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Sample records for equilibrium sorption isotherm

  1. Equilibrium sorption isotherms for nitrate on resin Amberlite IRA 400.

    PubMed

    Chabani, M; Amrane, A; Bensmaili, A

    2009-06-15

    The adsorption isotherms of nitrate on resin Amberlite IRA 400 at various pH, in the range 2-12, were experimentally determined by batch tests. The experimental data have been analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms models. In order to determine the best fit isotherm, two error analysis methods were used to evaluate the data: the regression correlation coefficient, and the statistic Chi-square test. In the range of pH tested, the Sips model was found to give the best fit of the adsorption isotherm data. The maximum adsorption capacity can be deduced from the obtained correlation coefficients and was found to decrease for increasing pH.

  2. Non-equilibrium and equilibrium sorption with a linear-sorption isotherm during mass transport through an infinite, porous medium: some analytical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.; Remer, J.S.

    1981-04-01

    Analytical solutions have been developed for the problem of solute transport in a steady, three dimensional field of groundwater flow with non-equilibrium mass transfer of a radioactive species between fluid and solid phases and with anisotropic hydrodynamic dispersion. Interphase mass transport is described by a linear rate expression. Solutions are presented also for the case of equilibrium distribution of solute between fluid and solid phases. Three types of release from a point source were considered: instantaneous release of a finite mass of solute, continuous release at an exponentially decaying rate, and release for a finite period of time. Graphical displays of computational results for point-source solutions show the expected variation of sorptive retardation effects progressing from the case of no sorption, through several cases of non-equilibrium sorption, to the case of equilibrium sorption. The point-source solutions can be integrated over finite regions of a space to provide analytical solutions for regions of solute release having finite spatial extents and various geometrical shapes, thus considerably extending the utility of the point-source solutions.

  3. Sorption isotherm measurements by NMR.

    PubMed

    Leisen, Johannes; Beckham, Haskell W; Benham, Michael

    2002-01-01

    An experimental setup is described for the automated recording of sorption isotherms by NMR experiments at precisely defined levels of relative humidity (RH). Implementation is demonstrated for a cotton fabric; Bloch decays. T1 and T2* relaxation times were measured at predefined steps of increasing and decreasing relative humidities (RHs) so that a complete isotherm of NMR properties was obtained. Bloch decays were analyzed by fitting to relaxation functions consisting or a slow- and a fast-relaxing component. The fraction of slow-relaxing component was greater than the fraction of sorbed moisture determined from gravimetric sorption data. The excess slow-relaxing component was attributed to plasticized segments of the formerly rigid cellulose matrix. T1 and T2* sorption isotherms exhibit hysteresis similar to gravimetric sorption isotherms. However, correlating RH to moisture content (MC) reveals that both relaxation constants depend only on MC, and not on the history of moisture exposure.

  4. Sediment-air equilibrium partitioning of semi-volatile hydrophobic organic compounds. Part 1. Method development and water vapor sorption isotherm.

    PubMed

    de Seze, G; Valsaraj, K T; Reible, D D; Thibodeaux, L J

    2000-05-15

    Contaminated sediments that become exposed to air as a result of dredging and disposal in confined disposal facilities are potential sources of air pollution. A critical parameter to develop emission estimation models is the equilibrium partition coefficient of contaminants, between sediment and air. In this first of two articles, we present a method, based on gas saturation in a flowing stream, to study both the adsorption of water and semi-volatile organic compounds on a sediment from the Campus Lake, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. The experimental set-up was used to determine the adsorption isotherm for water partitioning between sediment and pore-air. A detailed characterization of the sediment surface area and pore volume was used to develop an adsorption-condensation model for predicting water sorption on sediment. The model was used to estimate the importance of water adsorption on mineral surfaces and condensation in pores. This information serves, in the accompanying second article in the series, as the basis for the modeling of the partitioning of phenanthrene, and dibenzofuran.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of sorption isotherms of cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Koua, Blaise Kamenan; Koffi, Paul Magloire Ekoun; Gbaha, Prosper; Toure, Siaka

    2014-09-01

    Sorption isotherms of cassava were determined experimentally using a static gravimetric method at 30, 45 and 60 °C and within the range of 0.10-0.90 water activity. At a constant water activity, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature. The equilibrium moisture content increased with increasing water activity at a given temperature. The experimental results were modelled using seven sorption models using non-linear regression technique. Results demonstrated that the GAB model adequately predicted equilibrium moisture content of cassava for the range of temperatures and water activities studied. The thermodynamic functions such as net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy of sorption, net integral enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to provide an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behaviour. Net isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The net integral enthalpy decreased while net integral entropy increased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Net integral entropy was negative in value. All thermodynamic functions were adequately characterised by a power law model. The point of maximum stability was found between 0.053 and 0.154 kg water/kg db for cassava.

  6. Sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of sorption of Malaysian paddy.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Wael; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Jinap, S; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Radu, Son

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the water sorption characteristics of cereal is extremely essential for optimizing the drying process and ensuring storage stability. Water relation of rough rice was studied at 20, 30, 40 and 50 °C over relative humidity (RH.) between 0.113 and 0.976 using the gravimetric technique. The isotherms displayed the general sigmoid, Type II pattern and exhibited the phenomenon of hysteresis where it was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The sorption characteristics were temperature dependence where the sorption capacity of the paddy increased as the temperature was decreased at fixed (RH). Among the models assessed for their ability to fit the sorption data, Oswin equation was the best followed by the third order polynomial, GAB, Smith, Chung-Pfost, and Henderson models. The monolayer moisture content was higher for desorption than adsorption and tend to decrease with the increase in temperature. Given the temperature dependence of the sorption isotherms the isosteric heats of sorption were calculated using Claussius-Clapeyron equation. The net isosteric heats decreased as the moisture content was increased and heats of desorption were greater than that of adsorption.

  7. Determination of solubility coefficients and sorption isotherms of gases in polymers by means of isothermal desorption with a chromatographic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodova, Yu. A.; Belov, N. A.; Berezkin, V. G.; Yampol'skii, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    A new method is developed for determining the solubility coefficients of gases in polymers that combines the advantages of the static and dynamic approaches to sorption estimation and allows us to determine the equilibrium characteristics of sorption for small quantities of samples (0.1-0.2 g) and low (<0.5 atm) partial pressures of the investigated gas. Sorption isotherms and solubility coefficients of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, and propane in polyvinyltrimethylsilane are obtained, and in poly[3,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-tricyclononene-7], polyhexafluoropropylene, and OH-containing polyimide for the first time ever. It is shown that the sorption isotherms of gases for all of the gas-polymer systems in the investigated range of pressures are linear. The obtained solubility coefficients are compared to data for other polymers studied earlier.

  8. Column Chromatography To Obtain Organic Cation Sorption Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Jolin, William C; Sullivan, James; Vasudevan, Dharni; MacKay, Allison A

    2016-08-02

    Column chromatography was evaluated as a method to obtain organic cation sorption isotherms for environmental solids while using the peak skewness to identify the linear range of the sorption isotherm. Custom packed HPLC columns and standard batch sorption techniques were used to intercompare sorption isotherms and solid-water sorption coefficients (Kd) for four organic cations (benzylamine, 2,4-dichlorobenzylamine, phenyltrimethylammonium, oxytetracycline) with two aluminosilicate clay minerals and one soil. A comparison of Freundlich isotherm parameters revealed isotherm linearity or nonlinearity was not significantly different between column chromatography and traditional batch experiments. Importantly, skewness (a metric of eluting peak symmetry) analysis of eluting peaks can establish isotherm linearity, thereby enabling a less labor intensive means to generate the extensive data sets of linear Kd values required for the development of predictive sorption models. Our findings clearly show that column chromatography can reproduce sorption measures from conventional batch experiments with the benefit of lower labor-intensity, faster analysis times, and allow for consistent sorption measures across laboratories with distinct chromatography instrumentation.

  9. Kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of sorption of saponin of Quillaja Saponaria Molina on chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironenko, N. V.; Smuseva, S. O.; Brezhneva, T. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    The equilibrium and kinetic curves of the sorption of saponin of Quillaja saponaria molina on chitosan were analyzed. The inner diffusion was found to be limiting, and its coefficients were calculated. It was found that the form of the curves of the sorption isotherms of saponin is determined by the competing processes of association in solution and absorption by chitosan.

  10. Assessment of suitability of some chosen functions for describing of sorption isotherms in building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolarska, Agata; Garbalińska, Halina

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents results of tests and studies conducted on six common building materials, used for constructing and finishing of external walls. These included: ceramic brick, silicate brick, autoclaved aerated concrete, cement mortar, cement-lime mortar and cement mortar modified with polypropylene fibers. Each of these materials is distinguished by the other structure of porousness, affecting both the course of sorption processes and the isotherms obtained. At first, measurements of moisture sorption kinetics at temperatures of 5, 20 and 35 °C were performed, each time at six levels of relative humidity. Then, when the sorption processes expired, equilibrium moisture sorption values were determined for the materials in 18 individual temperature and humidity conditions. The experimental data were used to determine the sorption isotherm courses for each material at the three temperatures. Then, theoretical analysis was performed in order to determine, which of the models available in the literature described the sorption isotherms of the concerned building materials the best. For each material and each of the three temperature values, twenty-four equations were tested. In each case, those of them were identified which ensured the best matching between the theoretical courses and the experimental data. The obtained results indicate that the Chen's model proved to be the most versatile. It ensured a detailed description of the sorption isotherms for each material and temperature tested.

  11. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23/sup 0/C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 85/Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  12. COSOLVENT EFFECTS ON SORPTION ISOTHERM LINEARITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption-desorption hysteresis, slow desorption kinetics, and other nonideal phenomena have been attributed to the differing sorptive characteristics of the natural organic polymers associated with soils and sediments. In this study, aqueous and mixed solvent systems were used t...

  13. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, A P K; Koelmans, A A; Jonker, M T O

    2010-08-01

    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped for coal, to which sorption was stronger and more nonlinear. The isotherms were modeled using seven sorption models, including Freundlich, (dual) Langmuir, and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes (PDM). PDM provided the best combination of reliability and mechanistically-interpretable parameters. The PDM normalizing factor Z appeared to correlate negatively with sorbate molecular volume, dependent on the degree of molecular planarity. The modeling results supported the hypothesis that maximum adsorption capacities (Q(max)) correlate positively with the sorbent's specific surface area. Q(max) did not decrease with increasing sorbate molecular size, and adsorption affinities clearly differed between the sorbents. Sorption was consistently stronger but not less linear for planar than for nonplanar PCBs, suggesting surface rather than pore sorption.

  14. ISOT_Calc: A versatile tool for parameter estimation in sorption isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, José L.; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Teixidó, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Geochemists and soil chemists commonly use parametrized sorption data to assess transport and impact of pollutants in the environment. However, this evaluation is often hampered by a lack of detailed sorption data analysis, which implies further non-accurate transport modeling. To this end, we present a novel software tool to precisely analyze and interpret sorption isotherm data. Our developed tool, coded in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), operates embedded within the Microsoft Excel™ environment. It consists of a user-defined function named ISOT_Calc, followed by a supplementary optimization Excel macro (Ref_GN_LM). The ISOT_Calc function estimates the solute equilibrium concentration in the aqueous and solid phases (Ce and q, respectively). Hence, it represents a very flexible way in the optimization of the sorption isotherm parameters, as it can be carried out over the residuals of q, Ce, or both simultaneously (i.e., orthogonal distance regression). The developed function includes the most usual sorption isotherm models, as predefined equations, as well as the possibility to easily introduce custom-defined ones. Regarding the Ref_GN_LM macro, it allows the parameter optimization by using a Levenberg-Marquardt modified Gauss-Newton iterative procedure. In order to evaluate the performance of the presented tool, both function and optimization macro have been applied to different sorption data examples described in the literature. Results showed that the optimization of the isotherm parameters was successfully achieved in all cases, indicating the robustness and reliability of the developed tool. Thus, the presented software tool, available to researchers and students for free, has proven to be a user-friendly and an interesting alternative to conventional fitting tools used in sorption data analysis.

  15. The sorption of sulfamethazine on soil samples: isotherms and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Blažek, Dijana; Župan, Josip

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, batch sorption of sulfamethazine on eight soil samples (six from Croatia and two from Bosnia and Hercegovina) with different organic matter contents ranging from 1.52 to 12.8% was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as agitation time, initial concentration, and ionic strength on the sulfamethazine sorption were studied. The experimental data were analysed using a one-parameter model, Linear isotherm, and two two-parameter models, the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The goodness of fit was measured using the linear regression and the determination coefficient (R(2)) value. Also, the equilibrium data of the two-parameter models were analysed using the residual root mean square error (RMSE), the sum of squares of errors (ERRSQ), and a composite fractional error function (HYBRID). Non-linear regression has better characteristics for analysing experimental data. The obtained sorption coefficients Kd (from 0.25 to 8.10 mL/g) and the Freundlich sorption coefficients KF (from 1.16 to 7.99 (μg/g)(mL/μg)(1/n)) exhibited quite low values, which indicated that sulfamethazine is weakly adsorbed on the evaluated soils, is highly mobile, and has a great potential to penetrate and pollute the ground water. The Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was used to estimate the apparent free energy of sorption.

  16. Effect of plasticizer on moisture sorption isotherm of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Rosyida, Vita Taufika

    2016-02-01

    The effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, sorbitol) and plasticizer concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45% w/w polymer) on the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were investigated. Moisture affinity of sugar palm starch films was influenced by the plasticizer type and plasticizer concentration. The affinity of the glycerol plasticized film is stronger than that of sorbitol plasticized film. Sugar palm starch film with a higher concentration of glycerol absorbs more moisture with higher initial absorption rate than that of with sorbitol. Films with higher plasticizer concentration of glycerol and sorbitol show higher equilibrium moisture contents at the given relative humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm characteristic of sugar palm starch films can be described very well with the semi empirical 4 parameter Peleg's model.

  17. Sorption and desorption kinetics and isotherms of volatile methylsiloxanes with atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeshin; Xu, Shihe

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated sorption and desorption behaviors of airborne volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) such as octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) on nine major primary and secondary atmospheric aerosols at a relative humidity (RH) of 30%. It was found that sorption and desorption of VMS took place via a two-phase process, which included an initial rapid step, followed by slower subsequent step. The initial rapid step was favored especially at low concentrations. Equilibrium sorption isotherms were slightly better fitted to Polanyi-Manes sorption model than Langmuir model except D4 on black carbon and D5 on sea salt. Values of apparent aerosol-air partition coefficients ranged 0.09-50.4 L/m(2) for D4 and 2.1-284 L/m(2) for D5 with carbon black having the largest values. Some of aerosols such as carbon black and sea salts reversibly interacted with D4 and D5 whereas other aerosols such as kaolinite and sulfates showed highly irreversible sorption for the VMS, especially at low concentrations. As sorption density of D4 and D5 on kaolinite was decreased from 1100 to 250 µg/m(2), the irreversible fraction was increased from 27% to 80%.The mechanism responsible for these differences is essential for a better understanding and prediction of atmospheric chemistry of VMS as affected by the presence of atmospheric aerosols.

  18. Equilibrium, kinetics, mechanism, and process design for the sorption of methylene blue onto rice husk.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, V; Kumar, K Vasanth

    2005-06-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of methylene blue onto rice husk particles. The operating variables studied were initial solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent concentration, and contact time. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations and the equilibrium data were found to be well represented by the Langmuir isotherm equation. The monolayer sorption capacity of rice husks for methylene blue sorption was found to be 40.5833 mg/g at room temperature (32 degrees C). The sorption was analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the sorption kinetics was found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Also the applicability of pseudo second order in modeling the kinetic data was also discussed. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. The average external mass transfer coefficient and intraparticle diffusion coefficient was found to be 0.01133 min(-1) and 0.695358 mg/g min0.5. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms that external mass transfer is the rate limiting step in the sorption process. The effective diffusion coefficient, Di was calculated using the Boyd constant and was found to be 5.05 x 10(-04) cm2/s for an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L. A single-stage batch-adsorber design of the adsorption of methylene blue onto rice husk has been studied based on the Langmuir isotherm equation.

  19. Sorption of norfloxacin in soils: analytical method, kinetics and Freundlich isotherms.

    PubMed

    Peruchi, Livia Maniero; Fostier, Anne Hélène; Rath, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are potent antibacterial agents that are active against a wide range of pathogenic organisms and are widely used in veterinary medicine. Fluoroquinolones and their metabolites may reach the soil through animal excreta or manure and may contaminate water and soils. The degree of sorption of these antimicrobials to soils varies widely, as does the mobility of these drugs. In the present study, sorption of norfloxacin in four soils of the state of São Paulo was investigated with batch equilibrium experiments. A strong matrix effect on the chromatographic determination of norfloxacin was verified. Sorption kinetics were best fit by a pseudo second-order model (r>0.99), and sorption/desorption isotherms were well fit by the Freundlich model in log form (r>0.97). Norfloxacin showed high affinity for soil particles, with KF sorption values ranging from 643 to 2410 μg(1-1/n)(cm(3))(1/n)g(-1) and KF desorption values ranging from 686 to 2468 μg(1-1/n)(cm(3))(1/n)g(-1). The high desorption KF values indicate that norfloxacin is highly immobile in the evaluated soils.

  20. Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh H; Sabbah, Isam; Ball, William P

    2004-07-01

    An experimentally practical and precise flocculation-based method was developed, tested, and applied to determine phenanthrene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene sorption with NIST SRM 2975 diesel particulate matter. Following an initial equilibration period, polyaluminum chloride (PACI) solution was added to the sorption tubes in order to facilitate the formation of flocculated aggregates of soot particles. After separation of the solids through centrifugation, supernatant concentrations were determined as with conventional batch methods. The flocculation-based method was tested on three kinds of soot and then used to evaluate sorption kinetics and equilibrium with SRM 2975. Kinetic results showed that wetting of the soot required more than 20 days, but that 60 days was sufficient to achieve equilibration with both water and phenanthrene. Sixty-day isotherms for both phenanthrene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were strongly nonlinear. At approximate 10(-3) of solubility, carbon-normalized distribution coefficients (Koc) were 10-20 times higher than those for absorption to sediment organic matter. Measurements at closer to solubility indicated much lower Koc, suggesting a total sorption capacity at aqueous solubility that is of similar magnitude to that in sediment organic matter. Independent analysis of extractable hydrocarbons suggests that absorption into a native hydrocarbon phase was not a major component of sorption.

  1. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of methyl violet sorption by agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H

    2008-06-15

    In this work, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed hull (SSH), an agricultural waste, was evaluated for its ability to remove methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions. Sorption isotherm of MV onto the SSH was determined at 30 degrees C with the initial concentrations of MV in the range of 25-300 mg/L. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium process was described well by the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum SSH sorption capacity was found to be 92.59 mg/L at 30 degrees C. The kinetic data were studied in terms of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The pseudo-second-order model best described the sorption process. A single-stage batch-adsorber design of the adsorption of MV onto SSH was studied based on the Freundlich isotherm equation. The results indicated that sunflower seed hull was an attractive candidate for removing methyl violet from aqueous solution.

  2. Determination of the Moisture-Sorption Isotherms and Isosteric Heat of Henna Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennaceur, S.; Draoui, B.; Touati, B.; Benseddik, A.; Saad, A.; Bennamoun, L.

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium moisture desorption and adsorption isotherms of Lawsonia inermis L. (commonly known as henna) leaves at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C with a water activity ranging from 0.057 to 0.898 were obtained by the gravimetric-static method. It was established that when the temperature of these leaves increases, their moisture content increases too with a hysteresis effect. The experimental data on the sorption of the indicated leaves were compared with the corresponding calculation data obtained with the use of the GAB, modified BET, Henderson-Thompson, modified Halsey, modified Oswin, and Peleg models. Evaluation of these models on the basis of statistical processing of the data obtained with them, including the calculus of the standard error and the correlation coefficient, has shown that the GAB and Peleg models represent sorption curves more adequately. The net isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of henna leaves were determined by the sorption isotherms constructed using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. An expression for predicting these thermodynamic properties of plants is proposed.

  3. Water Sorption Isotherms of Surfactants: A Tool To Evaluate Humectancy.

    PubMed

    Asmus, Elisabeth; Popp, Christian; Friedmann, Adrian A; Arand, Katja; Riederer, Markus

    2016-07-06

    Fundamental experimental data for moisture absorption of non-ionic polydisperse surfactants with differing ethylene oxide (EO) content and variable aliphatic portions were measured at relative humidities between 0 and 95% at 25 °C. Remarkable differences in moisture absorption were observed between surfactant classes but also within one series of surfactants differing in either EO content or the long-chain aliphatic fraction. Both the EO units as well as the entire molecular structure, including also the lipophilic domain, were discussed to account for the humectant activity of surfactants. Water sorption isotherms showed an exponential shape, which was argued to be associated with the formation of a "free" water domain. These humectant properties might be relevant to the behavior of a foliar-applied spray droplet of agrochemical formulation products because the uptake of active ingredients will be enhanced as a result of deferred crystal precipitation.

  4. Water Sorption Isotherm of Pea Starch Edible Films and Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Bahareh; Vuong, Quan V.; Chockchaisawasdee, Suwimol; Golding, John B.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.

    2015-01-01

    The moisture sorption isotherm of pea starch films prepared with various glycerol contents as plasticizer was investigated at different storage relative humidities (11%–96% RH) and at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1, 25 ± 1 and 40 ± 1 °C by using gravimetric method. The results showed that the equilibrium moisture content of all films increased substantially above aw = 0.6. Films plasticized with glycerol, under all temperatures and RH conditions (11%–96%), adsorbed more moisture resulting in higher equilibrium moisture contents. Reduction of the temperature enhanced the equilibrium moisture content and monolayer water of the films. The obtained experimental data were fitted to different models including two-parameter equations (Oswin, Henderson, Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller (BET), Flory–Huggins, and Iglesias–Chirife), three-parameter equations Guggenhiem–Anderson–deBoer (GAB), Ferro–Fontan, and Lewicki) and a four-parameter equation (Peleg). The three-parameter Lewicki model was found to be the best-fitted model for representing the experimental data within the studied temperatures and whole range of relative humidities (11%–98%). Addition of glycerol increased the net isosteric heat of moisture sorption of pea starch film. The results provide important information with estimating of stability and functional characteristics of the films in various environments. PMID:28231096

  5. Metals sorption from aqueous solutions by Kluyveromyces marxianus: process optimization, equilibrium modeling and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rama; Tewari, Saumyata; Rai, Jai P N

    2009-10-01

    The dead Kluyveromyces marxianus biomass, a fermentation industry waste, was used to explore its sorption potential for lead, mercury, arsenic, cobalt, and cadmium as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, agitation speed, and initial metal concentration. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model better for cobalt and cadmium, but Freundlich isotherm for all metals tested. At equilibrium, the maximum uptake capacity (Qmax) was highest for lead followed by mercury, arsenic, cobalt, and cadmium. The RL values ranged between 0-1, indicating favorable sorption of all test metals by the biosorbent. The maximum Kf value of Pb showed its efficient removal from the solution. However, multi-metal analysis depicted that sorption of all metals decreased except Pb. The potentiometric titration of biosorbent revealed the presence of functional groups viz. amines, carboxylic acids, phosphates, and sulfhydryl group involved in heavy metal sorption. The extent of contribution of functional groups and lipids to biosorption was in the order: carboxylic>lipids>amines>phosphates. Blocking of sulfhydryl group did not have any significant effect on metal sorption.

  6. SORPTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ONTO SUBSURFACE SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption isotherms for tetrachloroethene on low-carbon subsurface core samples were linear to equilibrium solution concentrations of 2 mg L−1. Concentrations above this value produced pronounced curvature in the sorption isotherms. Sorption of tetrachloroethene, benzene, trichlor...

  7. Isotherms of the sorption of water vapor by swelling hydrophilic sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamayunov, N. I.; Tvardovskii, A. V.

    1990-11-01

    On the basis of an equation proposed previously, a method for calculating the isotherms of water-vapor sorption by swelling hydrophilic sorbents is outlined. The construction of the isotherms entails some information on the physicochemical characteristics of the system — for example, the binding energy of the sorbate molecule with the active center, the degree of hydration of the sorbent, the temperature, the sorptional centers and their mutual position, etc. As an example, the calculation of the isotherms of water-vapor sorption by cotton is considered.

  8. A rapid and novel approach for predicting water sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of different meat types.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Farid B; Chejne, Farid

    2010-12-01

    A rapid and novel approach for predicting sorption isotherms based on the Polanyi theory is proposed. This approach allows the prediction of the sorption isotherms at different temperatures from one experimental isotherm. The theoretical predictions of isotherms and isosteric heats were validated successfully using data from the literature for different meat types. This method allows total experimental time and operation costs to be reduced.

  9. Computer model of one-dimensional equilibrium controlled sorption processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, D.B.; Stollenwerk, K.G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical solution to the one-dimensional solute-transport equation with equilibrium-controlled sorption and a first-order irreversible-rate reaction is presented. The computer code is written in FORTRAN language, with a variety of options for input and output for user ease. Sorption reactions include Langmuir, Freundlich, and ion-exchange, with or without equal valance. General equations describing transport and reaction processes are solved by finite-difference methods, with nonlinearities accounted for by iteration. Complete documentation of the code, with examples, is included. (USGS)

  10. ISOFIT - A PROGRAM FOR FITTING SORPTION ISOTHERMS TO EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isotherm expressions are important for describing the partitioning of contaminants in environmental systems. ISOFIT (ISOtherm FItting Tool) is a software program that fits isotherm parameters to experimental data via the minimization of a weighted sum of squared error (WSSE) obje...

  11. Isotherms and thermodynamics by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon: comparison of various error functions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K; Rocha, F

    2008-03-01

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm.

  12. Experiences of fitting isotherms to data from batch sorption experiments for radionuclides on tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.

    1989-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the sorption of radionuclides on tuff as site characterization information for the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper presents general observations on the results of curve-fitting of sorption data by isotherm equations and the effects of experimental variables on their regressional analysis. Observations are specific to the effectiveness and problems associated with fitting isotherms, the calculation and value of isotherm parameters, and the significance of experimental variables such as replication, particle size, mode of sorption, and mineralogy. These observations are important in the design of laboratory experiments to ensure that collected data are adequate for effectively characterizing sorption of radionuclides on tuffs or other materials. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of drying methods on the moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of mint leaves.

    PubMed

    Dalgıç, Ali Coşkun; Pekmez, Hatice; Belibağlı, Kadir Bülent

    2012-08-01

    Mint leaves were dried by three different types of dryers, namely; tray, freeze and distributed (indirect)-type solar dryer. Sorption isotherms of fresh, solar, tray and freeze dried mint were determined at temperatures of 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C over a range of relative humidities (10-90%). The effect of drying method on the water sorption isotherms of dried mint samples was evaluated. Experimental data were used to determine the best models for predicting the moisture sorption content of mint. Among nine sorption models tested, Peleg, GAB, Lewicki and modified Mizrahi equations gave the best fit to experimental data. The sorption data were analyzed for determination of monolayer moisture content, density of sorbed water, number of adsorbed monolayers, percent bound water, and surface area of adsorbance. The experimental data were also used to determine some thermodynamic properties of mint.

  14. Kinetics and Equilibrium Sorption Models: Fitting Plutonium, Strontium, Uranium and Neptunium Loading on Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F

    2006-03-08

    The Dubinin-Astashov (DA) isotherm parameters for U, Pu, Sr and Np have been updated to include additional data obtained since the original derivation. The DA isotherms were modified to include a kinetic function derived by Rahn to describe sorbate loading from the beginning of sorption up to steady state. The final functions describe both kinetic and thermodynamic sorption.

  15. Dynamic vapor sorption isotherms of medium grain rice varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that the two popular medium rice varieties, namely M202 and M206, in California have different fissuring resistances. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to investigate the sorption behavior of these two varieties by a new approach using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method for elu...

  16. The use of synthesized aqueous solutions for determining strontium sorption isotherms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liszewski, M.J.; Bunde, R.L.; Hemming, C.; Rosentreter, J.; Welhan, J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of synthesized aqueous solutions for determining experimentally derived strontium sorption isotherms of sediment was investigated as part of a study accessing strontium chemical transport properties. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium sorption isotherms using synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically represent water from a natural aquifer with respect to major ionic character and pH. A strontium sorption isotherm for a sediment derived using a synthesized aqueous solution was found to be most comparable to an isotherm derived using natural water when the synthesized aqueous solution contained similar concentrations of calcium and magnesium. However, it is difficult to match compositions exactly due to the effects of disequilibrium between the solution and the sediment. Strong linear relations between sorbed strontium and solution concentrations of calcium and magnesium confirm that these cations are important co-constituents in these synthesized aqueous solutions. Conversely, weak linear relations between sorbed strontium and solution concentrations of sodium and potassium indicate that these constituents do not affect sorption of strontium. The addition of silica to the synthesized aqueous solution does not appreciably affect the resulting strontium sorption isotherm.

  17. Comparison of various error functions in predicting the optimum isotherm by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of basic red 9 by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K; Rocha, F

    2008-01-15

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of basic red 9 sorption by activated carbon. The r(2) was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions namely coefficient of determination (r(2)), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), the average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. Non-linear regression was found to be a better way to obtain the parameters involved in the isotherms and also the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r(2) was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K(2) was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm.

  18. Evaluation of theoretical and empirical water vapor sorption isotherm models for soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical characterization of water vapor sorption isotherms of soils is crucial for modeling processes such as volatilization of pesticides and diffusive and convective water vapor transport. Although numerous physically based and empirical models were previously proposed to describe sorption isotherms of building materials, food, and other industrial products, knowledge about the applicability of these functions for soils is noticeably lacking. We present an evaluation of nine models for characterizing adsorption/desorption isotherms for a water activity range from 0.03 to 0.93 based on measured data of 207 soils with widely varying textures, organic carbon contents, and clay mineralogy. In addition, the potential applicability of the models for prediction of sorption isotherms from known clay content was investigated. While in general, all investigated models described measured adsorption and desorption isotherms reasonably well, distinct differences were observed between physical and empirical models and due to the different degrees of freedom of the model equations. There were also considerable differences in model performance for adsorption and desorption data. While regression analysis relating model parameters and clay content and subsequent model application for prediction of measured isotherms showed promise for the majority of investigated soils, for soils with distinct kaolinitic and smectitic clay mineralogy predicted isotherms did not closely match the measurements.

  19. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively.

  20. Methods for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of coal: Experimental and theoretical high pressure isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich

    2016-04-01

    One way to reduce CO2 emissions discharged into the atmosphere is by trapping it and storing it in suitable repositories, including coal-bearing strata. The history of coal mining in the Czech Republic is very rich but most of the mines have been closed down in recent years. However, the unmined coal seams are interesting for the purposes of CO2 storage, especially due the opportunities they offer for recovering coal-bed methane. Mine structures of this kind can be found in large parts of the Upper Silesian Basin, where the total storage capacity has been estimated at about 380 Mt CO2. This is an interesting storage potential. In order to identify a suitable high-capacity locality for CO2 storage within a coal seam, it is necessary to study not only the geological conditions within the seam, but also the textural properties of the coal, which control the mechanism and the extent of the storage. The major storage mechanism is by sorption processes that take place in the coal porous system (adsorption in micropores and on the surface of meso/macropores, and absorption in the macromolecular structure). The CO2 sorption capacity is generally indirectly determined in a laboratory by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide captured in a coal sample at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the in situ conditions, using high pressure sorption techniques. The low pressure sorption technique can be used, by setting the partial volumes of CO2 according to its binding and storage mode. The sorption capacity is determined by extrapolation to the saturation pressure as the sum of the individual partially sorbed volumes. The aim of the study was to determine the partial volumes of CO2 bound by different mechanisms in the individual parts of the porous system of the coal, and to compare the sum with the results obtained by the high pressure isotherm. The study was carried out with 3 samples from a borehole survey in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin. A high pressure

  1. Sorption of aniline derivatives on carbon fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazylova, G. F.; Valinurova, E. R.; Khamitov, E. M.; Kudasheva, F. Kh.

    2015-06-01

    The statistical adsorption of the chloro- and nitroderivatives of aniline on carbon fabric UVIS-AK was studied. The sorption isotherms of anilines on carbon fabric and coals were constructed at room temperature and a comparative analysis of their sorption activity was performed. The sorption isotherms were linearized in the coordinates of the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. The main sorption parameters were calculated: the characteristic adsorption energies of anilines, changes in the Gibbs energies, monolayer capacities, and sorption equilibrium constants.

  2. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood (Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  3. Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: Eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems.

    PubMed

    Porkodi, K; Vasanth Kumar, K

    2007-05-08

    Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto jute fiber carbon (JFC). The operating variables studied are the initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm by non-linear regression method. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for eosin yellow/JFC system and Freundlich isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for malachite green/JFC and crystal violet/JFC system at equilibrium conditions. The sorption capacities of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto JFC according to Langmuir isotherm were found to 31.49 mg/g, 136.58 mg/g, 27.99 mg/g, respectively. A single stage batch adsorber was designed for the adsorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto JFC based on the optimum isotherm. A pseudo second order kinetic model well represented the kinetic uptake of dyes studied onto JFC. The pseudo second order kinetic model successfully simulated the kinetics of dye uptake process. The dye sorption process involves both surface and pore diffusion with predominance of surface diffusion at earlier stages. A Boyd plot confirms the external mass transfer as the rate limiting step in the dye sorption process. The influence of initial dye concentration on the dye sorption process was represented in the form of dimensionless mass transfer numbers (Sh/Sc(0.33)) and was found to be agreeing with the expression:

  4. Optimization of isotherm models for pesticide sorption on biopolymer-nanoclay composite by error analysis.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Neethu; Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, V T; Manjaiah, K M

    2017-04-01

    A carboxy methyl cellulose-nano organoclay (nano montmorillonite modified with 35-45 wt % dimethyl dialkyl (C14-C18) amine (DMDA)) composite was prepared by solution intercalation method. The prepared composite was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composite was utilized for its pesticide sorption efficiency for atrazine, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. The sorption data was fitted into Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms using linear and non linear methods. The linear regression method suggested best fitting of sorption data into Type II Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. In order to avoid the bias resulting from linearization, seven different error parameters were also analyzed by non linear regression method. The non linear error analysis suggested that the sorption data fitted well into Langmuir model rather than in Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity, Q0 (μg/g) was given by imidacloprid (2000) followed by thiamethoxam (1667) and atrazine (1429). The study suggests that the degree of determination of linear regression alone cannot be used for comparing the best fitting of Langmuir and Freundlich models and non-linear error analysis needs to be done to avoid inaccurate results.

  5. Summary report on the evaluation of a 1977--1985 edited sorption data base for isotherm modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Beckman, R.J.; Fuentes, H.R.; Yong, C.; Chan, P.; Rao, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    Sorption data bases collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1977 to 1985 for the Yucca Mountain Project.(YMP) have been inventoried and fitted with isotherm expressions. Effects of variables (e.g., particle size) on the isotherm were also evaluated. The sorption data are from laboratory batch measurements which were not designed specifically for isotherm modeling. However a limited number of data sets permitted such modeling. The analysis of those isotherm data can aid in the design of future sorption experiments and can provide expressions to be used in radionuclide transport modeling. Over 1200 experimental observations were inventoried for their adequacy to be modeled b isotherms and to evaluate the effects of variables on isotherms. About 15% of the observations provided suitable data sets for modeling. The data sets were obtained under conditions that include ambient temperature and two atmospheres, air and CO{sub 2}.

  6. Parameterizing sorption isotherms using a hybrid global-local fitting procedure.

    PubMed

    Matott, L Shawn; Singh, Anshuman; Rabideau, Alan J

    2017-03-21

    Predictive modeling of the transport and remediation of groundwater contaminants requires an accurate description of the sorption process, which is usually provided by fitting an isotherm model to site-specific laboratory data. Commonly used calibration procedures, listed in order of increasing sophistication, include: trial-and-error, linearization, non-linear regression, global search, and hybrid global-local search. Given the considerable variability in fitting procedures applied in published isotherm studies, we investigated the importance of algorithm selection through a series of numerical experiments involving 13 previously published sorption datasets. These datasets, considered representative of state-of-the-art for isotherm experiments, had been previously analyzed using trial-and-error, linearization, or non-linear regression methods. The isotherm expressions were re-fit using a 3-stage hybrid global-local search procedure (i.e. global search using particle swarm optimization followed by Powell's derivative free local search method and Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg non-linear regression). The re-fitted expressions were then compared to previously published fits in terms of the optimized weighted sum of squared residuals (WSSR) fitness function, the final estimated parameters, and the influence on contaminant transport predictions - where easily computed concentration-dependent contaminant retardation factors served as a surrogate measure of likely transport behavior. Results suggest that many of the previously published calibrated isotherm parameter sets were local minima. In some cases, the updated hybrid global-local search yielded order-of-magnitude reductions in the fitness function. In particular, of the candidate isotherms, the Polanyi-type models were most likely to benefit from the use of the hybrid fitting procedure. In some cases, improvements in fitness function were associated with slight (<10%) changes in parameter values, but in other cases

  7. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants.

  8. Comparison of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms on Eastern and Western US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Howard, B

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coal is important for planning the CO2 sequestration efforts. In this work, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples from the Central Appalachian Basin and from San Juan Basin. The CO2 sorption isotherms have been completed at 55°C for as received and dried samples. The role of mineral components in coal, the coal swelling, the effects of temperature and moisture, and the error propagation have been analyzed. Changes in void volume due to dewatering and other factors such as temporary caging of carbon dioxide molecules in coal matrix were identified among the main factors affecting accuracy of the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms. The (helium) void volume in the sample cells was measured before and after the sorption isotherm experiments and was used to build the volume-corrected data plots.

  9. Impacts of heterogeneous organic matter on phenanthrene sorption--Equilibrium and kinetic studies with aquifer material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Kleineidam, Sybille; Sabatini, David A.; Grathwohl, Peter; Ligouis, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    Sediment organic matter heterogeneity in sediments is shown to impact the sorption behavior of contaminants. We investigated the sorptive properties as well as the composition of organic matter in different subsamples (mainly grain size fractions) of the Canadian River Alluvium (CRA). Organic petrography was used as a new tool to describe and characterize the organic matter in the subsamples. The samples studied contained many different types of organic matter including bituminous coal particles. Differences in sorption behavior were explained based on these various types of organic matter. Subsamples containing predominately coaly, particulate organic matter showed the highest Koc, the highest nonlinearity of sorption isotherms and the slowest sorption kinetics. Soil subsamples with organic matter present as organic coatings around the quartz grains evidenced the lowest Koc, the most linear sorption isotherms and the fastest sorption kinetics, which was not limited by slow intraparticle diffusion. Due to the high sorption capacity of the coaly particles even when it is present as only a small fraction of the composite organic content (<3%) causes Koc values which are much higher than expected for soil organic matter (e.g. Koc − Kow relationships). The results show that the identification and quantification of the coaly particles within a sediment or soil sample is a prerequisite in order to understand or predict sorption behavior of organic pollutants.

  10. Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Properties of Sorbed Water of Neem ( Azadirichta indica A. Juss) Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngono Mbarga, M. C.; Bup Nde, D.; Mohagir, A.; Kapseu, C.; Elambo Nkeng, G.

    2017-01-01

    A neem tree growing abundantly in India as well as in some regions of Asia and Africa gives fruits whose kernels have about 40-50% oil. This oil has high therapeutic and cosmetic qualities and is recently projected to be an important raw material for the production of biodiesel. Its seed is harvested at high moisture contents, which leads tohigh post-harvest losses. In the paper, the sorption isotherms are determined by the static gravimetric method at 40, 50, and 60°C to establish a database useful in defining drying and storage conditions of neem kernels. Five different equations are validated for modeling the sorption isotherms of neem kernels. The properties of sorbed water, such as the monolayer moisture content, surface area of adsorbent, number of adsorbed monolayers, and the percent of bound water are also defined. The critical moisture content necessary for the safe storage of dried neem kernels is shown to range from 5 to 10% dry basis, which can be obtained at a relative humidity less than 65%. The isosteric heats of sorption at 5% moisture content are 7.40 and 22.5 kJ/kg for the adsorption and desorption processes, respectively. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to give the important parameters necessary for drying and storage of neem kernels, a potential raw material for the production of oil to be used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and biodiesel manufacturing.

  11. Beta-glucan rich composite flour biscuits: modelling of moisture sorption isotherms and determination of sorption heat.

    PubMed

    Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Ganguly, Sangita; Indumati, Kangampalayam Palaniswamy

    2015-09-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms of beta-glucan rich composite flour biscuits were determined at 28, 37 and 45 °C. Experimental data were fitted to 12 mathematical models. A nonlinear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. Statistical testing of sorption models was carried out using multiple criteria such as coefficient of determination (R (2) ), reduced chi-square (χ (2) ), mean relative percent deviation modulus (P) and plotting of residuals. BET (R (2)  > 0.99; χ (2)  < 0.09; P < 7.52; RMS% < 9.22) was found suitable for predicting the M e -a w relationship in the a w range of 0.10-0.53. However, in the a w range of 0.10-0.85, although Ferro-Fontan and GAB models were found to have high R (2) values (>0.99), Peleg model was found to meet the multiple statistical criteion (R (2)  > 0.9996; χ (2)  < 0.04; P < 3.97; RMS% < 7.09). Properties of sorbed water were also determined. BET, GAB and Caurie monolayer moisture contents ranged from 2.64 to 3.36, 1.29-2.66 and 1.88-3.38 % d.b., respectively. Second-order regression equation was found to describe the relation between monolayer moisture content, M o and temperature, t (°C). The isosteric heat, calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation, was varied between 1.46 and 50.39 kJ g(-1) mol(-1) at moisture levels 1-12 % (d.b.). An exponential relationship was observed between the isosteric heat of sorption and moisture content.

  12. Dynamic wetting on a thin film of soluble polymer: effects of nonlinearities in the sorption isotherm.

    PubMed

    Dupas, Julien; Verneuil, Emilie; Ramaioli, Marco; Forny, Laurent; Talini, Laurence; Lequeux, Francois

    2013-10-08

    The wetting dynamics of a solvent on a soluble substrate interestingly results from the rates of the solvent transfers into the substrate. When a supported film of a hydrosoluble polymer with thickness e is wet by a spreading droplet of water with instantaneous velocity U, the contact angle is measured to be inversely proportionate to the product of thickness and velocity, eU, over two decades. As for many hydrosoluble polymers, the polymer we used (a polysaccharide) has a strongly nonlinear sorption isotherm φ(a(w)), where φ is the volume fraction of water in the polymer and aw is the activity of water. For the first time, this nonlinearity is accounted for in the dynamics of water uptake by the substrate. Indeed, by measuring the water content in the polymer around the droplet φ at distances as small as 5 μm, we find that the hydration profile exhibits (i) a strongly distorted shape that results directly from the nonlinearities of the sorption isotherm and (ii) a cutoff length ξ below which the water content in the substrate varies very slowly. The nonlinearities in the sorption isotherm and the hydration at small distances from the line were not accounted for by Tay et al., Soft Matter 2011, 7, 6953. Here, we develop a comprehensive description of the hydration of the substrate ahead of the contact line that encompasses the two water transfers at stake: (i) the evaporation-condensation process by which water transfers into the substrate through the atmosphere by the condensation of the vapor phase, which is fed by the evaporation from the droplet itself, and (ii) the diffusion of liquid water along the polymer film. We find that the eU rescaling of the contact angle arises from the evaporation-condensation process at small distances. We demonstrate why it is not modified by the second process.

  13. Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies for sorption of chlorobenzenes on CTMAB modified bentonite and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Li, Laisheng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Wu, Honghai

    2010-01-15

    The sorption of chlorobenzenes (CBs) by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) modified bentonite and kaolinite was investigated. The sorption isotherms for CBs were nearly linear, suggesting that sorption could be described by a distribution process. The distribution coefficient (K(d)) was primarily affected by the amount of sorbed surfactant. The organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K(oc)), however, was particularly dependent on arrangement of the surfactant cations. The K(d) of CBs was larger for CTMAB-bentonites than that for CTMAB-kaolinites, while the case for K(oc) was opposite. Thus, the clay mineral structure and morphology had a considerable influence on the surfactant arrangement, which was responsible for the partitioning of CBs. The sorption of CBs onto both CTMAB-bentonites and CTMAB-kaolinites followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The intra-particle diffusion model for sorption was also investigated and compared to identify sorption mechanism. The sorption of CBs both on CTMAB-bentonites and CTMAB-kaolinites was exothermic in nature and accompanied by an increase in entropy and a decrease in Gibbs energy in the temperature range of 15-35 degrees C. The results indicated that CBs strongly interacted with CTMAB modified bentonite and kaolinite.

  14. Applicability of the Linear Sorption Isotherm Model to Represent Contaminant Transport Processes in Site Wide Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.; LAST, G.V.

    2003-07-11

    The estimation of flux of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater under varying geologic, hydrologic, and chemical conditions is key to making technically credible and sound decisions regarding soil site characterization and remediation, single-shell tank retrieval, and waste site closures (DOE 2000). One of the principal needs identified in the science and technology roadmap (DOE 2000) is the need to improve the conceptual and numerical models that describe the location of contaminants today, and to provide the basis for forecasting future movement of contaminants on both site-specific and site-wide scales. The State of Knowledge (DOE 1999) and Preliminary Concepts documents describe the importance of geochemical processes on the transport of contaminants through the Vadose Zone. These processes have been identified in the international list of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) (NEA 2000) and included in the list of FEPS currently being developed for Hanford Site assessments (Soler et al. 2001). The current vision for Hanford site-wide cumulative risk assessments as performed using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) is to represent contaminant adsorption using the linear isotherm (empirical distribution coefficient, K{sub d}) sorption model. Integration Project Expert Panel (PEP) comments indicate that work is required to adequately justify the applicability of the linear sorption model, and to identify and defend the range of K{sub d} values that are adopted for assessments. The work plans developed for the Science and Technology (S&T) efforts, SAC, and the Core Projects must answer directly the question of ''Is there a scientific basis for the application of the linear sorption isotherm model to the complex wastes of the Hanford Site?'' This paper is intended to address these issues. The reason that well documented justification is required for using the linear sorption (K{sub d}) model is that this approach is strictly empirical and is

  15. Phosphate sorption by three potential filter materials as assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Lyngsie, Gry; Penn, Chad J; Hansen, Hans C B; Borggaard, Ole K

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorus eutrophication of lakes and streams, coming from drained farmlands, is a serious problem in areas with intensive agriculture. Installation of phosphate (P) sorbing filters at drain outlets may be a solution. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of reactions involved in P sorption by three commercial P sorbing materials, i.e. Ca/Mg oxide-based Filtralite-P, Fe oxide-based CFH-12 and Limestone in two particle sizes (2-1 mm and 1-0.5 mm), by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), sorption isotherms, sequential extractions and SEM-EDS. The results indicate that P retention by CFH is due to surface complexation by rapid formation of strong Fe-P bonds. In contrast, retention of P by Filtralite-P and Limestone strongly depends on pH and time and is interpreted due to formation of calcium phosphate precipitate(s). Consequently, CFH can unambiguously be recommended as P retention filter material in drain outlets, whereas the use of Filtralite-P and Limestone has certain (serious) limitations. Thus, Filtralite-P has high capacity to retain P but only at alkaline pH (pH ≥ 10) and P retention by Limestone requires long-time contact and a high ratio between sorbent and sorbate.

  16. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  17. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid.

    PubMed

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-04-09

    In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid-liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions.

  18. Sorption kinetics and isotherm modelling of imidacloprid on bentonite and organobentonites.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shailesh K; Shakil, Najam A; Dutta, Anirban; Kumar, Jitendra; Saini, Mukesh K

    2017-02-22

    Bentonite was modified by quaternary ammonium cations viz. cetytrimethylammonium (CTA), cetylpyridinium (CP), rioctylmethylammonium (TOM) and pcholine (PTC) at 100% cation exchange capacity of bentonite and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, CHNS elemental analyser and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sorption of imidacloprid on organobentonites/bentonite was studied by batch method. Normal bentonite could adsorb imidacloprid only upto 19.31-22.18% while all organobentonites except PTC bentonite (PTCB), enhanced its adsorption by three to four times. Highest adsorption was observed in case of TOM bentonite (TOMB) (76.94-83.16%). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. For normal bentonite data were best fitted to pseudo-first-order kinetic, while for organobentonites fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetics. Sorption data were analysed using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Data were well fitted to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Product of Freundlich adsorption constant and heterogeneity parameter (Kf.1/n) was in following order: TOMB (301.87) > CTA bentonite (CTAB) (152.12) > CP bentonite (CPB) (92.58) > bentonite (27.25). Desorption study confirmed hysteresis and concentration dependence. The present study showed that the organobentonite could be a good sorbent for removal of imidacloprid from natural water sample also. Percentage adsorption and Distribution coefficient (mL g(-1)) value of different adsorbent was in following order: TOMB (74.85% and 297.54) > CTAB (55.78% and 126.15) > CPB (45.81% and 84.55) > bentonite (10.65% and 11.92).

  19. Hydrogen Sorption and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeece, C. J.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen is unique among aqueous ions, both in its importance for geochemical reactions, and in its complex transport behavior through reactive media. The structure of hydrogen reaction fronts can be analyzed in the advective limit of the transport equation. At local chemical equilibrium, sorption of hydrogen onto the media surface (sorption isotherm) controls reaction front morphology. Transport modeling thus necessitates accurate knowledge of surface chemistry. Though motivated by transport, sorption models are often parameterized against batch titration experiments. The validity of these parameterizations, in a transport setting, are seldom tested. The analytic solution to the transport equation gives an algebraic relationship between concentration velocity and equilibrium sorption behavior. In this study, we conduct a suite of column flow experiments through quartz sand. Hydrogen concentration breakthrough curves at the column outlet are used to infer the "transport sorption isotherm." These results are compared to the batch titration derived sorption isotherm. We find excellent agreement between the datasets. Our findings suggest that, for aqueous hydrogen, local chemical equilibrium is a valid assumption. With the goal of a predictive transport model, we parameterize various sorption models against this dataset. Models which incorporate electrostatic effects at the surface predict transport well. Nonelectrostatic models such as the Kd, Langmuir, and Freundlich models fail. These results are particularly compelling as nonelectrostatic models are often employed to predict hydrogen transport in many reactive transport code.

  20. Removal of dissolved organic carbon by aquifer material: Correlations between column parameters, sorption isotherms and octanol-water partition coefficient.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Snigdhendubala; Boernick, Hilmar; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu

    2016-07-15

    The correlation between octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and the transport of aqueous samples containing single organic compound is well documented. The concept of the KOW of river water containing the mixture of organics was evolved by Pradhan et al. (2015). The present study aims at determining the KOW and sorption parameters of synthetic aqueous samples and river water to finding out the correlation, if any. The laboratory scale columns packed with aquifer materials were fed with synthetic and river water samples. Under the operating conditions, the compounds in the samples did not separate, and all the samples that contain more than one organic compound yielded a single breakthrough curve. Breakthrough curves simulated from sorption isotherms were compared with those from the column runs. The sorption parameters such as retardation factor (Rf), height of mass transfer zone (HMTZ), rate of mass transfer zone (RMTZ), breakpoint column capacity (qb) and maximum column capacity (qx) estimated from column runs, sorption isotherms and models developed by Yoon-Nelson, Bohart-Adam and Thomas were in agreement. The empirical correlations were found between the KOW and sorption parameters. The transport of the organics measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through the aquifer can be predicted from the KOW of the river water and other water samples. The novelty of the study is to measure KOW and to envisage the fate of the DOC of the river water, particularly during riverbank filtration. Statistical analysis of the results revealed a fair agreement between the observed and computed values.

  1. Mutant alleles at the rugosus loci in pea affect seed moisture sorption isotherms and the relations between seed longevity and moisture content.

    PubMed

    Lyall, T W; Ellis, R H; John, P; Hedley, C L; Wang, T L

    2003-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant near-isogenic lines (RRrbrb, rrRbRb, rrrbrb) with lower starch but higher lipid contents, brought about by lesions in the starch biosynthetic pathway, had seed moisture sorption isotherms displaced below that of the wild type (RRRbRb). The negative logarithmic relationship between seed longevity and seed storage moisture content (%, f.wt basis), determined in hermetic storage at 65 degrees C, also differed: longevity in the mutant near-isogenic lines was poorer and less sensitive to moisture content than in the wild type (i.e. C(W) was lower). The low-moisture-content limit (m(c)) to this relation also differed, being lower in the mutant near-isogenic lines (5.4-5.9%) than in the wild type (6.1%). In contrast, all four near-isogenic lines showed no difference (P >0.25) in the negative semi-logarithmic relationship between equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) and seed longevity. It is concluded that the effect of these alleles at the r and rb loci on seed longevity was largely indirect; a consequence of their effect on seed composition and hence on moisture sorption isotherms. However, this explanation could not be invoked at moisture contents below m(c) where differences in longevity remained substantial (RRRbRb double that of rrrbrb). Hence, these mutant alleles affected seed longevity directly at very low moisture contents.

  2. Hydration and sorption characteristics of a polyfunctional weak-base anion exchanger after the sorption of vanillin and ethylvanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, D. O.; Voronyuk, I. V.; Eliseeva, T. V.

    2016-07-01

    Features of the sorption of substituted aromatic aldehydes by a weak-base anion exchanger under equilibrium conditions are investigated using vanillin and ethylvanillin as examples. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of carbonyl compounds at different temperatures allows us to calculate the equilibrium characteristics of their sorption and assess the entropy and enthalpy contributions to the energy of the process. Hydration characteristics of the macroporous weak-base anion exchanger before and after the sorption of aromatic aldehydes are compared.

  3. Correlation of ph dependant equilibrium isotherms of heavy metal biosorption with a modified Freundlich model.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Goodfellow, M R; Yu, Q; Zheng, C

    2004-12-01

    Equilibrium isotherms of heavy metal biosorption are commonly correlated with adsorption models such as the Freundlich model. On the other hand, the adsorption properties of heavy metal biosorption are strongly influenced by the solution pH of the biosorption system. Therefore, standard adsorption models are limited to the correlation of equilibrium isotherms under constant pH values. In this paper, a modified Freundlich model was developed for the correlation of pH dependent equilibrium isotherms of heavy metal biosorption. The model was based on the mechanism that the functional groups for heavy metal interactions are weakly acidic groups and the uptake capacities of the biomass are affected through the association and dissociation equilibrium between two apparent ionic forms. Both the standard and the modified Freundlich models were tested with isotherm data for Cd2+, Cu2+ and Ni2+ biosorption onto pre-treated biomass of marine alga Durvillaea potatorum under various solution pH values. Regression analyses indicated that the developed model correlated the experimental data well.

  4. Solutions for the equilibrium of static isothermal gas clouds with poloidal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baureis, P.; Ebert, R.; Schmitz, F.

    1989-11-01

    A family of semi-analytical solutions for the equilibrium of magnetic self-gravitating gas clouds is presented. The configurations are isothermal and axially symmetric; the frozen-in magnetic field is poloidal. Formulating the equilibrium equations of such gas clouds in spherical polar coordinates, a separation of these equations provides simple representative solutions. The radial part of the density distribution is given by the characteristic inverse square of the radial coordinate. The angular parts are governed by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which is solved numerically. The nonmagnetic limit is the isothermal gas sphere with infinite central density. With increasing field strength the configurations flatten. Besides the isothermal sound velocity the value of the magnetic field in the midplane is a free continuous parameter. In the limit of extremely strong fields a thin disk forms. The existence of bounded solutions is discussed, and the models are compared with configurations presented by other authors.

  5. Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 1. Copper sorption isotherms and the release of cations.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M

    2011-03-01

    The amendment of carbonaceous materials such as biochars and activated carbons is a promising in situ remediation strategy for both organic and inorganic contaminants in soils and sediments. Mechanistic understandings in sorption of heavy metals on amended soil are necessary for appropriate selection and application of carbonaceous materials for heavy metal sequestration in specific soil types. In this study, copper sorption isotherms were obtained for soils having distinct characteristics: clay-rich, alkaline San Joaquin soil with significant heavy metal sorption capacity, and eroded, acidic Norfolk sandy loam soil having low capacity to retain copper. The amendment of acidic pecan shell-derived activated carbon and basic broiler litter biochar lead to a greater enhancement of copper sorption in Norfolk soil than in San Joaquin soil. In Norfolk soil, the amendment of acidic activated carbon enhanced copper sorption primarily via cation exchange mechanism, i.e., release of proton, calcium, and aluminum, while acid dissolution of aluminum cannot be ruled out. For San Joaquin soil, enhanced copper retention by biochar amendment likely resulted from the following additional mechanisms: electrostatic interactions between copper and negatively charged soil and biochar surfaces, sorption on mineral (ash) components, complexation of copper by surface functional groups and delocalized π electrons of carbonaceous materials, and precipitation. Influence of biochar on the release of additional elements (e.g., Al, Ca) must be carefully considered when used as a soil amendment to sequester heavy metals.

  6. Equilibrium studies for the sorption of zinc and copper from aqueous solutions using sugar beet pulp and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, E; Cetin, S; Yanik, B H

    2006-07-31

    In the present work, the abilities of native sugar beet pulp (SBP) and fly ash (FA) to remove copper (Cu(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) ions from aqueous solutions were compared. The SBP and FA, an industrial by-product and solid waste of sugar industry, were used for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous water. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of SBP and lignite-based FA. The effect of various operating variables, i.e. initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration, and time on adsorption of copper and zinc onto the SBP and FA, has been studied. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 60 min of contact. As much as 60-97% removal of copper and zinc for SBP and FA are possible in about 60 min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Uptake showed a pH-dependent profile. The overall uptake for the SBP is at a maximum at pH 5.5 and gives up to 30.9 mg g(-1) for copper and at pH 6.0 and gives 35.6 mg g(-1) for zinc for SBP, which seems to be removed exclusively by ion exchange and physical sorption. Maximum adsorption of copper and zinc occurred 7.0 and 7.84 mg g(-1) at a pH value of 5.0 and 4.0 for FA, respectively. A dose of 8 g l(-1) of SBP and 8 g l(-1) FA were sufficient for the optimum removal of both the metal ions. The sorption data were represented by the Freundlich for SBP and the Langmuir and Freundlich for FA. The sorption data were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm than by the Freundlich one for FA in the adsorption of zinc ion, suggesting that the monolayer sorption, mainly due to ion exchange. The presence of low ionic strength or low concentration of Na and Cl ions does not have a significant effect on the adsorption of these metals by SBP and FA. The SBP and FA are shown to be effective metal adsorbents for these two metals.

  7. A gel probe equilibrium sampler for measuring arsenic porewater profiles and sorption gradients in sediments: I. Laboratory development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P. A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    A gel probe equilibrium sampler has been developed to study arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior in sediment porewater. The gels consist of a hydrated polyacrylamide polymer, which has a 92% water content. Two types of gels were used in this study. Undoped (clear) gels were used to measure concentrations of As and other elements in sediment porewater. The polyacrylamide gel was also doped with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), an amorphous iron (Fe) oxyhydroxide. When deployed in the field, HFO-doped gels introduce a fresh sorbent into the subsurface thus allowing assessment of in situ sorption. In this study, clear and HFO-doped gels were tested under laboratory conditions to constrain the gel behavior prior to field deployment. Both types of gels were allowed to equilibrate with solutions of varying composition and re-equilibrated in acid for analysis. Clear gels accurately measured solution concentrations (??1%), and As was completely recovered from HFO-doped gels (??4%). Arsenic speciation was determined in clear gels through chromatographic separation of the re-equilibrated solution. For comparison to speciation in solution, mixtures of As(III) and As(V) adsorbed on HFO embedded in gel were measured in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Sorption densities for As(III) and As(V) on HFO embedded in gel were obtained from sorption isotherms at pH 7.1. When As and phosphate were simultaneously equilibrated (in up to 50-fold excess of As) with HFO-doped gels, phosphate inhibited As sorption by up to 85% and had a stronger inhibitory effect on As(V) than As(III). Natural organic matter (>200 ppm) decreased As adsorption by up to 50%, and had similar effects on As(V) and As(III). The laboratory results provide a basis for interpreting results obtained by deploying the gel probe in the field and elucidating the mechanisms controlling As partitioning between solid and dissolved phases in the environment. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Metal-anion sorption by chitosan beads: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guibal, E.; Milot, C.; Tobin, J.M.

    1998-04-01

    Chitosan is a well-known biopolymer, whose high nitrogen content confers remarkable ability for the sorption of metal ions from dilute effluents. However, its sorption performance in both equilibrium and kinetic terms is controlled by diffusion processes. Gel bead formation allows an expansion of the polymer network, which improves access to the internal sorption sites and enhances diffusion mechanisms. Molybdate and vanadate recovery using glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan beads reaches uptake capacities as high as 7--8 mmol/g, depending on the pH. The optimum pH (3--3.5) corresponded to the predominance range of hydrolyzed polynuclear metal forms and optimum electrostatic attraction. While for beads, particle size does not influence equilibrium, for flakes, increasing sorbent radius significantly decreases uptake capacities to 1.5 mmol/g. Sorption kinetics are mainly controlled by intraparticle diffusion for beads, while for flakes the controlling mechanisms are both external and intraparticle diffusion. The gel conditioning increases the intraparticle diffusivity by 3 orders of magnitude: intraparticle diffusivities range between 10{sup {minus}13} and 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/min, depending on the sorbent size and the conditioning.

  9. Isotherms and Kinetics of Water Vapor Sorption/Desorption for Surface Films of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Piculell, Lennart

    2016-07-14

    Thin films of "complex salts" (CS = ionic surfactants with polymeric counterions) have recently been shown to respond to humidity changes in ambient air by changing their liquid crystalline structure. We here report isotherms and kinetics of water sorption/desorption for ∼10-100 μm films of alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate CS, measured in a dynamic gravimetric vapor sorption instrument over a 0-95% relative humidity (RH) range. The sorption per ion pair was similar to that observed for common ionomers. A kinetic model for the water exchange is presented, assuming that the "external" transport between the vapor reservoir and the film surface is rate-determining. The model predicts that the water content, after a small stepwise change of the reservoir RH, should vary exponentially with time, with a time constant proportional to both the slope of the sorption isotherm and the film thickness. These predictions were confirmed for our films over large RH ranges, and the external mass transfer coefficient in our setup was calculated from the experimental data. Expressions derived for the Biot number (ratio of characteristic times for internal and external water transport) for the considered limiting case strongly indicate that external water transport should quite generally affect, or even dominate, the measured kinetics for similarly thin hydrated films.

  10. Sorption of boron trifluoride by activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Polevoi, A.S.; Petrenko, A.E.

    1988-01-10

    The sorption of born trifluoride on AG-3, SKT, SKT-3, SKT-7, SKT-4A, SKT-6A, and SKT-2B carbons was investigated. The sorption isotherms for both vapors and gas were determined volumetrically. The coefficients of two equations described the sorption of BF/sub 3/ in the sorption of BF/sub 3/ on active carbons. Heats of sorption of BF/sub 3/ on the activated carbons are shown and the sorption isotherms and temperature dependences of the equilibrium pressure of BF/sub 3/ for activated carbons were presented. The values of the heats of sorption indicated the weak character of the reaction of BF/sub 3/ with the surface of the carbons. The equations can be used for calculating the phase equilibrium of BF/sub 3/ on carbons in a wider range of temperatures and pressures.

  11. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-05-01

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  12. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-05-01

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  13. Humidity scanning quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring setup for determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and rheological changes

    SciTech Connect

    Björklund, Sebastian Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-05-15

    A new method to determine water sorption-desorption isotherms with high resolution in the complete range of water activities (relative humidities) is presented. The method is based on quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The QCM-D is equipped with a humidity module in which the sample film is kept in air with controlled humidity. The experimental setup allows for continuous scanning of the relative humidity from either dry to humid conditions or vice versa. The amount of water sorbed or desorbed from the sample is determined from the resonance frequencies of the coated quartz sensor, via analysis of the overtone dependence. In addition, the method allows for characterization of hydration induced changes of the rheological properties from the dissipation data, which is closely connected to the viscoelasticity of the film. The accuracy of the humidity scanning setup is confirmed in control experiments. Sorption-desorption isotherms of pig gastric mucin and lysozyme, obtained by the new method, show good agreement with previous results. Finally, we show that the deposition technique used to coat the quartz sensor influences the QCM-D data and how this issue can be used to obtain further information on the effect of hydration. In particular, we demonstrate that spin-coating represents an attractive alternative to obtain sorption-desorption isotherms, while drop-coating provides additional information on changes of the rheological properties during hydration.

  14. Relation of organic contaminant equilibrium sorption and kinetic uptake in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.; Sheng, G.; Chiou, C.T.; Xu, O.

    2005-01-01

    Plant uptake is one of the environmental processes that influence contaminant fate. Understanding the magnitude and rate of plant uptake is critical to assessing potential crop contamination and the development of phytoremediation technologies. We determined (1) the partition-dominated equilibrium sorption of lindane (LDN) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by roots and shoots of wheat seedlings, (2) the kinetic uptake of LDN and HCB by roots and shoots of wheat seedlings, (3) the kinetic uptake of HCB, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) by roots and shoots of ryegrass seedlings, and (4) the lipid, carbohydrate, and water contents of the plants. Although the determined sorption and the plant composition together suggest the predominant role of plant lipids for the sorption of LDN and HCB, the predicted partition with lipids of LDN and HCB using the octanol-water partition coefficients is notably lower than the measured sorption, due presumably to underestimation of the plant lipid contents and to the fact that octanol is less effective as a partition medium than plant lipids. The equilibrium sorption or the estimated partition can be viewed as the kinetic uptake limits. The uptakes of LDN, PCE, and TCE from water at fixed concentrations increased with exposure time in approach to steady states. The uptake of HCB did not reach a plateau within the tested time because of its exceptionally high partition coefficient. In all of the cases, the observed uptakes were lower than their respective limits, due presumably to contaminant dissipation in and limited water transpiration by the plants. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  15. Modification of a method-of-characteristics solute-transport model to incorporate decay and equilibrium-controlled sorption or ion exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, D.J.; Konikow, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey computer model of two-dimensional solute transport and dispersion in ground water (Konikow and Bredehoeft, 1978) has been modified to incorporate the following types of chemical reactions: (1) first-order irreversible rate-reaction, such as radioactive decay; (2) reversible equilibrium-controlled sorption with linear, Freundlich, or Langmuir isotherms; and (3) reversible equilibrium-controlled ion exchange for monovalent or divalent ions. Numerical procedures are developed to incorporate these processes in the general solution scheme that uses method-of- characteristics with particle tracking for advection and finite-difference methods for dispersion. The first type of reaction is accounted for by an exponential decay term applied directly to the particle concentration. The second and third types of reactions are incorporated through a retardation factor, which is a function of concentration for nonlinear cases. The model is evaluated and verified by comparison with analytical solutions for linear sorption and decay, and by comparison with other numerical solutions for nonlinear sorption and ion exchange.

  16. Establishing isothermal contact at a known temperature under thermal equilibrium in elevated temperature instrumented indentation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X. D.; Alvarez, C. L. M.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-02-01

    Instrumented indentation testing (IIT) at elevated temperatures has proved to be a useful tool to study plastic and elastic deformation and understand the performance of material components at (or nearer to) the actual temperatures experienced in-service. The value of elevated temperature IIT data, however, depends on the ability not only to achieve a stable, isothermal indentation contact at thermal equilibrium when taking data, but to be able to assign a valid temperature to that contact (and so to the data). The most common method found in the current literature is to use the calculated thermal drift rate as an indicator, but this approach has never been properly validated. This study proves that using the thermal drift rate to determine isothermal contact may lead to large errors in the determination of the real contact temperature. Instead, a more sensitive and validated method is demonstrated, based upon using the indenter tip and the tip heater control thermocouple as a reproducible and calibrated contact temperature sensor. A simple calibration procedure is described, along with step by step guidance to establish an isothermal contact at a known temperature under thermal equilibrium when conducting elevated temperature IIT experiments.

  17. The variability of standard artificial soils: cadmium and phenanthrene sorption measured by a batch equilibrium method.

    PubMed

    Bielská, Lucie; Hovorková, Ivana; Kuta, Jan; Machát, Jiří; Hofman, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Artificial soil (AS) is used in soil ecotoxicology as a test medium or reference matrix. AS is prepared according to standard OECD/ISO protocols and components of local sources are usually used by laboratories. This may result in significant inter-laboratory variations in AS properties and, consequently, in the fate and bioavailability of tested chemicals. In order to reveal the extent and sources of variations, the batch equilibrium method was applied to measure the sorption of 2 model compounds (phenanthrene and cadmium) to 21 artificial soils from different laboratories. The distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene and cadmium varied over one order of magnitude: from 5.3 to 61.5L/kg for phenanthrene and from 17.9 to 190L/kg for cadmium. Variations in phenanthrene sorption could not be reliably explained by measured soil properties; not even by the total organic carbon (TOC) content which was expected. Cadmium logKd values significantly correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), pHH2O and pHKCl, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.62, 0.80, and 0.79, respectively. CEC and pHH2O together were able to explain 72% of cadmium logKd variability in the following model: logKd=0.29pHH2O+0.0032 CEC -0.53. Similarly, 66% of cadmium logKd variability could be explained by CEC and pHKCl in the model: logKd=0.27pHKCl+0.0028 CEC -0.23. Variable cadmium sorption in differing ASs could be partially treated with these models. However, considering the unpredictable variability of phenanthrene sorption, a more reliable solution for reducing the variability of ASs from different laboratories would be better harmonization of AS preparation and composition.

  18. Sorption of methylene blue on treated agricultural adsorbents: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, D. P.; Singh, S. K.; Sharma, Neetu

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural adsorbents are reported to have a remarkable performance for adsorption of dyes. In the present study, formaldehyde and sulphuric acid treated two agricultural adsorbents; potato peel and neem bark are used to adsorb methylene blue. On the whole, the acid-treated adsorbents are investigated to have high sorption efficiency compared to HCHO treated adsorbents. The percentage removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated potato peel (APP) increases considerably high from 75 to 100 % with increase in adsorbent dose, whereas the removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated neem bark (ANB) is found to be 98 % after adding the first dose only. The monolayer sorption behaviour of HCHO treated potato peel (PP) and APP is well defined by Langmuir, whereas the chemisorptions behaviour of HCHO treated neem bark (NB) and ANB is suggested by Temkin's isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity measured is highest in ANB followed by NB, PP and APP with the values of 1000, 90, 47.62 and 40.0 mg/g, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the observed data of all the four adsorbents. The results obtained reveal that NB and ANB both are good adsorbents compared to PP and APP.

  19. Sorption of water alkalinity and hardness from high-strength wastewater on bifunctional activated carbon: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-08-01

    Sorption optimization and mechanism of hardness and alkalinity on bifunctional empty fruit bunch-based powdered activation carbon (PAC) were studied. The PAC possessed both high surface area and ion-exchange properties, and it was utilized in the treatment of biotreated palm oil mill effluent. Batch adsorption experiments designed with Design Expert(®) were conducted in correlating the singular and interactive effects of the three adsorption parameters: PAC dosage, agitation speed and contact time. The sorption trends of the two contaminants were sequentially assessed through a full factorial design with three factor interaction models and a central composite design with polynomial models of quadratic order. Analysis of variance revealed the significant factors on each design response with very high R(2) values indicating good agreement between model and experimental values. The optimum operating conditions of the two contaminants differed due to their different regions of operating interests, thus necessitating the utility of desirability factor to get consolidated optimum operation conditions. The equilibrium data for alkalinity and hardness sorption were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the adsorption rates and behavior better. It was concluded that chemisorption contributed majorly to the adsorption process.

  20. Sorption of Ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions using beta-cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of a cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer to remove ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions, including wine, was examined by batch rebinding assays and equilibrium sorption isotherms. The results were fit to two parameter models. Freundlich analysis of the sorption isotherm indicates the polyme...

  1. Numerical simulation of advective-dispersive multisolute transport with sorption, ion exchange and equilibrium chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, F.M.; Voss, C.I.; Rubin, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    A model was developed that can simulate the effect of certain chemical and sorption reactions simultaneously among solutes involved in advective-dispersive transport through porous media. The model is based on a methodology that utilizes physical-chemical relationships in the development of the basic solute mass-balance equations; however, the form of these equations allows their solution to be obtained by methods that do not depend on the chemical processes. The chemical environment is governed by the condition of local chemical equilibrium, and may be defined either by the linear sorption of a single species and two soluble complexation reactions which also involve that species, or binary ion exchange and one complexation reaction involving a common ion. Partial differential equations that describe solute mass balance entirely in the liquid phase are developed for each tenad (a chemical entity whose total mass is independent of the reaction process) in terms of their total dissolved concentration. These equations are solved numerically in two dimensions through the modification of an existing groundwater flow/transport computer code. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Sorption of Pahs To Soil Minerals and Subsurface Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S.; Totsche, K. U.; Koegel-Knabner, I.

    In subsurface soil horizons, the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants may primarily be controlled by the composition and the properties of the soil minerals. Therefore this study aimed to elucidate the sorption and the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminants to different inorganic soil constituents and subsurface soil horizons. Batch sorption experiments are conducted with three poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS; phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene), with the model minerals quartz sand, quartz sand coated with goethite and a quartz sand - mont- morillonite mixture, and with b and c horizons of different soil types developped in the temperate climate. Batch experiments show a considerable sorption of PAHS to all soil minerals and soil horizons except for the sorption of phenanthrene to quartz sand. The sorption process of PAHS to single minerals is rapid and completed after 4 hours of contact time. The sorption to subsurface soil horizons, however, is not in equilibrium after 120h of contact time and shows a considerable sorption kinetic. Sorption capacity is higher for clay minerals and iron oxides than for quartz sand which corresponds with a higher sorption capacity of soil horizons with a high clay content. Sorption isotherms of the soil minerals are best described by a nonlinear isotherm whereas the sorption isotherms of the subsurface soil horizons are more or less linear indicating different sorption mechanisms for mineral sorbents and soil horizons.

  3. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of mexican mennonite-style cheese.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Salais-Fierro, Fabiola

    2014-10-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms of fresh and ripened Mexican Mennonite-style cheese were investigated using the static gravimetric method at 4, 8, and 12 °C in a water activity range (aw) of 0.08-0.96. These isotherms were modeled using GAB, BET, Oswin and Halsey equations through weighed non-linear regression. All isotherms were sigmoid in shape, showing a type II BET isotherm, and the data were best described by GAB model. GAB model coefficients revealed that water adsorption by cheese matrix is a multilayer process characterized by molecules that are strongly bound in the monolayer and molecules that are slightly structured in a multilayer. Using the GAB model, it was possible to estimate thermodynamic functions (net isosteric heat, differential entropy, integral enthalpy and entropy, and enthalpy-entropy compensation) as function of moisture content. For both samples, the isosteric heat and differential entropy decreased with moisture content in exponential fashion. The integral enthalpy gradually decreased with increasing moisture content after reached a maximum value, while the integral entropy decreased with increasing moisture content after reached a minimum value. A linear compensation was found between integral enthalpy and entropy suggesting enthalpy controlled adsorption. Determination of moisture content and aw relationship yields to important information of controlling the ripening, drying and storage operations as well as understanding of the water state within a cheese matrix.

  4. Equilibrium isotherms of methane onto activated carbons using a static volumetric method.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, T; Kaliappan, S

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a technology for the storage of biogas. The present work pertains to the measurement of the adsorption capacity of methane onto activated carbons at room temperature at pressure range varying from 1 atm to 10 atm. The results were obtained with a static volumetric method. Adsorption isotherms for methane on Sorbonorit 4, Norit SX Plus, Sorbonorit B3, Norit PAC 200 XC were plotted. The equilibrium pressure data were analysed using Langmuir, Dubinin-Astakhov's (DA) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. The DA equation described the isotherm behavior better with the exponent n equals to 1.0 for Sorbonorit 4, Sorbonorit B3, Norit PAC 200 XC and 1.7 for Norit SX Plus than the other equations. The order of the adsorption capacity is as follows: Sorbonorit 4 (4.6 mmol/g) > Norit PAC 200 XC (3.81 mmol/g) > Sorbonorit B3 (3.52 mmol/g) > Norit SX Plus (3.51 mmol/g).

  5. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies of phenolic compounds adsorption on palm-tree fruit stones.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muthanna J; Theydan, Samar K

    2012-10-01

    Adsorption capacity of an agricultural waste, palm-tree fruit stones (date stones), for phenolic compounds such as phenol (Ph) and p-nitro phenol (PNPh) at different temperatures was investigated. The characteristics of such waste biomass were determined and found to have a surface area and iodine number of 495.71 m2/g and 475.88 mg/g, respectively. The effects of pH (2-12), adsorbent dose (0.6-0.8 g/L) and contact time (0-150 min) on the adsorptive removal process were studied. Maximum removal percentages of 89.95% and 92.11% were achieved for Ph and PNPh, respectively. Experimental equilibrium data for adsorption of both components were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 132.37 and 161.44 mg/g for Ph and PNPh, respectively. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models, and was found to follow closely the pseudo-second order model for both components. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ph and PNPh was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

  6. Impact of kerogen heterogeneity on sorption of organic pollutants. 2. Sorption equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Yu, Z.Q.; Xiao, B.H.; Huang, W.L.; Fu, J.M.; Dang, Z.

    2009-08-15

    Phenanthrene and naphthalene sorption isotherms were measured for three different series of kerogen materials using completely mixed batch reactors. Sorption isotherms were nonlinear for each sorbate-sorbent system, and the Freundlich isotherm equation fit the sorption data well. The Freundlich isotherm linearity parameter n ranged from 0.192 to 0.729 for phenanthrene and from 0.389 to 0.731 for naphthalene. The n values correlated linearly with rigidity and aromaticity of the kerogen matrix, but the single-point, organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficients varied dramatically among the tested sorbents. A dual-mode sorption equation consisting of a linear partitioning domain and a Langmuir adsorption domain adequately quantified the overall sorption equilibrium for each sorbent-sorbate system. Both models fit the data well, with r{sup 2} values of 0.965 to 0.996 for the Freundlich model and 0.963 to 0.997 for the dual-mode model for the phenanthrene sorption isotherms. The dual-mode model fitting results showed that as the rigidity and aromaticity of the kerogen matrix increased, the contribution of the linear partitioning domain to the overall sorption equilibrium decreased, whereas the contribution of the Langmuir adsorption domain increased. The present study suggested that kerogen materials found in soils and sediments should not be treated as a single, unified, carbonaceous sorbent phase.

  7. Equilibrium isotherm studies for the uptake of cadmium and lead ions onto sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, E; Yanik, B H; Ahmetli, G; Pehlivan, M

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ on sugar beet pulp (SBP), a low-cost material, has been studied. In the present work, the abilities of native (SBP) to remove cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) ions from aqueous solutions were compared. The (SBP) an industrial by product and solid waste of sugar industry were used for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions from aqueous water. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial metal ion concentration, and time on uptake. The sorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached after about 70 min of contact. As much as 70-75% removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions for (SBP) are possible in about 70 min, respectively, under the batch test conditions. Uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions on (SBP) showed a pH-dependent profile. The overall uptake for the (SBP) is at a maximum at pH 5.3 and gives up to 46.1 mg g(-1) for Cd2+ and at pH 5.0 and gives 43.5 mg g(-1) for Pb2+ for (SBP), which seems to be removed exclusively by ion exchange, physical sorption and chelation. A dose of 8 gL(-1) was sufficient for the optimum removal of both the metal ions. The Freundlich represented the sorption data for (SBP). In the presence of 0.1M NaNO3 the level of metal ion uptake was found to reach its maximum value very rapidly with the speed increasing both with the (SPB) concentration and with increasing initial pH of the suspension. The reversibility of the process was investigated. The desorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions which were previously deposited on the (SBP) back into the deionised water was observed only in acidic pH values during one day study period and was generally rather low. The extent of adsorption for both metals increased along with an increase of the (SBP) dosage. (SBP), which is cheap and highly selective, therefore seems to be a promising substrate to entrap heavy metals in aqueous solutions.

  8. Photocatalytic TMO-NMs adsorbent: Temperature-Time dependent Safranine degradation, sorption study validated under optimized effective equilibrium models parameter with standardized statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, chemically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), were employed for two processes: one is photocatalytic degradation and second one adsorption for the sorption of safranine (SA) dye in an aqueous medium at pH = 12.01. The optimized analytes amount (nano-adsorbent = 0.10 g, conc. range of SA dye 56.13 ppm to 154.37 ppm, pH = 12.01, temperature 303 K) reached to equilibrium point in 80 min, which acquired for chemical adsorption-degradation reactions. The degredated SA dye data’s recorded by UV-visible spectroscopy for the occurrence of TMO-NMs of CuO-NPs at anticipated period of interval. The feasible performance of CuO-NPs was admirable, shows good adsorption capacity qm = 53.676 mg g‑1 and most convenient to best fitted results establish by linear regression equation, corresponded for selected kinetic model (pseudo second order (R2 = 0.9981), equilibrium isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, H-J and Halsey), and thermodynamic parameters (∆H° = 75461.909 J mol‑1, ∆S° = 253.761 J mol‑1, ∆G° = ‑1427.93 J mol‑1, Ea = 185.142 J mol‑1) with error analysis. The statistical study revealed that CuO-NPs was an effective adsorbent certified photocatalytic efficiency (η = 84.88%) for degradation of SA dye, exhibited more feasibility and good affinity toward adsorbate, the sorption capacity increases with increased temperature at equilibrium point.

  9. Photocatalytic TMO-NMs adsorbent: Temperature-Time dependent Safranine degradation, sorption study validated under optimized effective equilibrium models parameter with standardized statistical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, chemically synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), were employed for two processes: one is photocatalytic degradation and second one adsorption for the sorption of safranine (SA) dye in an aqueous medium at pH = 12.01. The optimized analytes amount (nano-adsorbent = 0.10 g, conc. range of SA dye 56.13 ppm to 154.37 ppm, pH = 12.01, temperature 303 K) reached to equilibrium point in 80 min, which acquired for chemical adsorption-degradation reactions. The degredated SA dye data’s recorded by UV-visible spectroscopy for the occurrence of TMO-NMs of CuO-NPs at anticipated period of interval. The feasible performance of CuO-NPs was admirable, shows good adsorption capacity qm = 53.676 mg g−1 and most convenient to best fitted results establish by linear regression equation, corresponded for selected kinetic model (pseudo second order (R2 = 0.9981), equilibrium isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubnin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, H-J and Halsey), and thermodynamic parameters (∆H° = 75461.909 J mol−1, ∆S° = 253.761 J mol−1, ∆G° = −1427.93 J mol−1, Ea = 185.142 J mol−1) with error analysis. The statistical study revealed that CuO-NPs was an effective adsorbent certified photocatalytic efficiency (η = 84.88%) for degradation of SA dye, exhibited more feasibility and good affinity toward adsorbate, the sorption capacity increases with increased temperature at equilibrium point. PMID:28195174

  10. Moisture adsorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of pectin.

    PubMed

    Basu, Santanu; Shivhare, U S; Muley, S

    2013-06-01

    The moisture adsorption isotherms of low methoxyl pectin were determined at 30-70°C and water activity ranging from 0.11 to 0.94. The moisture adsorption isotherms revealed that the equilibrium moisture content increased with water activity. Increase in temperature, in general, resulted in decreased equilibrium moisture content. However in some cases, equilibrium moisture content values increased with temperature at higher water activities. Selected sorption models (GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin, modified Oswin) were tested for describing the adsorption isotherms. Parameters of each sorption models were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. Oswin model gave the best fit for pectin sorption behaviour. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content and varied between 14.607 and 0.552 kJ/mol. Glass transition temperature decreased with increase in moisture content of pectin.

  11. Biosorption of food dyes onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles: equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Lima, E C; Pinto, L A A

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of food dyes FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 onto Spirulina platensis nanoparticles was studied at different conditions of pH and temperature. Four isotherm models were used to evaluate the biosorption equilibrium and the thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Infra red analysis (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to verify the biosorption behavior. The maximum biosorption capacities of FD&C red no. 40 and acid blue 9 were found at pH 4 and 298 K, and the values were 468.7 mg g(-1) and 1619.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The Sips model was more adequate to fit the equilibrium experimental data (R2>0.99 and ARE<5%). Thermodynamic study showed that the biosorption was exothermic, spontaneous and favorable. FT-IR and EDS analysis suggested that at pH 4 and 298 K, the biosorption of both dyes onto nanoparticles occurred by chemisorption.

  12. Dynamic sorption of ammonium by sandy soil in fixed bed columns: Evaluation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport processes.

    PubMed

    Jellali, S; Diamantopoulos, E; Kallali, H; Bennaceur, S; Anane, M; Jedidi, N

    2010-01-01

    The release of excess nitrogen-containing compounds into groundwater is a major concern in aquifer recharge by the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) process. Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) is one of the most nocive and common nitrogen compounds in wastewaters. In order to assess the risk of wastewater use for aquifer recharge, NH(4)(+)adsorption onto Souhil wadi soil sampled from the SAT pilot plant (Nabeul, Tunisia) was studied using laboratory columns experiments. Several experiments were conducted using aqueous synthetic solutions under different aqueous ammonium concentrations and flow rates. Furthermore, a real wastewater solution was used to test the effect of competitive cations contents on NH(4)(+) adsorption. Afterwards, the Hydrus-1D model was used in inverse mode to simulate the ammonium transport through the Souhil wadi soil. For the synthetic solutions, the adsorbed ammonium amount varied from 1 to 30.7 mg kg(-1) for aqueous ammonium concentrations between 4.9 and 36.4 mg L(-1). The linear isotherm model was found to be the most suitable for describing this adsorption. The flow rate decrease from 45 to 15 mL min(-1) induced an increase in the ammonium adsorption capacity by 49%. Indeed, the lesser the flow rate is, the longer the residence time and the higher the exchange between the aqueous solution and soil matrix. The use of wastewater instead of aqueous synthetic solution decreased about 7 times the Souhil wadi adsorption capacity of ammonium because of its relatively high concentrations of competitive ions such as calcium and magnesium. The use of the Hydrus-1D model showed that the chemical non-equilibrium model was the best to simulate the ammonium transport through the laboratory soil columns.

  13. Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride.

    PubMed

    Boudrahem, F; Aissani-Benissad, F; Aït-Amar, H

    2009-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this work, coffee residue has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon by the method of chemical activation with zinc chloride for the sorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The influence of impregnation ratio (ZnCl2/coffee residue) on the physical and chemical properties of the prepared carbons was studied in order to optimize this parameter. The optimum experimental condition for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area (890 m2/g) and micropore volume (0.772 cm3/g) is an impregnation ratio of 100%. The developed activated carbon shows substantial capability to sorb lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions and for relative impregnation ratios of 75 and 100%, the maximum uptake is practically the same. Thus, 75% represents the optimal impregnation ratio. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), solution pH, ionic strength and temperature. The maximum uptake of lead(II) at 25 degrees C was about 63 mg/g of adsorbent at pH 5.8, initial Pb(II) concentration of 10 mg/L, agitation speed of 200 rpm and ionic strength of 0.005 M. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, and follow closely the pseudo-second order model. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of Pb(II) were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model gives a better fit than the others. Results from this study suggest that activated carbon produced from coffee residue is an effective adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions and that ZnCl2 is a suitable activating agent for the preparation of high-porosity carbons.

  14. Equilibrium metal concentration at zero net sorption (EMC{sub 0}): A new concept

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, G.; Lavkulich, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    Heavy metals in soils and waters are of environmental concerns. Since total concentration of a metal in soil is not directly related to its bioavailability, soil tests rely on measurement of extractable or labile fractions of metals. However, reagents used in the measurements are significantly different from natural waters entering soils in terms of ionic strength, acidity, and heavy metal concentration, making the direct interpretation of test results difficult if correlation between chemical test data and plant response in the field is not available. It is suggested that EMC{sub 0} be used as an indicator of heavy metal status in soils. EMC{sub 0} can be determined as follows: solutions with various metal concentrations (C{sub 0}) in 0.005 M CaCl{sub 2} matrix are added to soil samples at a fixed soil/solution ratio. The suspensions are shaken 24 hrs to achieve equilibrium, and centrifuged. Metal concentrations in supernatants are analyzed and plotted against C{sub 0}. A regression line based on plotted data an da 1:1 line are drawn. The X-axis value corresponding t the intersection of the liens is EMC{sub 0}. At the intersection, metal concentration at equilibrium equals that in the initial solution; indicating net sorption of the metal is zero. A EMC{sub 0} value of 0.27 mg/kg Zn was determined in a soil sample from the Fraser Valley in British Columbia. The soil received heavy applications of poultry manure.This value is much greater than water soluble Zn (0.06 mg/kg) of the sample. The significance of EMC{sub 0} is when concentrations of a metal in natural waters are less than EMC{sub 0}, soil will release the metal to soil solution. EMC{sub 0} may be useful in comparing relative degrees of contamination in contaminated soils.

  15. Effect of coke in the equilibrium and kinetics of sorption on 5A molecular sieve zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.A.C.; Mata, V.G.; Dias, M.M.; Lopes, J.C.B.; Rodrigues, A.E.

    2000-04-01

    Porosimetric, gravimetric, zero length column (ZLC), and fixed-bed studies on coked pellets of 5A molecular sieve zeolites were performed. From porosimetric studies it seems that the coke is located in the microporous structure of 5A zeolite or any layers covering all crystals. The gravimetric studies between 473 and 573 K using n-pentane as a probe molecule show that Henry's constants in coked pellets are much smaller than those in fresh ones. The kinetics of sorption measured by the ZLC technique is also significantly modified. The results show that the system changes from a macropore control resistance with the reciprocal of time constant D{sub p}/R{sub p}{sup 2}(1 + K) on the order of 0.002--0.02 x{sup {minus}1} in fresh pellets to a micropore control resistance system with reciprocal time constant D{sub c}/r{sub c}{sup 2} 1 order of magnitude lower in coked pellets. The effect of temperature on the behavior of a fixed bed is also shown. A simple mathematical model with equilibrium and diffusivity parameters obtained from independent experiments predicts with good accuracy all fixed-bed adsorption and desorption runs.

  16. Effect of dissolved organic matter on ammonium sorption kinetics and equilibrium to Chinese clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Erping

    2012-01-01

    In the in-situ remediation of ammonium (NH4+) in groundwater by a sequential reactive barrier filled with zeolite, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms of NH4+ sorption to zeolite. In this study, the effect of dissolved natural organic matter on NH4+ sorption to natural Chinese clinoptilolite was studied by batch experiments taking humic acid (HA) as a model substance. The surface of clinoptilolite was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A needle cluster of sorbed HA could be observed on the surface of the clinoptilolite. The negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption is thought to be their competition for sorption sites, the surface coverage and blockage of the pores of clinoptilolite by HA. The fitting results of kinetic sorption data indicated that the rate-controlling step for NH4+ sorption by clinoptilolite in both NH4+ and NH4+ + HA systems is the heterogeneous chemisorption. The existence of HA (10 mg/L) significantly reduced the initial sorption rate of NH4+, but the effect of a further concentration increase of HA was slight. The effect of HA on maximum sorption capacity was found to be insignificant in the experiments. A high aqueous Ca2+ concentration can decrease the negative effect of HA on NH4+ sorption by precipitation of calcium humate.

  17. Cysteine-Functionalized Chitosan Magnetic Nano-Based Particles for the Recovery of Light and Heavy Rare Earth Metals: Uptake Kinetics and Sorption Isotherms

    PubMed Central

    Galhoum, Ahmed A.; Mafhouz, Mohammad G.; Abdel-Rehem, Sayed T.; Gomaa, Nabawia A.; Atia, Asem A.; Vincent, Thierry; Guibal, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine-functionalized chitosan magnetic nano-based particles were synthesized for the sorption of light and heavy rare earth (RE) metal ions (La(III), Nd(III) and Yb(III)). The structural, surface, and magnetic properties of nano-sized sorbent were investigated by elemental analysis, FTIR, XRD, TEM and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometry). Experimental data show that the pseudo second-order rate equation fits the kinetic profiles well, while sorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic constants (ΔG°, ΔH°) demonstrate the spontaneous and endothermic nature of sorption. Yb(III) (heavy RE) was selectively sorbed while light RE metal ions La(III) and Nd(III) were concentrated/enriched in the solution. Cationic species RE(III) in aqueous solution can be adsorbed by the combination of chelating and anion-exchange mechanisms. The sorbent can be efficiently regenerated using acidified thiourea. PMID:28347004

  18. Cysteine-Functionalized Chitosan Magnetic Nano-Based Particles for the Recovery of Light and Heavy Rare Earth Metals: Uptake Kinetics and Sorption Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Galhoum, Ahmed A; Mafhouz, Mohammad G; Abdel-Rehem, Sayed T; Gomaa, Nabawia A; Atia, Asem A; Vincent, Thierry; Guibal, Eric

    2015-02-04

    Cysteine-functionalized chitosan magnetic nano-based particles were synthesized for the sorption of light and heavy rare earth (RE) metal ions (La(III), Nd(III) and Yb(III)). The structural, surface, and magnetic properties of nano-sized sorbent were investigated by elemental analysis, FTIR, XRD, TEM and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometry). Experimental data show that the pseudo second-order rate equation fits the kinetic profiles well, while sorption isotherms are described by the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic constants (ΔG°, ΔH°) demonstrate the spontaneous and endothermic nature of sorption. Yb(III) (heavy RE) was selectively sorbed while light RE metal ions La(III) and Nd(III) were concentrated/enriched in the solution. Cationic species RE(III) in aqueous solution can be adsorbed by the combination of chelating and anion-exchange mechanisms. The sorbent can be efficiently regenerated using acidified thiourea.

  19. Sorption/desorption reversibility of phenanthrene in soils and carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Guohui Wang; Sybille Kleineidam; Peter Grathwohl

    2007-02-15

    Sorption/desorption of phenanthrene in two soil samples and carbonaceous materials was found to yield co-incident equilibrium isotherms and no significant hysteresis was observed. Additionally, release of native phenanthrene was investigated. Equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using pulverized samples of Pahokee peat, lignite, and high-volatile bituminous coal, a mineral soil, and an anthropogenic soil. Instead of the conventional decant-and-refill batch method, sorption/desorption was driven by temperature changes using consistent samples. Sorption started at 77{sup o}C and was increased by reducing the temperature stepwise to 46, 20, and finally 4{sup o}C. For desorption the temperature was increased stepwise again until 77{sup o}C was reached. Besides the co-incident sorption and desorption isotherms at each temperature step, the solubility-normalized sorption/desorption isotherms of all different temperatures collapse to unique overall isotherms. Leaching of native phenanthrene occurred at much lower concentrations but was well predicted by extrapolation of the spiked sorption isotherms indicating that the release of native phenanthrene involves the same sorption/desorption mechanisms as those for newly added phenanthrene. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Analysis of water sorption isotherms of amorphous food materials by solution thermodynamics with relevance to glass transition: evaluation of plasticizing effect of water by the thermodynamic parameters.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Eriko; Tashiro, Akiko; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Relation between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from water sorption isotherms and the degree of reduction in the glass transition temperature (Tg), accompanied by water sorption, was quantitatively studied. Two well-known glassy food materials namely, wheat gluten and maltodextrin were used as samples. The difference between the chemical potential of water in a solution and that of pure water ([Formula: see text]), the difference between the chemical potential of solid in a solution and that of a pure solid ([Formula: see text]), and the change in the integral Gibbs free energy ([Formula: see text]) were obtained by analyzing the water sorption isotherms using solution thermodynamics. The parameter [Formula: see text] correlated well with ΔTg (≡Tg - Tg0; where Tg0 is the glass transition temperature of dry material), which had been taken to be an index of plasticizing effect. This indicates that plasticizing effect of water on foods can be evaluated through the parameter [Formula: see text].

  1. Moisture sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) roots at 25°C.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, L; Kubínová, J; Juszczak, L; Witczak, M

    2012-02-01

    Sorption isotherms of elecampe (Inula helenium L.) and burdock (Arctium lappa L.) root samples were obtained at 25 °C. Elecampe exhibited hysteresis loop in the range of 0.35-0.90 a(w) , whereas burdock roots showed significant differences between adsorption and desorption isotherms from 0.65 to 0.80 a(w) . Blahovec-Yanniotis was considered to give the best fit over the whole range of a(w) tested. Various parameters describing the properties of sorbed water derived from GAB, Henderson and Blahovec-Yanniotis models have been discussed. Differential scanning calorimetric method was used to measure the glass transition temperature (T (g)) of root samples in relation to water activity. The safe moisture content was determined in 12.01 and 14.96 g/100 g d. b. for burdock and elecampe root samples at 25 °C, respectively. Combining the T (g) line with sorption isotherm in one plot, it was found that the glass transition temperature concept overestimated the temperature stability for both root samples.

  2. Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    Oil palm trunk fibre (OPTF)--an agricultural solid waste--was used as low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by three isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the multilayer adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity of OPTF was found to be 149.35 mg/g at 30 degrees C. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho's pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that the Lagergren's model could be used for the prediction of the system's kinetics. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then for initial MG concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, and 300 mg/L the rate-control changed to intraparticle diffusion at a later stage, but for initial MG concentrations 200 and 250 mg/L no evidence was found of intraparticle diffusion at any period of adsorption. It was found that with increasing the initial concentration of MG, the pore-diffusion coefficient increased while the film-diffusion coefficient decreased.

  3. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics studies for congo red adsorption using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite.

    PubMed

    Munagapati, Venkata Subbaiah; Kim, Dong-Su

    2017-03-24

    The present study is concerned with the batch adsorption of congo red (CR) from an aqueous solution using calcium alginate beads impregnated with nano-goethite (CABI nano-goethite) as an adsorbent. The optimum conditions for CR removal were determined by studying operational variables viz. pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dye ion concentration and temperature. The CABI nano-goethite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X- ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. The CR sorption data onto CABI nano-goethite were described using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (181.1mg/g) of CR was occurred at pH 3.0. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Desorption experiments were carried out to explore the feasibility of regenerating the adsorbent and the adsorbed CR from CABI nano-goethite. The best desorbing agent was 0.1M NaOH with an efficiency of 94% recovery. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS° for the CR adsorption were determined by using adsorption capacities at five different temperatures (293, 303, 313, 323 and 303K). Results show that the adsorption process was endothermic and favoured at high temperature.

  4. Sorption of untreated and humic acid coated silver nanoparticles to environmental and model surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Priya M.; Baumann, Thomas; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    The environmental fate of engineered nanoparticles is controlled their colloidal stability and their interaction with different environmental surfaces. Little is known about sorption of nanoparticles to environmental surfaces under quasi-equilibrium conditions. Nevertheless, sorption isotherms may also be a valuable means of studying nanoparticle-sorbent interactions. We investigated sorption of engineered silver nanoparticles (nAg) from stable and unstable suspensions in presence and absence of natural organic matter (NOM) to model surfaces (sorbents with specific chemical functional groups) and environmental materials (plant leaves and sand). Morphology and nanomechanical parameters of the surfaces covered with nanoparticles were assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The sorption of nAg from stable suspensions and in absence of NOM was non-linear and best described by a Langmuir model, where Langmuir coefficients varied with sorbent surface chemistry, which suggests monolayer sorption (Abraham et al. 2013). For nAg sorption from an unstable suspension, the sorption isotherms did not follow any classical sorption models, suggesting interplay between aggregation and sorption (Abraham et al. 2013). In contrast, sorption was strongly suppressed and exhibited linear sorption isotherms in the presence of NOM. The difference in sorption isotherms suggests predominance of different sorption mechanisms depending on presence or absence of NOM, which can be only partly explained by the NOM coating alone. On the basis of the current results, a partial release of NOM coating for sorption of certain surfaces cannot be excluded. The validity of the Langmuir isotherm suggests monolayer sorption, which can be explained by the blocking effect due to electrostatic repulsion of individual nanoparticles. In unstable suspensions, aggregates are instead formed in suspension, formed on the surface and then sorbed, or formed in both ways

  5. Separation of (+)-catechin and quercetin on mesoporous MCM-41 composites: Dynamics of the sorption of flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, S. I.; Korabel'nikova, E. O.

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of conditions for chromatographic separation of quercetin and (+)-catechin based on experimental data and using the equations of an asymptotic model of sorption dynamics for substances characterized by convex isotherms of sorption is presented. The effects of the equilibrium (distribution coefficient) and kinetic (diffusion coefficient) factors on the dynamics of the sorption of flavonoids by ordered mesoporous material of the MCM-41 type and its composites with grafted organosilane groups is considered. The effects of kinetic and equilibrium parameters on the broadening of adsorption fronts is demonstrated with allowance for the inner and outer diffusion limitations of the sorption process.

  6. Transport and sorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    1995-07-01

    To gain insight on the controlling mechanisms for VOC transport in porous media, the relations among sorbent properties, sorption equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion processes were studied at the level of individual sorbent particles and laboratory columns for soil and activated carbon systems. Transport and sorption of VOCs and water vapor were first elucidated within individual dry soil mineral grains. Soil properties, sorption capacity, and sorption rates were measured for 3 test soils; results suggest that the soil grains are porous, while the sorption isotherms are nonlinear and adsorption-desorption rates are slow and asymmetric. An intragranular pore diffusion model coupled with the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm was developed to describe the sorption kinetic curves. Transport of benzene and water vapor within peat was studied; partitioning and sorption kinetics were determined with an electrobalance. A dual diffusion model was developed. Transport of benzene in dry and moist soil columns was studied, followed by gaseous transport and sorption in activated carbon. The pore diffusion model provides good fits to sorption kinetics for VOCs to soil and VOC to granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Results of this research indicate that: Intraparticle diffusion along with a nonlinea sorption isotherm are responsible for the slow, asymmetric sorption-desorption. Diffusion models are able to describe results for soil and activated carbon systems; when combined with mass transfer equations, they predict column breakthrough curves for several systems. Although the conditions are simplified, the mechanisms should provide insight on complex systems involving transport and sorption of vapors in porous media.

  7. Equilibrium studies of copper ion adsorption onto palm kernel fibre.

    PubMed

    Ofomaja, Augustine E

    2010-07-01

    The equilibrium sorption of copper ions from aqueous solution using a new adsorbent, palm kernel fibre, has been studied. Palm kernel fibre is obtained in large amounts as a waste product of palm oil production. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out and system variables such as solution pH, sorbent dose, and sorption temperature were varied. The equilibrium sorption data was then analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherms. The fit of these isotherm models to the equilibrium sorption data was determined, using the linear coefficient of determination, r(2), and the non-linear Chi-square, chi(2) error analysis. The results revealed that sorption was pH dependent and increased with increasing solution pH above the pH(PZC) of the palm kernel fibre with an optimum dose of 10g/dm(3). The equilibrium data were found to fit the Langmuir isotherm model best, with a monolayer capacity of 3.17 x 10(-4)mol/g at 339K. The sorption equilibrium constant, K(a), increased with increasing temperature, indicating that bond strength between sorbate and sorbent increased with temperature and sorption was endothermic. This was confirmed by the increase in the values of the Temkin isotherm constant, B(1), with increasing temperature. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm parameter, free energy, E, was in the range of 15.7-16.7kJ/mol suggesting that the sorption mechanism was ion exchange. Desorption studies showed that a high percentage of the copper was desorbed from the adsorbent using acid solutions (HCl, HNO(3) and CH(3)COOH) and the desorption percentage increased with acid concentration. The thermodynamics of the copper ions/palm kernel fibre system indicate that the process is spontaneous and endothermic.

  8. Water absorption of freeze-dried meat at different water activities: a multianalytical approach using sorption isotherm, differential scanning calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Luca; Rocculi, Pietro; Cavani, Claudio; Placucci, Giuseppe; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Cremonini, Mauro A

    2007-12-26

    Hydration of freeze-dried chicken breast meat was followed in the water activity range of aw=0.12-0.99 by a multianalytical approach comprising of sorption isotherm, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The amount of frozen water and the shape of the T2-relaxogram were evaluated at each water content by DSC and NMR, respectively. Data revealed an agreement between sorption isotherm and DSC experiments about the onset of bulk water (aw=0.83-0.86), and NMR detected mobile water starting at aw=0.75. The origin of the short-transverse relaxation time part of the meat NMR signal was also reinvestigated through deuteration experiments and proposed to arise from protons belonging to plasticized matrix structures. It is proved both by D2O experiments and by gravimetry that the extra protons not contributing to the water content in the NMR experiments are about 6.4% of the total proton NMR CPMG signal of meat.

  9. Capillary condensation, freezing, and melting in silica nanopores: A sorption isotherm and scanning calorimetry study on nitrogen in mesoporous SBA-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerz, Sebastian T.; Knorr, Klaus; Huber, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    Condensation, melting, and freezing of nitrogen in a powder of mesoporous silica grains (SBA-15) has been studied by combined volumetric sorption isotherm and scanning calorimetry measurements. Within the mean-field model of Saam and Cole for vapor condensation in cylindrical pores, a liquid nitrogen sorption isotherm is well described by a bimodal pore radius distribution. It encompasses a narrow peak centered at 3.3 nm, typical of tubular mesopores, and a significantly broader peak characteristic of micropores, located at 1 nm. The material condensed in the micropores as well as the first two adsorbed monolayers in the mesopores do not exhibit any caloric anomaly. The solidification and melting transformation affects only the pore condensate beyond approximately the second monolayer of the mesopores. Here, interfacial melting leads to a single peak in the specific-heat measurements. Homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing along with a delayering transition for partial fillings of the mesopores result in a caloric freezing anomaly similarly complex and dependent on the thermal history to that observed for argon in SBA-15. The axial propagation of the crystallization in pore space is more effective in the case of nitrogen than previously observed for argon, which we attribute to differences in the crystalline textures of the pore solids.

  10. Folding equilibrium constants of telomere G-quadruplexes in free state or associated with proteins determined by isothermal differential hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Ma, Li; Hao, Yu-Hua; Tan, Zheng

    2010-11-15

    Guanine rich (G-rich) nucleic acids form G-quadruplex structures that are implicated in many biological processes, pharmaceutical applications, and molecular machinery. The folding equilibrium constant (K(F)) of the G-quadruplex not only determines its stability and competition against duplex formation in genomic DNA but also defines its recognition by proteins and drugs and technical specifications. The K(F) is most conveniently derived from thermal melting analysis that has so far yielded extremely diversified results for the human telomere G-quadruplex. Melting analysis cannot be used for nucleic acids associated with proteins, thus has difficulty to study how protein association affects the folding equilibrium of G-quadruplex structure. In this work, we established an isothermal differential hybridization (IDH) method that is able to determine the K(F) of G-quadruplex, either alone or associated with proteins. Using this method, we studied the folding equilibrium of the core sequence G(3)(T(2)AG(3))(3) from vertebrate telomere in K(+) and Na(+) solutions and how it is affected by proteins associated at its adjacent regions. Our results show that the K(F) obtained for the free G-quadruplex is within 1 order of magnitude of most of those obtained by melting analysis and protein binding beside a G-quadruplex can dramatically destabilize the G-quadruplex.

  11. Exploring the problem of mold growth and the efficacy of various mold inhibitor methods during moisture sorption isotherm measurements.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Martin, S E; Schmidt, S J

    2008-03-01

    Mold growth is a common problem during the equilibration of food materials at high relative humidity values using the standard saturated salt slurry method. Exposing samples to toluene vapor and mixing samples with mold inhibitor chemicals are suggested methods for preventing mold growth while obtaining isotherms. However, no published research was found that examined the effect of mold growth on isotherm performance or the efficacy of various mold inhibitor methods, including their possible effect on the physicochemical properties of food materials. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) explore the effect of mold growth on isotherm performance in a range of food materials, (2) investigate the effectiveness of 4 mold inhibitor methods, irradiation, 2 chemical inhibitors (potassium sorbate and sodium acetate), and toluene vapor, on mold growth on dent corn starch inoculated with A. niger, and (3) examine the effect of mold inhibitor methods on the physicochemical properties of dent corn starch, including isotherm performance, pasting properties, gelatinization temperature, and enthalpy. Mold growth was found to affect starch isotherm performance by contributing to weight changes during sample equilibration. Among the 4 mold inhibitor methods tested, irradiation and toluene vapor were found to be the most effective for inhibiting growth of A. niger on dent cornstarch. However, both methods exhibited a significant impact on the starches' physiochemical properties, suggesting the need to probe the efficacy of other mold inhibitor methods and explore the use of new rapid isotherm instruments, which hamper mold growth by significantly decreasing measurement time.

  12. Relationship between Crystal Thickness and Isothermal Crystallization Temperature for Determination of Equilibrium Melting Temperature for Syndiotatic Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Hsiao Hsiao, Benjamin; Srinivas, Srivatsan; Crist, Buckley

    2000-03-01

    Syndiotatic polypropylene (sPP) was used to investigate the relationship between isothermal crystallization temperature (Tc = 70-115^oC), crystal thickness and subsequent melting using simultaneous synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) in conjunction with DSC. The thickest lamellar crystals melt at the end of the DSC endotherm. At this temperature, the SAXS intensity (corrected formelt scattering) showed a diffuse profile, and the crystalline feature in the WAXD pattern was completely absent. This crystal thickness was estimated using an approach based on the single lamella structure factor, which will also be compared to the value determined by the interface distribution function. The equilibrium melting temperature obtained this way will be contrasted by other methods such as the Hoffman-Weeks approach. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by by a NSF grant (DMR 9732653).

  13. Adsorption of selected emerging contaminants onto PAC and GAC: Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics, and effect of the water matrix.

    PubMed

    Real, Francisco J; Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Casas, Francisco

    2017-03-30

    The removal of three emerging contaminants (ECs) (amitriptyline hydrochloride (AH), methyl salicylate (MS) and 2-phenoxyethanol (PE)) dissolved in several water matrices by means of their adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) has been investigated. When dissolved in ultrapure water, adsorption of the ECs followed the trend of AH > MS > PE, with a positive effect of the adsorbent dose. According to the analysis of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics, PAC showed strongly higher adsorption efficiency in both capacity and velocity of the adsorption, in agreement with its higher mesoporosity. Equilibrium isotherm data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Pseudo-second order kinetics modeled very successfully the adsorption process. Finally, the effect of the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water matrices (ultrapure water, surface water and two effluents from wastewater treatment plants) on the adsorption of the selected ECs onto PAC was established, as well as its performance on the removal of water quality parameters. Results show a negative effect of the DOM content on the adsorption efficiency. Over 50% of organic matter was removed with high PAC doses, revealing that adsorption onto PAC is an effective technology to remove both micro-pollutants and DOM from water matrices.

  14. Sorption equilibrium, mechanism and thermodynamics studies of 1,3-propanediol on beta zeolite from an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Wu, Zhe; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To identify the adsorption characteristics of 1,3-propanediol on beta zeolite, the effects of temperature, zeolite dose, and 1,3-propanediol concentration were studied through batch experiments. The results showed that the pseudo-second order model expressed the kinetic data better. The experimental and theoretical adsorption capacities were 116.2 and 119.0 mg/g at 293 K, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium data were observed to satisfy the Freundlich isotherm model. Based on the Boyd plot, intraparticle diffusion primarily governed the uptake process. Moreover, thermodynamic parameters, such as changes in standard free energy (ΔG(0)), standard enthalpy (ΔH(0)), and standard entropy, were estimated. The negative values of ΔG(0) and ΔH(0) (-9.4 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic, and feasible. Finally, the activation energy derived from the Arrhenius equation suggested that the interaction mainly constitute physical adsorption.

  15. Analysis of the long-term behavior of solute transport with nonlinear equilibrium sorption using breakthrough curves and temporal moments.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, H; Jaekel, U; Schwarze, H

    2002-06-01

    We analyzed the long-term behavior of breakthrough curves (BTCs) and temporal moments of a solute subjected to Freundlich equilibrium sorption (s = kc(n)). For one-dimensional transport in a homogeneous porous medium, we derived a power-law relation between travel time, tau, and solute displacement, chi, with the exponent being equal to the Freundlich n exponent. The mean solute velocity, derived from the first time moment, was found to change as tau(n-1). For n values larger than 0.66, the second time moment could be related to c chi(2/n), where c is a constant. An approach based on the use of a critical concentration was developed to estimate the presence of the asymptotic regime in the tail of the BTC. This approach was tested successfully using numerical case studies. One-dimensional numerical simulations with varying values of k, n and initial mass were run to verify the closed form analytical expressions for the large time behavior of temporal moments and the tailing part of breakthrough curves. Good agreement between the slope of the tailing part of log-log transformed BTCs and the predicted slope using asymptotic theory was found. Asymptotic theory in general underestimated the magnitude of the concentration in the tail. The quality of the estimated concentrations in the tail improved for small values of the dispersivity. Experimental BTCs of uranin and benazolin were analyzed in combination with sorption/desorption batch experiments using asymptotic theory. A good agreement between the value of n parameter derived from desorption experiment with benazolin and the value of the n parameter derived from the tail of the BTC was found.

  16. Sorption-desorption of carbamazepine by palygorskite-montmorillonite (PM) filter medium.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Tedros M; Levy, Jonathan; Krekeler, Mark P S; Danielson, Neil D; Stalcup, Apryll

    2015-01-23

    Palygorskite-montmorillonite (PM) was studied as a potential sewage treatment effluent filter material for carbamazepine. Batch sorption experiments were conducted as a function of granule size (0.3-0.6, 1.7-2.0 and 2.8mm) and different sewage effluent conditions (pH, ionic strength and temperature). Results showed PM had a mix of fibrous and plate-like morphologies. Sorption and desorption isotherms were fitted to the Freundlich model. Sorption is granule size-dependent and the medium granule size would be an appropriate size for optimizing both flow and carbamazepine retention. Highest and lowest sorption capacities corresponded to the smallest and the largest granule sizes, respectively. The lowest and the highest equilibrium aqueous (Ce) and sorbed (qe) carbamazepine concentrations were 0.4 mg L(-1) and 4.5 mg L(-1), and 0.6 mg kg(-1) and 411.8 mg kg(-1), respectively. Observed higher relative sorption at elevated concentrations with a Freundlich exponent greater than one, indicated cooperative sorption. The sorption-desorption hysteresis (isotherm non-singularity) indicated irreversible sorption. Higher sorption observed at higher rather than at lower ionic strength conditions is likely due to a salting-out effect. Negative free energy and the inverse sorption capacity-temperature relationship indicated the carbamazepine sorption process was favorable or spontaneous. Solution pH had little effect on sorption.

  17. Sorption isotherm studies of Cd(II) ions using living cells of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin) Butch.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rama, M; Torres, E; Suárez, C; Herrero, C; Abalde, J

    2010-10-01

    The present work reports the use of living cells of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica for the biosorption of cadmium ions. For a better understanding of the biosorption characteristics, three fractions of removed cadmium (total, bioadsorbed and intracellular) were measured in the cells after 24 and 72 h of exposure to different initial cadmium concentrations (0.6-45 mg L(-1)). Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models were suitable for describing the sorption of cadmium ions by this microalga. The maximum sorption capacity was estimated to be 40.22 mg Cd g(-1) after 72 h using the Langmuir sorption model. In the lower cadmium concentrations, metal removed intracellularly was higher than that removed on the microalgal cell surface. Therefore, the intracellular fraction contributed more to the total removed cadmium than the fraction bioadsorbed to the cellular surface. The results showed that the cadmium removal capacity using living biomass could be much more effective than with non-living biomass due to the intracellular bioaccumulation. According to the microorganism selected and its tolerance to the toxic effect of the metal, the cadmium content in the intracellular fraction can become very significant, just like it happened with Tetraselmis.

  18. Application of green seaweed biomass for MoVI sorption from contaminated waters. Kinetic, thermodynamic and continuous sorption studies.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Fernando A; Medeot, Anabela C; González, Juan C; Sala, Luis F; Bellú, Sebastián E

    2015-05-15

    Spongomorpha pacifica biomass was evaluated as a new sorbent for Mo(VI) removal from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity was found to be 1.28×10(6)±1×10(4) mg kg(-1) at 20°C and pH 2.0. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium studies followed pseudo-first order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models, respectively. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Mo(VI). SEM images show that morphological changes occur at the biomass surface after Mo(VI) sorption. Activation parameters and mean free energies obtained with Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model demonstrate that the mechanism of sorption process was chemical sorption. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrate that the sorption process was spontaneous, endothermic and the driven force was entropic. The isosteric heat of sorption decreases with surface loading, indicating that S. pacifica has an energetically non-homogeneous surface. Experimental breakthrough curves were simulated by Thomas and modified dose-response models. The bed depth service time (BDST) model was employed to scale-up the continuous sorption experiments. The critical bed depth, Z0 was determined to be 1.7 cm. S.pacifica biomass showed to be a good sorbent for Mo(VI) and it can be used in continuous treatment of effluent polluted with molybdate ions.

  19. Sorption of tylosin on clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Chen; Huang, Weilin; Dang, Zhi; Shu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    The equilibrium sorption of tylosin (TYL) on kaolinite and montmorillonite was measured at different solution pH using batch reactor systems. The results showed that all the sorption isotherms were nonlinear and that the nonlinearity decreased as the solution pH increased for a given clay. At a specific aqueous concentration, the single-point sorption distribution coefficient (KD) of TYL decreased rapidly as the solution pH increased. A speciation-dependent sorption model that accounted for the contributions of the cationic and neutral forms of TYL fit the data well, suggesting that the sorption may be dominated by both ion exchange and hydrophobic interactions. The isotherm data also fit well to a dual mode model that quantifies the contributions of a site-limiting Langmuir component (ion exchange) and a non-specific linear partitioning component (hydrophobic interactions). X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the interlayers of montmorillonite were expanded due to the uptake of TYL. TYL molecules likely form a monolayer surface coverage.

  20. Sorption isotherms, thermodynamic properties and glass transition temperature of mucilage extracted from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Gutiérrez, Sandra Karina; Figueira, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Huezo, María Eva; Román-Guerrero, Angélica; Carrillo-Navas, Hector; Pérez-Alonso, César

    2015-05-05

    Freeze-dried chia mucilage adsorption isotherms were determined at 25, 35 and 40°C and fitted with the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer model. The integral thermodynamic properties (enthalpy and entropy) were estimated with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Pore radius of the mucilage, calculated with the Kelvin equation, varied from 0.87 to 6.44 nm in the temperature range studied. The point of maximum stability (minimum integral entropy) ranged between 7.56 and 7.63kg H2O per 100 kg of dry solids (d.s.) (water activity of 0.34-0.53). Enthalpy-entropy compensation for the mucilage showed two isokinetic temperatures: (i) one occurring at low moisture contents (0-7.56 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s.), controlled by changes in water entropy; and (ii) another happening in the moisture interval of 7.56-24 kg H2O per 100 kg d.s. and was enthalpy driven. The glass transition temperature Tg of the mucilage fluctuated between 42.93 and 57.93°C.

  1. Mechanistic understanding and performance of biosorption of metal ions by grapefruit peel using FTIR spectroscopy, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, alkali and alkaline metal displacement and EDX analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance and mechanism of the sorptive removal of Ni2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solution using grapefruit peel (GFP) as a new sorbent was investigated. The sorption process was fast, equilibrium was established in 60 min. The equilibrium process was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model,...

  2. Competitive sorption of cadmium and lead in acid soils of central Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, S.; Garrido, F.; Campbell, C.G.; Garcia-Gonzolez, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-30

    The bioavailability and ultimate fate of heavy metals in the environment are controlled by chemical sorption. To assess competitive sorption of Pb and Cd, batch equilibrium experiments (generating sorption isotherms) and kinetics sorption studies were performed using single and binary metal solutions in surface samples of four soils from central Spain. For comparisons between soils, as well as, single and binary metal solutions, soil chemical processes were characterized using the Langmuir equation, ionic strength, and an empirical power function for kinetic sorption. In addition, soil pH and clay mineralogy were used to explain observed sorption processes. Sorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation and the sorption kinetics were well described by an empirical power function within the reaction times in this study. Soils with higher pH and clay content (characterized by having smectite) had the greatest sorption capacity as estimated by the maximum sorption parameter (Q) of the Langmuir equation. All soils exhibited greater sorption capacity for Pb than Cd and the presence of both metals reduced the tendency for either to be sorbed although Cd sorption was affected to a greater extent than that of Pb. The Langmuir binding strength parameter (k) was always greater for Pb than for Cd. However, these k values tended to increase as a result of the simultaneous presence of both metals, that may indicate competition for sorption sites promoting the retention of both metals on more specific sorption sites. The kinetic experiments showed that Pb sorption is initially faster than Cd sorption from both single and binary solutions although the simultaneous presence of both metals affected the sorption of Cd at short times while only a minor effect was observed on Pb. The estimated exponents of the kinetic function were in all cases smaller for Pb than for Cd, likely due to diffusion processes into micropores or interlayer space of the clay minerals which

  3. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies for the simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by use of S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized on coconut shell activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neetu; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2016-09-01

    In this study, simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by a microorganism S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized onto coconut shell activated carbon surface (CSAC) was studied in batch reactor from mono and binary component aqueous solution. Activated carbon was derived from coconut shell by chemical activation method. Ferric chloride (Fecl3), used as surface modification agents was applied to biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were obtained as a function of biosorbent dosage, pH, temperature, contact time and initial phenol and cyanide concentration. To define the equilibrium isotherms, experimental data were analyzed by five mono component isotherm and six binary component isotherm models. The higher uptake capacity of phenol and cyanide onto CSAC biosorbent surface was 450.02 and 2.58 mg/g, respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis was used for determining the best fit model on the basis of error functions and also for calculating the parameters involved in kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic study results revealed that Fractal-like mixed first second order model and Brouser-Weron-Sototlongo models for phenol and cyanide were capable to offer accurate explanation of biosorption kinetic. According to the experimental data results, CSAC with immobilization of bacterium S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) seems to be an alternative and effective biosorbent for the elimination of phenol and cyanide from binary component aqueous solution.

  4. Modeling of mercury sorption by activated carbon in a confined, a semi-fluidized, and a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Ho, T C; Kobayashi, N; Lee, Y K; Lin, C J; Hopper, J R

    2002-01-01

    A process model was developed to simulate elemental mercury sorption by activated carbon in three distinct beds, namely a confined, a semi-fluidized, and a fluidized bed. The model involved the coupling of a kinetic model based on the mechanisms of surface equilibrium and external mass transfer, and a material balance model based on the tank-in-series approach. For surface equilibrium, three different equilibrium laws were used in the model, namely the Henry's Law, the Langmuir isotherm and the Freundlich isotherm. Literature mercury sorption data were used to determine the best-fit values of parameters for these equilibrium expressions. The parameter-fitted model was then used to simulate mercury sorption processes in the three distinct beds. The simulation parameters were mercury concentration, gas flow rate, adsorption temperature and the degree of semi-fluidization. The simulation results have indicated that the model is capable of describing the literature available mercury sorption data. All the three surface equilibrium laws appear to simulate the adsorption profiles equally well mainly because the sorption process occurs in an extremely low concentration range. The simulation results for the three distinct beds have suggested that the confined bed has the best mercury control performance; however, it generates the highest pressure-drop across the bed. A fluidized bed creates the least pressure drop; however, its sorption performance is poor. A semi-fluidized bed offers acceptable performance with affordable pressure-drops and can be a practical candidate for the process.

  5. Arsenic sorption onto laterite iron concretions: temperature effect.

    PubMed

    Partey, Frederick; Norman, David; Ndur, Samuel; Nartey, Robert

    2008-05-15

    We investigated arsenate and arsenite sorption onto laterite iron concretions (LIC) to test its suitability for use in the low-tech treatment of arsenic-bearing drinking water. Batch experiments on crushed LIC from Prestea, Ghana were conducted at a series of temperatures, ionic strengths, and pHs. The point of zero net charge on laterite iron concretion was determined by potentiometric titrations yielding an average pHp(ZNC) around 8.64. Experiments show that sorption capacity for both arsenite and arsenate increase with temperature. The equilibrium sorption capacity for arsenite was larger than that for arsenate over the 25 to 60 degrees C temperature range. A Langmuir model satisfactorily fits the arsenite and arsenate sorption isotherm data. Both arsenite and arsenate sorbed over the pH range of natural waters. Arsenite sorption increases with increasing solution pH to a maximum at pH 7, then decreases with further increase in solution pH. Arsenate sorption, on the other hand, shows little change with increasing solution pH. Increasing solution ionic strength 10-fold results in a slight increase in sorption. Ionic strength experiments show that an inner-sphere sorption mechanism is responsible for As (V) sorption on LIC, while As (III) sorption is by an outer-sphere mechanism. Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees) for arsenite and arsenate sorption onto LIC was calculated from Langmuir isotherms; the negative values agree with reaction spontaneity. The positive values of the standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) show the endothermic nature of arsenite and arsenate sorption onto LIC. Positive entropy (DeltaS degrees) values suggest the affinity of LIC for the arsenic species in solution. Analysis of the arsenic sorption data suggests that LIC can be used for low-tech natural-materials arsenic water treatment. Laterite iron concretions have a number of advantages for this use over commercial materials, including the ability to remove arsenic from waters with a wide

  6. Sorption of aromatic organic pollutants to grasses from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, J.P.; Smith, J.A.; Chiou, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of plant lipids on the equilibrium sorption of three aromatic solutes from water was studied. The plant-water sorption isotherms of benzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and phenanthrene were measured over a large range of solute concentrations using sealed vessels containing water, dried plant material, and solute. The plant materials studied include the shoots of annual rye, tall fescue, red fescue, and spinach as well as the roots of annual rye. Seven out of eight sorption isotherms were linear with no evidence of competitive effects between the solutes. For a given plant type, the sorption coefficient increased with decreasing solute water solubility. For a given solute, sorption increased with increasing plant lipid content. The estimated lipid-water partition coefficients of individual solutes were found to be significantly greater than the corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. This indicates that plant lipids are a more effective partition solvent than octanol for the studied aromatic compounds. As expected, the solute lipid-water partition coefficients were log-linearly related to the respective water solubilities. For the compounds studied, partitioning into the lipids is believed to be the primary sorption mechanism. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  7. Thermodynamics of Cadmium Sorption on Different Soils of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, D. K.; Boruah, Romesh K.; Sonar, Indira

    2014-01-01

    A sorption study was conducted on different soils collected from five agroecological zones of West Bengal, India, to understand the soil environmental behavior and fate of cadmium. For this purpose batch adsorption experiments were carried out at the native soil pH and at three different temperatures (25°C, 35°C, and 45°C). The adsorption data fitted by a linear least squares technique to the different sorption isotherms. Most data obtained give the good fit to both Freundlich and modified Langmuir isotherms, but they are not consistent with the linear Langmuir adsorption model. Thermodynamic parameters, namely, thermodynamics equilibrium constant at a particular temperature T  (KT0), Gibbs free energy at a particular temperature T  (ΔGT0), and change of enthalpy (ΔH0) and change of entropy at temperature T  (ΔST0), were also determined by applying sorption value and concentrations of Cd in equilibrium solution within the temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that Cd sorption increases as the values of KT0, ΔGT0, ΔH0, and ΔST0 were increased on reaction temperatures. The spontaneous sorption reaction can be concluded due to high values of ΔGT0. The positive values of ΔH0 indicated that the Cd sorption is an endothermic one. Under these present conditions, the soil and its components possibly supply a number of sites having different adsorption energies for cadmium sorption. PMID:24683322

  8. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium of the herbicide diuron to carbon nanotubes or soot in absence and presence of algae.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Fabienne; Camenzuli, Louise; Knauer, Katja; Nowack, Bernd; Magrez, Arnaud; Sigg, Laura; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are strong sorbents for organic micropollutants, but changing environmental conditions may alter the distribution and bioavailability of the sorbed substances. Therefore, we investigated the effect of green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) on sorption of a model pollutant (diuron, synonyms: 3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, DCMU) to CNT (multi-walled purified, industrial grade, pristine, and oxidized; reference material: Diesel soot). In absence of algae, diuron sorption to CNT was fast, strong, and nonlinear (Freundlich coefficients: 10(5.79)-10(6.24) μg/kgCNT·(μg/L)(-n) and 0.62-0.70 for KF and n, respectively). Adding algae to equilibrated diuron-CNT mixtures led to 15-20% (median) diuron re-dissolution. The relatively high amorphous carbon content slowed down ad-/desorption to/from the high energy sorption sites for both industrial grade CNT and soot. The results suggest that diuron binds readily, but - particularly in presence of algae - partially reversibly to CNT, which is of relevance for environmental exposure and risk assessment.

  9. Turbulent coagulation of particles smaller than the length scales of turbulence and equilibrium sorption of phenanthrene to clay: Implications for pollutant transport in the estuarine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunk, Brett Kenneth

    1997-11-01

    Pollutant and particle transport in estuaries is affected by a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes. In this research the importance of equilibrium sorption and turbulent coagulation were studied. Sorption in estuaries was modeled using phenanthrene, bacterial extracellular polymer and kaolinite clay as surrogates for a hydrophobic organic pollutant, dissolved organic matter and inorganic suspended sediment, respectively. Experiments over a range of estuarine salinities showed that ionic strength had the largest effect on the extent of sorption, while the effect of extracellular polymer coatings on the mineral surfaces was insignificant. Further calculations using typical estuarine suspended sediment concentrations indicated that equilibrium sorption could not fully account for the solid/solution phase distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds in the estuarine water column. For particles that are small compared to the length scales of turbulence, the rate of coagulation is related to the dynamics of the smallest turbulent eddies since they have the highest shear rate. Experimental and theoretical effort focused on determining the coagulation rate of spherical particles in isotropic turbulence. A pair diffusion approximation valid for rapidly fluctuating flows was used to calculate the rate of coagulation in a randomly varying isotropic linear flow field. Dynamic simulations of particle coagulation in Gaussian turbulence were computed over a range of representative values of particle-particle interactions (i.e, hydrodynamic interactions and van der Waals attraction) and total strain (i.e., the product of the strain rate and its time scale). The computed coagulation rates for isotropic turbulence differed from analytical approximations valid at large and small total strain. As expected, particle interactions were found to be significant. Experimental measurements of coagulation in grid-generated turbulence were obtained by measuring the loss

  10. Sorption and desorption kinetics of diuron, fluometuron, prometryn and pyrithiobac sodium in soils.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, S; Kennedy, I R

    1999-11-01

    The sorption and desorption characteristics of four herbicides (diuron, fluometuron, prometryn and pyrithiobac-sodium) in three different cotton growing soils of Australia was investigated. Kinetics and equilibrium sorption and desorption isotherms were determined using the batch equilibrium technique. Sorption was rapid (> 80% in 2 h) and sorption equilibrium was achieved within a short period of time (ca 4 h) for all herbicides. Sorption isotherms of the four herbicides were described by Freundlich equation with an r2 value > 0.98. The herbicide sorption as measured by the distribution coefficient (Kd) values ranged from 3.24 to 5.71 L/kg for diuron, 0.44 to 1.13 L/kg for fluometuron, 1.78 to 6.04 L/kg for prometryn and 0.22 to 0.59 L/kg for pyrithiobac-sodium. Sorption of herbicides was higher in the Moree soil than in Narrabri and Wee Waa soils. When the Kd values were normalised to organic carbon content of the soils (Koc), it suggested that the affinity of the herbicides to the organic carbon increased in the order: pyrithiobac-sodium < fluometuron < prometryn < or = diuron. The desorption isotherms were also adequately described by the Freundlich equation. For desorption, all herbicides exhibited hysteresis and the hysteresis was stronger for highly sorbed herbicides (diuron and prometryn) than the weakly sorbed herbicides (fluometuron and pyrithiobac-sodium). Hysteresis was also quantified as the percentage of sorbed herbicides which is not released during the desorption step (omega = [nad/nde - 1] x 100). Soil type and initial concentration had significant effect on omega. The effect of sorption and desorption properties of these four herbicides on the off-site transport to contaminate surface and groundwater are also discussed in this paper.

  11. A Gel Probe Equilibrium Sampler for Measuring Arsenic Porewater Profiles And Sorption Gradients in Sediments: Ii. Field Application to Haiwee Reservoir Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P.A.; Hering, J.G.

    2009-05-12

    Arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior were measured in As- and iron (Fe)-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir by deploying undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler, which is a novel technique for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition on As adsorption to Fe oxides phases in situ. Arsenic is deposited at the sediment surface as As(V) and is reduced to As(III) in the upper layers of the sediment (0-8 cm), but the reduction of As(V) does not cause mobilization into the porewater. Dissolved As and Fe concentrations increased at depth in the sediment column driven by the reductive dissolution of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and conversion to a mixed Fe(II, III) green rust-type phase. Adsorption of As and phosphorous (P) onto HFO-doped gels was inhibited at intermediate depths (10-20 cm), possibly due to dissolved organic or inorganic carbon, indicating that dissolved As concentrations were at least partially controlled by porewater composition rather than surface site availability. In sediments that had been recently exposed to air, the region of sorption inhibition was not observed, suggesting that prior exposure to air affected the extent of reductive dissolution, porewater chemistry, and As adsorption behavior. Arsenic adsorption onto the HFO-doped gels increased at depths >20 cm, and the extent of adsorption was most likely controlled by the competitive effects of dissolved phosphate. Sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to be controlled by changes in porewater composition and competitive effects at shallower depths, and by reductive dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater burial depths.

  12. A gel probe equilibrium sampler for measuring arsenic porewater profiles and sorption gradients in sediments: II. Field application to Haiwee reservoir sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, K.M.; Root, R.; O'Day, P. A.; Hering, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic (As) geochemistry and sorption behavior were measured in As- and iron (Fe)-rich sediments of Haiwee Reservoir by deploying undoped (clear) polyacrylamide gels and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-doped gels in a gel probe equilibrium sampler, which is a novel technique for directly measuring the effects of porewater composition on As adsorption to Fe oxides phases in situ. Arsenic is deposited at the sediment surface as As(V) and is reduced to As(III) in the upper layers of the sediment (0-8 cm), but the reduction of As(V) does not cause mobilization into the porewater. Dissolved As and Fe concentrations increased at depth in the sediment column driven by the reductive dissolution of amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and conversion to a mixed Fe(II, III) green rust-type phase. Adsorption of As and phosphorous (P) onto HFO-doped gels was inhibited at intermediate depths (10-20 cm), possibly due to dissolved organic or inorganic carbon, indicating that dissolved As concentrations were at least partially controlled by porewater composition rather than surface site availability. In sediments that had been recently exposed to air, the region of sorption inhibition was not observed, suggesting that prior exposure to air affected the extent of reductive dissolution, porewater chemistry, and As adsorption behavior. Arsenic adsorption onto the HFO-doped gels increased at depths >20 cm, and the extent of adsorption was most likely controlled by the competitive effects of dissolved phosphate. Sediment As adsorption capacity appeared to be controlled by changes in porewater composition and competitive effects at shallower depths, and by reductive dissolution and availability of sorption sites at greater burial depths. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  13. Sorption of small molecules in polymeric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camboni, Federico; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the sorption of penetrant molecules from the gas phase by a polymeric medium within a model which is very close in spirit to the dual sorption mode model: the penetrant molecules are partly dissolved within the polymeric matrix, partly fill the preexisting voids. The only difference with the initial dual sorption mode situation is the assumption that the two populations of molecules are in equilibrium with each other. Applying basic thermodynamics principles we obtain the dependence of the penetrant concentration on the pressure in the gas phase and find that this is expressed via the Lambert W-function, a different functional form than the one proposed by dual sorption mode model. The Lambert-like isotherms appear universally at low and moderate pressures and originate from the assumption that the internal energy in a polymer-penetrant-void ternary mixture is (in the lowest order) a bilinear form in the concentrations of the three components. Fitting the existing data shows that in the domain of parameters where the dual sorption mode model is typically applied, the Lambert function, which describes the same behavior as the one proposed by the gas-polymer matrix model, fits the data equally well.

  14. Pyrethroid sorption to Sacramento River suspended solids and bed sediments

    PubMed Central

    Fojut, Tessa L.; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of pyrethroid insecticides to solid materials will typically dominate the fate and transport of these hydrophobic compounds in aquatic environments. Batch reactor isotherm experiments were performed with bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin with suspended material and bed sediment collected from the Sacramento River, CA. These batch reactor experiments were performed with low spiking concentrations and a long equilibration time (28 d) to be more relevant to environmental conditions. Sorption to suspended material and bed sediment was compared to examine the role of differential sorption between these phases in the environmental transport of pyrethroids. The equilibrium sorption data were fit to the Freundlich isotherm model and fit with r2 > 0.87 for all experiments. Freundlich exponents ranged from 0.72 ± 0.19 to 1.07 ± 0.050, indicating sorption nonlinearity for some of the experimental conditions and linearity for others over the concentration range tested. The Freundlich capacity factors were larger for the suspended solids than for the bed sediments and the suspended material had a higher specific surface area and higher organic carbon content compared to the bed sediment. Calculated organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficients were larger than those previously reported in the literature by approximately an order of magnitude and ranged from 106.16 to 106.68 at an equilibrium aqueous concentration of 0.1 µg/L. Higher than expected sorption of pyrethroids to the tested materials may be explained by sorption to black carbon and/or mineral surfaces. PMID:21191877

  15. Sorption behavior of nano-TiO2 for the removal of selenium ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Na; Yang, Lijun; Lin, Qing

    2009-10-30

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were employed for the sorption of selenium ions from aqueous solution. The process was studied in detail by varying the sorption time, pH, and temperature. The sorption was found to be fast, and to reach equilibrium basically within 5.0 min. The sorption has been optimized with respect to the pH, maximum sorption has been achieved from solution of pH 2-6. Sorbed Se(IV) and Se(VI) were desorbed with 2.0 mL 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the sorption of Se(IV) onto nano-TiO2 have been studied. The kinetic experimental data properly correlate with the second-order kinetic model (k(2)=0.69 g mg(-1) min(-1), 293 K). The overall rate process appears to be influenced by both boundary layer diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The sorption data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir sorption isotherm. The mean energy of adsorption (14.46 kJ mol(-1)) was calculated from the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherm at room temperature. The thermodynamic parameters for the sorption were also determined, and the DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values indicate exothermic behavior.

  16. Sorption of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides on soil and biochar.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Wartelle, Lynda H; Boddu, Veera M

    2012-03-28

    Sorption and degradation are the primary processes controlling the efficacy and runoff contamination risk of agrochemicals. Considering the longevity of biochar in agroecosystems, biochar soil amendment must be carefully evaluated on the basis of the target agrochemical and soil types to achieve agricultural (minimum impact on efficacy) and environmental (minimum runoff contamination) benefits. In this study, sorption-desorption isotherms and kinetics of triazine (deisopropylatrazine) and organophosphorus (malathion, parathion, and diazinon) pesticides were first investigated on various soil types ranging from clayey, acidic Puerto Rican forest soil (PR) to heavy metal contaminated small arms range (SAR) soils of sandy and peaty nature. On PR, malathion sorption did not reach equilibrium during the 3 week study. Comparison of solution-phase molar phosphorus and agrochemical concentrations suggested that degradation products of organophosphorus pesticides were bound on soil surfaces. The degree of sorption on different soils showed the following increasing trend: deisopropylatrazine < malathion < diazinon < parathion. While sorption of deisopropylatrazine on SAR soils was not affected by diazinon or malathion, deisopropylatrazine suppressed the sorption of diazinon and malathion. Deisopropylatrazine irreversibly sorbed on biochars, and greater sorption was observed with higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of biochar (4.7-2061 mg g(-1)). The results suggested the utility of biochar for remediation of sites where concentrations of highly stable and mobile agrochemicals exceed the water-quality benchmarks.

  17. Investigation and modeling of moisture sorption behaviour of rice starch/carboxymethyl chitosan blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriyatem, R.; Rachtanapun, C.; Raviyan, P.; Intipunya, P.; Rachtanapun, P.

    2015-07-01

    The biopolymer films from rice starch (RS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) were developed by solution casting. The effect of the ratios of rice starch to CMCh (100:0, 88:12, 67:33, 50:50, 33:67, 12:88 and 0:100) on water barrier properties and moisture sorption isotherm of blend films was studied. Water vapor permeability of rice starch film and CMCh film were 4.8 and 9.1 g.mm/m2.mHg.day, respectively, while those of the RS/CMCh blend films ranged between 5.0 and 9.1 g.mm/m2.mHg.day. The sorption isotherm of RS/CMCh blend films was determined at 25°C. The sorption behaviour of RS/CMCh blend films could be categorized as type II and type III isotherms. The highest equilibrium moisture content (63.5 g water/100 g dry solid) was obtained in the CMCh film at aw of 0.87. For further application of sorption isotherm data, the moisture sorption characteristic of the films can be predicted using empirical models. Lewicki, Peleg, Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Oswin models were tested to fit the experimental data. The Peleg equation showed the best fit to the experimental data of the RS/CMCh blend films with r2 ∼ 0.997 and the lowest % RMS of 6.2-44.3.

  18. Pentachlorophenol sorption in nylon fiber and removal by immobilized Rhizopus oryzae ENHE.

    PubMed

    León-Santiestebán, Hugo; Meraz, Mónica; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Tomasini, Araceli

    2011-06-15

    This study describes pentachlophenol (PCP) sorption in nylon fiber in which Rhizopus oryzae ENHE was immobilized to remove the chemical compound. The experimental sorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models using non-linear error functions to fit the experimental data to the three models. Results showed that the isotherm obtained from the data fitted the three models used. However, the g parameter from Redlich-Peterson model showed that the isotherm obtained approaches the Freundlich model. This support reached the sorption equilibrium concentration at 3mg PCPg(-1)nylon. To study PCP removal capability by R. oryzae ENHE and to eliminate the error caused by PCP sorbed by the nylon fiber during its quantification, nylon fiber at PCP equilibrium sorption concentration was used to immobilize R. oryzae ENHE. It was found that this fungus grew within nylon fiber cubes in presence or not of PCP, even when PCP caused growth inhibition. Maximum biomass accumulated into nylon cubes without PCP was of 32 mg biomass g(-1)nylon and into nylon cubes at PCP equilibrium concentration was of 18 mg g(-1)nylon. The results showed that R. oryzae ENHE immobilized into nylon fiber removed 88.6% and 92% of PCP in cultures with 12.5 and 25 mg PCPL(-1), as initial concentration, respectively. This is the first work to report that a zygomycete, such as R. oryzae ENHE, immobilized into nylon fiber kept its potential to remove PCP.

  19. Equilibrium, Thermodynamics, and Kinetic Sorption Studies for the Removal of Coomassie Brilliant Blue on Wheat Bran as a Low-Cost Adsorbent

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Sadia; Imran Din, Muhammad; Rasool, Atta; Qasim, Imran; Ul Mohsin, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    The sorption studies of coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) from aqueous solution have been carried out on wheat bran (WB). Coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran was used to study the adsorption behavior under various parameters such as pH, dosage amount, and contact time. It was observed that under optimized conditions up to 95.70% dye could be removed from solution onto WB. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to elaborate the results. Freundlich model was found to be fitted well and favored multilayer adsorption. The Freundlich constants n and KF were determined as 0.53 and 2.5 × 10−4. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS studied were taking into account, showed spontaneous and favorable reaction for coomassie brilliant blue on wheat bran. The maximum adsorption capacity qm was found to be 6.410 mg/g. The investigations show that non treated WB is a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of dyes from textile industry effluents. PMID:22567559

  20. Modeling of sorption characteristics of backfill materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chitra, S.; Sasidhar, P.; Lal, K.B.; Ahmed, J.

    1998-06-01

    Sorption data analysis was carried out using the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Modified Freundlich isotherms for the uptake of sodium and potassium in an initial concentration range of 10--100 mg/L on backfill materials, viz., bentonite, vermiculite, and soil samples. The soil samples were collected from a shallow land disposal facility at Kalpakkam. The Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of K{sup +} by all the selected backfill materials. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred mathematical tool for representing the sorption of Na{sup +} by the soil samples. Since a negative sorption was observed for the uptake of Na{sup +} by commercial clay minerals (vermiculite and bentonite clay in the laboratory experiments), sorption analysis could not be carried out using the above-mentioned isotherm equations. Hill plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation (10--40 mg/L), sorption of K{sup +} by vermiculite is impeded by interaction among sorption sites. In the region of higher saturation (60--100 mg/L), sorption of K{sup +} by all three backfill materials is enhanced by interaction among sorption sites. The Hill plot of the sorption data for Na{sup +} by soil suggests that irrespective of Na{sup +} concentration, sorption of Na{sup +} at one exchange size enhances sorption at other exchange sites.

  1. Biosorption of Acid Blue 25 by unmodified and CPC-modified biomass of Penicillium YW01: kinetic study, equilibrium isotherm and FTIR analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyi; Jin, Danfeng; Wang, Guan; Liu, Danfeng; Jia, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yuhua

    2011-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the biosorption performance of unmodified and Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-modified biomass of Penicillium YW 01 for Acid Blue 25 (AB 25). Maximum biosorption capacity of AB 25 onto CPC-modified biosorbent was 118.48 mg g(-1) under phosphoric-phosphate buffer with initial dye concentration of 200 mg L(-1) at 30°C. The biosorption pattern of AB 25 onto unmodified biosorbent in aqueous solution and phosphoric-phosphate buffer was well fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. While the equilibrium data of CPC-modified biosorbent in aqueous solution and phosphoric-phosphate buffer failed to fit the Freundlich isotherm model, indicating the monolayer biosorption formed onto CPC-modified biosorbent. The values of initial biosorption rate of biosorbent in phosphoric-phosphate buffer were found to be higher than that of corresponding values in aqueous solution, indicating phosphoric-phosphate buffer enhanced the initial biosorption rate of biosorption process. Weber-Morris model analysis indicated that the boundary layer effect had more influence on the biosorption process in phosphoric-phosphate buffer. The BET surface area of CPC-modified biosorbent (0.5761 m(2) g(-1)) was larger than that of unmodified biomass (0.3081 m(2) g(-1)). Possible dye-biosorbent interactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Kinetic, equilibrium isotherm and thermodynamic studies of Cr(VI) adsorption onto low-cost adsorbent developed from peanut shell activated with phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    ALOthman, Zeid A; Naushad, Mu; Ali, Rahmat

    2013-05-01

    A particular agricultural waste, peanut shell, has been used as precursor for activated carbon production by chemical activation with H₃PO₄. Unoxidized activated carbon was prepared in nitrogen atmosphere which was then heated in air at a desired temperature to get oxidized activated carbon. The prepared carbons were characterized for surface area, surface morphology, and pore volume and utilized for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, particle size, adsorbent dose, initial concentration of adsorbate, and temperature on the adsorption of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) adsorption was significantly dependent on solution pH, and the optimum adsorption was observed at pH 2. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to analyze the kinetic data obtained at different initial Cr(VI) concentrations. The adsorption kinetic data were described very well by the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. The results showed that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model fitted the data better in the temperature range studied. The adsorption capacity which was found to increase with temperature showed the endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibb's Free energy change (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°), and standard entropy change (ΔS°) were evaluated.

  3. Rapid adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) by rice straw/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposite: optimization, equilibrium isotherms, and adsorption kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles.

  4. Rapid Adsorption of Copper(II) and Lead(II) by Rice Straw/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite: Optimization, Equilibrium Isotherms, and Adsorption Kinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Khandanlou, Roshanak; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Kalantari, Katayoon

    2015-01-01

    Rice straw/magnetic nanocomposites (RS/Fe3O4-NCs) were prepared via co-precipitation method for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to find the optimum conditions for removal of ions. The effects of three independent variables including initial ion concentration, removal time, and adsorbent dosage were investigated on the maximum adsorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II). The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained (100 and 60 mg/L) of initial ion concentration, (41.96 and 59.35 s) of removal time and 0.13 g of adsorbent for both ions, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were obtained 96.25% and 75.54%, respectively. In the equilibrium isotherm study, the adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was best depicted by the pseudo-second order model. Desorption experiments showed adsorbent can be reused successfully for three adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:25815470

  5. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously.

  6. Characterization of Water and a Model Lipophilic Compound in Human Stratum Corneum by NMR Spectroscopy and Equilibrium Sorption.

    PubMed

    Kodiweera, Chandana; Romonchuk, Wayne J; Yang, Yuan; Bunge, Annette L

    2016-11-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost skin layer in humans and other mammals and the primary barrier to water loss and environmental exposure to chemicals and microorganisms. It consists of flattened, keratin-filled corneocytes surrounded by well-organized lipid layers. Human SC at varying degrees of hydration with and without addition of a model lipophilic compound, 2-(trifluoromethyl) benzonitrile (TFMB), was studied using proton ((1)H) and fluorine ((19)F) nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Proton spectral analyses revealed that water mainly occupies the corneocytes in agreement with prior studies. Observations from (19)F spectral and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analyses showed that TFMB is primarily present in the lipids with small amounts in water, which is located within the corneocytes. This is consistent with TFMB sorption, which was measured in SC with and without lipid extraction. The presence of TFMB within the corneocytes supports the hypothesis that transcellular diffusion of a lipophilic compound like TFMB may contribute to SC permeation.

  7. Modélisation des hystérésis de sorption dans les matériaux hygroscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merakeb, Seddik; Dubois, Frédéric; Petit, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with a sorption/desorption model in a hygroscopic material which is derived of the thermodynamic study of the phase equilibrium between the free water and its saturated vapor pressure. This model presents the hysteresis and cyclic variation aspects of the environment relative humidity. The sorption isotherm traduces the explanation of the equilibrium between the bound water phase in the material and the vapor pressure in the environment. This model allows expressing partial variation in the relative humidity domain under variable temperature. A good fitting is obtained with experimental results. To cite this article: S. Merakeb et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  8. Lead sorption by waste biomass of hazelnut and almond shell.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Erol; Altun, Türkan; Cetin, Serpil; Iqbal Bhanger, M

    2009-08-15

    The potential to remove Pb(2+) ion from aqueous solutions using the shells of hazelnut (HNS) (Corylus avellana) and almond (AS) (Prunus dulcis) through biosorption was investigated in batch experiments. The main parameters influencing Pb(2+) ion sorption on HNS and AS were: initial metal ion concentration, amount of adsorbent, contact time and pH value of solution. The influences of initial Pb(2+) ion concentration (0.1-1.0mM), pH (2-9), contact time (10-240 min) and adsorbent amount (0.1-1.0 g) have been investigated. Equilibrium isotherms have been measured and modelled. Adsorption of Pb(2+) ions was in all cases pH-dependent showing a maximum at equilibrium pH values between 6.0 and 7.0, depending on the biomaterial, that corresponded to equilibrium pH values of 6.0 for HNS and 7.0 for AS. The equilibrium sorption capacities of HNS and AS were 28.18 and 8.08 mg/g for lead, respectively after equilibrium time of 2h. The adsorption data fit well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the experimental result inferred that adsorption, chelation and ion exchange are major adsorption mechanisms for binding Pb(2+) ion to the sorbents.

  9. Batch sorption dynamics, kinetics and equilibrium studies of Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous phase using agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Joginder; Khare, Rajshree; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Ali, Amjad

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the agricultural residues viz., Syzygium cumini and Populus deltoides leaves powder have been used for the biosorption of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM analysis of the biosorbents were performed to explore the type of functional groups available for metal binding and to study the surface morphology. Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration, and equilibrium contact time were studied. Thermodynamic studies were carried out and the results demonstrated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the biosorption process. The equilibrium data were tested using four isotherm models—Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich and the maximum biosorption capacities were evaluated. The Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models were applied to study the reaction kinetics with pseudo-second order model giving the best fit ( R 2 = 0.99) to the experimental data.

  10. Sorption of biodegradation end products of nonylphenol polyethoxylates onto activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hung, Nguyen Viet; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori; Tsunoi, Shinji; Tanaka, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    Nonylphenol(NP), nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC), nonylphenol monoethoxy acetic acid (NP2EC), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) are biodegradation end products (BEPs) of nonionic surfactant nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPnEO). In this research, sorption of these compounds onto model activated sludge was characterized. Sorption equilibrium experiments showed that NP, NP1EO and NP2EO reached equilibrium in about 12 h, while equilibrium of NP1EC and NP2EC were reached earlier, in about 4 h. In sorption isotherm experiments, obtained equilibrium data at 28 degrees C fitted well to Freundlich sorption model for all investigated compounds. For NP1EC, in addition to Freundlich, equilibrium data also fitted well to Langmuir model. Linear sorption model was also tried, and equilibrium data of all NP, NP1EO, NP2EO and NP2EC except NP1EC fitted well to this model. Calculated Freundlich coefficient (K(F)) and linear sorption coefficient (K(D)) showed that sorption capacity of the investigated compounds were in order NP > NP2EO > NP1EO > NP1EC approximately NP2EC. For NP, NP1EO and NP2EO, high values of calculated K(F) and K(D) indicated an easy uptake of these compounds from aqueous phase onto activated sludge. Whereas, NP1EC and NP2EC with low values of K(F) and K(D) absorbed weakly to activated sludge and tended to preferably remain in aqueous phase.

  11. An emerging class of volatile organic compound sorbents: Friedel-Crafts modified polystyrenes. 2: Performance comparison with commercially-available sorbents and isotherm analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, E.J.; Koros, W.J.; Schechter, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The performance of Friedel-Crafts modified polystyrene (FCMPS) as a volatile organic compound (VOC) sorbent is compared with commercially available polymers and activated carbon. Detailed analyses of the equilibrium isotherms are presented, including vapor phase isotherm temperature dependence and isosteric heats of sorption. Although significant absorption contributions are observed for the polymeric sorbents of this study, the data are mathematically well represented by Polanyi potential analysis. FCMPS can be synthesized with desirable performance qualities such as ultimate VOC sorption capacity of {approximately}2 mL/g, competitively high capacity in dilute streams versus activated carbon, insensitivity to humidity in vapor phase applications, and comparative ease of regeneration.

  12. Silica coated magnetic particles using microwave synthesis for removal of dyes from natural water samples: Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium, isotherm and kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Salwa A.; Soliman, Ezzat M.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring pollutants in water samples is a challenge to analysts. So, the removal of Napthol blue black (NBB) and Erichrome blue black R (EBBR) from aqueous solutions was investigated using magnetic chelated silica particles. Magnetic solids are widely used in detection and analytical systems because of the performance advantages they offer compared to similar solids that lack magnetic properties. In this context, a fast, simple and clean method for modification of magnetic particles (Fe3O4) with silica gel was developed using microwave technique to introduce silica gel coated magnetic particles (SG-MPs) sorbent. The magnetic sorbent was characterized by the FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scan electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The effects of pH, time, weight of sorbent and initial concentration of dye were evaluated. It was interesting to find from results that SG-MPs exhibits high percentage extraction of the studied dyes (100% for NBB and 98.75% for EBBR) from aqueous solutions. The Freundlich isotherm with r2 = 0.973 and 0.962 and Langmuir isotherms with r2 = 0.993 and 0.988 for NBB and EBBR, respectively were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Also, adsorption kinetic experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation r2 = 1.0 for NBB and 0.999 for EBBR. The prepared sorbent with rapid adsorption rate and separation convenience was applied for removal of NBB and EBBR pollutants from natural water samples with good precision (RSD% = 0.05-0.3%).

  13. Kinetic and equilibrium studies on biosorption of basic blue dye by green macro algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2007-04-01

    Dynamic batch experiments were carried out for the biosorption of basic blue dye on to the green macro algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The factors affecting the sorption process such as the initial concentration of the dye, pH of the solution, the adsorbent dosage and the time of contact were studied. It has been observed that the sorption process was significantly affected by the pH of the initial dye solution. The sorption kinetics was found to follow the second-order kinetic model. The Boyd's plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.652 x 10(- 5) cm(2)/s. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated that the biosorption followed Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Optimized parameters were used to treat the commercial effluent containing the dye. Complete color removal was observed in two stages of treatment with the seaweed.

  14. Characterization of U(VI) Sorption-Desorption Processes and Model Upscaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Jing; Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.

    2006-10-12

    (VI) diffusion in silt/clay layers. Batch isotherm experiments were first used to confirm sorption isotherms under the intended test conditions and diffusion cell experiments were then conducted to explore the diffusion hypotheses. Important new information was obtained about the role of aqueous calcium and solid calcium carbonate in controlling sorption equilibrium with Hanford sediments. The retarded interparticle diffusion model with local sorption equilibrium was shown to very successfully simulate diffusion at high aqueous concentration of U(VI). By contrast, however, diffusion data obtained at low concentration suggested nonequilibrium of sorption even at diffusion time scales. Such nonequilibrium effects at low concentration are likely to be the result of sorption retarded intraparticle diffusion, and strong U(VI) sorption in the low concentration range.

  15. Sorption studies of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using bio-char as an adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hyder, A H M G; Begum, Shamim A; Egiebor, Nosa O

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of sorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) onto bio-char derived from wood chips (spruce, pine, and fir) were evaluated as a function of pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration and bio-char dosage using synthetic wastewater in batch tests. The initial Cr(VI) concentrations were varied between 10 and 500 mg/L to investigate equilibrium, kinetics, and isotherms of the sorption process. About 100% of Cr(VI) was removed at pH 2 with initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg/L using 4 g of bio-char after 5 hours of sorption reaction. The maximum sorption capacity of the bio-char was 1.717 mg/g for an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 500 mg/L after 5 hours. The sorption kinetics of total Cr onto bio-char followed the second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit for total Cr sorption onto bio-char. The bio-char used is a co-product of a down draft gasifier that uses the derived syngas to produce electricity. Bio-char as a low cost adsorbent demonstrated promising results for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The findings of this study would be useful in designing a filtration unit with bio-char in a full-scale water and wastewater treatment plant for the Cr(VI) removal from contaminated waters.

  16. [Sorption behavior of Triton X-100 on loess and affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jin-Kui; Zhao, Bao-Wei; Zhu, Kun; Qian, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Jie-Xi

    2013-03-01

    Batch experiments involving soil-aqueous systems were conducted to determine sorption of Triton X-100 onto natural loess as a function of equilibrium time, Triton X-100 concentration, ionic strength, and pH value. The results showed that the equilibration time for sorption of Triton X-100 onto loess was about 30 min. The sorption kinetics of Triton X-100 fitted well to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the corresponding parameters Q(e), k1, and r2 were 3.041 mg x g(-1), 0.102 min(-1), and 0.9934, respectively. Sorption isotherm was found to be distinctly nonlinear. The Sips model provided the best fitting to the experimental data among the four isothermal models tested. Q(max) and r2 of Sips model were 3.202 mg x g(-1) and 0.998 7, respectively. It was found that the ionic strength and the pH of the solution had a significant influence on the sorption of Triton X-100 onto loess. The amount of Triton X-100 sorbed onto the loess increased significantly with increasing concentration of NaCl. Sorption of Triton X-100 onto loess was influenced greatly by pH, the amount of Triton X-100 sorbed decreased as the pH increased.

  17. Determination of soil–water sorption coefficients of volatile methylsiloxanes

    PubMed Central

    Kozerski, Gary E; Xu, Shihe; Miller, Julie; Durham, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of 4 cyclic and linear volatile methyl siloxane (VMS) compounds between water and organic matter in 3 United Kingdom soils were studied by a batch equilibrium method using13C-enriched sorbates. Sorption and desorption kinetics and isotherms were determined for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), and decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4). Concentrations of [13C]-VMS in the soil and aqueous phases were measured directly by extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry techniques. All VMS compounds were sorbed rapidly, reaching constant distributions in all soils by 24 h. Desorption kinetics were very rapid, with reattainment of equilibrium within 1 h. In the main, linear isotherms were observed for aqueous concentrations at or below 4% of the solubility limits. The average sorption organic carbon partition coefficient (log KOC) values across soils were 4.23 for D4, 5.17 for D5, 4.32 for L3, and 5.13 for L4, with standard deviations of 0.09 to 0.34. Desorption KOC values were systematically greater by 0.1 log units to 0.3 log units. The linear isotherms and low variation in KOC values across soils suggested partitioning-dominated sorption of the VMS. Compared with traditional hydrophobic organic compounds, KOC values for the VMS compounds were significantly lower than expected on the basis of their octanol–water partition coefficients. A linear free energy relationship analysis showed that these differences could be rationalized quantitatively in terms of the inherent characteristics of the VMS compounds, combined with the differences in solvation properties of organic matter and octanol. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014; 33:1937–1945. PMID:24862578

  18. Sorption properties of greenwaste biochar for two triazine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Guo, Mingxin; Chow, Teresa; Bennett, Douglas N; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore

    2010-09-15

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product generated from biomass through pyrolysis. This study evaluated the ability of an unmodified biochar to sorb two triazine pesticides - atrazine and simazine, and thereby explored potential environmental values of biochar on mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. A greenwaste biochar was produced by heating waste biomass under the oxygen-limited condition at 450 degrees C. The effects of several experimental parameters, including biochar particle size, contact time, solid/solution ratio, and solution pH on the sorption of atrazine and simazine were comprehensively investigated. The biochar with small particle size needed less time to reach sorption equilibrium. The sorption affinity of the biochar for the two pesticides increased with decreasing solid/solution ratio. The sorbed amounts (C(s)) of atrazine and simazine increased from 451 to 1158 mg/kg and 243 to 1066 mg/kg, respectively, when the solid/solution ratio decreased from 1:50 to 1:1000 (g/mL). The sorption of the biochar for both pesticides was favored by low pH. The sorption isotherms of atrazine and simazine on the biochar are nonlinear and follow a Freundlich model. When atrazine and simazine co-existed, a competitive sorption occurred between these two pesticides on the biochar, reflecting a decrease in sorption capacity (K(f)) from 435 to 286 for atrazine and from 514 to 212 for simazine. Combined adsorption and partition mechanisms well depicted sorption of atrazine and simazine on carbonized and noncarbonized fractions of the biochar in the single-solute and co-solute systems.

  19. Nonlinear Chlorinated Solvent Sorption Impedes Remediation in Sedimentary Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen-King, R. M.; Rabideau, A. J.; Merlo, A.; Salvado i Estivill, J. A.; Barbarosa, V.; Matott, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    A 'tailing' pattern of rapid initial contaminant concentration decline followed by sustained release at a lower concentration is commonly produced by active remediation strategies. The ability of aquitard layers to cause this pattern is recognized. However, we hypothesize that nonlinear sorption combined with intragranular diffusion and mass storage within coarse, porous grains, can also cause tailing. Our project combines laboratory measurements of the equilibrium sorption isotherm for trichloroethene (TCE), release measurements from granular samples, and simulations of retarded intragranular diffusion. A novel aspect of our study is that we are examining a sample containing condensed kerogen as the primary form of organic matter on the impact of TCE mass storage, uptake and release rates. The kerogen-containing marine sedimentary rock used in our study is representative of the source rock of the surficial glacial aquifers in the southern Ontario, Canada region. The fact that energy producing shale units occur within the regional stratigraphic sequences indicates the high level of thermal maturation of the kerogen that comprises the sorbent for TCE in these samples. The equilibrium sorption isotherm spans nearly five orders of magnitude in aqueous concentration and is nonlinear. Preliminary comparisons between the mass release curve for grains equilibrated with a high TCE aqueous concentration (ca. 1000 mg/L) show that the physically-based model, which represents release controlled by intragranular diffusion with nonlinear local equilibrium sorption, provides a reasonable fit to the observed data with modest adjustment of the independently determined parameters. Additional experiments documenting TCE release from samples equilibrated at different initial aqueous concentrations and of different grain sizes will also be evaluated using the model and the results compared. Through extending simulations to the field scale, our results will contribute to a general

  20. Mass transfer, kinetics and equilibrium studies for the biosorption of methylene blue using Paspalum notatum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Porkodi, K

    2007-07-19

    Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of methylene blue onto Paspalum notatum. The operating variables studied were initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms by non-linear regression method. Six error functions was used to determine the optimum isotherm by non-linear regression method. The present study shows r2 as the best error function to determine the parameters involved in both two- and three-parameter isotherms. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for methylene blue onto P. notatum. The monolayer methylene blue sorption capacity of P. notatum was found to be 31 mg/g. The kinetics of methylene blue onto P. notatum was found to follow a pseudo second order kinetics. A Boyd plot confirms the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step in the dye sorption process. The influence of initial dye concentration on the dye sorption process was represented in the form of dimensionless mass transfer numbers (Sh/Sc0.33) and was found to vary as C(0)-5x10(-6).

  1. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10-5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  2. Analysis of moisture desorption isotherms of eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Moreira, R; Chenlo, F; Torres, M D; Vallejo, N

    2010-10-01

    Sorption isotherms of eggplant were determined employing, as experimental technique, a static gravimetric method, using saturated salt solutions to achieve the equilibrium. The experiments were carried out at different temperatures (20, 35, 50 and 65 °C). The sorption isotherms can be classified, according to Brunauer's classification, as type II or III depending on temperature. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated by two models usually applied to foodstuffs (Brunauer--Emmet--Teller (BET) and Halsey). BET model was employed to determine monolayer moisture content (0.121 kg/kg d.b.). Halsey model was selected by the goodness of fitting. Experimental data were analyzed by a thermodynamic approach to obtain some properties as net isosteric heat, equilibrium heat and differential and net integral entropy. The differential enthalpy and entropy decreased with increasing moisture content and satisfied the compensation theory. The net integral enthalpy and entropy showed maximum values (≈31 kJ/mol and ≈88 J/mol.K) at 0.093 (kg/kg d.b.) of moisture content.

  3. The influence of clay surface modification with berberine on the sorption of anthocyanins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulkov, A. N.; Deineka, V. I.; Tikhova, A. A.; Vesentzev, A. I.; Deineka, L. A.

    2012-03-01

    The influence of preliminary sorption of berberine on the sorption of anthocyanins by bentonite clay was studied. The cation exchange sorption mechanism was found to be replaced by hydrophobic sorption of these compounds after clay modification with berberine. The enthalpy of sorption along the initial isotherm part changed from endothermic to exothermic.

  4. Sorption-desorption of imidacloprid onto a lacustrine Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid fractions.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Mahrous M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Koskinen, William C

    2015-01-01

    Sorption-desorption of the insecticide imidacloprid 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)-methyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine onto a lacustrine sandy clay loam Egyptian soil and its clay and humic acid (HA) fractions was investigated in 24-h batch equilibrium experiments. Imidacloprid (IMDA) sorption-desorption isotherms onto the three sorbents were found to belong to a non-linear L-type and were best described by the Freundlich model. The value of the IMDA adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd(ads), varied according to its initial concentration and was ranged 40-84 for HA, 14-58 for clay and 1.85-4.15 for bulk soil. Freundlich sorption coefficient, Kf(ads), values were 63.0, 39.7 and 4.0 for HA, clay and bulk soil, respectively. The normalized soil Koc value for imidacloprid sorption was ∼800 indicating its slight mobility in soils. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were indicated by 1/n(ads) values <1 for all sorbents. Values of the hysteresis index (H) were <1, indicating the irreversibility of imidacloprid sorption process with all tested sorbents. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values indicated a spontaneous and physicosorption process for IMDA and a more favorable sorption to HA than clay and soil. In conclusion, although the humic acid fraction showed the highest capacity and affinity for imidacloprid sorption, the clay fraction contributed to approximately 95% of soil-sorbed insecticide. Clay and humic acid fractions were found to be the major two factors controlling IMDA sorption in soils. The slight mobility of IMDA in soils and the hysteresis phenomenon associated with the irreversibility of its sorption onto, mainly, clay and organic matter of soils make its leachability unlikely to occur.

  5. Removal of basic yellow dye from aqueous solution by sorption on green alga Caulerpa scalpelliformis.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2007-04-02

    Dynamic batch experiments were carried out for the biosorption of basic yellow dye on to the green macroalgae Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The factors affecting the sorption process such as the initial concentration of the dye and pH of the solution, the adsorbent dosage and the time of contact were studied. The sorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The Caulerpa species exhibited a maximum uptake of 27 mg of dye per gram of seaweed. The Boyd's plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 2.47 x 10(-4)cm(2)/s. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated that the biosorption followed Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of sorption DeltaH degrees , free energy change DeltaG degrees and entropy DeltaS degrees were estimated. The negative value of DeltaH degrees and negative values of DeltaG degrees show the sorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The negative value of entropy DeltaS degrees shows the decreased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the sorption of dyes onto green seaweed.

  6. Phenanthrene sorption with heterogeneous organic matter in a landfill aquifer material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karapanagioti, H.K.; Sabatini, D.A.; Kleineidam, S.; Grathwohl, P.; Ligouis, B.

    1999-01-01

    Phenanthrene was used as a model chemical to study the sorption properties of Canadian River Alluvium aquifer material. Both equilibrium and kinetic sorption processes were evaluated through batch studies. The bulk sample was divided into subsamples with varying properties such as particle size, organic content, equilibration time, etc. in order to determine the effect of these properties on resulting sorption parameters. The data have been interpreted and the effect of experimental variables was quantified using the Freundlich isotherm model and a numerical solution of Fick's 2nd law in porous media. Microscopic organic matter characterization proved to be a valuable tool for explaining the results. Different organic matter properties and sorption mechanisms were observed for each soil subsample. Samples containing coal particles presented high Koc values. Samples with organic matter dominated by organic coatings on quartz grains presented low Koc values and contained a high percentage of fast sorption sites. The numerical solution of Fick's 2ndlaw requires the addition of two terms (fast and slow) in order to fit the kinetics of these heterogeneous samples properly. These results thus demonstrate the need for soil organic matter characterization in order to predict and explain the sorption properties of a soil sample containing heterogeneous organic matter and also the difficulty and complexity of modeling sorption in such samples.

  7. Sorption mechanism of Cd(II) from water solution onto chicken eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Cano, Jose Valente; Leyva-Ramos, Roberto; Mendoza-Barron, Jovita; Guerrero-Coronado, Rosa María; Aragón-Piña, Antonio; Labrada-Delgado, Gladis Judith

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism and capacity of eggshell for sorbing Cd(II) from aqueous solution was examined in detail. The eggshell was characterized by several techniques. The eggshell was mainly composed of Calcite (CaCO3). The surface charge distribution was determined by acid-base titration and the point of zero charge (PZC) of the eggshell was found to be 11.4. The sorption equilibrium data were obtained in a batch adsorber, and the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir fitted the data quite well. The sorption capacity of eggshell increased while raising the pH from 4 to 6, this tendency was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the Cd2+ in solution and the surface of the eggshell. Furthermore, the sorption capacity was augmented by increasing the temperature from 15 to 35 °C because the sorption was endothermic. The sorption of Cd(II) occurred mainly onto the calcareous layer of the eggshell, but slightly on the membrane layer. It was demonstrated that the sorption of Cd(II) was not reversible, and the main sorption mechanisms were precipitation and ion exchange. The precipitation of (Cd,Ca)CO3 on the surface of the eggshell was corroborated by SEM and XRD analysis.

  8. Turbulent Coagulation of Particles Smaller Than the Length Scales of Turbulence and Equilibrium Sorption of Phenanthrene to Clay: Implications for Pollutant Transport in the Estuarine Water Column

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    estuaries was modeled using phenanthrene, bacterial extracellular polymer and kaolinite clay as surrogates for a hydrophobic organic pollutant...coefficients obtained for phenanthrene sorption to kaolinite and bentonite in the presence of varying amounts of DOM represented by alginic acid and tannic...acid. 333 Table B.3: Literature values for sorption between phenanthrene, humic acid and kaolinite for [DOM]a = 10 mg/L 334 Table E.1: Sample output data

  9. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R.; Allen-King, Richelle M.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc = 0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen + black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for > 60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that > 80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration < 1000 μg L- 1. These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  10. The Influence of Temperature on the Sorption and Permeability of CO2 in poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayur Ostwal; JOshua M. Lau; Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart; J. Douglas Way

    2009-11-01

    This paper reports the transport and sorption properties of poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) (PFAP) membranes for carbon dioxide and nitrogen in both pure and mixed gas experiments. The CO2 permeability decreased from 336 to 142 Barrers with an increase in the CO2/N2 ideal separation factor from 12 to 21 as the membrane temperature was decreased from 303 K to 258 K at feed pressure of 2.9 bars. At lower feed pressure (1.5 bars) the CO2 permeability decreased from 327 to 140 Barrers, while the CO2/N2 ideal separation factor increased from 13 to 22 over the same temperature range. CO2 sorption isotherms were measured using the pressure decay equilibrium method. Solubility of CO2 was determined using the sorption isotherms and the diffusion coefficients were calculated from CO2 permeabilities and solubilities. Sorption isotherms were linear at each temperature for the pressure range studied and the enthalpy of sorption was -5.8 kcal/mol. The solubility coefficient values for CO2 increased from 0.95 to 5.43 cm3 CO2(STP)/cm3 polymer.atm whereas the diffusion coefficient decreased from 2.71 X 10-6 to 0.19 X 10-6 cm2/sec as the temperature decreased from 303 K to 258 K.

  11. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents.

    PubMed

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-09-10

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models' isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications.

  12. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents

    PubMed Central

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models’ isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  13. Sorbent Mass Variation Method: A New Possibility for the Determination of Binding Isotherms.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Miklós; Siegl, Zoltán; Szili, Krisztina; Fábos, Viktória; Kántor, Krisztina

    2016-06-28

    Measurement of equilibrium mass fraction of a surfactant as a function of the sorbent mass fraction was performed on gel sorbent-solution systems in order to determine binding isotherms and to calculate fundamental characteristics of the solvation layer. With application of this new method, it was possible to calculate specific solvation/sorption capacity and absolute average local composition of the solvation layer. It has been pointed out by systematic variation of the composition (hydrophobicity) and degree of cross-linking of the gel sorbents that the ratio of components in the solvation layer can be constant in a given range of equilibrium mass fraction of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and that the specific solvation/sorption capacity of gel sorbents can be much greater than that of activated carbon type adsorbents. On the basis of a mixed sorbent model, it turned out from calculations that there is no preferential binding of SDS close to the chemical cross-links and that the surfactant molecules prefer vinyl acetate groups as binding sites. The density of cross-links regulates the aggregation number of the bound surfactant as well. For loose gels, both binding isotherms and swelling curves show that the surfactant-polymer interaction is a strongly cooperative process. The result of these experiments may influence the general concept of solvation/sorption isotherms and all related phenomena.

  14. Sorption of copper(II) ions in the biomass of alga Spirogyra sp.

    PubMed

    Rajfur, Małgorzata; Kłos, Andrzej; Wacławek, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Sorption of copper ions by the alga Spirogyra sp. was investigated to determine the influence of experimental conditions and the methods of sample preparation on the process. The experiments were carried out both under the static and the dynamic conditions. Kinetics and equilibrium parameters of the sorption were evaluated. In addition, the influence was studied of the algae preparation methods on the conductivity of demineralized water in which the algae samples were immersed. The static experiments showed that the sorption of Cu(2+) ions reached equilibrium in about 30 min, with approximately 90% of the ions adsorbed in the initial 15 min. The sorption capacity determined from the Langmuir isotherms appeared highly uncertain (SD=±0.027 mg/g dry mass or ±11%, for the live algae). Under static conditions, the slopes of the Langmuir isotherms depended on the ratio of the alga mass to the volume of solution. The conductometric measurements were proven to be a simple and fast way to evaluate the quality of algae used for the experiments.

  15. Effect of sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and temperature on desorption isotherms of previously frozen beef.

    PubMed

    Kabil, Emre; Aktaş, Nesimi; Balcı, Ercan

    2012-04-01

    Moisture desorption isotherms of beef were determined in the relative humidity range of 23 to 90% at 5, 15 and 25°C and at 2.5% NaCl and 2.5% NaCl+150 ppm NaNO(2) content. Desorption isotherms were found to be typical type II sigmoid. The water content at equilibrium was higher in beef with NaCl and NaCl+NaNO(2) than control samples. Experimental data were fitted to various mathematical models and it was found that the Peleg model was best in describing the equilibrium moisture content relationship for beef samples over the entire range of temperatures. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium desorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of desorption were found to increase with decreasing moisture content.

  16. Sorption isotherms, kinetic and optimization process of amino acid proline based polymer nanocomposite for the removal of selected textile dyes from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sharista; Anand, K; Gengan, R M; Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Maity, Arjun

    2016-12-01

    In this article, adsorption and kinetic studies were carried out on three textile dyes, namely Reactive Blue 222 (RB 222), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145). The dyes studied in a mixture were adsorbed under various conditions onto PRO-BEN, a bentonite modified with a new cationic proline polymer (l-proline-epichlorohydrin polymer). The proline polymer was characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. The PRO-BEN composite was characterized by FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) (zeta potential), TEM imaging, SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (characterize the binding energy). During adsorption studies, factors involving pH, temperature, the initial concentrations of the dyes and the quantity of PRO-BEN used during adsorption were established. The results revealed that the adsorption mechanism was categorized by the Langmuir type 1 isotherm. The adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated that adsorption did not only depend on the intraparticle diffusion of the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters verified that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs free energy values indicated that physisorption had occurred. Successful adsorption of dyes from an industrial effluent was achieved. Desorption studies concluded that PRO-BEN desorbed the dyes better than alumina. This can thereby be viewed as a recyclable remediation material. The PRO-BEN composite could be a cost efficient alternative towards the removal of organic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  17. Sorption of As(V) from aqueous solution using acid modified carbon black.

    PubMed

    Borah, Dipu; Satokawa, Shigeo; Kato, Shigeru; Kojima, Toshinori

    2009-03-15

    The sorption performance of a modified carbon black was explored with respect to arsenic removal following batch equilibrium technique. Modification was accomplished by refluxing the commercial carbon black with an acid mixture comprising HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4). Modification resulted in the substantial changes to the inherent properties like surface chemistry and morphology of the commercial carbon black to explore its potential as sorbent. The suspension pH as well as the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the material was found to be highly acidic. The material showed excellent sorption performance for the removal of arsenic from a synthetic aqueous solution. It removed approximately 93% arsenic from a 50mg/L solution at equilibration time. The modified carbon black is capable of removing arsenic in a relatively broad pH range of 3-6, invariably in the acidic region. Both pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics were applied to search for the best fitted kinetic model to the sorption results. The sorption process is best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic. It has also been found that intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step for the initial phases of the reaction. Modelling of the equilibrium data with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms revealed that the correlation coefficient is more satisfactory with the Langmuir model although Freundlich model predicted a good sorption process. The sorption performance has been found to be strongly dependent on the solution pH with a maximum display at pH of 5.0. The temperature has a positive effect on sorption increasing the extent of removal with temperature up to the optimum temperature. The sorption process has been found to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature, and proceeds with the increase in randomness at the solid-solution interface. The spent sorbent was desorbed with various acidic and basic extracting solutions with KOH demonstrating the best result ( approximately 85% desorption).

  18. Sorption of selected veterinary antibiotics onto dairy farming soils of contrasting nature.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Sarmah, Ajit K; Manley-Harris, Merilyn

    2014-02-15

    The sorption potential for three sulfonamides (SAs), sulfamethoxazole (SMO), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) and sulfamethazine (SM) and a macrolide, tylosin tartrate (TT) was assessed on six New Zealand dairy farming soils of contrasting physico-chemical properties. Kinetics studies showed that the sorption was rapid in the first few hours of the contact time (0-2h for SA and 0-4h for TT) and thereafter apparent equilibrium was achieved. Batch sorption isotherm data revealed that the degree of isotherm linearity (N) for SCP and SM varied between 0.50 and 1.08 in the six soils. Isotherms of both TT and SMO were mostly non-linear with the degree of non-linearity for TT (N=0.38-0.71) being greater than for SMO (0.42-0.75) in all soils except Manawatu (TT) and Te Kowhai (SMO) where a linear pattern was observed. Concentration-dependent effective distribution coefficient (Kd(eff)) values for the SMO, SCP and SM antibiotics in the soils ranged from 0.85 to 16.35 L kg(-1), while that for TT was 1.6 to 1,042 L kg(-1). The sorption affinity for all soils followed an order: TT>SCP>SM>SMO. Remarkable high sorption for tylosin in Matawhero soil as compared to other soils was attributed to the presence of oxygen containing acidic polar functional groups as evident in the FT-IR spectra of the soil. Furthermore, it was hypothesised that sorption of TT onto soils was mostly driven by metal oxide-surface mediated transformations whereas for sulfonamides it was primarily due to hydrophobic interactions.

  19. Manganese Nitride Sorption Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Phillips, Wayne M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed sorption refrigeration system of increased power efficiency combines MnxNy sorption refrigeration stage with systems described in "Regenerative Sorption Refrigerator" (NPO-17630). Measured pressure-vs-composition isotherms for reversible chemisorption of N2 in MnxNy suggest feasibility to incorporate MnxNy chemisorption stage in Joule-Thomson cryogenic system. Discovery represents first known reversible nitrogen chemisorption compression system. Has potential in nitrogen-isotope separation, nitrogen purification, or contamination-free nitrogen compression.

  20. Multiparametric investigation of competitive and noncompetitive sorption characteristics of SMP fractions (carbohydrate and protein) on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Dizge, Nadir; Tansel, Berrin

    2011-01-30

    Sorption characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) as carbohydrate and protein on activated carbon were investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption kinetics and the equilibrium conditions. The parameters studied included initial SMP concentration (50-200mg/L), activated carbon dosage (0.25-50 g/L), contact time (0.02-4h), particle size of activated carbon used (5-75 μm, 75-850 μm, and 850-1000 μm), and presence of one or both SMP fractions. The equilibrium sorption of carbohydrate and protein were significantly affected by the presence of the second SMP fraction in the solutions. Adsorption isotherms were expressed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption rates under noncompetitive and competitive conditions were analyzed with kinetics-based Lagergren pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models; and diffusion-based external diffusion and Weber-Morris intraparticle models. Both SMP fractions were removed effectively, however, sorption of protein was significantly better than that of carbohydrate in all cases. The relatively significant effect of particle size on sorption of protein indicates that protein is most likely adsorbed as a single layer on the carbon surface. For the carbohydrate, the increase in particle size did not decrease the sorption significantly indicating that carbohydrate may be adsorbed in multiple layers or may diffuse into the porous matrix more effectively.

  1. Sorption of selected pharmaceuticals and pesticides on different river sediments.

    PubMed

    Radović, Tanja T; Grujić, Svetlana D; Kovačević, Srđan R; Laušević, Mila D; Dimkić, Milan A

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the sorption ability of 17 pharmaceutical compounds, two metabolites, and 15 pesticides (34 target compounds in total) onto four different river sediments was investigated separately. Selected compounds present the most frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals in human and animal medicine and the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture. Their presence into the surface, ground, and waste waters was confirmed into the numerous papers in literature, as well as their presence into the river sediments (for some of them). However, investigations of their sorption onto the river sediments, as major natural protection from potential pollution of ground water by them is missing. Sorption in this study was investigated onto river sediments taken from rivers in the Republic of Serbia, where only less than 10 % of total generated waste water passes through mainly basic treatment processes. Experiments were based on batch equilibrium procedures and obtained solutions were analyzed by previously developed and validated sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analytical methods. All results were modeled by Freundlich isotherms. Obtained results have shown that Kf coefficient values are in correlation with organic carbon content. Kd sorption coefficient values were relatively low and ranged in wide ranges for almost all compounds and sediments. That implicates on the conclusion that capacities of the investigated sorbents are not large for those compounds.

  2. An investigation on the sorption behaviour of montmorillonite for selected organochlorine pesticides from water.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Senar; Tor, Ali; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

    2012-06-01

    The sorption behaviour of montmorillonite towards organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous solutions is reported. After preliminary investigation of the sorption capability of clay for selected OCPs, aldrin was used as a model compound for further experiments. The batch sorption experiments were carried out as functions of contact time, pH of the solution, initial aldrin concentration and dosage of the montmorillonite. After traditional liquid-liquid extraction, the determination of OCPs was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-microECD). The results indicated that sorption of aldrin followed the second-order kinetic model and that the equilibrium time depended on the initial aldrin concentration. The film diffusion was found to be a main sorption rate control mechanism. The removal was explained according to the electrostatic bonding mechanism. The Freundlich isotherm model better represented the sorption data than the Langmuir model. The montmorillonite was also used efficiently for the removal of OCPs from fortified tap and surface (lake) water samples.

  3. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4'-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  4. Sorption and biodegradation characteristics of the selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Foolad, Mahsa; Hu, Jiangyong; Tran, Ngoc Han; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sorption and biodegradation characteristics of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and salicylic acid (SA), were studied in laboratory-batch experiments. Sorption kinetics experimental data showed that sorption systems under this study were more appropriately described by the pseudo second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient (R2)>0.98. Sorption equilibrium data of almost all target compounds onto soil could be better described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm model. The adsorption results showed higher soil affinity for SA, following by ACT. Results also indicated a slight effect of pH on PPCP adsorption with lower pH causing lower adsorption of compounds onto the soil except for SA at pH 12. Moreover, adsorption of PPCPs onto the soil was influenced by natural organic matter (NOM) since the higher amount of NOM caused lower adsorption to the soil. Biodegradation studies of selected PPCPs by indigenous microbial community present in soil appeared that the removal rates of ACT, SA and DEET increased with time while no effect had been observed for the rest. This study suggests that the CBZ and CTMT can be considered as suitable chemical sewage indicators based on their low sorption affinity and high resistance to biodegradation.

  5. Sorption and transformation of the reactive tracers resazurin and resorufin in natural river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, D.; González-Pinzón, R.; Liao, Z.; Wöhling, T.; Osenbrück, K.; Haggerty, R.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2014-08-01

    Resazurin (Raz) and its reaction product resorufin (Rru) have increasingly been used as reactive tracers to quantify metabolic activity and hyporheic exchange in streams. Previous work has indicated that these compounds undergo sorption in stream sediments. We present laboratory experiments on Raz and Rru transport, sorption, and transformation, consisting of 4 column and 72 batch tests using 2 sediments with different physicochemical properties under neutral (pH = 7) and alkaline (pH = 9) conditions. The study aimed at identifying the key processes of reactive transport of Raz and Rru in streambed sediments and the experimental setup best suited for their determination. Data from column experiments were simulated by a travel-time-based model accounting for physical transport, equilibrium and kinetic sorption, and three first-order reactions. We derived the travel-time distributions directly from the breakthrough curve (BTC) of the conservative tracer, fluorescein, rather than from fitting an advective-dispersive transport model, and inferred from those distributions the transfer functions of Raz and Rru, which provided conclusive approximations of the measured BTCs. The most likely reactive transport parameters and their uncertainty were determined by a Markov chain-Monte Carlo approach. Sorption isotherms of both compounds were obtained from batch experiments. We found that kinetic sorption dominates sorption of both Raz and Rru, with characteristic timescales of sorption in the order of 12 to 298 min. Linear sorption models for both Raz and Rru appeared adequate for concentrations that are typically applied in field tracer tests. The proposed two-site sorption model helps to interpret transient tracer tests using the Raz-Rru system.

  6. Enriched fluoride sorption using alumina/chitosan composite.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy; Meenakshi, S

    2010-06-15

    Alumina possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) of 1566 mg F(-)/kg. In order to improve its DC, it is aimed to prepare alumina polymeric composites using the chitosan. Alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite was prepared by incorporating alumina particles in the chitosan polymeric matrix, which can be made into any desired form viz., beads, candles and membranes. AlCs composite displayed a maximum DC of 3809 mg F(-)/kg than the alumina and chitosan (52 mg F(-)/kg). The fluoride removal studies were carried out in batch mode to optimize the equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions and temperature. The equilibrium data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption. The surface characterisation of the sorbent was performed by FTIR, AFM and SEM with EDAX analysis. A possible mechanism of fluoride sorption by AlCs composite has been proposed. Suitability of AlCs composite at field conditions was tested with a field sample taken from a nearby fluoride-endemic village. This work provides a potential platform for the development of defluoridation technology.

  7. Trihalomethane formation potential of aquatic and terrestrial fulvic and humic acids: Sorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Abouleish, Mohamed Y Z; Wells, Martha J M

    2015-07-15

    Humic substances (HSs) are precursors for the formation of hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of water. Various surrogate parameters have been used to investigate the generation of DBPs by HS precursors and the removal of these precursors by activated carbon treatment. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)- and ultraviolet absorbance (UVA254)-based isotherms are commonly reported and presumed to be good predictors of the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). However, THMFP-based isotherms are rarely published such that the three types of parameters have not been compared directly. Batch equilibrium experiments on activated carbon were used to generate constant-initial-concentration sorption isotherms for well-characterized samples obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). HSs representing type (fulvic acid [FA], humic acid [HA]), origin (aquatic, terrestrial), and geographical source (Nordic, Suwannee, Peat, Soil) were examined at pH6 and pH9. THMFP-based isotherms were generated and compared to determine if DOC- and UVA254-based isotherms were good predictors of the THMFP. The sorption process depended on the composition of the HSs and the chemical nature of the activated carbon, both of which were influenced by pH. Activated carbon removal of THM-precursors was pH- and HS-dependent. In some instances, the THMFP existed after UVA254 was depleted.

  8. Sorption of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) on lignin.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rabih; Radovic-Hrapovic, Zorana; Ahvazi, Behzad; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the use of two commercially available lignins, namely, alkali and organosolv lignin, for the removal of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), a chemical widely used by the military and the dye industry, from water. Sorption of DNAN on both lignins reached equilibrium within 10 hr and followed pseudo second-order kinetics with sorption being faster with alkali than with organosolv lignin, i.e. k2 10.3 and 0.3 g/(mg x hr), respectively. In a separate study we investigated sorption of DNAN between 10 and 40 degrees C and found that the removal of DNAN by organosolv lignin increased from 0.8 to 7.5 mg/g but reduced slightly from 8.5 to 7.6 mg/g in the case of alkali lignin. Sorption isotherms for either alkali or organosolv lignin best fitted Freundlich equation with enthalpy of formation, deltaH0 equaled to 14 or 80 kJ/mol. To help understand DNAN sorption mechanisms we characterized the two lignins by elemental analysis, BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption and 31P NMR. Variations in elemental compositions between the two lignins indicated that alkali lignin should have more sites (O- and S-containing functionalities) for H-bonding. The BET surface area and calculated total pore volume of alkali lignin were almost 10 times greater than that of organosolv lignin suggesting that alkali lignin should provide more sites for sorption. 31P NMR showed that organosolv lignin contains more phenolic -OH groups than alkali lignin, i.e., 70% and 45%, respectively. The variations in the type of OH groups between the two lignins might have affected the strength of H-bonding between DNAN and the type of lignin used.

  9. Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Zhao, Xuchen; Tysklind, Mats; Hao, Fanghua

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss.

  10. Phenanthrene and pyrene sorption and intraparticle diffusion in polyoxymethylene, coke, and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Werner, David; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; McGlothlin, Donald R; Zare, Richard N; Luthy, Richard G

    2005-09-01

    We report sorption isotherms and uptake kinetics for phenanthrene and pyrene with three organic model sorbents: polyoxymethylene (POM), coke, and activated carbon. We combine batch equilibration and kinetic experiments with the direct observation of the long-term diffusion of phenanthrene and pyrene as measured within cross-sectioned particles using microprobe laser-desorption laser-ionization mass spectroscopy (muL2MS). For POM pellets, the intraparticle concentration profiles predicted from kinetic batch experiments and a polymer diffusion model with spherical geometry are in agreement with the independent muL2MS measurements. For coke particles, the apparent diffusivities decreased with smaller particle size. These trends in diffusivities were described by a sorption-retarded pore diffusion model with a particle-size-dependent solid-water partitioning coefficient obtained from apparent equilibrium observed in the kinetic batch studies. For activated carbon, the muL2MS measurements showed faster radial diffusion of phenanthrene and pyrene into the particle interior than predicted from diffusion models based on a single sorption domain and diffusivity. A branched pore kinetic model, comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) macropore diffusion with kinetic exchange of PAH between macroporous and microporous domains, fits the experimental observations better. Because of parallel macro- and microdiffusion processes, nonlinear sorption isotherms, and a concentration-dependent diffusivity, it is not possible to make independent parameter estimations for intraparticle diffusion in activated carbon using our present procedures.

  11. Sorption of asymmetric dimethylhydrazine vapor by peaty soil

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, T.B.; Laskin, B.M.; Shistko, N.R.; Pimkin, V.G.

    1994-03-10

    Sorption of asymmetric dimethylhydrazine vapor by peaty soil was investigated. Sorption isotherms were measured by a dynamic method at 32-50{degrees}C. The type of sorption of the compound with the soil surface was determined from the calculated enthalpies of sorption. The ability of asymmetric dimethylhydrazine to migrate from the soil to other objects of the environment and to be removed from the soil by thermosorption was evaluated.

  12. The dynamics of H 2 and N 2 sorption in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ötvös, Zs.; Onyestyák, Gy.; Valyon, J.; Kiricsi, I.; Kónya, Z.; Rees, L. V. C.

    2004-11-01

    Single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT and MWNT) were prepared by catalytic decomposition of methane and acetylene, respectively. The resulting catalyst/carbon composites were subjected to chemical treatments to obtain samples which were enriched in nanotubes. Isotherms and frequency response (FR) spectra of N2 and H2 were recorded at 195 and 77 K, respectively, in the 1-800 Pa pressure range. The adsorption isotherms for N2 were found to obey Henry's law, while the isotherms of H2 adsorption indicated some energetic heterogeneity of the sorption sites. Stronger adatom-substrate interaction was detected for those samples which had been subjected to oxidative treatment. The FR measurements showed that treatment of MWNT in KMnO4 solution changed the rate-controlling mechanism of mass transport from one of sorption to one of diffusion. Results substantiated that the surface functional groups, generated by the oxidative treatment, have significant influence on both the equilibrium and the dynamic N2 and H2 sorption properties of the carbon nanotubes.

  13. Thermodynamics of imidacloprid sorption in Croatian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milin, Čedomila; Broznic, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Neonicotinoids are increasingly replacing the organophosphate and methylcarbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which are losing their effectiveness because of selection for resistant pest populations. Imidacloprid is the most important neonicotinoid with low soil persistence, high insecticidal potency and relatively low mammalian toxicity. In Croatia, imidacloprid is most commonly used in olive growing areas, including Istria and Kvarner islands, as an effective means of olive fruit fly infestation control. Sorption-desorption behavior of imidacloprid in six soils collected from five coastal regions in Croatia at 20, 30 and 40°C was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. Isothermal data were applied to Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equation, and the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG°, ΔS° were calculated. The sorption isotherm curves were of non-linear and may be classified as L-type suggesting a relatively high sorption capacity for imidacloprid. Our results showed that the KFsor values decreased for all the tested soils as the temperature increases, indicating that the temperature strongly influence the sorption. Values of ΔG° were negative (-4.65 to -2.00 kJ/mol) indicating that at all experimental temperatures the interactions of imidacloprid with soils were spontaneous process. The negative and small ΔH° values (-19.79 to -8.89 kJ/mol) were in the range of weak forces, such as H-bonds, consistent with interactions and par¬titioning of the imidacloprid molecules into soil organic matter. The ΔS° values followed the range of -57.12 to -14.51 J/molK, suggesting that imidacloprid molecules lose entropy during transition from the solution phase to soil surface. It was found that imidacloprid desorption from soil was concentration and temperature dependent, i.e. at lower imidacloprid concentrations and temperature, lower desorption percentage occurred. Desorption studies revealed that hysteretic behavior under different temperature

  14. Thermodynamics of water sorption in high performance glassy thermoplastic polymers

    PubMed Central

    Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino; Mensitieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging from 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different “populations” of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these “populations” in the case of PEI. The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non-equilibrium nature of glassy polymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data. PMID:24860802

  15. Thermodynamics of Water Sorption in High Performance Glassy Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Petretta, Mauro; Galizia, Michele; La Manna, Pietro; Musto, Pellegrino

    2014-05-01

    Sorption thermodynamics of water in two glassy polymers, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK), is investigated by coupling gravimetry and on line FTIR spectroscopy in order to gather information on the total amount of sorbed water as well as on the different species of water molecules absorbed within the polymers, addressing the issue of cross- and self-interactions occurring in the polymer/water systems. Water sorption isotherms have been determined at temperatures ranging fro 30 to 70°C while FTIR spectroscopy has been performed only at 30°C. The experimental analysis provided information on the groups present on the polymer backbones involved in hydrogen bonding interactions with absorbed water molecules. Moreover, it also supplied qualitative indications about the different’populations’ of water molecules present within the PEEK and a quantitative assessment of these ‘populations’ in the case of PEI.The results of the experimental analysis have been interpreted using an equation of state theory based on a compressible lattice fluid model for the Gibbs energy of the polymer-water mixture, developed by extending to the case of out of equilibrium glassy polymers a previous model intended for equilibrium rubbery polymers. The model accounts for the non equilibrium nature of glassy poymers as well as for mean field and for hydrogen bonding interactions, providing a satisfactory quantitative interpretation of the experimental data.

  16. EFFECTS OF BIOSOLIDS ON SORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR OF CADMIUM IN BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium sorption and desorption experiments were conducted on different fractions of soils amended with different biosolids with varying chemical properties and unamended soil (control). Biosolids addition increased the slope of the Cd sorption isotherms compared to the control s...

  17. USING METHANOL-WATER SYSTEMS TO INVESTIGATE PHENANTHRENE SORPTION-DESORPTION ON SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption isotherm nonlinearity, sorption-desorption hysteresis, slow desorption kinetics, and other nonideal phenomena have been attributed to the differing sorptive characteristics of the natural organic matter (NOM) polymers associated with soils and sediments. A conceptualizat...

  18. Modeling of Ground Water Aquifer Remediation by Pulsed Pumping When Contaminant Transport is Affected by Physical, Non-Equilibrium Sorption and Desorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-12

    of organic carbon within the soil matrix fs Specific sorption rate g Gravitational acceleration [UT 2 ] h Head [L] k Intrinsic permeability [12] xi k...phase of fast uptake, followed by an extended period of much slower uptake [Wu and Gschwend, 1986:724]. This was also observed during the Borden field...ascendant when Pe < 2 and Cr < 1 [Goltz and Roberts, 1986b:89; Anderson and Woessner, 1992:3271. Rad ial "r tO h Parant In this simulation, model

  19. Linearised and non-linearised isotherm models optimization analysis by error functions and statistical means.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Busetty; Das, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    In adsorption study, to describe sorption process and evaluation of best-fitting isotherm model is a key analysis to investigate the theoretical hypothesis. Hence, numerous statistically analysis have been extensively used to estimate validity of the experimental equilibrium adsorption values with the predicted equilibrium values. Several statistical error analysis were carried out. In the present study, the following statistical analysis were carried out to evaluate the adsorption isotherm model fitness, like the Pearson correlation, the coefficient of determination and the Chi-square test, have been used. The ANOVA test was carried out for evaluating significance of various error functions and also coefficient of dispersion were evaluated for linearised and non-linearised models. The adsorption of phenol onto natural soil (Local name Kalathur soil) was carried out, in batch mode at 30 ± 20 C. For estimating the isotherm parameters, to get a holistic view of the analysis the models were compared between linear and non-linear isotherm models. The result reveled that, among above mentioned error functions and statistical functions were designed to determine the best fitting isotherm.

  20. Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 2. Copper desorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M

    2011-03-01

    Contaminant desorption constrains the long-term effectiveness of remediation technologies, and is strongly influenced by dynamic non-equilibrium states of environmental and biological media. Information is currently lacking in the influence of biochar and activated carbon amendments on desorption of heavy metal contaminants from soil components. In this study, copper sorption-desorption isotherms were obtained for clay-rich, alkaline San Joaquin soil with significant heavy metal sorption capacity, and eroded, acidic Norfolk sandy loam soil having low capacity to retain copper. Acidic pecan shell-derived activated carbon and basic broiler litter biochar were employed in desorption experiments designed to address both leaching by rainfall and toxicity characteristics. For desorption in synthetic rain water, broiler litter biochar amendment diminished sorption-desorption hysteresis. In acetate buffer (pH 4.9), significant copper leaching was observed, unless acidic activated carbon (pH(pzc)=3.07) was present. Trends observed in soluble phosphorus and zinc concentrations for sorption and desorption equilibria suggested acid dissolution of particulate phases that can result in a concurrent release of copper and other sorbed elements. In contrast, sulfur and potassium became depleted as a result of supernatant replacements only when amended carbon (broiler litter biochar) or soil (San Joaquin) contained appreciable amounts. A positive correlation was observed between the equilibrium aluminum concentration and initial copper concentration in soils amended with acidic activated carbon but not basic biochar, suggesting the importance of cation exchange mechanism, while dissolution of aluminum oxides cannot be ruled out.

  1. Effects of competitor and natural organic matter characteristics on the equilibrium sorption of 1,2-dichlorobenzene in soil and shale.

    PubMed

    Ju, Daeyoung; Young, Thomas M

    2004-11-15

    The competitive sorption behaviors of 1,2-DCB in binary solute systems in four natural sorbents having natural organic matter (NOM) matrixes of different physicochemical characters were investigated in batch reactors. Specifically, the study focused on investigating how the extent of 1,2-DCB competitive sorption depends on (i) the rigidity of NOM matrixes as assessed by the efficiency of chemical oxidation and (ii) the closeness of competitor structure to that of the primary solute. The chemical oxidation and elemental composition results suggest that the shale NOM is the most reduced and condensed, the peat was the most oxidized and amorphous, and two surface soils had intermediate NOM structures. Four chlorinated benzenes and phenanthrene were used as competing solutes. All five chemicals exhibited competition against 1,2-DCB in all sorbents, including the peat, but the extent of competition varied significantly. Little difference in the extent of competition with 1,2-DCB was observed for the various chlorinated benzenes even though some were liquids and some were solids at the experimental temperature. All of the chlorobenzenes were more effective competitors than phenanthrene. The shale showed markedly different competition features from the other sorbents, with a much smaller competitive effect at a given sorbed volume of competitor. However, normalizing sorbed competitor volumes by the capacity of the adsorption domain in the Polanyi-Manes single-solute partition-adsorption model (V0) produced qualitatively similar competitive behavior for each solute; displacement of 1,2-DCB increased with increasing sorbed competitor volumes up to V0, and little additional competition occurred beyond that point. The extent of competition was positively correlated with the maximum adsorption capacity and the fraction of "hard" and "soot" carbon contents as assessed by chemical and thermal oxidation methods. These findings indicate that competition is associated with voids in

  2. Kinetics and equilibrium studies of malachite green adsorption on rice straw-derived char.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-05-01

    In this work, the potential feasibility of rice straw-derived char (RSC) for removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (malachite green (MG)), a cationic dye from aqueous solution was investigated. The isotherm parameters were estimated by non-linear regression analysis. The equilibrium process was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum RSC sorption capacity was found to be 148.74 mg/L at 30 degrees C. The kinetics of MG sorption on RSC followed the Lagergren's pseudo-first-order model and the overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, while intraparticle diffusion controlled the overall rate of adsorption at a later stage. The results indicated that RSC was an attractive adsorbent for removing basic dye from aqueous solutions.

  3. Sorption of silver(I) onto the surface of pure and natural quartz sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Cortazar, M. A.; Behra, P.

    2003-05-01

    Silver is a heavy metal which is present at different oxidation states in the environment and which can be released into aquatic systems from agricultural activities or industries (mines, metallurgy, pharmaceutical and electronic activities, electrochemistry, photography, nuclear industry and power plants...). The aim of this work was to understand the Ag(I) sorption at low concentrations in aquatic systems, specially natural porous media such as soils, sediments and ground waters. Kinetic and thermodynamic experiments were performed in batch reactors at room temperature in the dark. A pure silica sand and a natural aquifer quartz sand were used. Silver concentration and pH (2, 4, 6 and 8) play an important role, while the ionic strength (NaNO3) does not affect neither sorption kinetics nor sorption thermodynamics. For each point, more than four days were necessary to observe equilibrium state. Ag sorption rate law does not appear to be simple, with a change in the reaction order depending on experimental conditions. Sorption isotherms were modelled with Langmuir type relationship for a Ag-range concentration from nanomolar to millimolar. In both kinetic and thermodynamic experiments, one to three sites were necessary to take into account the surface heterogeneity of the natural quartz sand depending on experimental conditions.

  4. Aqueous solubility, n-octanol-water partition coefficient, and sorption of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to sediments and soils.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Armbrust, Kevin L

    2008-08-01

    Aqueous solubilities (S (w)) and n-octanol-water partition coefficients (K (ow)) of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were measured and sorption to two sediments and three soils with organic matter contents ranging from 0.16% to 1.77% and pH ranging between 5.0 and 7.8 was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. SSRIs had high S (w) (3,022-15,460 mg/l) and relatively low log K (ow) (1.12-1.39). Sorption isotherms followed the Freundlich equation. All SSRIs had sorption capacities of greater than 91% except fluvoxamine with a minimum capacity of 73%. Organic matter contents partly affected sorption, however no correlation between sorption characteristics and cation exchange capacity (CEC) or clay content was observed for any SSRI or adsorbent. Values of K (f), K (d), and log K (oc) ranged from 39 to 18,342, from 60 to 42,579, and 3.35 to 6.02 for the SSRIs. SSRIs likely exhibit mixed mechanisms of sorption such as ionic binding in addition to hydrophobic interactions.

  5. Sorption hysteresis of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on natural zeolite and bentonite.

    PubMed

    Hamidpour, Mohsen; Kalbasi, Mahmoud; Afyuni, Majid; Shariatmadari, Hossein; Holm, Peter E; Hansen, Hans Christian Brunn

    2010-09-15

    Sorption hysteresis in natural sorbents has important environmental implications for pollutant transport and bioavailability. We examined sorption reversibility of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on zeolite and bentonite. Sorption isotherms were derived by sorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from solutions containing a range of the metal concentrations corresponding to 10-100% maximum sorption capacity (SCmax) of the sorbents. The desorption experiments were performed immediately following the completion of sorption experiments. Sorption and desorption isotherms of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were well described by the Freundlich model. The results revealed that the desorption isotherms of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from zeolite significantly deviated from the sorption isotherms indicating irreversible or very slowly reversible sorption. For bentonite sorption/desorption isotherms were similar indicating reversible sorption. The extent of hysteresis was evaluated from sorption and desorption Freundlich parameters (K(f) and n) through the apparent hysteresis index (HI = n(desorb)/n(sorb); n is the exponent in the Freundlich equation) and differences in Freundlich K(f) parameters. Higher sorption irreversibility was obtained for Pb(II) as compared to Cd(II). The amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) desorbed from bentonite were more than from zeolite, indicating that zeolite was a more effective sorbent for water and wastewater treatment.

  6. Sorption of phenol and 4-chlorophenol onto pumice treated with cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Akbal, Feryal

    2005-02-01

    In this study the sorption of phenol and 4-chlorophenol on pumice modified with the cationic surfactants hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA) and benzyldimethyl tetradecylammonium chloride (BDTDA) was investigated. Experimental studies indicate that HDTMA-pumice and BDTDA-pumice have the capability to remove phenol and 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solution. The influence of initial concentration and adsorbent dosage was studied. The adsorption of phenol and 4-chlorophenol increased with increasing initial concentration and decreased with increasing amount of adsorbent used. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm was found to describe well the equilibrium adsorption data. The parameters of the Freundlich model have been determined using the adsorption data.

  7. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) removal by mango peel waste.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Zafar, Saeed Iqbal

    2009-05-15

    Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) was found to be 68.92 and 99.05mgg(-1), respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) and proton H(+) from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solution.

  8. Water Vapor Sorption and Diffusion in Secondary Dispersion Barrier Coatings: A Critical Comparison with Emulsion Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Soer, Willem-Jan; Scheerder, Jürgen; Satgurunathan, Guru; Keddie, Joseph L

    2015-06-10

    The conventional method for synthesizing waterborne polymer colloids is emulsion polymerization using surfactants. An emerging method is the use of secondary dispersions (SD) of polymers in water, which avoids the addition of any surfactant. Although there are numerous studies of the water barrier properties (sorption, diffusion, and permeability) of waterborne emulsion (Em) polymer coatings, the properties of SD coatings, in comparison, have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, dynamic water vapor sorption analysis is used to compare the equilibrium sorption isotherms of the two forms of styrene-acrylate copolymers (Em and SD) with the same monomer composition. From an analysis of the kinetics of vapor sorption, the diffusion coefficient of water in the polymer coatings is determined. The combined effects of particle boundaries and surfactant addition were investigated through a comparison of the properties of SD and Em coatings to those of (1) solvent-cast polymer coatings (of the same monomer composition), (2) Em polymers that underwent dialysis to partially remove the water-soluble species, and (3) SD polymers with added surfactants. The results reveal that both the particle boundaries and the surfactants increase vapor sorption. The diffusion coefficients of water are comparable in magnitude in all of the polymer systems but are inversely related to water activity because of molecular clustering. Compared to all of the other waterborne polymer systems, the SD barrier coatings show the lowest equilibrium vapor sorption and permeability coefficients at high relative humidities as well as the lowest water diffusion coefficient at low humidities. These barrier properties make SD coatings an attractive alternative to conventional emulsion polymer coatings.

  9. Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process optimization, and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using activated carbon and activated slag

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mohan, D.

    1997-06-01

    The waste slurry generated in fertilizer plants and slag (blast furnace waste) have been converted into low-cost adsorbents, activated carbon and activated slag, respectively, and these are utilized for the removal of malachite green (a basic dye) from wastewater. In the batch experiments, parameters studied include the effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time. Kinetic studies have been performed to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects and to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The uptake of the dye is greater on carbonaceous material than on activated slag. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The presence of anionic surfactants does not affect the uptake of dye significantly. The mass transfer kinetic approach has been applied for the determination of various parameters necessary for the designing of fixed-bed contactors. Chemical regeneration has been achieved with acetone in order to recover the loaded dye and restore the column to its original capacity without dismantling the same.

  10. Sorption characteristics and separation of tellurium ions from aqueous solutions using nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Min; Guo, Xingjia; Liu, Xueyan; Kang, Pingli; Chen, Xia

    2010-12-15

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO(2)) were employed for the sorption of Te(IV) ions from aqueous solution. A detailed study of the process was performed by varying the sorption time, pH, and temperature. The sorption was found to be fast, equilibrium was reached within 8 min. When the concentration of Te(IV) was below 40 mg L(-1), at least 97% of tellurium was adsorbed by nano-TiO(2) in the pH range of 1-2 and 8-9. The sorbed Te(IV) ions were desorbed with 2.0 mL of 0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH. The sorption data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of 32.75 mg g(-1) (20 ± 0.1 °C) of Te(IV) on nano-TiO(2). The kinetics and thermodynamics of the sorption of Te(IV) onto nano-TiO(2) were also studied. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model (k(2)=0.0368 g mg(-1)min(-1), 293 K). The overall rate process appeared to be influenced by both boundary layer diffusion and intra-particle diffusion. The mean energy of adsorption was calculated to be 17.41 kJ mol(-1) from the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherm at room temperature. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters for the sorption were estimated, and the ΔH(0) and ΔG(0) values indicated the exothermic and spontaneous nature of the sorption process, respectively. Finally, Nano-TiO(2) as sorbent was successfully applied to the separation of Te(IV) from the environmental samples with satisfactory results (recoveries >95%, relative standard deviations was 2.0%).

  11. Degradation and sorption of atrazine, hexazinone and procymidone in coastal sand aquifer media.

    PubMed

    Pang, Liping; Close, Murray; Flintoft, Mark

    2005-02-01

    The degradation, sorption and transport of atrazine, hexazinone and procymidone in saturated coastal sand aquifer media were investigated in batch and column experiments. The pesticides were incubated with sterilised and non-sterilised groundwater or a mixture of groundwater and the aquifer material in the dark at 15 degrees C for 120 days. The estimated half-lives of the pesticides (and their ranges) in the mixture of groundwater and aquifer sand were 36 (31-40), 54 (40-77) and 84 (46-260) days for atrazine, procymidone and hexazinone, respectively. Compared with the relevant results for the groundwater-sand mixture phase, the estimated half-life of pesticides in the groundwater phase alone was shorter for procymidone (21 days) but longer for hexazinone (134 days); atrazine was not degraded in the groundwater phase. Chemical degradation appeared to have played the predominant role in the degradation of hexazinone and procymidone in the aquifer system, while both chemical and biological processes seemed to be important for the degradation of atrazine. Batch isothermal experiments were carried out at pH 4.6-4.7 to obtain sorption coefficients under equilibrium conditions. The isothermal data of the pesticides fitted well with the non-linear Freundlich function with an exponent of sorption coefficient that was greater than one. Contrary to reports in the literature, sorption of atrazine was the greatest, and procymidone was slightly more sorbed than hexazinone. A column experiment was conducted at a typical field-flow velocity of 0.5 m day(-1) over 60 days to study pesticide attenuation and transport in flow dynamic conditions. Retardation factors, R, derived from a two-site sorption/desorption model were 8.22, 1.76 and 1.63 for atrazine, procymidone and hexazinone, respectively. Atrazine displayed the lowest mobility and the mobility of procymidone was only slightly less than that of hexazinone, which is consistent with observations in the batch experiment. A

  12. Freundlich and dual Langmuir isotherm models for predicting 137Cs binding on Savannah River Site soils.

    PubMed

    Goto, Momoko; Rosson, Robert; Wampler, J Marion; Elliott, W Crawford; Serkiz, Steven; Kahn, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of 137Cs and stable cesium between aqueous solution and near-surface soil samples from five locations at the Savannah River Site was measured in order to develop a predictive model for 137Cs uptake by the soils. Sorption of 137Cs in these soils appears to be mostly by hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite. Batch sorption studies with 4 d for equilibration were conducted at three cesium concentrations and at two backing electrolyte (NaNO3) concentrations. The soil-solution mixtures were pH-adjusted to evaluate the effects of pH on cesium sorption. Sorbed cesium was related to the equilibrium aqueous cesium concentrations by a Freundlich isotherm model. Model fits on logarithmic scales have a common slope of 0.60 +/- 0.03 for acidic mixtures and 0.69 +/- 0.04 for neutralized mixtures but have unique intercepts that are influenced by backing electrolyte concentration and pH. An ion-exchange model is proposed that pertains to all five soils and relates the Freundlich isotherms to the cation exchange capacity of soil and the aqueous concentrations of cesium, sodium, and a third ionic species that was hydrogen in the acidic mixtures and potassium in the neutralized mixtures. Model fits are consistent with Kd values in the entire range of 5-2,300 L kg(-1) determined for the five soil types. As an alternate model, dual Langmuir isotherms were fitted to the data. The results suggest cesium sorption by (1) relatively few interlayer-wedge sites, highly selective for cesium, and (2) much more abundant but less selective sites on internal and external planar surfaces.

  13. Single, binary, and multicomponent sorption of iron and manganese on lignite.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Chander, Subhash

    2006-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has long been a significant environmental problem resulting from the microbial oxidation of iron pyrite in the presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The main objective of this study was to remove metal ions [Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Zn(II)] from AMD using lignite, a low-cost adsorbent. The lignite sorbent was utilized for the sorption of ferrous, ferric, manganese, zinc, and calcium ions in aqueous solutions. Studies were performed at different pH to find optimum pH. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess the maximum adsorption capacity of lignite for different metal ions. Sorption capacities were compared in single, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems. The sorption data are correlated with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms in each system. Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms fit the data reasonably well in terms of regression coefficients. Sorption studies were also performed at different temperatures to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The maximum lignite adsorption capacities at 25 degrees C were 34.22, 25.84, and 11.90 mg/g for Fe(II), Mn(II), and Fe(III), respectively. Adsorption of Fe(2+) (24.70 mg/g at 10 degrees C and 46.46 mg/g at 40 degrees C) increased with increased temperature, while Mn(2+) adsorption (28.11 mg/g at 10 degrees C and 7.70 mg/g at 40 degrees C) decreased with increased temperature.

  14. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm studies of Cu (II) and Co (II) in high concentration aqueous solutions on Ag-TiO2-modified kaolinite ceramic adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajenifuja, E.; Ajao, J. A.; Ajayi, E. O. B.

    2016-03-01

    Photocatalytic ceramic adsorbents were prepared from locally sourced kaolinite clay minerals for the removal of copper and cobalt ions from high concentration aqueous solutions. The minerals were treated with mild acid before modification using silver nanoparticles sources and titanium-oxide nanoparticles. Batch adsorption experiment was carried out on the targeted ions and the results were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich equation at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/l). As-received raw materials do not exhibit any adsorption capacity. However, the adsorption isotherms for modified kaolinite clay ceramic adsorbents could be fitted well by the Langmuir model for Cu2+ and Co2+ with correlation coefficient (R) of up to 0.99705. The highest and lowest monolayer coverage (q max) were 93.023 and 30.497 mg/g for Cu2+ and Co2+, respectively. The separation factor (R L ) was less than one (<1), indicating that the adsorption of metal ions on modified ceramic adsorbent is favorable. The highest adsorbent adsorption capacity (K f ) and intensity (n) constants obtained from Freundlich model are 14.401 (Cu2+ on KLN-T) and 6.057 (Co2+ on KLN-T).

  15. Characteristics of selective fluoride adsorption by biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites from protein solutions: kinetics and equilibrium isotherms study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Lv, Tengfei; Song, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Zihong; Duan, Shibo; Xin, Gang; Liu, Fujun; Pan, Decong

    2014-03-15

    In the study, two novel applied biocarbon-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composites (CPLDH and CPLDH-Ca) were successfully prepared and characterized by TEM, ICP-AES, XFS, EDS, FTIR, XRD, BET and pHpzc. The fluoride removal efficiency (RF) and protein recovery ratio (RP) of the adsorbents were studied in protein systems of lysozyme (LSZ) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that the CPLDH-Ca presented remarkable performance for selective fluoride removal from protein solution. It reached the maximum RF of 92.1% and 94.8% at the CPLDH-Ca dose of 2.0g/L in LSZ and BSA system, respectively. The RP in both systems of LSZ and BSA were more than 90%. Additionally, the RP of CPLDH-Ca increased with the increase of ionic strengths, and it almost can be 100% with more than 93% RF. Fluoride adsorption by the CPLDH-Ca with different initial fluoride concentrations was found to obey the mixed surface reaction and diffusion controlled adsorption kinetic model, and the overall reaction rate is probably controlled by intra-particle diffusion, boundary layer diffusion and reaction process. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride in BSA system fit the Langmuir-Freundlich model well. The BSA has synergistic effect on fluoride adsorption and the degree increased with the increase of the initial BSA concentration.

  16. SORPTION ON WASTEWATER SOLIDS: ELIMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption was found to be greatly affected by the biological activity in wastewater solids. wo experimental techniques, cyanide treatment and pasteurization, were developed for eliminating the biological activity during isotherm measurements. oth methods are effective; however, pa...

  17. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  18. Sorption and desorption of diverse contaminants of varying polarity in wastewater sludge with and without alum.

    PubMed

    Morissette, M-F; Vo Duy, S; Arp, H P H; Sauvé, S

    2015-03-01

    Sewage sludge sorption and desorption measurements were conducted for nine diverse contaminants of varying polarity: caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, and, for the first time desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Two types of sorption behaviour were observed. Compounds with a log octanol-water partition coefficient, log Kow, below 3 showed little or no sorption over 48 hours of shaking, while compounds with log Kow over 3 showed 30 to 90% sorption within the first few minutes. After 6 hours of shaking, mass loss through suspected biotransformation became evident for some compounds. At the pH range considered (5.7-6.7), diclofenac (pKa 4.0, log Kow 4.5) was the only compound in which pH dependent sorption could be quantified. The log sewage sludge-water distribution coefficients, log Kd, ranged from 0.2 to 2.9, and, as expected, increased with increasing log Kow of the compound and organic carbon (OC) content of the sewage sludge. A sewage sludge precipitated with alum had a substantially lower Kd values, as well as lower OC content, compared to alum-free sludge. Desorption was studied by sequentially replacing supernatant water. With each water replacement, log Kd values tended to either remain similar (following a linear isotherm) or in some cases increase (following a Freundlich-type isotherm). The length of time required to restore equilibrium increased with each rinsing step. A literature review of reported Kd values compared well with the alum-free sludge data, but not the alum-sludge data. Sewage sludge Kd across the literature appear more consistent with increasing Kow.

  19. Simultaneous sorption and mechanical entrapment during polymer flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajzadeh, R.; Bedrikovetsky, P.; Lotfollahi, M.; Lake, L. W.

    2016-03-01

    Physical adsorption and mechanical entrapment are two major causes of polymer retention in porous media. Physical adsorption is considered an equilibrium process and is often modeled by assuming a Langmuir isotherm. The outcome is a steady state pressure response because the permeability reduction is also accounted for by adsorption. However, some experimental data show gradual increase of pressure with time, implying that polymer retention is a time-dependent process. We discuss simultaneous effect of sorption and mechanical entrapment on the polymer retention in porous media. An exact solution for 1-D flow problem for the case of constant filtration coefficient and Langmuir-sorption isotherm, including explicit formulae for breakthrough concentration and pressure drop across the core is derived. The general model with a varying filtration coefficient was successfully matched with experimental data confirming the occurrence of simultaneous sorption with deep-bed filtration during polymer flow in porous media. In the absence of mechanical entrapment, the physical adsorption causes delay in the polymer front and does not affect the polymer concentration behind the front. Addition of mechanical entrapment results in slow recovery of the injected concentration at the outlet (for a varying filtration coefficient) or reaching to a steady state concentration, which is only a fraction of the injected concentration (for a constant filtration coefficient). Accurate assessment and quantification of the polymer retention requires both pressure and effluent concentration data at the outlet of the porous medium.

  20. [Phosphate sorption characteristics onto sediments in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-li; Pan, Gang; Bao, Hua-ying; Zhang, Xian-wei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Bo-shu

    2008-08-01

    The equilibrium phosphate concentration (EPC0) of the Yellow River bed sediments has been measured, which was used to predict whether bed sediments are acting as a source or sink of soluble reactive phosphate (SRP). The modified Langmuir isotherm equation was used to describe phosphate (P) sorption on the Yellow River sediments. The maximum P sorption capacity (PAC) and P-binding energy constant (k) were obtained by the modified Langmuir isotherm model. Native adsorbed exchangeable phosphorus (NAP), the EPC0, and partitioning coefficients (Kp) were subsequently calculated by the corresponding formulae. The influence of pH values and ion strength were evaluated. All the EPC0 s are higher than the P concentration in the overlying water, indicating a potential source of phosphate from the sediments. PAC is linearly related to the contents of TOC of the sediment. The sorption capacity of P increased rapidly with pH below 6.0, and then reached a plateau between pH 6.0 to 9.7, and finally maintained at a slightly higher level from pH 9.7 to 12.0.The adsorption of P by the sediment decreased with the increase in Ca2+ ionic strength.

  1. Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

  2. Removal of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic(III) from aqueous solutions using scoria: kinetics and equilibria of sorption.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jang-Soon; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Oh; Jo, Ho Young

    2010-02-15

    Kinetic and equilibrium sorption experiments were conducted on removal of divalent heavy metals (Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)) and trivalent arsenic (As(III)) from aqueous solutions by scoria (a vesicular pyroclastic rock with basaltic composition) from Jeju Island, Korea, in order to examine its potential use as an efficient sorbent. The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and As by the scoria (size=0.1-0.2mm, dose=60gL(-1)) were 94, 70, 63, 59, and 14%, respectively, after a reaction time of 24h under a sorbate concentration of 1mM and the solution pH of 5.0. A careful examination on ionic concentrations in sorption batches suggested that sorption behaviors of heavy metals onto scoria are mainly controlled by cation exchange. On the other hand, arsenic appeared to be sensitive to specific sorption onto hematite (a minor constituent of scoria). Equilibrium sorption tests indicated that the removal efficiency for heavy metals increases with increasing pH of aqueous solutions, which is resulted from precipitation as hydroxides. Similarly, multi-component systems containing heavy metals and arsenic showed that the arsenic removal increases with increasing pH of aqueous solutions, which can be attributed to coprecipitation with metal hydroxides. The empirically determined sorption kinetics were well fitted to a pseudo-second order model, while equilibrium sorption data for heavy metals and arsenic onto scoria were consistent with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. Natural scoria studied in this work is an efficient sorbent for concurrent removal of divalent heavy metals and arsenic.

  3. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    PubMed

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration <1000 μgL(-1). These results show that sorption is likely a significant contributor to the persistence of a TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM.

  4. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums.

  5. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-05

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  6. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption of nano-TiO 2 particles on synthetic biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahle-Demessie, Endalkachew; Tadesse, Haregewine

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the environmental behavior of nanoparticles includes their interaction with biofilms, which is a covering on the surface of a living or nonliving substrate composed of microorganisms. This study focuses on nano-TiO2 sorption mechanism by synthetic biofilm that was prepared as superporous spherical beads from agarose, using batch stirred flasks kept at room temperature. The pH plays an important part in these phenomena, by its influence on the nanoparticles and biofilm chemistry, where the biofilm nanoTiO2 uptake at neutral pH was enhanced over acidic conditions. Hydroxylation of TiO2 nanoparticles, dependent on pH and the salinity of the solution, influences the stability of colloids, the sorption kinetics via the nature of limiting phases: diffusion through the boundary layer or intrabiofilm mass transfer and the sorption mechanism. The sorption follows pseudo first-order adsorption kinetics with estimated average rate constants of 2.2 (min- 1). Equilibrium isotherms were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the maximum uptake at different solution pH and the free energy of the adsorption. The adsorption is apparently irreversible because biofilm limits diffusion of particles out of the pores and the complexation active binding sites on the surface hydrated biofilm to the hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles.

  7. Linearity of iodine sorption and sorption capacities for seven soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, M.I.; Hawkins, J.L.; Smith, P.A.

    1996-11-01

    Iodine, a soluble and prevalent element in spent nuclear fuel and a pivotal element in the assessment of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste disposal option, sorbs to soils rich in organics and hydrous oxides. Biotic factors, such as microbes, enzymes and plant exudates, have been implicated in the retention of I to soils. Anion exchange of I{sup {minus}} or IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and chemical or biological oxidation to I{sub 2} followed by reactions with the soil organic matter are possible retention mechanisms. We have carried out sorption and desorption studies across a wide range of soil solution concentrations (10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup 5} mg I/L, 10{sup {minus}12} to 1 M) for seven soils typical of upland and lowland soils of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Soil solid-liquid partition values (K{sub d}), required for impact assessments, varied from 60 to 1800 L/kg and were significantly correlated with extractable Al oxide content, and background I and organic matter content. Freundlich isotherm fits show that sorption of I across our intentionally large concentration range is nonlinear; however, sorption of I across our intentionally large concentration range is nonlinear; however, sorption of I at environmental concentrations (<0.1 mg I/L soil solution) is linear and can be described by the K{sub d} model. Sorption of I was not related to peroxidase enzyme activity. Desorption percentages were small implying sorption was not easily reversed, even with a strong electrolyte, KNO{sub 3}. Desorption results and simple correlations of I sorption to soil properties suggest that the oxidation of I{sup {minus}} to I{sub 2} and complexation to organic functional groups or oxides are the major processes for I retention in Shield soils. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Sorption, degradation and transport phenomena of alcohol ethoxysulfates in agricultural soils. Laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, C; Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Reis, M S; Zafra-Gómez, A; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A; Pérez-Pascual, M; Vílchez, J L

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, laboratory studies were conducted in order to determine and model the sorption, degradation and transport processes of alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES), one of the most important groups of anionic surfactants. Adsorption/desorption isotherms were obtained for several structurally related AES ethoxymers (homologue AES-C12En with n = 0-10 ethoxymer units and homologue AES-C14En with n = 0-7 ethoxymer units) using a batch equilibrium method. Data were fitted to a linear and a Freundlich isotherm models. Additionally, experiments in continuous-flow soil columns were also carried out and the breakthrough curves observed for each compound were studied. Breakthrough curves were used to determine the fundamental parameters of the transport model (hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient, degradation rate constant and adsorption/desorption isotherm slope), that is the main phenomena that take place simultaneously when AES move through agricultural soil. When the results obtained for the AES ethoxymers are combined, they reveal a clear and consistent trend towards a sorption increase with the number of ethoxylated units and with the length of the alkyl chain that opens the possibility to estimate the values of the transport parameters for other structurally related ethoxymers.

  9. The sorption characteristics of mercury as affected by organic matter content and/or soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šípková, Adéla; Šillerová, Hana; Száková, Jiřina

    2014-05-01

    The determination and description of the mercury sorption extend on soil is significant for potential environmental toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mercury sorption at different soil samples and vermicomposts. Mercury interactions with soil organic matter were studied using three soils with different physical-chemical properties - fluvisol, cambisol, and chernozem. Moreover, three different vermicomposts based on various bio-waste materials with high organic matter content were prepared in special fermentors. First was a digestate, second was represented by a mixture of bio-waste from housing estate and woodchips, and third was a garden bio-waste. In the case of vermicompost, the fractionation of organic matter was executed primarily using the resin SuperliteTM DAX-8. Therefore, the representation of individual fractions (humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophilic compounds, and hydrophobic neutral organic matter) was known. The kinetics of mercury sorption onto materials of interest was studied by static sorption experiments. Samples were exposed to the solution with known Hg concentration of 12 mg kg-1 for the time from 10 minutes to 24 hours. Mercury content in the solutions was measured by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Based on this data, the optimum conditions for following sorption experiments were chosen. Subsequently, the batch sorption tests for all soil types and vermicomposts were performed in solution containing variable mercury concentrations between 1 and 12 mg kg-1. Equilibrium concentration values measured in the solution after sorption and calculated mercury content per kilogram of the soil or the vermi-compost were plotted. Two basic models of sorption isotherm - Langmuir and Freundlich, were used for the evaluation of the mercury sorption properties. The results showed that the best sorption properties from studied soil were identified in chernozem with highest cation exchange

  10. Competitive sorption of organic contaminants in chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, E. R.; Borisover, M.

    2003-12-01

    In the Negev desert, Israel, a chemical industrial complex is located over fractured Eocene chalk formations where transfer of water and solutes between fracture voids and matrix pores affects migration of contaminants in the fractures due to diffusion into the chalk matrix. This study tests sorption and sorption competition between contaminants in the chalk matrix to make it possible to evaluate the potential for contaminant attenuation during transport in fractures. Single solute sorption isotherms on chalk matrix material for five common contaminants ( m-xylene, ametryn, 1,2-dichloroethane, phenanthrene, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were found to be nonlinear, as confirmed in plots of Kd versus initial solution concentration. Over the studied concentration ranges, m-xylene Kd varied by more than a factor of 100, ametryn Kd by a factor of 4, 1,2-dichloroethane Kd by more than a factor of 3, phenanthrene Kd by about a factor of 2, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol Kd by a factor of 10. It was earlier found that sorption is to the organic matter component of the chalk matrix and not to the mineral phases (Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1121). Nonlinear sorption isotherms indicate that there is at least some finite sorption domain. Bi-solute competition experiments with 2,4,6-tribromophenol as the competitor were designed to explore the nature of the finite sorption domain. All of the isotherms in the bi-solute experiments are more linear than in the single solute experiments, as confirmed by smaller variations in Kd as a function of initial solution concentration. For both m-xylene and ametryn, there is a small nonlinear component or domain that was apparently not susceptible to competition by 2,4,6-tribromophenol. The nonlinear sorption domain(s) is best expressed at low solution concentrations. Inert-solvent-normalized single and bi-solute sorption isotherms demonstrate that ametryn undergoes specific force interactions with the chalk sorbent. The volume percent of phenanthrene

  11. Model coupling intraparticle diffusion/sorption, nonlinear sorption, and biodegradation processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Gossard, Chris M.; Strevett, Keith A.; Kolar, Randall L.; Sabatini, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion, sorption and biodegradation are key processes impacting the efficiency of natural attenuation. While each process has been studied individually, limited information exists on the kinetic coupling of these processes. In this paper, a model is presented that couples nonlinear and nonequilibrium sorption (intraparticle diffusion) with biodegradation kinetics. Initially, these processes are studied independently (i.e., intraparticle diffusion, nonlinear sorption and biodegradation), with appropriate parameters determined from these independent studies. Then, the coupled processes are studied, with an initial data set used to determine biodegradation constants that were subsequently used to successfully predict the behavior of a second data set. The validated model is then used to conduct a sensitivity analysis, which reveals conditions where biodegradation becomes desorption rate-limited. If the chemical is not pre-equilibrated with the soil prior to the onset of biodegradation, then fast sorption will reduce aqueous concentrations and thus biodegradation rates. Another sensitivity analysis demonstrates the importance of including nonlinear sorption in a coupled diffusion/sorption and biodegradation model. While predictions based on linear sorption isotherms agree well with solution concentrations, for the conditions evaluated this approach overestimates the percentage of contaminant biodegraded by as much as 50%. This research demonstrates that nonlinear sorption should be coupled with diffusion/sorption and biodegradation models in order to accurately predict bioremediation and natural attenuation processes. To our knowledge this study is unique in studying nonlinear sorption coupled with intraparticle diffusion and biodegradation kinetics with natural media.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of poly(carboxymethyl)-cellulose for enhanced La(III) sorption.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Ahmad A; Mohamady, Said I; Hussin, Shimaa S; Akashi, Takaya; Sakai, Yuka; Galhoum, Ahmed A; Guibal, Eric

    2017-02-10

    The grafting of amino and carboxylic acid groups on cellulose increased La(III) sorption efficiency of cellulose: maximum sorption capacity increased from 38mgLag(-1) for cellulose to 101 and 170mgLag(-1) for amino derivative (PAC) and amino-carboxylic derivative (PCMC). Langmuir equation successfully fits sorption isotherms while uptake kinetics are effectively modeled using the pseudo-first order rate equation (though resistance to intraparticle diffusion plays a significant role in the control of metal recovery). Uptake equilibrium occurred within 150-180min. The thermodynamic study shows that the reaction is spontaneous, endothermic and entropic. Nitric acid solutions (0.5M concentration) can be efficiently used for metal recovery and sorbent can be recycled for at least 5 cycles with limited decrease in sorption performance for the three sorbents. The materials were characterized by elemental analysis, acid-base titration, FTIR spectrometry, x-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM-EDX analysis and also by TGA.

  13. Modeling the mechanism involved during the sorption of methylene blue onto fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Ramamurthi, V; Sivanesan, S

    2005-04-01

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove methylene blue from its aqueous solutions using fly ash as an adsorbent. Operating variables studied were initial dye concentration, fly ash mass, pH, and contact time. Maximum color removal was observed at a basic pH of 8. Equilibrium data were represented well by a Langmuir isotherm equation with a monolayer sorption capacity of 5.718 mg/g. Sorption data were fitted to both Lagergren first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the data were found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. Rate constants at different initial concentrations were estimated. The process mechanism was found to be complex, consisting of both surface adsorption and pore diffusion. The effective diffusion parameter D(i) values were estimated at different initial concentrations and the average value was determined to be 2.063 x 10(-9)cm2/s. Analysis of sorption data using a Boyd plot confirms the particle diffusion as the rate-limiting step for the dye concentration ranges studied in the present investigation (20 to 60 mg/L).

  14. SORPTION OF ARSENATE AND ARSENITE ON RUO2.XH2O: A SPECTROSCOPIC AND MACROSCOPIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on RuO2 xH2O was examined using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Constant solid:solution ratio isotherms were constructed from batch sorption experiments to study the sorption of the inorganic arsenic species on RuO2...

  15. Treatment of radioactive liquid waste (Co-60) by sorption on Zeolite Na-A prepared from Iraqi kaolin.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Yasmen A; Zaiter, Maysoon J

    2011-11-30

    Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A has been suggested as ion exchange material to treat cobalt-60 in radioactive liquid waste which came from neutron activation for corrosion products. Batch experiments were conducted to find out the equilibrium isotherm for source sample. The equilibrium isotherm for radioactive cobalt in the source sample showed unfavorable type, while the equilibrium isotherm for the total cobalt (the radioactive and nonradioactive cobalt) in the source sample showed a favorable type. The ability of Na-A zeolite to remove cobalt from wastewater was checked for high cobalt concentration (822 mg/L) in addition to low cobalt concentration in the source sample (0.093 mg/L). A good fitting for the experimental data with Langmuir equilibrium model was observed. Langmuir constant qm which is related to monolayer adsorption capacity for low and high cobalt concentration was determined to be 0.021 and 140 mg/g(zeolite). The effects of important design variables on the zeolite column performance were studied these include initial concentration, flow rate, and bed depth. The experimental results have shown that high sorption capacity can be obtained at high influent concentration, low flow rate, and high bed depth. Higher column performance was obtained at higher bed depth. Thomas model was employed to predict the breakthrough carves for the above variables. A good fitting was observed with correlation coefficients between 0.915 and 0.985.

  16. Sorption of acetochlor, S-metolachlor, and atrazine in surface and subsurface soil horizons of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bedmar, Francisco; Daniel, Peter E; Costa, José L; Giménez, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Understanding herbicide sorption within soil profiles is the first step to predicting their behavior and leaching potential. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface soil properties on acetochlor, atrazine, and S-metolachlor sorption. Soil samples were taken from horizons A, B, and C of two loamy soils of the humid pampas of Argentina under no-till management; horizon A was divided into two layers, A(0) (0-5 cm) and A(1) (5 cm to the full thickness of an A horizon). Sorption isotherms were determined from each sampled horizon using the batch equilibrium method and seven concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg L(-1)). Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich equation. The sorption strength K(f) (mg(1 - 1/n) kg(-1) L(1/n) ) over the soils and horizons studied followed the order S-metolachlor (16.51-29.19) > atrazine (4.85-12.34) ≥ acetochlor (5.17-11.97), which was closely related to the hydrophobicity of herbicides expressed as octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW) ). The K(f) values of the three herbicides were positively correlated with soil organic carbon, with a significance of p < 0.01. Values of K(f) for the three herbicides decreased with depth in the two soils, indicating greater sorption onto surficial soil horizons and possibly a delayed transport toward subsurface soils and subsequent pollution of groundwater.

  17. Fractionation of aquatic natural organic matter upon sorption to goethite and kaolinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, M.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Maurice, P.A.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) consists of a complex mixture of organic molecules; previous studies have suggested that preferential sorption of higher molecular weight, more hydrophobic, and more aromatic components may lead to fractionation of the NOM pool upon passage through porous media. Our work expands upon previous studies by quantifying the change in solution-phase weight average molecular weight (M(w)) upon sorption of bulk (rather than isolated) surface water NOM from the Suwannee River (SR) and the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) to goethite and kaolinite at different sorption densities and at pH 4, 22??C. High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was used to quantify changes in M(w) upon sorption, and molar absorptivities at ?? = 280 nm were used to approximate changes in solution NOM aromaticity. Two SR water samples were used, with M(w) = 2320 and 2200 Da; a single GDS sample was used, with M(w) = 1890 Da. The SR NOM was slightly more hydrophobic and aromatic. These differences were reflected in greater sorption of SR NOM than GDS NOM. Both surface water NOMs showed a much greater affinity for goethite than for kaolinite. HPSEC analysis of the NOM remaining in solution after 24 h reaction time with geothite revealed that the largest changes in solution phase M(w)s (decreases by 900-1700 Da) occurred at relatively low equilibrium sorbate concentrations (approximately 5-20 mg C 1-1); the decrease in solution M(w) suggested that reactive surface sites were occupied disproportionately by large and intermediate size NOM moieties. At higher equilibrium NOM concentrations (>20 mg C 1-1), as percent adsorption decreased, M(w) in solution was similar to original samples. A smaller decrease in solution NOM M(w) (300-500 Da at 10-20 mg C 1-1 ~ 100 Da at > 20 mg) also occurred upon sorption to kaolinite. Overall, our results showed that factors (as related to NOM composition, clay mineral surface properties, and position along the sorption isotherm) which

  18. The Determination of Zeolite Sorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishin, A. A.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Kurchatov, I. M.

    The installation and the measurement data procedure were established for the sorbent characteristics determination. Sorption isotherms of the three gases (nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide) are obtained on the industrial zeolites NaX, NaX-BKO and NaA in a pressure range (0;7) bar.

  19. Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on organo-montmorillonites.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Qiaoying; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; He, Hongping

    2010-02-01

    Perfluorinated compound as one of the emerging pollutants has caused great attention in recent years. In this study, the organo-montmorillonites (organo-Mts) with different amounts and arrangements of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) were prepared as effective sorbents for PFOS removal from water. Batch sorption experiments including sorption kinetics, sorption isotherm as well as effect of solution pH were studied. The Elovich and pseudo-second-order models were selected to fit the kinetic data and the latter described the sorption kinetic better. Sorption isotherms showed that the sorption amount of PFOS increased with increasing amount of HDTMAB loaded in the montmorillonites, indicating that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in the sorption process. Comparative sorption of other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) with different length of C-F chains and different functional groups further verified that hydrophobic interaction was the main force for the sorption of PFCs on the organo-Mts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated the significant decrease of interlayer distance after PFOS sorption, suggesting that the HDTMAB molecules were rearranged in the interlayer of organo-Mts. The PFOS molecules first diffused into the organo-Mts via hydrophobic interaction, and then the rearrangement occurred through electrostatic interaction between the two surfactants, resulting in the microstructure change within the organo-Mts.

  20. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of acid Orange 52 dye biosorption by Paulownia tomentosa Steud. leaf powder as a low-cost natural biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Fatih; Saygideger, Saadet D

    2010-07-01

    The biosorption of Acid Orange 52 onto the leaf powder of Paulownia tomentosa Steud. was studied in a batch adsorption system to estimate the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters as a function of solution pH, biosorbent concentration, dye concentration, biosorbent size, temperature and contact time. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used for modeling the biosorption equilibrium. The experimental equilibrium data could be well interpreted by the Temkin and Langmuir isotherms with maximum adsorption capacity of 10.5 mg g(-1). In order to state the sorption kinetics, the fits of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic studies indicated that this system was exothermic process. The results revealed that P. tomentosa leaf powder could be an efficient biosorbent for the treatment of wastewater containing Acid Orange 52.

  1. Sorption and Transport of Ranitidine in Natural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynor, A. J.; Vulava, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing levels of pharmaceuticals and their degradants are being discovered in natural water systems all over the world. These chemicals are reported to be discharged from wastewater treatment plants, sewage overflow, and leaking septic tanks. Ranitidine is an example of one such pharmaceutical chemical found in municipal drinking water, streams, and streambed sediments. It is a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, which inhibits the production of stomach acid and is commonly used to treat peptic ulcers and gastro esophageal reflux disease. Ranitidine is a complex organic compound; it is acidic, highly polar, and has two pKa values of approximately 8.2 and 2.7 because of the amine functional groups. When administered orally 25 - 30% of unchanged ranitidine has been shown to expel through urine. The objective of this research is to establish sorption and transport patterns of ranitidine in natural soils and to determine which soil properties influence these patterns the most. Laboratory experiments were preformed on A-horizon and B-horizon soil samples collected from the relatively undisturbed Francis Marion National Forest, a managed forest near Charleston, SC. The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties: ranges of clay content = 6-20%, total organic content = 1-8%, and pH = 3.6-4.9. Kinetic reaction rates and equilibrium sorption isotherms were measured using batch experiments, whereas column experiments were used to quantify transport behavior. The reaction rates were -0.22/day and -0.33/day for organic-rich and clay-rich soils, respectively. The kinetic reaction rates were used to determine equilibration times for further equilibrium batch reactor experiments, which have soil solutions spiked with concentrations of ranitidine ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 100 mg/L. The concentration remaining in solution (C, mg/L) was plotted against the concentration in the soil (q, mg/kg) to create sorption isotherms. Ranitidine was more strongly sorbed to B

  2. Kinetic and Isotherm Modelling of the Adsorption of
Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater onto Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Alessandro A.; Perego, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Summary The adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive oil wastewater by commercial activated carbon was studied as a function of adsorbent quantity and temperature. The sorption kinetics and the equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (8 g of activated carbon per 100 mL), the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon expressed as mg of caffeic acid equivalent per g of activated carbon was 35.8 at 10 °C, 35.4 at 25 °C and 36.1 at 40 °C. The pseudo-second-order model was considered as the most suitable for kinetic results, and Langmuir isotherm was chosen to better describe the sorption system. The results confirmed the efficiency of activated carbon to remove almost all phenolic compound fractions from olive mill effluent. The preliminary results obtained will be used in future studies. The carbohydrate fraction of this upgraded residue could be employed to produce bioethanol, and adsorbed phenolic compounds can be recovered and used in different industries. PMID:27904350

  3. Equilibrium and kinetic aspects of sodium cromoglycate adsorption on chitosan: mass uptake and surface charging considerations.

    PubMed

    de Lima, C R M; Pereira, M R; Fonseca, J L C

    2013-09-01

    Chitosan has more and more been suggested as a material for use as adsorbent in the treatment of effluents as well as in the synthesis of drug-loaded nanoparticles for controlled release. In both cases, a good understanding of the process of adsorption, both kinetically and in terms of equilibrium, has an importance of its own. In this manuscript we study the interaction between sodium cromoglycate, a drug used in asthma treatment, and chitosan. Equilibrium experiments showed that Sips (or Freundlich-Langmuir) isotherm described well the resultant data and adsorption possibly occurred as in multilayers. A model based on ordinary reaction-rate theory, compounded of two processes, each one with a correlated velocity constant, described the kinetics of sorption. Kinetic and equilibrium data suggested the possibility of surface rearrangement, favored by the increase of temperature.

  4. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by native and activated bentonite: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Kul, Ali Riza; Koyuncu, Hülya

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of Pb(II) ions on native (NB) and acid activated (AAB) bentonites were examined. The specific surface areas, pore size and pore-size distributions of the samples were fully characterized. The adsorption efficiency of Pb(II) onto the NB and AAB was increased with increasing temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of Pb(II) ions was discussed using three kinetic models, the pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order and the intra-particle diffusion model. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The initial sorption rate and the activation energy were also calculated. The activation energy of the sorption was calculated as 16.51 and 13.66 kJ mol(-1) for NB and AAB, respectively. Experimental results were also analysed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations at different temperatures. R(L) separation factor for Langmuir and the n value for Freundlich isotherm show that Pb(II) ions are favorably adsorbed by NB and AAB. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (DeltaG), the enthalpy (DeltaH) and the entropy change of sorption (DeltaS) were determined as about -5.06, 10.29 and 0.017 kJ mol(-1) K(-1), respectively for AAB. It was shown that the sorption processes were an endothermic reactions, controlled by physical mechanisms and spontaneously.

  5. Unified water isotherms for clayey porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Lu, N.

    2013-09-01

    We provide a unified model for the soil-water retention function, including the effect of bound and capillary waters for all types of soils, including clayey media. The model combines a CEC-normalized isotherm describing the sorption of the bound water (and the filling of the trapped porosity) and the van Genuchten model to describe the capillary water sorption retention but ignore capillary condensation. For the CEC-normalized isotherm, we tested both the BET and Freundlich isotherms, and we found that the Freundlich is more suitable than the BET isotherm in fitting the data. It is also easier to combine the Freundlich isotherm with the van Genuchten model. The new model accounts for (1) the different types of clay minerals, (2) the different types of ions sorbed in the Stern layer and on the basal planes of 2:1 clays, and (3) the pore size distribution. The model is validated with different data sets, including mixtures of kaolinite and bentonite. The model parameters include two exponents (the pore size exponent of the van Genuchten model and the exponent of the Freundlich isotherm), the capillary entry pressure, and two critical water contents. The first critical water content is the water content at saturation (porosity), and the second is the maximum water content associated with adsorption forces, including the trapped nonbound water.

  6. Sorption of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite clays.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianjia; Wang, Jun; Fan, Bin; Luan, Zhaokun

    2009-08-30

    It has been discovered previously that clay minerals may have a greater potential for sorption of pesticides. In this paper, the sorption of endrin, a nonionic persistent organochlorine pesticide, to montmorillonite and kaolinite was investigated. The effect of pH, ionic strength on the sorption was studied. The effect of intercalation of hydroxyl aluminium species on sorption of endrin to montmorillonite was also investigated. The results show that, the sorption isotherm of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite was linear. The sorption increases with the increase in ionic strength. pH has effect on the sorption and the sorption on both montmorillonite and kaolinite has obvious troughs at pH about 7.2 and 5.4, respectively. The intercalation of hydroxyl aluminium species decreases the sorption. Sorption mechanism of endrin to montmorillonite and kaolinite was suggested to be a combination of hydrophobic interaction and charge-dipole interaction and troughs in the effect of pH on sorption was attributed to the proton shift reaction of the broken bonds at the clay edges.

  7. Palm oil fruit shells as biosorbent for copper removal from water and wastewater: experiments and sorption models.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Nguyen, T V

    2012-06-01

    Palm oil fruit shells were evaluated as a new bioadsorbent to eliminate toxic copper from water and wastewater. Without any chemical treatment, palm oil fruit shells were washed, dried and grounded into powder (<75 μm) for use in the experiments. Characterization showed mesopore based bioadsorbent was prepared from palm oil fruit shells. The results indicate that the highest Cu removal efficiency was found in an aqueous solution with pH of 6.5. The equilibrium sorption capacity of copper was significantly high (between 28 and 60 mg/g) at room temperature. Nonlinear regression analyses for isotherm models revealed that three-parameter isotherms had a better fit to the experimental data (R(2)>0.994) than that of two-parameter isotherms. The copper sorption system was heterogeneous as the values of exponents were lying between 0 and 1. The highly correlated pseudo-second-order kinetics model (R(2)>0.998) ascertained the applicability of copper removal by palm oil fruit shells.

  8. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    PubMed

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B

    2015-03-01

    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (≤10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ≥10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite.

  9. Surface Engineering of PAMAM-SDB Chelating Resin with Diglycolamic Acid (DGA) Functional Group for Efficient Sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) from Aqueous Medium.

    PubMed

    Ilaiyaraja, P; Deb, A K Singha; Ponraju, D; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Venkatraman, B

    2017-04-15

    A novel chelating resin obtained via growth of PAMAM dendron on surface of styrene divinyl benzene resin beads, followed by diglycolamic acid functionalization of the dendrimer terminal. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, nitric acid concentration, amount of adsorbent, shaking time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption efficiency. Diglycolamic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimer functionalized styrene divinylbenzene chelating resin (DGA-PAMAM-SDB) is found to be an efficient candidate for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous (pH >4) and nitric acid media (>3M). The sorption equilibrium could be reached within 60min, and the experimental data fits with pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlates well with sorption equilibrium data. The maximum U(VI) and Th(IV) sorption capacity onto DGA-PAMAMG5-SDB was estimated to be about 682 and 544.2mgg(-1) respectively at 25°C. The interaction of actinides and chelating resin is reversible and hence, the resin can be regenerated and reused. DFT calculation on the interaction of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions with chelating resin validates the experimental findings.

  10. Dual-mode sorption model for single- and multisolute sorption onto organoclays

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, J.K.; Song, D.I.; Jeon, Y.W.

    1999-02-01

    The dual-mode sorption model (DSM) was applied to the single-solute sorption of 2-chlorophenol, 3-cyanophenol, and 4-nitrophenol from water onto organoclays. The three parameters contained in the DSM were determined for each solute by fitting to the single-solute isotherm data and subsequently utilized in competitive multisolute sorptions. A systematic method to determine the parameters for each solute was also suggested. The ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) coupled with the single-solute DSM and the competitive dual-mode sorption model (CDSM) extended to describe multisolute sorption were used to predict multisolute sorption onto organoclays and compared with the data to determine the predictive capabilities. The DSM was found to describe well single-solute sorption from water onto organoclays. The predictions from the CDSM and the IAST based on the DSM, though rather poor for some solutes, were generally in agreement with the multisolute sorption data. However,the authors could not tell at this stage which of the two competitive models is better.

  11. Impact of Sequential Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) Pretreatment and Pelletization on the Moisture Sorption Properties of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, Ian J.; Thompson, David N.; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Campbell, Timothy; Bals, Bryan; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-05-01

    Combining ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment with a depot processing facility is a promising option for delivering high-value densified biomass to the emerging bioenergy industry. However, because the pretreatment process results in a high moisture material unsuitable for pelleting or storage (40% wet basis), the biomass must be immediately dried. If AFEX pretreatment results in a material that is difficult to dry, the economics of this already costly operation would be at risk. This work tests the nature of moisture sorption isotherms and thin-layer drying behavior of corn (Zea mays L.) stover at 20°C to 60°C before and after sequential AFEX pretreatment and pelletization to determine whether any negative impacts to material drying or storage may result from the AFEX process. The equilibrium moisture content to equilibrium relative humidity relationship for each of the materials was determined using dynamic vapor sorption isotherms and modeled with modified Chung-Pfost, modified Halsey, and modified Henderson temperature-dependent models as well as the Double Log Polynomial (DLP), Peleg, and Guggenheim Anderson de Boer (GAB) temperature-independent models. Drying kinetics were quantified under thin-layer laboratory testing and modeled using the Modified Page's equation. Water activity isotherms for non-pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Peleg temperature-independent equation while isotherms for the pelleted biomass were best modeled with the Double Log Polynomial equation. Thin-layer drying results were accurately modeled with the Modified Page's equation. The results of this work indicate that AFEX pretreatment results in drying properties more favorable than or equal to that of raw corn stover, and pellets of superior physical stability in storage.

  12. Water vapor sorption thermodynamics of the Nafion ionomer membrane.

    PubMed

    Wadsö, Lars; Jannasch, Patric

    2013-07-18

    The water interactions of polymer electrolyte membranes are of significant interest when these materials are used in, for example, fuel cells. We have therefore studied the sorption thermodynamics of Nafion with a sorption calorimeter that simultaneously measures the sorption isotherm and the mixing (sorption) enthalpy. This unique method is suitable for investigating the sorption thermodynamics of ionic polymers. The measurements were made at 25 °C on a series of samples dried at different temperatures from 25 to 120 °C. The sorption isotherms indicate that the samples dried at 120 °C lost about 0.8 more water molecules per sulfonic group during the drying than did the samples dried at 25 °C, and this result was verified gravimetrically. The mixing enthalpies showed several peaks or plateaus for the samples dried at 60-120 °C. This behavior was seen up to about 2 water molecules per sulfonic group. As these peaks were not directly related to any feature in the sorption isotherm, they probably have their origin in a secondary process, such as a reorganization of the polymer.

  13. The removal of heavy metals in urban runoff by sorption on mulch.

    PubMed

    Jang, Am; Seo, Youngwoo; Bishop, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    A series of adsorption experiments was conducted in order to assess the ability of three mulches to remove several of the heavy metal ions typically encountered in urban runoff. Three types of mulch, cypress bark (C), hardwood bark (H), and pine bark nugget (P), were selected as potential sorbents to capture heavy metals in urban runoff. The hardwood bark (H) mulch had the best physicochemical properties for adsorption of heavy metal ions. In addition, because of its fast removal rate and acceptably high capacity for all the heavy metal ions, it was concluded that the H mulch is the best of the three adsorbents for treatment of urban runoff containing trace amounts of heavy metals. In order to investigate the sorption isotherm, two equilibrium models, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, were analyzed. The sorption of these metals on H mulch conformed to the linear form of the Langmuir adsorption equation. At pH 5 and 6, the Langmuir constants (S(m)) for each metal were found to be 0.324 and 0.359 mmol/g (Cu); 0.306 and 0.350 mmol/g (Pb); and 0.185 and 0.187 mmol/g (Zn) at 25 degrees C.

  14. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar.

  15. Surface complexation modeling or organic acid sorption to goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Evanko, C.R.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and

  16. Plutonium(IV) and (V) sorption to goethite at sub-femtomolar to micromolar concentrations: Redox transformations and surface precipitation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Pihong; Begg, James D.; Zavarin, Mavrik; ...

    2016-06-06

    Here, Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to goethite was investigated over a concentration range of 10–15–10–5 M at pH 8. Experiments with initial Pu concentrations of 10–15 – 10–8 M produced linear Pu sorption isotherms, demonstrating that Pu sorption to goethite is not concentration-dependent across this concentration range. Equivalent Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption Kd values obtained at 1 and 2-week sampling time points indicated that Pu(V) is rapidly reduced to Pu(IV) on the goethite surface. Further, it suggested that Pu surface redox transformations are sufficiently rapid to achieve an equilibrium state within 1 week, regardless of the initial Pu oxidation state.more » At initial concentrations >10–8 M, both Pu oxidation states exhibited deviations from linear sorption behavior and less Pu was adsorbed than at lower concentrations. NanoSIMS and HRTEM analysis of samples with initial Pu concentrations of 10–8 – 10–6 M indicated that Pu surface and/or bulk precipitation was likely responsible for this deviation. In 10–6 M Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples, HRTEM analysis showed the formation of a body centered cubic (bcc) Pu4O7 structure on the goethite surface, confirming that reduction of Pu(V) had occurred on the mineral surface and that epitaxial distortion previously observed for Pu(IV) sorption occurs with Pu(V) as well.« less

  17. Plutonium(IV) and (V) sorption to goethite at sub-femtomolar to micromolar concentrations: Redox transformations and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Pihong; Begg, James D.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J.; Williams, Ross; Dai, Zurong R.; Kips, Ruth; Kersting, Annie B.

    2016-06-06

    Here, Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to goethite was investigated over a concentration range of 10–15–10–5 M at pH 8. Experiments with initial Pu concentrations of 10–15 – 10–8 M produced linear Pu sorption isotherms, demonstrating that Pu sorption to goethite is not concentration-dependent across this concentration range. Equivalent Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption Kd values obtained at 1 and 2-week sampling time points indicated that Pu(V) is rapidly reduced to Pu(IV) on the goethite surface. Further, it suggested that Pu surface redox transformations are sufficiently rapid to achieve an equilibrium state within 1 week, regardless of the initial Pu oxidation state. At initial concentrations >10–8 M, both Pu oxidation states exhibited deviations from linear sorption behavior and less Pu was adsorbed than at lower concentrations. NanoSIMS and HRTEM analysis of samples with initial Pu concentrations of 10–8 – 10–6 M indicated that Pu surface and/or bulk precipitation was likely responsible for this deviation. In 10–6 M Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples, HRTEM analysis showed the formation of a body centered cubic (bcc) Pu4O7 structure on the goethite surface, confirming that reduction of Pu(V) had occurred on the mineral surface and that epitaxial distortion previously observed for Pu(IV) sorption occurs with Pu(V) as well.

  18. Phenanthrene and pyrene sorption and intraparticle diffusion in polyoxymethylene, coke, and activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sungwoo Ahn; David Werner; Hrissi K. Karapanagioti; Donald R. McGlothlin; Richard N. Zare; Richard G. Luthy

    2005-09-01

    The authors report sorption isotherms and uptake kinetics for phenanthrene and pyrene with three organic model sorbents: polyoxymethylene (POM), coke breeze, and activated carbon. Batch equilibration and kinetic experiments were combined with the direct observation of the long-term diffusion of phenanthrene and pyrene as measured within cross-sectioned particles using microprobe laser-desorption laser-ionization mass spectroscopy ({mu}L{sup 2}MS). For POM pellets, the intraparticle concentration profiles predicted from kinetic batch experiments and a polymer diffusion model with spherical geometry are in agreement with the independent {mu}L{sup 2}MS measurements. For coke particles, the apparent diffusivities decreased with smaller particle size. These trends in diffusivities were described by a sorption-retarded pore diffusion model with a particle-size-dependent solid-water partitioning coefficient obtained from apparent equilibrium observed in the kinetic batch studies. For activated carbon, the {mu}L{sup 2}MS measurements showed faster radial diffusion of phenanthrene and pyrene into the particle interior than predicted from diffusion models based on a single sorption domain and diffusivity. A branched pore kinetic model, comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) macropore diffusion with kinetic exchange of PAH between macroporous and microporous domains, fits the experimental observations better. It is not possible to make independent parameter estimations for intraparticle diffusion in activated carbon using present procedures. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash: kinetics, mechanism, process design and factorial design.

    PubMed

    Krishna Prasad, R; Srivastava, S N

    2009-01-30

    Batch and continuous experiments were performed for the sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash particles. The Freundlich and pseudo-second order equation were found to fit the equilibrium data perfectly. The Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion isotherm equation was used to predict the sorption mechanism and the predicted equation for 10% dilution of spent wash sorption is q(t)=1.1344t(0.5)+33.304. The optimization using 2(3) factorial design of experiments provides optimal removal of color of 93% for dilution (5%), dosage of adsorbent (10g) and temperature (293K). The actual color removal at optimal conditions was 92.24%, confirms close to the factorial design results. The complete error analysis using six non-linear error functions: Chi-square (chi(2)); sum of square errors (SSE); composite fractional error function (HYBRD); derivative of Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD); average relative error (ARE); sum of absolute errors (EABS) were calculated. Free energy of adsorption at 293K (DeltaG(0)=-1574.67J), enthalpy change (DeltaH(0)=-32.5487KJ) and entropy change (DeltaS(0)=105J/K) were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. Adsorption studies in a packed column were evaluated using Bed depth service time model, Thomas model and Adams-Bohart model.

  20. Sorption of uranium(VI) ions from hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride solutions by anion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Pakholkov, V.S.; Denisova, L.A.; Rychkov, V.N.; Kurnosenko, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The sorption of macroscopic quantities of uranium from solutions of UO/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ containing HCl and NH/sub 4/Cl in concentrations from 0.0 to 6.0 M by the AV-17 x 8, AV-16G, EDE-10P, AN-31, AN-2F, AN22, and AN-251 anion exchangers has been investigated under static conditions. The sorption isotherms are described by an equation similar to Freundlich's equation: K/sub d/ = K tilde x C/sub eq/sup 1/z/ or log K/sub d/ = log K tilde + 1/z x log C/sub eq/. Equations describing the dependence of the sorbability (or K/sub d/) on the equilibrium concentration of uranium in the solution have been obtained with the aid of the least-squares method. Conclusions regarding the chemistry of the exchange of uranium ions on anion exchangers in chloride solutions have been drawn on the basis of the UV spectra of the original solutions and the IR spectra of the ion exchangers obtained in this work, as well as the established general laws governing sorption.

  1. Efficient sorption of Cu(2+) by composite chelating sorbents based on potato starch-graft-polyamidoxime embedded in chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Ecaterina Stela; Apopei Loghin, Diana Felicia; Cocarta, Ana Irina

    2014-10-08

    Ionic composites based on cross-linked chitosan (CS) as matrix and poly(amidoxime) grafted on potato starch (AOX) as entrapped chelating resin were prepared as beads, for the first time in this work, by two strategies: (1) thorough mixing of previously prepared AOX in the CS solution followed by the bead formation and (2) thorough mixing of the potato starch-g-poly(acrylonitrile) (PS-g-PAN) copolymer in the initial CS solution, followed by bead formation, the amidoximation of the nitrile groups taking place inside the beads. Ionotropic gelation in tripolyphosphate was used to obtain the composite beads, and in situ covalent cross-linking by epichlorohydrin was carried out to stabilize the beads in the acidic pH range. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the swelling ratio values in the acidic pH range confirmed the influence of the synthesis strategy on the structure of the CS/AOX composites. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to reveal the morphology of the novel composites, both before and after their loading with Cu(2+). The binding capacity of Cu(2+) ions as a function of sorbent composition, synthesis strategy, pH, sorbent dose, contact time, initial concentration of Cu(2+), and temperature was examined in batch mode. The main difference between the composites prepared with the two strategies consisted of the higher sorption capacity and the much faster settlement of the equilibrium sorption for the composite prepared by the in situ amidoximation of PS-g-PAN. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Sips isotherms were applied to fit the sorption equilibrium data. The maximum equilibrium sorption capacity, qm, evaluated by the Langmuir model at 25 °C was 133.15 mg Cu(2+)/g for the CS/AOX composite beads prepared with the first strategy and 238.14 mg Cu(2+)/g for the CS/AOX composite beads prepared with the second strategy, at the same AOX content. The pseudo-second order kinetic model well fitted the sorption kinetics data

  2. Sorption and Transport of Diphenhydramine in Natural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, C. J.; Vulava, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical and related chemicals have been detected in streams and ground water sources throughout the world, as a result of sewage overflows, runoff, or sewage treatment facilities unequipped to remove trace levels of pharmaceuticals. Diphenhydramine- an antihistamine that is used to treat allergy and common cold symptoms, induce sleep, suppress cough, and treat motion sickness- is prominent among them. Diphenhydramine has a complex, highly polar organic structure including two benzene rings and an amine functional group. It has a solubility of 3.06 g/L and a pKa of 8.98. Recent studies have shown that diphenhydramine in streams disrupts the ecology by affecting the algal and bacterial biofilms present on the streambed. In streams, photosynthesis has been found to decrease by up to 99% and plant respiration has been inhibited. Diphenhydramine has also altered the types and numbers of bacteria found in streams. Its presence in contaminated stream bodies can result in contact with soils and sediment in the stream floodplain. The objective of this study is to measure sorption and transport behavior of diphenhydramine in natural soils and determine reactivity of soil components. These studies were conducted in the laboratory using natural soil collected from the Francis Marion National Forrest. Soil samples from A and B horizons of several soil series were characterized for physical and chemical properties: organic matter content ranged between 0.6-7.6%, clay content between 6-20%, and soil pH between 3.7-4.9. The B-horizon soils contain a higher amount of clay than the organic-rich A-horizon soils. Equilibrium sorption isotherms and reaction kinetic rates were measured using batch reactor experiments and chromatographic column experiments were conducted to measure transport behavior. Kinetic experiments showed that diphenhydramine sorbed more strongly to the clay-rich soils and reached equilibrium after seven days, compared to ten days in organic-rich soils. The

  3. Evaluating phenanthrene sorption on various wood chars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, G.; Sabatini, D.A.; Chiou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.; Scott, A.C.; Karapanagioti, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    A certain amount of wood char or soot in a soil or sediment sample may cause the sorption of organic compounds to deviate significantly from the linear partitioning commonly observed with soil organic matter (SOM). Laboratory produced and field wood chars have been obtained and analyzed for their sorption isotherms of a model solute (phenanthrene) from water solution. The uptake capacities and nonlinear sorption effects with the laboratory wood chars are similar to those with the field wood chars. For phenanthrene aqueous concentrations of 1 ??gl-1, the organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (log Koc) ranging from 5.0 to 6.4 for field chars and 5.4-7.3 for laboratory wood chars, which is consistent with literature values (5.6-7.1). Data with artificial chars suggest that the variation in sorption potential can be attributed to heating temperature and starting material, and both the quantity and heterogeneity of surface-area impacts the sorption capacity. These results thus help to corroborate and explain the range of log Koc values reported in previous research for aquifer materials containing wood chars. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Equilibrium and kinetics study on hexavalent chromium adsorption onto diethylene triamine grafted glycidyl methacrylate based copolymers.

    PubMed

    Maksin, Danijela D; Nastasović, Aleksandra B; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D; Suručić, Ljiljana T; Sandić, Zvjezdana P; Hercigonja, Radmila V; Onjia, Antonije E

    2012-03-30

    Two porous and one non-porous crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [abbreviated PGME] were prepared by suspension copolymerization and functionalized with diethylene triamine [abbreviated PGME-deta]. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption by PGME-deta were investigated in batch static experiments, in the temperature range 25-70°C. Sorption was rapid, with the uptake capacity higher than 80% after 30 min. Sorption behavior and rate-controlling mechanisms were analyzed using five kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Bangham model). Kinetic studies showed that Cr(VI) adsorption adhered to the pseudo-second-order model, with definite influence of pore diffusion. Equilibrium data was tested with Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherm models. Langmuir model was the most suitable indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model, Q(max), at pH 1.8 and 25°C was 143 mg g(-1) for PGME2-deta (sample with the highest amino group concentration) while at 70°C Q(max) reached the high value of 198 mg g(-1). Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption onto PGME-deta.

  5. [Sorption of amino acids from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal].

    PubMed

    Nekliudov, A D; Tsibanov, V V

    1985-03-01

    Various methods for quantitative description of amino acid sorption from solutions for parenteral nutrition on activated charcoal were studied under dynamic and static conditions. With the use of the well-known Freindlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms it was shown to be possible to describe in a simplified way the complex multicomponent process of sorption of the amino acids and to estimate their loss at the filtration stage.

  6. Effects of native organic material and water on sorption properties of reference diesel soot.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Grathwohl, Peter; Haderlein, Stefan B; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-05-01

    Soot has been considered as a potentially important sorbent for organic contaminants in soils, sediments, and aerosols. This paper demonstrates that native (authigenic) extractable organic material (EOM) and surface-covering water on soot may have a substantial influence on sorption properties of the soot. Sorption isotherms were determined for apolar and weakly polar sorbates (n-octane, cyclooctane, n-propylbenzene, naphthalene) from an aqueous solution to a standard reference material of diesel soot (SRM 2975) in the original state and after extraction with methanol. For all sorbates tested, removal of EOM from soot by methanol caused the sorption isotherms to be more nonlinear (decrease of Freundlich exponents by 0.19-0.25) compared to the untreated soot. The changes in the isotherms depend on both sorbate structure and sorbate concentration and can be accounted for by two opposing roles that EOM could have on the sorption properties of soot (i) enhancing the overall sorption by absorbing the sorbate into the EOM phase, and (ii) attenuating the sorbate adsorption to the soot carbon surface through sorption competition or site blockage. The n-alkane-to-cycloalkane sorption coefficient ratios (Kn/Kc) indicated that the removal of EOM altered the sorption mode for alkanes from absorption to adsorption. A comparison of the sorption isotherms measured in aqueous suspensions with the soot-air sorption coefficients reported for SRM 2975 in the literature showed that sorption to "soot in water" is significantly weaker than sorption to "soot in air", indicating that complete surface coverage with water suppresses the sorption by soot.

  7. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  8. Sorption of cadmium and copper ions on natural and synthetic hydroxylapatite particles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernane, F.; Mecherri, M.O.; Sharrock, P. Hadioui, M.; Lounici, H.; Fedoroff, M.

    2008-05-15

    The sorption of divalent cadmium and copper ions from aqueous solutions on natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated by the batch method and under dynamic conditions in columns at 22 deg. C and pH 5. The effect of cadmium and copper concentration on sorption was studied. Both types of apatites are efficient, despite their different composition and morphology. The sorption mechanism involves an ion exchange for Cd(II), while Cu(II) leads to precipitation of a newly formed solid. Thus, the sorption efficiency depends on the experimental conditions and the specific physicochemical properties of the apatites used. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir equation.

  9. Sorption of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants to Glacially Deposited Sediments of Central Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Werth, C. J.; Wander, M. M.

    2003-04-01

    The nature and distribution of solid phase carbonaceous material strongly affect the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to soils and sediments. High surface area carbonaceous materials (HSCM, e.g. charcoal, soot) and mature organic matter facies (e.g. humin, kerogen) exhibit high sorption capacities, nonlinear sorption isotherms, and sorption-desorption hysteresis. The accurate characterization of carbonaceous material type and distribution are crucial for prediction of the fate of HOCs in soils and sediments. The objectives of this work are to determine the type(s) of carbonaceous material that controls adsorption in central Illinois groundwater sediments, and to determine how oxidative weathering affects sorption capacity. Sediment samples were collected from oxidized and reduced zones of the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul (Illinois, USA) and treated to obtain fractions of the sediment samples enriched in different types of carbonaceous materials (e.g., humic acid, kerogen, black carbon). The different fractions were then evaluated for their sorption capacity and mechanism to sorb trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater pollutant. Isotherm results indicate that kerogen primarily controls the sorption of TCE. Isotherm results also show that the Koc (sorption distribution coefficient normalized by the fraction of organic carbon) for the reduced sediment is larger than that for the oxidized sediment. Current experiments are focused on the question of whether kerogen oxidation or kerogen protection by mineral precipitates reduces the sorption capacity in the oxidized sediments, and on whether kerogen controls sorption in groundwater sediments not affected by glaciation.

  10. Sorption of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 by minerals and soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Jeong, Hoon Young

    2015-03-02

    Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate Tween 80 sorption by oxides, aluminosilicates, and soils. For oxides, the sorption by silica and alumina follow linear isotherms, and that by hematite follows a Langmuir isotherm. Considering isotherm type and surface coverage, Tween 80 may partition into the silica/alumina-water interface, whereas it may bind to hematite surface sites. Among aluminosilicates, montmorillonite shows the greatest sorption due to the absorption of Tween 80 into interlayers. For other aluminosilicates, it sorbs to surfaces, with the sorption increasing as plagioclasesorption. The greater sorption by untreated soils than H2O2-treated soils indicates that soil organic matter is a vital sorbent. The sorption hysteresis, contributed to by clay minerals and soil organic matter, is characterized by the greater sorption during the desorption than the sorption stages. This suggests the potential difficulty in removing surfactants from soils. Also, sorption of surfactants can adversely affect surfactant-enhanced remediation by decreasing the aquifer permeability and the availability of surfactants for micellar solubilization.

  11. Effect of natural organic materials on cadmium and neptunium sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, K.S.; Triay, I.R.

    1994-10-01

    In a batch sorption study of the effect of naturally occurring organic materials on the sorption of cadmium and neptunium on oxides and tuff surfaces, the model sorbents were synthetic goethite, boehmite, amorphous silicon oxides, and a crushed tuff material from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An amino acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxypheny)-DL-alanine (DOPA), and an aquatic-originated fulvic material, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid (NAFA), were used as model organic chemicals. Sorption isotherm results showed that DOPA sorption followed the order aluminum oxide > iron oxide > silicon oxide and that the amount of DOAP sorption for a given sorbent increased as the solution pH was raised. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on the iron oxide was about ten times higher than that on the aluminum oxide. The sorption of cadmium and neptunium on natural tuff material was much lower than that on aluminum and iron oxides. The sorption of cadmium on iron and aluminum oxides was found to be influenced by the presence of DOPA, and increasing the amount of DOPA coating resulted in higher cadmium sorption on aluminum oxide. However, for iron oxide, cadmium sorption decreased with increasing DOPA concentration. The presence of the model organic materials DOPA and NAFA did not affect the sorption of neptunium on tuff material or on the iron and aluminum oxides. Spectroscopic results indicate that cadmium complexes strongly with DOPA. Therefore, the effect of the organic material, DOPA, on the cadmium sorption is readily observed. However, neptunium is possibly complexed weakly with organic material. Thus, DOPA and NAFA have little effect on neptunium sorption on all sorbents selected for study.

  12. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, Albert A; Meulman, Brendo; Meijer, Thijs; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-02-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to HA-amended charcoal was calculated by subtracting the sorption contribution of HA from the total sorption to charcoal and HA. Association of PCBs with HA was proportional to hydrophobicity. However, the planar PCBs 77 and 126 had an additional 2-4 times stronger association than expected from hydrophobicity alone. Sorption isotherms for the raw charcoal fitted slightly better to a three-parameter Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model than to a two-parameter Langmuir model. Preloading the charcoal with 1-75 mg of HA/g of charcoal increasingly attenuated sorption to charcoal with up to a factor of 10. The resultant isotherms could be described adequately with the Freundlich model. Isotherm nonlinearity increased with HA loading, suggesting increased sorption competition between HA and PCBs. Attenuation was negligible in the PCB picogram per liter to nanogram per liter range and increased at higher PCB concentrations, which points to saturation of binding sites on the charcoal. Attenuation was highest for planar congeners, which suggests an additional site blockage mechanism. These variations due to HA loading and PCB concentration can explain the variability in attenuation reported in earlier work and imply that the use of constant "attenuation factors" to adjust sorption coefficients determined for pure carbonaceous materials in order to apply them to field situations may not be warranted.

  13. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to lignin: effects of hydrophobicity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Xu, Li Heng; Ok, Yong Sik

    2014-07-01

    The study of the sorption of contaminants to lignin is significant for understanding the migration of contaminants in the environment as well as developing low cost sorbent. In this study, sorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, to lignin was investigated. Sorption isotherms were well described by both linear and Freundlich sorption models. Sorption coefficients of PAHs to lignin from water obtained from regression of both linear model (K d) and Freundlich model (K f) were highly positively correlated with hydrophobicity of PAHs. The amorphous structure of lignin provided sufficient sorption domain for partitioning of PAHs, and the attraction between PAHs molecules and aromatic fractions in lignin via π-π electron-donor-acceptor (π-π EDA) interaction is hypothesized to provide a strong sorption force. Thermodynamic modeling revealed that sorption of PAHs to lignin was a spontaneous and exothermic process.

  14. Fate and transport with material response characterization of green sorption media for copper removal via desorption process.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Houmann, Cameron; Lin, Kuen-Song; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Multiple adsorption and desorption cycles are required to achieve the reliable operation of copper removal and recovery. A green sorption media mixture composed of recycled tire chunk, expanded clay aggregate, and coconut coir was evaluated in this study for its desorptive characteristics as a companion study of the corresponding adsorption process in an earlier publication. We conducted a screening of potential desorbing agents, batch desorption equilibrium and kinetic studies, and batch tests through 3 adsorption/desorption cycles. The desorbing agent screening revealed that hydrochloric acid has good potential for copper desorption. Equilibrium data fit the Freundlich isotherm, whereas kinetic data had high correlation with the Lagergren pseudo second-order model and revealed a rapid desorption reaction. Batch equilibrium data over 3 adsorption/desorption cycles showed that the coconut coir and media mixture were the most resilient, demonstrating they could be used through 3 or more adsorption/desorption cycles. FE-SEM imaging, XRD, and EDS analyses supported the batch adsorption and desorption results showing significant surface sorption of CuO species in the media mixture and coconut coir, followed by partial desorption using 0.1 M HCl as a desorbing agent.

  15. Metal adsorption by agricultural biosorbents: Adsorption isotherm, kinetic and biosorbents chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Sadeek, Sadeek A; Negm, Nabel A; Hefni, Hassan H H; Wahab, Mostafa M Abdel

    2015-11-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II), Co(II) and Fe(III) ions from aqueous solutions by rice husk, palm leaf and water hyacinth was investigated as a function of initial pH, initial heavy metal ions concentration and treatment time. The adsorption process was examined by two adsorption isotherms: Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental data of biosorption process were analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order kinetic models. The equilibrium biosorption isotherms showed that the three studied biosorbents possess high affinity and sorption capacity for Cu(II), Co(II) and Fe(III) ions. Rice husk showed more efficiency than palm leaf and water hyacinth. Adsorption of Cu(II) and Co(II) was more efficient in alkaline medium (pH 9) than neutral medium due to the high solubility of metal ion complexes. The metal removal efficiency of each biosorbent was correlated to its chemical structure. DTA studies showed formation of metal complex between the biosorbents and the metal ions. The obtained results showed that the tested biosorbents are efficient and alternate low-cost biosorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous media.

  16. Sorption equilibria of benzene and toluene on two New Jersey coastal plain ground water aquifer solids

    SciTech Connect

    Uchrin, C.G.; Mangels, G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies examining sorption equilibria of benzene and toluene to New Jersey coastal plain aquifer solids were performed. Adsorption to the Cohansey aquifer solids, a coarse to fine grade sand with a 2.6% organic carbon content, and to the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer solids, a sandy loam with a 1.3% organic carbon content, was found to be dependent on adsorber mass. Equilibrium adsorption could be characterized by either linear or Freundlich isotherms. Toluene exhibited a greater affinity to sorb than benzene. Greater adsorption was in general observed for both substances to the Cohansey material, which was attributed to its greater organic matter (carbon) content. Consecutive desorption experiments displayed an apparent hysteresis.

  17. Equilibrium and kinetics of water adsorption in carbon molecular sieve: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S W; Coons, J E

    2004-09-28

    Measurements of water adsorption equilibrium and kinetics in Takeda carbon molecular sieve (CMS) were undertaken in an effort to characterize fundamental mechanisms of adsorption and transport. Adsorption equilibrium revealed a type III isotherm that was characterized by cooperative multimolecular sorption theory. Water adsorption was found to be reversible and did not display hysteresis upon desorption over the conditions studied. Adsorption kinetics measurements revealed that a Fickian diffusion mechanism governed the uptake of water and that the rate of adsorption decreased with increasing relative pressure. Previous investigations have attributed the observed decreasing trend in the rate of adsorption to blocking of micropores. Here, it is proposed that the decrease is attributed to the thermodynamic correction to Fick's law which is formulated on the basis of the chemical potential as the driving force for transport. The thermodynamically corrected formulation accounted for observations of transport of water and other molecules in CMS.

  18. Gas sorption and the consequent volumetric and permeability change of coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wenjuan

    Experimental and numerical investigations of gas sorption on coal, and the subsequent volumetric and permeability changes of the coal were conducted. The goals of the study were to investigate the magnitude of permeability change caused by gas sorption, and develop an algorithm to simulate numerically gas sorption and sorption-induced permeability change. The amount of gas sorption and the subsequent volumetric and permeability change of coal samples as a function of pore pressure and injection gas composition were measured in the laboratory. A constant effective confining pressure (difference between the confining pressure and pore pressure) was maintained in the process of the experiments; therefore, the role of effective stress on permeability was eliminated. Several gases, including pure CO2, pure N2, and binary mixtures of CO2 and N2 of various compositions were used as the injection gas. The coal sample was first allowed to adsorb an injection gas fully at a particular pressure. The total amount (moles) of adsorption was calculated based on a volumetric method. After adsorption equilibrium was reached, gas samples were taken from the equilibrium gaseous phase and analyzed afterwards. The composition of the gaseous phase prior to and after the adsorption was used to calculate the composition of the adsorbed phase based on material balance. Permeability of the sample was then measured by flowing the injection gas through the core at varying pressure gradient or varying flow rate, and an average permeability was obtained based on Darcy's law for compressible systems. The change of the total volume of the core was monitored and recorded in the whole process of the experiment. Volumetric strain was thereby calculated. Experimental results showed that the greater the pressure the greater the amount of adsorption for all tested gases. At the same pressure, the amount of adsorption was greater for CO2 than N2. For the binary mixtures, the greater the fraction of CO 2

  19. Biosorption of nickel and copper onto treated alga (Undaria pinnatifida): application of isotherm and kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Ma, Wei; Han, Mei

    2008-06-30

    Biosorption of nickel and copper ions from aqueous solution onto treated alga biomass Undaria pinnatifida has been studied and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkine equilibrium isotherms, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic model were determined respectively. Within the test range (initial concentration 5-50 mg/L, biosorption doze 0.1-0.5 g, pH 3-7), biosorption performance for metal ions showed an increase in specific metal uptake capacity with an increasing in initial ions concentration and decreasing in biosorbent doze. The optimized condition of pH value for nickel and copper is 4.7 and 4.0, respectively, while contact time is about 100 min. At equilibrium, the maximum total uptake by U. pinnatifida was 24.71 mg/g for nickel and 38.82 mg/g for copper. The results for nickel and copper fit well to the Langmuir and the Temkin isotherm, respectively. Pseudo-second-order model described well the sorption kinetic of nickel and copper ions in comparison to pseudo-first-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic model.

  20. Determination of the moisture sorption behavior of osmotically dehydrated mackerel fillets by means of binary and ternary solutions.

    PubMed

    Agustinelli, Silvina Paola; Salvadori, Viviana Olga; Yeannes, Maria Isabel

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the moisture sorption isotherm of osmotically dehydrated mackerel fillets (Scomber japonicus) was experimentally determined. The fillets were osmotically dehydrated with solutions of salt (NaCl) (120 and 180 g per liter of solution) or in combination with sugar (350 to 700 g per liter of solution). The sorption isotherms were determined using the static gravimetric methodology with six salts for the water activity range of 0.33-0.98 at 5 degrees C and 25 degrees C. All the sorption curves were found to be type III. Temperature and the final tissue salt content had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the sorption isotherms. A regression program was used to fit the Halsey, Oswin and Smith moisture sorption isotherm models. Oswin equation gave the best fit for the whole range of water activity and temperatures. The Smith equation only presented valuable results for the mackerel fillets samples with the higher salt content.

  1. Influence of mineral and organic components on copper, lead, and zinc sorption by acid soils.

    PubMed

    Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F; Vázquez, Juan J; Andrade, Luisa

    2007-12-01

    Sorption isotherms were constructed for the sorption of Cu, Pb and Zn by the surface horizons of three soils [a Humic Cambisol (G1), a Haplic Podzol (G2) and an Umbric Gleysol (G3)] and by fractions obtained by sequential removal of organic matter and oxides. All were of L-type except the H-type isotherms recorded for sorption of lead by whole G2, and all were fitted well by the Langmuir model, with determination coefficients > 0.91. Langmuir equation parameter beta correlated well (r(2) = 0.985) with experimentally maximum sorption capacity. For all soils, metal sorption capacities decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Pb. Sorption by organic matter was one of the main contributions to total sorption. Sorption by oxides was generally most substantial in G1, which had the largest total oxides content, while the sorption of lead by G3 was attributable to its high Mn oxides content. The clayey residue contributed significantly to sorption of zinc by G1, and G3 (due to their respective vermiculite and gibbsite contents) and to sorption of copper by G1 due to its vermiculite content.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of cadmium(II) biosorption by nonliving algal biomass Oedogonium sp. from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Rastogi, A

    2008-05-01

    The biosorption of cadmium(II) ions on Oedogonium sp. is studied in a batch system with respect to initial pH, algal dose, contact time and the temperature. The algal biomass exhibited the highest cadmium(II) uptake capacity at 25 degrees C, at the initial pH value of 5.0 in 55 min and at the initial cadmium(II) ion concentration of 200 mg L(-1). Biosorption capacity decreased from 88.9 to 80.4 mg g(-1) with an increase in temperature from 25 to 45 degrees C at this initial cadmium(II) concentration. Uptake kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium is well described by Langmuir isotherm. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the process, viz., free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change. FTIR analysis of algal biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of metal ions. Acid pretreatments did not substantially increase metal sorption capacity but alkali like NaOH pretreatment slightly enhanced the metal removal ability of the biomass. During repeated sorption/desorption cycles at the end of fifth cycle, Cd(II) sorption decreased by 18%, with 15-20% loss of biomass. Nevertheless, Oedogonium sp. appears to be a good sorbent for removing metal Cd(II) from aqueous phase.

  3. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  4. Sorption-desorption of indaziflam and its three metabolites in sandy soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indaziflam is a relatively new herbicide for which sorption-desorption information is lacking, and nothing is available on its metabolites. Information is needed on the multiple soil and pesticide characteristics known to influence these processes. Freundlich sorption isotherm slopes were < 1, there...

  5. SORPTION OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON WATERWATER SOLIDS: MECHANISMS AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is proposed that sorption is a combination of two fundamentally different processes: adsorption and partitioning. A sorption model was developed for both single-component and multicomponent systems. The model was tested using single-component experimental isotherm data of eig...

  6. SORPTION OF ARSENATE AND ARSENITE ON A RUTHENIUM COMPOUND: A MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of arsenate and arsenite was examined on a ruthenium compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Batch sorption experiments at pH 4,5,6, 7 and 8 were employed to construct constant solid solution ratio isotherms (CSI). After equilibration at the appropriate pH...

  7. Adsorption and abiotic oxidation of arsenic by aged biofilter media: equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sahabi, Danladi Mahuta; Takeda, Minoru; Suzuki, Ichiro; Koizumi, Jun-ichi

    2009-09-15

    Removal of arsenic from groundwater by biological adsorptive filtration depends largely on its interaction with biogenic iron and manganese oxides surfaces. In the present study we investigated the arsenic adsorption and abiotic oxidation capacities of an aged biofilter medium (BM2) collected from a long time established groundwater treatment plant for removal of iron and manganese by biological filtration. Batch oxidation/adsorption kinetic experiments indicated that BM2 can easily oxidize As(III) to As(V) with the rate of oxidation less affected by pH-variations from 4 to 8.5. The adsorption capacity of the biofilter medium for the produced or added As(V), however, depends strongly on the pH of the solution. The kinetics results have shown that As(III) sorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics, whereas the sorption of As(V) was best described by the intra-particle diffusion model, indicating that adsorptions of As(III) and As(V) onto BM2 were governed by different mechanisms. Adsorption isotherms at 25 degrees C were measured for a range of arsenite and arsenate initial concentrations of 0.67-20 micromol/L and the pH range from 4 to 9. Adsorption maxima were highest at pH 4 and decrease steadily as the pH increases. The equilibrium data for both As(III) and As(V) fitted very well to the Freundlich and Sips isotherm equations and, in most cases, the two isotherms overlapped with the same correlation coefficients, indicating sorption to be multilayer on the heterogeneous surface of BM2. The implication of the data for arsenic removal from water by biological filtration has been discussed.

  8. Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to properties of thirteen different soils.

    PubMed

    Kodešová, Radka; Grabic, Roman; Kočárek, Martin; Klement, Aleš; Golovko, Oksana; Fér, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonín; Jakšík, Ondřej

    2015-04-01

    Transport of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils and consequent ground-water contamination are influenced by many factors, including compound sorption on soil particles. Here we evaluate the sorption isotherms for 7 pharmaceuticals on 13 soils, described by Freundlich equations, and assess the impact of soil properties on various pharmaceuticals' sorption on soils. Sorption of ionizable pharmaceuticals was, in many cases, highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH, and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity, and positively related to base cation saturation. The sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and clay content were found for clindamycin, clarithromycin, atenolol, and metoprolol. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and organic carbon content were obtained for trimethoprim and carbamazepine. Pedotransfer rules for predicting sorption coefficients of various pharmaceuticals included hydrolytic acidity (sulfamethoxazole), organic carbon content (trimethoprimand carbamazepine), base cation saturation (atenolol and metoprolol), exchangeable acidity and clay content (clindamycin), and soil active pH and clay content (clarithromycin). Pedotransfer rules, predicting the Freundlich sorption coefficients, could be applied for prediction of pharmaceutical mobility in soils with similar soil properties. Predicted sorption coefficients together with pharmaceutical half-lives and other imputes (e.g., soil-hydraulic, geological, hydro-geological, climatic) may be used for

  9. Sorption of copper by chemically modified aspen wood fibers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liyuan; Ou, Zhaoyang; Boving, Thomas B; Tyson, Julian; Xing, Baoshan

    2009-08-01

    Sorption of copper (Cu(2+)) by untreated and treated (bleaching and hydrolysis) aspen wood fibers, cellulose and lignin was examined to understand the Cu(2+) sorption behavior by these natural sorbents. All sorbents were characterized by solid-state (13)C NMR and FTIR. Bleaching broke up aromatic structures and increased hydrophilicity of the fibers, whereas hydrolysis decreased carbohydrate content, producing a more hydrophobic structure. Copper sorption was a function of pH; the percentage of Cu(2+) sorption steadily increased from pH 1.5 to 4.5 with a maximum sorption amount at around pH 5.5 for all the materials. All isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir equation. Bleached sample (BL) had a highest sorption capacity, followed by untreated (UTR), cellulose (CEL), and hydrolyzed (HHY), while lignin (LIG) had little Cu(2+) sorption under the studied conditions. The results suggested that carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-CHOH) in carbohydrates are mainly responsible for Cu(2+) sorption, and that ion exchange may be a main sorption mechanism for the studied sorbents. Additionally, the sorption capacity for Cu(2+) on all sorbents decreased with the increase of the initial concentrations of Ca(2+), Na(+) or Al(3+). Copper sorption decreased rapidly at low initial concentrations of Ca(2+), Na(+) or Al(3+). However, the decline of Cu(2+) sorption slowed down when initial Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentration was higher than 0.05M or initial Al(3+) concentration was greater than 0.005M, indicating that specific adsorption may be taking place. Therefore, the majority of sorbed Cu(2+) to aspen wood fibers could be through ion exchange (especially, for UTR, BL and CEL), while a faction of sorbed Cu(2+) via inner-sphere complex (or specific adsorption).

  10. Competitive sorption of atenolol, trimetoprim, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole in three soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočárek, Martin; Kodešová, Radka; Klement, Aleš; Golovko, Oksana; Fér, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonín; Vondráčková, Lenka; Jakšík, Ondřej; Grabic, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Transport of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils and consequent ground-water contamination are influenced by many factors, including compound sorption on soil particles and dissipation. Batch sorption experiment for 9 soils (3 soil types with 3 (Greyic Phaeozem on loess), 4 (Haplic Luvisol on loess) and 2 (Haplic Cambisol on gneiss) horizons) and mixture of 4 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, trimetoprim, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) was performed to study competitive sorption of compounds in each soil sample. Sorption affinities and dissipation half-lives of all compounds in topsoils were previously studied by Kodešová et al. (2015 and 2016). Ten grams of dry soil was placed directly into the plastic centrifuge tubes and 20 ml of solution of a known pharmaceutical concentration was added. The same concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/l) were used for all compounds. Three replicates of each concentration were applied for each soil. Tube was shaken for 24 h using the shaking apparatus at 20 C. After shaking, the analyzed soil suspension was centrifuged for 10 min at 6,000 rotations per minute. The actual initial and final equilibrium pharmaceutical concentrations were measured using two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LC/LC-MS/MS using isotope dilution and internal standard methods. The pharmaceutical concentration adsorbed on soil particles was calculated using the initial and final (i.e. after incubation) pharmaceutical concentrations. The Freundlich equations were used to fit data points of the measured adsorption isotherms. In the case of carbamazepine (neutral form) and sulfamethoxazole (partly negatively charged) sorption affinity of compounds decrease with soil depth. On the other hand in the case of atenolol and trimethoprim (both positively charged) compound sorption affinity was not depth dependent. Data obtained for top soils were compared with sorption affinities for single compounds published by (Kodešová et

  11. Functionalized cotton via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for enhanced sorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y Q; Deng, Shubo; Niu, Li; Xu, F J; Chai, M Y; Yu, Gang

    2011-09-15

    The surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to successfully prepare the aminated cotton and polyacrylic acid sodium (P(AA-Na))-grafted cotton for the efficient removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution in this study. The modified cotton surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The grafted long polymers with high density of amine and carboxyl groups on the cotton surfaces were responsible for the enhanced adsorption of heavy metals. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were investigated. The sorption equilibrium of Cu(II) and Pb(II) was achieved within 1h on the P(AA-Na)-grafted cotton, much faster than 8h on the aminated cotton. According to the Langmuir fitting, the maximum sorption capacities of Cu(II) and Pb(II) on the P(AA-Na)-grafted cotton were 2.45 and 2.44 mmol/g, respectively, higher than many adsorbents reported in the literature. The P(AA-Na)-grafted cotton had better adsorption behaviors for Cu(II) and Pb(II) than the aminated cotton.

  12. Multifractal characteristics of Nitrogen adsorption isotherms from tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    One of the primary methods used to characterize a wide range of porous materials, including soils, are gas adsorption isotherms. An adsorption isotherm is a function relating the amount of adsorbed gas or vapour to the respective equilibrium pressure, during pressure increase at constant temperature. Adsorption data allow easily estimates of specific surface area and also can provide a characterization of pore surface heterogeneity. Most of the properties and the reactivity of soil colloids are influenced by their specific surface area and by parameters describing the surface heterogeneity. For a restricted scale range, linearity between applied pressure and volume of adsorbate holds, which is the basis for current estimations of specific surface area. However, adsorption isotherms contain also non-linear segments of pressure versus volume so that evidence of multifractal scale has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze the multifractal behaviour of nitrogen adsorption isotherms from a set of tropical soils. Samples were collected form 54 horizons belonging to 19 soil profiles in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The most frequent soil type was Oxisol, according to the Soil Survey Staff, equivalent to Latossolo in the Brazilian soil classification system. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms at standard 77 K were measured using a Thermo Finnigan Sorptomatic 1990 gas sorption analyzer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). From the raw data a distributions of mass along a support was obtained to perform multifractal analysis. The probability distribution was constructed by dividing the values of the measure in a given segment by the sum of the measure in the whole scale range. The box-counting method was employed to perform multifractal analysis. All the analyzed N2 adsorption isotherms behave like a multifractal system. The singularity spectra, f(α), showed asymmetric concave down parabolic shapes, with a greater tendency toward the left side, where moments

  13. Study of the involved sorption mechanisms of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) species onto dried Salvinia auriculata biomass.

    PubMed

    Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2017-04-01

    Removal of Cr(VI) species by dried biomass of the aquatic macrophyte Salvinia auriculata was studied in order to understand the involved sorption mechanisms. Kinetic tests were carried out under the conditions such as concentration range of Cr(VI) from 50 to 250 mg L(-1) and a temperature of 30 °C. Modification of the biosorbent by the presence of Cr(VI) species was assessed by analysis of its porosity, density and infrared molecular absorption spectrum. A series of experimental approaches involving directed chemical modifications on the biosorbent surface was performed. The main functional groups involved in the sorption mechanisms were identified. The gas sorption analyser was applied and proved that a strong chemical effect of Cr(VI) species on the surface took place, resulting in a leaching organic matter with an obvious and significant increase in the porosity parameters. The intra-particle diffusion model revealed different mass transfer zones into the adsorbent during Cr(VI) removal. New combined Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was the best to fit the equilibrium data of Cr(VI) species removal. Finally, Cr(VI) removal was mainly mediated by a redox process where Cr(III) species were formed.

  14. Equilibrium partitioning theory to predict the sediment toxicity of the anionic surfactant C(12)-2-LAS to Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Rico-Rico, Angeles; Temara, Ali; Hermens, Joop L M

    2009-02-01

    The study of the effect of the sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) on the bioavailability to marine benthic organisms is essential to refine the environmental risk assessment of these compounds. According to the equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP), the effect concentration in water-only exposure will be similar to the effect concentration in the sediment pore water. In this work, sorption and desorption experiments with two marine sediments were carried out using the compound C(12)-2-LAS. The effect of the sediment sorption on the toxicity of benthic organisms was studied in water-only and in sediment bioassays with the marine mud shrimp Corophium volutator. In addition, three common spiking methods were tested for its application in the toxicity tests, as well as the stability of the surfactant during the water-only and sediment-water test duration. LC50 values obtained from water-only exposure showed a good correspondence with the pore water concentrations calculated from the sorption and desorption isotherms in the spiked sediments.

  15. Engineering a lignocellulosic biosorbent--coir pith for removal of cesium from aqueous solutions: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Sudersanan, M

    2010-02-01

    A novel method of engineering lignocellulosic biosorbent- coir pith (CP) by incorporation of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF), also referred to as Prussian blue analogue (PBA) inside its porous matrix is reported. Structural characterization confirmed the successful synthesis of NiHCF in the coir pith matrix. Sorption capacity of coir pith (CP) before and after loading of NiHCF was investigated for cesium (Cs) in batch equilibrium studies. Kinetic studies showed that the sorption process was rapid and saturation was attained within 30 min. The applicability of non linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich Peterson isotherms was examined for the experimental data. The present studies revealed that there was nearly 100% increase in the sorption capacity of CP after its surface modification with NiHCF. Owing to its low cost, fast sorption kinetics and high uptake capacity, coir pith loaded with NiHCF (CP-NiHCF) seems to be one of the most promising biosorbents for recovery of cesium from liquid nuclear wastes.

  16. Kinetics and reversibility of micropollutant sorption in sludge.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maialen; Carrère, Hélène; Patau, Mathieu; Patureau, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    The fate of micropollutants throughout wastewater treatment systems is highly dependent on their sorption interactions with sludge matter. In this study, both the sorption and desorption kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in activated sludge were shown to be very rapid in comparison to biodegradation kinetics. It was concluded that PAH transfer does not limit their biodegradation and that their fate is governed by the sorption/desorption equilibrium state. The effect of contact time between sludge and PAHs was also investigated. It was shown that aging did not influence the sorption/desorption equilibrium although PAH losses during aging suggest that sequestration phenomena had occurred. This implies that for PAH sorption assessment within treatment processes there is no need to include a contact time dimension. As a consequence, thanks to an innovative approach taking into account sorption equilibria and sequestration, this work has demonstrated that studies in the literature which, in main, deal with micropollutant sorption in sewage sludge with only a short contact time can be extrapolated to real systems in which sorption, desorption and aging occur.

  17. Surface Complexation Modeling of Organic Acid Sorption to Goethite.

    PubMed

    Evanko; Dzombak

    1999-06-15

    Surface complexation modeling was performed using the Generalized Two-Layer Model for a series of low molecular weight organic acids. Sorption of these organic acids to goethite was investigated in a previous study to assess the influence of particular structural features on sorption. Here, the ability to describe the observed sorption behavior for compounds with similar structural features using surface complexation modeling was investigated. A set of surface reactions and equilibrium constants yielding optimal data fits was obtained for each organic acid over a range of total sorbate concentrations. Surface complexation modeling successfully described sorption of a number of the simple organic acids, but an additional hydrophobic component was needed to describe sorption behavior of some compounds with significant hydrophobic character. These compounds exhibited sorption behavior that was inconsistent with ligand exchange mechanisms since sorption did not decrease with increasing total sorbate concentration and/or exceeded surface site saturation. Hydrophobic interactions appeared to be most significant for the compound containing a 5-carbon aliphatic chain. Comparison of optimized equilibrium constants for similar surface species showed that model results were consistent with observed sorption behavior: equilibrium constants were highest for compounds having adjacent carboxylic groups, lower for compounds with adjacent phenolic groups, and lowest for compounds with phenolic groups in the ortho position relative to a carboxylic group. Surface complexation modeling was also performed to fit sorption data for Suwannee River fulvic acid. The data could be described well using reactions and constants similar to those for pyromellitic acid. This four-carboxyl group compound may be useful as a model for fulvic acid with respect to sorption. Other simple organic acids having multiple carboxylic and phenolic functional groups were identified as potential models for humic

  18. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Fokkink, Remco; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nanoscale (<100 nm), which are referred to as nanoplastics. Because of their high surface area, nanoplastic may bind hydrophobic chemicals very effectively, increasing their hazard when such nanoplastics are taken up by biota. The present study reports distribution coefficients for sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to 70 nm polystyrene in freshwater, and PAH adsorption isotherms spanning environmentally realistic aqueous concentrations of 10(-5)  μg/L to 1 μg/L. Nanopolystyrene aggregate state was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, and the distribution coefficients at the lower ends of the isotherms were very high, with values up to 10(9) L/kg. The high and nonlinear sorption was explained from π-π interactions between the planar PAHs and the surface of the aromatic polymer polystyrene and was higher than for micrometer-sized polystyrene. Reduction of nanopolystyrene aggregate sizes had no significant effect on sorption, which suggests that the PAHs could reach the sorption sites on the pristine nanoparticles regardless of the aggregation state. Pre-extraction of the nanopolystyrene with C18 polydimethylsiloxane decreased sorption of PAHs, which could be explained by removal of the most hydrophobic fraction of the nanopolystyrene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1650-1655. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Adsorption of dyes using peat: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, L; Fernández, K; Contreras, E; Palma, C

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, adsorption has been accepted as one of the most appropriate processes for decolorization of wastewaters. This paper presents experimental results on application of peat for removal of structurally diverse dyes (azo, oxazine, triphenylmethane, thiazine and others) with emphasis on relevant factors such as the adsorbate-adsorbent chemical properties and chemical interaction as well as adsorption conditions. The equilibrium experimental results were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the maximum sorption capacity of basic dyes at 22 degrees C was 667 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Blue 24, 526 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Green 4 and 714 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Violet 4. On the other hand for Acid Black 1 it was only 25 (mg g(-1)). Batch kinetics studies were undertaken and the data evaluated in compliance with chemical sorption mechanisms. For all of the systems studied the pseudo-second order model provided the best correlation of the kinetic experimental data. A film-pore double resistance diffusion model for mass transfer has also been used in this study to determine the effective diffusivity, Deff, for the adsorption of basic dyes in to peat.

  20. Sorption of peat humic acids to multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xilong; Shu, Liang; Wang, Yanqi; Xu, Bingbing; Bai, Yingchen; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-11-01

    Sorption of humic acids (HAs) from a peat soil by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was examined in this work. Sorption rate of HAs to MWCNTs was dominantly controlled by their diffusion from liquid-MWCNT boundary to MWCNT surfaces. Size exclusion chromatography analysis did not detect preferential sorption of HA fractions to MWCNTs at equilibrium, whereas the components with lower molecular weight in some HA fractions (e.g., HA1) would more preferentially be sorbed to MWCNTs at the initial sorption stage. Equilibrium sorption intensity of HAs by MWCNTs was dependent on their surface area and a sum of meso- and macropore volume. The surface area and sum of meso- and macroporosity-normalized sorption coefficient (K(d)) values of a given HA by MWCNTs increased with increasing outer diameter of MWCNTs, because MWCNTs with larger outer diameter were more strongly dispersed by HAs thereby making more sorption sites exposed for HA sorption. Van der Waals interaction between the alkyl components rather than the aromatic ones of HAs with MWCNTs was likely the key driving force for their sorption. This study highlights the sorption rate-controlling step of HAs from a same source to MWCNTs and the major factors affecting their sorption intensity at equilibrium.

  1. [Sorption of nitrobenzene to anionic surfactant modified layered double hydroxides].

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Zhu, Run-Liang; Tao, Qi; Liu, Han-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) modified MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized at different surfactant concentrations (0.5-2.0 TAEC) by the co-precipitation method. The LDH-DS samples obtained were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that SDS was successfully intercalated into the interlayer of the LDH, and the basal spacing was expanded from 0.80 nm to 3.98 nm. The intercalated SDS was considered consistent with a paraffin bilayers arrangement. The sorption of nitrobenzene on LDH-DS was examined, and the results showed that linear model could fit the sorption isotherms well (R2 > 0.99), which implied a partitioning sorption process. The sorption coefficient of nitrobenzene (K(d)) on LDH-DS was positively related to the DS - loading amount, but the organic carbon content normalized sorption coefficient of nitrobenzene (K(oc)) was shown to remain relatively constant. The sorption thermodynamics results showed that the sorption of nitrobenzene on LDH-DS was an endothermic process, and the increase of entropy was the driving force for the sorption process.

  2. Sorption of organophosphate and triazine agrochemicals on biochars and soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars are known to strongly sorb polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and biochar soil amendment can have counteracting impacts on the efficacy of, and runoff contamination by agrochemicals. This study investigated the sorption-desorption isotherms and kinetics of triazine (deisopropylatrazine)...

  3. Effect of sorption on flocculation kinetics: Experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, K.; Yiacoumi, S.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Sorption of copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by ferric oxide particles was studied using batch equilibrium and kinetic experiments. The sorption process was found to be pH dependent, with the uptake increasing at high pH values. An increase in equilibrium pH was observed when the initial pH was in the acidic range and a decrease from initial values was observed in the basic range, in the case of both copper and cadmium sorption. The former phenomenon is due to competition between metal and proton binding and the latter is due to precipitation mechanisms at high initial pH values. A large increase in the zeta potential of the particles from baseline values was observed during equilibrium sorption. This increase occurs as a result of surface charge neutralization due to metal ion uptake. Particle destabilization appears to occur as a result of metal ion sorption. Kinetic experiments indicate that the uptake of copper by ferric oxide particles is a slow process. pH histories were similar to those obtained in the sorption equilibrium experiments. Changes in the size distribution of the ferric oxide particles due to aggregate formation during uptake of ions is observed in the kinetic studies. These findings indicate a potential role of metal ion uptake in particle flocculation kinetics through alteration of the surface electrostatic potential.

  4. Sorption of heavy metals by prepared bacterial cell surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, S.A.; Walters, J.V.; Churchill, P.F.

    1995-10-01

    Prepared biomass from two Gram-negative and one Gram-positive bacterial strains was examined for single, binary, and quaternary mixtures of polyvalent metal cation binding to cell surfaces. The biosorption of {sub 24}Cr{sup 3+}, {sub 27}Co{sup 2+}, {sub 28}Ni{sup 2+}, and {sub 29}Cu{sup 2+} for each bacterial cell type was evaluated using a batch equilibrium method. The binding of each metal by all three bacterial cells could be described by the Freundlich sorption model. The isotherm binding constants suggest that E. coli cells are the most efficient at binding copper, chromium, and nickel; and M. luteus adsorbs cobalt most efficiently. The K-values for copper bound to P. aeruginosa and E. coli are > 2-fold and > 8-fold greater, respectively, than previous reported for intact cells. The general metal-affinity series observed was Cr{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+}. There was a marked lower affinity of all biosorbents for Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}. M. luteus and E. coli had a strong preference for Co{sup 2+} over Ni{sup 2+}. Metal-binding enhancement could be ascribed to increased cell barrier surface porosity to metal-bearing solutions.

  5. “Multi-temperature” method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M.

    2013-08-15

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as “multi-temperature” (short “multi-T”) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  6. "Multi-temperature" method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales.

    PubMed

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2013-08-01

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as "multi-temperature" (short "multi-T") method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH4, CO2) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  7. Sorption of radionuclides by cement-based barrier materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Kefei Pang, Xiaoyun

    2014-11-15

    This paper investigates the sorption of radionuclide ions, {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+}, by cement-based barrier materials for radioactive waste disposal. A mortar with ternary binder is prepared and powder samples are ground from the hardened material following a predetermined granulometry. After pre-equilibrium with an artificial pore solution, the sorption behaviors of powder samples are investigated through single sorption and blended sorption. The results show that: (1) no systematic difference is observed for single and blended sorptions thus the interaction between {sup 137}Cs{sup +} and {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+} sorptions must be weak; (2) the sorption kinetics is rapid and all characteristic times are less than 1d; (3) the sorption capacity is enhanced by C–A–S–H hydrates and the measured K{sub d} values can be predicted from C–S–H sorption data with Ca/Si ratio equal to Ca/(Si + Al) ratio.

  8. Regenerative Sorption Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Two-stage sorption refrigerator achieves increased efficiency via regenerative-heating concept in which waste heat from praseodymium/cerium oxide (PCO) chemisorption compressor runs charcoal/krypton (C/Kr) sorption compressor. Waste heat from each PCO sorption compressor used to power surrounding C/Kr sorption compressor. Flows of heat in two compressor modules controlled by gas-gap thermal switches. Has no wearing moving parts other than extremely long life, room-temperature check valves operating about twice per hour. Virtually no measurable vibration, and has potential operating life of at least ten years.

  9. Study of uranium(VI) and radium(II) sorption at trace level on kaolinite using a multisite ion exchange model.

    PubMed

    Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Ly, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Uranium and the long-lived decay product radium-226 are abundantly present in mine wastes produced during uranium extraction activities. In the case of release to the surrounding environment, these radionuclides are at trace level compared to groundwater solutes, and the presence, content and properties of clay minerals in the host environment influence the extent of radionuclide sorption and, in turn, migration. Since clays are known to have the distinctive property of retaining ions, the aim of this work was to study the sorption of trace U(VI) and Ra(II) on a common phyllosilicate mineral, kaolinite, in the presence of excess K, a common groundwater cation, in order to obtain a thermodynamic database that describes the ion exchange equilibria occurring at the mineral-solution interface. Following a detailed experimental protocol using chemical and radiochemical analytical techniques, batch experiments over a wide pH range (from 2 to 11) and fixed concentration (ca. 10(-9) M), and additional adsorption isotherms at two different solution pH (6.2 and 10.4) over a concentration range (10(-10) to 10(-4) M) were carried out to measure the distribution coefficient (Kd) of U(VI) and Ra(II) sorption on kaolinite. The experimental sorption data was processed according to a general multisite sorbent/multispecies sorbate ion exchange model, which allowed deducing the charge of adsorbed species and the stoichiometry of the associated adsorption equilibria on kaolinite's surface sites. Aqueous speciation calculations predicted Ra(II) as Ra(2+) over the working pH range, and its adsorption curves and isotherms were explained using three sorption sites. Adsorption of U(VI) occurred on four sorption sites and was governed by its solution speciation, with positively charged hydroxylated (UO2(2+) and UO2(OH)(+)) and silicate (UO2(H3SiO4)(+)) species being adsorbed between pH 2 and 6, whereas its negatively charged forms (UO2(OH)3(-) and UO2(OH)4(2-)) dominated U(VI) sorption at

  10. Thallium(I) sorption using Prussian blue immobilized in alginate capsules.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Thierry; Taulemesse, Jean-Marie; Dauvergne, Agnès; Chanut, Thomas; Testa, Flaviano; Guibal, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Prussian blue (PB) was immobilized in alginate capsules. The composite sorbent was used for the recovery of Tl(I) ions from slightly acidic solutions: optimum pH being close to 4. The sorption isotherm can be described by the bi-site Langmuir sorption isotherm. This means that the metal ion can be bound through two different sorption sites: one having a strong affinity for Tl(I) (probably PB), the other having a lower affinity (probably the encapsulating material). The kinetics are described by either the pseudo-second order rate equation or the Crank's equation (resistance to intraparticle diffusion). The ionic strength (increased by addition of NaCl, KCl or CaCl₂) slightly decreased sorption capacity. The SEM-EDX analysis of PB-alginate capsules (before and after Tl(I) sorption) shows that the PB is homogeneously distributed in the capsules and that all reactive groups remain available for metal binding.

  11. Analysis and modeling of moisture sorption behavior for antimicrobial composite protein films.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiao; Pan, Jiazhen; Bao, Jianqiang; Huang, Zhiying; Zhang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    The WPI-NaCas-GLY antimicrobial film takes full advantage of the controlled release of active or antimicrobial agents as well as demonstrates a great potential for functioning as an alternative biodegradable polymer in practical applications. The moisture sorption kinetics of the film as an important carrier of active agents was investigated at various relative humidities (RH). The results indicated that the moisture sorption characterization and procedure of this film can be described well by the empirical Peleg model with higher confidence and concordance. The model could predict the film's moisture content at any time (Mt), the time to reach any given level of R (tR), the equilibrium moisture at any RH condition (Me), and isotherm trend based upon experimental data and modeled constants k(1), k(2), a, b, c, and d without giving consideration to their physical meaning. The water vapor transmission rate of the WPI-NaCas-GLY antimicrobial film increased exponentially with increasing RH due to its hydrophilicity, which was primarily caused by the presence of glycerol in a higher content. The results also suggested that aw predominately affects the film's Me values compared with the temperature factor by fixed nonlinear multiple regression analyses.

  12. Hysteresis from Multiscale Porosity: Modeling Water Sorption and Shrinkage in Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Masoero, Enrico; Bonnaud, Patrick A.; Manzano, Hegoi; Ji, Qing; Yip, Sidney; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2015-06-01

    Cement paste has a complex distribution of pores and molecular-scale spaces. This distribution controls the hysteresis of water sorption isotherms and associated bulk dimensional changes (shrinkage). We focus on two locations of evaporable water within the fine structure of pastes, each having unique properties, and we present applied physics models that capture the hysteresis by dividing drying and rewetting into two related regimes based on relative humidity (RH). We show that a continuum model, incorporating a pore-blocking mechanism for desorption and equilibrium thermodynamics for adsorption, explains well the sorption hysteresis for a paste that remains above approximately 20% RH. In addition, we show with molecular models and experiments that water in spaces of ≲1 nm width evaporates below approximately 20% RH but reenters throughout the entire RH range. This water is responsible for a drying shrinkage hysteresis similar to that of clays but opposite in direction to typical mesoporous glass. Combining the models of these two regimes allows the entire drying and rewetting hysteresis to be reproduced accurately and provides parameters to predict the corresponding dimensional changes. The resulting model can improve the engineering predictions of long-term drying shrinkage accounting also for the history dependence of strain induced by hysteresis. Alternative strategies for quantitative analyses of the microstructure of cement paste based on this mesoscale physical model of water content within porous spaces are discussed.

  13. Physicochemical effect of activation temperature on the sorption properties of pine shell activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wasim, Agha Arslan; Khan, Muhammad Nasiruddin

    2017-03-01

    Activated carbons produced from a variety of raw materials are normally selective towards a narrow range of pollutants present in wastewater. This study focuses on shifting the selectivity of activated carbon from inorganic to organic pollutants using activation temperature as a variable. The material produced from carbonization of pine shells substrate was activated at 250°C and 850°C. Both adsorbents were compared with commercial activated carbon for the sorption of lead, cadmium, methylene blue, methyl blue, xylenol orange, and crystal violet. It was observed that carbon activated at 250°C was selective for lead and cadmium whereas the one activated at 850°C was selective for the organic dyes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study revealed that AC850 had less surface functional groups as compared to AC250. Point of zero charge and point of zero salt effect showed that AC250 had acidic groups at its surface. Scanning electron microscopy depicted that increase in activation temperature resulted in an increase in pore size of activated carbon. Both AC250 and AC850 followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Temkin isotherm model was a best fit for empirical data obtained at equilibrium. The model also showed that sorption process for both AC250 and AC850 was physisorption.

  14. Seizure modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse fly ash: isotherms, kinetics, and column study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna; Mistry, Chirag; Shah, Ajay

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a common environmental problem all over the world. The purpose of the research is to examine the applicability of bagasse fly ash (BFA)-an agricultural waste of sugar industry used for the synthesis of zeolitic material. The zeolitic material are used for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) heavy metal. Bagasse fly ash is used as a native material for the synthesis of zeolitic materials by conventional hydrothermal treatment without (conventional zeolitic bagasse fly ash (CZBFA)) and with electrolyte (conventional zeolitic bagasse fly ash in electrolyte media (ECZBFA)) media. Heavy metal ions Pb(II) and Cd(II) were successfully seized from aqueous media using these synthesized zeolitic materials. In this study, the zeolitic materials were well characterized by different instrumental methods such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, XRF, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic microphotographs. The presence of analcime, phillipsite, and zeolite P in adsorbents confirms successful conversion of native BFA into zeolitic materials. Seizure modeling of Pb(II) and Cd(II) was achieved by batch sorption experiments, isotherms, and kinetic studies. These data were used to compare and evaluate the zeolitic materials as potential sorbents for the uptake of heavy metal ions from an aqueous media. The Langmuir isotherm correlation coefficient parameters best fit the equilibrium data which indicate the physical sorption. Pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion model matches best which indicates that the rate of sorption was controlled by film diffusion. The column studies were performed for the practical function of sorbents, and breakthrough curves were obtained, which revealed higher sorption capacity as compared to batch method. Synthesized zeolitic material (CZBFA and ECZBFA), a low-cost sorbent, was proven as potential sorbent for the uptake of Pb(II) and Cd(II) heavy metal ions.

  15. Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution by aminated pumpkin seed powder: Kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Munagapati Venkata; Kim, Dong-Su

    2016-06-01

    Present research discussed the utilization of aminated pumpkin seed powder (APSP) as an adsorbent for methyl orange (MO) removal from aqueous solution. Batch sorption experiments were carried to evaluate the influence of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature. The APSP was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were fitted using two two-parameter models (Langmuir and Freundlich) and two three-parameter models (Sips and Toth). Langmuir and Sips isotherms provided the best model for MO adsorption data. The maximum monolayer sorption capacity was found to be 200.3mg/g based on the Langmuir isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model equations were used to analyze the kinetic data of the adsorption process and the data was fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2)>0.97). The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) from experimental data showed that the sorption of MO onto APSP was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range 298-318 K. The FTIR results revealed that amine and carboxyl functional groups present on the surface of APSP. The SEM results show that APSP has an irregular and porous surface which is adequate morphology for dye adsorption. Desorption experiments were carried to explore the feasibility of adsorbent regeneration and the adsorbed MO from APSP was desorbed using 0.1M NaOH with an efficiency of 93.5%. Findings of the present study indicated that APSP can be successfully used for removal of MO from aqueous solution.

  16. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in the Student Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Yujing; Li, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the measurement of the heat produced by the stepwise addition of one substance to another. It is a common experimental technique, for example, in pharmaceutical science, to measure equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies. We describe a stirring device and an injection pump that can be used with a…

  17. Carbon dioxide transport and sorption behavior in confined coal cores for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, R.; Seshadri, K.; Irdi, G.; Smith, D.H.

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed-methane/CO{sub 2}-sequestration field projects. Many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates significantly. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh no. 8 was kept under a constant, 3D effective stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while, it sorbed CO{sub 2}. Increases in sample density because of sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the CT showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO{sub 2} sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh no. 8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO{sub 2} source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO{sub 2} was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution, suggesting hysteresis and a possible rearrangement of coal structure because of CO{sub 2} sorption.

  18. Sorption of chlorobenzenes to cape cod aquifer sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    Sorption of tetra- and pentachlorobenzene by sediment from a glacial outwash aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, was evaluated. Particle size and mineralogical fractions (separated based on paramagnetic susceptibility) were characterized with respect to sediment organic carbon (SOC), mineralogy, surface area, metal oxide coatings, and spatial variability. SOC increases by a factor of 10 as particle size decreases from 500-1000 to ?? 25 % in the <63-??m fraction, and SOC is preferentially associated with the magnetic minerals. Sorption increases with decreasing particle size (increasing SOC, magnetic minerals, surface area, and metal oxyhydroxides), and the magnetic mineral fraction has greater sorption than the bulk or nonmagnetic fractions. Removal of SOC decreases sorption proportional to the decrease in SOC and results in a nonlinear isotherm.

  19. Sorption of cesium ions by nanostructured calcium aluminosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, P. S.; Shabalin, I. A.; Yarusova, S. B.; Suponina, A. P.; Zhevtun, I. G.

    2016-10-01

    Data on the sorption properties of synthetic calcium aluminosilicates (CASes) with Al: Si ratios of 2: 2, 2: 6, and 2: 10, fabricated within the multicomponent system CaCl2-AlCl3-KOM-SiO2-H2O, are presented. Isotherms of the sorption of Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions with Cs+ concentrations of 0.2 to 6.0 mmol L-1 are analyzed. The CAS maximum sorption capacity and the Langmuir constants are determined. Kinetic data are obtained, and the energy of cation-exchange activation upon the sorption of Cs+ ions is determined. The effect of a salt background (1% KCl + 6% NaCl) has on the values of distribution coefficient ( K d) and the degree of Cs+ ion removal is established.

  20. Sorption of metals by Chlorobium spp.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gil, J; Borrego, C

    1997-12-01

    The capacity of two species of green phototrophic sulfur bacteria, Chlorobium limicola and C. phaeobacteroides, to sorb several metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) has been tested in laboratory batch cultures at increasing concentrations up to 2,000 mumol/l. Except for nickel--which was not sorbed to bacterial cells--the rest of metals tested were bound in a fast and passive process, which was mathematically described by means of Freundlich isotherms models. The sorption capacity of the two species studied were found to be dependent on the metal involved, whereas no differences were observed in the sorption intensity, suggesting that in all cases the sorption process proceeds in a similar way. Further, the comparison of the sorption intensity values as well as the metal recovery index (Ri), for both species, revealed that C. phaeobacteroides was more efficient that C. limicola to attach metal ions. The ecological significance of this ability in the water column of some stratified lakes, where coinciding maxima of ferrous iron and green photosynthetic sulfur bacteria are frequently found, is discussed.

  1. Sorption studies of human keratinized tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, G. K.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Water content is known to be the most important single parameter for keratinized tissue to remain its vital functions. In that sense, a general knowledge of the water binding properties is of great interest, and a reliable measurement setup must be found. Also, revealing the sorption properties of human keratinized tissues is vital towards a calibration of susceptance based skin hydration measurements that already is an important diagnostic tool in clinical dermatology, and we will see that any hysteresis will complicate such a calibration further. In this study we investigated the sorption properties of keratinized tissues such as human epidermal stratum corneum (SC), hair and nail. The study was performed under controlled environmental conditions with a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) instrument, and the water uptake of the keratinized test samples was measured as the relative humidity in the ambient air was altered step-wisely. In this study, vital and characteristic water sorption properties such as the isotherm, relative water uptake, and hysteresis were investigated and will be discussed.

  2. Probing the mechanism of water adsorption in carbon micropores with multitemperature isotherms and water preadsorption experiments.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, S W

    2006-11-21

    The phenomenon of water adsorption in carbon micropores is examined through the study of water adsorption equilibrium in molecular sieving carbon. Adsorption and desorption isotherms are obtained over a wide range of concentrations from less than 0.1% to beyond 80% of the vapor pressure. Evidence is provided in support of a proposed bimodal water adsorption mechanism that involves the interaction of water molecules with functional groups at low relative pressures and the adsorption of water molecules between graphene layers at higher pressures. Decomposition of the equilibrium isotherm data through application of the extended cooperative multimolecular sorption theory, together with favorable quantitative comparison, provides support for the proposed adsorption mechanism. Additional support is obtained from a multitemperature study of water equilibrium. Temperatures of 20, 50, and 60 degrees C were probed in this investigation in order to provide isosteric heat of adsorption data for water interaction with the carbon molecular sieve. At low loading, the derived isosteric heat of adsorption is estimated to be 69 kJ/mol. This value is indicative of the adsorption of water to functional groups. At higher loading, the isosteric heat of adsorption decreases with increasing loading and approaches the heat of condensation, indicative of adsorption between graphene layers. Further support for the proposed adsorption mechanism is derived from carbon dioxide adsorption experiments on carbon molecular sieve that is preadsorbed with various amounts of water. Significant exclusion of carbon dioxide occurs, and a quantitative analysis that is based on the proposed bimodal water adsorption mechanism is employed in this investigation.

  3. Sorption of roxarsone onto soils with different physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing-Long; He, Jian-Zhou; Blaney, Lee; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Elevated roxarsone (ROX) concentrations in soils, caused by land application of ROX-bearing poultry litter, mandate investigation of ROX sorption onto soils. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of ROX sorption onto five soils were carried out to explore the relationship between sorption parameters and soil properties, and to reveal the effects of coexisting humic acid (HA), P(V), As(V), and As(III) on ROX transport. Experimental results indicated that ROX sorption reached equilibrium within 24 h, with pseudo-second order rate constants of 5.74-5.26 × 10(2) g/(mg h); film and intra-particle diffusion were the rate-limiting processes. ROX sorption to soils involved partitioning and adsorption phenomena; however, their relative contributions varied for different soils. The maximum ROX sorption varied with soil type, ranging from 0.59 to 4.12 mg/g. Results from correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions revealed that the maximum sorption capacities, partition coefficients, and desorption percentages were correlated with soil properties, especially iron content, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. ROX sorption to soils was affected more by soil pH than the initial pH of ROX-containing solutions. Carboxylic and amide functional groups were determined to be responsible for ROX sorption to soils. ROX sorption capacities decreased in the presence of HA, P(V), As(V), and As(III), indicating that ROX mobility in soils was facilitated by dissolved organic matter (DOM) and competing anions.

  4. Studies on the sorption of praseodymium (III), holmium (III) and cobalt (II) from nitrate medium using TVEX-PHOR resin.

    PubMed

    El-Dessouky, S I; El-Sofany, E A; Daoud, J A

    2007-05-08

    The use of TVEX-PHOR resin for the sorption of praseodymium (III), holmium (III) and cobalt (II) from nitrate medium was carried out using batch and column techniques. Various parameters affecting the uptake of these metal ions such as v/m ratio, pH and the metal ion concentration were separately studied. Effect of temperature on the equilibrium distribution values has been studied to evaluate the changes in standard thermodynamic quantities. Experimental results of the investigated metal ions were found to fit to Freundlich isotherm model over the entire studied concentration range. Selectivity sequence of the resin for these metals is Ho>Pr>Co. The recovery of the investigated metals from the loaded resin is preformed with 0.1M sulphuric acid.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution

  6. Sorption of lanthanum ions by natural clinoptilolite tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dampilova, B. V.; Zonkhoeva, E. L.

    2013-08-01

    The equilibrium and kinetics of sorption of lanthanum ions on natural clinoptilolite tuff are studied. It is demonstrated that sorption of lanthanum ions from diluted solutions occurs in micropores of clinoptilolite, and from concentrated solutions in the mesoporous structure of tuff. The main capacity of zeolite tuff is found in the secondary porous structure. The sorption of lanthanum ions is limited by diffusion in tuff grains. Lanthanum ions are regularly distributed in the tuff phase and interact with the Brønsted centers of large clinoptilolite cavities.

  7. The use of a heterogeneity-based isotherm to interpret the transport of reactive radionuclides in volcanic tuff media

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.

    1987-12-31

    The sorption of cesium and strontium has been modeled with a heterogeneity-based isotherm equation for various tuff materials including those within a sequence of geologic stratigraphic units. The theory of the isotherm foresees the relative retardation and the chemical dispersion of the studied radionuclides during transport. The concepts of heterogeneity of sites and variability in the maximum number of sites available for sorption are incorporated into the model. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Sorption testing and generalized composite surface complexation models for determining uranium sorption parameters at a proposed in-situ recovery site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Truax, Ryan A.; Lankford, David A.; Stone, James J.

    2016-02-03

    Solid-phase iron concentrations and generalized composite surface complexation models were used to evaluate procedures in determining uranium sorption on oxidized aquifer material at a proposed U in situ recovery (ISR) site. At the proposed Dewey Burdock ISR site in South Dakota, USA, oxidized aquifer material occurs downgradient of the U ore zones. Solid-phase Fe concentrations did not explain our batch sorption test results,though total extracted Fe appeared to be positively correlated with overall measured U sorption. Batch sorption test results were used to develop generalized composite surface complexation models that incorporated the full genericsorption potential of each sample, without detailed mineralogiccharacterization. The resultant models provide U sorption parameters (site densities and equilibrium constants) for reactive transport modeling. The generalized composite surface complexation sorption models were calibrated to batch sorption data from three oxidized core samples using inverse modeling, and gave larger sorption parameters than just U sorption on the measured solidphase Fe. These larger sorption parameters can significantly influence reactive transport modeling, potentially increasing U attenuation. Because of the limited number of calibration points, inverse modeling required the reduction of estimated parameters by fixing two parameters. The best-fit models used fixed values for equilibrium constants, with the sorption site densities being estimated by the inversion process. While these inverse routines did provide best-fit sorption parameters, local minima and correlated parameters might require further evaluation. Despite our limited number of proxy samples, the procedures presented provide a valuable methodology to consider for sites where metal sorption parameters are required. Furthermore, these sorption parameters can be used in reactive transport modeling to assess downgradient metal attenuation, especially when no other calibration

  9. Sorption testing and generalized composite surface complexation models for determining uranium sorption parameters at a proposed in-situ recovery site

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Truax, Ryan A.; Lankford, David A.; ...

    2016-02-03

    Solid-phase iron concentrations and generalized composite surface complexation models were used to evaluate procedures in determining uranium sorption on oxidized aquifer material at a proposed U in situ recovery (ISR) site. At the proposed Dewey Burdock ISR site in South Dakota, USA, oxidized aquifer material occurs downgradient of the U ore zones. Solid-phase Fe concentrations did not explain our batch sorption test results,though total extracted Fe appeared to be positively correlated with overall measured U sorption. Batch sorption test results were used to develop generalized composite surface complexation models that incorporated the full genericsorption potential of each sample, without detailedmore » mineralogiccharacterization. The resultant models provide U sorption parameters (site densities and equilibrium constants) for reactive transport modeling. The generalized composite surface complexation sorption models were calibrated to batch sorption data from three oxidized core samples using inverse modeling, and gave larger sorption parameters than just U sorption on the measured solidphase Fe. These larger sorption parameters can significantly influence reactive transport modeling, potentially increasing U attenuation. Because of the limited number of calibration points, inverse modeling required the reduction of estimated parameters by fixing two parameters. The best-fit models used fixed values for equilibrium constants, with the sorption site densities being estimated by the inversion process. While these inverse routines did provide best-fit sorption parameters, local minima and correlated parameters might require further evaluation. Despite our limited number of proxy samples, the procedures presented provide a valuable methodology to consider for sites where metal sorption parameters are required. Furthermore, these sorption parameters can be used in reactive transport modeling to assess downgradient metal attenuation, especially when no other

  10. Kinetics and equilibrium studies of adsorption of chromium(VI) ion from industrial wastewater using Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae) seed shells.

    PubMed

    Amuda, O S; Adelowo, F E; Ologunde, M O

    2009-02-01

    A new biosorbent has been prepared by coating Chrysophyllum albidum (Sapotaceae) seed shells with chitosan and/or oxidizing agents such as sulfuric acid. This study investigated the technical feasibility of activated and modified activated C. albidum seed shells carbons for the adsorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution. The sorption process with respect to its equilibria and kinetics as well as the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent mass, adsorbate concentration and particle size on adsorption was also studied. The most effective pH range was found to be between 4.5 and 5 for the sorption of the metal ion. The pseudo-first-order rate equation by Lagergren and pseudo-second-order rate equation were tested on the kinetic data, the adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order rate kinetics, also, isotherm data was analyzed for possible agreement with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms, the Freundlich and Langmuir models for dynamics of metal ion uptake proposed in this work fitted the experimental data reasonably well. However, equilibrium sorption data were better represented by Langmuir model than Freundlich. The adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm was 84.31, 76.23 and 59.63mgCr(VI)/g at initial pH of 3.0 at 30 degrees C for the particle size of 1.00-1.25mm with the use of 12.5, 16.5 and 2.1g/L of CACASC, CCASC and ACASC adsorbent mass, respectively. This readily available adsorbent is efficient in the uptake of Cr(VI) ion in aqueous solution, thus, it could be an excellent alternative for the removal of heavy metals and organic matter from water and wastewater.

  11. Molecular scale assessment of methylarsenic sorption on aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masayuki; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Parikh, Sanjai J; Sparks, Donald L

    2010-01-15

    Methylated forms of arsenic (As), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA), have historically been used as herbicides and pesticides. Because of their large application to agriculture fields and the toxicity of MMA and DMA, the sorption of methylated As to soil constituents requires investigation. MMA and DMA sorption on amorphous aluminum oxide (AAO) was investigated using both macroscopic batch sorption kinetics and molecular scale extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. Sorption isotherm studies revealed sorption maxima of 0.183, 0.145, and 0.056 mmol As/mmol Al for arsenate (As(V)), MMA, and DMA, respectively. In the sorption kinetics studies, 100% of added As(V) was sorbed within 5 min, while 78% and 15% of added MMA and DMA were sorbed, respectively. Desorption experiments, using phosphate as a desorbing agent, resulted in 30% release of absorbed As(V), while 48% and 62% of absorbed MMA and DMA, respectively, were released. FTIR and EXAFS studies revealed that MMA and DMA formed mainly bidentate binuclear complexes with AAO. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that increasing methyl group substitution results in decreased As sorption and increased As desorption on AAO.

  12. Molecular Scale Assessment of Methylarsenic Sorption on Aluminum Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, M.; Ginder-Vogel, M; Parikh, S; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Methylated forms of arsenic (As), monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA), have historically been used as herbicides and pesticides. Because of their large application to agriculture fields and the toxicity of MMA and DMA, the sorption of methylated As to soil constituents requires investigation. MMA and DMA sorption on amorphous aluminum oxide (AAO) was investigated using both macroscopic batch sorption kinetics and molecular scale extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. Sorption isotherm studies revealed sorption maxima of 0.183, 0.145, and 0.056 mmol As/mmol Al for arsenate (As{sup V}), MMA, and DMA, respectively. In the sorption kinetics studies, 100% of added As{sup V} was sorbed within 5 min, while 78% and 15% of added MMA and DMA were sorbed, respectively. Desorption experiments, using phosphate as a desorbing agent, resulted in 30% release of absorbed As{sup V}, while 48% and 62% of absorbed MMA and DMA, respectively, were released. FTIR and EXAFS studies revealed that MMA and DMA formed mainly bidentate binuclear complexes with AAO. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that increasing methyl group substitution results in decreased As sorption and increased As desorption on AAO.

  13. Insights into isotherm making in the sorptive removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ayoob, S; Gupta, A K

    2008-04-15

    The defluoridation research has thrown up many technologies, with adsorption as a popular alternative, especially among fluoride endemic habitations of the developing world. In the endeavor to develop novel adsorbents for defluoridation, the adsorption potential of hardened alumina cement granules (ALC) were examined through isotherm fitting. Though the adsorbent showed enhanced adsorption capacity at higher fluoride concentration ranges, the errors associated with linearization in isotherm fitting were also found to be increasing. The propagation of these errors was more prominent in Dubinin-Radushkevich and Langmuir models but negligible in Freundlich. The chi2 analysis, used to correlate the equilibrium experimental data and the isotherm models, also suggested poor correlations at higher fluoride concentration ranges for all the models. The procedure of linear and nonlinear regression through optimization of error functions rendered the 'best-fit' model and optimum model parameters, through sum of normalized error (SNE) values. Though ALC exhibited maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 34.36 mgg(-1) in concentration variation studies of fluoride in the range of 2.5-100 mg l(-1) in synthetic water, it got reduced to 10.215 mgg(-1) in dose variation studies and further to 0.9358 mgg(-1) in natural ground water. Though Langmuir appeared as the best-fit model in terms of R2 in synthetic studies of different fluoride concentrations, the procedure of linear and nonlinear regression demonstrated that Freundlich was the best-fit. The nonlinear chi2 analysis together with minimum SNE values convincingly demonstrated that the equilibrium studies with dose variations of ALC offers more reliable isotherm parameters than those with high fluoride concentrations. The sorption of fluoride by ALC appeared endothermic with Freundlich adsorption capacity parameter increased from 0.5589 to 0.9939 lg(-1) in natural water and 3.980-7.5198 lg(-1) in synthetic water systems for a

  14. Statistical physics studies of multilayer adsorption isotherm in food materials and pore size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouaini, F.; Knani, S.; Ben Yahia, M.; Ben Lamine, A.

    2015-08-01

    Water sorption isotherms of foodstuffs are very important in different areas of food science engineering such as for design, modeling and optimization of many processes. The equilibrium moisture content is an important parameter in models used to predict changes in the moisture content of a product during storage. A formulation of multilayer model with two energy levels was based on statistical physics and theoretical considerations. Thanks to the grand canonical ensemble in statistical physics. Some physicochemical parameters related to the adsorption process were introduced in the analytical model expression. The data tabulated in literature of water adsorption at different temperatures on: chickpea seeds, lentil seeds, potato and on green peppers were described applying the most popular models applied in food science. We also extend the study to the newest proposed model. It is concluded that among studied models the proposed model seems to be the best for description of data in the whole range of relative humidity. By using our model, we were able to determine the thermodynamic functions. The measurement of desorption isotherms, in particular a gas over a solid porous, allows access to the distribution of pore size PSD.

  15. Removal of Direct Red 23 from aqueous solution using corn stalks: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathi, M. R.; Asfaram, A.; Farhangi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability and efficiency of corn stalk (CS) for the removal of diazo dye Direct Red 23 (DR23) from aqueous solutions. The effect of different variables in the batch method as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CS amount, temperature, and so forth by the optimization method has been investigated. The color reduction was monitored by spectrophotometry at 503 nm before and after DR23 adsorption on the CS, and the removal percentage was calculated using the difference in absorbance. The sorption processes followed the pseudo second order in addition to intraparticle diffusion kinetics models with a good correlation coefficient with the overall entire adsorption of DR23 on adsorbent. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by four widely used isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R). It was found that adsorption of DR23 on CS well with the Freindlich isotherm model, implying monolayer coverage of dye molecules onto the surface of the adsorbent. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 10 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g for initial dye concentration of 10-90 mg L-1 at pH 3. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy, of the ongoing adsorption process have been calculated. Judgment based on the obtained results of thermodynamic values shows the spontaneous and endothermic nature adsorption processes on adsorbent.

  16. Effect of cosolutes on the sorption of phenanthrene onto mineral surface of river sediments and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinghong; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%), organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP), and humic acid (HA)) on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients (K d (app)) of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including "cosolute added prior to phenanthrene" and "cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously," were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene K d (app) while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents.

  17. Effect of Cosolutes on the Sorption of Phenanthrene onto Mineral Surface of River Sediments and Kaolinite

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%), organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP), and humic acid (HA)) on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients (Kdapp) of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including “cosolute added prior to phenanthrene” and “cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously,” were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene Kdapp while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents. PMID:25147865

  18. Studying the sorption properties of a clinoptilolite-containing tuff with respect to europium(III) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    The kinetic laws of sorption of europium(III) ions from sulfate solutions by a clinoptilolite-containing tuff are studied. The kinetic parameters of sorption process are determined and absorption isotherms are constructed for europium ions. It is found that both external and internal diffusion are rate-limiting steps, and europium is completely extracted from dilute solutions (<0.0025 m).

  19. As(V), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) sorption on biochars and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamadopoulos, Evan; Agrafioti, Evita; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The use of biochar, as a cost effective sorbent for heavy metal removal from contaminated water and soils is becoming a very promising practice. In this study, rice husk, the organic fraction of solid wastes, as well as sewage sludge were used as precursors for biochar production. The first was chosen as one of the most abundant types of biomass worldwide and the other two in order to find alternative innovative uses of these wastes. A series of batch kinetic and equilibrium (sorption and desorption) experiments was conducted using As(V), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) as adsorbates. The specific heavy metals were chosen in order to assess biochars removal capacity towards both anionic and cationic metals. Apart from biochars, a sandy loam soil was also used as adsorbent for metal removal. Knowing the separate behavior of biochars and soil towards metal sorption, it could be the first step in explaining the fate of heavy metals in a biochar amended soil. The kinetic study showed that, for all adsorbents and metals examined, sorption can be well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. What is more, simulation of sorption isotherms gave a better fit for the Freundlich model, possibly due to the heterogeneous surface of the initial biomasses and the fine aggregates that soil consists of. Based on the equilibrium study, the materials examined removed more than 95% of the initial Cr(III). This is possibly related to the electrostatic interactions between adsorbents negative surface charge and Cr(III) cations. However, removal rates for As(V) and Cr(VI) anions were significantly lower. Biochar derived from sewage sludge was efficient in removing 89% of Cr(VI) and 53% of As(V). Its ash high Fe2O3 content may have enhanced metal adsorption via precipitation. Soil was the most effective material for the removal of As(V), yet it could not strongly retain metal anions compared to biochars, as a significant amount of the adsorbed metal was released during desorption

  20. [Study on the sorption of 4-octylphenol by freshwater algae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhang-e; Yang, Hai-zhen; Wang, Bei-bei; Deng, Nan-sheng

    2009-12-01

    The sorption of 4-octylphenol (4-OP) by two freshwater algae was investigated. Results showed that the sorption of 4-octylphenol by algae was obvious and quick, where 20% of initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and 46% initial 4-OP (2 mg/L) was accumulated by Anabaena cylindrical (AC) after 5 min incubation. The sorption got equilibrium at 1 h after incubation. Langmuir sorption model was good appropriate type for this sorption. The effect of pH value on CV sorption was obvious than that on AC sorption. The sorption capacity of the biomass of two algae increased with the decrease of pH value. The analyzing of interaction between algae and 4-octylphenol was performed by fluorescence spectrum. Results showed that the algae could weaker the fluorescence spectrum intensity of 4-octylphenol and result in red shift of the maximum absorbance wavelength of mixture solution. Based on the results, it was speculated that algae bound with the contamination could use the near UV region of solar radiation and induced the contamination degradation.

  1. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.

    2009-05-01

    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  2. Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakan Akyol, Nihat

    2014-05-01

    Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in large quantity worldwide. The objective of this study was to perform some batch and column experiments to examine the transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil from Turkey. Batch experiments indicated that sorption isotherm was nonlinear with a freundlich isotherm over a range of concentration (0.2-10 mg/L) examined. Column experiments showed that transport of atrazine in the soil was moderately retarded compared to non-reactive tracer (R = 2.9-4.0). The degree of retardation decreased with increasing atrazine concentration and residance time had negligable impact on degree of sorption. Flow interruption tests in the column experiments indicated that the rate-limited desorption of atrazine mainly controlled the non-ideal transport of atrazine due to the presence of organic matter fraction (0.83 %) in the soil. Sorption and desorption behavior of atrazine in such soils could have important impacts for risk assessment of atrazine-contaminated soil and should be taken into account in the regulation, management, and remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. Keywords: Atrazine, Agricultural soil, Batch, Column, Desorption, Rate-limited desorption, Sorption, Transport.

  3. Competitive Sorption and Desorption of Chlorinated Organic Solvents (DNAPLs) in Engineered Natural Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jixin; Weber, Walter J., Jr.

    2004-03-31

    The effects of artificially accelerated geochemical condensation and maturation of natural organic matter on the sorption and desorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were studied. The sorption and desorption of TCE in the presence and absence of the competing PCE and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) were also examined. A sphagnum peat comprising geologically young organic matter was artificially ''aged'' using superheated water, thus increasing the aromaticity and the degree of condensation of its associated organic matter. The sorption of all solutes tested were increased remarkably and their respective desorptions reduced, by the aged peat. The sorption capacities and isotherm nonlinearities of the peat for both TCE and PCE were found to increase as treatment temperature increased. In the competitive sorption studies, both PCE and DCB were found to depress TCE sorption, with PCE having greater effects than DCB, presumably because the molecular structure o f the former is more similar to that of TCE.

  4. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; Lin, Ronghong; Nan, Yue; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; Ladshaw, Austin; Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; DePaoli, David

    2015-04-29

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient

  5. Modeling nonlinear sorption of alcohol ethoxylates to sediment: the influence of molecular structure and sediment properties.

    PubMed

    Droge, Steven T J; Yarza-Irusta, Leire; Hermens, Joop L M

    2009-08-01

    The nonlinear sorption of individual alcohol ethoxylate (AE) homologues was studied as a function of the chemical structure of AE and properties of six marine sediments and three clay minerals. All sorption data for both sediments and clays are well described by a dual-mode model, combining a Langmuir and linear sorption term. The nonlinear isotherms of a single homologue on different substrates almost overlap when sorbed concentrations are expressed per specific surface area. Below and above the Langmuir maximum capacity, isotherms approach linearity. Accordingly, it is demonstrated for nine individual AE that the two linear sorption coefficients for the clay mineral illite are predictive within a factor of two for a North Sea sediment. The linear sorption term at high concentrations is likely related to bilayer formation on the mineral surfaces, for both clays and sediments. Adsorption and bilayer formation to mineral surfaces dominate the sorption behavior of most AE homologues to the tested marine sediments. The two fitted sorption coefficients correlate well with the polar and nonpolar chain lengths of the AE. The enhanced nonlinearity of isotherms for AE with longer ethoxylate chains is explained by both an increasing adsorption coefficient and a decreasing bilayer formation affinity with additional ethoxylate units.

  6. Sorption properties of the activated carbon-zeolite composite prepared from coal fly ash for Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+).

    PubMed

    Jha, Vinay Kumar; Matsuda, Motohide; Miyake, Michihiro

    2008-12-15

    Composite materials of activated carbon and zeolite have been prepared successfully by activating coal fly ash (CFA) by fusion with NaOH at 750 degrees C in N(2) followed by hydrothermal treatments under various conditions. Uptake experiments for Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) were performed with the materials thus obtained from CFA. Of the various composite materials, that were obtained by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution (ca. 4M) at 80 degrees C (a composite of activated carbon and zeolite X/faujasite) proved to be the most suitable for the uptake of toxic metal ions. The relative selectivity of the present sorbents for the various ions was Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+)>Ni(2+), with equilibrium uptake capacities of 2.65, 1.72, 1.44 and 1.20mmol/g, respectively. The sorption isotherm was a good fit to the Langmuir isotherm and the sorption is thought to progress mainly by ion exchange with Na(+). The overall reaction is pseudo-second order with rate constants of 0.14, 0.17, 0.21 and 0.20Lg/mmol min for the uptake of Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively.

  7. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of the biosorption of uranium onto Cystoseria indica algae.

    PubMed

    Khani, M H; Keshtkar, A R; Ghannadi, M; Pahlavanzadeh, H

    2008-02-11

    Biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of binding of uranium ions to Cystoseria indica were studied in a batch system with respect to temperature and initial metal ion concentration. Algae biomass exhibited the highest uranium uptake capacity at 15 degrees C at an initial uranium ion concentration of 500 mg l(-1) and an initial pH of 4. Biosorption capacity increased from 198 to 233 mg g(-1) with an decrease in temperature from 45 to 15 degrees C at this initial uranium concentration. The Langmuir isotherm model were applied to experimental equilibrium data of uranium biosorption depending on temperature. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model C. indica algae in the studied concentration range of Uranium ions at all the temperatures studied. The saturation type kinetic model was applied to experimental data at different temperatures changing from 15 to 45 degrees C to describe the batch biosorption kinetics assuming that the external mass transfer limitations in the system can be neglected and biosorption is chemical sorption controlled. The activation energy of biosorption (E(A)) was determined as -6.15 using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees ) were also evaluated.

  8. Effect of sorption/curved interface thermodynamics on pressure transient

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Aziz, K.

    1995-01-26

    A simulation model capable of handling the effects of sorption was constructed. It accounts for the curved interface thermodynamics associated with adsorption and desorption. Data from several laboratory experiments were used to verify the model. The results indicated that simulation runs using sorption isotherms adequately model the pressure transient behavior observed in the laboratory experiments. Dry steam models severely underestimated the effective compressibility. Models using flat-interface (steam table) thermodynamics over-estimated the compressibility of the system, indicated by slower than actual rate of pressure transient propagation.

  9. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    HASSAN, NEGUIBM

    2004-03-30

    Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

  10. Influence of geochemical parameters on the sorption and desorption behaviour of europium and gadolinium onto kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Kautenburger, Ralf; Beck, Horst P

    2010-06-01

    In this study we investigated the sorption and desorption behaviour of europium and gadolinium (homologues of the actinides americium and curium) onto the clay mineral kaolinite KGa-1b. In the model system metal/kaolinite, sorption isotherms and pH-edges were determined in different batch experiments. Calcium and magnesium as competing cations were used to simulate the influence of water hardness on the sorption and desorption processes. After centrifugation, the free metal ions in the supernatant solution were analysed by ICP-MS. With increasing lanthanide concentration, especially the relative desorption of these metals from kaolinite rises significantly before the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 0.94 meq per 100 g is reached. This indicates that low lanthanide concentrations will result in a relatively lower metal migration due to sorption reactions at higher active sites in comparison with higher lanthanide concentrations. The K(d)-values and sorption isotherms of Eu(iii) and Gd(iii) were determined at pH 5.0 (+/-0.02) and analysed with Freundlich and Langmuir sorption models. The experimental data can best be fitted by Langmuir sorption isotherm. The pH-value has only a minor influence on the sorption onto kaolinite. Only at low pH-values (sorption found in our study is naturally occurring competing cations such as alkaline earth metals. With Ca and Mg concentrations close to those found in nature, lanthanide sorption decreases dramatically. Desorption experiments show that after four consecutive equilibration steps, nearly all the lanthanide has been mobilised from kaolinite to the aquifer.

  11. Sorption of cadmium and zinc from aqueous solutions by zeolite 4A, zeolite 13X and bentonite.

    PubMed

    Purna Chandra Rao, G; Satyaveni, S; Ramesh, A; Seshaiah, K; Murthy, K S N; Choudary, N V

    2006-11-01

    The sorption and desorption of cadmium and zinc on zeolite 4A, zeolite 13X and bentonite has been studied using batch sorption studies. Parameters such as equilibrium time, effect of pH and sorbent dose were studied. The sorbents exhibited good sorption potential for cadmium and zinc with a peak value at pH 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. The sorption followed the Freundlich sorption model. More than 70% sorption occurred within 20 min and equilibrium was attained at around 90 min for the three sorbents. The metals sorption by zeolite 4A was higher than that by zeolite 13X and bentonite. The desorption studies were carried out using NaCl solution and the effect of NaCl concentration on desorption was also studied. Maximum desorption of 76% for cadmium and 80% for zinc occurred with 10% NaCl.

  12. Sorption profile and chromatographic separation of uranium (VI) ions from aqueous solutions onto date pits solid sorbent.

    PubMed

    Saad, E M; Mansour, R A; El-Asmy, A; El-Shahawi, M S

    2008-09-15

    The retention profile of uranium (VI) as uranyl ions (UO(2)(2+)) from the aqueous media onto the solid sorbent date pits has been investigated. The sorption of UO(2)(2+) ions onto the date pits was achieved quantitatively (98+/-3.4%, n=5) after 15 min of shaking at pH 6-7. The sorption of UO(2)(2+) onto the used sorbent was found fast, followed by a first order rate equation with an overall rate constant, k of 4.8+/-0.05 s(-1). The sorption data were explained in a manner consistent with a "solvent extraction" mechanism. The sorption data were also subjected to Freundlich isotherm model over a wide range of equilibrium concentration (1-20 microgmL(-1)) of UO(2)(2+). The results revealed that, a "dual-mode" of sorption mechanism involving absorption related to "solvent extraction" and an added component for "surface adsorption" is most likely operated simultaneously for uranyl ions uptaking the solid sorbent. The thermodynamic parameters (-DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaG) of the uranyl ions uptake onto the date pits indicated that, the process is endothermic and proceeds spontaneously. The interference of some diverse ions on the sorption UO(2)(2+) from the aqueous media onto the date pits packed column was critically investigated and the data revealed quantitative collection of UO(2)(2+) at 5 mLmin(-1) flow rate. The retained UO(2)(2+) was recovered quantitatively with HCl (3.0 molL(-1)) from the column at 5 mLmin(-1) flow rate. The mode of binding of the date pits with UO(2)(2+) was determined from the IR spectral date bits before and after extraction of uranium (VI). The height equivalent (HETP) and the number (N) of theoretical plates of the date pits packed column were determined from the chromatograms. Complete retention and recovery of UO(2)(2+) spiked to wastewater samples by the date pits packed column was successfully achieved. The capacity of the used sorbent towards retention of uranium (VI) from aqueous solutions was much better than the most common sorbents.

  13. Effects of biochar and clay amendment on nutrient sorption of an Arenosol in semi-arid NE-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beusch, Christine; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil nutrient-poor Arenosol with a low capacity to retain water and nutrients is the predominant soil type. Our aim is to provide a long-term melioration of the soils with locally available and inexpensive materials. We hypothesize an increase in nutrient sorption by the addition of biochar and clay. We conducted adsorption experiments according to OECD 106 batch equilibrium method in order to test this hypothesis. Sandy Arenosol, locally produced pyrolized biochar made of Prosopis juliflora, and a clayey Vertisol with a clay content of 69.8 %, all from our project area in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil, were used. The percentage of biochar and Vertisol added were 0 % (pure Arenosol), 1 %, 2.5 %, 5 %, 10 %, 100 % (pure biochar respectively Vertisol). Samples were shaken for 24 hours in a 1:5 solid-solution ratio in six different concentrations of Ammonium-N, Nitrate-N (0 - 25 mg L-1 each), Phosphorus (0 - 19.8 mg L-1) and Potassium (0 - 50 mg L-1). These concentrations were chosen to represent a common range of nutrients in a prevalent quaternary fertilization scheme of N:P:K of 1:0.4:1, with half NH4-N and NO3-N each. Then, where possible, sorption isotherms according to Langmuir were derived. Addition of biochar and Vertisol only showed marginal effects on Ammonium sorption. We detected a high loss of Ammonium with pure biochar, we assume loss of gaseous NH3. High rates of biochar addition caused Nitrate retention. Biochar increased P sorption with a maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 27.35 mg kg-1 for the 5 % amendment, although some P was leached out (up to 1.58 mg kg-1 for the 10 % addition). Phosphate sorption on Vertisol was even higher with a qmax for the 5 % addition of 60.77 mg kg-1. Potassium did not sorb to biochar, but was strongly leached out (84.19 mg kg-1 out of the 5 % addition). For Vertisol we observed a strong Potassium sorption that is linear within the concentration range we tested. A possible enhancement of nutrient

  14. Dynamic sorption of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) and xylene from water using geomaterial-modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Houari, M; Hamdi, B; Brendle, J; Bouras, O; Bollinger, J C; Baudu, M

    2007-08-25

    Adsorption of phenols and xylene onto composite material, Na-montmorillonite, activated carbon, cement and water mixture, 70%, 7%, 7% and 16% (w/w/w/w), respectively, was studied at pH values of 5.15, 4.55, 5.2 and 4.9, respectively, of phenol, 2-CP, 2-NP and xylene. Equilibrium isotherms and fixed-bed column studies were undertaken to evaluate the performance of clay-active coal-coated cement (CACC) in removing phenols from aqueous solution. Investigations revealed CACC to be a very efficient media for the removal of phenols from water. The suitability of the Langmuir adsorption model to the equilibrium data was investigated for all phenols-adsorbent systems. At the maximum sorption capacity of the composite material it was found that the uptake (mg phenols/g) of phenols increased in the order 2-CP>2-NP>phenol approximately m-xylene as do their solubilities. The LUB design approach was used to determine the equivalent length of unused bed. The lower LUB values imply a better utilization of CACC composite. A model, which considered the effect of axial dispersion, was successfully used to describe the fixed-bed operation, the axial dispersion coefficient increased significantly with solubility.

  15. Sorption of cadmium in columns of sand-supported hydrothermally carbonized particles.

    PubMed

    Minani, J M V; Foppen, J W; Lens, P N L

    2014-01-01

    Sanitation in urban slums, especially in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a challenge. One of the solutions to sanitation is to valorize waste, and to convert bio-waste present in the slum in a cheap and affordable way into lignite via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). HTC is simple, cheap, converts all carbon (100%), eliminates pathogens completely, and requires wet starting products/biomass, thereby avoiding complicated drying schemes. In this research, we investigated the effectiveness of removing a divalent metal-ion, cadmium, using equilibrium batch experiments and columns of sand-supported hydrothermally carbonized colloidal lignite (HTCCL) derived from sugar, maize, and grass. Our results indicated that equilibrium sorption could be best described by a Langmuir isotherm. The uptake capacity varied from 0.11 to 0.21 mg Cd/g HTC, dependent on the type of HTC used. These values were relatively low compared to other carbonaceous sorbents. However, removal efficiencies in column experiments were remarkably high: 70-100% during 20-24 pore volumes or bed volumes of flushing. We concluded that HTCCL is a promising sorbent that can be used to treat heavily polluted water and/or wastewater.

  16. Moisture Sorption and Thermodynamic Properties of Vacuum-Dried Capsosiphon fulvescens Powder

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    The moisture sorption isotherms of vacuum-dried edible green alga (Capsosiphon fulvescens) powders were determined at 25, 35, and 45°C and water activity (aw) in the range of 0.11~0.94. An inversion effect of temperature was found at high water activity (>0.75). Various mathematical models were fitted to the experimental data, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller model was found to be the most suitable model describing the relationship between equilibrium moisture content and water activity (<0.45). Henderson model could also provide excellent agreement between the experimental and predicted values despite of the intersection point. Net isosteric heat of adsorption decreased from 15.77 to 9.08 kJ/mol with an increase in equilibrium moisture content from 0.055 to 0.090 kg H2O/kg solids. The isokinetic temperature (Tβ) was 434.79 K, at which all the adsorption reactions took place at the same rate. The enthalpy-entropy compensation suggested that the mechanism of the adsorption process was shown to be enthalpy-driven. PMID:26451360

  17. Comparison of tetrachloromethane sorption to an alkylammonium-clay and an alkyldiammonium-clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.; Jaffe, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The interlamellar space of Wyoming bentonite (clay) was modified by exchanging either decyltrimethyl-ammonium (DTMA) or decyltrimethyldiammonium (DTMDA) cations for inorganic ions, and tetrachloromethane sorption to the resulting two organoclays from water was studied at 10, 20, and 35??C. Only one end of the 10-carbon alkyl chain of the DTMA cation is attached to the silica surface of the clay mineral, and tetrachloromethane sorption of DTMA-clay is characterized by isotherm linearity, noncompetitive sorption, weak solute uptake, and a relatively low heat of sorption. Both ends of the 10-carbon chain of the DTMDA cation are attached to the silica surface of the clay mineral, and tetrachloromethane sorption to DTMDA-clay is characterized by nonlinear isotherms, competitive sorption, strong solute uptake, and a relatively high, exothermic heat of sorption that varies as a function of the mass of tetrachloromethane sorbed. Therefore, the attachment of both ends of the alkyl chain to the interlamellar mineral surface appears to change the sorption mechanism from a partition-dominated process to an adsorption-dominated process. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  18. COSOLVENT EFFECTS ON SORPTION AND MOBILITY OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch equilibrium and column miscible displacement techniques were used to investigate the influence of an organic cosolvent (methanol) on the sorption and transport of three hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) — naphthalene, phenanthrene, and diuron herbicide — in a sandy surfa...

  19. Impact of coal structural heterogeneity on the nonideal sorption of organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin; Fu, Heyun; Li, Yuan; Mao, Jingdong; Zheng, Shourong; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2011-06-01

    Carbonaceous geosorbents (black carbon, coal, and humin/kerogen) play a primary role in the nonideal sorption (isotherm nonlinearity, hysteresis, and multiphasic kinetics) of hydrophobic organic chemicals by soils and sediments. The present study investigated the impact of coal structural heterogeneity on sorption/desorption of two model monoaromatic compounds (1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,3-dinitrobenzene). Due to the higher degree of aromaticity and condensation, anthracite showed stronger sorption affinity and nonlinearity and slower sorption kinetics than lignite. Removal of humic substances by alkali extraction and/or mineral fraction by acidification did not much affect organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient to the coal, suggesting nearly complete accessibility of adsorption sites on the condensed organic carbon. However, the treatments greatly increased sorption kinetics and meanwhile alleviated hysteresis of 1,3-dinitrobenzene, as compared with the original lignite. These observations were attributed to the enhanced exposure of high-energy adsorption sites on the condensed organic carbon after exfoliating the surface coverage by humic substances and minerals. An empirical biphasic pseudo-second-order model consisting of a fast sorption phase and a slow sorption phase adequately quantified the overall sorption kinetics for the coal sorbents. The results indicated that the condensed organic carbon, in combination with other structural components, controls the nonideal sorption of unburned coal.

  20. Molecular level models for CO{sub 2} sorption in nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, A.; Ravikovitch, P.I.; Neimark, A.V,

    1999-12-07

    Adsorption of carbon dioxide in slit-shaped carbon micropores at 273 K has been studied by means of the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and the nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT). Three molecular models of CO{sub 2} have been used. Long-run GCMC simulations were performed with the three-center model of Harris and Yung. For NLDFT calculations, the authors developed an effective Lennard-Jones (LJ) model. GCMC simulations of the effective LJ model of CO{sub 2} have been performed for comparison. For each model used, parameters of intermolecular potentials have been determined and validated against two-phase bulk equilibrium data and experimental adsorption isotherms on graphite at 273 and 195 K. In the range of pore widths from 3 to 15 {angstrom}, the NLDFT isotherms of CO{sub 2} adsorption are overall in a satisfactory agreement with the GCMC isotherms generated using the three-center model. Some deviations have been observed between 6.5 and 8.5 {angstrom}, where the adsorbate undergoes a transition from a single-layer to a two-layer structure. The models developed are recommended for studying carbon dioxide adsorption in microporous adsorbents and also for calculating pore size distributions in carbonaceous materials and soil particles. The NLDFT model has the advantage of being much less computationally demanding, whereas the three-center GCMC model serves as a benchmark for quantitative estimates and can be used for studying CO{sub 2} sorption at ambient conditions close to the critical temperature.

  1. Adsorption of Zn2+ ions onto NaA and NaX zeolites: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Nibou, D; Mekatel, H; Amokrane, S; Barkat, M; Trari, M

    2010-01-15

    The adsorption of Zn(2+) onto NaA and NaX zeolites was investigated. The samples were synthesized according to a hydrothermal crystallization using aluminium isopropoxide (Al[OCH(CH(3))(2)](3)) as a new alumina source. The effects of pH, initial concentration, solid/liquid ratio and temperature were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models were applied and the adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The uptake distribution coefficient (K(d)) indicated that the Zn(2+) removal was the highest at minimum concentration. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The negative values of standard enthalpy of adsorption revealed the exothermic nature of the adsorption process whereas the negative activation entropies reflected that no significant change occurs in the internal structure of the zeolites solid matrix during the sorption of Zn(2+). The negative values of Gibbs free energy were indicative of the spontaneity of the adsorption process. Analysis of the kinetic and rate data revealed that the pseudo second-order sorption mechanism is predominant and the intra particle diffusion was the determining step for the sorption of zinc ions. The obtained optimal parameters have been applied to wastewater from the industrial zone (Algeria) in order to remove the contained zinc effluents.

  2. Equilibrium and kinetic models on the adsorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution using Eichhornia crassipes/chitosan composite.

    PubMed

    El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Abdelghaffar, Rehab A; Hassabo, Ahmed G

    2016-01-20

    New natural biopolymer composite was prepared using extracted cellulose from an environmentally problematic water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (EC). The extracted cellulose was functionalized by chitosan and TiO2 nanoparticles to form EC/Chitosan (EC/Cs) composite network. Surface characterization of EC/Cs natural biopolymer composite was examined by spectrum analysis FT-IR, specific surface area, micropore volume, pore width and SEM. Furthermore, the sorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH, various initial dye concentration and contact time. Experiment results showed that the EC/Cs composite have high ability to remove C.I. Reactive Black 5 from its dye-bath effluent. The equilibrium sorption evaluation of RB5 conformed and fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm models and the maximum sorption capacity was 0.606 mg/g. The kinetic adsorption models followed pseudo-second order model and the dye intra-particle diffusion may suggesting a chemical reaction mechanism. Further, it was obvious from the investigation that this composite could be applied as a promising low cost adsorbent for anionic dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  3. Hydrophobic conjugated microporous polymers for sorption of human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chunli; Du, Miaomiao; Feng, Shanshan; Sun, Hanxue; Li, An; He, Chi; Zhang, TianCheng; Wang, Qiaorui; Wei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigated the sorption of human serum albumin (HSA) from water by three kinds of conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) with surface hydrophobicity and intrinsic porosity. It was found that the three CMPs captured HSA with fast sorption kinetics and good working capacity. Equilibrium was obtained at 80 min for all the tests, and the maximum sorption quantity (qm) ranged from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/mg. With the increase in the particle external surface area of the CMPs, a greater extent of HSA sorption was achieved. Moreover, promoting the dispersion of CMPs in HSA aqueous solution was also beneficial to the extraction. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy verified the interactions between the CMPs and the Nsbnd H, Cdbnd O, and Csbnd N groups of HSA. This paper might provide fundamental guidance for the practical application of CMPs to proteins separation and recovery.

  4. Sorption and retardation of strontium in saturated Chinese loess: experimental results and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lijuan; Qian, Tianwei; Hao, Junting; Zhao, Dongye

    2013-02-01

    Geological burial and landfill have been widely practiced for disposal of nuclear wastes. However, radionuclides in the waste leachate from landfill facilities can contaminate soil and groundwater. Chinese loess is widely distributed in China and has been involved in large-scale disposal of nuclear wastes. Consequently, there has been an urgent need for understanding and predicting the fate and transport of contaminants in both vadose and saturated zones in the loess. In this paper, the distribution coefficient (K(d)) values of Strontium between a Chinese loess and groundwater were determined in batch experiments. The isotherm could be described with nearly linear isotherm model, which resulted in a K(d) value of 40.0 cm(3)/g. Based on this K(d) value, the retardation factor (R(d), the ratio of pore water velocity to solute transport velocity) value was calculated to be 112.6. As an alternative approach, the R(d) value was also determined through independent column experiments and transport modeling. Bromide (Br(-)) was used as a non-reactive tracer, and reagent SrCl(2) was used as a surrogate for the radioactive isotope ((99)Sr) in the experiment because they share the same adsorption and transportation characteristics. An equilibrium-based model and a two-region non-equilibrium model were employed to interpret the column sorption data of Sr. The computer program, CXTFIT 2.1, was used to estimate the parameters by simulating the breakthrough and retention curves of Br and Sr, respectively. The resultant D (dispersion coefficient) value for Sr transport was much lower than that of Br(-), indicating the important effect of chemical non-equilibrium of Sr in the loess system. The observed Sr retention curves in the loess were best modeled by the two-site transport model. The R(d) value determined from batch equilibrium tests differed markedly from that determined from the column transport experiments, and the R(d) value decreased with increasing pore-water velocity

  5. CO2 Sorption to Subsingle Hydration Layer Montmorillonite Clay Studied by Excess Sorption and Neutron Diffraction Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene S.; Wallacher, Dirk; Hauβ, Thomas; Schaef, Herbert T.; Qafoku, Odeta; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Krukowski, Elizabeth G.; Stack, Andrew G.; Grimm, Nico; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-02

    Geologic storage of CO2 requires that the caprock sealing the storage rock is highly impermeable to CO2. Swelling clays, which are important components of caprocks, may interact with CO2 leading to volume change and potentially impacting the seal quality. The interactions of supercritical (sc) CO2 with Na saturated montmorillonite clay containing a subsingle layer of water in the interlayer region have been studied by sorption and neutron diffraction techniques. The excess sorption isotherms show maxima at bulk CO2 densities of ≈0.15 g/cm3, followed by an approximately linear decrease of excess sorption to zero and negative values with increasing CO2 bulk density. Neutron diffraction experiments on the same clay sample measured interlayer spacing and composition. The results show that limited amounts of CO2 are sorbed into the interlayer region, leading to depression of the interlayer peak intensity and an increase of the d(001) spacing by ca. 0.5 Å. The density of CO2 in the clay pores is relatively stable over a wide range of CO2 pressures at a given temperature, indicating the formation of a clay-CO2 phase. Finally, at the excess sorption maximum, increasing CO2 sorption with decreasing temperature is observed while the high-pressure sorption properties exhibit weak temperature dependence.

  6. CO2 sorption to subsingle hydration layer montmorillonite clay studied by excess sorption and neutron diffraction measurements.

    PubMed

    Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene S; Wallacher, Dirk; Hauβ, Thomas; Schaef, Herbert T; Qafoku, Odeta; Rosso, Kevin M; Felmy, Andrew R; Krukowski, Elizabeth G; Stack, Andrew G; Grimm, Nico; Bodnar, Robert J

    2013-01-02

    Geologic storage of CO(2) requires that the caprock sealing the storage rock is highly impermeable to CO(2). Swelling clays, which are important components of caprocks, may interact with CO(2) leading to volume change and potentially impacting the seal quality. The interactions of supercritical (sc) CO(2) with Na saturated montmorillonite clay containing a subsingle layer of water in the interlayer region have been studied by sorption and neutron diffraction techniques. The excess sorption isotherms show maxima at bulk CO(2) densities of ≈ 0.15 g/cm(3), followed by an approximately linear decrease of excess sorption to zero and negative values with increasing CO(2) bulk density. Neutron diffraction experiments on the same clay sample measured interlayer spacing and composition. The results show that limited amounts of CO(2) are sorbed into the interlayer region, leading to depression of the interlayer peak intensity and an increase of the d(001) spacing by ca. 0.5 Å. The density of CO(2) in the clay pores is relatively stable over a wide range of CO(2) pressures at a given temperature, indicating the formation of a clay-CO(2) phase. At the excess sorption maximum, increasing CO(2) sorption with decreasing temperature is observed while the high-pressure sorption properties exhibit weak temperature dependence.

  7. Experimental study of water desorption isotherms and thin-layer convective drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghnimi, Thouraya; Hassini, Lamine; Bagane, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the desorption isotherms and the drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves ( Laurus Nobilis L.). The desorption isotherms were performed at three temperature levels: 50, 60 and 70 °C and at water activity ranging from 0.057 to 0.88 using the statistic gravimetric method. Five sorption models were used to fit desorption experimental isotherm data. It was found that Kuhn model offers the best fitting of experimental moisture isotherms in the mentioned investigated ranges of temperature and water activity. The Net isosteric heat of water desorption was evaluated using The Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was then best correlated to equilibrium moisture content by the empirical Tsami's equation. Thin layer convective drying curves of bay laurel leaves were obtained for temperatures of 45, 50, 60 and 70 °C, relative humidity of 5, 15, 30 and 45 % and air velocities of 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s. A non linear regression procedure of Levenberg-Marquardt was used to fit drying curves with five semi empirical mathematical models available in the literature, The R2 and χ2 were used to evaluate the goodness of fit of models to data. Based on the experimental drying curves the drying characteristic curve (DCC) has been established and fitted with a third degree polynomial function. It was found that the Midilli Kucuk model was the best semi-empirical model describing thin layer drying kinetics of bay laurel leaves. The bay laurel leaves effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were also identified.

  8. Microscopic Origin of Hysteresis in Water Sorption on Protein Matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Beom; Sparano, Evan M; Singh, Rakesh S; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2017-02-28

    Despite the importance of water sorption isotherms for a fundamental understanding of protein-water interactions, the microscopic origin of hysteresis between the adsorption and desorption branches is not well understood. Using our recently developed simulation technique, we compute the water sorption isotherms of two proteins, lysozyme and Trp-cage, a miniprotein. We explicitly compare protein-water interactions in adsorption and desorption processes, by analyzing local hydration in terms of hydrogen bonding, water density, and solvent-accessible surface area. We find that significant differences in hydration behavior between adsorption and desorption manifest themselves at the individual amino acid level, in particular around polar or charged residues. We confirm this observation by demonstrating that Trp-cage's hysteresis can be significantly reduced by mutating charged residues to alanine, a neutral and nonpolar amino acid.

  9. Removal of divalent nickel from aqueous solutions using Carissa carandas and Syzygium aromaticum: isothermal studies and kinetic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sanjay K.; Mahiya, Suresh; Lofrano, Giusy

    2015-11-01

    Biosorptive removal of divalent nickel from aqueous solution using Carissa Carandas and Syzygium aromaticum was investigated in batch mode and the observations were correlated with the pH variation, agitation time, dose of the adsorbent and initial metal ion concentration in the solution. In the course of this study Sorption efficiency of C. carandas leaf powder found higher than that of S. aromaticum under identical experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption capacities estimated for Ni(II) through Freundlich isotherm model were 3.76 and 2.96 mg/g for C. carandas and S. aromaticum, respectively. In kinetic studies the correlation coefficient (R 2 = 0.99) for the pseudo-second order kinetics modal was higher than that of pseudo-first order kinetics model and the calculated value of q e for the pseudo-second order kinetic model resulted very close to the experimental value, which indicates that it fits well with the equilibrium data for Ni(II) sorption from aqueous solutions on biosorbents.

  10. Bacterial sorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Ferris, F.G.; Beveridge, T.J.; Flemming, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd{sup 2+} removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu{sup 2+}. Removal of Ag{sup +} from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag{sup +} was removed from the 1 mM solution, whereas only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La{sup 3+} accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasma. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals.

  11. Sorption and pore condensation behavior of pure fluids in mesoporous MCM-48 silica, MCM-41 silica, SBA-15 silica and controlled-pore glass at temperatures above and below the bulk triple point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thommes, Matthias; Köhn, Ralf; Fröba, Michael

    2002-08-01

    The pore condensation and hysteresis behavior of nitrogen and argon was studied on well-defined, ordered porous materials like MCM-48, MCM-41 silica (mode pore diameters, 2-5 nm) and SBA-15 (6.7 nm) at 87 and 77 K. A comparison with the results of similar sorption experiments carried out using more disordered adsorbents like controlled-pore glasses (CPG) (mode pore diameters, 11 and 16 nm) is made. The results show clearly that the shape of sorption isotherms (in particular the shape and the width of sorption hysteresis loops) depend both on temperature and pore diameter, i.e. the thermodynamic states of pore fluid and bulk fluid, but—in particular at temperatures below the bulk triple point—also strongly on the texture (and degree of disorder) of the porous material. Analyses of nitrogen (at 77 K) and argon (at 87 K) adsorption-desorption isotherms in MCM-48 silica lead to the conclusion that in this well-defined, interconnected pore network the desorption branch of the hysteresis loop represents the equilibrium transition. In addition, pore condensation of argon can still be observed at 77 K, i.e. ca. 6.5 K below the bulk triple point in MCM-48/41 and SBA-15 silica materials with pore diameters<8 nm. However, pore condensation of argon at 77 K vanishes in case the pore diameter exceeds ca. 12 nm (based on BJH method), which limits the range for mesopore-size analysis of silica materials using argon sorption at 77 K.

  12. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    PubMed

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  13. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  14. Porosity and Surface Properites of SBA-15 with Grafted PNIPAAM: A Water Sorption Calorimetry Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was modified in a three-step process to obtain a material with poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAM) grafted onto the inner pore surface. Water sorption calorimetry was implemented to characterize the materials obtained after each step regarding the porosity and surface properties. The modification process was carried out by (i) increasing the number of surface silanol groups, (ii) grafting 1-(trichlorosilyl)-2-(m-/p-(chloromethylphenyl) ethane, acting as an anchor for (iii) the polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide. Water sorption isotherms and the enthalpy of hydration are presented. Pore size distributions were calculated on the basis of the water sorption isotherms by applying the BJH model. Complementary measurements with nitrogen sorption and small-angle X-ray diffraction are presented. The increase in the number of surface silanol groups occurs mainly in the intrawall pores, the anchor is mainly located in the intrawall pores, and the intrawall pore volume is absent after the surface grafting of PNIPAAM. Hence, PNIPAAM seals off the intrawall pores. Water sorption isotherms directly detect the presence of intrawall porosity. Pore size distributions can be calculated from the isotherms. Furthermore, the technique provides information regarding the hydration capability (i.e., wettability of different chemical surfaces) and thermodynamic information. PMID:21928772

  15. SORPTION KINETICS OF PAHS IN METHANOL-WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships between the equilibrium sorption constant (Kp), the first-order desorption rate coefficient (k2), and the volumetric fraction of water miscible solvent (fc); and to utilize SPARC-calculated (SPARC Performs Automatic ...

  16. Atrazine sorption-desorption hysteresis by sugarcane mulch residue.

    PubMed

    Selim, H M; Zhu, H

    2005-01-01

    Sorption and desorption kinetics are essential components for modeling the movement and retention of applied agricultural chemicals in soils and the fraction of chemicals susceptible to runoff. In this study, we investigated the retention characteristics of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) mulch residue for atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) based on studies of sorption-desorption kinetics. A sorption kinetic batch method was used to quantify retention of the mulch residue for a wide range of atrazine concentrations and reaction times. Desorption was performed following 504 h of sorption using successive dilutions, followed by methanol extraction. Atrazine retention by the mulch residue was well described using a linear model where the partitioning coefficient (K(d)) increased with reaction time from 10.40 to 23.4 cm3 g(-1) after 2 and 504 h, respectively. Values for mulch residue K(d) were an order of magnitude higher than those found for Commerce silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) where the sugarcane crop was grown. A kinetic multireaction model was successful in describing sorption behavior with reaction time. The model was equally successful in describing observed hysteretic atrazine behavior during desorption for all input concentrations. The model was concentration independent where one set of model parameters, which was derived from all batch results, was valid for the entire atrazine concentration range. Average atrazine recovery following six successive desorption steps were 63.67 +/- 4.38% of the amount adsorbed. Moreover, a hysteresis coefficient based on the difference in the area between sorption and desorption isotherms was capable of quantifying hysteresis of desorption isotherms.

  17. Structural studies of a non-stoichiometric channel hydrate using high resolution X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and moisture sorption methods.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Y-H; Cheung, Eugene; Stephens, Peter W; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2014-09-01

    Structural investigations of a nonstoichiometric hydrate, AMG 222 tosylate, a DPP-IV inhibitor in clinical development for type II diabetes, were performed using a multitechnique approach. The moisture sorption isotherm is in good agreement with a simple Langmuir model, suggesting that the hydrate water is located in well-defined crystallographic sites, which become vacant during dehydration. Crystal structures of AMG 222 tosylate at ambient and dry conditions were determined from high-resolution X-ray diffraction using the direct space method. On the basis of these crystal structures, hydrated water is located in channels formed by the drug framework. Upon dehydration, an isostructural dehydrate is formed with the channels remaining void and accessible to water for rehydration. Kitaigorodskii packing coefficients of the solid between relative humidity of 0% and 90% indicate that the equilibrium form of AMG 222 tosylate is the fully hydrated monohydrate.

  18. Sorption Properties of Iron-Magnesium and Nickel-Magnesium Mg2FeH6 and Mg2NiH4 Hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysina, Z. A.; Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Shchur, D. V.; Gabdullin, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    Based on molecular-kinetic representations, theory of hydrogen absorption-desorption processes in binary Mg-Fe and Mg-Ni alloys is developed. Free energies of hydrides of these alloys are calculated. Equations of their thermodynamically equilibrium state determining the P-T-c diagrams are derived. A temperature dependence of the desorbed hydrogen concentration is established. A maximal desorption temperature is estimated. The state diagrams determining the concentration dependence of the maximal desorption temperature are constructed. Isopleths and isotherms of hydrogen solubility in the alloys are calculated. The possibility of manifestation of the hysteresis effect in hydrogen solubility isotherms is revealed and the decrease of the width and length of a hysteresis loop with increasing temperature is demonstrated together with the influence of the magnesium hydrate MgH2 in Mg2FeH6 samples and running of chemical reactions on the behavior of the isotherms and the occurrence of bends and jumps in them. All established functional dependences of the sorption properties of the examined alloys are compared with experimental data available from the literature.

  19. Effect of Acid Treatment of Plant Cuticles on Sorption of Selected Auxins 1

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Warren E.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    Sorption characteristics of 2-(1-naphthyl)acetic acid (NAA), 2-(1-naphthyl)acetamide (NAAm), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were determined for cuticles enzymically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Sprinter) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. Sorption equilibrium for NAA and 2,4-D by tomato cuticular membranes (CM) and dewaxed cuticular membranes (DCM) was achieved within 24 hours at 25°C. The average K (partition coefficient) values for NAA in tomato CM and DCM were 166 and 204, respectively, whereas the corresponding K values for 2,4-D were 292 and 383, respectively. Sorption equilibrium for 2,4-D and NAA in pepper cuticles was not achieved after 18 and 63 days, respectively. Sorption equilibrium for NAAm in tomato and pepper CM and DCM was attained within 48 hours. Acid pretreatment (2.0 n HCl, 10 minutes) had no effect on NAA, 2,4-D, or NAAm sorption by tomato CM and DCM, or on NAAm sorption by pepper CM and DCM. Acid pretreatment of pepper CM and DCM led to slightly lower KpH (apparent partition coefficient) values for both NAA and 2,4-D. More significantly, sorption equilibrium for NAA and 2,4-D in pepper CM and DCM was achieved within 24 hours after acid treatment. PMID:16665302

  20. Nonlinear and interactive effects in the sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals by sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, R.; Lick, W.

    1999-08-01

    Long-term experiments were done in order to investigate nonlinear isotherms and interactive effects in the sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) by sediments. In the isotherm experiments, it was demonstrated that the isotherms for all HOCs tested were linear as long as the mass of the sorbed HOC was small by comparison with the mass of organic carbon in the sediments; for larger sorbed HOC concentrations, the isotherms were nonlinear. Sorption experiments also were done with hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-octanol, HCB-ethanol, octanol-ethanol, and HOC-methanol mixtures in water and sediments. Interactive effects were observed and can be described in terms of the partitioning of the primary HOC between the cosolvent, water, and sediments.

  1. Heavy metal removal from water by sorption using surfactant-modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-Hsia; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2002-06-10

    Removal of Cu2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by sorption on the montmorillonite modified with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function of solution pH, solute concentration, and temperature (25-55 degrees C). The Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevick model was adopted to describe the single-solute sorption isotherms. Also, the binary-solute sorption equilibria could be reasonably predicted by the competitive Langmuir model, in which the Langmuir parameters were directly taken from those obtained in single-solute systems. The thermodynamic parameters (DeltaH(o) and DeltaS(o)) for Cu2+ and Zn2+ sorption on the modified clay were also determined from the temperature dependence. The kinetics of metal ions sorption was examined and the pseudo-first-order rate constant was finally evaluated.

  2. Influence of the isomerism on the sorption of imazamethabenz-methyl by soil.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Maria Vittoria; Pusino, Alba

    2013-04-01

    The sorption of meta and para isomers of the herbicide imazamethabenz-methyl, methyl 6-[(RS)-4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl]-m- or p-toluate, by three soils and soil organic matter, was studied. Sorption isotherms conformed to the Freundlich equation. It was found that pH was the main factor influencing the adsorption in all of the systems. The highest level of sorption was measured on soils with low pH and high organic carbon content. Moreover, at low pH value, the soil rich in smectite clays, favoured the sorption of meta rather than para isomer. The higher affinity of clay surfaces for the meta isomer of the herbicide is due to the stabilization of the meta protonated form by resonance. At all pH values, the sorption on soil organic matter did not differ between two isomers.

  3. Kinetics of sorption of lead on bed sediments of River Hindon, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M K; Jain, C K; Singhal, D C; Choubey, V K

    2009-10-01

    A number of low cost waste sorbent have been used for removal of heavy metals, however, few studies have been carried out on the sorption process on riverbed sediments in their natural state of occurrence. Stream sediments adsorb certain solutes from streams, thereby significantly changing the solute composition, but little is known about quantitatively describing sorption phenomena and rates of these processes. In the present investigation, sorption of lead ions on river bed sediments of river Hindon, a tributary of river Yamuna, India has been studied to demonstrate the role of bed sediments in controlling metal pollution. The effect of various operating variables, viz., initial concentration, solution pH, sediment dose, contact time and particle size has been studied. The sorption of lead ions increased with respect to pH and sorbent dose and decreased with sorbent particle size. Two important geochemical phases, iron and manganese oxide, also play important role in the sorption process. The sorption data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models to determine the mechanistic parameters related to the sorption process. Further, although lead ions have more affinity for the fine fraction of the sediment, but the overall contribution of coarser fraction to sorption is more as compared to clay and silt fraction. The kinetic data suggest that the sorption of lead on bed sediments is an endothermic process, which is spontaneous at low temperature. The uptake of lead is controlled by both bulk and intraparticle diffusion mechanism.

  4. Partition Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michal; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    We introduce partition equilibrium and study its existence in resource selection games (RSG). In partition equilibrium the agents are partitioned into coalitions, and only deviations by the prescribed coalitions are considered. This is in difference to the classical concept of strong equilibrium according to which any subset of the agents may deviate. In resource selection games, each agent selects a resource from a set of resources, and its payoff is an increasing (or non-decreasing) function of the number of agents selecting its resource. While it has been shown that strong equilibrium exists in resource selection games, these games do not possess super-strong equilibrium, in which a fruitful deviation benefits at least one deviator without hurting any other deviator, even in the case of two identical resources with increasing cost functions. Similarly, strong equilibrium does not exist for that restricted two identical resources setting when the game is played repeatedly. We prove that for any given partition there exists a super-strong equilibrium for resource selection games of identical resources with increasing cost functions; we also show similar existence results for a variety of other classes of resource selection games. For the case of repeated games we identify partitions that guarantee the existence of strong equilibrium. Together, our work introduces a natural concept, which turns out to lead to positive and applicable results in one of the basic domains studied in the literature.

  5. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-09-15

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards.

  6. Effect of ten quaternary ammonium cations on tetrachloromethane sorption to clay from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The mineral surface of Wyoming bentonite (clay) was modified by replacing inorganic ions by each of 10 quaternary ammonium compounds, and tetrachloromethane sorption to the modified sorbents from water was studied. Tetrachloromethane sorption from solution to clay modified with tetramethyl-, tetraethyl-, benzyltrimethyl-, or benzyltriethylammonium cations generally is characterized by relatively high solute uptake, isotherm nonlinearity, and competitive sorption (with trichloroethene as the competing sorbate). For these sorbents, the ethyl functional groups yield reduced sorptive capacity relative to methyl groups, whereas the benzyl group appears to have a similar effect on sorbent capacity as the methyl group. Sorption of tetrachloromethane to clay modified with dodecyldimethyl(2-phenoxyethyl)-, dodecyltrimethyl-, tetradecyltrimethyl-, hexadecyltrimethyl-, or benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium bromide is characterized by relatively low solute uptake, isotherm linearity, and noncompetitive sorption. For these sorbents, an increase in the size of the nonpolar functional group(s) causes an increase in the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc). No measurable uptake of tetrachloromethane sorption by the unmodified clay or clay modified by ammonium bromide was observed. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  7. Sorption of methane, ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen on kerogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribylov, A. A.; Skibitskaya, N. A.; Zekel', L. A.

    2014-06-01

    Sorption isotherms of nitrogen, methane (in the pressure range of 0.1-40 MPa), ethane (0.1-3.7MPa), propane (0.01-1 MPa), butane (0.01-0.2 MPa), and carbon dioxide (0.1-6 MPa) are measured on two adsorbents with kerogen contents of 16 and 75% at temperatures of 303, 323, 343 K. Adsorption volumes are calculated for all adsorption systems using two independent methods. The BET technique is used to determine the surface area values of the two adsorbents on the basis of sorption data for ethane, propane, butane, and carbon dioxide. The initial and isosteric adheat of sorption values are calculated on the basis of sorption isotherms of ethane, propane, butane, carbon dioxide measured at three temperatures. It is found from comparing the dependences of isosteric heat of sorption on the two adsorbents that molecules of the above gases diffuse into its bulk (adsorbent 2) in addition to sorbing on the outside surface formed by kerogen molecules, while sorption of the same gases on the rock (adsorbent 1) is similar to sorption on a smooth hard adsorbent surface.

  8. Status Of Sorption Cryogenic Refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews sorption refrigeration. Developed for cooling infrared detectors, cryogenic research, and other advanced applications, sorption refrigerators have few moving parts, little vibration, and lifetimes of 10 years or more. Describes types of sorption stages, multistage and hybrid refrigeration systems, power requirements, cooling capacities, and advantages and disadvantages of various stages and systems.

  9. Sorption of lead by settling pond soils after reclamation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio, Verónica; Forján, Rubén; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The reclamation of degraded soils adding waste amendments can add significant concentrations of Pb. Because of this, it is important to know the sorption capacity of Pb by the soils where wastes with high concentrations of this metal are applied. To determine the sorption capacity of Pb by mine soils, before and after reclamation treatments, four different sites were selected at a settling pond mine zone: an untreated one as the control sample (B1), a vegetated one with pines for 21 years (B2v), a vegetated with eucalyptus for 6 years (B3v) and an amended with sewage sludges and paper mill residues for 5 months (B4w). All soils had one horizon except B4w, where twice were sampled (B4Aw and B4Bw). The B4Bw is considered analogous of the control soil. To evaluate the sorption capacity by the soils, sorption isotherms were constructed using single-metal solutions of Pb2+ nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Pb was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The obtained results show that the sorption isotherm of Pb by control soil (B1) and its analogous (B4Bw) are of L-type curve, whereas the sorption isotherms of the treated soils (B2v, B3v and B4Aw) are of H-type curve (Giles et al., 1974). The most of the obtained isotherms do not fit with the models of Langmuir or Freundlich, therefore sorption capacity was evaluated by Kr parameter. According to the obtained Kr parameter, B1 and B4Bw have the lowest Pb sorption capacity (Kr = 0.480 and 0.556, respectively), which increased two times after recently waste amending (B4Aw; Kr = 0.998). The vegetated sites (B2v and B3v) also have higher sorption capacity than B1, but lower than B4Aw (Kr = 0.692 and 0.725, respectively). The highest sorption capacity of Pb by the amended soil is due to its characteristics such as high pH and organic carbon content. This is corroborated by the significantly

  10. Effects of hydrodynamic conditions on the sorption behaviors of aniline on sediment with coexistence of nitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Hua, Zulin; Cai, Yunjie; Shen, Xia; Li, Qiongqiong; Liu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-08-01

    The sorption behaviors of pollutants affected by hydrodynamic conditions were confirmed in natural water environment. The effects of hydrodynamic conditions on the sorption behaviors of aniline on sediment with coexistence of nitrobenzene were investigated. The particle entrainment simulator (PES) was used to simulate varied bottom shear stresses. The batch equilibrium method was applied to the experiments with the stress levels and the action time controlled at 0.2-0.5 N/m(2) and 24 h, respectively. The findings indicated that apparent partition coefficient of aniline on sediment increased with the shear stress significantly, while decreased with nitrobenzene concentration. On the contrary, both the sorption amount of aniline on suspended particulate matter (Q s) and the effect of nitrobenzene concentration on Q s declined as the shear stress increased. The sorption kinetic results showed that the sorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation, and the process included two stages: fast sorption stage and slow sorption stage, among which the average sorption rate of fast stage was 7.5-9.5 times that of slow one. The effect of shear stress on the average sorption rate of aniline was enhanced with the increase of nitrobenzene concentration. And shear stress weakened the disturbance of cosolute on main solute sorption process. In addition, experiment results of sorption kinetic show that only the initial sorption rate was affected by shear stress and cosolute concentration. In the first 5 min, shear stress had positive effects on the sorption rate. After that, the sorption rate barely changed with shear stress and cosolute concentration.

  11. Study on the sorption behaviors of Tween-80 on marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-Peng; Chen, Qiang; Li, Xin-Xin; Cao, Xiao-Yan

    2010-05-01

    Batch experiment was carried out to study the sorption behavior of polysorbate 80 (Tween-80) on marine sediments collected from three different sites in Bohai Sea, China. The sorption of Tween-80 reached equilibrium within 3h and the sorption kinetic curve could be divided into two sections: the rapid sorption part and the slow sorption part. The initial sorption rate increased with the organic carbon (OC) content of the sediment. For the sediments treated by HCl and H(2)O, sorption behaviors of Tween-80 fit the linear model very well (R(2): 0.9516-0.9862) at 298K. The sorption occurred primarily due to partition function of the hydrophobic chains of Tween-80 into the organic carbon of the sediments. Sorption of Tween-80 on H(2)O(2)-treated sediments followed the Freundlich model (R(2): 0.9565-0.9732), which indicated that the surface function of clay minerals and other inorganic solids in the sediment played a key role. Moreover, the dependence of sorption on salinity and temperature was examined and the thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. It was found that the sorption was favorably influenced by the increasing salinity and decreasing temperature of seawater. The changes of Gibbs free energy (DeltaG(theta)=-15.33 approximately -17.54 kJ mol(-1)), enthalpy (DeltaH(theta)=-62.23 kJ mol(-1)) and entropy (DeltaS(theta)=-151.68 J mol(-1)K(-1)) of the sorption were also determined. The negative DeltaG(theta) and DeltaH(theta) values indicated that the sorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The negative DeltaS(theta) value suggested that the degree of freedom decreased during the sorption process.

  12. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  13. Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

    We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m 3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten hazardous air pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl- tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C 8-C 10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5->6 h -1 and partitioned 95->99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

  14. Lignin and lipid impact on sorption and diffusion of trichloroethylene in tree branches for determining contaminant fate during plant sampling and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Gayathri; Burken, Joel G; Werth, Charles J

    2009-08-01

    Plants draw all they need from their surrounding environment and in doing so also draw anthropogenic contaminants from their surroundings. Several natural processes (e.g., active transport, diffusion, sorption, and degradation) occur within trees and affect chemical concentrations in tree samples. This study elucidates tree contaminant chemical interactions on equilibrium sorption and diffusion into branch tissue (i.e., wood core and bark), specifically the impacts of lipid and lignin content. Five tree species were selected to span a range of lignin and lipid contents. Linear isotherms were obtained for all sampled species over a limited concentration range (2 microg/ mL < C(gas) < 12 microg/mL), and equilibrium distribution coefficients (K(d)) were linearly correlated to lipid (R2 > 0.83) but not lignin (R2 < 0.4) content. Lipid content was generally higher in bark than in wood cores, so mass concentrated in this tissue. Diffusion into trees was modeled, showing mass transfer resistance in bark was different from wood cores. Diffusion coefficients for bark were 2-10 times less than those for wood cores for all species, and diffusion was linearly related to lipid content (R2 > 0.96) and sorption coefficients (R2 > 0.83). Data from this study and previous research were used to develop the following correlation between the diffusion coefficient and relevant plant and chemical parameters for branch samples: D = (-7 x 10(-11)) x [f(lipid) x 10 (l.48 x logKow+0.54)] + 4 x 10(-8).

  15. Sorption of Cu(II) complexes with ligands tartrate, glycine and quadrol by chitosan.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, Ona; Binkiene, Rima; Butkiene, Rita

    2009-11-15

    The sorption by chitosan in Cu(II) solutions containing tartrate, glycine (amino acetic acid) and quadrol (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) as ligands has been investigated. The degree of sorbate removal strongly depends on pH. In solutions containing tartrate almost complete sorption of both Cu(II) and tartrate proceeds in mildly acidic and neutral solutions. The sorption of Cu(II) is also complete in alkaline solutions containing glycine; meanwhile a substantial sorption of glycine proceeds at pH approximately 6. The Cu(II) sorption in solutions containing quadrol is insignificant. Any sorption of quadrol does not proceed in the whole range of pH investigated. The investigations under equilibrium conditions showed that the Cu(II) sorption from tartrate containing solutions obeys Freundlich equation and in solutions containing glycine and quadrol it fits Langmuir equation. Supposedly, Cu(II) sorption onto chitosan proceeds with formation of amino complexes onto the surface of chitosan; the sorption of tartrate proceeds as electrostatic as well as with formation of amide bonds. Applying of electrolysis enables a complete removal of sorbed Cu(II) and ligands without changes in physical and chemical properties of chitosan. This is confirmed by sorption ability of regenerated chitosan, measurements of its molecular weight, the deacetylation degree and FT-IR spectra.

  16. Moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng-jie; Chen, Guang-ming; Fan, Ju-li; Liu, Jin-hui; Xu, Xian-guo; Zhang, Shao-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a promising method for a long-term storage of human platelets. The moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets (FDHPs) were studied in this paper. The moisture sorption isotherms of FDHPs and freeze-dried lyophilization buffer (FDLB) were measured at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equations. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between the sorption characteristics of FDHPs and FDLB at 4 and 25 °C, while FDHPs absorbed more water at 37 °C. The net isosteric heat of sorption was derived. The heat for FDHPs showed an abnormal negative value at low moisture contents when 25 and 37 °C data were used. Dynamic sorption experiments were carried out at 25 °C with environmental water activity controlled at 0.75, 0.85, and 0.90. The moisture diffusion coefficient was fitted to be 8.24×10−12 m2/s when experimental data at initial time were used. These results would be helpful in choosing prehydration and storage condition for FDHPs. PMID:21370506

  17. Importance of structural makeup of biopolymers for organic contaminant sorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-05-15

    Sorption of pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and 1-naphthol by original (lignin, chitin, and cellulose) and coated biopolymers was examined. Organic carbon normalized distribution coefficients (Koc) of all compounds by the original biopolymers followed the order lignin > chitin > cellulose, in line with the order of their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobicity of structurally similar organic compounds is the main factor determining their ability to occupy sorption sites in biopolymers. Specific interactions (e.g., H-bonding) between 1-naphthol and chitin or cellulose increased its ability to occupy sorption sites. Lignin coating resulted in an increased Koc for phenanthrene (13.6 times for chitin and 6.9 times for cellulose) and 1-naphthol (6.0 times for chitin and 3.7 times for cellulose) relative to the acetone-treated chitin and cellulose. Also, these coated biopolymers had increased isotherm nonlinearity, due to the newly formed condensed domains. An increase in phenanthrene and 1-naphthol sorption by lignin-coated biopolymers as compared to chitin and cellulose was contributed by the newly created high-energy sites in condensed domains and coated lignin. Results of this study highlight the importance of the structural makeup of biopolymers in controlling the sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds.

  18. Phenylurea herbicide sorption to biochars and agricultural soil

    PubMed Central

    WANG, DAOYUAN; MUKOME, FUNGAI N. D.; YAN, DENGHUA; WANG, HAO; SCOW, KATE M.; PARIKH, SANJAI J.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is increasingly been used as a soil amendment to improve water holding capacity, reduce nutrient leaching, increase soil pH and also as a means to reduce contamination through sorption of heavy metals or organic pollutants. The sorption behavior of three phenylurea herbicides (monuron, diuron, linuron) on five biochars (Enhanced Biochar, Hog Waste, Turkey Litter, Walnut Shell and Wood Feedstock) and an agricultural soil (Yolo silt loam) was investigated using a batch equilibration method. Sorption isotherms of herbicides to biochars were well described by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.93 -- 0.97). The adsorption KF values ranged from 6.94 to 1306.95 mg kg−1 and indicated the sorption of herbicides in the biochars and Yolo soil was in the sequence of linuron > diuron > monuron and walnut shell biochar > wood feedstock biochar > turkey litter biochar > enhanced biochar > hog waste biochar > Yolo soil. These data show that sorption of herbicides to biochar can have both positive (reduced off-site transport) and negative (reduced herbicide efficacy) implications and specific biochar properties, such as H/C ratio and surface area, should be considered together with soil type, agriculture chemical and climate condition in biochar application to agricultural soil to optimize the system for both agricultural and environmental benefits. PMID:26065514

  19. Chitosan sorbents for platinum sorption from dilute solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Guibal, E.; Larkin, A.; Vincent, T.; Tobin, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Chitosan has proved efficient at removing platinum in dilute effluents. The maximum uptake capacity reaches 300 mg/g (almost 1.5 mmol/g). The optimum pH for sorption is pH 2. A glutaraldehyde cross-linking pretreatment is necessary to stabilize the biopolymer in acidic solutions. Sorption isotherms have been studied as a function of pH, sorbent particle size, and the cross-linking ratio. Surprisingly, the extent of the cross-linking (determined by the concentration of the cross-linking agent in the treatment bath) has no significant influence on uptake capacity. Competitor anions such as chloride or nitrate induce a large decrease in the sorption efficiency. Sorption kinetics show also that uptake rate is not significantly changed by increasing either the cross-linking ratio or the particle size of the sorbent. Mass transfer rates are significantly affected by the initial platinum concentration and by the conditioning of the biopolymer. Gel-bead conditioning appears to reduce the sorption rate. While for molybdate and vanadate ions, mass transfer was governed by intraparticle mass transfer, for platinum, both external and intraparticle diffusion control the uptake rate. In contrast with the former ions, platinum does not form polynuclear hydrolyzed species, which are responsible for steric hindrance of diffusion into the polymer network.

  20. Persistence and sorption of imazapyr in three Argentinean soils.

    PubMed

    Gianelli, Valeria Rosana; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Imazapyr is a herbicide widely used for weed control in imidazolinone-tolerant sunflower. Imazapyr has a high potential for leaching into groundwater because it is highly water-soluble, persistent in soil, and only weakly sorbed by soils. There is a lack of information available in Argentina concerning groundwater leaching of imazapyr. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the persistence and sorption of imazapyr in 3 Argentinean soils (Tandil, Anguil, and Cerro Azul sites). The presence and concentration of imazapyr were determined and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The persistence in soils followed the order: Cerro Azul > Tandil > Anguil, with half-life values of 121 d, 75 d, and 37 d, respectively. The half-life of imazapyr was negatively associated with soil pH and iron and aluminum content, and was positively related to clay content. Imazapyr sorption was found to be well described by the Freundlich isotherm. Soil pH and clay, iron, and aluminum contents were the main factors affecting the sorption of imazapyr. The sorption had a limiting effect on the degradation rate. Under certain conditions, the weak sorption and high persistence may increase the movement of imazapyr in the soil profile and the risk of groundwater pollution.

  1. The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Chao, T.T.

    1973-01-01

    The sorption of silver by poorly crystallized manganese oxides was studied using synthesized samples of three members of the manganous manganite (birnessite) group, of different chemical composition and crystallinity, and a poorly organized ??-MnO2. All four oxides sorbed significant quantities of silver. The manganous manganites showed the greatest sorption (up to 0.5 moles silver/mole MnOx at pH 7) while the ??-MnO2 showed the least (0.3 moles silver/ mole MnOx at pH 7). Sorption of silver was adequately described by the Langmuir equation over a considerable concentration range. The relationship failed at low pH values and high equilibrium silver concentrations. The sorption capacity showed a direct relationship with pH. However, the rate of increase of sorption capacity decreased at the higher pH values. Silver sorption maxima. were not directly related to surface area but appeared to vary with the amount of occluded sodium and potassium present in the manganese oxide. The important processes involved in the uptake of silver by the four poorly crystallized manganese oxides ara considered to be surface exchange for manganese, potassium and sodium as well as exchange for structural manganese, potassium and sodium. ?? 1973.

  2. Selective Sorption of Dissolved Organic Carbon Compounds by Temperate Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Mayes, Melanie; Phillips, Jana Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Physico-chemical sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on soil minerals is one of the major processes of organic carbon (OC) stabilization in soils, especially in deeper layers. The attachment of C on soil solids is related to the reactivity of the soil minerals and the chemistry of the sorbate functional groups, but the sorption studies conducted without controlling microbial activity may overestimate the sorption potential of soil. This study was conducted to examine the sorptive characteristics of a diverse functional groups of simple OC compounds (D-glucose, L-alanine, oxalic acid, salicylic acid, and sinapyl alcohol) on temperate climate soil orders (Mollisols, Ultisols and Alfisols) with and without biological degradative processes. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted using 0-100 mg C L-1 at a solid-solution ratio of 1:60 for 48 hrs and the sorption parameters were calculated by Langmuir model fitting. The amount of added compounds that remained in the solution phase was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic C (TOC) analysis. Soil sterilization was performed by -irradiation technique and experiments were repeated to determine the contribution of microbial degradation to apparent sorption. Overall, Ultisols did not show a marked preference for apparent sorption of any of the model compounds, as indicated by a narrower range of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) of 173-527 mg kg soil-1 across compounds. Mollisols exhibited a strong preference for apparent sorption of oxalic acid (Smax of 5290 mg kg soil-1) and sinapyl alcohol (Smax of 2031 mg kg soil-1) over the other compounds. The propensity for sorption of oxalic acid is mainly attributed to the precipitation of insoluble Ca-oxalate due to the calcareous nature of most Mollisol subsoils and its preference for sinapyl alcohol could be linked to the polymerization of this lignin monomer on 2:2 mineral dominated soils. The reactivity of Alfisols to DOC was in

  3. Sorption of tylosin and sulfamethazine on solid humic acid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuetao; Tu, Bei; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Chen; Song, Xiaomei; Dang, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMT) are ionizable and polar antimicrobial compounds, which have seeped into the environment in substantial amounts via fertilizing land with manure or sewage. Sorption of TYL and SMT onto humic acid (HA) may affect their environmental fate. In this study, the sorption of TYL and SMT on HA at different conditions (pH, ionic strength) was investigated. All sorption isotherms fitted well to the Henry and Freundlich models and they were highly nonlinear with values of n between 0.5 and 0.8, which suggested that the HA had high heterogeneity. The sorption of TYL and SMT on HA decreased with increasing pH (2.0-7.5), implying that the primary sorption mechanism could be due to cation exchange interactions between TYL(+)/SMT(+) species and the functional groups of HA. Increasing ionic strength resulted in a considerable reduction in the Kd values of TYL and SMT, hinting that interactions between H bonds and π-π EDA might be an important factor in the sorption of TYL and SMT on HA. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis further demonstrated that carboxyl groups and O-alkyl structures in the HA could interact with TYL and SMT via ionic interactions and H bonds, respectively. Overall, this work gives new insights into the mechanisms of sorption of TYL and SMT on HA and hence aids us in assessing the environmental risk of TYL and SMT under diverse conditions.

  4. Washing of marine coastal sand in a batch reactor: sorption and desorption of BTEX.

    PubMed

    Rao, B H; Swaminathan, R; Asolekar, S R

    2001-07-01

    This study addresses the issues related to decontamination of marine beach sand accidentally contaminated by petroleum products. Sorption and desorption of BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) onto the sand from Uran Beach, located near the city of Mumbai, India, were studied, and isotherms were determined using the bottle point method to estimate sorption coefficients. Alternatively, QSARs (i.e., quantitative structure activity relationships) were developed and used to estimate the sorption coefficients. Experiments for kinetics of volatilization as well as for kinetics of sorption and desorption in the presence of volatilization were conducted in a fabricated laboratory batch reactor. A mathematical model describing the fate of volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants like BTEX (via sorption and desorption in presence of volatilization) in a batch sediment-washing reactor was proposed. The experimental kinetic data were compared with the values predicted using the proposed models for sorption and desorption, and the optimum values of overall mass transfer coefficients for sorption (K(s)a(s)) and desorption (K(d)a(d)) were estimated. This was achieved by minimization of errors while using the sorption coefficients (Kp) obtained from either laboratory isotherm studies or the QSARs developed in the present study. Independent experimental data were also collected and used for calibration of the model for volatilization, and the values of the overall mass transfer coefficient for volatilization (K(g)a(g)) were estimated for BTEX. In these exercises of minimization of errors, comparable cumulative errors were obtained from the use of Kp values derived from experimental isotherms and QSARs.

  5. Measurement techniques for carbon dioxide sorption capacity on various coal samples: critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Underground carbon sequestration is proposed as a geologic disposal technique for the long-term storage of CO2 emissions to mitigate climate change and air pollution. Coal bed seams have large CO2 adsorption capacity, long time CO2 trapping and extra enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (CBM). However, CO2 sorption capacity is one of significant steps required to be determined accurately in any feasibility evaluation of carbon sequestration. Hence, in lab scale, there are three methods for CO2 adsorption capacity measurements namely manometric/volumetric, gravimetric and new capsule techniques for gas sorption on variety of sorbents. The manometric and volumetric methods require accurate determination of cell and void volumes and suitable equation of state (EoS). The gravimetric method requires a very accurate sensitive balance and less buoyancy effect and it is the best technique for small amounts (milligrams) of sorbents and the adsorption equilibrium can be mentored. Among all gas adsorption measurement techniques, the newly developed method “capsule method” exhibits the highest CO2 adsorption capacity on Polish coal by 4.08 mmol/g because capsule method that directly measures CO2 uptake of solid coal matrix cylinders, without the application of the equation of state (EoS) for CO2 or volumetric corrections. The main advantage of capsule method is that it is independent of any Equation of State (EoS), and it has no volumetric effects or impurities distort the shape of the gas adsorption isotherm. The disadvantage of capsule method is time-consuming and it is not easy to implement.

  6. Effect of the cationic composition of sorption solution on the quantification of sorption-desorption parameters of heavy metals in soils.

    PubMed

    Sastre, J; Rauret, G; Vidal, M

    2006-03-01

    We obtained the sorption isotherms of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in clay, clay saline and organic soils. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) were determined in 0.02 eq l(-1) CaCl(2) and in a solution that simulated the soil solution cationic composition. The K(d) values greatly varied with the composition of the sorption solution and the initial metal concentration. The sorption experiments were complemented with the quantification of the extractable metal, to estimate the reversibility of metal sorption. The extraction yields depended on the metal-soil combination, and the initial metal concentration, showing no correlation with previous K(d) values. The effect of the solution composition in mobility predictions was estimated through a Retention Factor, defined as the ratio of the K(d) versus the extraction yield. Results showed that risk was over- or underestimated using the CaCl(2) medium in soils with a markedly different soil solution composition.

  7. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of lead(II) onto activated carbon prepared from coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Sekar, M; Sakthi, V; Rengaraj, S

    2004-11-15

    Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto coconut-shell carbon was investigated. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to find out the effective lead removal at different metal ion concentrations. Adsorption of Pb2+ ion was strongly affected by pH. The coconut-shell carbon (CSC) exhibited the highest lead adsorption capacity at pH 4.5. Isotherms for the adsorption of lead on CSC were developed and the equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. At pH 4.5, the maximum lead adsorption capacity of CSC estimated with the Langmuir model was 26.50 mg g(-1) adsorbent. Energy of activation (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaG, DeltaH, and DeltaS were evaluated by applying the Arrhenius and van't Hoff equations. The thermodynamics of Pb(II) on CSC indicates the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption. Quantitative desorption of Pb(II) from CSC was found to be 75% which facilitates the sorption of metal by ion exchange.

  8. Adsorption Properties of Tetracycline onto Graphene Oxide: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghadim, Ehsan Ezzatpour; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Soleimani, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Hadi; Kimiagar, Salimeh; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticle is a high potential effective absorbent. Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. In the present research, a systematic study of the adsorption and release process of tetracycline on GO was performed by varying pH, sorption time and temperature. The results of our studies showed that tetracycline strongly loads on the GO surface via π–π interaction and cation–π bonding. Investigation of TC adsorption kinetics showed that the equilibrium was reached within 15 min following the pseudo-second-order model with observed rate constants of k2 = 0.2742–0.5362 g/mg min (at different temperatures). The sorption data has interpreted by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption of 323 mg/g (298 K). The mean energy of adsorption was determined 1.83 kJ/mol (298 K) based on the Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) adsorption isotherm. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° values for the adsorption were estimated which indicated the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the sorption process. The electrochemistry approved an ideal reaction for the adsorption under electrodic process. Simulation of GO and TC was done by LAMMPS. Force studies in z direction showed that tetracycline comes close to GO sheet by C8 direction. Then it goes far and turns and again comes close from amine group to the GO sheet. PMID:24302989

  9. Amphiphilic hollow carbonaceous microspheres for the sorption of phenol from water.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhengrong; Liu, Li; He, Lilu; Yang, Sen

    2011-11-30

    Amphiphilic porous hollow carbonaceous spheres (PHCSs) were synthesized via mild hydrothermal treatment of yeast cells and further pyrolyzing post treatment. The morphology, chemical composition, porosity, and structure of the carbonaceous materials were investigated. It is evident that the carbonaceous materials were composed of the carbonized organic matter (COM) and the noncarbonized organic matter (NOM), and the relative COM and NOM fractions could be adjusted through changing the temperature of hydrothermal and/or pyrolyzing treatment. The phenol sorption properties of the carbonaceous materials had been investigated and the sorption isotherms fit well to the modified Freundlich equation. It was found that the sorption isotherm of phenol onto PHCSs was practically linear even at extreme high concentrations, which was fewer reported for activated carbon or other inorganic materials. This type of sorption isothermals was assigned to a partition mechanism, and the largest value of the partition coefficient (K(f)) and carbon-normalized K(f) (K(oc)) is 56.7 and 91.5 mL g(-1), respectively. Moreover, PHCSs exhibit fast sorption kinetic and facile regeneration property. The results indicate PHCSs are potential effective sorbents for removal of undesirable organic chemicals in wastewater, especially at high concentrations.

  10. Using surfactant-modified clays to determine sorption mechanisms for a representative organic base, quinoline.

    PubMed

    Bonczek, J L; Nkedi-Kizza, P

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of a representative ionizable nitrogen heterocycle, quinoline (pKa = 4.92), was investigated to determine the relative contributions of the neutral and protonated species to the overall process. Batch sorption experiments were conducted on surfactant-modified clays that were synthesized from the exchange of hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations for resident sodium cations on a specimen smectite (Swy-2) at 0, 60, 80, and 100% of the clay's cation exchange capacity (CEC). Hexadecyltrimethylammonium exchange creates highly effective organic partitioning domains within the clay interlayers in proportion to their coverage on the exchange complex. The fractionally exchanged clays, therefore, provided discrete exchange and organic partitioning domains for the protonated and neutral species of quinoline. Data were described by a combined Langmuir-linear isotherm that permitted independent characterization of both sorption components. Results indicated that cationic sorption dominated but that the neutral species can contribute substantially given sufficient organic carbon content relative to the CEC and at pH above the pKa of quinoline. The data obtained in this study for quinoline demonstrated that the combined isotherm (including cation exchange and hydrophobic partitioning terms) describes sorption data and compares favorably with the purely empirical Freundlish isotherm.

  11. Sorptive removal of nickel onto weathered basaltic andesite products: kinetics and isotherms.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavna A; Shah, Ajay V; Singh, Rajesh R; Patel, Nayan B

    2009-07-15

    The suitability of weathered basaltic andesite products (WBAP) as a potential sorbent was assessed for the removal of Ni (II) from electroplating industrial wastewater. A model study based on the batch mode of operation was carried out for Ni (II) removal from aqueous solution. The effect of various parameters such as hydronium ion concentration, shaking time, sorbent dose, initial Ni (II) concentration, and temperature on the sorption process was studied. At optimised conditions of the various parameters, the industrial wastewater loaded with Ni (II) was sorbed onto WBAP. Thermodynamic parameters for the sorption process were evaluated. Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich isotherms were applied to the sorption pattern on the WBAP. The sorption dynamics of the process was evaluated by applying Lagergren, Bangham, and Weber & Morris equations. The sorption process follows Pseudo-second-order rate of surface diffusion which is identified as the predominating mechanism. The sorption process was found to be reversible by the recovery of sorbed Ni (II) upon extraction with 0.5 MHNO3. The sorbent before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Powder X-Ray diffraction PXRD), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. The change in surface morphology and crystallanity of the mineral after sorption was analyzed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the previous model study, an electroplating industrial effluent was successfully treated with WBAP to minimize the pollution load caused by Ni (II).

  12. TECHNETIUM SORPTION MEDIA REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; KELLY SE; ROBBINS RA; ADAMS RD; THORSON MA; HAASS CC

    2011-08-25

    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  13. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  14. Effect of rice wax on water vapor permeability and sorption properties of edible pullulan films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible pullulan films were prepared by substituting the pullulan with various ratios of rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 50% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of the rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were ...

  15. SORPTION OF ARSENITE AND ARSENATE ON A HIGH AFFINITY OXIDE: MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of arsenate and arsenite was examined on a Ru compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Isotherms were constructed from batch studies at pH 4 through 8. Solution As was measured by ICAP. Samples of the Ru compound were equilibrated with arsenite and arsenate...

  16. Effects of Organic Matter Heterogeneity on Sorption and Desorption of Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals (HOCs) by Pakokee Peat Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Weilin; Yu, Zhiqiang; Song, Jianzhing; Peng, Pingan

    2004-03-31

    Previous studies have shown that isotherm nonlinearity, varied sorption capacity and sorption-desorption hystersis relate primarily to the heterogeneity of soil organic matter (SOM). A comprehensive wet chemical isolation procedure was used to isolate and quantify into four fractions from Pahokee peat soil: (1) demineralized pahokee peat soil, (2) humic acids + kerogen + BC (HKB), (3) kerogen and (4) humic acid (HA). The major physical and chemical properties of each fraction were characterized using different techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, etc. The impact of SOM heterogeneity on sorption and desorption equilibria by isolated fractions and original soil was conducted using phenanthrene, naphthalene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene as sorbates. The data indicated that isolated HKB and kerogen fractions exhibit more nonlinear isotherms, greater sorption capacities and desorption hysteresis than that of HA and their original soil. The role of HA to the overall sorption by soil is less significant compared to HKB and kerogen. The sorption capacity and nonlinearity of demineralized Pahokee Peat soil is greater than original soil which suggested that SOM particle may enwrap up by the inorganic and clay materials, therefore sorbate molecules are not accessible to the surface of SOM particle. The results suggested that kerogen and BC may dominate the overall nonlinear sorption by soil and sediments. The contribution of HA in the overall sorption is different from previous studies. It may be caused by different chemical isolation procedures and needs further investigation.

  17. POLANYI-BASED MODELS FOR THE COMPETITIVE SORPTION OF LOW-POLARITY ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS ON A NATURAL SORBENT. (R825406)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of appropriate equilibrium sorption relationships for anthropogenic organic contaminants with soils and sediments is essential to predicting the extents and rates of solid-water interactions in the environment. In this context, we previously reported results that ...

  18. Time and temperature dependent sorption behaviour of dimethoate pesticide in various Indian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Sunita; Sud Sant, Dhiraj

    2014-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the sorption behaviour of dimethoate in three Indian soils at different temperatures. A kinetic study showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within 15 h at different initial levels of pesticide concentration. Applicability of the pseudo second order kinetic model suggested that the adsorption process was complex and several mechanisms were involved. The Freundlich model explained the adsorption behaviour adequately and the isotherms were of S-type. The adsorption process was found to be strongly affected by temperature. The Gibbs free energy change, ΔGº values (from -15.81 to -16.60 kJ mol-1) indicated that the process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The change in enthalpy of adsorption, ΔH° values (from -17.729 to -21.539 kJ mol-1) suggested that relatively weak H-bond forces were the main driving forces for adsorption. Desorption was found to be concentration- and temperature-dependent with higher desorption occurring at higher temperature and concentration levels. The results signify the importance of temperature in controlling the mobility of dimethoate in water bodies.

  19. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; Kurmanaeva, Lilia; Cappillino, Patrick; Stavila, Vitalie; Lavernia, Enrique J.; San Marchi, Chris

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less than 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the α-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.

  20. Hydrogen sorption characteristics of nanostructured Pd–10Rh processed by cryomilling

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Nancy; Yee, Joshua K.; Zhang, Zhihui; ...

    2014-10-03

    Palladium and its alloys are model systems for studying solid-state storage of hydrogen. Mechanical milling is commonly used to process complex powder systems for solid-state hydrogen storage; however, milling can also be used to evolve nanostructured powder to modify hydrogen sorption characteristics. In the present study, cryomilling (mechanical attrition milling in a cryogenic liquid) is used to produce nanostructured palladium-rhodium alloy powder. Characterization of the cryomilled Pd-10Rh using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and surface area analysis reveals that (i) particle morphology evolves from spherical to flattened disk-like particles; while the (ii) crystallite size decreases from several microns to less thanmore » 100 nm and (iii) dislocation density increases with increased cryomilling time. Hydrogen absorption and desorption isotherms as well as the time scales for absorption were measured for cryomilled Pd-10Rh, and correlated with observed microstructural changes induced by the cryomilling process. In short, as the microstructure of the Pd-10Rh alloy is refined by cryomilling: (i) the maximum hydrogen concentration in the α-phase increases, (ii) the pressure plateau becomes flatter, and (iii) the equilibrium hydrogen capacity at 760 Torr increases. In addition, the rate of hydrogen absorption was reduced by an order of magnitude compared to non-cryomilled (atomized) powder.« less

  1. Moisture Sorption Behaviour and Mould Ecology of Trade Garri Sold in South Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tochukwu; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2014-01-01

    Garri is a creamy white or yellow starchy grit produced by roasting to gelatinization and dryness of peeled, washed, mashed, and fermented dewatered cassava roots. It is the most important product of cassava in West and Central Africa. Mean moisture content of yellow and white garri was 11.11% and 10.81% within 24 hrs of sampling from the market, increasing to 17.27% and 16.14%, respectively, following 3 months of storage at room temperature. The water activity of samples varied from initial 0.587 to 0.934 following storage. Moisture sorption isotherms, determined by static gravimetric techniques at 20° and 30°C, showed temperature dependent BET Sigmoidal type II behaviour typical of carbohydrate rich foods but modulated very slightly by the content of palm oil. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. A total of 10 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Rhizopus, and Paecilomyces were identified, with range increasing with water activity of samples. PMID:26904621

  2. Graphical determination of metal bioavailability to soil invertebrates utilizing the Langmuir sorption model

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    A new method of performing soil toxicity tests with free-living nematodes exposed to several metals and soil types has been adapted to the Langmuir sorption model in an attempt at bridging the gap between physico-chemical and biological data gathered in the complex soil matrix. Pseudo-Langmuir sorption isotherms have been developed using nematode toxic responses (lethality, in this case) in place of measured solvated metal, in order to more accurately model bioavailability. This method allows the graphical determination of Langmuir coefficients describing maximum sorption capacities and sorption affinities of various metal-soil combinations in the context of real biological responses of indigenous organisms. Results from nematode mortality tests with zinc, cadmium, copper, and lead in four soil types and water were used for isotherm construction. The level of agreement between these results and available literature data on metal sorption behavior in soils suggests that biologically relevant data may be successfully fitted to sorption models such as the Langmuir. This would allow for accurate prediction of soil contaminant concentrations which have minimal effect on indigenous invertebrates.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and sorption properties of silica gel-immobilized Schiff base derivative.

    PubMed

    Gübbük, I Hilal; Güp, Ramazan; Ersöz, Mustafa

    2008-04-15

    Silica gel was derivatized with benzophenone 4-aminobenzoylhydrazone (BAH), a Schiff base derivative, after silanization of silica by 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTS) by using a reported method. Characterization of the surface modification was confirmed through infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and elemental analysis. The immobilized surface was used for Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) sorption from aqueous solutions. The influence of the amount of sorbent, ion concentration, pH, and temperature was investigated. The sorption data followed Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The mean sorption energy (E) of benzophenone 4-aminobenzoylhydrazone (BAH) immobilization onto silica gel was calculated from D-R isotherms, indicating a chemical sorption mode for four cations. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., DeltaG, DeltaS, and DeltaH, were also calculated for the system. From these parameters, DeltaH values were found to be endothermic: 27.0, 22.7, 32.6, and 34.6 kJ mol(-1) for Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Zn(II) metal ions, respectively. DeltaS values were calculated to be positive for the sorption of the same sequence of divalent cations onto sorbent. Negative DeltaG values indicated that the sorption process for these three metal ions onto immobilized silica gel is spontaneous.

  4. Contributions of a compost-biochar mixture to the metal sorption capacity of a mine tailing.

    PubMed

    Forján, R; Asensio, V; Rodríguez-Vila, A; Covelo, E F

    2016-02-01

    One technique applied to restore degraded or contaminated soils is to use amendments made of different types of waste materials, which in turn may contain metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn. For this reason, it is important to determine the capacity of the soil to retain these materials, and to compare the sorption capacity between an amended soil and another unamended soil. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and availability of these metals in the soil after applying the amendment, and how it affected the soil's sorption capacity. Sorption isotherms were compared with the empirical models of Langmuir and Freundlich to estimate the sorption capacity. The overall capacity of the soils to sorb Cu, Pb or Zn was evaluated as the slope Kr. The amendments used in this study were a mixture made of compost and biochar in different proportions (20, 40, 60, 100 %), which were applied to the mine tailing from a settling pond from a copper mine. The mine tailing that were amended with the mixture of compost and biochar had a higher sorption capacity than the mine tailing from the unamended pond, and their sorption isotherms had a greater affinity towards Cu, Pb and Zn than the mine tailing that was studied. Therefore, the results obtained show that adding a mixture of compost and biochar favours the retention of Cu, Pb and Zn in mine tailing.

  5. Mechanisms of plutonium sorption to mineral oxide surfaces: new insights with implications for colloid-enhanced migration

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, J. M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2010-11-01

    New equilibrium and kinetic models have been developed to describe rate-limited sorption and desorption of Pu onto and off of mineral oxide surfaces using a generic approach to estimate sorption constants that require minimal laboratory calibrations. Equilibrium reactions describing a total of six surface species were derived from a combination of empirical relationships previously described in the literature and generated as part of this work.

  6. Dynamics of the sorption of phosphatidylcholine by mesoporous composites based on MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyaeva, L. A.; Belanova, N. A.; Karpov, S. I.; Selemenev, V. F.; Roessner, F.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of predicting the breakthrough curves of a phospholipid (PL) during its sorption by mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 using models of the dynamics of sorption that consider the kinetics of adsorption (the Thomas model) and mixed diffusion (the asymptotic model) is demonstrated using phosphatidylcholine (PC) as an example. The effect the kinetic parameters have on the tailing of the sorption front with respect to the mixed diffusion limitation of the sorption of nonpolar biologically active substances (BASes) is shown. It is found that the ordered structure of composite materials based on MCM-41 ensures a high rate of mass transfer and thus little tailing of the sorption front, when compared to sorbents with a lower degree of order (silica gel and polymer materials) during the sorption of a phospholipid under dynamic conditions. Based on calculations of the parameter of pattern Λ under the conditions of the dynamic mode of sorption in mixed diffusion kinetics, it is shown that the sorption of phosphatidylcholine from hexane solutions by mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 allows the sorption chromatographic process to proceed in the most advantageous (quasi-equilibrium) mode.

  7. Effect of moisture sorption on the performance of crospovidone.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Tze Ning; Johan, Nur Atiqah Binte; Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Chua, Siang Meng; Loh, Zhi Hui; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-11-30

    Crospovidone is a commonly used tablet disintegrant. However, the synthetic disintegrant has been known to be hygroscopic and high moisture content in crospovidone used could exert deleterious effects on tablets formulated with it. The objective of this study was to elicit a better understanding between crospovidone-water interaction and its effect on disintegrant performance. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms were obtained together with the enthalpy of immersion. Crospovidone samples stored at four relative humidities were used to formulate tablets and the resultant tablets were evaluated for their mechanical, dimensional and disintegratability attributes. Analyses of the moisture sorption isotherms indicated that externally adsorbed moisture accounted for the bulk of the total moisture content in crospovidone, with minimal amount of moisture absorbed intramolecularly. Enthalpy of immersion became less exothermic with crospovidone samples stored at increasing storage humidity. Correspondingly, improvement in disintegration time became less pronounced. This was postulated to be a consequence of premature wetting of the particle surfaces by externally adsorbed moisture. High humidity was also detrimental to tablet hardness and thickness. In conclusion, the impact of moisture sorption during storage by excipients such as crospovidone could be better understood by the appreciation of crospovidone-water interaction and its consequence on tablet quality.

  8. Sorption and desorption of cadmium by different fractions of biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Ryan, James A; Chaney, Rufus L; La Fleur, Cherie M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of both the inorganic and organic fractions in biosolids on Cd chemistry, a series of Cd sorption and desorption batch experiments (at pH 5.5) were conducted on different fractions of soils from a long-term field experimental site. The slope of the Cd sorption isotherm increased with rate of biosolids and was different for the different biosolids. Removal of organic carbon (OC) reduced the slope of the Cd sorption isotherm but did not account for the observed differences between biosolids-amended soils and a control soil, indicating that the increased adsorption associated with biosolids application was not limited to the increased OC from the addition of biosolids. Removal of both OC and Fe/Mn further reduced the slopes of Cd sorption isotherms and the sorption isotherm of the biosolids-amended soil was the same as that of the control, indicating both OC and Fe/Mn fractions added by the biosolids were important to the increased sorption observed for the biosolids-amended soil samples. Desorption experiments failed to remove from 60 to 90% of the sorbed Cd. This "apparent hysteresis" was higher for biosolids-amended soil than the control soil. Removal of both OC and Fe/Mn fractions was more effective in removing the observed differences between the biosolids-amended soil and the control than either alone. Results show that Cd added to biosolids-amended soil behaves differently than Cd added to soils without biosolids and support the hypothesis that the addition of Fe and Mn in the biosolids increased the retention of Cd in biosolids-amended soils.

  9. Sorption and desorption of endosulfan sulfate and diuron to composted cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mitchell; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R; Rose, Michael T

    2008-07-09

    This paper investigates the potential use of composted cotton gin trash (CCGT) as a pesticide sorption medium in remediation of contaminated tailwater. CCGT was found to contain a large organic matter fraction (25.22%). Sorption of endosulfan sulfate and diuron, using the batch equilibrium method, was rapid but not limited for the range of applied concentrations, with diuron failing to reach equilibrium after two days. The partition K d and organic carbon partition K(OC) coefficients determined diuron ( Kd = 78; K(OC) = 526) and endosulfan sulfate ( Kd = 1500; K(OC) = 10,111) to reside in the solid phase. Limited desorption of diuron and higher range concentrations of endosulfan sulfate (50-100 microg L(-1)) were quantified. Sorption and desorption resulted from hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with the humic components of the compost. CCGT was concluded to have a superior sorption capacity to other sorbents reported in the literature, an assessment that requires field substantiation.

  10. Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification of Vapor Sorption and Diffusion in Heterogeneous Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yunwei; Harley, Stephen J.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.

    2015-08-13

    A high-fidelity model of kinetic and equilibrium sorption and diffusion is developed and exercised. The gas-diffusion model is coupled with a triple-sorption mechanism: Henry’s law absorption, Langmuir adsorption, and pooling or clustering of molecules at higher partial pressures. Sorption experiments are conducted and span a range of relative humidities (0-95 %) and temperatures (30-60 °C). Kinetic and equilibrium sorption properties and effective diffusivity are determined by minimizing the absolute difference between measured and modeled uptakes. Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis methods are described and exercised herein to demonstrate the capability of this modeling approach. Water uptake in silica-filled and unfilled poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks is investigated; however, the model is versatile enough to be used with a wide range of materials and vapors.

  11. Sorption of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol by suberin from cork.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Chacón, Joan-Josep; Karbowiak, Thomas

    2015-08-15

    Cork shows an active role in the sorption of volatile phenols from wine. The sorption properties of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol phenols in hydro-alcoholic medium placed in contact with suberin extracted from cork were especially investigated. To that purpose, suberin was immersed in model wine solutions containing several concentrations of each phenol and the amount of the compound remaining in the liquid phase was determined by SPME-GC-MS. Sorption isotherms of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol by suberin followed the Henry's model. The solid/liquid partition coefficients (KSL) between the suberin and the model wine were also determined for several other volatile phenols. Suberin displayed rather high sorption capacity, which was positively correlated to the hydrophobicity of the volatile. Finally, the capacity of suberin to decrease the concentration of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol was also tested in real wines affected by a Brettanomyces character. It also lead to a significant reduction of their concentration in wine.

  12. [Sorption-desorption of phosphate in wastewater by hydrous iron oxide].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xue-Min; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Wang, Ren

    2008-11-01

    FeCl3 was used t o prepare hydrous iron oxide (HIO) as a n absorbent for phosphate (P) sorption and desorption study. The results showed that as pH decreased, the sorption capacity of HIO increased, and the sorption kinetics followed the second-order model, and the sorption isotherm could be fitted by the Langmuir equation. A 50 g/L NaOH solution was used for desorption of P from HIO, and the desorption rate could be reached over 98% . No relation was found between desorption rate and adsorption capacity. Based on above results, HIO was applied to adsorption of P from supernatant of sludge thickener, and after desorption, more than 90% of P was recovered. According to the results obtained, an effective system for P removal and recovery from municipal wastewater was suggested, which includes the following processes: adsorption, desorption, regeneration of HIO, and of recovery of P from P-rich desorption solution.

  13. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  14. A general computer model for predicting the performance of gas sorption refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdson, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Projected performance requirements for cryogenic spacecraft sensor cooling systems which demand higher reliability and longer lifetimes are outlined. The gas/solid sorption refrigerator is viewed as a potential solution to cryogenic cooling needs. A software model of an entire gas sorption refrigerator system was developed. The numerical model, evaluates almost any combination and order of refrigerator components and any sorbent-sorbate pair or which the sorption isotherm data are available. Parametric curves for predicting system performance were generated for two types of refrigerators, a LaNi5-H2 absorption cooler and a Charcoal-N2 adsorption cooler. It is found that precooling temperature and heat exchanger effectiveness affect the refrigerator performance. It is indicated that gas sorption refrigerators are feasible for a number of space applications.

  15. Sorption of PCE in a reactive zero-valent iron system

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, T.J.; Burris, D.R.

    1995-12-01

    The degradation of the chlorinated solvents perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by reduction on the surface of zero-valent iron has emerged in recent years as a potentially viable approach to the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwaters. The sorption of PCE in a batch reactive zero-valent iron system was examined in this study. Aqueous PCE concentrations and total system PCE masses were determined in batch time-series experiments used to ascertain degradation kinetics. Sorbed concentrations were calculated using the difference between the aqueous phase and total system masses. The results showed Langmuir isotherm behavior which is consistent with a model of a finite number of available sorption sites. The kinetics of sorption could not be determined since degradation was also occurring. Knowledge of sorption to reactive and non-reactive sites is of importance in gaining a thorough understanding of the performance-behavior of the flow-through reactive systems envisioned for remediation technologies.

  16. Toxic metals biosorption by Jatropha curcas deoiled cake: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Anand P; Rawat, Monica; Rai, J P N

    2013-08-01

    The equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution using Jatropha curcas deoiled cake, has been studied with respect to adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH, and initial metal concentration in batch mode experiments. Removal of Cu(II) by deoiled cake was greater than that of Cr(VI). The adsorbent chemical characteristics, studied by Fourier transform-infrared analysis, suggested that the presence of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in the biomass influenced the bands corresponding to hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Desorption studies revealed that maximum metals recovery was achieved by HNO3 followed by CH3COOH and HCl. The Freundlich isotherm model showed good fit to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model, which provided the best correlation for the biosorption process, and suggested that J. curcas deoiled cake can be used as an efficient biosorbent over other commonly used sorbents for decontamination of Cr(VI)- and Cu(II)-containing wastewater.

  17. Modeling and predicting competitive sorption of organic compounds in soil.

    PubMed

    Faria, Isabel R; Young, Thomas M

    2010-12-01

    Binary systems consisting of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (12DCB) + competitor were investigated over a range of concentrations of competitor in three natural sorbents with distinct characteristics. Two models, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) and the potential theory (Polanyi-based multisolute model), widely used in the prediction of multisolute sorption equilibrium from single-solute data, were used to simulate competitive sorption in our systems. The goal was to determine which multisolute model best represented the experimentally obtained multisolute data in natural sorbents of varied properties. Results suggested that for the sorbents and sorbates studied, the IAST model provided much better results. On average, the IAST model provided lower errors (23%) than the potential model (45%). The effect of competitor structure on the degree of competition was also investigated to identify any relationships between competition and structure using molecular descriptors. The competitors chlorobenzene, naphthalene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene all showed very similar degrees of competition, while benzene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were the least effective competitors toward 12DCB across all sorbents. Different sorption sites or sorption mechanisms might be involved in the sorption of these molecules leading to a lack of competitive behavior. A significant relationship between competitor structure and the degree of competition was observed at environmentally relevant sorbed competitor concentrations for the soil containing the highest fraction of hard carbon (Forbes soil).

  18. Modeling and predicting competitive sorption of organic compounds in soil

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Isabel R.; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Binary systems consisting of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (12DCB) + competitor were investigated over a range of concentrations of competitor in three natural sorbents with distinct characteristics. Two models, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) and the Potential theory (Polanyi based multi-solute model), widely used in the prediction of multi-solute sorption equilibrium from single solute data were used to simulate competitive sorption in our systems. The goal was to determine which multi-solute model best represented the experimentally obtained multi-solute data in natural sorbents of varied properties. Results suggested that for the sorbents and sorbates studied the IAST model provided much better results. On average the IAST model provided lower errors (23%) than the Potential model (45%). The effect of competitor structure on the degree of competition was also investigated to identify any relationships between competition and structure using molecular descriptors. The competitors chlorobenzene, naphthalene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene all showed very similar degrees of competition, while benzene, phenanthrene and pyrene were the least effective competitors towards 12DCB across all sorbents. Different sorption sites or sorption mechanisms might be involved in the sorption of these molecules leading to a lack of competitive behavior. A significant relationship between competitor structure and the degree of competition was observed at environmentally relevant sorbed competitor concentrations for the soil containing the highest fraction of hard carbon (Forbes). PMID:21061392

  19. Long term sorption kinetics of phenanthrene in aquifer materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegner, H.; Kleineidam, S.; Grathwohl, P.

    1999-05-15

    Most aquifer materials are heterogeneous in terms of grain size distribution and petrography. To understand sorption kinetics, homogeneous subfractions, either separated from heterogeneous sands and gravels or fragments of fresh rocks, have to be studied. In this paper the authors present data on long-term sorption kinetics of phenanthrene for homogeneous samples consisting of one type of lithocomponents or fresh rock fragments in different grain sizes. Diffusion rate constants were determined in batch experiments using a/ numerical model for retarded intraparticle pore diffusion and correlated to grain size and intraparticle porosity of the lithocomponents. Sorption isotherms were nonlinear for all samples investigated. The numerical model described the sorption kinetics very well for coarse sand and gravels. Tortuosity factors, which were obtained as final fitting factors, agreed with Archie`s law predictions based on the intraparticle porosity. The dependency of sorptive uptake on grain size revealed that for smaller grains intrasorbent diffusion may become significant. This is attributed to relatively large particulate organic matter (POM) within the sedimentary rock fragments. Specifically, charcoal and coal particles, which were found in some of the sandstones, controlled the sorptive uptake rates.

  20. Sorption and desorption of antibiotic tetracycline on marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Tetracycline is commonly used for human therapy and veterinary purposes as well as agricultural feed additives. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to investigate the sorption behaviour of tetracycline on marine sediments. The sediment samples were collected from Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Sorption isotherms of tetracycline on marine sediments can be well described by a Freudlich model. The calculated K(f) varied from 1.12 to 2.34Lg(-1). After H(2)O(2) oxidation for removing the organic carbon from marine sediments, the K(f) values were reduced by more than 80%, but the organic carbon normalized sorption constant averaged 213.1Lg(-1) for the H(2)O(2)-treated sediments, which was higher than 98.3Lg(-1) for the raw marine sediments. The calculated hysteresis coefficient H ranged from 0.79 to 0.90 indicating that there is a hysteresis in desorption. The sorption of tetracycline on marine sediments was found to decrease with an increase of pH and salinity. These research findings are of importance to an assessment of the fate and transport of tetracycline and other similar antibiotics in seawater-sediment systems.

  1. Environmental dispersion in a tidal wetland with sorption by vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Chen, G. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of the solute transport mechanism under the effect of sorption by vegetation in tidal wetland gains its significance for environmental and ecological management. Presented in this paper is a theoretical analysis of effective environmental dispersion in a depth-dominated tidal wetland. Based on the transport in porous media, a linear sorption isotherm model is adopted to account for the sorption by vegetation, and two models for momentum and concentration transport in wetlands are given, respectively. The velocity of flow forced by oscillating pressure is derived, and the effect of dimensionless parameters on velocity pulsation is analyzed. The velocity direction may reverse in the case of pulsation amplitude larger than the mean velocity. Using Aris's method of concentration moments, we investigate the effective environmental dispersivity and concentration distribution. The effective environmental dispersivity increases over time at the initial stage to attain a steady oscillating status, the growth rate of which depends on the distribution coefficient KD . The variations of concentration distribution with typical dimensionless parameters are determined, which turn out to be consistent with those of dispersivity. The sorption by vegetation leads to lowered concentration and delayed contaminant cloud, contributing to the dispersion.

  2. Informational Equilibrium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    that for variouis standard types of equilibria* they hold. In particular, if one uses the teaporary equilibrium framework one can use the standard ...T, the integral converges toward f’ia(da) f fU(b~dc)6(a,b,c)T( asdm ) A B C which is fR (da) f d(lib,c) U0 T (cab) A BxC Me converse Is obvious

  3. Rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium distribution coefficients of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium sorption were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium chemical transport properties of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine the rate of strontium sorption and strontium distribution coefficients (K(d)s) between aqueous and solid phases. Rate experiments indicate that strontium in solution reached an apparent equilibrium with the sediment in 26 h. K(d)s were derived using the linear isotherm model at initial sodium concentrations from 100 to 5,000 mg/l and initial potassium concentrations from 2 to 150 mg/l. K(d)s ranged from 56 ?? 2 to 62 ?? 3 ml/g at initial aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium equal to or less than 300 and 150 mg/l, respectively. K(d)s hinged from 4.7 ?? 0.2 to 19 ?? 1 ml/g with initial aqueous concentrations of sodium between 1,000 and 5,000 mg/l. These data indicate that sodium concentrations greater than 300 mg/l in wastewater increase the availability of strontium for transport beneath waste disposal ponds at the INEL by decreasing strontium sorption on the surficial sediment. Wastewater concentrations of sodium and potassium less than 300 and 150 mg/l, respectively, have little effect on the availability of strontium for transport.The rate of strontium sorption and the effects of variable aqueous concentrations of sodium and potassium on strontium sorption were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium chemical transport properties of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine the rate of strontium sorption and strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) between aqueous and solid phases. Rate experiments indicate that strontium in solution reached an apparent equilibrium with the sediment in 26

  4. Sorption characteristics of pesticides on matrix substrates used in biopurification systems.

    PubMed

    De Wilde, Tineke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jaeken, Peter; Springael, Dirk

    2009-03-01

    On-farm biopurification systems were developed to remove pesticides from contaminated water generated at the farmyard. An important process in the system's efficiency is the sorption of pesticides to the substrates used in the biopurification systems. The composition and type of material present in the biobed are crucial for retention of chemicals. This study investigated the sorption of linuron, isoproturon, metalaxyl, isoxaben, bentazon and lenacil on substrates commonly used in a biopurification system, i.e. cow manure, straw, willow chopping, soil, coconut chips, garden waste compost, and peat mix. Linear, Freundlich, and Langmuir sorption isotherms were fitted to the obtained data. The best fit was obtained with the Freundlich model. More immobile pesticides (i.e. linuron and isoxaben) tended to associate with the organic substrate, while more mobile pesticides partition in the water (i.e. bentazon). According to sorption capacity, the substrates could be classified as peat mix > compost, coco chips, straw > cow manure, willow chopping > sandy loam soil. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon content, CaO and the cation exchange capacity. Furthermore, no significant differences in sorption could be found between technical and formulated isoproturon and bentazon. Moreover, the individual sorption coefficient K(d) was additive, which means that individual sorption coefficients can be used to calculate the sorption coefficients of a mixture of substrates. What concerns the mutual interaction of pesticides it could be observed that the sorption of linuron and metalaxyl was significantly lower in combination with isoproturon and bentazon, while the latter pesticides were not influenced by the presence of linuron and metalaxyl. As guidelines, firstly, it could be stated that using the most sorbing materials such as peat mix, might significantly increase the biopurification systems efficiency. Secondly, the treatment of very mobile

  5. Soil sorption of organic vapors and effects of humidity on sorptive mechanism and capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Shoup, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Vapor sorption isotherms on dry Woodburn soil at 20-30??C were determined for benzene, chlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, m-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and water as single vapors and for benzene, m-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene as functions of relative humidity (RH). Isotherms for all compounds on dry soil samples are distinctively nonlinear, with water showing the greatest capacity. Water vapor sharply reduced the sorption capacities of organic compounds with the dry soil; on water-saturated soil, the reduction was about 2 orders of magnitude. The markedly higher sorption of organic vapors at subsaturation humidities is attributed to adsorption on the mineral matter, which predominates over the simultaneous uptake by partition into the organic matter. At about 90% RH, the sorption capacities of organic compounds become comparable to those in aqueous systems. The effect of humidity is attributed to adsorptive displacement by water of organics adsorbed on the mineral matter. A small residual uptake is attributed to the partition into the soil-organic phase that has been postulated in aqueous systems. The results are essentially in keeping with the model that was previously proposed for sorption on the soil from water and from organic solvents.Vapor sorption isotherms on dry Woodburn soil at 20-30 degree C were determined for benzene, chlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, m-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and water as single vapors and for benzene, m-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene as functions of relative humidity (RH). Isotherms for all compounds on dry soil samples are distinctively nonlinear, with water showing the greatest capacity. Water vapor sharply reduced the sorption capacities of organic compounds with the dry soil; on water-saturated soil, the reduction was about 2 orders of magnitude. The markedly higher sorption of organic vapors at subsaturation humidities is attributed to adsorption on the mineral matter

  6. Sorption kinetics of uranium-238 and neptunium-237 on a glacial sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braithwaite, A.; Richardson, S.; Moyes, L. N.; Livens, F. R.; Bunker, D. J.; Hughes, C. R.; Smith, J. T.; Hilton, J.

    2000-02-01

    Studies of uptake of radionuclides by natural materials have shown that sorption may occur via fast equilibrium exchange and/or slow kinetic processes, which can be described using a series of box models. This paper describes the use of such models to evaluate the solid-solution partitioning of 238U and 237Np on a clay rich sediment. Experimental data are obtained using the batch sorption technique, which are then analysed using 1, 2, and 3 box kinetic models. Uptake of 238U is initially rapid, with approximately 90% sorbed within the first 30 minutes. Sorption continues, but at a slower rate. Uptake of 237Np is initially slower than U, with approximately 30% sorbed within the first 30 minutes. Sorption again continues, at a slower rate. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that sorption can be described using 2 and 3 box kinetic models. The results demonstrate that sorption of uranium and neptunium on clay rich sediments occurs via equilibrium and kinetically controlled pathways, with neptunium being controlled by kinetics to a greater extent than uranium. The 2 or 3 box model can describe sorption of neptunium, uranium requires the 3 box model.

  7. Oil removal from water by sorption on hydrophobic cotton fibers. 2. Study of sorption properties in dynamic mode.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Gerald; Caruel, Herve; Borredon, Marie-Elisabeth; Albasi, Claire; Riba, Jean-Pierre; Bonnin, Christophe; Vignoles, Christian

    2003-11-01

    The recovery of oil from an oil-in-water emulsion, during a flow through a bed of cotton rendered hydrophobic by acylation of cellulose was defined by sorption and coalescence phenomena. During percolation, the column "hold-up" (difference between injected and rejected oil) became constant at the equilibrium volume, i.e., as soon as the instant oil concentration in the effluent (C) was equal to the oil concentration in the initial emulsion (C0). This equilibrium permitted the measurement of the cotton sorption capacity (SC), which increased with C0 up to the cotton saturation. The oil-water separation improved at a lower temperature, lower flow, a deeper medium, and larger oil drops. The system was modeled as a piston flow-through in order to generalize the results.

  8. Removal of basic (Methylene Blue) and acid (Egacid Orange) dyes from waters by sorption on chemically treated wood shavings.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Coskun, Sezen; Pilarová, Vera; Rejnek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    Spruce wood shavings from Picea abies were used for an adsorptive removal of both basic as well as acid dyes from waters. The sorption properties of the sorbents were modified with HCl, Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treatment of the wood sorbents with alkaline carbonate solution as well as with phosphate solution increased the sorption ability for the basic dye (Methylene Blue), whereas the treatment with mineral acid decreased the sorption ability for Methylene Blue to some extent. The opposite is true for the sorption of the acid dye--Egacid Orange. The maximum sorption capacities estimated from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms ranged from 0.060 to 0.165 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, and from 0.045 to 0.513 mmol g(-1) for Egacid Orange. The basic dye sorption decreased at low pH values in accordance with a presupposed ion-exchange mechanism of the sorption. The sorption of acid dye, on the other hand, decreased with increasing pH. The presence of inorganic salts as well as surfactants exhibited only minor effects on the dye sorption.

  9. Sorption of graphites at high temperatures. Final report, February 1, 1977-June 30, 1978. [800 to 1100/sup 0/C; pseudo-isopiestic method

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, N.I.; Pyecha, T.D.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1980-06-30

    This report include: (1) corrected data and new data on cesium sorption by bulk graphite (H-451) with a discussion of anomalies and a comparison of the data; (2) a review of the exponential (Freundlich) isotherm theory and a derivation of the modified-exponential isotherm; (3) a report on a study by the pseudo-isopiestic method of cesium by H-451 graphite powder (size range 44 to 74 ..mu..m) of the type used in the Knudsen cell mass spectrometer method; (4) a comparison of the results on particulate graphite (powder) obtained by the Knudsen cell method and also a comparison of cesium sorption results obtained with the bulk graphite; (5) development of a theory for the kinetics of sorption of a system (cesium and graphite) which shows an exponential (Freundlich) type of sorption; (6) comparison of theoretical with observed kinetics for sorption of cesium by graphite (H-451) powder and a comparison of bulk graphite vs. particulate graphite sorption kinetics; (7) report of a study of the effects of barium on cesium sorption by H-451 graphite at 1000/sup 0/C; and (8) a thermodynamic treatment of mixed sorption and its application to mixed barium-cesium and strontium-cesium sorption by graphite.

  10. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption in soils of the Argentinean humid pampas.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Peter E; Bedmar, Francisco; Costa, José L; Aparicio, Virginia C

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the influence of surface and subsurface properties of three representative soils of the humid pampas of Argentina on atrazine and metribuzin sorption. Atrazine and metribuzin sorption isotherms were constructed for each soil at four depths. Sorption affinity of herbicides was approximated by the Freundlich constant (K(f)), distribution coefficient (Kd), and the normalized Kd based on organic carbon content (K(oc)). Multiple regression of the sorption constants against selected soil properties indicated that organic carbon content (OC) and silt were related positively and negatively, respectively, to atrazine K(f) coefficient (r2 = 0.93), while Kd coefficient of atrazine was related positively to organic carbon content and negatively to both silt and cation exchange capacity (CEC) (r2 = 0.96). For metribuzin, only organic matter content was related positively to Kr coefficient (r2 = 0.51). Lower K(f) values for atrazine were obtained for all soils with increasing depth, indicating lesser sorption at greater depths. Metribuzin sorption was quite similar across all depths. Sorption constant K(f) of atrazine ranged from 2.06 to 7.82, while metribuzin K(f) values ranged from 1.8 to 3.52 and were lower than atrazine for all soils and depths, indicating a greater leaching potential across the soil profile.

  11. Ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed waters by modified clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hanxin; Lin, Hai; Dong, Yingbo; Cheng, Huang; Wang, Han; Cao, Lixia

    2012-08-30

    This paper presents the investigation of the ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed wastewater by modified clinoptilolite. The results showed that the modified clinoptilolite has a high sorption efficiency and removal performance. The ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates removal rate of the modified clinoptilolite reached to 98.46% and 99.80%, respectively. The surface of modified clinoptilolite became loose and some pores appeared, which enlarged the specific surface area; the contents of Na and Fe increased, and the contents of Ca and Mg decreased. The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid sorption and slow balance characteristics and ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption is more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates follows the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation, which describes the sorption of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates in aqueous solution as mainly a chemical sorption. Results from the thermodynamics experiment involving ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption reveal that the process is a spontaneous and endothermic process, and is mainly driven by entropy effect.

  12. Studies on the phosphorus sorption capacity of substrates used in constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Xu, Jianming; Wu, Jianjun; Muhammad, Akmal

    2006-04-01

    Langmuir sorption isotherm was used to screen various substrates for use in removing phosphorus (P) in constructed wetlands (CW). The nine tested substrates included four sands, two soils, bentonite, and two industrial by-products of furnace slag and fly ash. Results showed that the furnace slag had the highest P sorption capacity (8.89 g Pk g(-1)), followed was the fly ash (8.81 g P kg(-1)), and that of sand II was the lowest. Different kinds of sands also showed varying P sorption capacity (0.13-0.29 g P kg(-1)). P sorption capacity was influenced by both the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrates and the amount of organic matter (OM) added. Lifetime of sand II for P sorption estimated by Langmuir P sorption maximum was up to only 9 months in full-scale systems, while that of furnace slag could be used for up to 22 yr. Furnace slag has great potential as a CW substrate, due to its high P sorption capacity. The expected lifetime of constructed wetlands for P removal is strongly influenced by the choice of adsorbing substrate.

  13. Modeling sorption of neutral organic compound mixtures to simulated aquifer sorbents with pseudocompounds.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jin Chul; Shackelford, Charles D; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) in reducing the complexity associated with predicting the sorption behaviors of 12 neutral organic compounds (NOCs) contained in complex mixtures as a fewer number (four to six) of pseudocompounds (groups of compounds) to simulated aquifer sorbents was investigated. All sorption isotherms from individual- and multiple-pseudocompound systems were fit reasonably well ( ≥ 0.953) by the Freundlich sorption model over the range of aqueous concentrations evaluated (i.e., ≤200 μmol L). The presence and magnitude of mutual competition among pseudocompounds varied depending on the composition of the mixtures (i.e., concentrations and polarities of pseudocompounds) and the properties of sorbents (i.e., the fraction of organic carbon and the availability of hydrophilic specific sorption sites). Finally, comparisons between the IAST-based predictions with individual-pseudocompound sorption parameters and experimentally measured data revealed that the accuracy in predicting the sorption behaviors of several NOCs in terms of a fewer number of pseudocompounds decreased with increasing deviations from the assumption of equal and ideal competition in the IAST (i.e., differential availability of sorption sites and nonideal competitions among pseudocompounds).

  14. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, P<0.001) can accurately predict Ks values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  15. Pyrene and phenanthrene sorption to model and natural geosorbents in single- and binary-solute systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Narres, Hans-Dieter; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-11-01

    Sorption of pyrene and phenanthrene to model (illite and charcoal) and natural (Yangtze sediment) geosorbents were investigated by batch techniques using fluorescence spectroscopy. A higher adsorption of phenanthrene was observed with all sorbents, which is related to the better accessibility of smaller molecules to micropores in the molecular sieve sorbents. In addition, pyrene sorption in binary-solute systems with a constant initial concentration of phenanthrene (0.1 μmol L(-1) or 2 μmol L(-1)) was studied. A 0.1 μmol L(-1) concentration of phenanthrene causes no competitive effect on the pyrene sorption. A 2 μmol L(-1) concentration of phenanthrene significantly suppresses the sorption of pyrene, especially in the low concentration range; nonlinearity of the pyrene sorption isotherms thus decreases. The competitive effect of 2 μmol L(-1) phenanthrene on the pyrene sorption is overestimated by the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) using the fitted single sorption results of both solutes. An adjustment of the IAST application by taking into account the molecular sieve effect is proposed, which notably improves the IAST prediction for the competitive effect.

  16. Characteristics of equilibrium, kinetics studies for adsorption of Hg(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) ions by thiourea-modified magnetic chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Wang, Yiping; Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Qunwu

    2009-01-30

    Magnetic chitosan microspheres were prepared and chemically modified with thiourea (TMCS) for adsorption of metal ions. TMCS obtained were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR, magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption properties of TMCS toward Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ions were evaluated. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior such as contact time, temperature, pH and initial concentration of the metal ions were investigated. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and the intra-particle diffusion models. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, evidencing chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanism and not involving a mass transfer in solution. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 625.2, 66.7, and 15.3mg/g for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ni(2+) ions, respectively. TMCS displayed higher adsorption capacity for Hg(2+) in all pH ranges studied. The adsorption capacity of the metal ions decreased with increasing temperature. The metal ion-loaded TMCS with were regenerated with an efficiency of greater than 88% using 0.01-0.1M ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).

  17. Using polyacrylate-coated SPME fibers to quantify sorption of polar and ionic organic contaminants to dissolved organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Haftka, Joris J-H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Jonker, Michiel T O; Hermens, Joop L M

    2013-05-07

    A passive sampling method using polyacrylate-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers was applied to determine sorption of polar and ionic organic contaminants to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The tested contaminants included pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, hormones, and pesticides and represented neutral, anionic, and cationic structures. Prior to the passive sampler application, sorption of the chemicals to the fibers was characterized. This was needed in order to accurately translate concentrations measured in fibers to freely dissolved aqueous concentrations during the sorption tests with DOC. Sorption isotherms of neutral compounds to the fiber were linear, whereas isotherms of basic chemicals covered a nonlinear and a linear range. Sorption of acidic and basic compounds to the fiber was pH-dependent and was dominated by sorption of the neutral sorbate species. Fiber- and DOC-water partition coefficients of neutral compounds were both linearly related to octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow). The results of this study show that polyacrylate fibers can be used to quantify sorption to DOC of neutral and ionic contaminants, having multiple functional groups and spanning a wide hydrophobicity range (log Kow = 2.5-7.5).

  18. Single-solute and bisolute sorption of phenol and trichloroethylene from aqueous solution onto modified montmorillonite and application of sorption models.

    PubMed

    Wu, C D; Wang, L; Hu, C X; He, M H

    2013-01-01

    The single-solute and bisolute sorption behaviour of phenol and trichloroethylene, two organic compounds with different structures, onto cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-montmorillonite was studied. The monolayer Langmuir model (MLM) and empirical Freundlich model (EFM) were applied to the single-solute sorption of phenol or trichloroethylene from water onto monolayer or multilayer CTAB-montmorillonite. The parameters contained in the MLM and EFM were determined for each solute by fitting to the single-solute isotherm data, and subsequently utilized in binary sorption. The extended Langmuir model (ELM) coupled with the single-solute MLM and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) coupled with the single-solute EFM were used to predict the binary sorption of phenol and trichloroethylene onto CTAB-montmorillonite. It was found that the EFM was better than the MLM at describing single-solute sorption from water onto CTAB-montmorillonite, and the IAST was better than the ELM at describing the binary sorption from water onto CTAB-montmorillonite.

  19. Sorption of vanadium (V) onto natural soil colloids under various solution pH and ionic strength conditions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiuhua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Changzhao; Yin, Xianqiang; Mosa, Ahmed; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Huimin

    2017-02-01

    Batch sorption kinetics and isothermal characteristics of V(V) were investigated on three natural soil colloids (manual loessial soil colloid (MSC), aeolian sandy soil colloid (ASC), and cultivated loessial soil colloid (CSC)) under various solution pH and ionic strength (IS) conditions. Colloids were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AFM micrographs showed CSC with an aggregated shape with larger particle diameter as compared with ASC and MSC. XRD spectra revealed the presence of different minerals in natural soil colloids including biotite, kaolinite, calcite and quartz, which might contribute to sorption process. The sorption ability decreased with increase of colloidal particle size. The sorption was mainly attributed to complexation by active carboxylate and alcohol groups of colloidal components. Sorption kinetics and isotherms of V(V) onto natural soil colloids were best fitted with Pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Langmuir model indicated that sorption capacity of MSC and ASC was comparable (285.7 and 238.1 mg g(-1)); however, CSC exhibited the lowest sorption capacity (41.5 mg g(-1)) due to its larger particle diameter and aggregated shape. The maximum V(V) sorption capacity reached plateau values at a solution pH ranged between 5.0 and 9.0 for MSC and ASC, and 6.0-8.0 for CSC. Sorption capacity of V(V) onto natural soil colloids decreased with increasing IS. Based on result of this study we can conclude that sorption of V(V) onto natural soil colloids is pH- and IS-dependent. These findings provide insights on the remediation of vanadium-contaminated soils.

  20. Comparison of raw and modified activated carbon and rice industry wastes for methylene blue sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befani, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Quintero, César E.

    2015-04-01

    In Argentina the average paddy rice production was 1.3x106 tn/year in the last decade. Entre Ríos province (E.R.) accounts for 60% of national milling, resulting in a significant accumulation of waste in the local environment; husk and ashes are used as fuel in drying grain plants. The use of rice wastes, as low-cost sorbents for the removal of synthetic dyes and other contaminants may be a sustainable option. The aim of this work is the investigation of the removal capacity of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions using: (a) rice husk from a rice mill located in E.R. of size between 0.15 to 1.18 mm (RH2), (b) ash from rice husk burned at 800°C in oven for the grain drying unit of the rice mill (RHA800), and (c) biochar obtained from pyrolysis of RH2 material at 850°C (RHA4). Commercial activated carbon (AC), which is a porous material of high sorption capacity, was also used to compare its sorption capacity with the rice husk products. Furthermore, the incorporation of iron in the AC was studied using two different AC/Fe weight-by-weight ratios (AC-Fe and AC-0.5 Fe). The solution pH effect was studied in a range from 2 to 6.9. The maximal MB removal was achieved at pH of 6.8 to 6.9 for all materials studied, and at pH of 6.4 for AC. Kinetic experiments were conducted for a period of 48 h at pH 7 and C0 = 50 mg MB/L. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h and the adsorption capacity was 156, 104, 90, 79, 26, and 9 mg/g for AC, AC-Fe, AC-0.5 Fe, RHA4, RH2 and RHA800, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model expressed better the sorption kinetics of MB for all adsorbent materials. The AC-based materials presented better performance. The experimental data were fitted with the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The Langmuir model fits the data better in all cases. The maximum adsorption capacity was 238, 125, 92, 91, 46 and 9 mg/g for AC, AC-Fe, AC-0.5 Fe, RHA4, RH2 and RHA800, respectively. Agricultural wastes can be considered low-cost sorbents, but

  1. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method.

  2. Catechol and humic acid sorption onto a range of laboratory-produced black carbons (biochars).

    PubMed

    Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter; Gao, Bin

    2010-08-15

    Although the major influence of black carbon (BC) on soil and sediment organic contaminant sorption is widely accepted, an understanding of the mechanisms and natural variation in pyrogenic carbon interaction with natural organic matter (NOM) is lacking. The sorption of a phenolic NOM monomer (catechol) and humic acids (HA) onto BC was examined using biochars made from oak, pine, and grass at 250, 400, and 650 degrees C. Catechol sorption equilibrium occurred after 14 d and was described by a diffusion kinetic model, while HA required only 1 d and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Catechol sorption capacity increased with increasing biochar combustion temperature, from pine < oak < grass and from coarse < fine particle size. At lower catechol concentrations, sorption affinity (Freundlich constant, K(f)) was directly related to micropore surface area (measured via CO(2) sorptometry) indicating the predominance of specific adsorption. In contrast, HA exhibited an order of magnitude less sorption (0.1% versus 1%, by weight) due to its exclusion from micropores. Greater sorption of both catechol and HA occurred on biochars with nanopores, i.e. biochars made at higher temperatures. These findings suggest that addition of BC to soil, via natural fires or biochar amendments, will sequester abundant native OM through sorption.

  3. Sorption of N[sub 2] and EGME vapors on some soils, clays, and mineral oxides and determination of sample surface areas by use of sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Chlou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.W. ); Manes, M. )

    1993-08-01

    Vapor sorption isotherms of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) at room temperature and isotherms of N[sub 2] gas at liquid nitrogen temperature were determined for various soils and minerals. The N[sub 2] monolayer capacities [Q[sub m](N[sub 2])] were calculated from the BET equation and used to determine the surface areas. To examine whether EGME is an appropriate adsorbate for determination of surface areas, the apparent EGME monolayer capacities [Q[sub m](EGME)[sub ap

  4. Kinetic characteristic of phenanthrene sorption in aged soil amended with biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanyang; Kim, Yong-Seong; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Biochar has been recently highlighted as an amendment that affects yield of the crops by increasing pH, cation exchange capacity and water retention, and reduces the lability of contaminants by increasing sorption capacity in the soil system. Biochar's physico-chemical properties, high CEC, surfaces containing abundant micropores and macropores, and various types of functional groups, play important roles in enhancing sorption capacity of contaminants. Aging through a natural weathering process might change physico-chemical properties of biochar amended in soils, which can affect the sorption behavior of contaminants. Thus, in this study, the sorption characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) on biochar-amended soils were studied with various types of chars depending on aging time. To do this, 1) soil was amended with sludge waste char (SWC), wood char (WC), and municipal waste char (MWC) during 0, 6, and 12 month. Chars were applied to soil at 1% and 2.5% (w/w) ratio. 2) Several batch kinetic and equilibrium studies were conducted. One-compartment first order and two-compartment first order model apportioning the fraction of fast and slow sorbing were selected for kinetic models. Where, qt is PHE concentration in biochar-amended soils at each time t, qeis PHE concentration in biochar-amended soils at equilibriu