR runs to the available nodes on the Xgrid. We evaluated MrGrid using 10 different protein test cases on a network of 13 computers, and achieved an average speed up factor of 5.69. Conclusions MrGrid enables the user to retrieve and manage the results of tens to hundreds of MR calculations quickly and via a single web interface, as well as broadening the range of strategies that can be attempted. This high-throughput approach allows parameter sweeps to be performed in parallel, improving the chances of MR success. PMID:20386612

  9. Tuned grid generation with ICEM CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf, Armin; Akdag, Vedat

    1995-01-01

    ICEM CFD is a CAD based grid generation package that supports multiblock structured, unstructured tetrahedral and unstructured hexahedral grids. Major development efforts have been spent to extend ICEM CFD's multiblock structured and hexahedral unstructured grid generation capabilities. The modules added are: a parametric grid generation module and a semi-automatic hexahedral grid generation module. A fully automatic version of the hexahedral grid generation module for around a set of predefined objects in rectilinear enclosures has been developed. These modules will be presented and the procedures used will be described, and examples will be discussed.

  10. FermiGrid - experience and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, K.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Timm, S.; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid and the WLCG. FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the Open Science Grid (OSG), EGEE and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure--the successes and the problems.

  11. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  12. Grid-coordinate generation program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cosner, Oliver J.; Horwich, Esther

    1974-01-01

    This program description of the grid-coordinate generation program is written for computer users who are familiar with digital aquifer models. The program computes the coordinates for a variable grid -used in the 'Pinder Model' (a finite-difference aquifer simulator), for input to the CalComp GPCP (general purpose contouring program). The program adjusts the y-value by a user-supplied constant in order to transpose the origin of the model grid from the upper left-hand corner to the lower left-hand corner of the grid. The user has the options of, (1.) choosing the boundaries of the plot; (2.) adjusting the z-values (altitudes) by a constant; (3.) deleting superfluous z-values and (4.) subtracting the simulated surfaces from each other to obtain the decline. Output of this program includes the fixed format CNTL data cards and the other data cards required for input to GPCP. The output from GPCP then is used to produce a potentiometric map or a decline map by means of the CalComp plotter.

  13. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  14. Rise time of inverted triangular prism intruder in vibrating granular bed: Experiments and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuraini, N.; Adriani, I. K.; Baladram, M. S.; Viridi, S.

    2012-05-01

    Experiment results and a qualitative model of the phenomenon called Brazil nut effect (BNE) with inverted triangular prism are reported in this work. The model is constructed by considering some forces (earth gravitational force, buoyant force, and fluid viscous force) and using Newton's second law of motion. The rise time of BNE T is defined as time needed for the intruder to be on granular surface with all of his parts (no part is still immersed in the granular bed). One side of the triangular base of the intruder l is varied from 1.5 to 5 cm with other two sides are kept in constant values (1 and 3 cm). It has been observed in experiment that l with value 3-4 cm gives the smaller rise time. Plot of T versus l has the form of concave up parabolic curve with minimum lies at l between 3-4 cm. This observation has been confirmed by the proposed model with the same order of magnitude and similar curve trend.

  15. Reversible Burst of Transcriptional Changes during Induction of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Talinum triangulare1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance is a key factor for agriculture in the 21st century as it is a major determinant of plant survival in natural ecosystems as well as crop productivity. Plants have evolved a range of mechanisms to cope with drought, including a specialized type of photosynthesis termed Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM is associated with stomatal closure during the day as atmospheric CO2 is assimilated primarily during the night, thus reducing transpirational water loss. The tropical herbaceous perennial species Talinum triangulare is capable of transitioning, in a facultative, reversible manner, from C3 photosynthesis to weakly expressed CAM in response to drought stress. The transcriptional regulation of this transition has been studied. Combining mRNA-Seq with targeted metabolite measurements, we found highly elevated levels of CAM-cycle enzyme transcripts and their metabolic products in T. triangulare leaves upon water deprivation. The carbohydrate metabolism is rewired to reduce the use of reserves for growth to support the CAM-cycle and the synthesis of compatible solutes. This large-scale expression dataset of drought-induced CAM demonstrates transcriptional regulation of the C3–CAM transition. We identified candidate transcription factors to mediate this photosynthetic plasticity, which may contribute in the future to the design of more drought-tolerant crops via engineered CAM. PMID:26530316

  16. Using Chebyshev polynomials and approximate inverse triangular factorizations for preconditioning the conjugate gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaporin, I. E.

    2012-02-01

    In order to precondition a sparse symmetric positive definite matrix, its approximate inverse is examined, which is represented as the product of two sparse mutually adjoint triangular matrices. In this way, the solution of the corresponding system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE) by applying the preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CGM) is reduced to performing only elementary vector operations and calculating sparse matrix-vector products. A method for constructing the above preconditioner is described and analyzed. The triangular factor has a fixed sparsity pattern and is optimal in the sense that the preconditioned matrix has a minimum K-condition number. The use of polynomial preconditioning based on Chebyshev polynomials makes it possible to considerably reduce the amount of scalar product operations (at the cost of an insignificant increase in the total number of arithmetic operations). The possibility of an efficient massively parallel implementation of the resulting method for solving SLAEs is discussed. For a sequential version of this method, the results obtained by solving 56 test problems from the Florida sparse matrix collection (which are large-scale and ill-conditioned) are presented. These results show that the method is highly reliable and has low computational costs.

  17. Modeling of triangular-shaped substrates for light trapping in microcrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Wei; Hu, Jian; Ren, Xiaodong; Ren, Xianpei; Wei, QingBo; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    The influence of triangular grating used as a light trapping structure on the optical wave propagation within thin-film microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells is investigated. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) approach is used to rigorously solve the Maxwell's equations in three dimensions. We apply two parameters of mean surface roughness (Sa) and slope (k) to define triangular structure and study their influence on the absorption of μc-Si:H. When Sa and k are set to 400 nm and 1, respectively, a largest enhancement of absorption is achieved. The optimum short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of a 1-μm thick μc-Si:H solar cell made on such a textured substrate can reach 27.0 mA/cm2. The carrier generation rate in the μc-Si:H material is also rigorously analyzed. Finally, we identify some key optical losses in μc-Si:H solar cells and propose for further optimizing the device design.

  18. Numerical investigation of Al2O3/water nanofluid laminar convective heat transfer through triangular ducts.

    PubMed

    Zeinali Heris, Saeed; Noie, Seyyed Hossein; Talaii, Elham; Sargolzaei, Javad

    2011-02-28

    In this article, laminar flow-forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. In this investigation, the effects of parameters, such as nanoparticles diameter, concentration, and Reynolds number on the enhancement of nanofluids heat transfer is studied. Besides, the comparison between nanofluid and pure fluid heat transfer is achieved in this article. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations, the need for non-circular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. The low heat transfer rate of non-circular ducts is one the limitations of these systems, and utilization of nanofluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system can compensate this problem. In this article, for considering the presence of nanoparticl: es, the dispersion model is used. Numerical results represent an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid associated with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. The results of the present model indicate that the nanofluid Nusselt number increases with increasing concentration of nanoparticles and decreasing diameter. Also, the enhancement of the fluid heat transfer becomes better at high Re in laminar flow with the addition of nanoparticles.

  19. Gold Triangular Nanoprisms and Nanodecahedra: Synthesis and Interaction Studies with Luminol toward Biosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Naveenraj, Selvaraj; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Wu, Jerry J; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2016-11-15

    Gold triangular nanoprisms and nanodecahedra (pentagonal bipyramids) were synthesized in the absence and presence of nanoseeds by a simple solvothermal synthesis through the reduction of Auric Chloride (HAuCl4) with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), respectively. These gold nanoparticles exhibit two plasmon resonance bands. The interaction of these gold nanoparticles with luminol was investigated using UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy since hefty number of environmental and biological sensors are based on the combination of luminol and gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles quenches the fluorescence of luminol through a static quenching mechanism, i.e., ground state complex formation, which was confirmed by both absorption spectroscopy as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant and the effective quenching constant determine that gold nanodecahedra has more interaction with luminol than that of triangular gold nanoprisms. The distance between the gold nanoparticles and luminol, calculated using FRET theory, is less than 8 nm, which indicates efficient energy transfer during interaction. These results are expected to be useful for the development of novel sensors.

  20. Measuring Electrolyte Impedance and Noise Simultaneously by Triangular Waveform Voltage and Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanzhi; Wang, Peng; Dong, Yonggui

    2016-04-22

    In order to measure the impedance variation process in electrolyte solutions, a method of triangular waveform voltage excitation is investigated together with principal component analysis (PCA). Using triangular waveform voltage as the excitation signal, the response current during one duty cycle is sampled to construct a measurement vector. The measurement matrix is then constructed by the measurement vectors obtained from different measurements. After being processed by PCA, the changing information of solution impedance is contained in the loading vectors while the response current and noise information is contained in the score vectors. The measurement results of impedance variation by the proposed signal processing method are independent of the equivalent impedance model. The noise-induced problems encountered during equivalent impedance calculation are therefore avoided, and the real-time variation information of noise in the electrode-electrolyte interface can be extracted at the same time. Planar-interdigitated electrodes are experimentally tested for monitoring the KCl concentration variation process. Experimental results indicate that the measured impedance variation curve reflects the changing process of solution conductivity, and the amplitude distribution of the noise during one duty cycle can be utilized to analyze the contact conditions of the electrode and electrolyte interface.