Science.gov

Sample records for equine infectious anaemia

  1. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A.; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Aims and objectives Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Materials and methods Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. Results All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. Conclusions These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries. PMID:26392894

  2. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Bolfă, Pompei Florin; Leroux, Caroline; Pintea, Adela; Andrei, Sanda; Cătoi, Cornel; Taulescu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Spînu, Marina

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) infection on the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium of horses. Blood samples from 96 Romanian horses aged 1-25 years, were divided into different groups according to their EIAV-infection status, age, and time post-seroconversion. The effect of infection on oxidative stress was estimated by measuring enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and carotenoids), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]). Infection modified the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the horses, influencing GPx and uric acid levels (P<0.05). Time post-seroconversion also contributed to oxidative stress imbalance, exhibiting a significant influence on both SOD and MDA concentrations in the blood (P<0.05). Animal age did not have a significant influence on oxidative stress. Recently infected horses (<1 year following seroconversion), and horses >5 years old, represented the most vulnerable category in terms of oxidative stress, followed by recently infected animals <5 years old. The results of this study are novel in implicating EIAV infection in the development of oxidative stress in horses.

  3. Deep sequencing and variant analysis of an Italian pathogenic field strain of equine infectious anaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, K; Cook, R F; Stefanetti, V; Passamonti, F; Autorino, G L; Scicluna, M T; Coletti, M; Verini Supplizi, A; Capomaccio, S

    2017-03-15

    Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with an almost worldwide distribution that causes persistent infections in equids. Technical limitations have restricted genetic analysis of EIAV field isolates predominantly to gag sequences resulting in very little published information concerning the extent of inter-strain variation in pol, env and the three ancillary open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we describe the use of long-range PCR in conjunction with next-generation sequencing (NGS) for rapid molecular characterization of all viral ORFs and known transcription factor binding motifs within the long terminal repeat of two EIAV isolates from the 2006 Italian outbreak. These isolates were from foals believed to have been exposed to the same source material but with different clinical histories: one died 53 days post-infection (SA) while the other (DE) survived 5 months despite experiencing multiple febrile episodes. Nucleotide sequence identity between the isolates was 99.358% confirming infection with the same EIAV strain with most differences comprising single nucleotide polymorphisms in env and the second exon of rev. Although the synonymous:non-synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio was approximately 2:1 in gag and pol, the situation is reversed in env and ORF3 suggesting these sequences are subjected to host-mediated selective pressure. EIAV proviral quasispecies complexity in vivo has not been extensively investigated; however, analysis suggests it was relatively low in SA at the time of death. These results highlight advantages of NGS for molecular characterization of EIAV namely it avoids potential artefacts generated by traditional composite sequencing strategies and can provide information about viral quasispecies complexity.

  4. Equine infectious anaemia and mechanical transmission: man and the wee beasties.

    PubMed

    Issel, C J; Foil, L D

    2015-08-01

    There is no credible evidence that the lentivirus that causes equine infectious anaemia (EIA) replicates in invertebrates. The virus persistently infects its equid hosts and is often present in blood in significant quantities. Blood-feeding arthropods thus have the potential to transfer the virus between hosts, especially if their feeding on the first host is interrupted and immediately continued on a second host. The general details and dynamics of mechanical transmission are included in this paper, as this agent presents an excellent model. Mechanical transmission can be effectively controlled if the dynamics and interactions of the host, virus and vector populations are understood. Efficient transmission is proportional to the amount of agent found in the source material, the environmental survival of the agent, the number of vector feedings, the number of interrupted feedings, vector refeeding, the proximity of infected and naive hosts, host population density, and the length of time during which vectors and hosts are in contact. Establishing firm quantitative risk estimates for EIA is impossible, mainly because the virus content in blood can change exponentially from day to day. The EIA virus can be transmitted by horse flies for at least 30 minutes after feeding on a horse with acute signs of EIA, butthe probability of a horse fly being interrupted and completing its blood feeding on a second host at a distance of 50 m is very low, and the separation of infected and uninfected equids by 200 m breaks transmission. The statements above assume that human interactions are absent or do not contribute to the risk of virus transmission; however, the risk from human interventions, such as the too-often-used procedure of administering > 200 ml of plasma to foals, can easily be more than 10(7) times greater than the risk posed by a single horse fly. Controlling EIA depends upon the identification of persistently infected equids by serological testing because other

  5. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    PubMed

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  6. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  7. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities,...

  8. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  9. Infectious causes of equine respiratory disease on Ontario standardbred racetracks.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Thorsen, J; Barnum, D A; Mitchell, W R; Ingram, D G

    1977-01-01

    Upper respiratory disease has been a serious problem in Standardbred horses on racetracks in Ontario, with outbreaks occurring once or twice annually in late winter and early spring seasons. To determine the causes of these epidemics, a 3-year investigation was carried out in which nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained at intervals from apparently healthy horses and from horses suffering from upper respiratory disease. The nasal swabs were used to isolate bacteria and viruses. The serum samples were examined for the presence and level of antibodies to equine influenza viruses and equine herpesvirus 1. None of the bacteria isolated were associated with the outbreaks of disease. Equine herpesvirus 2 was isolated 72 times from both diseased and apparently healthy horses. Equine herpesvirus 1 was isolated 10 times from horses with respiratory disease, both during and between epidemics. Influenza equine/1 virus was isolated seven times and influenza equine/2 was isolated once during severe outbreaks of upper respiratory disease. Serological evidence confirmed that influenza viruses were the causes of the major epidemics, with the equine/1 strain being involved most often. PMID:192757

  10. Surveillance for infectious salmon anaemia virus HPR0 in marine Atlantic salmon farms across Scotland.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Alastair J A; Bain, Nicola; Snow, Michael

    2009-12-03

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a serious and commercially important pathogen of Atlantic salmon. Multiple viruses have been defined based on a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein encoded by genomic segment 6. The viruses causing disease outbreaks in farms to date all have deletions in this region with respect to a putative ancestral variant with a longer HPR (HPR0). The presence of HPR0 nucleic acid has been detected in many countries including Scotland, where it has mostly been associated with healthy wild and farmed fish. Pathogenic ISAVs appear to have been derived from HPR0 ancestors on multiple independent occasions, which suggests that the presence of HPR0 could represent a risk factor in the re-emergence of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) disease. In order to better understand this potential risk factor, anonymous samples of gill and heart tissues from marine Atlantic salmon farms throughout Scotland were collected and screened for the presence of ISAV RNA. Since it has not been possible to isolate HPR0 in conventional ISA-permissive cell cultures, a sensitive real-time RT-PCR method was employed for the detection of viral RNA. DNA sequencing was carried out on the positive samples to determine their HPR sequence. ISAV RNA was detected in 6 samples originating from 4 different locations and sequence analysis indicated the viruses were of the HPR0 type. Full length segment 6 sequence analysis of 1 positive sample indicated that it was most similar to a European genotype sequence previously obtained from North America.

  11. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, D; Romero-Zuñiga, J J; Dolz, G

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV.

  12. Serosurveillance of infectious agents in equines of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, D.; Romero-Zuñiga, J.J.; Dolz, G.

    2014-01-01

    Blood samples from 181 equines from the Central Valley of Costa Rica were collected in the year 2012 to determine the presence of antibodies against selected infectious agents in horses and to determine the risk factors associated with these agents. The presence of antibodies against Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), Equine Herpes Virus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), West Nile Virus (WNV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), Equine Viral Arteritis Virus (EVAV), Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Neospora caninum and Chlamydia abortus was determined using commercial assays, and risk factors associated with seropositivity to the different infectious agents was established. The most seroprevalent agent detected was EHV-4 (96.7%), followed by WNV (44.2%), and IAV (41.8%). Horses >3 years, used for work or sports, and with access to pastures, had significantly increased probability to be seropositive to WNV, whereas horses used for breeding and recreational purposes, being stabled, and without access to pastures, had significantly greater probability to be seropositive to IAV. Seroprevalence to B. caballi (19.9%) was lower than to T. equi (38.1%). For B. caballi, access to pastures was determined as a risk factor, whereas being older than 3 years was established as a risk factor for T. equi. Low seroprevalences were determined for EHV-1 (5.0%), EVAV (5.0%), C. abortus (4.8%), and N. caninum (4.4%). Mares having history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive to EHV-1, whereas horses >3 years, used for work and sports, and mares having multiple parturitions, were more likely to be seropositive to N. caninum. None of the horses were seropositive to EIAV. Earlier, only diseases caused by EIAV, WNV and piroplasmosis were reported in Costa Rica. The present study however, determined the presence of carriers for EHV-1, EHV-4, and EIAV. PMID:26623349

  13. Surveillance programme for important equine infectious respiratory pathogens in the USA.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Kass, P H; Mapes, S; Johnson, C; Barnett, D C; Vaala, W; Gutierrez, C; McDaniel, R; Whitehead, B; Manning, J

    2011-07-02

    The prevalence and epidemiology of important viral (equine influenza virus [EIV], equine herpesvirus type 1 [EHV-1] and EHV-4) and bacterial (Streptococcus equi subspecies equi) respiratory pathogens shed by horses presented to equine veterinarians with upper respiratory tract signs and/or acute febrile neurological disease were studied. Veterinarians from throughout the USA were enrolled in a surveillance programme and were asked to collect blood and nasal secretions from equine cases with acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease and/or acute onset of neurological disease. A questionnaire was used to collect information pertaining to each case and its clinical signs. Samples were tested by real-time PCR for the presence of EHV-1, EHV-4, EIV and S equi subspecies equi. A total of 761 horses, mules and donkeys were enrolled in the surveillance programme over a 24-month study period. In total, 201 (26.4 per cent) index cases tested PCR-positive for one or more of the four pathogens. The highest detection rate was for EHV-4 (82 cases), followed by EIV (60 cases), S equi subspecies equi (49 cases) and EHV-1 (23 cases). There were 15 horses with double infections and one horse with a triple infection. The detection rate by PCR for the different pathogens varied with season and with the age, breed, sex and use of the animal.

  14. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  15. Determination of buoyant density and sensitivity to chloroform and freon for the etiological agent of infectious salmonid anaemia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, K.E.; Hjeltnes, B.; Uglenes , I.; Winton, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma was collected from Atlantic salmon Salrno salar with acute infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and used to challenge Atlantic salmon parr by intraperitoneal injection. Treatment of plasma with the lipid solvent, chloroform, showed that the etiological agent of ISA contained essential lipids, probably as a viral envelope. Some infectivity remained following treatment with freon. Injection challenges using fractions from equilibrium density gradient centrifugation of plasma from fish with acute ISA revealed a band of infectivity in the range 1.184 to 1.262 g cm-3. The band was believed to conta~n both complete ISA-virus particles and infectious particles lacking a complete envelope, nucleocapsid or genome. Density gradient centrifugation of infectious plasma for enrichment of the putative ISA virus appeared to offer a suitable method for obtaining virus-specific nucleic acid for use in the construction of cDNA libraries. 

  16. Equine infectious anemia virus-infected dendritic cells retain antigen presentation capability

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Julie A.; McGuire, Travis C. . E-mail: mcguiret@vetmed.wsu.edu

    2005-05-10

    To determine if equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) were susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, ex vivo-generated DC were infected with virus in vitro. EIAV antigen was detected by immunofluorescence 3 days post-infection with maximum antigen being detected on day 4, whereas there was no antigen detected in DC incubated with the same amount of heat-inactivated EIAV. No cytolytic activity was observed after EIAV{sub WSU5} infection of DC. These monocyte-derived DC were more effective than macrophages and B cells in stimulating allogenic T lymphocytes. Both infected macrophages and DC stimulated similar levels of memory CTL responses in mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ cells as detected with {sup 51}Cr-release assays indicating that EIAV infection of DC did not alter antigen presentation. However, EIAV-infected DC were more effective than infected macrophages when used to stimulate memory CTL in isolated CD8+ cells. The maintenance of antigen processing and presenting function by EIAV-infected DC in vitro suggests that this function is maintained during in vivo infection.

  17. Covalent conjugation of the equine infectious anemia virus Gag with SUMO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhong; Wen, Shuping; Zhao, Rui; Qi, Jing; Liu, Zhao; Li, Weiwei; An, Jing; Wood, Charles; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-22

    The conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to the target protein, namely, SUMOylation, is involved in the regulation of many important biological events including host-pathogen interaction. Some viruses have evolved to exploit the host SUMOylation machinery to modify their own protein. Retroviral Gag protein plays critical roles in the viral life cycle. The HIV-1 p6 and the Moloney murine leukemia virus CA have been reported to be conjugated with SUMO. In this study, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, the covalent conjugation of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Gag with SUMO. The C-terminal p9 domain of Gag is a main target for SUMOylation and SUMO is attached to multiple sites of p9, including K30 whose mutation abolished p9 SUMOylation completely. The SUMOylation of p9, but not the p9-K30 mutant, was also detected in equine fibroblastic cells ATCC(®) CCL-57™. Ubc9 and its C93 residue are indispensable for the SUMOylation of p9. Using confocal microscopy, it is found that EIAV Gag localizes primarily, if not exclusively, in the cytoplasm of the cell and the co-localization of EIAV Gag with Ubc9 was observed. Our findings that EIAV Gag is SUMOylated at p9-K30, together with previous findings on the defects of p9-K30 mutant in viral DNA translocation from cytoplasm to the nucleus, suggests that SUMOylation of Gag may be involved in such functions.

  18. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Integration in the Horse Genome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; He, Xi-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2015-06-19

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has a unique integration profile in the human genome relative to murine and avian retroviruses. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is another well-studied lentivirus that can also be used as a promising retro-transfection vector, but its integration into its native host has not been characterized. In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAVFDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED) cells during in vitro infection. Published integration sites of EIAV and HIV-1 in the human genome were also analyzed as references. Our results demonstrated that EIAVFDDV13 tended to integrate into genes and AT-rich regions, and it avoided integrating into transcription start sites (TSS), which is consistent with EIAV and HIV-1 integration in the human genome. Notably, the integration of EIAVFDDV13 favored long interspersed elements (LINEs) and DNA transposons in the horse genome, whereas the integration of HIV-1 favored short interspersed elements (SINEs) in the human genome. The chromosomal environment near LINEs or DNA transposons potentially influences viral transcription and may be related to the unique EIAV latency states in equids. The data on EIAV integration in its natural host will facilitate studies on lentiviral infection and lentivirus-based therapeutic vectors.

  19. The efficacy of ELISA commercial kits for the screening of equine infectious anemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Irene; Cipolini, Fabiana; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Trono, Karina; Barrandeguy, Maria E

    2015-01-01

    The most used and reliable indicator of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection is the detection of its specific antibodies in horse serum. In the present study, the performance of two commercial ELISA tests for the detection of EIAV antibodies as well as the potential advantages of their use as an EIAV infection screening tool were evaluated in 302 horse serum samples. Both ELISA assays showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity, and 92.3-94.3% diagnostic specificity. Discordant results were analyzed by immunoblot. The results showed that both ELISA tests are very efficient at detecting EIAV infected animals, allowing to identify a higher number of positive horse cases. Thus, ELISA assays can be useful tools in EIA control and eradication.

  20. Design and validation of an ELISA for equine infectious anemia (EIA) diagnosis using synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Soutullo, A; Verwimp, V; Riveros, M; Pauli, R; Tonarelli, G

    2001-03-20

    Three peptides derived from the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) surface proteins were synthesized to design and validate an ELISA for EIA diagnosis. Peptides identified as gp90-I and gp90-II correspond to the N- and C-terminal part of the surface glycoprotein gp90. Peptide gp45-1 overlaps the immunodominant epitope CIERTHVFC of the transmembrane glycoprotein gp45, and includes a hydrophilic chain close to the N-terminal end of this nonapeptide loop. Serum samples from 140 naturally infected horses with EIAV and a panel of 167 non-immune equine sera obtained from non-infected animals were used. Differences in reactivity between positive and negative serum samples were clearly distinguished. Samples considered weak positive to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test were "true" positive in the ELISA. These results are consistent with the improved sensitivity of the ELISA in comparison with the AGID test. The cyclic peptide that mimics the immunodominant sequence of gp45 showed excellent reactivity, thus suggesting that its functional activity depends significantly on its conformation, since very low reactivity was observed in the linear form of the peptide. The detectability indices of positive and negative sera reached 98% when gp90-II and gp45-I synthetic peptides were used in the same assay, illustrating the high specificity and sensitivity of the assay. Our study represents a first approach for the design of a diagnostic kit, which would allow the rapid analysis of a large numbers of serum samples from horses, and could be applied in endemic areas with different prevalence of infection.

  1. Oestrous cycle-dependent equine uterine immune response to induced infectious endometritis.

    PubMed

    Marth, Christina D; Firestone, Simon M; Glenton, Lisa Y; Browning, Glenn F; Young, Neil D; Krekeler, Natali

    2016-11-08

    Infectious endometritis is a major cause of reduced pregnancy rates in horses. The objectives of this study were to establish a timeline of the innate immune response in the uterus of healthy horses and to investigate the oestrous cycle effect on this. Endometrial biopsies were collected from five horses before and at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after inoculation of Escherichia coli, once in oestrus and once in dioestrus. They were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR, microbiology and histology. Neutrophil numbers increased from very low levels in the absence of inflammation to severe neutrophilia 3 h after inoculation. The concentrations of mRNAs for Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, NOD-like receptor NLRC5, tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidases 1 (TIMP1) and chemokines CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were all increased 3 h after inoculation of E. coli compared to levels detected prior to inoculation. Chemokine mRNA levels remained elevated for 48 h. Concentrations of mRNAs for the antimicrobial peptides equine β-defensin 1 (EBD1), lysozyme, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), lipocalin 2 (LCN2), lactoferrin and uteroferrin were increased between 3 and 12 h post inoculation. The gene for secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was expressed constitutively. P19 uterocalin mRNA levels were higher in dioestrus than in oestrus over the first 24 h of inflammation. Neutrophils and many innate immune genes responded rapidly to the introduction of E. coli into the uterus, while the oestrous cycle stage had only a relatively minor effect on the response to E. coli. This study has delineated a useful model of innate immunity in infectious endometritis of healthy animals.

  2. Amplification of complete gag gene sequences from geographically distinct equine infectious anemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Bazartseren, Tsevel; Koba, Ryota; Murakami, Hironobu; Oguma, Keisuke; Murakami, Kenji; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, primers described previously and modified versions of these primers were evaluated for amplification of full-length gag genes from different equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) strains from several countries, including the USA, Germany and Japan. Each strain was inoculated into a primary horse leukocyte culture, and the full-length gag gene was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Each amplified gag gene was cloned into a plasmid vector for sequencing, and the detectable copy numbers of target DNA were determined. Use of a mixture of two forward primers and one reverse primer in the polymerase chain reaction enabled the amplification of all EIAV strains used in this study. However, further study is required to confirm these primers as universal for all EIAV strains. The nucleotide sequence of gag is considered highly conserved, as evidenced by the use of gag-encoded capsid proteins as a common antigen for the detection of EIAV in serological tests. However, significant sequence variation in the gag genes of different EIAV strains was found in the current study.

  3. Characterization of equine infectious anemia virus dUTPase: growth properties of a dUTPase-deficient mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Threadgill, D S; Steagall, W K; Flaherty, M T; Fuller, F J; Perry, S T; Rushlow, K E; Le Grice, S F; Payne, S L

    1993-01-01

    The putative dUTPase domain was deleted from the polymerase (pol) gene of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) to produce a recombinant delta DUpol Escherichia coli expression cassette and a delta DU proviral clone. Expression of the recombinant delta DUpol polyprotein yielded a properly processed and enzymatically active reverse transcriptase, as determined by immunoblot analysis and DNA polymerase activity gels. Transfection of delta DU provirus into feline (FEA) cells resulted in production of virus that replicated to wild-type levels in both FEA cells and fetal equine kidney cells. In contrast, the delta DU virus replicated poorly (less than 1% of wild-type levels) in primary equine macrophage cultures, as measured by reverse transcriptase assays. Preparations of delta DU virus contained negligible dUTPase activity, which confirms that virion-associated dUTPase is encoded in the pol gene region between the RNase H domain and integrase, as has been demonstrated previously for feline immunodeficiency virus (J. H. Elder, D. L. Lerner, C. S. Hasselkus-Light, D. J. Fontenot, E. Hunter, P. A. Luciw, R. C. Montelaro, and T. R. Phillips, J. Virol. 66:1791-1794, 1992). Our results suggest that virus-encoded dUTPase is dispensable for virus replication in dividing cells in vitro but may be required for efficient replication of EIAV in nondividing equine macrophages, the natural host cells for this virus. Images PMID:8386267

  4. Analysis of Protein-RNA and Protein-Peptide Interactions in Equine Infectious Anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Hyung

    2007-01-01

    Macromolecular interactions are essential for virtually all cellular functions including signal transduction processes, metabolic processes, regulation of gene expression and immune responses. This dissertation focuses on the characterization of two important macromolecular interactions involved in the relationship between Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) and its host cell in horse: (1) the interaction between the EIAV Rev protein and its binding site, the Rev-responsive element (RRE) and (2) interactions between equine MHC class I molecules and epitope peptides derived from EIAV proteins. EIAV, one of the most divergent members of the lentivirus family, has a single-stranded RNA genome and carries several regulatory and structural proteins within its viral particle. Rev is an essential EIAV regulatory encoded protein that interacts with the viral RRE, a specific binding site in the viral mRNA. Using a combination of experimental and computational methods, the interactions between EIAV Rev and RRE were characterized in detail. EIAV Rev was shown to have a bipartite RNA binding domain contain two arginine rich motifs (ARMs). The RRE secondary structure was determined and specific structural motifs that act as cis-regulatory elements for EIAV Rev-RRE interaction were identified. Interestingly, a structural motif located in the high affinity Rev binding site is well conserved in several diverse lentiviral genoes, including HIV-1. Macromolecular interactions involved in the immune response of the horse to EIAV infection were investigated by analyzing complexes between MHC class I proteins and epitope peptides derived from EIAV Rev, Env and Gag proteins. Computational modeling results provided a mechanistic explanation for the experimental finding that a single amino acid change in the peptide binding domain of the quine MHC class I molecule differentially affectes the recognitino of specific epitopes by EIAV-specific CTL. Together, the findings in this

  5. Serologically silent, occult equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections in horses.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Sonia; Garcia, Maria Inés; Veaute, Carolina; Bailat, Alejandra; Lucca, Eduardo; Cook, R Frank; Cook, Sheila J; Soutullo, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Molecular and serological techniques for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) diagnosis were compared using samples from 59 clinically normal horses stabled on five farms in the Santa Fe Province of Argentina. Of these 26 (44.1%) were positive in official AGID tests and/or gp45/gp90-based ELISA. Surprisingly 18 of the 33 seronegative horses were positive in a PCR against viral sequences encoding gp45 (PCR-positive/AGID-negative) with all but one remaining EIAV-antibody negative throughout a two year observation period. The gp45 PCR results are supported by fact that 7/18 of these horses were positive in the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) recommended EIAV gag gene specific PCR plus 2 of this 7 also reacted in a PCR directed predominantly against the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Furthermore sufficient quantities of serum were available from 8 of these horses to verify their seronegative status in sensitive Western Blot tests and demonstrate by ELISA the absence of EIAV-specific antibodies was not attributable to abnormalities in total IgG concentration. Studies involving 7 of the PCR-positive/AGID-negative horses to measure lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of PHA showed no significant differences between this group and control animals. In addition, lymphocytes from 2 of these 7 horses responded to peptides derived from gp90 and gp45. Together these results demonstrate that apparently clinically normal horses with no gross signs of immunodeficiency in terms of total IgG concentration or T helper-cell function can remain seronegative for at least 24 months while harboring EIAV specific nucleic acid sequences.

  6. Protective oral vaccination against infectious salmon anaemia virus in Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Caruffo, Mario; Maturana, Carlos; Kambalapally, Swetha; Larenas, Julio; Tobar, Jaime A

    2016-07-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a systemic disease caused by an orthomyxovirus, which has a significant economic impact on the production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Currently, there are several commercial ISA vaccines available, however, those products are applied through injection, causing stress in the fish and leaving them susceptible to infectious diseases due to the injection process and associated handling. In this study, we evaluated an oral vaccine against ISA containing a recombinant viral hemagglutinin-esterase and a fusion protein as antigens. Our findings indicated that oral vaccination is able to protect Atlantic salmon against challenge with a high-virulence Chilean isolate. The oral vaccination was also correlated with the induction of IgM-specific antibodies. On the other hand, the vaccine was unable to modulate expression of the antiviral related gene Mx, showing the importance of the humoral response to the disease survival. This study provides new insights into fish protection and immune response induced by an oral vaccine against ISA, but also promises future development of preventive solutions or validation of the current existing therapies.

  7. Individual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV).

    PubMed

    Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Monte, Milena; Collins, Catherine; Garcia Perez, Sandro; Secombes, Chris J; Hall, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. "In-tank" anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and γIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or γ IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed.

  8. Low virulent infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV-HPR0) is prevalent and geographically structured in Norwegian salmon farming.

    PubMed

    Lyngstad, Trude M; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Hjortaas, Monika J; Devold, Magnus; Aspehaug, Vidar; Larssen, Rolf B; Jansen, Peder A

    2012-11-19

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a severe disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar that has caused epidemic outbreaks in most salmon-producing countries worldwide. The disease is caused by virulent ISA virus (ISAV). Low virulent variants of the virus, characterised by a full-length sequence in the highly polymorphic region of segment 6 in the virus genome, have been reported with increasing frequencies. These variants of the virus, termed HPR0, have been proposed to be ancestors of virulent ISAV. We examined this idea through studies of the phylogeographic and environmental distribution of ISAV-HPR0, as well as phylogeographic associations between virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. Samples from 232 fish groups were screened for ISAV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for detection of ISAV, and the ISAV haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene was characterised for positive samples. A Mantel test was used to test phylogeographic associations between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences. A rank test was used to test associations between HE gene sequences from virulent ISAV and ISAV-HPR0. ISAV-HPR0 was detected in fish groups both in freshwater and marine environments, and in juveniles, on-grown marine salmon and broodstock salmon. Genetic and geographic distances between pairs of ISAV-HPR0 HE gene sequences were positively correlated, suggesting that the population of ISAV-HPR0 is geographically structured. Finally, we found a spatial association between fish groups with virulent ISAV (n = 21) and fish groups with ISAV-HPR0 (n = 27), supporting the hypothesis that ISAV-HPR0 may undergo a transition to virulent ISAV.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of rev-like transcripts of equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rosin-Arbesfeld, R; Rivlin, M; Noiman, S; Mashiah, P; Yaniv, A; Miki, T; Tronick, S R; Gazit, A

    1993-01-01

    Three cDNA clones representing structurally distinct transcripts were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from cells infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) by using a probe representing the S3 open reading frame, which is thought to encode Rev. One species, designated p2/2, contained four exons and was identical to a previously described polycistronic mRNA that encodes Tat. This transcript was predicted to also direct the synthesis of a truncated form of the transmembrane protein and a putative Rev protein whose N-terminal 29 amino acids, derived from env, are linked to S3 sequences. The second cDNA, p176, also consisted of four exons which were generated by two of three of the same splicing events that occur with p2/2 but not with the Tat mRNA. The alternative splice site giving rise to the second exon of p176 results in a bicistronic message that would encode the same transmembrane and Rev proteins as p2/2. The first exon of the third transcript, p20, was identical to those of p2/2 and p176 but was spliced directly to S3. This monocistronic message could encode a second form of Rev that lacks env sequences, provided that Rev synthesis would initiate at a non-AUG codon. The coding capacity of each cDNA was assessed in a eukaryotic system using S3 antisera. Two putative Rev proteins with apparent molecular masses of 18 and 16 kDa were expressed by p2/2 and p176, while p20 expressed only a 16-kDa species. Analysis of EIAV-infected cells with S3 antisera revealed the presence of an 18-kDa protein. Surprisingly, the same protein was detected in purified virions. By using a reporter construct, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene linked to EIAV env sequences, we were able to demonstrate greatly enhanced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in cells cotransfected with this construct and any of the three cDNAs. Images PMID:8394464

  10. Spatial and non-spatial risk factors associated with cage-level distribution of infectious salmon anaemia at three Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms in Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Merrill, P; Hawkins, L; Giray, C; Wagner, B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) was examined among 80 cages from three Atlantic salmon grow-out farms in Maine, USA that were stocked with smolts from a single hatchery. Cage-level disease was broadly defined as one or more moribund fish testing positive for infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) by RT-PCR and a second confirmatory test (IFAT, culture or genotype sequence). Spatio-temporal and cage-level risks were explored using logistic regression and survival analysis. Non-spatial risk factors associated with ISA, or shortened survival time to disease, included increased predation, trucking company choice for smolt transfers, a finely-sedimented benthic substrate, and smaller average size of smolts at stocking. Univariable analysis identified the time-dependent spatial factor 'adjacency to newly infected cages' to be predictive of new infection in neighbouring cages 11-12 weeks later. However, none of the spatial factors, or their lags retained relevance in multiple-variable models. The results suggest a diffuse distribution of virus exposure throughout infected sites, with host-susceptibility factors probably influencing disease manifestation in individual cages. The narrow focus of the current study may limit application of the findings to other sites and year-classes. However, these data support the relevance of husbandry efforts to optimize fish health in regions affected by ISAV.

  11. In Vitro Efficacy of Nonantibiotic Treatments on Biofilm Disruption of Gram-Negative Pathogens and an In Vivo Model of Infectious Endometritis Utilizing Isolates from the Equine Uterus.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Ryan A; McCue, Patrick M; Borlee, Grace I; Loncar, Kristen D; Hennet, Margo L; Borlee, Bradley R

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the ability of the equine clinical treatments N-acetylcysteine, EDTA, and hydrogen peroxide to disrupt in vitro biofilms and kill equine reproductive pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Klebsiella pneumoniae) isolated from clinical cases. N-acetylcysteine (3.3%) decreased biofilm biomass and killed bacteria within the biofilms of E. coli isolates. The CFU of recoverable P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae isolates were decreased, but the biofilm biomass was unchanged. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1%) decreased the biofilm biomass and reduced the CFU of E. coli isolates, K. pneumoniae isolates were observed to have a reduction in CFU, and minimal effects were observed for P. aeruginosa isolates. Chelating agents (EDTA formulations) reduced E. coli CFU but were ineffective at disrupting preformed biofilms or decreasing the CFU of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae within a biofilm. No single nonantibiotic treatment commonly used in equine veterinary practice was able to reduce the CFU and biofilm biomass of all three Gram-negative species of bacteria evaluated. An in vivo equine model of infectious endometritis was also developed to monitor biofilm formation, utilizing bioluminescence imaging with equine P. aeruginosa isolates from this study. Following infection, the endometrial surface contained focal areas of bacterial growth encased in a strongly adherent "biofilm-like" matrix, suggesting that biofilms are present during clinical cases of infectious equine endometritis. Our results indicate that Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the equine uterus are capable of producing a biofilm in vitro, and P. aeruginosa is capable of producing biofilm-like material in vivo.

  12. In Vitro Efficacy of Nonantibiotic Treatments on Biofilm Disruption of Gram-Negative Pathogens and an In Vivo Model of Infectious Endometritis Utilizing Isolates from the Equine Uterus

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Patrick M.; Borlee, Grace I.; Loncar, Kristen D.; Hennet, Margo L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the ability of the equine clinical treatments N-acetylcysteine, EDTA, and hydrogen peroxide to disrupt in vitro biofilms and kill equine reproductive pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Klebsiella pneumoniae) isolated from clinical cases. N-acetylcysteine (3.3%) decreased biofilm biomass and killed bacteria within the biofilms of E. coli isolates. The CFU of recoverable P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae isolates were decreased, but the biofilm biomass was unchanged. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1%) decreased the biofilm biomass and reduced the CFU of E. coli isolates, K. pneumoniae isolates were observed to have a reduction in CFU, and minimal effects were observed for P. aeruginosa isolates. Chelating agents (EDTA formulations) reduced E. coli CFU but were ineffective at disrupting preformed biofilms or decreasing the CFU of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae within a biofilm. No single nonantibiotic treatment commonly used in equine veterinary practice was able to reduce the CFU and biofilm biomass of all three Gram-negative species of bacteria evaluated. An in vivo equine model of infectious endometritis was also developed to monitor biofilm formation, utilizing bioluminescence imaging with equine P. aeruginosa isolates from this study. Following infection, the endometrial surface contained focal areas of bacterial growth encased in a strongly adherent “biofilm-like” matrix, suggesting that biofilms are present during clinical cases of infectious equine endometritis. Our results indicate that Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the equine uterus are capable of producing a biofilm in vitro, and P. aeruginosa is capable of producing biofilm-like material in vivo. PMID:26719448

  13. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding equine infectious anemia virus tat and putative Rev proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R M; Derse, D; Rice, N R

    1990-01-01

    We isolated and characterized six cDNA clones from an equine infectious anemia virus-infected cell line that displays a Rev-defective phenotype. With the exception of one splice site in one of the clones, all six cDNAs exhibited the same splicing pattern and consisted of four exons. Exon 1 contained the 5' end of the genome; exon 2 contained the tat gene from mid-genome; exon 3 consisted of a small section of env, near the 5' end of the env gene; and exon 4 contained the putative rev open reading frame from the 3' end of the genome. The structures of the cDNAs predict a bicistronic message in which Tat is encoded by exons 1 and 2 and the presumptive Rev protein is encoded by exons 3 and 4. tat translation appears to be initiated at a non-AUG codon within the first 15 codons of exon 1. Equine infectious anemia virus-specific tat activity was expressed in transient transfections with cDNA expression plasmids. The predicted wild-type Rev protein contains 30 env-derived amino acids and 135 rev open reading frame residues. All of the cDNAs had a frameshift in exon 4, leading to a truncated protein and thus providing a plausible explanation for the Rev-defective phenotype of the original cells. We used peptide antisera to detect the faulty protein, thus confirming the cDNA sequence, and to detect the normal protein in productively infected cells. Images PMID:2164593

  14. Construction and manipulation of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome clone of equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3).

    PubMed

    Akhmedzhanov, Maksat; Scrochi, Mariela; Barrandeguy, Maria; Vissani, Aldana; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Damiani, Armando Mario

    2017-01-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3) is the causal agent of equine coital exanthema, a disease characterized by pox-like lesions on the penis of stallions and the vulva of mares. Although the complete genomic sequence of EHV-3 has been recently made available, its genomic content remains poorly characterized and the molecular mechanisms of disease development not yet elucidated. In an attempt to facilitate genetic manipulation of EHV-3, we describe here the construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of EHV-3. Mini-F vector sequences were inserted into the intergenic region between ORF19 and ORF20 (UL41 and UL40, respectively) of EHV-3 strain C175 by homologous recombination in equine dermal cells (NBL-6). DNA of the resulting recombinant virus was electroporated into E. coli and a full-length EHV-3 BAC clone was recovered. Virus reconstituted after transfection of the EHV-3 BAC into NBL-6 cells showed growth properties in vitro that were indistinguishable from those of the parental virus. To assess the feasibility of mutagenesis of the cloned EHV-3 genome, recombinant viruses targeting the glycoprotein E (gE) gene were generated using Red recombination in E. coli and in vitro growth properties of the recombinant viruses were evaluated. We first repaired the gE (ORF74) coding region, since the parental virus used for BAC cloning specifies a truncated version of the gene, and then created gE-tagged and gE-null versions of the virus. Our results demonstrated that: (i) EHV-3 can be efficiently cloned as a BAC allowing easy manipulation of its genome; (ii) gE is dispensable for EHV-3 growth in vitro and is expressed as a product of approximately 110-kDa in infected cells; (iii) viruses having a deletion compromising gE expression or with a truncation of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains are significantly compromised with regard cell-to-cell spread. The cloning of EHV-3 as a BAC simplifies future studies to identify the role

  15. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  16. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances.

  17. The risk of introduction of equine infectious anemia virus into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada

    PubMed Central

    Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Tameru, Berhanu; Nganwa, David

    2011-01-01

    Deriving horse oocytes in the USA is hampered by the lack of abattoirs processing horse carcasses which could provide abundant quantities of ovaries from slaughtered mares. Therefore, several cloning industries in the USA are attempting to import cloned horse embryos from Canada. Like any agricultural commodity, cloned embryos pose a risk of introduction of exotic animal diseases into the importing country. Under such circumstances, risk assessment could provide an objective, transparent, and internationally accepted means for evaluating the risk. This quantitative risk assessment (QRA) was initiated to determine the risk of introduction of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada. In assessing the risk, a structured knowledge base regarding cloning in relation to EIA was first developed. Based on the knowledge base, a scenario tree was developed to determine conditions (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of EIAV along the cloning pathway. Parameters for the occurrence of the event at each node were estimated using published literature. Using @RISK software and setting Monte Carlo simulation at 50 000 iterations, the probability of importing an EIAV-infected cloned horse embryo was 1.8×10−9 (R = 1.5×10−12 to 2.9×10−8). Taking into account the current protocol for equine cloning and assuming the yield of 5 to 30 clones per year, the possible number of EIAV-infected cloned horse embryos ranged from 2.0×10−10 to 9.1×10−5 (Mean = 1.4×10−6) per year. Consequently, it would take up to 1.5×107 (R = 1.6×104 to 5.1×1010) years for EIAV to be introduced into the USA. Based on the knowledge base and our critical pathway analysis, the biological plausibility of introducing EIAV into USA via cloned horse embryos imported from Canada is extremely low. PMID:21958631

  18. In vivo dynamics of equine infectious anemia viruses emerging during febrile episodes: insertions/duplications at the principal neutralizing domain.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y H; Sentsui, H; Nakaya, T; Kono, Y; Ikuta, K

    1997-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a good model for studying mechanisms generating escaped retrovirus variants. We previously sequenced the entire gp90-encoding region of 22 cDNA clones obtained from five antigenically distinct isolates (F1V to F5V) recovered during febrile episodes in horse 493 experimentally infected with the Japanese virulent EIAV strain V70. The results showed that the mutations occurred in the principal neutralizing domain (PND) by insertions/duplications. In this study, we further characterized the PND of virus isolates sequentially recovered during 22 febrile episodes in seven horses newly infected with V70 or one of the V70-derived variants. Sequencing of 70 cDNA clones derived from the 22 episodes confirmed the generation of various new viral quasispecies with insertions/duplications in the PND. Although the insertion/duplication sequences in a total of 92 cDNA clones were extensively heterogeneous, we hypothesized that all the insertions/duplications occurred during reverse transcription from viral genomic RNA to minus strand DNA. The insertion/duplication regions were derived from a part of the PND sequence, which consisted of five small units. These small units, some with various substitutions and/or deletions, were also generated, especially in regions with insertions/duplications. Of particular note was that all these virus variants, except for two cDNA variants, were generated by essentially four different duplication pathways. Thus, these results extend the significance of insertions/duplications in the PND to the novel generation of EIAV in vivo during febrile episodes. PMID:9188568

  19. Protective Effects of Broadly Neutralizing Immunoglobulin against Homologous and Heterologous Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection in Horses with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency▿

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra D.; Leib, Steven R.; Wu, Wuwei; Nelson, Robert; Carpenter, Susan; Mealey, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Using the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) lentivirus model system, we previously demonstrated protective effects of broadly neutralizing immune plasma in young horses (foals) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, in vivo selection of a neutralization-resistant envelope variant occurred. Here, we determined the protective effects of purified immunoglobulin with more potent broadly neutralizing activity. Overall, protection correlated with the breadth and potency of neutralizing activity in vitro. Four of five SCID foals were completely protected against homologous challenge, while partial protection occurred following heterologous challenge. These results support the inclusion of broadly neutralizing antibodies in lentivirus control strategies. PMID:21543497

  20. Protective effects of broadly neutralizing immunoglobulin against homologous and heterologous equine infectious anemia virus infection in horses with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra D; Leib, Steven R; Wu, Wuwei; Nelson, Robert; Carpenter, Susan; Mealey, Robert H

    2011-07-01

    Using the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) lentivirus model system, we previously demonstrated protective effects of broadly neutralizing immune plasma in young horses (foals) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, in vivo selection of a neutralization-resistant envelope variant occurred. Here, we determined the protective effects of purified immunoglobulin with more potent broadly neutralizing activity. Overall, protection correlated with the breadth and potency of neutralizing activity in vitro. Four of five SCID foals were completely protected against homologous challenge, while partial protection occurred following heterologous challenge. These results support the inclusion of broadly neutralizing antibodies in lentivirus control strategies.

  1. Insights into vaccine development for acquired immune deficiency syndrome from crystal structures of human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp41 and equine infectious anemia virus gp45.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liangwei; Du, Jiansen; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-10-01

    An effective vaccine against acquired immune deficiency syndrome is still unavailable after dozens of years of striving. The glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus is a good candidate as potential immunogen because of its conservation and relatively low glycosylation. As a reference of human immunodeficiency virus gp41, gp45 from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) could be used for comparison because both wild-type and vaccine strain of EIAV have been extensively studied. From structural studies of these proteins, the conformational changes during viral invasion could be unveiled, and a more effective acquired immune deficiency syndrome vaccine immunogen might be designed based on this information.

  2. Anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Ozaltin, Emre; Shankar, Anuraj H; Subramanian, S V

    2011-12-17

    Anaemia affects a quarter of the global population, including 293 million (47%) children younger than 5 years and 468 million (30%) non-pregnant women. In addition to anaemia's adverse health consequences, the economic effect of anaemia on human capital results in the loss of billions of dollars annually. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical assessment, pathophysiology, and consequences of anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries. Our analysis shows that anaemia is disproportionately concentrated in low socioeconomic groups, and that maternal anaemia is strongly associated with child anaemia. Anaemia has multifactorial causes involving complex interaction between nutrition, infectious diseases, and other factors, and this complexity presents a challenge to effectively address the population determinants of anaemia. Reduction of knowledge gaps in research and policy and improvement of the implementation of effective population-level strategies will help to alleviate the anaemia burden in low-resource settings.

  3. Development, Characterisation and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection and Quantification of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus in Plasma Samples Using Luminex Bead Array Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, R.; Thompson, K. D.; Herath, T.; Collet, B.; Bron, J. E.; Adams, A.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus that has had a significant economic impact on Atlantic salmon farming in Europe, North America and Chile. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against Segment 3 (encoding the viral nucleoprotein, NP) of the virus. Six of the mAbs were shown to be specific to ISAV and recognised all isolates from Scotland, Norway and Canada. They reacted with ISAV in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and western blotting. They were also used to develop a novel detection method based on Luminex (Bio-Plex) bead-based flow cytometric technology for the detection of ISAV in the plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts experimentally infected with ISAV. Fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of virus at 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) = 2.8 x106 per animal. Virus present in plasma of infected fish, collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 28 days post infection using a non-lethal sampling method (n = 12 at each time point), was quantified using the optimised Bio-Plex assay. The results obtained with this assay were compared with absolute quantification of the virus by RT-qPCR using SYBR Green I and TaqMan chemistries. The Bio-Plex assay developed using the NP mAbs appears to be a rapid, sensitive method for detecting and quantifying ISAV in small volumes of fish plasma and has the potential to be multiplexed for the detection of other fish pathogens (e.g. during co-infections). To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of Luminex (Bio-Plex) technology for the detection of a fish pathogen. PMID:27434377

  4. A dual infection of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a togavirus-like virus in ISA of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in New Brunswick, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kibenge, F S; Whyte, S K; Hammell, K L; Rainnie, D; Kibenge, M T; Martin, C K

    2000-08-10

    Two viruses, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a novel togavirus-like virus, were isolated from ISA disease outbreaks that were first reported as a new syndrome, haemorrhagic kidney syndrome (HKS) affecting farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. on the East coast of Canada. Laboratory confirmation of ISA diagnosis was initially complicated by isolation of only the togavirus-like agent using the CHSE-214 cell line. Here we demonstrate that a clinical sample from a disease outbreak of ISA contained a mixture of ISA virus and togavirus-like virus. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of both viruses during serial passage of cultures in SHK-1 and CHSE-214 cells. Virus harvested at passage level 3 in both cell lines caused high mortalities and severe gross pathology consistent with ISA virus infection in experimentally inoculated Atlantic salmon parr (approximately 35 g) in freshwater, beginning 12 d post inoculation. ISA virus was detected by virus isolation from kidney and liver tissues of all dead or moribund fish tested. A comparison of virus isolation, 1-step procedure RT-PCR and RNA dot-blot hybridization for detection of ISA virus (ISAV) in fish tissues showed virus isolation to have 100% sensitivity, followed by RT-PCR (66 and 28% sensitivity in kidney and liver, respectively), with RNA dot-blot hybridization as the least sensitive method (20 and 10% sensitivity in kidney and liver, respectively). No togavirus-like virus was detected in these samples by virus isolation. Moreover, another togavirus-like virus isolate grown in CHSE-214 cells in the absence of any other detectable pathogen was non-pathogenic in experimentally inoculated fish. This study confirms that the original ISA outbreaks in New Brunswick, Canada, were caused solely by ISAV.

  5. Relationship of biosecuriy practices with the use of antibiotics for the treatment of infectious disease on U.S. equine operations.

    PubMed

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie; Kopral, Christine; Wagner, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    This study is the first report estimating, on a national basis, the use of various biosecurity practices, singly and in combination, on U.S. equine operations. Use of biosecurity practices is described for operations by risk level, based on reported exposure of resident horses to outside horses during the previous 12 months. In addition, the association between use of various biosecurity practices and use of antibiotics to treat infectious disease in both adult equids and foals is reported. The comparison of these study findings with previously reported data in the literature is limited by the fact that few estimates of biosecurity practice use on equine operations have been reported and none has been published on a national basis beyond those in the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) equine reports. A total of 78.5% of operations had some risk of exposure of resident horses to outside horses between summer 2004 and the time of the interview in summer 2005. For the majority of biosecurity practices, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference between different exposure risk levels in the percentage of operations using the practice. A higher percentage of high- and medium-risk operations implemented a combination of 4 or more biosecurity practices compared to low-risk operations. There was less use of antibiotics to treat infectious disease in adult horses on operations that required those who visit the operation to use separate equipment, change clothes/overalls, disinfect boots and equipment, or park vehicles away from animals than on those that did not. None of the other biosecurity practices were associated with use of antibiotics in adult horses and none of the biosecurity practices included in this study was associated with use of antibiotics in foals. For adults the use of antibiotics for infectious disease increased with decreasing herd size; this trend was reversed for antibiotic use in foals. The effect of exposure risk level was different

  6. Development and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of the modified live virus vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqiang; Go, Yun Young; Huang, Chengjin M; Meade, Barry J; Lu, Zhengchun; Snijder, Eric J; Timoney, Peter J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2012-08-01

    A stable full-length cDNA clone of the modified live virus (MLV) vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV) was developed. RNA transcripts generated from this plasmid (pEAVrMLV) were infectious upon transfection into mammalian cells, and the resultant recombinant virus (rMLV) had 100% nucleotide identity to the parental MLV vaccine strain of EAV. A single silent nucleotide substitution was introduced into the nucleocapsid gene (pEAVrMLVB), enabling the cloned vaccine virus (rMLVB) to be distinguished from parental MLV vaccine as well as other field and laboratory strains of EAV by using an allelic discrimination real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. In vitro studies revealed that the cloned vaccine virus rMLVB and the parental MLV vaccine virus had identical growth kinetics and plaque morphologies in equine endothelial cells. In vivo studies confirmed that the cloned vaccine virus was very safe and induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against EAV in experimentally immunized horses. When challenged with the heterologous EAV KY84 strain, the rMLVB vaccine virus protected immunized horses in regard to reducing the magnitude and duration of viremia and virus shedding but did not suppress the development of signs of EVA, although these were reduced in clinical severity. The vaccine clone pEAVrMLVB could be further manipulated to improve the vaccine efficacy as well as to develop a marker vaccine for serological differentiation of EAV naturally infected from vaccinated animals.

  7. Double-stranded-RNA-specific adenosine deaminase 1 (ADAR1) is proposed to contribute to the adaptation of equine infectious anemia virus from horses to donkeys.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Xiang; Na, Lei; Wang, Xue-Feng; Fu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the genus Lentivirus of the family Retroviridae. Horses are the most susceptible equids to EIAV infection and are therefore the primary hosts of this virus. In contrast, infected donkeys do not develop clinically active equine infectious anemia (EIA). This phenomenon is similar to what has been observed with HIV-1, which fails to induce AIDS in non-human primates. Interestingly, Shen et al. developed a donkey-tropic pathogenic virus strain (EIAVDV117, DV117) by serially passaging a horse-tropic pathogenic strain, EIAVLN40 (LN40), in donkeys. LN40, which was generated by passaging a field isolate in horses, displayed enhanced virulence in horses but caused no clinical symptoms in donkeys. Infection with DV117 induced acute EIA in nearly 100 % of donkeys. Genomic analysis of DV117 revealed a significantly higher frequency of A-to-G substitutions when compared to LN40. Furthermore, detailed analysis of dinucleotide editing showed that A-to-G mutations had a preference for 5'TpA and 5'ApA. These results strongly implicated the activity of the adenosine deaminase, ADAR1, in this type of mutation. Further investigation demonstrated that overexpression of donkey ADAR1 increased A-to-G mutations within the genome of EIAV. Together with our previous finding that multiple mutations in multiple genes are generated in DV117 during its adaptation from horses to donkeys, the present study suggests that ADAR1-induced A-to-G mutations occur during virus adaption to related new hosts contributing to the alteration of EIAV host tropism.

  8. First detection, isolation and molecular characterization of infectious salmon anaemia virus associated with clinical disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Marcos G; Aedo, Alejandra; Kibenge, Molly JT; Groman, David B; Yason, Carmencita V; Grothusen, Horts; Lisperguer, Angelica; Calbucura, Marlene; Avendaño, Fernando; Imilán, Marcelo; Jarpa, Miguel; Kibenge, Frederick SB

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a viral disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. The virus is considered to be carried by marine wild fish and for over 25 years has caused major disease outbreaks in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in the Northern hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, ISAV was first detected in Chile in 1999 in marine-farmed Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In contrast to the classical presentation of ISA in Atlantic salmon, the presence of ISAV in Chile until now has only been associated with a clinical condition called Icterus Syndrome in Coho salmon and virus isolation has not always been possible. During the winter of 2007, unexplained mortalities were registered in market-size Atlantic salmon in a grow-out site located in Chiloé in Region X of Chile. We report here the diagnostic findings of the first significant clinical outbreak of ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and the first characterization of the ISAV isolated from the affected fish. Results In mid-June 2007, an Atlantic salmon marine farm site located in central Chiloé Island in Region X of Chile registered a sudden increase in mortality following recovery from an outbreak of Pisciricketsiosis, which rose to a cumulative mortality of 13.6% by harvest time. Based on the clinical signs and lesions in the affected fish, and laboratory tests performed on the fish tissues, a confirmatory diagnosis of ISA was made; the first time ISA in its classical presentation and for the first time affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile. Rapid sequencing of the virus-specific RT-PCR products amplified from the fish tissues identified the virus to belong to the European genotype (Genotype I) of the highly polymorphic region (HPR) group HPR 7b, but with an 11-amino acid insert in the fusion glycoprotein, and ability to cause cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cell line

  9. Safety and biodistribution of an equine infectious anemia virus-based gene therapy, RetinoStat(®), for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Binley, Katie; Widdowson, Peter S; Kelleher, Michelle; de Belin, Jackie; Loader, Julie; Ferrige, Georgina; Carlucci, Marie; Esapa, Margaret; Chipchase, Daniel; Angell-Manning, Diana; Ellis, Scott; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos; Miskin, James; Bantseev, Vlad; Nork, T Michael; Miller, Paul; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-09-01

    RetinoStat(®) is an equine infectious anemia virus-based lentiviral gene therapy vector that expresses the angiostatic proteins endostatin and angiostatin that is delivered via a subretinal injection for the treatment of the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. We initiated 6-month safety and biodistribution studies in two species; rhesus macaques and Dutch belted rabbits. After subretinal administration of RetinoStat the level of human endostatin and angiostatin proteins in the vitreous of treated rabbit eyes peaked at ∼1 month after dosing and remained elevated for the duration of the study. Regular ocular examinations revealed a mild to moderate transient ocular inflammation that resolved within 1 month of dosing in both species. There were no significant long-term changes in the electroretinograms or intraocular pressure measurements in either rabbits or macaques postdosing compared with the baseline reading in RetinoStat-treated eyes. Histological evaluation did not reveal any structural changes in the eye although there was an infiltration of mononuclear cells in the vitreous, retina, and choroid. No antibodies to any of the RetinoStat vector components or the transgenes could be detected in the serum from either species, and biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the RetinoStat vector was maintained within the ocular compartment. In summary, these studies found RetinoStat to be well tolerated, localized, and capable of persistent expression after subretinal delivery.

  10. Suppression of neovascularization of donor corneas by transduction with equine infectious anemia virus-based lentiviral vectors expressing endostatin and angiostatin.

    PubMed

    Parker, Maria; Bellec, Jessica; McFarland, Trevor; Scripps, Vicky; Appukuttan, Binoy; Hartzell, Matt; Yeager, Austen; Hady, Thomas; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Stout, Tim; Ellis, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Corneal transplantation is the oldest and one of the most successful transplant procedures with a success rate in many studies in excess of 90%. The high success rate is mainly attributable to the relatively immune-privileged status of the eye and the fact that the cornea is largely avascular. However, the success rate in patients with failed grafts is much lower such that regrafting is frequently the top indication for corneal transplantation in many centers. Neovascularization is the most important risk factor for rejection, as it allows access of the immune system to the donor tissue, compromising immune privilege of the graft/eye. We have developed a process to modify donor corneal tissue to prevent rejection by a single exposure to a gene therapy vector before surgery (EncorStat(®)). The vector used is based on clinically relevant equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-derived lentiviral platform and contains genes for two potently angiostatic genes, endostatin and angiostatin. We show that incubation of rabbit, primate, and human corneal tissue with the EIAV vector mediates strong, stable expression in the corneal endothelium. We have optimized this process to maximize transduction and, once this is complete, maximize the removal of free vector before transplant. Rabbit corneas treated with two different antiangiogenic expression vectors (EIAV-EndoAngio and to a lesser extent EIAV-Endo:k5) significantly suppressed neovascularization in a rabbit model of corneal rejection. As a result, corneal opacity, edema, and inflammatory infiltrates were reduced in these corneas. This study demonstrates that angiogenesis is a suitable target to prevent corneal rejection, and provides the first proof-of-concept data for the development of EncorStat, an ex vivo gene therapy treatment to prevent corneal rejection.

  11. Anaemia in older persons.

    PubMed

    den Elzen, W P J; Gussekloo, J

    2011-06-01

    Anaemia is common in older individuals and, because of its association with various negative outcomes, adequate diagnosis and treatment is important. The present review focuses on prominent factors included in diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for anaemia. Although pernicious anaemia is associated with severe vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence of an association between subnormal vitamin B12 and anaemia in older persons in the general population is limited and inconclusive. Accumulating evidence suggests that clinicians should at least reconsider the risks of a low vitamin B12 level before starting vitamin B12 supplementation in older individuals. Although clinicians may be reluctant to measure ferritin in older individuals due to its acute phase properties, such measurements are important in older persons with anaemia, especially in those with signs of inflammation. While a severe age-related decline in renal function may lead to a blunted erythropoietin response and anaemia, elevated erythropoietin levels are associated with increased mortality. More studies are needed to identify the clinical relevance and therapeutic implications of low and high erythropoietin levels in older persons. In contrast to other age-related diseases, telomere length is not associated with anaemia in older individuals in the general population. In conclusion, many issues regarding the aetiology of anaemia in old age remain unresolved. Because current guidelines on anaemia are based on the classic notions of the aetiology of anaemia, they may need to be revised for the highest age groups.

  12. Dual Mutation Events in the Haemagglutinin-Esterase and Fusion Protein from an Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus HPR0 Genotype Promote Viral Fusion and Activation by an Ubiquitous Host Protease.

    PubMed

    Fourrier, Mickael; Lester, Katherine; Markussen, Turhan; Falk, Knut; Secombes, Christopher J; McBeath, Alastair; Collet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), deletions in the highly polymorphic region (HPR) in the near membrane domain of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) stalk, influence viral fusion. It is suspected that selected mutations in the associated Fusion (F) protein may also be important in regulating fusion activity. To better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in ISAV fusion, several mutated F proteins were generated from the Scottish Nevis and Norwegian SK779/06 HPR0. Co-transfection with constructs encoding HE and F were performed, fusion activity assessed by content mixing assay and the degree of proteolytic cleavage by western blot. Substitutions in Nevis F demonstrated that K276 was the most likely cleavage site in the protein. Furthermore, amino acid substitutions at three sites and two insertions, all slightly upstream of K276, increased fusion activity. Co-expression with HE harbouring a full-length HPR produced high fusion activities when trypsin and low pH were applied. In comparison, under normal culture conditions, groups containing a mutated HE with an HPR deletion were able to generate moderate fusion levels, while those with a full length HPR HE could not induce fusion. This suggested that HPR length may influence how the HE primes the F protein and promotes fusion activation by an ubiquitous host protease and/or facilitate subsequent post-cleavage refolding steps. Variations in fusion activity through accumulated mutations on surface glycoproteins have also been reported in other orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. This may in part contribute to the different virulence and tissue tropism reported for HPR0 and HPR deleted ISAV genotypes.

  13. [Anaemia in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, Andreas Herbert; Fetscher, Sebastian; Kolb, Gerald Franz

    2016-07-01

    In the elderly, even mild anaemia leads to significantly decreased quality of life and reduced survival rate. Therefore even mild anaemias should be worked up especially in the elderly. More than 75 % of all anaemias have a specific and treatable cause.Differential diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly is much more challenging compared to the differential diagnosis in younger patients: in older patients often more than one dysfunction is responsible for the anaemia simultaneously. Many routine laboratory parameters are changed by ageing and are therefore only of limited value for diagnosis of anaemia. Soluble transferinreceptor and hepcidin are two parameters feasible for differential diagnosis of the causes of anaemia in the elderly.The most common cause of iron deficiency anaemia in the elderly is gastrointestinal bleeding. Many causes for gastrointestinal bleeding -like angiodysplasia of the colon - can readily be treated with endoscopic therapy. For this reason, colonoscopy is part of the standard workup for elderly patients with iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) if no contraindications exist.Therapy of anaemia is based on the specific cause or the causes. In IDA, the first step other than causal treatment is to replace iron orally. If this is not tolerated because of side effects or does not lead to a sufficient rise in the haemoglobin level, intravenous iron replacement therapy is indicated. Folic acid deficiency is generally treated orally, whereas vitamin B12 deficiency is generally treated by the parenteral - preferably subcutaneous - route. In anaemia due to chronic renal failure and anaemia due to myelodysplastic syndromes, the underlying cause must be treated, furthermore erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can be indicated.

  14. An unexpected cause for aplastic anaemia in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Phua, C K; Marimuthu, K; Teo, H Y; Ong, K H; Leo, Y S

    2013-02-01

    Aplastic anaemia is a rare clinical syndrome associated with diminished or absent precursors in the bone marrow. Acquired aplastic anaemia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is very rare. We present a 71-year-old woman with severe aplastic anaemia secondary to HIV infection, which was after extensive exclusion of other causes. She achieved undetectable viral load after 5 months of combination antiretroviral therapy but remains profoundly pancytopenic, complicated by recurrent infectious and bleeding complications. HIV infection should be considered in patients with pancytopenia.

  15. Serological survey of equine viral diseases in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Pagamjav, Ochir; Kobayashi, Keiko; Murakami, Hironobu; Tabata, Yuji; Miura, Yasuo; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2011-04-01

    Three hundred sera were collected from horses in various parts of Mongolia in 2007 and seroepidemiological surveys for several equine viruses performed on them. Equid herpesvirus 1 and equine rhinitis A virus were prevalent, and equine arteritis virus and equid herpesvirus 3 were detected over a wide area though their rates of antibody-positivity were not high. Equine infectious anemia was distributed locally. The rates of horses antibody-positive for Japanese encephalitis virus and equine influenza virus were low, but these were detected. Bovine coronavirus antibodies were detected at a high rate, but it was not clear whether they were due to horse coronavirus.

  16. Severe malarial anaemia.

    PubMed

    Casals-Pascual, C; Roberts, D J

    2006-03-01

    This review describes the importance of severe malarial anaemia as a public health problem, and the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this syndrome. The review also highlights the recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiological, clinical, cellular and molecular aspects of severe malarial anaemia.

  17. Pre-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, B; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative anaemia is a relatively common finding, affecting a third of patients undergoing elective surgery. Traditionally associated with chronic disease, management has historically focused on the use of blood transfusion as a solution for anaemia in the peri-operative period. Data from large series now suggest that anaemia is an independent risk associated with poor outcome in both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Furthermore, blood transfusion does not appear to ameliorate this risk, and in fact may increase the risk of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay. Consequently, there is a need to identify, diagnose and manage pre-operative anaemia to reduce surgical risk. Discoveries in the pathways of iron metabolism have found that chronic disease can cause a state of functional iron deficiency leading to anaemia. The key iron regulatory protein hepcidin, activated in response to inflammation, inhibits absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract and further reduces bioavailability of iron stores for red cell production. Consequently, although iron stores (predominantly ferritin) may be normal, the transport of iron either from the gastrointestinal tract or iron stores to the bone marrow is inhibited, leading to a state of 'functional' iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia. Since absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is blocked, increasing oral iron intake is ineffective, and studies are now looking at the role of intravenous iron to treat anaemia in the surgical setting. In this article, we review the incidence and impact of anaemia on the pre-operative patient. We explain how anaemia may be caused by functional iron deficiency, and how iron deficiency anaemia may be diagnosed and treated.

  18. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstact Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA

  19. VIRUS-SPECIFIC POLYSOMES IN CELLS INFECTED WITH THE VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, *RIBOSOMES, *TISSUE CULTURE CELLS, RIBOSOMES, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ARBOVIRUSES, VIRUSES, NUCLEIC ACIDS, BIOSYNTHESIS, USSR, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE.

  20. Equine influenza diagnosis: sample collection and transport.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    In horses, presumptive diagnosis of equine influenza is commonly made on the basis of clinical signs. This alone is insufficient for confirmation of equine influenza, because other equine infectious respiratory diseases can in some degree have similar clinical presentations. Surveillance and control of equine influenza also necessitate detection of subclinical cases. Effective diagnosis of equine influenza virus infection is critically dependent on obtaining adequate specimens of virus-containing respiratory secretions for testing. These specimens are also valuable as sources for isolation of virus strains for antigenic characterization and potential inclusion in vaccines. Both nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs are employed in horses. These differ little in their invasiveness, but nasopharyngeal swabs typically yield more virus than nasal swabs and are superior diagnostic specimens. Methods for obtaining nasopharyngeal swab specimens are described.

  1. Anaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goonewardene, Malik; Shehata, Mishkat; Hamad, Asma

    2012-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) < 110 g/L, affects more than 56 million women globally, two thirds of them being from Asia. Multiple factors lead to anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately.

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  3. Hepcidin and anaemia.

    PubMed

    Means, Robert T

    2004-12-01

    The anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) is a common haematologic syndrome characterized by hypoferraemia with adequate reticuloendothelial iron stores. Frequently, serum ferritin concentration in these patients is elevated. The pathogenesis of ACD involves abnormalities in red cell survival, the erythropoietic response to anaemia, and in iron metabolism. Hepcidin is an antibacterial protein produced in the liver which can be found in blood or urine, and which participates in host defense. Recent studies have demonstrated that hepcidin is a key regulator of iron balance in the intestinal mucosa, and that abnormalities in hepcidin gene expression are associated with clinical abnormalities in iron parameters and, in some cases, with anaemia. Hepcidin is an acute-phase reacting protein, and it has been suggested that hepcidin is the key mediator of ACD. Investigation of hepcidin production in either serum or urine demonstrates a strong correlation with serum ferritin concentration. Differences between the hepcidin concentrations observed in ACD (or syndromes resembling ACD) and those observed in iron deficiency may depend on the definition used for the anaemia syndrome. It seems very likely that hepcidin is a major contributor to iron abnormalities characteristic of ACD; whether it contributes to the pathogenesis of the syndrome in a broader sense remains to be determined by further investigation.

  4. Malarial anaemia and nitric oxide induced megaloblastic anaemia: a review on the causes of malarial anaemia.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prasanna

    2009-06-01

    Direct destruction and ineffective erythropoesis does not adequately explain the cause of anaemia in malaria. It is possible that there are more other mechanisms involved besides the causes described till date in malarial anaemia. The effect of NO on erythropoesis and a major haematological abnormality (microcytic/normocytic/megaloblastic picture) can significantly be observed on repeated exposure. In addition, NO can inhibit the enzyme methionine synthase so functional vit B12 deficiency state may occur which can lead to megaloblastic anaemia. This review will focus on causation of malarial anaemia and nitric oxide induced megaloblastic anaemia.

  5. Agriculture-related anaemias.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1994-12-01

    Man evolved as a hunter-gatherer, and the invention and spread of agriculture was followed by changes in diet, the environment and population densities which have resulted in globally high prevalences of anaemias due to nutritional deficiencies of iron, folate and (locally) vitamin B12, to infestations by hookworm and schistosomes, to malaria, and to the natural selection for the genes for sickle-cell diseases, beta-thalassaemias, alpha-thalassaemias, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, ovalocytosis and possibly (locally) elliptocytosis. The present explosion of population is driving an expansion of agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice, and this has led often to disastrous increases of transmission of malaria, schistosomiasis and other diseases, to widespread chemical pollution, and to degradation of the environment. Anaemia, as the commonest manifestation of human disease, is a frequent consequence. The urgent need for increased food production is matched by the urgent need for assessment and control of the health impact of agricultural development.

  6. Controlling equine influenza: Traditional to next generation serological assays.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Rebecca; Scott, Simon D; Daly, Janet M

    2016-05-01

    Serological assays provide an indirect route for the recognition of infectious agents via the detection of antibodies against the infectious agent of interest within serum. Serological assays for equine influenza A virus can be applied for different purposes: diagnosing infections; subtyping isolates; surveillance of circulating strains; and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines before they reach the market. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and single radial haemolysis (SRH) assays are most commonly used in the equine field. This review outlines how both these assays together with virus neutralization (VN) and ELISA are performed, interpreted and applied for the control of equine influenza, giving the limitations and advantages of each. The pseudotyped virus neutralization assay (PVNA) is also discussed as a promising prospect for the future of equine influenza virus serology.

  7. Equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Gabriele A

    2014-12-01

    For decades the horse has been viewed as an isolated or "dead-end" host for influenza A viruses, with equine influenza virus being considered as relatively stable genetically. Although equine influenza viruses are genetically more stable than those of human lineage, they are by no means in evolutionary stasis. Moreover, recent transmission of equine-lineage influenza viruses to dogs also challenges the horse's status as a dead-end host. This article reviews recent developments in the epidemiology and evolution of equine influenza virus. In addition, the clinical presentation of equine influenza infection, diagnostic techniques, and vaccine recommendations are briefly summarized.

  8. Anaemia in inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Günter; Schett, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Anaemia is frequently observed in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Depending on its severity, anaemia negatively affects cardiovascular performance, physical activity and the quality of life of patients. However, anaemia is considered to be a symptom of the underlying inflammatory disease and, thus, neglected as a complex medical condition that warrants specific diagnosis and treatment. Although inflammation-induced alterations in iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis have a dominant role in the pathogenesis of this type of anaemia, multiple other factors such as chronic blood loss, haemolysis, disease and treatment-associated adverse effects or vitamin deficiencies can also take part in the development of anaemia. Accordingly, the prevalence of anaemia is positively associated with the severity of the underlying disease. This Review will summarize epidemiological data on anaemia in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, along with a detailed description of underlying pathophysiological pathways, available diagnostic tools and practical diagnostic strategies. Discussion of established and newly emerging treatment regimens, as well as the need for further research in this clinically relevant field, will also be included.

  9. [Anaemia in chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Hradec, J

    2010-08-01

    Anaemia is a relatively frequent co-morbidity of chronic heart as well as chronic renal failure. In both conditions, it represents a strong and independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Aetiology of this anaemia is multi-factorial. A number of various factors play a role in its development, e.g. inadequate erythropoietin production in the kidneys, bone marrow inhibition, iron deficiency as well as haemodilution associated with fluid retention. Treatment strategies aim at two directions. One is the stimulation of erythropoiesis with recombinant human erythropoietin or its analogues such as darbepoetin alpha. The other involves iron substitution, administered preferably intravenously for improved efficacy and tolerability. Clinical studies evaluating treatment of anaemia in chronic heart failure with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents conducted so far were ofa small scale, were not controlled with placebo and usually assessed proxy parameters. Their results suggested that effective treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure improves exertion tolerance, clinical status (NYHA class) as well as the quality of life and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Recently completed TREAT study was the first large morbidity and mortality study evaluating treatment of anaemia with an erythropoietin analogue compared to placebo. On a sample of more than 4000 patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure and significant anaemia, this study has shown that effective treatment of anaemia with darbepoetin alpha did not affect at all the incidence of cardiovascular and renal events; on the other hand, it had lead to a nearly two-fold increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events. Some doubts about the safety of treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have occurred in the past based on the studies of anaemia treatment in patients with cancer and renal diseases. An answer to the question whether the treatment of anaemia

  10. [Pregnancy-induced haemolytic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Karagiozova, J; Masseva, A; Ivanov, St; Marinov, B; Kulinska, R; Boiadjiev, D; Jordanova, D

    2014-01-01

    This is the clinical case of a primiparous eight month pregnant female, presenting with symptoms of pregnancy-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (haemolytic aneamia provoked by an immune mechanism, intra- and extra-erythrocyte defects, and HELLP syndrome were excluded). The anaemia progressed to become life-threatening for both the pregnant women and the foetus, which brought the following questions into consideration: diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy; dosing of corticosteroid therapy; possibility of giving birth to a viable foetus and prognosis for next pregnancies. Owing to the inter-disciplinary efforts, the life and health of this pregnant woman were preserved, but the foetus was lost.

  11. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts.

    PubMed

    van Hensbroek, Michael B; Jonker, Femkje; Bates, Imelda

    2011-09-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of iron or folic acid, are associated with severe anaemia. Bacterial infections and, in very young children, hookworm infections are also common in severe anaemia. Irrespective of the aetiology, the mechanism causing severe anaemia is often red cell production failure. Severe anaemia in Africa is therefore a complex multi-factorial syndrome, which, even in an individual patient, is unlikely to be amenable to a single intervention. Policies and practices concerning anaemia diagnosis, treatment and prevention need to be substantially revised if we are to make a significant impact on the huge burden of severe anaemia in Africa.

  12. [Aplastic anaemia associated with pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bozhinova, S; Kirovakov, Zl; Porozhanova, K; Kostova, S; Bozhinov, P

    2012-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia is rear disease caused by destruction of pluripotent stem cells in bone marrow. Pregnancy is one of the main factor that lead to immunosuppression. During pregnancy aplastic anaemia could be life-threatening for both mother and child, because of the variety of complications like bleeding and infections. We introduce the first case of pregnant woman with aplastic anaemia in Bulgaria. The woman was diagnosed in 12-13 gestational week. All biometric characteristics of the foetus were normal. The patient was consulted with oncohaematologists, pediatricians, specialists of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and intensivists. Methylprednisolone, antibiotics, packed cells and platelet transfusions were initiated. However, the moment for interruption of the pregnancy was missed (first trimester). The woman developed a fever and vomited bloody material. Despite the optimal supportive treatment, the patient died. The pathoanatomy diagnose is Aplastic anaemia, induced by the pregnancy. From our experience with that case and other references from the literature we conclude that all pregnant woman with aplastic anaemia should interrupt their pregnancy during first trimester. In those patients who are diagnosed at later terms of pregnancy very supportive infusions and immunosuppressive therapy should be made, including antithymocyte globulin and/or cyclosporine. Women with no improvement from that therapy should achieve a bone-marrow transplantation.

  13. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  14. Pillar III--optimisation of anaemia tolerance.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jens; Gombotz, Hans

    2013-03-01

    In the case of acute bleeding, the use of the anaemia tolerance of a patient enables the physician to either avoid blood transfusions or delay them after bleeding has ceased. This concept is the cornerstone of the third pillar of modern patient blood management programmes. Its efficacy depends on the degree of utilisation of anaemia tolerance, which is not constant but depends on the compensatory capacity of the individual patient in a given situation. Fortunately, the specifications of anaemia tolerance can be influenced by the anaesthesiologist. This article presents the concept of anaemia tolerance and highlights the options for how anaemia tolerance can be optimised in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative periods.

  15. Anaemia in advanced chronic fasciolosis.

    PubMed

    Valero, M A; Gironès, N; García-Bodelón, M A; Periago, M V; Chico-Calero, I; Khoubbane, M; Fresno, M; Mas-Coma, S

    2008-10-01

    The association between fasciolosis-induced anaemia and related factors has been quantified in a rodent model. Haematological parameters were analysed in Wistar rats at 20 and 60 weeks post-infection (p.i.). Pigment stones and bile specimens were collected. Serum IgG1, IgG2a and IgE were determined in rat serum samples. Cytokine levels have been correlated with haematological parameters. The screening for gastrointestinal bleeding was carried out. Bacteriological bile cultures revealed viable bacteria in 53.8% of specimens at 60 weeks p.i. The results show that the type of anaemia in fasciolosis might be considered a biomarker of the chronicity period of the disease, changing from normocytic to macrocytic in the early chronic period (20 weeks p.i.) and to microcytic in the advanced chronic period (60 weeks p.i.). Likewise, changing from normochromic in the early chronic period to hypochromic in the advanced chronic period. Multivariate analysis suggested an association between anaemia and the following factors: fluke burden, eggs per gram of faeces, body area of parasite, presence of blood in faeces, IgG1 and eosinophil levels, and % of splenic weight. Of all variables analysed, the fluke burden is the one which presents the highest anaemia risk, even exceeding the variable presence of blood in faeces. The development of anaemia appears to be complex and may involve multiple mechanisms. However, to the mechanisms that until now explain Fascioliosis-related anaemia (compensatory increase in erythrocyte production and a continuous drain on iron stores resulting from the parasites' blood-sucking activities) the following causes ought to be added: haemolysis of red blood cells, the general effects of inflammation on erythropoiesis, concomitant parasitic and bacterial infections and pre-morbid nutritional abnormalities. Extrapolation to human fasciolosis is discussed. The results of the rodent model lead to the assumption that a high risk of anaemia in subjects with a

  16. [A neonate with anaemia of prematurity: zinc protoporphyrin identifies iron deficiency anaemia without iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    van der Feen, Diederik E; van Hillegersberg, Jacqueline L A M; Schippers, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common problem in premature infants and is generally easy to treat with iron supplementation. If the anaemia persists despite appropriate correction of deficiencies, more extensive evaluation is required. We describe a case of a premature male infant with a production-deficient anaemia without metabolic deficiencies, eventually identified as anaemia of prematurity. This type of anaemia is commonly diagnosed but its highly variable and complex aetiology and phenotype are often poorly understood. A probable explanation for the anaemia of prematurity in this case was a transient iron incorporation defect, identifiable by high levels of zinc protoporphyrin.

  17. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  18. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  19. Marketing your equine practice.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Robert P

    2009-12-01

    The take-home message in marketing your equine practice is simple: understand your position in the target market and the buying behavior of your current and prospective customers. Time well spent on analysis and evaluation of options can maximize customer value in the services and products you offer. This allows you to capture profit and to attain your personal and professional goals as an equine practitioner.

  20. [Reticulocytes in the diagnosis of anaemia].

    PubMed

    Heiligers-Duckers, Connie; Werner, Philo T; van Drunen, Marlea E P

    2013-01-01

    Reticulocytes are immature erythrocytes; the number of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood reflects erythropoietic activity. Two cases are described to illustrate the use of the reticulocyte count in the diagnostic workup of anaemia. The first patient was a 62-year-old woman presenting with fatigue. Laboratory evaluation showed severe macrocytic anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and the presence of schistocytes. A low reticulocyte count suggested decreased erythropoiesis underlying the anaemia; this led to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. The second patient, a 52-year-old woman, also presented with fatigue and macrocytic anaemia. A high reticulocyte count indicated increased erythrocyte degradation, and the patient was eventually diagnosed with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The role of reticulocytes in the differential diagnostic workup of anaemia was explored on the basis of these case descriptions. The test methodology, analytical performance, reference values and pitfalls were discussed, as well as the reticulocyte indices and their use in monitoring therapy.

  1. Equine learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2007-09-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for

  2. Variant congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia with ringed sideroblasts.

    PubMed

    Brien, W F; Mant, M J; Etches, W S

    1985-01-01

    A family is described with mild anaemia characterized by marked dyserythropoiesis and by prominent ringed sideroblasts. Inheritance is autosomal recessive. Other features include marked microcytosis, poikilocytosis, mild haemolysis, slightly increased haemoglobin A2, bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia and non-specific structural abnormalities of erythroid precursors on electron microscopy. This appears to be a previously unreported type of hereditary anaemia with both dyserythropoiesis and ringed sideroblasts. We propose the designation 'variant congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia with ringed sideroblasts'.

  3. Biological characterization of Nigerian chicken anaemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, D O; Olaleye, O D; Todd, D

    2010-12-01

    Chicken anaemia virus (CAV) DNA was extracted from thymus, liver and bone marrow samples obtained from broiler and pullet chicken flocks in southwestern Nigeria, which presented with clinical signs and lesions suggestive of both infectious bursal disease and chicken infectious anaemia. While CAV was successfully isolated in MDCC-MSB1 cells from four of the pooled tissue samples, the remaining two samples failed to grow in cells. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) characterization using four MAbs produced against the reference Cuxhaven-1 (Cux-1) CAV isolate showed that Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other and to the Cux-1 virus. Pathogenicity studies with the Cux-1 virus and one of the Nigerian isolates (NGR-1) revealed that NGR-1 was more pathogenic that the former. We conclude that although Nigerian CAV isolates are antigenically related to each other, they differ in terms of cell culture growth characteristics and probably pathogenicity. These findings further confirm that CAV exists and can no longer be ignored in poultry disease diagnosis in Nigeria. Cases hitherto diagnosed as IBD may actually be CIA or a co-infection of the two.

  4. Pathogenesis of Aerosolized Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    infected animals and humans [1-3]. The related alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) also...viruses [4] and experimental studies in animals have demonstrated that all three alphaviruses are infectious by the aerosol route and are considered a...associ- ated with EEEV infection are the most severe of any alphavirus , with an estimated mortality rate in humans of 30% for the North American strains

  5. Prepartum anaemia: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence, prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy in Western societies. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most prevalent deficiency disorder and the most frequent form of anaemia in pregnant women. Minor causes of anaemia are folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, haemoglobinopathy and haemolytic anaemia. Anaemia is defined as haemoglobin of <110 g/L in the first and third trimester and <105 g/L in the second trimester. The diagnosis relies on haemoglobin, a full blood count and plasma ferritin, which can be supported by plasma transferrin saturation and serum soluble transferrin receptor. Among fertile, non-pregnant women, approximately 40% have ferritin of anaemia in the third trimester ranges 14-52% in women taking placebo and 0-25% in women taking iron supplements, dependent on the doses of iron. In studies incorporating serum ferritin, the frequency of IDA in placebo-treated women ranges 12-17% and in iron-supplemented women 0-3%. Requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from 0.8 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester, on the average approximately 4.4 mg/day, and dietary measures are inadequate to reduce the frequency of prepartum IDA. However, IDA is efficiently prevented by oral iron supplements in doses of 30-40 mg ferrous iron taken between meals from early pregnancy to delivery. Treatment of IDA should aim at replenishing body iron deficits by oral and/or intravenous administration of iron. In women with slight to moderate IDA, i.e. haemoglobin of 90-105 g/L, treatment with oral ferrous iron of approximately 100 mg/day between meals is the therapeutic option in the first and second trimester; haemoglobin should be checked after 2 weeks and provided an increase of >or=10 g/L, oral iron therapy has proved effective and

  6. Growth differentiation factor 15 in anaemia of chronic disease, iron deficiency anaemia and mixed type anaemia.

    PubMed

    Theurl, Igor; Finkenstedt, Armin; Schroll, Andrea; Nairz, Manfred; Sonnweber, Thomas; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa; Theurl, Milan; Seifert, Markus; Wroblewski, Victor J; Murphy, Anthony T; Witcher, Derrick; Zoller, Heinz; Weiss, Günter

    2010-02-01

    Recently, the iron and erythropoiesis-controlled growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has been shown to inhibit the expression of hepcidin in beta-thalassaemia patients, thereby increasing iron absorption despite iron overload. To access the diagnostic and pathogenic impact of GDF15 in inflammatory anaemia the association of GDF15 expression with serum iron parameters and hepcidin was studied in patients suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) and ACD subjects with true iron deficiency (ACD/IDA). GDF15 was significantly increased in both ACD and ACD/IDA, but not in IDA subjects as compared to controls. In contrast, hepcidin levels were significantly lower in IDA and ACD/IDA subjects than in ACD patients. IDA and ACD/IDA, but not ACD, showed an association between GDF15 and soluble transferrin receptor, an indicator of iron requirement for erythropoiesis. However, GDF15 did not correlate to hepcidin in either patient group. While GDF15 levels were linked to the needs for erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis in IDA, the immunity-driven increase of GDF15 may not primarily affect iron homeostasis and hepcidin expression. This indicates that other ACD-related factors may overcome the regulatory effects of GDF15 on hepcidin expression during inflammation.

  7. Antiherpetic Drugs in Equine Medicine.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Lara K

    2017-04-01

    Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Other antiherpetic drugs are promising but require further investigation. Several topical drugs are also empirically used in the therapy of equine viral keratitis.

  8. Standing equine sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Barakzai, Safia Z; Dixon, Padraic M

    2014-04-01

    Trephination of the equine sinuses is a common surgical procedure in sedated standing horses. Standing sinus flap surgery has become increasingly popular in equine referral hospitals and offers several advantages over sinusotomy performed under general anesthesia, including reduced patient-associated risks and costs; less intraoperative hemorrhage, allowing better visualization of the operative site; and allows surgeons to take their time. Other minimally invasive surgical procedures include sinoscopic surgery, balloon sinuplasty, and transnasal laser sinonasal fenestration. Despite the procedure used, appropriate indications for surgery, good patient selection, and familiarity with regional anatomy and surgical techniques are imperative for good results.

  9. The anaemia of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Nicholas M; Anstey, Nicholas M; Buffet, Pierre A; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne R; Yeo, Tsin W; White, Nicholas J; Price, Ric N

    2012-04-27

    Plasmodium vivax threatens nearly half the world's population and is a significant impediment to achievement of the millennium development goals. It is an important, but incompletely understood, cause of anaemia. This review synthesizes current evidence on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment and consequences of vivax-associated anaemia. Young children are at high risk of clinically significant and potentially severe vivax-associated anaemia, particularly in countries where transmission is intense and relapses are frequent. Despite reaching lower densities than Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax causes similar absolute reduction in red blood cell mass because it results in proportionately greater removal of uninfected red blood cells. Severe vivax anaemia is associated with substantial indirect mortality and morbidity through impaired resilience to co-morbidities, obstetric complications and requirement for blood transfusion. Anaemia can be averted by early and effective anti-malarial treatment.

  10. Ferritin and iron studies in anaemia and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying Y; Uprichard, James

    2017-01-01

    Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red cells necessary to meet the body's physiological requirements is insufficient. Iron deficiency anaemia and the anaemia of chronic disease are the two most common causes of anaemia worldwide;(1) iron homeostasis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both diseases. An understanding of how iron studies can be used to distinguish between these diseases is therefore essential not only for diagnosis but also in guiding management. This review will primarily focus on iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disease; however, iron overload in anaemia will also be briefly discussed.

  11. Equine recurrent uveitis: Human and equine perspectives.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando; Stylianides, Amira; McGowan, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a spontaneous disease characterised by repeated episodes of intraocular inflammation. The epidemiology of ERU has not been fully elucidated, but the condition appears to be much more common in horses than is recurrent uveitis in humans, especially in certain breeds and geographical regions. Both humans and horses show a similarly altered immune response and a marked autoimmune response as the primary disease pathophysiology. However, an inciting cause is not always clear. Potential inciting factors in horses include microbial agents such as Leptospira spp. Microbial factors and genetic predisposition to the disease may provide clues as to why the horse appears so susceptible to this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the immunology and genetics of ERU, compare the disease in horses with autoimmune anterior uveitis in humans, and discuss potential reasons for the increased prevalence in the horse.

  12. Equine grass sickness.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S; Jago, R C; Hudson, N P H

    2014-09-01

    Equine grass sickness (EGS; equine dysautonomia) is a polyneuronopathy affecting both the central and the peripheral nervous systems of horses. As the name implies, EGS almost exclusively affects grazing horses, resulting in the development of a characteristic array of clinical signs, most of which can be attributed to neuronal degeneration in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems. Varying disease severities occur, largely determined by the extent of neuronal degeneration in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Extensive neuronal degeneration, as seen in acute and subacute forms of EGS, results in intestinal dysmotility, the severity of which is incompatible with survival. In comparison, a proportion of chronic forms of EGS, characterised by less severe neuronal degeneration, will survive. Despite extensive research efforts since EGS was first reported over 100 years ago, the precise aetiology remains elusive. This article reviews much of the scientific literature on EGS, covering epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and aetiological hypotheses.

  13. Progressive systemic sclerosis and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Sumithran, E.

    1976-01-01

    The development of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) in a patient with established autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is described. Points favouring an immunological aetiology for PSS are reviewed and discussed. PMID:1264941

  14. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  15. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old). Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2%) adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%); 129 (20.0%) and 37 (5.7%) had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7), rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9), female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3), educational level ≥ secondary level vs. < secondary level (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.6–1.6, P = 0.8) and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1) were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting. PMID:22537662

  16. Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, K

    2009-11-01

    Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is <8 g/dl. Intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight inevitably lead to poor growth trajectory in infancy, childhood and adolescence and contribute to low adult height. Parental height and maternal weight are determinants of intrauterine growth and birth weight. Thus maternal anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.

  17. Epidemiology of rare anaemias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Gulbis, Beatrice; Eleftheriou, Androulla; Angastiniotis, Michael; Ball, Sarah; Surrallés, Jordi; Castella, María; Heimpel, Hermann; Hill, Anita; Corrons, Joan-Lluis Vives

    2010-01-01

    Registry and epidemiological data of Rare Anaemias (RA) in Europe is in general still incomplete and/or partially documented. One important issue is the increasing prevalence of haemoglobin disorders (HD) due to migrations from high prevalence areas. The size of the problem, particularly for sickle cell disease (SCD), is already having an impact on health services in many European countries. The best known cause of rare anaemias associated with congenital haemolytic anaemia (CHA) in Europe is Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS) a red blood cell (RBC) membrane defect with a prevalence of 1 to 5 cases per 10.000 individuals. Some other causes of CHA are extremely rare and only few individual cases have been described worldwide (i.e. some RBC enzymopathies). Congenital defects of erythropoiesis are less frequent Diamond-Blackfan Anaemia (DBA) and Fanconi Anaemia (FA) exhibit a very low prevalence ranging from 4 to 7 per million live births. Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anaemia (CDA), a genetically heterogenous group, is still less frequent and exhibits a large variability of frequency depending on the European region: 0.1-3.0 cases per million births In addition many cases are known from a large autosomal dominant family in Sweden. Although incidence of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria (PNH) in Europe is still unknown, data collection from different sources has given quotes of 1 case per 100,000 individuals to 5 cases per million births.

  18. Potential vectors of equine arboviruses in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Archer, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern about the increasing risk of disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) in both human beings and animals. There are several mosquito-borne viral diseases that cause varying levels of morbidity and mortality in horses and that can have substantial welfare and economic ramifications. While none has been recorded in the UK, vector species for some of these viruses are present, suggesting that UK equines may be at risk. The authors undertook, therefore, the first study of mosquito species on equine premises in the UK. Mosquito magnet traps and red-box traps were used to sample adults, and larvae were collected from water sources such as tyres, buckets, ditches and pools. Several species that are known to be capable of transmitting important equine infectious arboviruses were trapped. The most abundant, with a maximum catch of 173 in 72 hours, was Ochlerotatus detritus, a competent vector of some flaviviruses; the highest densities were found near saltmarsh habitats. The most widespread species, recorded at >75 per cent of sites, was Culiseta annulata. This study demonstrates that potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses, including those known to be capable of infecting horses, are present and may be abundant on equine premises in the UK. PMID:27694545

  19. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  20. Update on equine allergies.

    PubMed

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed.

  1. [Severe aplastic anaemia in six children after non-A-E hepatitis without hepatic failure].

    PubMed

    Tschiedel, E; Gierenz, N; Wieland, R; Wulff, B; Ballauff, A

    2010-08-01

    Aplastic anaemia can coincide with non-A-E hepatitis. Treatment follows a standardised study protocol of the German Society of Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (GPOH). Patients receive immunosuppression and/or bone marrow transplantation. We present six cases of aplastic anaemia after non-A-E hepatitis with different courses. In four of these children illness first presented with acute gastroenteritis. Five out of six children fully recovered, two of these with immunosuppression alone, three after bone marrow transplantation. One patient died due to complications of the bone marrow transplantation. In two patients steroid therapy was carried out to treat the hepatitis. This did not have any effect on the course of their aplastic anemia. We emphasise this common combination of aplastic anemia following non-A-E hepatitis. This overview underlines the necessity of regular blood testing after non-A-E hepatitis. Often gastroenteritis seems to precede illness thus perhaps indicating an infectious trigger.

  2. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  3. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-02-09

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency.

  4. Advances in equine dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Baratt, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Although diagnostic images can be obtained with traditional rare-earth film-screen combinations, digital radiography (DR) has enhanced the ability of the general practitioner to obtain diagnostic radiographs of the equine head. With the widespread availability of DR in equine practices, the practitioner can more readily learn the correct positioning for the various projections of the equine head that are used to evaluate the dentition and sinuses. Digital systems provide rapid processing of the image, enabling the practitioner to correct positioning errors and retake the image without significant delay.

  5. Infectious Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... something that has bacteria on it. To diagnose infectious arthritis, your health care provider may do tests of your blood, urine, and joint fluid. Treatment includes medicines and sometimes surgery.

  6. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  7. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management.

  8. Severe megaloblastic anaemia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Vera; Dias, Alexandra; Brito, Maria João; Galvão, Isabel; Ferreira, Gonçalo Cordeiro

    2011-05-16

    Vitamin B(12) or cobalamin deficiency, a rare clinical entity in pediatric age, is found most exclusively in breastfed infants, whose mothers are strictly vegetarian non-supplemented or with pernicious anaemia. In this article, the authors describe a 10-month-old infant admitted for vomiting, refusal to eat and prostration. The infant was exclusively breastfed and difficulties in introduction of new foods were reported. Failure to thrive since 5 months of age was also noticed. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe normocytic normochromic anaemia and cobalamin deficit. A diagnosis of α-thalassemia trait was also made. Maternal investigation showed autoimmune pernicious anaemia. This case shows the severity of vitamin B(12) deficiency and the importance of adopting adequate and precocious measures in order to prevent potentially irreversible neurologic damage.

  9. Haemoglobin and anaemia in the SMART study

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, A; Lifson, AR; Touloumi, G; Neuhaus, J; Fox, Z; Palfreeman, A; Vjecha, M; Hodder, S; De Wit, S; Lundgren, JD; Phillips, AN

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from randomized trials on the development of anaemia after interruption of therapy is not well described. Methods 2248 patients from the SMART study were included. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate development of new (≤12 mg/dl for females, ≤14 mg/dl for males) or worsening (≤8 mg/dl if anaemic at randomization) anaemia and poisson regression analyses to explore the relationship between anaemia and the development of AIDS, death or non-AIDS events. Results 759 patients developed new or worsening anaemia; 420/1106 (38.0%) in the drug conservation (DC) arm and 339/1127 (30.1%) in the virologic suppression (VS) arm; p<0.0001. At 4 months after randomization, patients in the DC arm had a significantly increased risk of developing new or worsening anaemia (adjusted relative hazard 1.56, 95% CI 1.28–1.89). Currently anaemic patients had an increased incidence of AIDS (adjusted IRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.34–3.98), death (2.19; 95% CI 1.23–3.87) and non-AIDS events (2.98; 95% CI 2.01–4.40) compared to non-anaemic patients. Conclusions Patients who interrupted cART had a higher risk of new or worsening anaemia. Anaemic patients had a higher incidence of AIDS, non-AIDS defining events or deaths, possibly due to deteriorating health and subclinical disease. PMID:21555815

  10. [Malignant thymoma associated with severe aplastic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Escobosa Sánchez, O M; Herrero Hernández, A; Acha García, T

    2009-01-01

    Malignant thymoma is a very rare neoplasm in paediatric patients; it is usually associated with para-neoplastic syndromes, the most frequent is myasthenia gravis; some haematological abnormalities may also be present, such as pure red cell aplasia or aplastic anaemia. We report a 12-year-old boy suffering from a very large thymoma, treated with multiple chemotherapy, and who developed a severe aplastic anaemia after surgery. He had a poor response to immunosuppressive treatment and later developed massive pulmonary bleeding as a complication.

  11. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  12. Erythropoietin-dependent anaemia: a possible complication of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hadjadj, S; Torremocha, F; Fanelli, A; Brizard, A; Bauwens, M; Maréchaud, R

    2001-06-01

    We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus, complicated with proliferative retinopathy, autonomic neuropathy and microalbuminuria and moderate renal failure. A normochromic, normocytic are generative anaemia had been diagnosed for three years. Clinical and biological investigations for the aetiology of anaemia remained normal or negative. Anaemia was associated with a concentration of erythropoietin (EPO) in the normal range, but inappropriately low regarding anaemia. Treatment with recombinant EPO induced a rapid increase in haemoglobin level and improved the patient's quality of life. The role of diabetic neuropathy in the genesis of anaemia, in conjunction with a modest renal impairment is discussed.

  13. [Insufficient evidence supporting iron supplementation in anaemia during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2012-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives (KNOV) recently presented their practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'. The guideline identified available evidence on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of anaemia in pregnancy. Anaemia based on iron deficiency and subsequent treatment with iron supplementation are probably the most frequent aspects of care for pregnant women. However, there is surprisingly enough no evidence of the efficacy of iron supplementation treatment on relevant clinical outcomes in pregnant women with anaemia. We plead to make the next guideline a multidisciplinary one. Such a guideline may lead to a large pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy of iron supplementation treatment for patients with anaemia.

  14. Benefits and risks of iron therapy for chronic anaemias.

    PubMed

    Weiss, G; Gordeuk, V R

    2005-12-01

    Iron is used widely for the treatment of anaemias with iron-restricted erythropoiesis. This intervention can be both beneficial and detrimental depending on the type of the underlying process. While in iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), the most frequent anaemia in the world, iron is the therapy of choice, this intervention can be harmful in the anaemia of chronic disease or anaemia associated with renal failure, the most common anaemias in hospitalized adult patients in Western countries. Iron is able to negatively affect cell-mediated immune effector mechanisms directed against invading microorganisms and tumour cells while at the same time, as an essential nutrient, it can stimulate the proliferation of these unwanted cells. In addition, iron catalyses the formation of toxic radicals leading to tissue damage or the promotion of cardiovascular events. Thus, it is essential to correctly diagnose the precise cause of anaemia and to consider the benefits and hazards of targeted iron therapy.

  15. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  16. Fetal anaemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, F; Vega, M A; Gómez-Castillo, E; Ruiz-Balda, J A; Omeñaca, F

    1993-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency was diagnosed in an infant by umbilical vessel sampling at 30 weeks' gestation. Although three previous hydropic siblings had been stillborn or died in the neonatal period, this infant survived with transfusion dependent haemolytic anaemia. Prompt fetal diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency is feasible and allows better management of hydrops fetalis due to this disorder. PMID:8285758

  17. Iron incorporation and post-malaria anaemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron supplementation is employed to treat post-malarial anaemia in environments where iron deficiency is common. Malaria induces an intense inflammatory reaction that stalls reticulo-endothelial macrophagal iron recycling from haemolysed red blood cells and inhibits oral iron absorption, but the mag...

  18. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in a newborn infant.

    PubMed

    Motta, M; Cavazza, A; Migliori, C; Chirico, G

    2003-07-01

    The case is reported of an infant with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia of perinatal onset. Combined treatment with steroids and cyclosporin was necessary to improve haemolysis and reduce the high transfusion requirements. Treatment was discontinued at 13 months of age. The child was healthy at the follow up at 24 and 36 months of age.

  19. Autoimmune hemolytic anaemia in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mihir B; Nanjapp, Veena; Devaraj, H S; Sindhu, K S

    2013-07-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anaemia is a rare presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma though its association with Non- Hodgkin's lymphoma is well known. It is usually detected at the time of diagnosis when it accompanies Hodgkin's and rarely precedes it. It is a warm immune hemolytic anemia which is responsive to steroids and rituximab. We hereby report a case of advanced Hodgkin's disease who presented as AIHA.

  20. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply Fungi - primitive plants, like mushrooms or mildew Protozoa - one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  1. Recovery from post-operative anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wallis, J P; Wells, A W; Whitehead, S; Brewster, N

    2005-10-01

    Acceptance of lower transfusion thresholds and shorter post-operative stays results in patients leaving hospital after surgery with lower haemoglobin (Hb) than previously. We undertook a prospective observational study to assess the haematological response to post-operative anaemia and to determine the utility of quality of life (QoL) measures in assessing the impact of anaemia on such patients. Thirty patients undergoing unilateral hip arthroplasty had blood samples taken and QoL questionnaires administered pre-operatively and at 7, 28 and 56 days post-operatively. Increased erythropoiesis was evident at day 7 post-operatively. Approximately two-thirds of the post-operative Hb deficit was corrected by day 28. There was evidence of functional iron deficiency in more than one-quarter of patients at day 56. QoL scores used did not show any relationship with Hb in the post-operative period. Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) levels increased in proportion to the degree of post-operative anaemia. We concluded that substantial recovery of Hb occurs between day 7 and day 28 post-operatively. Complete recovery of Hb may be delayed beyond day 56 due to development of iron deficiency. Patients are at significant risk of developing post-operative iron deficiency depending on operative blood loss and pre-operative iron stores. Increased red cell 2,3DPG may offset the effect of anaemia on oxygen delivery. We found no evidence that anaemia produces a measurable effect on chosen QoL scores in the post-operative period.

  2. Multiagent Vaccines Vectored by Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Elicits Immune Responses to Marburg Virus and Protection Against Anthrax and Botulinum Neurotoxin in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    formulations of individual Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon- vectored vaccines against a bacterial disease, anthrax; a viral disease...here the results of using formulations of individual Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon-vectored vaccines against a bacterial disease...on days 0, 35, and 70 with the indicated vaccines. Ne b Infectious units were used to measure VRP and milliliters were used to measur c The

  3. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  4. Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infectious uveitis is one of the most common and visually devastating causes of uveitis in the US and worldwide. This review provides a summary of the identification, treatment, and complications associated with certain forms of viral, bacterial, fungal, helminthic, and parasitic uveitis. In particular, this article reviews the literature on identification and treatment of acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus, varicella virus, and cytomegalovirus. While no agreed-upon treatment has been identified, the characteristics of Ebola virus panuveitis is also reviewed. In addition, forms of parasitic infection such as Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis are summarized, as well as spirochetal uveitis. Syphilitic retinitis is reviewed given its increase in prevalence over the last decade. The importance of early identification and treatment of infectious uveitis is emphasized. Early identification can be achieved with a combination of maintaining a high suspicion, recognizing certain clinical features, utilizing multi-modal imaging, and obtaining specimens for molecular diagnostic testing. PMID:26618074

  5. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, C W; Fenner, W R

    1987-08-01

    The neurologic form of EHV-1 infection appears to be the result of central nervous system infarction caused by vasculitis, which is initiated in endothelial cells of small blood vessels. The etiologic agent is equine herpesvirus-1, subtype 1. There is some evidence to suggest that the neurologic form of the disease actually results from reactivation of a previous infection. Whether the vasculitis that causes the central nervous system injury is the direct result of the infection or an immune response to the infection has not been determined. The clinical signs are rapid in onset, nonprogressive, and many horses may improve. The diagnosis must often remain tentative, particularly in horses that recover, because there is no single reliable confirmatory test. The prognosis is generally good, although recovery may be slow and incomplete. Supportive therapy is essential, and administration of corticosteroids may be useful. There is no specific therapy for the virus or for the vasculitis. Currently no vaccine can be claimed to protect against the central nervous system form of the disease. Vaccination is recommended, however, to reduce the incidence of respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death on the farm. Repeated vaccination is necessary to maintain presumably protective antibody concentrations. Vaccination every 3 to 4 months may decrease the incidence of EHV-1 infection on the farm and therefore may indirectly prevent the occurrence of the neurologic form of the disease.

  6. Equine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Bauder, B; Thalhammer, J; Nowotny, N; Kolodziejek, J; Herout, N; Fürst, S; Weissenböck, H

    2001-04-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative disorder with fatal outcome in humans. It has also been described in some animal species; this is the first report of NCL in equines. Three horses showed developmental retardation, slow movements and loss of appetite at the age of six months. Neurological symptoms, as well as visual failure in one case, were noticed at the age of 1 year. Due to slowly progressing deterioration, euthanasia was indicated 1.5 years after onset of conspicuous behavior. At necropsy, slight flattening of the gyri and discoloring of the brain was noticed. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic, autofluorescent material in the perikarya of neurons throughout the brain and spinal cord. Identical material was found in neurons of retina, submucous and myenteric ganglia, as well as in glial cells. Immunohistochemistry, using antiserum against subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, showed positive signals in neurons and glial cells. Electron microscopical studies revealed fingerprint profiles mixed with rectilinear structures in markedly enlarged lysosomes of neurons and renal tubules, and rectilinear structures mixed with curvilinear bodies in macrophages and lymphocytes of lymph nodes. Thus, our study presents the first occurrence of lysosomal storage disease in horses, further characterized by immunohistochemical and electron microscopical investigations as NCL.

  7. A Review of Equine Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery in the human was first identified in mid 900's. The procedure as is more commonly practiced now was first reported in 1912. There have been many advances and new techniques developed in the past 100 years. Equine laparoscopy, was first reported in the 1970's, and similarly has undergone much transformation in the last 40 years. It is now considered the standard of care in many surgical techniques such as cryptorchidectomy, ovariectomy, nephrosplenic space ablation, standing abdominal exploratory, and many other reproductive surgeries. This manuscript describes the history of minimally invasive surgery, and highlights many of the techniques that are currently performed in equine surgery. Special attention is given to instrumentation, ligating techniques, and the surgical principles of equine minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23762585

  8. Equine corneal surgery and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Denis, Heidi M

    2004-08-01

    Corneal disease is common in equine ophthalmology and requires vigilant monitoring and appropriate therapy to optimize the outcome. Many equine corneal diseases, particularly those that progress rapidly, may benefit from surgical intervention. These include descemetoceles, deep corneal lacerations and ulcers, corneal perforation/iris prolapse, ulcerative keratitis, corneal stromal abscesses, and corneoscleral neoplasia. Indications for corneal transplantation include optical, tectonic, therapeutic, and cosmetic purposes. Corneal transplantation is most often implemented in equine patients for tectonic and therapeutic reasons when a cornea is compromised by corneal stromal abscess, iris prolapse, or neoplasia. This article provides an outline of when to consider surgical intervention for corneal disease, the procedures available and expected outcomes, and how appropriate early surgical intervention can dramatically improve the end result.

  9. Sideroblastic anaemia. A review of seven paediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Hamel, B C; Schretlen, E D

    1982-03-01

    Sideroblastic Anaemias are characterised by a) chronic hypochromic anemia, b) ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, c) an increase in total body iron, d) ineffective erythropoiesis and e) often abnormal concentrations of F.E.P. A classification of Sideroblastic Anaemia is given and the pathophysiology of Sideroblastic Anaemia is discussed. A series of seven paediatric cases with Sideroblastic Anaemia is presented and the results of studies of the iron, vitamin B6 and porphyrin metabolism are discussed. In two cases arguments for an ALA-synthetase deficiency are given. All five males were diagnosed as hereditary X-linked Sideroblastic Anaemia, one female as I.R.S.A. and the other female, who showed the features of the X-linked type, as congenital Sideroblastic Anaemia.

  10. Anaemia, iron deficiency and susceptibility to infections.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Femke A M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël

    2014-11-01

    Anaemia, iron deficiency and infections are three major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality throughout the world, although they predominantly occur in resource limited settings. As the three conditions may have the same underlying aetiologies, they often occur simultaneously and may interact. Being an essential component in erythropoiesis, iron is also essential for proper functioning of the host immune system as well as an essential nutrient for growth of various pathogens, including non-typhoid salmonella. This has resulted in a treatment dilemma in which iron is needed to treat the iron deficient anaemia and improve the immune system of the host (child), but the same treatment may also put the child at an increased, potentially fatal, infection risk.

  11. Pernicious anaemia and cancer risk in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Mellemkjaer, L.; Gridley, G.; Møller, H.; Hsing, A. W.; Linet, M. S.; Brinton, L. A.; Olsen, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    A cohort of 5072 patients with pernicious anaemia was identified in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register from 1977 to 1989 and, through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, the occurrence of cancer in the cohort was determined up to 1991. Observed numbers of cancer cases during 1-15 years of follow-up were compared with expected numbers based on national incidence rates. Besides the well-established increased risk for stomach cancer, the analysis also revealed a 2-fold increase in the relative risk for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx among pernicious anaemia patients in accordance with previous studies; previously reported elevated risks for other digestive tract cancers were not confirmed. There was a non-significantly increased risk for lymphatic and haematological malignancy but the risk tended to disappear after 5 years of follow-up, indicating a possible selection bias. Decreased risks for cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer were also seen. PMID:8611439

  12. An uncommon cause of anaemia: Sheehan's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melchardt, Thomas; Namberger, Konrad; Weiss, Lukas; Egle, Alexander; Faber, Viktoria; Greil, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Ischemic pituitary necrosis due to severe postpartum haemorrhage called Sheehan's syndrome is a rare cause of hypopituitarism in the western world, but much more common in developing countries. A 45-year-old female patient being a war refugee from Chechnya with severe anaemia and fatigue was diagnosed at our outpatient department with Sheehan's syndrome after severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy 15 years ago. Panhypopituitarism was adequately treated with substitution of hydrocortisone, thyroxine and transdermal oestrogen which resulted in haemoglobin increase to nearly normal levels and symptoms improved immediately. Severe anaemia caused by panhypopituitarism shows the importance of the hormonal system for erythropoiesis. Clinical and basic scientific evidence indicates thyroidal hormones to be the main cause.

  13. The pattern for common anaemia among Saudi children.

    PubMed

    el-Hazmi, M A; Warsy, A S

    1999-08-01

    Anaemia is of frequent occurrence in children in different parts of the world and poses a significant health problem. A few isolated reports indicate that anaemia occurs at a high prevalence rate in Saudi Arabia though the actual prevalence in several regions is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different types of anaemias in Saudi children in different areas of the country. Blood samples were collected from 5381 children less than 14 years of age, and haematological analysis and red cell indices were determined. The results of haematological parameters were used to group the children as anaemic (Hb < 11.2 g/dl) and non-anaemic (Hb > 11.2 g/dl) and the red cell indices were used to classify the anaemia as hypochromic-microcytic, normochromic-normocytic, and normochromic-macrocytic. The overall prevalence of anaemia in Saudi children was 24.8 per cent. The prevalence was highest in the children from the Eastern province (41.3 per cent) and lowest in the central province (16.5 per cent). Within each province differences were obvious in the prevalence of anaemias in the different areas. The majority of the anaemia in the eastern and south-western provinces was hypochromic-microcytic, while in the north-western and central provinces normochromic-normocytic anaemia occurred most frequently. Macrocytic anaemia was not encountered in any of the screened areas of the central province and many areas of the eastern province. However, in north-western and south-western provinces it occurred at a frequency of 0.15-3.4 per cent. The data show that anaemia is a frequent problem in Saudi children living in different parts of Saudi Arabia and emphasizes the need for nutritional and genetic assessment to determine the nutritional contributions to anaemias and hence the correction of nutritional anaemias by proper dietary intervention.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  15. National Equine Forum: Taking up the reins on equine issues.

    PubMed

    2015-04-04

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum, where one of the main themes was the horse industry and government. The forum, held in London on March 5, was attended by more than 200 people with a connection to the equestrian industry. Lord de Mauley, parliamentary undersecretary of state for natural environment and science at Defra, set the course of the proceedings.

  16. Diagnosis of anaemia: old things rearranged.

    PubMed

    Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2012-11-01

    Anaemia is one of the most leading causes of morbidity and mortality, as declared by the World Health Organisation. This syndrome is characterised by low haemoglobin levels and nonspecific clinical symptoms such as weakness, fatigue and dyspnoea. The symptoms are unspecific as the underlying causes are heterogeneous. Thus, good knowledge of the useful biomarkers and their correct assignment is needed to allow rapid and targeted diagnosis.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of gastrin: studies in pernicious anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Hansky, J.; Korman, M. G.; Soveny, C.; John, D. J. B. St

    1971-01-01

    Serum gastrin levels in patients with pernicious anaemia were measured by immunoassay in the fasting state, following gastric perfusion with 0·9% saline, 0·1N hydrochloric acid, and solutions of increasing acidity, and after the intravenous injection or infusion of secretin. The fasting serum gastrin level was measured in 21 patients with pernicious anaemia and found to be elevated at 1,036 ± 215 pg per ml. Gastric perfusion with saline (pH 4·7) caused a mean fall in serum gastrin of 30% in four patients; perfusion with hydrochloric acid caused a further slight fall. Perfusion with solutions of increasing acidity resulted in a sharp fall in serum gastrin levels when the acidity was changed from pH 6 to pH 4. A single intravenous injection of secretin produced a mean maximal fall of 44% in the serum gastrin level in four patients, whereas continuous infusion of secretin produced a fall of 35% in four other patients. These studies suggest that the gastrin-secreting cells of the stomach are not affected by the atrophic process in pernicious anaemia and remain subject to the regulating control of acid and secretin. PMID:5548565

  18. Management of anaemia and other treatment complications.

    PubMed

    Hézode, Christophe

    2013-09-30

    Antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus infection has dramatically changed with the advent of triple therapy including telaprevir or boceprevir, which is associated with a new spectrum of adverse events. These may lead to dosage reduction and early discontinuation of therapy. An increase in the frequency and severity of anaemia was reported in clinical trials for both drugs, and skin disorders including rash and pruritus occurred more frequently with the telaprevir-based regimen. The first-line management of anaemia is ribavirin dose reductions. In cirrhotic patients, aggressive ribavirin dosage reductions, erythropoietin alpha and blood transfusions are effective in managing anaemia. Several deaths and cases of severe infections and hepatic decompensation were reported in cirrhotics treated in real-life setting. Patients with platelet count ≤ 100,000/mm(3) and serum albumin < 35 g/L should not be treated with triple therapy as it is related to a high risk of developing severe complications. The management of rashes, if well planned, does not require telaprevir discontinuation. However, approximately 5% of rashes were severe and a few cases were classified as severe cutaneous adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation. Successful treatment can be enhanced by a strong patient support network including a multidisciplinary team.

  19. Prevalence of Anaemia among Postnatal Mothers in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwan, Darshan; Kumar, Ashwini; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum is the most neglected period in reproductive cycle of woman. Prevalence of anaemia in developing countries ranges from 50-95%. Aim To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among postnatal mothers. Setting and design A community based cross-sectional study among recently delivered mothers residing in field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. Materials and Methods The study sample included 401 respondents who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation from all rural health centres. Data was collected by personal interviews followed by haemoglobin estimation by indirect cyanomethaemoglobin method. Results The prevalence of postnatal anaemia was 26.5% (Anaemia = Hb<12gm/dl). There were no cases of severe anaemia. Postnatal anaemia was predominantly seen in mothers of age < 20 years and half of the mothers with inter-pregnancy intervals less than two years were found to be anaemic. Illiteracy was identified as a significant variable (OR=11.23, 95% CI = 1.90-65.08) for postpartum anaemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia was significantly lower in the present study; however sustained efforts have to be made to further lower the prevalence of postnatal anaemia in order to promote the health and well-being of women. PMID:26894096

  20. The anaemia of cancer: death by a thousand cuts.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Jerry L

    2005-07-01

    Cancer has a negative systemic impact on its host in addition to its local or metastatic effects, and no cancer complication is more ubiquitous than anaemia, a condition for which there is now a specific remedy, the recombinant growth factor erythropoietin. This is not a trivial therapeutic consideration, because cancer-associated anaemia has an adverse influence on survival regardless of tumour type. However, the pharmacological correction of anaemia with recombinant erythropoietin could promote tumour growth, whereas the use of tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand as antitumour agents could exacerbate anaemia, thereby perpetuating tissue hypoxia and tumour progression.

  1. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  2. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  3. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance.

  4. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy in Enugu, south east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekejindu, I M; Udigwe, G O; Chijioke, I R C

    2006-03-01

    Malaria and anaemia contribute tremendously to maternal and prenatal morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to document the magnitude of the problem in pregnancy with a view to identifying areas of intervention. The subjects were 108 consecutive pregnant women aged 18 to 44 years recruited from the antenatal clinics. 23 (21.3%) had malaria, 35 (32.4%) had anaemia while 20(18.5%) had both malaria and anaemia. The highest incidence of malaria occurred in the second trimester, while anaemia was most prevalent in the third trimester (62.86%) and among primigravidae (37.14%). All the cases of malaria were due to plasmodium falciparum. Six out of the 20 women with both anemia and malaria were admitted and treated. Two low birth weight babies were delivered among the malaria and anaemia group. The incidence rates of malaria and anaemia were 215 and 327 per 1000 pregnant women respectively while the incidence rate of anaemia due to malaria was 571 per 1000 infected pregnant women. There is a need for a more effective intervention to reduce the incidence of both malaria and anaemia in pregnancy.

  5. Using clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in African children.

    PubMed Central

    Luby, S. P.; Kazembe, P. N.; Redd, S. C.; Ziba, C.; Nwanyanwu, O. C.; Hightower, A. W.; Franco, C.; Chitsulo, L.; Wirima, J. J.; Olivar, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Anaemia is a serious and common problem among young children in sub-Saharan Africa. As a first step towards developing guidelines for its recognition and treatment, we conducted a study to evaluate the ability of health workers to use clinical findings to identify children with anaemia. Health care workers examined a total of 1104 children under 5 years of age at two hospital-based outpatient clinics in rural Malawi. Blood samples were taken to determine haemoglobin concentrations. Pallor of the conjunctiva, tongue, palm or nail beds was 66% sensitive and 68% specific in distinguishing children with moderate a anaemia (haemoglobin concentration, 5-8 g/dl) and 93% sensitive and 57% specific in distinguishing those with severe anaemia (haemoglobin concentration, < 5 g/dl). Even without laboratory support, which is often unavailable in rural Africa, clinical findings can identify the majority of children with anaemia. PMID:7554019

  6. [Asthenia or anaemia. What is the diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Shea, A L

    2012-04-01

    Giardiasis is one of the most frequent parasitic infections in the world that must be considered in every patient with persistent diarrhoea or digestive tract and/or malabsorption symptoms after a foreign trip or in the immigrant population, although its presentation is not always the typical. A 25 year old woman from Equatorial Guinea was seen at the clinic due to several months of asthenia. The Laboratory analyses showed normocytic and normochromic anaemia and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Throughout the presentation of the case report the differential diagnoses of asthenia, normocytic and normochromic anemia and high ESR will be discussed until the final diagnosis of giardiasis was made.

  7. Anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis: can we afford to ignore it?

    PubMed

    Bloxham, E; Vagadia, V; Scott, K; Francis, G; Saravanan, V; Heycock, C; Rynne, M; Hamilton, J; Kelly, C A

    2011-09-01

    INTRODUCTION Anaemia is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinicians may focus on rheumatological issues and assume anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). This study challenged this assumption and investigated the causes of anaemia in a large cohort of RA patients to assess its implications. METHODS The hospital where the study was conducted monitors regular full blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) monthly in all RA patients on disease modifying drugs to assess efficacy and safety. A computerised system identifies and records abnormal results. The database for 2009 was interrogated to find all patients with two consecutive haemoglobin values <11 g/dl. Using a proforma, patients were defined as having iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), ACD, macrocytic anaemia (MCA) or another cause. All results of further tests investigating the anaemia were recorded. RESULTS Among 2000 RA patients on the system, 199 (10%) were identified as having anaemia over a year. Of these, 90 had IDA, 78 had ACD, 25 had MCA, and 6 had postoperative anaemia. Among 90 patients with IDA, investigations were performed in 53, with 23 normal. An explanation for IDA was found in 30: gastrointestinal bleeding in 25, gynaecological blood loss in 3, and urinary bleeding in 2. Among 78 patients with ACD, response to intensification of RA treatment occurred in 45, but erythropoietin therapy was required in 9. Within the 25 patients with MCA, 12 had unrecognised vitamin B(12) deficiency, 4 drug induced changes, 3 myeloid malignancy, 2 hypothyroidism, and 2 alcoholism. CONCLUSIONS Anaemia in RA is common, multifactorial, and potentially both serious and correctable. Established malignancy was present in 10 patients and premalignancy in a further 10 (10% of total). Treatable causes were commonly identified. Clinicians need to investigate the nature and cause of persistent anaemia, and must not assume it to be simply ACD without evidence.

  8. Prevalence of anaemia in older persons: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gaskell, Helen; Derry, Sheena; Andrew Moore, R; McQuay, Henry J

    2008-01-01

    Background Ageing populations will impact on healthcare provision, especially since extra years are not necessarily spent in good health. It is important to identify and understand the significance of common medical problems in older people. Anaemia may be one such problem. We report on the prevalence of anaemia in cohorts of elderly people in the general population. The presence of anaemia is associated with a worse prognosis for both morbidity and mortality. Methods Electronic searching and reference lists of published reports were used to identify studies that reported on prevalence of anaemia in cohorts of at least 100 individuals predominantly aged 65 years and over living in developed countries, together with criteria used to define anaemia. Studies of anaemia prevalence in specific disease groups or published before 1980 were excluded. Prevalence data for the entire cohort, for men and women separately and for different age bands were extracted. Results Forty-five studies contributed data. Thirty-four studies (n = 85,409) used WHO criteria to define anaemia. The weighted mean prevalence was 17% (3–50%) overall, and 12% (3–25%) in studies based in the community (27, n = 69,975), 47% (31–50%) in nursing homes (3, n = 1481), and 40% (40–72%) in hospital admissions (4, n = 13,953). Anaemia prevalence increased with age, was slightly higher in men than women, and was higher in black people than white. Most individuals classified as anaemic using WHO criteria were only mildly anaemic. Conclusion Anaemia, as defined by WHO criteria, is common in older people living in the community and particularly common in nursing home residents and hospital admissions. Predicted demographic changes underline the need to understand more about anaemia in older people. PMID:18194534

  9. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients: Use of the reticulocyte haemoglobin content to differentiate iron deficiency anaemia from anaemia of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Buldeo, Suvarna; Mahlangu, Johnny Ndoni

    2015-11-20

    The diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in hospital patients with chronic infections and inflammation presents a challenge. Recently laboratory tests such as the reticulocyte haemoglobin content, which are independent of infection and inflammation, have become available for routine diagnostic use.

  10. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-07

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  11. Acquired hypochromic and microcytic sideroblastic anaemia responsive to pyridoxine with low value of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin: a possible subgroup of idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anaemia (IASA).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Sawada, H; Sawai, H; Toi-Matsuda, T; Tashima, M; Okuma, M; Watanabe, S; Ohmori, S; Kondo, M

    1995-05-01

    Patients with idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anaemia (IASA) usually show macrocytic or normocytic anaemia and increased free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP). The mean cell haemoglobin concentration is normal or slightly low. Here we report a pyridoxine-responsive IASA patient with microcytic and hypochromic anaemia and low FEL level; these features are usually seen in cases of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia. Microcytosis increased during therapy. There may be a subgroup of IASA with microcytic and hypochromic anaemia, low normal FEP and some response to pyridoxine like hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

  12. Antibodies to actin in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), autoreactive antibodies directed against red blood cells are up-regulated, leading to erythrocyte death. Mycoplasma suis infections in pigs induce AIHA of both the warm and cold types. The aim of this study was to identify the target autoantigens of warm autoreactive IgG antibodies. Sera from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs were screened for autoreactivity. Results Actin-reactive antibodies were found in the sera of 95% of all animals tested. The reactivity was species-specific, i.e. reactivity with porcine actin was significantly higher than with rabbit actin. Sera of animals previously immunised with the M. suis adhesion protein MSG1 showed reactivity with actin prior to infection with M. suis indicating that molecular mimicry is involved in the specific autoreactive mechanism. A potentially cross-reactive epitope was detected. Conclusions This is the first report of autoreactive anti-actin antibodies involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. PMID:20353574

  13. Haem arginate treatment for hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Volin, L

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown that haem arginate treatment increases blood cell counts, improves the sideroblast status of the bone marrow and normalises decreased activities of haem synthesising enzymes in some patients with acquired sideroblastic anaemia, or with other types of myelodysplastic syndromes. 4 patients with hereditary sideroblastic anaemia (HSA), belonging to two families, were therefore treated with haem arginate infusions, 3 mg/kg, on 4 consecutive days, and thereafter weekly for 10 wk. No effect was observed on the mildly anaemic haemoglobin levels or on the red cell counts. However, the initially low or low-normal myeloid to erythroid ratio in the marrow increased in all patients. A consistent decrease in the percentage of ring sideroblasts and other abnormal sideroblasts was seen in 1 patient (Family A), and a temporary decrease of abnormal sideroblasts took place during the most intensive treatment period in 2 other patients (Family B). Two of three initially abnormal haem synthesising enzyme activities became normal in Family A, whereas no clearly consistent effects on the haem synthesising enzymes were observed in Family B. The present study shows that haem arginate infusions can normalise the activities of haem synthesising enzymes in some patients with HSA. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of haem infusions on the iron balance of these patients.

  14. Globin chain synthesis ratios in sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Peters, R E; May, A; Jacobs, A

    1983-02-01

    Globin synthesis ratios were measured on reticulocytes from nine patients with primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia (SA), four patients with hereditary or congenital SA, two patients with secondary acquired SA and three patients with iron deficiency (ID). Ten of the samples from patients with SA and all the samples from patients with ID had normal ratios. Samples from three patients had significantly abnormal ratios, one from a patient with SA and acquired Hb H disease (alpha/beta 0 X 26), one from a patient with secondary acquired SA (alpha/beta 0 X 88), and one from a patient who went on to develop acute myeloblastic leukaemia (alpha/beta 1 X 36). Globin synthesis was stimulated by 100 microM haem similarly in normal, SA and ID reticulocytes. Any limitation of globin synthesis in SA and ID is therefore not easily reversible by adding haem. Inhibition of haem synthesis in nonsideroblastic reticulocytes using 4 mM isonicotinic acid hydrazide for 1 h incubation affected neither total globin synthesis nor the alpha/beta ratio. These results contradict the view that decreased haem synthesis decreases globin chain synthesis and decreases the alpha/beta globin chain synthesis ratios in human reticulocytes. Previously reported findings that haem could reverse globin chain synthesis inhibition in SA were good evidence for a primary deficiency of haem synthesis in the erythroblasts of these patients. Our inability to substantiate these findings emphasizes the need for a re-evaluation of the aetiology of sideroblastic anaemia.

  15. [Maternal anaemia: effect on the newborn].

    PubMed

    Toure-Fall, A O; Gadji, M; Diop, S; Dieye, T; Thiam, D; Diakhate, L

    2004-01-01

    Pregnancy increases considerably iron needs in mother and her foetus. The purpose of our study is to measure the effect of maternal anaemia on the foetus and the effect of iron supplementation on the maternal and foetal reserves. Therefore, we conducted a three-month cross sectional study at the gynaecological and obstetrics clinics of Aristide Le Dantec Hospital. Ninety-five women aged 16 to 43 years old and having an haemoglobin rate < 11 g/dl were recruited. Most of them were primipares. Among them 69 had a low ferritinemia (< 50 ng/ml), 36, a ferritinemia collapsed (< 30 ng/ml) and 13 virtually non-existent reserves (< 12 ng/ml). All newborns were born in terms with an apgar score >/= in 93 of them. Among them 24 had anemia (rate of haemoglobin < 14 g/dl) and 54.7% a low ferritinemia. There is no relationship between the maternal and foetal rates of haemoglobin; 74% of newborn had a normal rate of haemoglobin. Among 36 women with low ferritinemia only two gave birth to a newborn without iron reserves. In our study, among 68 women who received iron regularly, 41 had normal reserves and 43 gave birth to a newborn with high ferritinemia. There is significant difference between the women having received iron during their pregnancy and those not supplemented as regards the effect on newborn (p = 0.00001). The prevention of iron deficiency and anaemia can be done by the iron systematic and premat supplementation.

  16. Anaemia of Chronic Disease: An In-Depth Review.

    PubMed

    Madu, Anazoeze Jude; Ughasoro, Maduka Donatus

    2017-01-01

    Anaemia is the most common haematological disorder affecting humanity and is usually observed in chronic disease states such as non-specific anaemia, which may cause diagnostic difficulties. In chronically ill patients with anaemia, this has a negative impact on quality of life as well as survival. This paper aims at reviewing the pathogenesis of this form of anaemia with a view to suggesting future targets for therapeutic intervention. The ability to diagnose this disorder depends on the ability of the physician to correlate the possible clinical pathways of the underlying disease with the patients' ferrokinetic state. It is important to rule out iron deficiency and other causes of anaemia as misdiagnosis will in most cases lead to refractoriness to standard therapy. The cytokines and acute-phase proteins play important roles in the pathogenesis of anaemia of chronic disease. Alterations in the metabolism of iron via the molecule hepcidin and ferritin are largely responsible for the consequent anaemia. Concomitant iron deficiency might be present and could affect the diagnosis and therapeutic protocol. Treatment options involve the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, blood transfusion, and iron supplementation, in addition to treating the underlying disease.

  17. The Pathophysiologic Basis of Anaemia in Patients with Malignant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Umma A; Yusuf, Aminu A; Ahmed, Sagir G

    2016-09-01

    Cancer patients frequently present with anaemia that may result from the direct or indirect effects of the tumor or its treatment. Anaemia is an independent adverse prognostic factor that exerts negative influence on quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Anaemia in malignant disorders often arises from an interplay of multiple aetiological and pathophysiologic mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms will help the oncologist identify and treat specific causes of the anaemia thereby minimizing the use of blood transfusion, which is associated with many adverse effects. This paper reviewed the various aetiological and pathophysiologic mechanisms of anaemia in cancer patients including direct and indirect tumour effects that lead to reduced red cell production or increased red cell destruction via a myriad of mechanisms ranging from marrow infiltration and cancer-associated acute myelonecrosis to chronic inflammation, blood loss, iron, folate, vitamin B12 and other nutrients deficiencies, malignancy related renal injury, pure red cell aplasia, hypersplenism, haemophagocytic syndrome, red cell autoantibody production, non-immune red cell fragmentation and cytotoxic therapy-induced erythroid cell apoptosis and eryptosis. Hence anaemia in cancer patients is attributable to a wide spectrum of aetiological factors with multiple and sometimes overlapping pathophysiologic mechanisms. It is therefore necessary for the oncologists to thoroughly investigate all cases of anaemia with the aim of identifying the actual causative factors in order to offer more sustainable cause-specific treatment modalities that will minimize the use of blood transfusion with its attendant adverse effects.

  18. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  19. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  20. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  1. [Coexistence of Addison-Biermer's anaemia with endocrine glands' dysfunctions].

    PubMed

    Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Malgorzata; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna; Rózycka, Beata; Dereń, Izabela

    2004-11-01

    Addison-Biermer's anaemia is an autoimmune disease. It may coexist with other auto-aggressive diseases, precede them or join the other existing autoimmune diseases. It most often accompanies the Hashimoto disease but also may coexist polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGA). Three types of PGA are distinguished: PGA1--Blizzard's Syndrome, PGA2--Schmidt's Syndrome, and PGA3. The latter, unlike the remaining ones, is characterized by normal function of adrenal glands. Addison-Biermer's anaemia occurrence may be often difficult to diagnose as coexisting illnesses might ouflage its clinical symptoms. The aim of this paper was to analyse patients with different types of PGA with coexisting Addison-Biermer's anaemia. Group of 24 individuals was analysed: 2 women with PGA1, 10 patients with PGA2, 10 patients with PGA3. In 2 remaining ones PGA was not confirmed. Addison-Biermer's anaemia occurred in 7 patients (2 with PGA2 and 5 with PGA3 syndrome). Decreased concentration of vitamin B12 was diagnosed in 3 individuals among 24 examined patients (1 with type 3 and 2 with type 2), as well in 2 patients with unconfirmed PGA. Addison-Biermer's anaemia was not observed in patients with PGA1. We observed that megaloblastic anaemia occurred characteristic schedule depending on appearance of autoimmune diseases: in PGA2--many years after other immunopathies were found, in PGA3--as first auto-aggressive disease. Our analysis suggests the necessity of detailed check-ups on patients with Addison-Biermer's anaemia, as with time they may develop other diseases, especially hypothyroidism and/or PGA failure. On the contrary, in individuals with thyroid gland diseases and PGA syndromes further checkups should be megaloblastic anaemia-sensitive. In both cases it is important to consider substitutive treatment. The possibility of family coexisting both pernicious anaemia and autoimmune endocrinopathies needs diagnostics of members of the patient's family.

  2. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  3. Recurrent aphthous ulcers in Fanconi's anaemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Otan, Feyza; Açikgöz, Gokhan; Sakallioglu, Umur; Ozkan, Burcu

    2004-05-01

    Fanconi's anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is clinically characterized by aplastic anaemia, congenital malformations of the renal, cardiac, skeletal and skin structures, and an increased predisposition to malignancies. Patients with FA often present with bleeding and infection, which are symptoms related to thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. There are few reports of the oral manifestations of FA. We describe oral aphthous ulcerations in two siblings with FA. There was a rapid improvement and healing of ulcers after blood transfusions and increased haemoglobin levels. This may support the role of severe anaemia in oral ulcerations.

  4. Identifying predictors of childhood anaemia in north-east India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanku; Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR = 2.035; p = 0.003) and moderate (OR = 1.23; p = 0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR = 2.971; p = 0.000), (OR = 1.195; p = 0.010), and (OR = 1.201; p = 0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR = 1.406; p = 0.001) and mild (OR = 1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well.

  5. Assessment of anaemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bari, M A; Sutradhar, S R; Sarker, C N; Ahmed, S; Miah, A H; Alam, M K; Hasan, M J; Tariquzzaman, M; Shamsi, S

    2013-04-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh from December 2009 to November 2010 to find out the association of iron deficiency, in anaemia with rheumatoid arthritis and to find a sensitive and less invasive marker to differentiate iron deficiency anaemia from the anaemia of chronic disease. A total of 45 patients of rheumatoid arthritis were provisionally included in the study. Of them, 12 patients were excluded as they did not allow for aspirating the bone marrow, leaving 33 patients to complete the study. The mean age of the patients was 42.6 years (22-66 years) with female to male ratio being roughly 3:1. Majority (97%) of the patients presented weakness followed by 78.8% dizziness, 54.5% palpitation, 24.2% pallor, 12.1% breathlessness, another 12.1% smooth tongue and 6.1% nail change. About 79% of the patients were positive for RA test and nearly 70% of patient had moderate anaemia. The mean serum ferritin was significantly reduced in patients with hypochromic with or without microcytic anaemia than that with normocytic normochromic anaemia (p<0.001). While total iron binding capacity was found to be significantly increased in patients with iron deficiency anaemia than that in patients with anaemia of chronic disease (p<0.021). The serum iron level was considerably reduced in the former group than that in the later group (p<0.066). Bone marrow iron grading revealed 48.5% of the patients with iron depleted and 51.5% with iron repleted. Serum ferritin level of patients with iron depleted bone marrow was significantly decreased than that in patients with iron repleted bone marrow (p<0.001). Serum iron level of the former group was also reduced than that of the later group (p<0.133). Total iron binding capacity was significantly raised in patients with iron depleted group than that in patients with iron repleted group (p<0.001). The study finds that anaemia of chronic disease and

  6. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia: a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vivian; Calado, Rita; Palaré, Maria João; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela

    2013-02-13

    A 13-year-old boy presented with spontaneous skin and mucosal bleeds 3 weeks after acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology. Laboratory analyses revealed pancytopenia and bone marrow biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of aplastic anaemia. Other causes of congenital and acquired aplastic anaemia were excluded. He was diagnosed with hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia. He developed a critical clinical condition, becoming totally dependent on erythrocyte and platelet transfusions, and severe neutropenia, which led to invasive bacterial infection. He died due to sepsis with multiple organ failure 3 months after admission.

  7. [Severe macrocytic anaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism in a vegan].

    PubMed

    Førland, Elizabeth Siren Bjerga; Lindberg, Mats Jacob Hermansson

    2015-08-10

    Nutritional deficiency anaemia in vegans is common and usually due to lack of vitamin B12, as this vitamin is found almost exclusively in animal-based food products. In this case report we present a 39-year-old male vegan with severe macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency as well as secondary hyperparathyroidism due to severe vitamin D deficiency. We want to emphasize the importance of a detailed nutritional history for patients with anaemia, and the need for vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements for people who comply with a vegan diet.

  8. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control.

  9. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface; Verhoeff, Francine; le Cessie, Saskia; Brabin, John

    2009-06-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (<2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin < 12.5 g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p = 0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.

  10. Detection of peginesatide in equine serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ines; Thomas, Andreas; Wingender, Anke; Machnik, Marc; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and its recombinant analogues are suspected to be illicitly administered to horses for performance enhancing purposes and, consequently, prohibited in equine sports. Recently, a new erythropoiesis-stimulating agent, peginesatide (Omontys, formerly referred to as Hematide), belonging to the upcoming class of EPO-mimetic peptides, received approval for the treatment of anaemia in humans with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. As the pegylated dimeric peptide of approximately 45 kDa without sequence homology to EPO is not detectable by conventional EPO detection assays, specific methods are bound to be established for horse sports drug testing. Thus, by fortifying equine serum with peginesatide, an approach consisting of a proteolytic digestion with subtilisin after protein precipitation was developed, eventually targeting a proteotypic and xenobiotic pentapeptide which is easily accessible to liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The method was validated for qualitative purposes and demonstrated to be specific, precise (relative standard deviations below 14%), sensitive (limit of detection 10 ng mL(-1)) and linear. Being simple, cost-effective and readily transferable to other doping control laboratories, a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of therapeutic concentrations of peginesatide in equine serum is, in terms of preventive doping research, applicable to routine analysis shortly after approval of the drug.

  11. Autoimmune mechanisms in pernicious anaemia & thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Osborne, David; Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata

    2015-09-01

    Pernicious anaemia (PA) and some types of thyroid disease result from autoimmune processes. The autoimmune mechanisms in these conditions have not been fully elucidated. This review discusses the autoimmune mechanisms involved in PA and how these affect diagnosis and disease progression. In addition to gastric antibodies, antibodies to the vitamin B12 binding protein transcobalamin which can result in high serum B12 levels are also addressed with regard to how they affect clinical practice. The role of autoimmune susceptibility is investigated by comparing PA to one of its most common comorbidities, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Thyroid disease (although not exclusively AITD) and B12 deficiency are both also implicated in the pathology of hyperhomocysteinemia, an elevated homocysteine in plasma. Since hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular occlusive disease, this review also addresses how thyroid disease in particular leads to changes in homocysteine levels.

  12. The G cells in pernicious anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Julia M.; Coulling, I.; Doe, W.; Pearse, A. G. E.

    1971-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence technique, using the globulin fraction of rabbit antihuman gastrin serum, was applied to formalin-fixed material obtained by suction biopsy from the fundic mucosa of nine cases of pernicious anaemia. Cytochemical tests for endocrine polypeptide cells of the APUD series, in which the G cell is included, were carried out in parallel with immunofluorescence and with ultrastructural observations. G cells were present, in large numbers, in five of the nine cases studied. In the remaining four cases the predominantly intestinalized glands contained only enterochromaffin in cells. Because of their low gastrin content (immunofluorescence), low secretion granule content (cytochemistry), and the associated ultrastructural findings, it is suggested that the G cells of the fundic mucosa are in a state of high synthetic and high secretory activity. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4930156

  13. [Familial pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anaemia. One case (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Garbarz, M; Bernard, J F; Boivin, P

    1980-11-22

    In a 24-year old man presenting with hypochromic microcytic anaemia, low reticulocyte count, increased serum iron and bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia with numerous ringed sideroblasts, the diagnosis of sideroblastic anaemia was confirmed by radioisotope study and bone marrow electron microscopy. The hereditary nature of the disease was demonstrated by the presence of microcytosis and increased serum iron in the mother and two sisters of the patient. One of the two sisters also had anaemia and abnormal ringed sideroblasts in her bone marrow. Her haemoglobin values and those of the propositus returned to normal under pyridoxine treatment, but hypochromia and abnormal sideroblasts persisted. This case of familial pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anaemia is consisted with X-chromosome-mediated transmission. The incomplete effect of pyridoxine suggests a congenital deficiency of some pyridoxine metabolism enzyme or another, as yet unidentified mechanism.

  14. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  15. VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN MAN

    PubMed Central

    Casals, J.; Curnen, Edward C.; Thomas, Lewis

    1943-01-01

    A filterable agent was isolated from the blood and from washings of the upper respiratory passages of a young laboratory worker during a mild, acute, febrile illness. This agent was identified as a strain of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Circulating specific complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies not present in sera withdrawn during the acute phase of illness were demonstrated in sera obtained during convalescence. A fellow laboratory worker who became similarly ill simultaneously also developed during convalescence specific circulating antibodies not present prior to illness. PMID:19871301

  16. Rare Offshoot of a Common Malady Anaemia and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Gautham; Acharya, Vishak; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Mani, Arun; Ruman, Shehzad

    2016-08-01

    Haematological manifestations are one of the rarer presentations of tuberculosis and are usually of normocytic normochromic type. An association of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) with active pulmonary tuberculosis is an exceeding rare entity, though anaemia and tuberculosis commonly co-exist. We report a patient with sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis with associated Coomb's positive AIHA. The patient responded well to Anti- Tubercular Therapy (ATT) and low dose steroids tapered over a month.

  17. Rare Offshoot of a Common Malady Anaemia and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Vishak; Balanthimogru, Prashantha; Mani, Arun; Ruman, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Haematological manifestations are one of the rarer presentations of tuberculosis and are usually of normocytic normochromic type. An association of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA) with active pulmonary tuberculosis is an exceeding rare entity, though anaemia and tuberculosis commonly co-exist. We report a patient with sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis with associated Coomb’s positive AIHA. The patient responded well to Anti- Tubercular Therapy (ATT) and low dose steroids tapered over a month. PMID:27656489

  18. Equine uveitis: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R C

    2010-03-01

    Uveitis in the equine population of the UK does not appear to be as prevalent or disastrous as seen across regions of Europe and the USA. Some cases perceived to be recurrent uveitis may be poorly resolved single episodes of uveitis and care should be taken not to make the diagnosis of recurrence without ensuring effective control of the initial episode. Leptospira spp. appear to play only a minor role ERU in the UK which is probably the main reason for the prevalence of the disease being much lower compared to the USA and mainland Europe. Actual data are relatively few on the ground as far as disease surveillance in concerned. This has 2 implications. Firstly unless we are able to effectively monitor the levels of uveitic disease, it will be difficult to pick up early changes in the trend which may allow quicker intervention. Secondly, it is difficult to secure funding for further research if the prevalence of the problem is poorly defined. This may leave the UK equine population at risk should the disease profile suddenly alter for the worse.

  19. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David

    2017-03-01

    The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.

  20. 1,5 iodonaphthyl Azide Inactivated V3526 Protects against Aerosol Challenge with Virulent Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    UNCLASSIFIED 2 Abstract: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus. There is no licensed vaccine for prophylaxis...against VEEV. VEEV is highly infectious in aerosolized form and has been identified as a bio-terrorism agent. The current IND vaccine is poorly...V3526 may be explored further for specific development as an effective vaccine candidate against aerosol challenge of virulent VEEV. Highlights

  1. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  2. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, Southern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, José G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E.; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V.

    2004-01-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  3. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected ...

  4. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan).

    PubMed

    Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A

    2015-08-01

    Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines.

  5. The complex pathophysiology of acquired aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y; Katsanis, E

    2015-06-01

    Immune-mediated destruction of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of acquired aplastic anaemia (aAA). Dysregulated CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells, CD4(+) T cells including T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, natural killer (NK) cells and NK T cells, along with the abnormal production of cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, induce apoptosis of HSPCs, constituting a consistent and defining feature of severe aAA. Alterations in the polymorphisms of TGF-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α genes, as well as certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, may account for the propensity to immune-mediated killing of HSPCs and/or ineffective haematopoiesis. Although the inciting autoantigens remain elusive, autoantibodies are often detected in the serum. In addition, recent studies provide genetic and molecular evidence that intrinsic and/or secondary deficits in HSPCs and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may underlie the development of bone marrow failure.

  6. Novel approaches to treatment of sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Steinberg; Mitchell

    1999-11-01

    Sickle cell anaemia, a chronic and often debilitating disease, results from homozygosity for a single amino acid substitution in the beta-globin subunit of the haemoglobin molecule. Sickle haemoglobin (HbS), the product of this mutation, polymerises when deoxygenated, thus damaging the red blood cell and causing vaso-occlusive complications and haemolytic anaemia. Most cases of sickle cell anaemia are found in Africa. Until recently, treatment was directed at the management of disease complications. Patients with central nervous system events undergo exchange transfusions followed by chronic transfusion programmes. Patients with painful episodes, which result in many days missed from work and school are treated with narcotics and aggressive hydration. Novel therapy for sickle cell anaemia is designed to prevent complications through targeting disease mechanisms. Hydroxyurea is given to severely affected sickle cell anaemia patients in an attempt to prevent painful episodes, reduce hospital days, improve the patients' overall quality of life, and perhaps to prevent or provide some degree of end-organ damage stabilisation. Other novel therapies, such as bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy, pursue a cure. For these novel therapies to be effective on a global basis they must be amenable to underdeveloped and poorer countries of the world.

  7. Anaemia in kidney disease: harnessing hypoxia responses for therapy.

    PubMed

    Koury, Mark J; Haase, Volker H

    2015-07-01

    Improved understanding of the oxygen-dependent regulation of erythropoiesis has provided new insights into the pathogenesis of anaemia associated with renal failure and has led to the development of novel therapeutic agents for its treatment. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2 is a key regulator of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. HIF-2 is activated by hypoxic conditions and controls the production of erythropoietin by renal peritubular interstitial fibroblast-like cells and hepatocytes. In anaemia associated with renal disease, erythropoiesis is suppressed due to inadequate erythropoietin production in the kidney, inflammation and iron deficiency; however, pharmacologic agents that activate the HIF axis could provide a physiologic approach to the treatment of renal anaemia by mimicking hypoxia responses that coordinate erythropoiesis with iron metabolism. This Review discusses the functional inter-relationships between erythropoietin, iron and inflammatory mediators under physiologic conditions and in relation to the pathogenesis of renal anaemia, as well as recent insights into the molecular and cellular basis of erythropoietin production in the kidney. It furthermore provides a detailed overview of current clinical experience with pharmacologic activators of HIF signalling as a novel comprehensive and physiologic approach to the treatment of anaemia.

  8. Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, M A; Khalid, A R; Ashmaig, A L; Ibrahim, A R M; Ahmed, A-Aziz M; Adam, I

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2010 at the antenatal care clinic of the Araba Waeshreen Hospital (Geizera), central Sudan. Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric and use of pica information were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured and blood films and stools were examined for malaria and schistosomiasis. Out of the 292 women, 119 (40.8%) had anaemia (HB < 11 g/dl); eight (2.7%) had severe anaemia (HB < 7 g/dl). One patient had a positive blood film for malaria. A total of 38 (13.0%) out of the 292 pregnant women had S. mansoni infections. While age, parity, gestational age, education, occupation, interpregnancy interval and BMI were not associated with anaemia, pica (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9, p = 0.02) and S. mansoni infections (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with anaemia using univariate and multivariate analyses. The high prevalence of anaemia among these women needs to be controlled through preventive measurement of S. mansoni infections and health education to prevent practising pica.

  9. Application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1).

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Singh, B K; Yadav, M P

    1996-11-01

    Fifty aborted foetus samples were diagnosed for the presence of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Specific primer pair for amplification of a particular segment of EHV-1 DNA in gc region having 3 Hae III restriction endonuclease sites was used. A 409 base pair segment obtained as PCR amplification product in 9 samples was digested with Hae III to confirm the presence of EHV-1 as the infectious agent in aborted tissues. It was observed that PCR technique was more sensitive, specific and rapid than the conventional virological diagnostic methods.

  10. Iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: National Consultant for Gastroenterology Working Group Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Bartnik, Witold; Gonciarz, Maciej; Kłopocka, Maria; Linke, Krzysztof; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Radwan, Piotr; Reguła, Jarosław; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a common complication associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). It substantially impairs quality of life, makes therapy more complicated, and increases costs of treatment. It seems that anaemia therapy is suboptimal in this group of patients in the Polish population. The recommendations presented below provide iron deficiency anaemia management clues in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25395998

  11. Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Susceptibility of Peruvian Mosquitoes to Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus M. J. TURELL,1 M. L...the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus...enzootic vector of EEEV in this region. KEY WORDS Peru, eastern equine encephalitis virus, transmission, mosquito Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV

  12. Warm antibody autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated with ovarian teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Pedro Oliveira; Coelho, Susana; Cabeleira, Alexandra; Dias, Luis; Gonçalves, Manuela; Almeida, Julio

    2010-01-01

    The ovarian cystic teratoma is a rare cause of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia by warm antibodies, resistant to corticotherapy, with few case reports published in the medical literature. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman admitted to hospital due to general weakness. Laboratory studies revealed macrocytic anaemia, biochemical parameters of haemolysis and peripheral spherocytosis. The direct Coombs test was positive. Viral serologies, anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies and β2-microglobulin were negative. CT scan of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous right anexial lesion. The patient was treated with corticotherapy without improvement of anaemia. Regression of extra-vascular haemolysis and normalisation of haemoglobin was obtained only after laparoscopic splenectomy and right ooforectomy, and the histopathology of the right anexial mass revealed a cystic teratoma. Previously published cases controlled the haemolysis by surgically removing the lesion associated with splenectomy. PMID:22750920

  13. Human fascioliasis and anaemia in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Atef M; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abdel-Mageed, A A; El Beshbishi, S N; Azab, M S; Abou El Hasan, M; Arafa, Wafaa A S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    Fasciola infection (fascioliasis) appeared to be endemic in Egypt. Stool samples of fourty eight patients were coprologically diagnosed. According to Fasciola egg counting per gram stool, the severity of infection was divided into light infection in 60.5%, moderate in 27.1% and severe infection in 12.5%. No significant correlation was detected between severity of infection and patients' sex. Complete blood picture, reticylocytic count, serum iron, immunological assays as anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti-body, anti-DNA tests and rheumatoid factor and occult blood in stool were investigated. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was detected in 62.5% of the fascioliasis patients, microcytic hypochromic anaemia in 31.3% and macrocytic one in 6.3%. Highly significant negative correlation (R = -0.68) was detected between haemoglobin concentration and egg count per gram faeces. Human fascioliasis was associated with normocytic normochromic anaemia and to a lesser extent microcytic hypochromic anemia.

  14. [Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia: a review and report of four cases].

    PubMed

    Nyilas, Renáta; Székely, Borbála; Váróczy, László; Simon, Zsófia; Árokszállási, Anita; Illés, Árpád; Gergely, Lajos

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is still a challenge to clinicians. Even today it may be lethal. Half of the cases are secondary due to an underlying disease, and the others are primary or idiopathic cases. According to the specificity and type of autoantibodies there are warm and cold type forms of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. The hallmark of the diagnosis is to detect the presence of haemolysis by clinical and laboratory signs and detect the underlying autoantibodies. Treatment of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is still a challenge to clinicians. We still loose patients due to excessive haemolysis or severe infections caused by immunosuppression. First line treatment is corticosteroids. Other immunosuppressive agents like: cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, cyclosporine or the off label rituximab can be used in case of corticosteroid refractoriness. Splenectomy is a considerable option in selective cases. The authors discuss treatment options and highlight difficulties by presenting 4 cases.

  15. Thrombotic microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and antiphospholipid antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, G; Bucciarelli, S; Cervera, R; Lozano, M; Reverter, J; de la Red, G; Gil, V; Ingelmo, M; Font, J; Asherson, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical and laboratory features of patients with thrombotic microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia (TMHA) associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Methods: A computer assisted (PubMed) search of the literature was performed to identify all cases of TMHA associated with aPL from 1983 to December 2002. Results: 46 patients (36 female) with a mean (SD) age at presentation of TMHA of 34 (15) years were reviewed. Twenty eight (61%) patients had primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). TMHA was the first clinical manifestation of APS in 26 (57%) patients. The clinical presentations were haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (26%), catastrophic APS (23%), acute renal failure (15%), malignant hypertension (13%), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (13%), and HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count in association with eclampsia) syndrome (4%). Lupus anticoagulant was detected in 86% of the episodes of TMHA, and positive anticardiolipin antibodies titres in 89%. Steroids were the most common treatment (69% of episodes), followed by plasma exchange (PE) (62%), anticoagulant or antithrombotic agents (48%), immunosuppressive agents (29%), and immunoglobulins (12%). Recovery occurred in only 10/29 (34%) episodes treated with steroids, and in 19/27 (70%) episodes treated with PE. Death occurred in 10/46 (22%) patients. Conclusions: The results emphasise the need for systematic screening for aPL in all patients with clinical and laboratory features of TMHA. The existence of TMHA in association with an APS forces one to rule out the presence of the catastrophic variant of this syndrome. PE is indicated as a first line of treatment for all patients with TMHA associated with aPL. PMID:15140782

  16. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in...

  17. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  18. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  19. Anaemia and cognitive performances in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Andro, M; Le Squere, P; Estivin, S; Gentric, A

    2013-09-01

    Anaemia defined as a haemoglobin level <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women is common in older people and associated with numerous health consequences. The aim of this study was to systematically review all published data from the past 30 years that studied the association between anaemia and cognitive performance in people aged 65 years and over. An English and French Medline and Cochrane Library search ranging from 1979 to 2011 indexed under the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms 'haemoglobin' or 'anaemia' combined with the terms 'dementia' or 'cognition disorders' or 'memory disorders' or 'orientation' or 'executive functions' or 'attention' or 'brain' or 'neuropsychological tests' was performed. Ninety-eight studies were selected. The following specific conditions were excluded: cancer, chronic kidney diseases, chronic heart disease and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Five observational studies and six prospective cohort studies were included in the final analysis. According to the studies, the number of participants ranged from 302 to 2250 community-dwelling older people aged 55 years or over. Four studies considered the association between haemoglobin concentration and global cognitive functions, another three examined the association between haemoglobin concentration and the incidence of dementia, and four studies evaluated some specific aspects of cognition. A significant positive association was shown between anaemia and global cognitive decline as well as the incidence of dementia. A significant association was also shown between anaemia and executive functions. This systematic review shows a probable association between anaemia and cognitive performances, particularly with executive functions.

  20. Developing a service for children with iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Bartle, Catherine

    The IDEAS (Iron Deficiency Early Anaemia Services) project is a programme aimed at detecting and offering a system of care for children with iron deficiency anaemia. It is designed and run by health visitors and nurses in an inner-city area of Bradford. Children with low haemoglobin are referred by the health visitor to the specialist nurse-led clinic. Dietary advice consistent with tradition and culture is given and appropriate referrals made to the GP for iron supplementation, and to the consultant paediatrician or haemoglobinopathy adviser when appropriate. An important development has been the identification of a previously undiagnosed abnormal haemoglobin trait.

  1. Maternal anaemia in Abidjan--Its influence on placenta and newborns.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, M C

    1978-12-01

    In a random population of 198 pregnant women, detailed haematological determinations were performed at delivery. The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin less than 10 g/100 ml) is 20%. Iron deficiency is even more frequent. Malaria is shown to play an important role. Maternal anaemia is also correlated with nutritional status. Primiparae are shown to be at higher risk of anaemia. The effect of maternal anaemia on anthropometric and haematological variables of the newborn are discussed. Mothers with sickle-cell or HbC trait are not at special risk of anaemia.

  2. Why does the treatment of anaemia not improve cardiac outcomes in CKD?

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    Anaemia is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized trials using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with severe anaemia (baseline haemoglobin level <100 g/l) have been small, and the hypothesis that partial correction of severe anaemia may prevent cardiovascular events is tenable but unproven. Results from randomized trials of moderate anaemia correction with ESAs do not support the hypothesis that moderate anaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor. This Perspectives article discusses the idea that this finding may have been a result of the inadequate design of trials, co-intervention with high doses of ESAs or intravenous iron hiding a beneficial effect. Another idea is also discussed-that moderate anaemia is a marker of the degree of renal impairment and that its association with cardiovascular disease merely signifies that other factors are present that are pathogenic to the heart and associated with both kidney impairment and anaemia.

  3. Anaemia, a common but often unrecognized risk in diabetic patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Angelousi, A; Larger, E

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia in patients with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, is a frequent clinical finding. The mechanisms of anaemia are multifactorial and often not very well understood. Iatrogenic causes, including oral antidiabetic drugs, ACE inhibitors and ARBs, and renal insufficiency are the major causes of anaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with type 1, the cause is often an associated autoimmune disease, and screening for autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anaemia, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, coeliac disease and Addison's disease is recommended. Other rare causes - including G6PD deficiency, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia - should be suspected in young patients or when the classical causes are excluded. Early detection and recognition of the cause(s) of anaemia in patients with diabetes could help to prevent other clinical manifestations as well as the complications of diabetes.

  4. Recent advances in equine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dawson, F L

    1977-01-01

    Mares rarely ovulate in winter; ovulation is induced by increase in daylight length. Ova accumulate in the oviducts of unserved mares. During pregnancy, corpora lutea accumulate; all regress together at mid pregnancy. Plasma progesterone levels rise and oestrogen levels fall towards the end of pregnancy. Methods are available for early termination of pregnancy and for induction of parturition. Pregnancy can be diagnosed efficiently by rectal examination, and by immunological assay of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin. Service at the foal heat is associated with an increased prevalence of early embryonic death; twinning is the commonest single cause of abortion. Spontaneous prolonged dioestrus is common in summer but may be effectively treated. Bacterial endometritis may result mainly from secondary pathogenic activity by organisms of the normal uterine flora; diagnosis by endometrial smear examination is accurate and methods of treatment have improved. The virus of horse pox has been identified, and the occurrence of equine infection with Mycoplasma has been confirmed. In the male, recent work has emphasized that reproductive function is seasonal. The presence or absence of an undescended testis can now be accurately determined.

  5. Epidemiological study of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Xuan, Xuenan; Battsetseg, Badgar; Igarashi, Ikuo; Battur, Banzragch; Batsukh, Zayat; Bayambaa, Badarch; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2005-01-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of equine piroplasmosis in Mongolia, a country in which the disease occurs epidemically in different climatic conditions. Antibodies to Babesia equi and B. caballi were determined in serum samples of 254 pastured horses in different locations of Mongolia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigens. One hundred and eighty-five (72.8%) and 102 (40.1%) of all serum samples were positive for B. equi and B. caballi infections, respectively. In addition, 78 (30.7%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread in Mongolia. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing an epidemiological study on equine piroplasmosis in different geographic regions in Mongolia.

  6. Aerosol therapy in the equine species.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Inhalation therapy plays an increasing role in the management of equine respiratory disorders. This alternative to systematic treatment permits a high concentration of medication to act locally while minimizing side effects and residues. In human medicine, literature in this field is prolific and continuously renewed, whereas in veterinary medicine, applications of aerosol therapy are less extensive. This review considers the principles of action of the different types of devices used for inhalation, i.e., nebulization, metered-dose inhalation and dry powder inhalation, describes the technical and practical requirements for their use in the equine species and considers the advantages and disadvantages of each inhalation device. The pharmacological agents currently administered to horses by inhalation are also discussed. Perspectives of aerosol therapy in the equine species, including aerosols already used in human medicine and their potential applications for horses are described.

  7. Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are members of family Arteriviridae; they share many biological properties but differ significantly in cellular tropism. Using an infectious cDNA clone of EAV, we engineered a panel of six chimeric viruses b...

  8. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities.

  9. Rituximab in the treatment of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka; Gooneratne, Lallindra

    2015-01-01

    Rituximab is a B-cell depleting monoclonal antibody that is gaining popularity as an effective therapy for many autoimmune cytopenias. This article systematically evaluates its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of different types of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence to recommend it as a second line therapy for warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA) either as monotherapy or combined therapy. Evidence from a single randomized controlled trial suggests that it may also be more efficacious as first line therapy in combination with steroids than steroids alone. A fewer number of studies have assessed its role in cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (cAIHA) and cold agglutinin disease (CAD) with success rates varying from 45–66%. In the absence of alternative definitive therapy, rituximab should be considered for patients with symptomatic CAD and significant haemolysis. Case reports of its efficacy in mixed autoimmune haemolytic anaemias are available but evidence from case series or larger cohorts are nonexistent. PMID:25139610

  10. Malaria-related anaemia: a Latin American perspective

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Juan Pablo; Siqueira, André Machado; Tobón, Alberto; Blair, Silvia; Moreno, Alberto; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Valencia, Sócrates Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, responsible for an estimated 225 million clinical cases each year. It mainly affects children, pregnant women and non-immune adults who frequently die victims of cerebral manifestations and anaemia. Although the contribution of the American continent to the global malaria burden is only around 1.2 million clinical cases annually, there are 170 million inhabitants living at risk of malaria transmission in this region. On the African continent, where Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent human malaria parasite, anaemia is responsible for about half of the malaria-related deaths. Conversely, in Latin America (LA), malaria-related anaemia appears to be uncommon, though there is a limited knowledge about its real prevalence. This may be partially explained by several factors, including that the overall malaria burden in LA is significantly lower than that of Africa, that Plasmodium vivax, the predominant Plasmodium species in the region, appears to display a different clinical spectrus and most likely because better health services in LA prevent the development of severe malaria cases. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the real importance of malaria-related anaemia in LA, we discuss here a revision of the available literature on the subject and the usefulness of experimental animal models, including New World monkeys, particularly for the study of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of malaria. PMID:21881762

  11. Inherited aplastic anaemias/bone marrow failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dokal, Inderjeet; Vulliamy, Tom

    2008-05-01

    The inherited aplastic anaemias/bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by BM failure usually in association with one or more somatic abnormality. The BM failure often presents in childhood but this may not be until adulthood in some cases highlighting the need for the adult haematologist to be aware of these disorders. Indeed some patients initially labelled as "idiopathic aplastic anaemia" are cryptic presentations of these genetic syndromes. Since 1992, when the first Fanconi anaemia (FA) gene was cloned there have been considerable advances in the genetics of these syndromes. These advances are beginning to provide a better understanding of normal haemopoiesis and how this might be disrupted in patients with BM failure. They have also provided important insights into some fundamental biological pathways: DNA repair-FA/BRCA pathway; telomere maintenance- dyskeratosis congenita related genes; ribosome biogenesis-Shwachman Diamond syndrome and Diamond-Blackfan anaemia genes. Additionally, as these disorders are usually associated with developmental abnormalities and an increased risk of cancer they are providing new insights into human development and the genesis of cancer. These advances have led to improved diagnosis of patients with these disorders. They may now also provide the platform for developing new treatments.

  12. Transfusion-Dependent Anaemia: An Overlooked Complication of Paraoesophageal Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Garett S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. A paraoesophageal hernia (PH) may be one reason for iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) but is often overlooked as a cause. We aimed to assess the incidence and resolution of transfusion-dependent IDA in patients presenting for hiatal hernia surgery. Methods. We analysed a prospective database of patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal repair in order to identify patients with severe IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion. Results. Of 138 patients with PH managed over a 4-year period, 7 patients (5.1%; M : F 2 : 5; median age 62 yrs (range 57–82)) with IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion were identified. Preoperatively, 3/7 patients underwent repetitive and unnecessary diagnostic endoscopic investigations prior to surgery. Only 2/7 ever demonstrated gastric mucosal erosions (Cameron ulcers). All patients were cured from anaemia postoperatively. Discussion. PH is an important differential diagnosis in patients with IDA, even those with marked anaemia and no endoscopically identifiable mucosal lesions. Early recognition can avoid unnecessary additional diagnostic endoscopies. Laparoscopic repair is associated with low morbidity and results in resolution of anaemia. PMID:27379280

  13. Linkage analysis of a large pedigree with hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Noble, J S; Taylor, G R; Losowsky, M S; Hall, R; Turner, G; Mueller, R F; Stewart, A D

    1995-05-01

    A large pedigree showing a history of pyridoxine responsive X linked sideroblastic anaemia was screened with several polymorphic DNA markers from the X chromosome. Linkage analysis between each marker and disease status was performed, giving a maximum two point lod score of 3.64 at zero recombination with the microsatellite marker PGK1P1 at Xq11.2-12. Close linkage to PGK at Xq13.3, one of the candidate regions for X linked sideroblastic anaemia, was excluded. Linkage to DNA markers distal to PGK and at Xp21 was also excluded. Multipoint linkage analysis was performed with markers located between Xq11.2-21. The maximum map specific lod score obtained was 3.56 at PGK1P1 (Xq11.2-12). Linkage remained significant over the interval 20 cM proximal to PGK1P1 and 5 cM distal to PGK1P1, with definite exclusion around the PGK locus. The most likely location of the gene involved in sideroblastic anaemia in this pedigree is therefore within the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome. This region includes the erythroid 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase gene of the haem synthesis pathway, which is a candidate gene for X linked sideroblastic anaemia located at Xp11.21.

  14. A novel form of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia with macrocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tuckfield, A; Ratnaike, S; Hussein, S; Metz, J

    1997-05-01

    We describe a pedigree with maternally inherited sideroblastic anaemia in which the red cells are dimorphic with a raised MCV. To our knowledge, this form of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia (HSA) has not been reported previously. 16 members of the family were investigated, revealing eight affected members. Two further family members were not tested but were presumed affected on the histories available. The proband, born in 1967, presented during pregnancy with a macrocytic anaemia (Hb 7.0 g/dl, MCV 106 fl) and a dimorphic red cell picture. Post partum, a bone marrow biopsy showed hypercellularity, mild dyserythropoiesis and ring sideroblasts. Cytogenetics were normal. Other causes of macrocytosis were excluded. Six other family members (three female, three male) have similar findings. There is no evidence of paternal transmission. An additional female relative who presented in 1992 with refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation and a dimorphic blood film, died from progression to AML. Affected members show a raised metal-free red cell protoporphyrin level suggestive of a defect at the level of Fe2+ incorporation into protoporphyrin. We propose that this form of HSA is due to a mitochondrial mutation. A search for deletions or point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA is currently underway.

  15. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53Δ31, a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53Δ31/Δ31 fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop. PMID:27033104

  16. Liver transplant for giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, H. V.; Rela, M.; Baker, A.; Ball, C.; Portmann, B.; Mieli-Vergani, G.; Heaton, N.

    1997-01-01

    

 Giant cell hepatitis (CGH) with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA) is a distinct entity with an aggressive course. Immunosuppression may help early disease. A case is reported of a child with GCH and AHA with early disease recurrence after liver transplantation for end stage liver disease. 

 PMID:9370907

  17. Isolated anaemia as a manifestation of Rh isoimmunisation.

    PubMed

    Roda, Juliana; Mimoso, Gabriela; Benedito, Manuela; Pereira, Dolores Faria

    2012-01-18

    Rh isoimmunisation leads to haemolytic anaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia in the first h of life. Isolated early onset neonatal anaemia has rarely been reported. The authors describe the case of a term infant, born to an 'A' negative, second gravida mother. On the second day of life, pallor was noticed. His haemoglobin (Hb) was 6.8 g/dl, he had reticulocytosis and a positive direct antiglobulin test. However, he did not have a high total serum bilirubin (TSB) (87.2 μmol/l). He was transfused with red blood cells and kept under phototherapy for 3 days. Three weeks later, he received another transfusion for severe anaemia (Hb 6 5 g/dl). During this period, he was never jaundiced and the maximum level of TSB was 122 μmol/l. On follow-up, his Hb stabilised and he had no further problems. This report highlights the possibility of early onset anaemia without jaundice as the sole manifestation of Rh isoimmunisation.

  18. Placental malaria, anaemia and low birthweight in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Albiti, Anisa H; Adam, Ishag; Ghouth, Abdulla S

    2010-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of August 2007-April 2008 at Al-Wahda Teaching Hospital in Yemen to investigate prevalence and risk factors for placental malaria and anaemia and their effects on birthweight. Sociodemographic characteristics were gathered, maternal haemoglobin was measured and blood films were examined for malaria. Newborn birthweight was recorded. Out of 900 parturient women, malaria blood films were positive in 32 (3.6%) cases: in six sets of peripheral, placental and cord samples; in 15 placental and cord samples; and in 11 placental samples only. Malaria was not associated with age and parity, but it was significantly associated with history of fever [odds ratio (OR) 8.5, 95% CI 3.7-19, P<0.001], rural residence (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.3, P=0.01) and rainy season (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.2, P=0.003). Overall, 694 (77.1%) out of these 900 women had anaemia (Hb<11g/dl) and 16 (1.8%) patients had severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dl). Anaemia was not associated with age, parity and malaria. Low birthweight was significantly associated with malaria (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7-18.5; P=0.004). Thus, preventive measures (bednets and intermittent preventive treatment) should be employed for pregnant women regardless of their age or parity.

  19. Haemolytic anaemia after ingestion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) tea.

    PubMed

    Page, Cristy; Hawes, Emily M

    2013-10-17

    The authors report a clinically relevant and possible cause of haemolytic anaemia from ingestion of a Mexican tea from the Neem tree, also known as Azadirachta indica, in a 35-year-old Hispanic man who was found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

  20. Rituximab in the treatment of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka; Gooneratne, Lallindra

    2015-05-01

    Rituximab is a B-cell depleting monoclonal antibody that is gaining popularity as an effective therapy for many autoimmune cytopenias. This article systematically evaluates its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of different types of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence to recommend it as a second line therapy for warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA) either as monotherapy or combined therapy. Evidence from a single randomized controlled trial suggests that it may also be more efficacious as first line therapy in combination with steroids than steroids alone. A fewer number of studies have assessed its role in cold autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (cAIHA) and cold agglutinin disease (CAD) with success rates varying from 45-66%. In the absence of alternative definitive therapy, rituximab should be considered for patients with symptomatic CAD and significant haemolysis. Case reports of its efficacy in mixed autoimmune haemolytic anaemias are available but evidence from case series or larger cohorts are nonexistent.

  1. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    PubMed

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  2. Introduction to Equine Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Catherine M; Cottriall, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    Physical therapy (physiotherapy, or PT) can be broadly defined as the restoration of movement and function and includes assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. This review outlines the history, definition, and regulation of PT, followed by the core scientific principles of PT. Because musculoskeletal physiotherapy is the predominant subdiscipline in equine PT, encompassing poor performance, back pain syndromes, other musculoskeletal disorders, and some neuromuscular disorders, the sciences of functional biomechanics, neuromotor control, and the sensorimotor system in the spine, pelvis, and peripheral joints are reviewed. Equine PT also may involve PT assessment and treatment of riders.

  3. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  4. Advanced imaging in equine dental disease.

    PubMed

    Selberg, Kurt; Easley, Jeremiah T

    2013-08-01

    Dental and sinus disorders are relatively common and of major clinical importance in equine medicine. Advanced diagnostic imaging has become an integral part of equine veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging has progressed the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of dental- and sinus-related diseases. As a clinician, it is important to realize the value of advanced diagnostic imaging. Although computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are both significantly more expensive compared with other diagnostic tools, the financial cost of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment can often result in higher overall costs.

  5. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab')₂ Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-12-18

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab')₂ passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV.

  6. Equine Immunoglobulin and Equine Neutralizing F(ab′)2 Protect Mice from West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiannan; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Qiu, Boning; Cao, Zengguo; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yanbo; Yan, Feihu; Jin, Hongli; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Feng, Na; Gao, Yuwei; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yanqun; Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab′)2 fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab′)2 fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture. The passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly accelerated the virus clearance in the spleens and brains of WNV infected mice, and reduced mortality. Thus, equine immunoglobulin or equine neutralizing F(ab′)2 passive immunotherapy is a potential strategy for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of patients infected with WNV. PMID:27999340

  7. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  8. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of neural and inflammatory cells in equine brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Delcambre, Gretchen H; Liu, Junjie; Herrington, Jenna M; Vallario, Kelsey; Long, Maureen T

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of cellular responses in equine infectious encephalitides has had limited description of both peripheral and resident cell populations in central nervous system (CNS) tissues due to limited species-specific reagents that react with formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE). This study identified a set of antibodies for investigating the immunopathology of infectious CNS diseases in horses. Multiple commercially available staining reagents and antibodies derived from antigens of various species for manual immunohistochemistry (IHC) were screened. Several techniques and reagents for heat-induced antigen retrieval, non-specific protein blocking, endogenous peroxidase blocking, and visualization-detection systems were tested during IHC protocol development. Boiling of slides in a low pH, citrate-based buffer solution in a double-boiler system was most consistent for epitope retrieval. Pressure-cooking, microwaving, high pH buffers, and proteinase K solutions often resulted in tissue disruption or no reactivity. Optimal blocking reagents and concentrations of each working antibody were determined. Ultimately, a set of monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were identified for CD3(+) (pAb A0452, Dako) T-lymphocytes, CD79αcy(+) B-lymphocytes (mAb HM57, Dako), macrophages (mAb MAC387, Leica), NF-H(+) neurons (mAb NAP4, EnCor Biotechnology), microglia/macrophage (pAb Iba-1, Wako), and GFAP(+) astrocytes (mAb 5C10, EnCor Biotechnology). In paraffin embedded tissues, mAbs and pAbs derived from human and swine antigens were very successful at binding equine tissue targets. Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology.

  9. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of neural and inflammatory cells in equine brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjie; Herrington, Jenna M.; Vallario, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization of cellular responses in equine infectious encephalitides has had limited description of both peripheral and resident cell populations in central nervous system (CNS) tissues due to limited species-specific reagents that react with formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE). This study identified a set of antibodies for investigating the immunopathology of infectious CNS diseases in horses. Multiple commercially available staining reagents and antibodies derived from antigens of various species for manual immunohistochemistry (IHC) were screened. Several techniques and reagents for heat-induced antigen retrieval, non-specific protein blocking, endogenous peroxidase blocking, and visualization-detection systems were tested during IHC protocol development. Boiling of slides in a low pH, citrate-based buffer solution in a double-boiler system was most consistent for epitope retrieval. Pressure-cooking, microwaving, high pH buffers, and proteinase K solutions often resulted in tissue disruption or no reactivity. Optimal blocking reagents and concentrations of each working antibody were determined. Ultimately, a set of monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (pAb) were identified for CD3+ (pAb A0452, Dako) T-lymphocytes, CD79αcy+ B-lymphocytes (mAb HM57, Dako), macrophages (mAb MAC387, Leica), NF-H+ neurons (mAb NAP4, EnCor Biotechnology), microglia/macrophage (pAb Iba-1, Wako), and GFAP+ astrocytes (mAb 5C10, EnCor Biotechnology). In paraffin embedded tissues, mAbs and pAbs derived from human and swine antigens were very successful at binding equine tissue targets. Individual, optimized protocols are provided for each positively reactive antibody for analyzing equine neuroinflammatory disease histopathology. PMID:26855862

  10. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral antigen in avian blood by enzyme immunoassay: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Scott, T W; Olson, J G

    1986-05-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was evaluated for its efficacy at detecting eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in avian blood and brain specimens. Preliminary analysis of blood from experimentally infected house sparrows and naturally infected whooping cranes showed that EEE antigen could be detected with the EIA. Polyclonal mouse antibodies were selected for antigen capture, and rabbit antibodies were selected for antigen detection. Overnight antigen incubation increased sensitivity. The lower limit of EEE antigen detection was 10(3.5) TCID50/ml for a stock of virus. Sensitivity was 10% (2/20) for antigen detection in the blood of chicks inoculated with EEE virus less than 24 hr earlier. At 24 and 48 hr after infection, sensitivity was 100% (10/10). Sensitivity and specificity of antigen detection were excellent (100% for both) in house sparrows experimentally inoculated with EEE, Highlands J (HJ), western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), or St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus and bled at 24 hr intervals. Cross-reactivity was observed, however, with high concentrations (10(5.5) TCID50/ml) of HJ virus. EEE antigen was detected in avian blood by the EIA after infectious virus had declined to undetectable levels. The EIA is a useful alternative to virus isolation in cell culture for diagnosis or detection of EEE virus infections in birds. The test has the advantages of being simple, rapid, and capable of detecting antigen in the absence of infectious virus.

  11. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis Note: Javascript is disabled or ... About CDC.gov . EBV and Mono Home About Epstein-Barr Virus About Infectious Mononucleosis For Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing ...

  12. [Infectious diseases research].

    PubMed

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  13. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  14. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  15. Medical records in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Susan H

    2009-12-01

    Quality medical records are the cornerstone of successful equine veterinary practice. The scope and integrity of the information contained in a practice's medical records influence the quality of patient care and client service and affect liability risk, practice productivity, and overall practice value.

  16. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  17. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Lam, Alice D; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins.

  18. Gender shifts in equine veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Marsha L; Sabo, Carol

    2009-12-01

    This article examines gender shifts in equine veterinary practice. A significant gender compensation gap continues across the spectrum of professions, including veterinary medicine. Many styles of practice serve the disparate and sometimes conflicting goals of financial well-being, patient care, and physical family presence.

  19. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  20. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  1. New hosts for equine herpesvirus 9.

    PubMed

    Schrenzel, Mark D; Tucker, Tammy A; Donovan, Taryn A; Busch, Martin D M; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-10-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

  2. New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tammy A.; Donovan, Taryn A.; Busch, Martin D.M.; Wise, Annabel G.; Maes, Roger K.; Kiupel, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy’s zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders. PMID:18826828

  3. Iron deficiency anaemia in childhood and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Tienboon, Prasong; Unachak, Kewalee

    2003-01-01

    Studies in animals and adults have indicated iron deficiency anaemia to be associated with altered thyroid hormone metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of iron deficiency anaemia on the thyroid function of young children. Concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroid hormones (fT4 and fT3), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in the basal state and in response to an intravenous bolus of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in nine children one to three years of age with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) before and after treatment with oral iron. The results of the anaemic children were also compared to basal and stimulated concentrations of thyroid hormones, TBG, and TSH of eight iron sufficient, age-matched children. Seven of the IDA and 6 of the control children were male. The mean haemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF) in the IDA children at baseline were 93g/L (range 81-102) and 6g/L (range 1-12) which increased to 121g/L (range 114-129) and 54g/L (range 19-175), respectively, after a mean of 2.3 months (SD 0.5) of iron therapy. In the control group, mean Hb and SF were 125g/L (range 114-130) and 51 g/L (range 24-144), respectively. The basal values of TBG and thyroid hormones of the IDA children before and after iron treatment were not different from the control children. Similarly, there was no statistical difference in the thyroid hormones in the IDA children before compared to after resolution of the anaemia. Compared to the control children, the TSH response over time to TRH, TSH area under the curve (TSHAUC), and the peak TSH value after stimulation were all lower in the IDA children both before and after resolution of anaemia, but the differences were not significant. Iron therapy and resolution of anaemia had no effect among the IDA children. The time to reach the peak TSH concentration was longer in the IDA children (P=0.08) than the control

  4. Prevalence of Anaemia and Evaluation of Transferrin Receptor (sTfR) in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in the Hospitalized Elderly Patients: Anaemia Clinical Studies in Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Sierra, Mauricio; Calderón, Susana; Gómez, Jorge; Pilleux, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Iron constitutes the most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide. In Chile, anaemia epidemiological data is scarce, evaluating mainly children and women. Our objective was to determine prevalence of anaemia in an inpatient elderly population (≥60 years) and assess the usefulness of sTfR levels analyzed by other authors as a good predictor in the differential diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disease. Method. We studied medical patients admitted at Hospital of Valdivia (HV), Chile, in a 2month period. World Health Organization criteria were used for anaemia. Results. 391 patients were hospitalized, average age 62.5 years, 247 elderly and 99 of which had anaemia. Anaemia was normocytic in 88.8%, and we observed: low serum iron in 46.3%, low ferritin 10.1%, high TIBC 2%, low % transferrin saturation (Tsat) 40%, and high sTfR 25%. Conclusions. As a first figure known in Chile, the prevalence of anaemia in the elderly inpatient was 40.1%. Our findings encourage us to promote the implementation of sTfR determination in the clinical setting to analyze the state of erythropoiesis in patients with chronic diseases wich commonly occurs in elderly.

  5. Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type II-like dysplastic anaemia preceding the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Leong, C F; Zainina, S; Cheong, S K

    2005-06-01

    Anaemia is a frequent complication in patients with haematological malignancies and is caused by a variety of mechanisms including neoplastic cell infiltration into the bone marrow, haemolysis, nutritional deficiencies and defect in erythropoiesis or dysplastic anaemia as a result of the disease itself. However, acquired dysplastic anaemia which mimic congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type II morphology in the bone marrow is very rare. A 41-year-old Chinese man presented with refractory symptomatic anaemia in September 2001. He was clinically pale with no other significant physical finding. His initial peripheral blood picture showed normochromic normocytic anaemia with haemoglobin level of 26g/L, with no evidence of haemolysis and a poor reticulocyte response of 0.6%. Bone marrow aspiration was done and showed congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) type II-like morphology. He was treated symptomatically with regular blood transfusions approximately every 3 weeks, until August 2002 when he developed multiple cervical lymphadenopathy with loss of appetite, loss of weight and low grade fever. Biopsy of the lymph node confirmed the diagnosis of small lymphocytic lymphoma. Staging with computed tomography and bone marrow aspirate revealed the infiltration of lymphoma cells into the marrow cavity consistent with the staging of IVB. This case report illustrates that CDA type II-like dysplastic anaemia can preceed the development of lymphoma.

  6. Impact of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on sickle cell anaemia expression in infancy and early childhood: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Benkerrou, Malika; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Haouari, Zinedine; Ba, Aissatou; Missud, Florence; Boizeau, Priscilla; Holvoet, Laurent; Ithier, Ghislaine; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Ducrocq, Rolande

    2013-12-01

    In patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), concomitant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is usually described as having no effect and only occasionally as increasing severity. We analysed sequential clinical and biological data for the first 42 months of life in SCA patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, including 27 G6PD-deficient patients, who were matched on sex, age and parents' geographic origin to 81 randomly selected patients with normal G6PD activity. In the G6PD-deficient group, steady-state haemoglobin was lower (-6·2 g/l, 95% confidence interval (CI), [-10·1; -2·3]) and reticulocyte count higher (247 × 10(9) /l, 95%CI, [97; 397]). The acute anaemic event rate was 3 times higher in the G6PD-deficient group (P < 10(-3) ). A higher proportion of G6PD-deficient patients required blood transfusion (20/27 [74%] vs. 37/81 [46%], P < 10(-3) ), for acute anaemic events, and also vaso-occlusive and infectious events. No significant between-group differences were found regarding the rates of vaso-occlusive, infectious, or cerebrovascular events. G6PD deficiency in babies with SCA worsens anaemia and increases blood transfusion requirements in the first years of life. These effects decrease after 2 years of age, presumably as the decline in fetal haemoglobin levels leads to increased sickle cell haemolysis and younger red blood cells with higher G6PD activity.

  7. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intensively managed farm in the mid-western plain and in working horses at two locations in central plains of the state. The resistant allele (r) frequency in cyathostomins was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Vindhyan and Tarai and Bhabar zones of Uttar Pradesh. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistant allele (r) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cyathostomins of intensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.35) as compared to extensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.22). The widespread prevalence of benzimidazole resistant alleles in equine cyathostomins in Uttar Pradesh, India, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  8. Pathophysiology of anaemia: focus on the heart and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Metivier, F; Marchais, S J; Guerin, A P; Pannier, B; London, G M

    2000-01-01

    The amount of oxygen delivered to an organ depends on three factors: blood flow and its distribution; the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, i.e. haemoglobin concentration; and oxygen extraction. Non-haemodynamic and haemodynamic mechanisms operate to compensate for anaemia. Non-haemodynamic mechanisms include increased erythropoietin production to stimulate erythropoiesis, and increased oxygen extraction (displacement of the haemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve). This decreased affinity of oxygen for haemoglobin is mediated by increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations. Increased cardiac output is the main haemodynamic factor, mediated by lower afterload, increased preload, and positive inotropic and chronotropic effects. Decreased afterload is due to vasodilatation and reduced vascular resistance as a consequence of lower blood viscosity, hypoxia-induced vasodilatation, and enhanced nitric oxide activity. Vasodilatation also involves recruitment of microvessels and, in the case of chronic anaemia, stimulation of angiogenesis. With decreased afterload, the venous return (preload) and left ventricular (LV) filling increase, leading to increased LV end-diastolic volume and maintenance of a high stroke volume and high stroke work. High stroke work is also due to enhanced LV contractility attributed to increased concentrations of catecholamines and non-catecholamine inotropic factors. In addition, heart rate is increased in anaemia, due to hypoxia-stimulated chemoreceptors and increased sympathetic activity. In the long term, these haemodynamic alterations lead to gradual development of cardiac enlargement and LV hypertrophy (LVH). The LVH is eccentric, characterized by increased LV internal dimensions and a normal ratio of wall thickness to cavity diameter, as occurs in other forms of volume overload. When anaemia-related LVH develops in an otherwise 'healthy' humoral environment, the lesions are reversible and the type of LVH is primarily physiological and

  9. A review of anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, S; Dunning, M D

    2016-07-01

    Anaemia of inflammatory disease is a common cause of anaemia in routine veterinary practice. It is most often mild to moderate, normocytic, normochromic and non-regenerative. Shortened red cell life span, inhibition of iron metabolism and impaired bone marrow response to erythropoietin all contribute to its development. Although anaemia of inflammatory disease is a well-known cause of anaemia in dogs and cats, there is a lack of epidemiological information because specific diagnostic criteria have not been established in veterinary species. Anaemia of inflammatory disease is associated with a poor outcome in various disease states in human medicine; however, its clinical significance and treatment in veterinary medicine are not well understood. This review article describes anaemia of inflammatory disease in dogs and cats and considers its potential significance.

  10. Systematic review of anaemia and inflammatory markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hoepers, Andrea Thives de Carvalho; Menezes, Marcia Margarete; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review synthesizes the relevant published articles on the prevalence of anaemia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its relationship with inflammatory markers. The upregulation of erythropoietin in anaemia maintains homeostasis. However, anaemic COPD patients do not respond to increased levels of erythropoietin. The increased levels could be an indicator of the peripheral erythropoietin resistance in COPD. Anaemia and inflammation are associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in these patients. The understanding of anaemia in chronic inflammation is that anaemia is at least partially due to the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to improvements in the management, prognosis, and survival of patients with COPD and anaemia.

  11. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome.

    PubMed

    Hestand, Matthew S; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Coleman, Stephen J; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons.

  12. Annotation of the Protein Coding Regions of the Equine Genome

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.; Zeng, Zheng; Liu, Jinze; Orlando, Ludovic; MacLeod, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced mRNA from a pool of forty-three different tissues. From these, we derived the structures of 68,594 transcripts. In addition, we identified 301,829 positions with SNPs or small indels within these transcripts relative to EquCab2. Interestingly, 780 variants extend the open reading frame of the transcript and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross-species transcriptional and genomic comparisons. PMID:26107351

  13. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... to worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 ...

  14. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... MIDAS models require a breadth of knowledge, the network draws together an interdisciplinary team of researchers with expertise in epidemiology, infectious diseases, computational biology, statistics, social sciences, physics, computer sciences and informatics. ...

  15. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis ... confusion) Top of Page Related Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis File Formats Help: ...

  16. Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia and dyskeratosis in Australian Poll Hereford calves.

    PubMed

    Kessell, A E; Hanshaw, D M; Finnie, J W; Nosworthy, P

    2012-12-01

    Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) is a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders that in humans is characterised by ineffective haematopoiesis with morphological abnormalities in erythroid precursor cells and secondary iron overload. In the 1990s, a syndrome of CDA with dyskeratosis and progressive alopecia was reported in Poll Hereford calves in Canada and the USA. We report the clinical and pathological findings in two Poll Hereford calves with this syndrome from separate properties in South Australia. The animals had a variably severe anaemia, associated with abnormal nucleated red blood cells in peripheral blood, and large numbers of rubricytes and metarubricytes with a characteristic nuclear ultrastructure in the bone marrow. Both calves were born with a wiry hair coat and a progressively 'dirty-faced' appearance associated with hyperkeratosis and dyskeratosis (apoptosis).

  17. Fungal arthritis of the hip in patient with aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Le Calloch, Ronan; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Guillerm, Gaëlle; Tonnelier, Jean Marie

    2013-08-13

    Aplastic anaemia is a rare and serious disease characterised by severe immunosuppression due to prolonged neutropenia and the use of immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine and antithymocyte globulin. Candida species are pathogens of low virulence colonising the skin and the digestive tract of many healthy individuals. Nonetheless, the incidence of invasive candidal infection is increasing. The widespread use of central intravascular catheters, invasive procedures, broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppresion predisposes patients to these infections. Eye, skin, cardiac, liver, spleen and brain infection are the most common sites of invasive candidiasis. Bone and joint infections are less frequent and Candida hip septic arthritis is extremely rare. We present here a patient treated for aplastic anaemia, who developed fungal arthritis of the hip and systemic candidaemia.

  18. [Unexplained anaemia in men: be aware of hypogonadism].

    PubMed

    van de Meerendonk, Hendrik W P C; Mijnhout, G S Sophie; Groeneveld, Paul H P

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained anaemia is not uncommon. We present two male patients suffering from longstanding mild anaemia, for which no cause could be found. We performed an extensive analysis, but there were no signs of malignant disease, chronic inflammation, renal failure, hypothyroidism, myelodysplastic syndrome, haemolysis or nutritional deficiencies. However, both patients had symptoms of hypogonadism, confirmed by biochemical testing. The 56-year-old man known with metabolic syndrome turned out to have secondary hypogonadism without a pituitary tumour and the 75-year-old man had primary hypogonadism. After exclusion of prostate carcinoma, testosterone substitution therapy was started in both patients, which improved their haematocrits and sexual and general well-being substantially. Testosterone exerts anabolic effects in multiple organ systems; in bone marrow it potentiates the stimulatory effect of erythropoietin on erythropoiesis. Primary hypogonadism frequently occurs in elderly patients, while secondary hypogonadism is frequently seen in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

  19. Hereditary sideroblastic anaemia and ataxia: an X linked recessive disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Pagon, R A; Bird, T D; Detter, J C; Pierce, I

    1985-01-01

    We report two families in which a non-progressive spinocerebellar syndrome and a sideroblastic anaemia are segregating together in an X linked recessive fashion. Four males in two generations of one family and a fifth male from an unrelated family had both conditions. Both the sideroblastic anaemia and the spinocerebellar syndrome differ from those which have previously been reported to be inherited in an X linked recessive manner. The association of these two clinically distinct disorders in two unrelated families suggests that they are either two closely linked loci which have undergone simultaneous mutation or pleiotropic effects of an altered allele at a single locus. All the heterozygous women had normal neurological examinations and normal haematocrits and red cell indices. Some had ring sideroblasts on bone marrow examination, a dimorphic peripheral blood smear, and raised serum free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, suggesting that a proportion of heterozygotes can be detected by appropriate haematological studies. PMID:4045952

  20. Hereditary sideroblastic anaemia and ataxia: an X linked recessive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pagon, R A; Bird, T D; Detter, J C; Pierce, I

    1985-08-01

    We report two families in which a non-progressive spinocerebellar syndrome and a sideroblastic anaemia are segregating together in an X linked recessive fashion. Four males in two generations of one family and a fifth male from an unrelated family had both conditions. Both the sideroblastic anaemia and the spinocerebellar syndrome differ from those which have previously been reported to be inherited in an X linked recessive manner. The association of these two clinically distinct disorders in two unrelated families suggests that they are either two closely linked loci which have undergone simultaneous mutation or pleiotropic effects of an altered allele at a single locus. All the heterozygous women had normal neurological examinations and normal haematocrits and red cell indices. Some had ring sideroblasts on bone marrow examination, a dimorphic peripheral blood smear, and raised serum free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, suggesting that a proportion of heterozygotes can be detected by appropriate haematological studies.

  1. Effect of maternal iron deficiency anaemia on foetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Rusia, U; Madan, N; Agarwal, N; Sikka, M; Sood, S K

    1995-07-01

    One hundred and two pregnant women and their neonates were examined to evaluate the effect of maternal haemoglobin concentration (Hb. conc) and iron deficiency anaemia on the placental weight and the foetal outcome. Haematological and serum ferritin values were determined. It was observed that 34.3% of the pregnant women were anaemic. Maternal Hb conc. and serum ferritin showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) indicating that iron deficiency was the most important cause of anaemia amongst them. The maternal Hb conc. showed a significant correlation with placental weight (p < 0.05), birth weight (p < 0.01), Apgar score (p < 0.001) and birth asphyxia. Maternal serum ferritin also correlated positively with cord ferritin (p < 0.001). The study did not reveal any association between high Hb and adverse foetal outcome.

  2. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research.

  3. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude

  4. Hereditary sideroblastic anaemia in 4 siblings of a Libyan family--autosomal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, J; Basha, H M; Smeda, S H; Swehli, M

    1982-01-01

    Most of the hereditary sideroblastic anaemias are inherited as x-linked recessive traits and are often pyridoxine responsive. The present paper describes the classical features of sideroblastic anaemia in 2 male and 2 female siblings of a Libyan family. All 4 children had severe anaemia and moderate hepato-splenomegaly. The equal severity of the disease in all 4 family members suggests autosomal inheritance.

  5. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anaemia among African Americans in a US cohort.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ellen M; Alvarez, Jessica A; Martin, Greg S; Zughaier, Susu M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-06-14

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the US population and is associated with numerous diseases, including those characterised by inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the link between vitamin D status and anaemia, hypothesising that lower vitamin D status would be associated with increased odds of anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of race in the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of generally healthy adults in Atlanta, GA (n 638). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 50 nmol/l (compared to 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l) was associated with anaemia in bivariate analysis (OR 2·64, 95% CI 1·43, 4·86). There was significant effect modification by race (P= 0·003), such that blacks with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l had increased odds of anaemia (OR 6·42, 95% CI 1·88, 21·99), v. blacks with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, controlling for potential confounders; this association was not apparent in whites. When categorised by subtype of anaemia, blacks with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l had significantly increased odds of anaemia with inflammation than blacks with serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (OR 8·42, 95% CI 1·96, 36·23); there was no association with anaemia without inflammation. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l was significantly associated with anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation, among blacks in a generally healthy adult US cohort.

  6. The role of international transport of equine semen on disease transmission.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, E S

    2001-12-03

    Despite the numerous benefits of having the capability to transport semen internationally, there are serious potential ramifications if that semen is contaminated with a communicable disease. Bacteria: Many commensal bacteria colonize the exterior of the stallion penis and are not regarded as pathogenic. They may be cultured from an ejaculate. Alterations of the normal bacterial flora on the exterior genitalia may cause the growth of opportunistic bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which, if inseminated, may cause infertility in susceptible mares. Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly transmissible, true venereal disease of horses, is caused by the gram-negative coccobacillis, Taylorella equigenitalis. Even with the use of rigorous testing protocols, the current techniques used may not ensure accuracy of results. Viruses: Equine coital exanthema (equine herpes virus type 3; EHV-3) is a highly contagious virus that causes painful lesions on the stallion's penis and mare's vulva. Although it is primarily transmitted through coitus, infected fomites have also been implicated in its spread. Therefore, it is possible that the virus can potentially be transmitted to the ejaculate through penile contact with an artificial vagina or sleeve. Equine arteritis virus appears to be becoming more prevalent in recent years. The most common method of transmission is through respiratory disease, but the organism can also be shed in the semen of asymptomatic stallions. Equine infectious anemia virus has also been found to be present in the semen of an infected stallion, although no evidence exists at this time that there is venereal transmission of this disease. Protozoa: Dourine, caused by Trympanosoma equiperidum, is a venereal disease found only in Africa, South and Central America and the Middle East. Serological testing using complement fixation is recommended for diagnosis. Piroplasmosis, a disease caused by Babesia

  7. Development of a Genetically Engineered Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-20

    immunization, the horses will be returned to the large animal biocontainment facility to be challenged with equine virulent VEE virus. The animals will be...AD £IT FiLE C p DEVELOPMENT OF A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS VACCINE ANNUAL REPORT to DENNIS W. TRENT 0DECEMBER 20...Engineered Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dennis W. Trent 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT

  8. Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia with the natural hematinic Carbaodeim*

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Ali, Mugahid Faroug; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is frequently seen in the paediatric age group. Modifying the treatment options according to the affected area resources will help accessibility and compliance to treatment. Response of children with Iron deficiency anaemia to a natural hematinic (Carboadeim) versus iron syrup plus folic acid treatment was compared in this study. This is a prospective, interventional, controlled, hospital-based study conducted among children with iron deficiency anaemia residing in Hussein Village, Gezira State who attended Giad Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control received iron supplements and folic acid, and the case received a combination of carrots, baobab (Adansonia digitata) and godeim (Grewia tenax) which is known as (Carboadeim). Blood tests were taken for investigations at start of treatment, after 7–10 days, 6 weeks and 3 months. Complete blood count, reticulocyte count and serum ferritin were taken as indicators. The mean haemoglobin level initially in the cases and controls was 7.38 and 7.35 gm/dL, respectively; after three months the mean was 11.67 and 11.384 gm/dL, respectively. The mean serum ferritin in the case and control groups was found to be 10.30 and 10.87 ng/ml, respectively at the start of treatment; and after 3 months they were reported to be 44.34 and 75.7 ng/ml confirming the positive response to treatment by Carboadeim. In conclusion Carboadeim is a naturally available and cost-effective hematinic blend that might be added to the food menu as a supplement as well as a treatment of nutritional anaemia in children. PMID:27651552

  9. Treatment of iron deficiency anaemia with the natural hematinic Carbaodeim.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ali, Mugahid Faroug; Swar, Mohammed Osman; Osman, Atika Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is frequently seen in the paediatric age group. Modifying the treatment options according to the affected area resources will help accessibility and compliance to treatment. Response of children with Iron deficiency anaemia to a natural hematinic (Carboadeim) versus iron syrup plus folic acid treatment was compared in this study. This is a prospective, interventional, controlled, hospital-based study conducted among children with iron deficiency anaemia residing in Hussein Village, Gezira State who attended Giad Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control received iron supplements and folic acid, and the case received a combination of carrots, baobab (Adansonia digitata) and godeim (Grewia tenax) which is known as (Carboadeim). Blood tests were taken for investigations at start of treatment, after 7-10 days, 6 weeks and 3 months. Complete blood count, reticulocyte count and serum ferritin were taken as indicators. The mean haemoglobin level initially in the cases and controls was 7.38 and 7.35 gm/dL, respectively; after three months the mean was 11.67 and 11.384 gm/dL, respectively. The mean serum ferritin in the case and control groups was found to be 10.30 and 10.87 ng/ml, respectively at the start of treatment; and after 3 months they were reported to be 44.34 and 75.7 ng/ml confirming the positive response to treatment by Carboadeim. In conclusion Carboadeim is a naturally available and cost-effective hematinic blend that might be added to the food menu as a supplement as well as a treatment of nutritional anaemia in children.

  10. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica

    PubMed Central

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Methods Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Results Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Conclusion Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence. PMID:27642435

  11. Pyrexia, anaemia and acute renal failure secondary to omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Landray, M. J.; Ringrose, T.; Ferner, R. E.; Arnold, I. R.

    1998-01-01

    We present the case of a 77-year-old woman who initially presented with pyrexia of unknown origin, anaemia and mild renal impairment. When her omeprazole was stopped she improved rapidly. When omeprazole was re-started she developed fever and acute renal failure, which again settled quickly on discontinuation of omeprazole. This case demonstrates how drugs can cause severe multisystem disorders that may appear to be infective or inflammatory. Images Figure PMID:9799915

  12. Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: Looking Beyond Anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher C Y; Ng, Austin C C; Kritharides, Leonard; Sindone, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient in many cellular processes. Iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, is common in patients with chronic heart failure. Observational studies have shown iron deficiency to be associated with worse clinical outcomes and mortality. The treatment of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure patients using intravenous iron alone has shown promise in several clinical trials, although further studies which include larger populations and longer follow-up times are needed.

  13. Malnutrition and anaemia among hospitalised children in Vavuniya.

    PubMed

    Keerthiwansa, J; Gajealan, S; Sivaraja, S; Subashini, K Y

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a cross sectional descriptive study to describe the factors associated with the degree of malnutrition among hospitalised malnourished children in General Hospital, Vavuniya. All hospitalised children from January to June 2012 (n=1210) were screened and the nutritional status assessed using WHO growth standards for weight for height/length. A total of 179 children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) (14.8%) and 105 children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (8.7%) were detected during this period. Having SAM (compared to MAM) was associated with lower maternal education (p<0.001), lower paternal education (p<0.001), low family income (p=0.022) and mother being a housewife (p=0.009). Prevalence of anaemia among 284 malnourished children was mild 32.4% (n=92), moderate 22.2% (n=63) and severe 0.7% (n=2). Anaemia was highest among infants and prevalence decreased with increasing age. Social determinants played an important role in degree of malnutrition and anaemia among malnourished children admitted to the General Hospital, Vavuniya.

  14. High Incidence of Zidovudine Induced Anaemia in HIV Infected Patients in Southern Odisha.

    PubMed

    Dash, Kaibalya Ranjan; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Hui, P K; Behera, S K; Nayak, S N

    2015-06-01

    Zidovudine (AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was the first breakthrough in AIDS therapy in 1990.This study was conducted with an aim to determine prevalence of AZT induced anaemia in HIV infected patients initiated on AZT containing anti retroviral therapy(ART) regimen and also to find out any risk factor for causing AZT induced anaemia. Study was carried out in ART centre, M.K.C.G, MCH, Berhampur between Jan 2009 and Dec 2011. HIV infected patients registered at ART centre were treated according to National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines. Patients (n = 1221) with Hb >8 gm/dl were prescribed AZT based ART regimen. Patients having anaemia (<8 gm/dl) were excluded from the study. Correlation of baseline characteristics (age, sex, weight, Hb level, CD4 count, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage) with risk of developing anaemia was also calculated. 178 (14.6 %) patients on AZT regimen developed anaemia. Patients with low CD4 count were more prone to develop severe anaemia. Age, sex, weight, WHO clinical stage had no relation with development of anaemia. Incidence of AZT induced anaemia was very high and patients having low CD4 count were more susceptible to develop anaemia.

  15. Prevalence & etiology of nutritional anaemias in early childhood in an urban slum.

    PubMed

    Gomber, S; Kumar, S; Rusia, U; Gupta, P; Agarwal, K N; Sharma, S

    1998-06-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the prevalence and etiology of nutritional anaemia among preschool children from an urban slum. Randomly selected 300 children aged 3 months-3 yr were analysed over a period of one year for estimating prevalence of nutritional anaemia. Prevalence was also assessed by the rise in haemoglobin after 8 wk of haematinic supplementation in 159 of the 300 subjects. Ninety anaemic children were evaluated for the etiology of anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia, as judged by WHO recommended 'cut-off' value of haemoglobin < 11 g/dl, was 76 per cent while comparable value of 74.8 per cent was derived by response to haematinic supplementation. Pure iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was detected in 41.4 per cent (37/90) of anaemic children. Vitamin B12 deficiency alone or in combination with iron was diagnosed in 14.4 and 22.2 per cent anaemic children respectively. Similarly folate deficiency, IDA with infection and anaemia of chronic diseases (ACD) was diagnosed in 2.2, 3.3 and 12.2 per cent cases respectively. Childhood anaemia continues to be a significant public health problem in preschoolers and iron deficiency is by far the commonest nutritional cause of anaemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency per se or in combination with iron is an important yet not commonly recognised cause of anaemias in preschool children in the community.

  16. A retrospective study of the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoh, Dorathry Adaunwo; Iyalla, Caroline; Omunakwe, Hannah; Iwo-Amah, Rose Sitonma; Nwabuko, Collins

    2016-07-01

    We reviewed the records of antenatal clinic attendees over a period of 9 years to determine the prevalence of anaemia at booking. The laboratory records of 8751 out of a total of 37,506 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care between 2004 and 2013 at the BMSH were reviewed. The effects of maternal age, educational status, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin genotype and infections on the prevalence of anaemia were investigated. The prevalence of anaemia at booking was 69.6%, most of whom had moderate anaemia. Anaemia was significantly prevalent in the 10-19 year age group, and in women with secondary education, in their 2nd trimester and with SS genotype. Anaemia also increased with gestational age, this however was not statistically significant. There was no statistical difference between those who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and had anaemia and those who are HIV negative who also had anaemia. This study shows that anaemia in pregnant women is still unacceptably high considering the consequences and despite interventions on the ground to reduce prevalence. There is a need to review the intervention measures with emphasis on programmes that would increase awareness among pregnant women and the general public.

  17. Severe iron deficiency anaemia associated with heavy lice infestation in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Althomali, Sarah Ali; Alzubaidi, Lamya Mohammed; Alkhaldi, Dhelal Musleh

    2015-11-05

    Lice feed on human blood, and heavy and chronic lice infestation can lead to chronic blood loss with resultant iron deficiency anaemia. Although no definite relationship between lice infestation and iron deficiency anaemia has been described, the concurrent presence of these two conditions has been reported in children and adults, as well as in cattle. We present a case of a young woman with severe iron deficiency anaemia that could not be explained by the known causes of iron deficiency anaemia. However, the patient was found to have heavy and chronic head lice infestation.

  18. Prevalence and severity of anaemia stratified by age and gender in rural India.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Yalla, Pradeep S; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR), 9.8-12.4) in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6-14.2) in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children <10 years, women after puberty, and older adults. Children <5 years had the highest prevalence of anaemia, especially children aged 1-2 years. The high proportion of microcytic anaemia and the fact that gender differences were only seen after the menarche period in women suggest that iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  19. Sheehan's syndrome as a rare cause of anaemia secondary to hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Gokalp, Deniz; Tuzcu, Alpaslan; Bahceci, Mithat; Arikan, Senay; Bahceci, Selen; Pasa, Semir

    2009-05-01

    Although its exact mechanism is unclear, anaemia is well recognised as a feature of hypopituitarism; and anaemia is associated with Sheehan's syndrome (SS). We aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of anaemia and other haematological changes among patients with Sheehan's syndrome, in comparison with healthy controls. Sixty-five SS patients and 55 age-matched female healthy controls were included. Biochemical and hormonal assessments and haematological evaluations were carried out, and groups were compared. The mean number of red blood cells, as well as mean haemoglobin, iron and erythropoietin levels, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation were all significantly lower in SS patients compared to controls. SS patients had significantly higher rates of anaemia (80.0% vs. 25.5%, p = 0.0001), iron deficiency (44.6% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.001), leukopenia (20.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.015), thrombocytopenia (9.2% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.028) and bicytopenia (21.5% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.001) compared to controls. Anaemic SS patients had normochromic-normocytic anaemia (55%) or hypochromic-microcytic anaemia (45%). Anaemia is frequently associated with Sheehan's syndrome and responds to appropriate replacement therapy. Hypopituitarism should be considered as a possible cause of anaemia, and a hormone examination should be undertaken promptly, particularly in patients with anaemia resistant to therapy and/or with a history suggestive of Sheehan's syndrome.

  20. Malaria, Moderate to Severe Anaemia, and Malarial Anaemia in Children at Presentation to Hospital in the Mount Cameroon Area: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Taiwe, Germain Sotoing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malaria remains a major killer of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, while anaemia is a public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Examining the factors associated with moderate to severe anaemia (MdSA) and malarial anaemia as well as the haematological characteristics is essential. Methodology. Children (1–14 years) at presentation at the Regional Hospital Annex-Buea were examined clinically and blood samples were collected for malaria parasite detection and full blood count evaluation. Results. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia, and malarial anaemia occurred in 33.8%, 62.0%, and 23.6% of the 216 children, respectively. Anaemia prevalence was significantly higher in malaria parasite positive children and those with fever than their respective counterparts. MdSA and moderate to severe malarial anaemia (MdSMA) were detected in 38.0% and 15.3% of the participants, respectively. The prevalence of MdSA was significantly higher in children whose household head had no formal education, resided in the lowland, or was febrile, while MdSMA was significantly higher in febrile children only. Children with MdSMA had significantly lower mean white blood cell, lymphocyte, and platelet counts while the mean granulocyte count was significantly higher. Conclusion. Being febrile was the only predictor of both MdSA and MdSMA. More haematological insult occurred in children with MdSMA compared to MdSA. PMID:27895939

  1. Malaria, Moderate to Severe Anaemia, and Malarial Anaemia in Children at Presentation to Hospital in the Mount Cameroon Area: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sumbele, Irene Ule Ngole; Sama, Sharon Odmia; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malaria remains a major killer of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, while anaemia is a public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Examining the factors associated with moderate to severe anaemia (MdSA) and malarial anaemia as well as the haematological characteristics is essential. Methodology. Children (1-14 years) at presentation at the Regional Hospital Annex-Buea were examined clinically and blood samples were collected for malaria parasite detection and full blood count evaluation. Results. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia, and malarial anaemia occurred in 33.8%, 62.0%, and 23.6% of the 216 children, respectively. Anaemia prevalence was significantly higher in malaria parasite positive children and those with fever than their respective counterparts. MdSA and moderate to severe malarial anaemia (MdSMA) were detected in 38.0% and 15.3% of the participants, respectively. The prevalence of MdSA was significantly higher in children whose household head had no formal education, resided in the lowland, or was febrile, while MdSMA was significantly higher in febrile children only. Children with MdSMA had significantly lower mean white blood cell, lymphocyte, and platelet counts while the mean granulocyte count was significantly higher. Conclusion. Being febrile was the only predictor of both MdSA and MdSMA. More haematological insult occurred in children with MdSMA compared to MdSA.

  2. Drugs in the aetiology of agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, D W; Kelly, J P; Jurgelon, J M; Anderson, T; Issaragrisil, S; Wiholm, B E; Young, N S; Leaverton, P; Levy, M; Shapiro, S

    1996-01-01

    Agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia are rare but serious conditions known to be caused by numerous drugs. Most of what is known or suspected about the aetiology is based on case reports, with only a few formal epidemiological studies that provide quantitative estimates of risk. Updated results have been obtained from a combined analysis of data from 3 case-control studies that used similar methods: the International Agranulocytosis and Aplastic Anemia Study (IAAAS), conducted in Israel and Europe; a study conducted in the northeast US; and a study conducted in Thailand. Totals of 362 cases of agranulocytosis, 454 cases of aplastic anaemia and 6458 controls were included in the analyses. The IAAAS and Thai study were population-based, providing estimates of the incidence of the 2 dyscrasias. The overall annual incidence of agranulocytosis in the ambulatory population was 3.4/10(6) in the IAAAS and 0.8/10(6) in Thailand; by contrast the incidence of aplastic anaemia was 2.0/10(6) in the IAAAS and 4.1/10(6) in Thailand. A total of 21 compounds were significantly associated with an increased risk of agranulocytosis in the IAAAS and US studies. Excess risks ranged from 0.06 to 13 cases/10(6) users/wk; the most strongly associated drugs were procainamide, anti-thyroid drugs and sulphasalazine. An association with drugs that had previously been suspected was also seen in Thailand. The overall aetiologic fractions of agranulocytosis due to drug use were 62% in the IAAAS, 72% in the US and 70% in Thailand. Eleven drugs were significantly associated with an increased risk of aplastic anaemia, with excess risks ranging from 1.4 to 60 cases/10(6) users in a 5-month period. The most strongly associated drugs were penicillamine, gold and carbamazepine. Aetiologic fractions were 27% in the IAAAS, 17% in the US and 2% in Thailand, which paralleled the prevalence of use of associated drugs in the 3 populations. The present results confirm that agranulocytosis is largely a drug

  3. Prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Laabassi, F; Amelot, G; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Nasri, A M; Hans, A

    2014-12-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in Algeria, 268 sera from non-vaccinated horses were collected from the western and eastern regions. Serological analysis of the sera, which were collected from 2009 to 2011, was performed using the virus neutralisation test, as described by the World Organisation for Animal Health. Overall, 20 sera (7.46%) were seropositive, 152 (56.71%) were negative and 96 sera (35.82%) were cytotoxic. Equine arteritis virus (EAV) seroprevalence was significantly higher in the western region (Tiaret) than in the eastern region (Barika and El-Eulma). Interestingly, more than 20% of the tested horses over 16 years old were seropositive for EAV. However, EAV prevalence did not depend on either horse breed or horse gender. This study is the first to describe the circulation of EAV in the Algerian horse population.

  4. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  5. Ocular immunology in equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A

    2008-09-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a disease with high prevalence and relevance for the equine population, since it results in blindness. Over the last decade, important advancements have been made in our understanding of the underlying immune responses in this disease. ERU is mediated by an autoaggressive Th1 response directed against several retinal proteins. Interphotoreceptor-retinoid binding protein (IRBP) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) are capable to induce ERU-like disease in experimental horses, with the unique possibility to activate relapses in a well-defined manner. Further, proteomic evidence now suggests that retinal Mueller glial cells (RMG) may play a fatal role in uveitic disease progression by directly triggering inflammation processes through the expression and secretion of interferon-gamma. Ongoing relapses in blind eyes can be associated with stable expression of the major autoantigens in ERU retinas. This review briefly summarizes the most significant developments in uveitis immune response research.

  6. Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Masini, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an approach in which horses are an integral part of the therapeutic process. This article provides an overview of EAP, including a brief historical perspective, key definitions, and review of pertinent literature. Benefits of the approach are presented, from the standpoint of field observations, client self-reports, and formal research articles. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this article is intended to help non-EAP practitioners become more familiar with the approach.

  7. Equine recurrent uveitis: new methods of management.

    PubMed

    Gilger, Brian C; Michau, Tammy Miller

    2004-08-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is one of the most common causes of blindness in horses. Until recently, treatment of this condition consisted only of symptomatic therapy, typically with steroidal and nonsteroidal medications. A better understanding of the disease process(es) has permitted new medical and surgical therapies that have recently been described. This article highlights clinical features of ERU, the causes of ERU, and new management and treatment options for horses with ERU.

  8. Infectious diarrhea: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Brandon; Surawicz, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    Diarrheal disease, which is most often caused by infectious pathogens, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children. This is particularly true in developing countries. Recent outbreaks of infectious diarrhea in developed countries, including the USA, are often attributed to food handling and distribution practices and highlight the need for continued vigilance in this area. Another common cause of infectious diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), has historically been associated with the use of antibiotics and exposure to a health-care setting but is now increasingly common in the community in persons who lack the typical risk factors. Recent scientific advances have also led to new and proposed new therapies for infectious diarrhea, including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI), probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and CDI, and the use of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Other therapies that have been in use for decades, such as the oral rehydration solution (ORS), continue to be the targets of scientific advancement in an effort to improve delivery and efficacy. Finally, post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is an increasingly recognized occurrence. Attempts to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon are underway and may provide insight into potential treatment options.

  9. Emergent Infectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management. PMID:20404989

  10. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  11. Anaemia among pregnant women in northern Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and effect on perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Msuya, Sia E; Hussein, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there is limited data regarding prevalence and effects of anaemia during pregnancy in northern Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for anaemia and its effect on perinatal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. A cohort of pregnant women aged 14-43 years and in their 3rd trimester, was recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and haematological examinations were conducted on 2654 consenting women. Perinatal outcomes were recorded during delivery and at 1 week after delivery. Of the 2654 participants, 47.4% had anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11g/dl), 35.3% had mild anaemia (Hb= 9-10.9g/dl), 9.9% had moderate anaemia (Hb =7- 8.9g/dl), and 2.1% had severe anaemia (Hb < 7 g/dl). Anaemia was significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive (56.4%) than in HIV-negative women (46.7%), (P = 0.01). In logistic regression anaemia was independently associated with maternal HIV (OR= 1.5), malaria (OR= 5.2), clinic of recruitment (OR= 1.5) and low income (OR= 1.9). Pregnant women with anaemia were more likely to have low birth weight (LBW) infants. Compared with non-anaemic women, the risk of LBW was 1.6 times and 4.8 times higher for children born to women with moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In conclusion, anaemia in pregnancy is a severe public health problem in northern Tanzania. Control of maternal anaemia may be one important strategy to prevent LBW in this setting. Measures to prevent malaria and to control anaemia among all pregnant women irrespective of HIV status, should be strengthened. Outside of the health sector broader approaches for anaemia prevention targeting women of lower income, are required.

  12. [Types of anaemia in patients with cirrhosis at the Yalgado Ouedraogo hospital centre of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Nacoulma, Eric William Camille; Zongo, Salfo; Drabo, Youssoufou Joseph; Bougouma, Alain

    2007-01-01

    During chronic diseases, patients may develop a specific form of anaemia called "inflammatory anaemia" or anaemia of chronic disease. The objective of this study was to study the forms of anaemia during cirrhosis. The leading cause of cirrhosis in these 161 patients was chronic active (viral) hepatitis, accounting for 58.3% of cases. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 74.5%. All types of anaemia were observed. Normochromic normocytic anaemia was observed in 43.3%, combined with blood loss in 48%. These results show that the hypochromic microcytic anaemia observed in 20% of cases is not exclusively linked to blood loss or iron deficiency. They also emphasise the importance of the haemogram interpretation to avoid routine iron prescription.

  13. Anaemia in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a Sahelian tertiary hospital in Northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kagu, M B; Kawuwa, M B; Gadzama, G B

    2007-10-01

    This prospective study was carried out between June 2005 and June 2006, to determine the prevalence and determinants of anaemia among pregnant women attending a tertiary Sahelian Hospital in Northeastern Nigeria. A total of 1,040 pregnant women enrolled at their first antenatal visit were monitored through pregnancy for anaemia. The overall prevalence of anaemia, malaria parasitaemia and schistosomiasis was 72.0%, 22.1% and 3.8%, respectively. Mild, moderate and severe anaemia constituted 31.8%, 39.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Anaemia was most common among the multipara and women presenting in late stages of pregnancy. More multipara and primigravidae had malaria parasitaemia than grandmultipara. Schistosomiasis, malaria infestation and a short birth interval as well as illiteracy are additional risk factors for anaemia in pregnancy. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in this area. Appropriate intervention strategies are necessary to reduce the prevalence of anaemia.

  14. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  15. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  16. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  17. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  18. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  19. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  20. Serologic survey for selected infectious diseases in free-ranging Brazilian tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in the cerrado of central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Kashivakura, Cyntia Kayo; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda Vianna; Ragozo, Alessandra Mara Alves; de Souza, Silvio Luis Pereira; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Cortez, Adriana; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Silveira, Leandro

    2010-03-01

    From September 2000 to January 2002, a serologic survey was conducted in a population of free-ranging Brazilian tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) inhabiting Emas National Park and surrounding areas in Goiás state, central Brazil, as part of an ecologic study. Ten tapirs were immobilized with a tiletamine-zolazepam combination, and blood samples were collected. All sera were negative for Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, and equine infectious anemia; and one of 10 animals was positive for Toxoplasma gondii. This report represents the first serologic survey for selected infectious diseases in a free-ranging population of Brazilians tapirs in central Brazil.

  1. The epidemiology and control of anaemia among pre-ESRD patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McClellan, W M; Jurkovitz, C; Abramson, J

    2005-12-01

    Anaemia is a common condition among pre-end-stage renal disease (pre-ESRD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, data from clinical studies indicate that anaemia may be present in as many as two-thirds of such patients. Use of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) provides an effective means of correcting anaemia in CKD patients and helps to reduce the risk of renal disease progression and related problems. Unfortunately, EPO therapy is underutilized in these persons. Consequently, anaemia remains a major problem in the pre-ESRD CKD population. Evidence suggests that anaemia in the presence of CKD can lead to an increased risk of a number of adverse outcomes, including mortality, progression of kidney disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, hospitalization, and decreases in quality of life. Anaemia's association with these adverse outcomes suggests that effective treatment of anaemia in pre-ESRD CKD patients is of great importance and that substantial efforts should be made to ensure that these patients receive appropriate therapy to correct anaemia.

  2. Aplastic crisis and leg ulceration: two rare complications of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, J; Singhal, S; Mehta, B C

    1992-07-01

    Aplastic crisis as a result of parvovirus infection is seen in a number of haematologic disorders characterized by decreased red cell survival, and leg ulceration due to unknown causes is seen in a number of haemolytic anaemias. Neither of the two has been reported in a case of sideroblastic anemia. We report one case with each of these complications in association with sideroblastic anaemia.

  3. Sociodemographic factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy at booking for antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O

    2016-01-01

    Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women.

  4. Anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bukar, M; Audu, B M; Yahaya, U R; Melah, G S

    2008-11-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important reproductive health problem associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 461 women attending the antenatal clinic was carried out. Anaemia in pregnancy was defined as a packed cell volume (PCV) of <30%. The capillary technique was used for the estimation of the PCV. The biosocial characteristics (age, parity and social class); and gestational age at booking were obtained and analysed. Of the 461 pregnant women studied, 239 were anaemic, a prevalence of anaemia at booking of 51.8%. The majority of these patients, 67.4%, were mildly anaemic, 30.5% were moderately anaemic while only 2.1% had severe anaemia. Most, 316 (68.5%) of the women booked in the second trimester while only 3.0% booked in the first trimester. There was no relationship between parity and anaemia in pregnancy in this study The majority of the women, 293 (63.5%) were in the lower social class. Because the majority of the anaemic gravidae are in the low social class, provision of haematinics at little or no cost will go a long way towards reducing the high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. In the long run, educational and economic empowerment of the women is the key to reducing the overall prevalence of anaemia to the barest minimum.

  5. L-Leucine improves the anaemia in models of Diamond Blackfan anaemia and the 5q- syndrome in a TP53-independent way.

    PubMed

    Narla, Anupama; Payne, Elspeth M; Abayasekara, Nirmalee; Hurst, Slater N; Raiser, David M; Look, A Thomas; Berliner, Nancy; Ebert, Benjamin L; Khanna-Gupta, Arati

    2014-11-01

    Haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and upregulation of the tumour suppressor TP53 have been shown to be the common basis for the anaemia observed in Diamond Blackfan anaemia and 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome. We previously demonstrated that treatment with L-Leucine resulted in a marked improvement in anaemia in disease models. To determine if the L-Leucine effect was Tp53-dependent, we used antisense MOs to rps19 and rps14 in zebrafish; expression of tp53 and its downstream target cdkn1a remained elevated following L-leucine treatment. We confirmed this observation in human CD34+ cells. L-Leucine thus alleviates anaemia in RP-deficient cells in a TP53-independent manner.

  6. Essential considerations for equine oral examination, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert A; Lewis, John R; Reiter, Alexander M; Lundström, Torbjörn S

    2011-01-01

    Equine dentistry should no longer be thought of as art over science. To be an effective equine dental clinician requires considerable investment in knowledge beyond the basic veterinary degree. It requires current scientific dental knowledge and adherence to the fundamental principles of medicine, dentistry, and surgery. Knowledge and principles will provide clinicians with the necessary information to make more evidence-based decisions as the scientific literature continues to evolve. Diagnosis and therapy should be seen as journeys with a destination, keeping in mind the values of the Hippocratic oath. Equine dentistry no longer needs to be seen as hard physical work with considerable risk to all involved. There is a demand for providers of equine dental care to be appropriately trained veterinarians and for veterinarians to further develop the science of equine dentistry. The rewards to the horse, client, and clinician are likely to be evident to those who make the investment.

  7. Equine cellular therapy--from stall to bench to bedside?

    PubMed

    Burk, Janina; Badylak, Stephen F; Kelly, Jeremy; Brehm, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Pioneering clinical stem cell research is being performed in the horse, a recipient of cutting edge veterinary medicine as well as a unique animal model, paving the way for human medical applications. Although demonstrable progress has been made on the clinical front, in vitro characterization of equine stem cells is still in comparatively early stages. To translate the promising results of clinical stem cell therapy in the horse, advances must be made in the characterization of equine stem cells. Aiming to improve communication between veterinarians and other natural scientists, this review gives an overview of veterinary "bedside" achievements, focusing on stem cell therapies in equine orthopedics as well as the current state of in vitro characterization of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

  8. Multiplex immunoassays of equine virus based on fluorescent encoded magnetic composite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Hui; Su, Xingguang

    2010-09-01

    A new detection format for multiplexed analysis based on fluorescent encoded magnetic composite nanoparticles is presented. Two kinds of virus were analyzed by this new method: equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Firstly, EIV antigen and EIAV antigen were conjugated to two kinds of fluorescent encoded magnetic composite nanoparticles, while the green-emitting CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were attached to the antibody of EIV and EIAV. Then both green-emitting CdTe QD-labeled antibodies and antigens labeled with fluorescent encoded magnetic composite nanoparticles were used to form an immunoassay system for the detection of EIV and EIAV antigens. The method is time-saving and has higher sensitivity (1.3 ng mL(-1) for EIV antigens and 1.2 ng mL(-1) for EIAV antigens) than the conventional methods. A competitive immunoassay method based on this analysis system was used to detect EIV and EIAV antigens in spiked serum samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Experimental Infection of Horses with an Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Strain TC-83)

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Thomas E.; Alvarez, Otto; Buckwalter, Ross M.; Johnson, Karl M.

    1972-01-01

    Ten horses (Equus caballus) were vaccinated with strain TC-83 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus vaccine. Febrile responses and leukopenia due to a reduction of lymphocytes and neutrophils were observed in all animals. Viremias were demonstrable in eight horses, with a maximum of 103.5 median tissue culture infectious dose units per ml of serum in two horses. Clinical illness with depression and anorexia were observed in five horses. Neutralizing (N), hemagglutination-inhibiting, and complement-fixing antibodies to the vaccine virus were demonstrable by 5, 6.5, and 7 days, respectively, after vaccination. Differential titrations of serum to six VEE strains revealed high titers of N antibody to vaccine virus, moderate titers to the epizootic Trinidad donkey no. 1 strain (VEE antigenic subtype I, variant A) from which TC-83 was derived, and low titers to two other epizootic strains (subtype I, variants B and C) in all horses at 1 month after vaccination; some animals responded with low levels of N antibody to the enzootic viruses (subtype I, variants D and E). Fourteen months after vaccination, six animals with detectable N antibody were challenged with MF-8 (subtype I, variant B), an epidemic-epizootic strain isolated in 1969 from a man in Honduras. All horses resisted challenge with the equine pathogenic strain of VEE. Marked increases of N antibody in most horses were demonstrable to some VEE strains when tested 1 month after challenge. PMID:4637604

  10. Susceptibility parameters of Aedes albopictus to per oral infection with eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C J; McLean, R G; Nasci, R S; Crans, W J; Smith, G C; Caccamise, D F

    1993-01-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes were fed on snowy egrets, Egretta thula (Thayer and Bangs), that had been infected by subcutaneous inoculation of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Freshly fed mosquitoes were frozen and tested to determine how much virus they had ingested. Other fed mosquitoes from the same lots were incubated for 7 d at 27 degrees C before testing. Seven lots of Ae. albopictus fed on viremic birds. Based on average amounts of virus ingested and day 7 virus infection rates in mosquitoes from the same lots, the amount of virus required to infect 50% of the mosquitoes was calculated to be 10(2.8) Vero cell plaque-forming units (PFU). The infection threshold (i.e., the amount of virus required to infect from 1 to 5% of mosquitoes) was determined to be < or = 10 PFU per blood meal. These parameters indicate that Ae. albopictus is sufficiently susceptible to infection with EEE virus to enable it to acquire infectious doses from a wide variety of viremic birds and possibly from equines.

  11. Anaemia in the older surgical patient: a review of prevalence, causes, implications and management.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Judith; Harari, Danielle; Gossage, Jessica; Dhesi, Jugdeep

    2013-07-01

    This review provides the clinician with a summary of the causes, implications and potential treatments for the management of anaemia in the older surgical patient. The prevalence of anaemia increases with age and is frequently identified in older surgical patients. Anaemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Allogenic blood transfusion is commonly used to treat anaemia but involves inherent risks and may worsen outcomes. Various strategies for the correction of pre- and postoperative anaemia have evolved. These include correction of nutritional deficiencies and the use of intravenous iron and erythropoesis stimulating therapy. Clear differences exist between the elective and emergency surgical populations and the translation of research findings into these individual clinical settings requires more work. This should lead to a standardized approach to the management of this frequently encountered clinical scenario.

  12. Ineffective erythropoiesis and regulation of iron status in iron loading anaemias.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, Clara; Nai, Antonella

    2016-02-01

    The definition 'iron loading anaemias' encompasses a group of inherited and acquired anaemias characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, low hepcidin levels, excessive iron absorption and secondary iron overload. Non-transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia is the paradigmatic example of these conditions that include dyserythropoietic and sideroblastic anaemias and some forms of myelodysplasia. Interrupting the vicious cycle between ineffective erythropoiesis and iron overload may be of therapeutic benefit in all these diseases. Induction of iron restriction by means of transferrin infusions, minihepcidins or manipulation of the hepcidin pathway prevents iron overload, redistributes iron from parenchymal cells to macrophage stores and partially controls anaemia in β-thalassaemic mice. Inhibition of ineffective erythropoiesis by activin ligand traps improves anaemia and iron overload in the same models. Targeting iron loading or ineffective erythropoiesis shows promise in preclinical studies; activin ligand traps are in clinical trials with promising results and may be useful in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis.

  13. Acute soft head syndrome in children with sickle cell anaemia in lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akodu, Samuel Olufemi; Njokanma, Olisamedua Fidelis; Diaku-Akinwumi, Ijeoma Nnenna; Ubuane, Peter Odion; Adediji, Uchechukwu Okwudili

    2014-09-01

    Acute soft head syndrome is rare complications seen in children with sickle cell anaemia. A case report of a child with sickle cell anaemia who developed acute soft head syndrome. A 12-year old known sickle cell anaemia patient presented with acute, rapidly progressive skull pain and swelling, manifestations indicative of the rare complication of SCD which is called acute soft head syndrome. Conservative treatment with intravenous fluids and analgesics and empirical use of broad-spectrum antibiotics resulted in recovery. Acute soft head syndrome is a rare complication in children with sickle cell anaemia probably related to skull infarction. It further draws attention to the importance of acute soft head syndrome as a differential to be considered for pains in the head and skull swellings in children with sickle cell anaemia.

  14. Anaemia-dermatitis of broilers: field observations on its occurrence, transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Vielitz, E; Landgraf, H

    1988-01-01

    Anaemia-dermatitis was first observed in German broiler flocks in 1977. Its frequency has increased in the past six years. Atrophy of thymus, bursa and bone marrow occur and are affected by a severe anaemia and immunosuppression. Secondary bacterial infections of the skin cause gangrenous dermatitis. Systematic investigations of outbreaks in two broiler integrations showed the syndrome to occur only in the offspring of young broiler breeders during the first 3 to 9 weeks of production. Anaemia could be reproduced experimentally in CAA-antibody negative SPF birds by injecting a bacteria-free filtrate of organ homogenates of diseased birds; birds kept in contact with the inoculated chicks remained healthy. It is concluded that anaemia-dermatitis is primarily caused by the chicken anaemia agent (CAA). Vertical transmission via hatching egg predominates with no evidence of horizontal transmission. In order to prevent egg transmission of CAA immunisation during rearing is indicated for breeder stocks.

  15. Association of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Podder, Sidhertha; Cervates, Jose; Dey, Bimalangshu R

    2015-10-13

    Pernicious anaemia is an autoimmune disease caused by intrinsic factor antibody; it leads to vitamin B12 deficiency and is marked by ineffective erythropoiesis. Haematological features reveal macrocytosis, hyperchromasia and hypersegmented neutrophils. Schistocytes are typically seen in microangiopathy, such as in thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP)/haemolytic uraemic syndrome or disseminated intravascular haemolysis (DIC). We report a case of a patient with severe anaemia who presented to the emergency room. Peripheral smear revealed macrocytosis, hypersegmented neutrophils and marked schistocytosis. The patient also had high reticulocyte count with high serum lactate dehydrogenase, elevated D-dimer, low fibrinogen and low haptoglobin. Vitamin B12 level came back low and the presence of intrinsic factor antibody confirmed pernicious anaemia. ADAMTS13 level was noted to be mildly reduced, which raised the suspicion of the association of acquired TTP with pernicious anaemia. Acquired TTP is another autoimmune disorder and its association with pernicious anaemia needs further evaluation.

  16. The development and role of international biological reference materials in the diagnosis of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Anaemia is a major global health problem. Although the main cause is iron deficiency, anaemia also results from other nutritional deficiencies (folate and vitamin B12), haemolytic disorders including haemoglobinopathies, and bone marrow disorders. Accurate diagnosis of anaemia is dependent on reliable diagnostic tests and reference ranges, which in turn are dependent on effective standardisation. Standardisation is achieved through the availability of reference materials and reference measurement procedures. International biological reference materials have therefore been developed to standardise and control diagnostic tests for anaemia for a diverse range of analytes including total haemoglobin and haemoglobin types, ferritin, the serum transferrin receptor, serum vitamin B12 and folate, whole blood folate, and alloantibodies which mediate immune haemolytic anaemia.

  17. Eosinophilia in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Elise M.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    In determining the etiology of eosinophilia, it is necessary to consider the type of patient, including previous travel and exposure history, comorbidities, and symptoms. In this review, we discuss the approach to the patient with eosinophilia from an infectious diseases perspective based on symptom complexes. PMID:26209897

  18. [Antibiotherapy of infectious endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Meyssonnier, Vanina; Bricaire, François

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotherapy is the pillar of the infectious endocarditis treatment. Bactericidal drugs must be used and their choice has to be adapted to bacterial sensitivity. The duration of treatment, traditionaly lengthy, especially in prosthetic valve endocarditis, depends on bacteria and has been shortened in some guidelines because of the combination of aminoglycoside.

  19. Dynamics of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology--the SIS and SIR type models--before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  20. Study of Aplastic Anaemia with Cyclosporine in Resource Poor Setting

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Anukonda Moti Venkata Raja; Adiraju, Krishna Prasad; Modugu, Nageshwar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aplastic Anaemia (AA) is a syndrome characterized by peripheral pancytopenia with hypo-cellular marrow. Acquired idiopathic AA is the most common variety, probably of an autoimmune aetiology. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is the treatment of choice but cost is the limiting factor. Antithymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine-A is an alternative to BMT. Cyclosporine alone has been tried as a single agent in resource poor setting. Aim The study was conducted with the aim to observe the treatment response in aplastic anaemia to Cycloserine-A. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed as AA and opted for Cyclosporine with informed consent were included in the study. All the subjects were started on 5mg/kg of Cyclosporine and were followed up for three months to see the treatment response. This study had the approval from IEC. Results Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. Age of the patients ranged from 10 to 65 years. Maximum number (10/20) of patients was in the 2nd decade. Most of the patients presented with mucosal bleeds and breathlessness on exertion; the predominant sign was pallor. Eleven patients had severe AA, eight had non severe and one had very severe anaemia. Out of 20, three patients were lost to follow-up and one patient discontinued therapy due to renal dysfunction; finally sixteen patients’ data was analysed. Out of 16 patients, 9 responded was and 7 did not respond. Complete response was observed in three patients, partial response in six patients. Seven patients had drug toxicity in the form of acute renal failure and gum hypertrophy. Conclusion Cyclosporine seems to be a reasonable therapeutic option with good response rate and minimal side effects. PMID:27504327

  1. Genetic determinants of haemolysis in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Milton, Jacqueline N; Rooks, Helen; Drasar, Emma; McCabe, Elizabeth L; Baldwin, Clinton T; Melista, Efi; Gordeuk, Victor R; Nouraie, Mehdi; Kato, Gregory R; Kato, Gregory J; Minniti, Caterina; Taylor, James; Campbell, Andrew; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Rana, Sohail; Castro, Oswaldo; Zhang, Yingze; Thein, Swee Lay; Sebastiani, Paola; Gladwin, Mark T; Steinberg, Martin H

    2013-04-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is variable among patients with sickle cell anaemia and can be estimated by reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin levels. Using principal component analysis of these measurements we computed a haemolytic score that we used as a subphenotype in a genome-wide association study. We identified in one cohort and replicated in two additional cohorts the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in NPRL3 (rs7203560; chr16p13·3) (P = 6·04 × 10(-07) ). This association was validated by targeted genotyping in a fourth independent cohort. The HBA1/HBA2 regulatory elements, hypersensitive sites (HS)-33, HS-40 and HS-48 are located in introns of NPRL3. Rs7203560 was in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs9926112 (r(2)  = 1) and in strong LD with rs7197554 (r(2)  = 0·75) and rs13336641 (r(2)  = 0·77); the latter is located between HS-33 and HS-40 sites and next to a CTCF binding site. The minor allele for rs7203560 was associated with the -∝(3·7) thalassaemia gene deletion. When adjusting for HbF and ∝ thalassaemia, the association of NPRL3 with the haemolytic score was significant (P = 0·00375) and remained significant when examining only cases without gene deletion∝ thalassaemia (P = 0·02463). Perhaps by independently down-regulating expression of the HBA1/HBA2 genes, variants of the HBA1/HBA2 gene regulatory loci, tagged by rs7203560, reduce haemolysis in sickle cell anaemia.

  2. Comparison of two commercial kits and an in-house ELISA for the detection of equine rotavirus in foal feces.

    PubMed

    Miño, S; Kern, A; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V

    2015-09-15

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are important infectious agents associated with diarrhea in the young of several animal species including foals. Currently, a variety of diagnosis methods are commercially available, like ELISA, latex agglutination and immunochromatographic assays. These commercial tests are mainly designed for the detection of human RVA; its applicability in veterinary diagnosis has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of two commercial diagnostic kits, Pathfinder™ Rotavirus and FASTest Rota® strip, with an in-house KERI ELISA, for the detection of equine RVA. A total of 172 stool samples from Thoroughbred foals with diarrhea were analyzed. The presence of equine RVA in samples in which only one of the three methods showed positive results was confirmed by RT-PCR. A sample was considered "true positive" when RVA was detected by at least two of the methods, and "true negative" when it tested negative by the three assays. Following these criteria, 50 samples were found positive and 122 were found negative, and were handled as reference population for the assay validation. Pathfinder™ Rotavirus assay showed 32% sensitivity and 97% specificity, FASTest Rota® strip, 92% sensitivity and 97% specificity, and KERI ELISA, 76% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Pathfinder™ Rotavirus showed 77%, FASTest Rota® strip 95%, and KERI ELISA 88% accuracy to correctly classify the samples as equine RVA positive or negative. Pathfinder failed specifically to detect equine RVA G3P12I6 genotype; such performance might be related to the specificity of the monoclonal antibody included in this kit. According to our results, differences among VP6 genotypes could influence the sensitivity to detect equine RVA in foal feces, and thus assay validation of diagnostic kits for each species is necessary. In conclusion, FASTest Rota® strip is more suitable than ELISA Pathfinder™ Rotavirus for the screening of rotavirus

  3. Sickle cell anaemia: The need for new approaches in management.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is an important genetic disorder in India and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Over 100 000 people are affected by this disorder and 10%-40% of the 85 million tribal population carries this gene. Conventional management and therapy with hydroxyurea provides symptomatic relief. A search for an anti-sickling agent has so far proved unsuccessful. However, improving upon existing compounds; looking for newer products using modern tools of bioinformatics, monoclonal antibody and aptamer technology; and evaluating medicines from ethno-pharmacology are promising approaches in managing this disease.

  4. Subcortical and cerebellar volumetric deficits in paediatric sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Kawadler, Jamie M; Clayden, Jonathan D; Kirkham, Fenella J; Cox, Timothy C; Saunders, Dawn E; Clark, Chris A

    2013-11-01

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with silent cerebral infarction (SCI), affecting white and cortical grey matter, but there are few data on subcortical volumes. We analysed retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 26 SCA patients and 20 controls, comparing mean subcortical volumes between three groups: controls, SCA with SCI (n = 13) and SCA without visible abnormality (n = 13). Specific volumetric differences were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, caudate, putamen, thalamus, and cerebellum. This is the first study to demonstrate subcortical volume change in SCA, with the most severe volumetric deficits occurring in children with SCI seen on MRI.

  5. Rituximab-based immunosuppression for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in infants.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Johanna; Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Molinari, Angelo C; Micalizzi, Concetta; Banov, Laura; Schmidt, Madalina; Caprino, Daniela; Marinelli, Doretta; Gallisai, Domenico; Dufour, Carlo

    2009-04-01

    We report a case series of four infants with severe autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) who responded to treatment with rituximab and cyclosporine after having failed first line therapy with high-dose steroid (prednisolone 4-8 mg/kg/d). Rituximab was started at 11-90 d from onset due to continued haemolysis; three infants also received cyclosporine A. Three of four infants reached complete response, defined as normal haemoglobin, reticulocytes and negative indices of haemolysis, at 7-21 months from diagnosis. In long-term follow-up two infants remained disease-free with normal immunology, one had undefined immunodeficiency and one had autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  6. Risk factors for fetal anaemia in a malarious area of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Brabin, B J; Kalanda, B F; Verhoeff, F H; Chimsuku, L H; Broadhead, R L

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of infants born with low cord haemoglobin (fetal anaemia) is high in areas where malaria and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy are common. The objective of the present study was to determine risk factors for fetal anaemia in an area of high malaria transmission in southern Malawi. A case control study was undertaken with fetal anaemia defined as cord haemoglobin (Hb) < 12.5 g/dl. Between March 1993 and July 1994, pregnant women attending the study hospitals for the first time in that pregnancy were enrolled. Data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, previous obstetric history and current pregnancy were collected. Malaria parasitaemia, Hb levels and iron status were measured in maternal blood at recruitment and delivery and in umbilical venous blood. Fetal anaemia occurred in 23.4% of babies. Mean (SD) cord Hb was 13.6 g/dl (1.83). Factors associated with fetal anaemia were: birth in the rainy season [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.73-3.14], pre-term delivery (AOR 1.60, 1.03-2.49), infant Hb < 14 g/dl at 24 hours (AOR 2.35, 1.20-4.59), maternal Hb at delivery < 8 g/dl (AOR 1.61, 1.10-2.42) or <11 g/dl (AOR 1.60, 1.10-2.31). A higher prevalence of fetal anaemia occurred with increasing peripheral Plasmodium falciparum parasite density (p=0.03) and geometric mean placental parasite densities were higher in babies with fetal anaemia than in those without (3331 vs 2152 parasites/microl, p=0.07). Interventions should aim to reduce fetal anaemia by improving malaria and anaemia control in pregnancy and by addressing the determinants of pre-term delivery.

  7. The silent burden of anaemia in Tanzanian children: a community-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, D.; Schellenberg, J. R. M. Armstrong; Mushi, A.; Savigny, D. de; Mgalula, L.; Mbuya, C.; Victora, C. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence, age-distribution, and risk factors for anaemia in Tanzanian children less than 5 years old, thereby assisting in the development of effective strategies for controlling anaemia. METHODS: Cluster sampling was used to identify 2417 households at random from four contiguous districts in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania in mid-1999. Data on various social and medical parameters were collected and analysed. FINDINGS: Blood haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) were available for 1979 of the 2131 (93%) children identified and ranged from 1.7 to 18.6 g/dl. Overall, 87% (1722) of children had an Hb <11 g/dl, 39% (775) had an Hb <8 g/dl and 3% (65) had an Hb <5 g/dl. The highest prevalence of anaemia of all three levels was in children aged 6-11 months, of whom 10% (22/226) had an Hb <5 g/dl. However, the prevalence of anaemia was already high in children aged 1-5 months (85% had an Hb <11 g/dl, 42% had an Hb <8 g/dl, and 6% had an Hb <5 g/dl). Anaemia was usually asymptomatic and when symptoms arose they were nonspecific and rarely identified as a serious illness by the care provider. A recent history of treatment with antimalarials and iron was rare. Compliance with vaccinations delivered through the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) was 82% and was not associated with risk of anaemia. CONCLUSION: Anaemia is extremely common in south-eastern United Republic of Tanzania, even in very young infants. Further implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness algorithm should improve the case management of anaemia. However, the asymptomatic nature of most episodes of anaemia highlights the need for preventive strategies. The EPI has good coverage of the target population and it may be an appropriate channel for delivering tools for controlling anaemia and malaria. PMID:14576890

  8. Anaemia in infancy in rural Bangladesh: contribution of iron deficiency, infections and poor feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Rahul; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Kennedy, Andrew; Rohner, Fabian; Ruel, Marie; Menon, Purnima

    2014-01-14

    Few data exist on the aetiology of anaemia and Fe deficiency (ID) during early infancy in South Asia. The present study aimed to determine the contribution of ID, infections and feeding practices to anaemia in Bangladeshi infants aged 6-11 months. Baseline data from 1600 infants recruited into a cluster-randomised trial testing the effectiveness of micronutrient powder sales by frontline health workers on the prevalence of anaemia were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for anaemia and ID, and population attributable fractions (PAF) were computed to estimate the proportion of anaemia that might be prevented by the elimination of individual risk factors. It was found that 68 % of the infants were anaemic, 56 % were Fe deficient, and one-third had evidence of subclinical infections. The prevalence of anaemia and ID increased rapidly, until 8-9 months of age, while that of subclinical infections was constant. ID (adjusted OR (AOR) 2·6-5·0; P< 0·001) and subclinical infections (AOR 1·4-1·5; P< 0·01) were major risk factors for anaemia, in addition to age and male sex. Similarly, subclinical infections, age and male sex were significant risk factors for ID. Previous-day consumption of Fe-rich foods was very low and not associated with anaemia or ID. The PAF of anaemia attributable to ID was 67 % (95 % CI 62, 71) and that of subclinical infections was 16 % (95 % CI 11, 20). These results suggest that a multipronged strategy that combines improvements in dietary Fe intake alongside infection control strategies is needed to prevent anaemia during infancy in Bangladesh.

  9. Effect of dose on house finch infection with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Chiles, Robert; Martinez, Vincent; Fang, Ying; Green, Emily; Clark, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    House finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, were experimentally infected with high and standard doses of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) to determine whether high doses would produce an elevated viremia response and a high frequency of chronic infections. Finches inoculated with approximately100,000 plaque forming units (PFU) of WEEV or SLEV produced viremia and antibody responses similar to those in finches inoculated with approximately 100 PFU of WEEV or 1000 PFU of SLEV, the approximate quantities of virus expectorated by blood-feeding Culex tarsalis Coquillett. Infected finches were held through winter and then necropsied. Only one finch inoculated with the high dose of SLEV developed a chronic infection. Our data indicated that elevated infectious doses of virus may not increase the viremia level or the frequency of chronic infection in house finches.

  10. A vaccine candidate for eastern equine encephalitis virus based on IRES-mediated attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Jyotsna; Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Weaver, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    To develop an effective vaccine against eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), we engineered a recombinant EEE virus (EEEV) that was attenuated and capable of replicating only in vertebrate cells, an important safety feature for live vaccines against mosquito-borne viruses. The subgenomic promoter was inactivated with 13 synonymous mutations and expression of the EEEV structural proteins was placed under the control of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) derived from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). We tested this vaccine candidate for virulence, viremia and efficacy in the murine model. A single subcutaneous immunization with 104 infectious units protected 100% of mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a highly virulent North American EEEV strain. None of the mice developed any signs of disease or viremia after immunization or following challenge. Our findings suggest that the IRES-based attenuation approach can be used to develop a safe and effective vaccine against EEE and other alphaviral diseases. PMID:22222869

  11. A vaccine candidate for eastern equine encephalitis virus based on IRES-mediated attenuation.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jyotsna; Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Weaver, Scott C

    2012-02-08

    To develop an effective vaccine against eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), we engineered a recombinant EEE virus (EEEV) that was attenuated and capable of replicating only in vertebrate cells, an important safety feature for live vaccines against mosquito-borne viruses. The subgenomic promoter was inactivated with 13 synonymous mutations and expression of the EEEV structural proteins was placed under the control of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) derived from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). We tested this vaccine candidate for virulence, viremia and efficacy in the murine model. A single subcutaneous immunization with 10(4) infectious units protected 100% of mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a highly virulent North American EEEV strain. None of the mice developed any signs of disease or viremia after immunization or following challenge. Our findings suggest that the IRES-based attenuation approach can be used to develop a safe and effective vaccine against EEE and other alphaviral diseases.

  12. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids.

  13. Bovine and equine peritubular and intertubular dentin.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Telser, A; Lux, E; Cai, Z

    2014-09-01

    Dentin contains 1-2μm diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (∼200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30μm thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ∼0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ∼0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ∼0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD.

  14. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application.

  15. Expression of endothelin in equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Katwa, L C; Johnson, P J; Ganjam, V K; Kreeger, J M; Messer, N T

    1999-05-01

    Biosynthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictor yet identified, is increased following myocardial infarction (MI) in man. Pathological events which occur in the connective tissues of the equine hoof during laminitis are similar in some respects, to changes occurring in the myocardial connective tissues following MI in man. The objective of this study was to determine whether ET-1 expression in connective tissues obtained from the hoof of laminitic horses is increased compared with tissues obtained from healthy horses. Expression of ET-1 in connective tissues of the equine hoof was measured following tissue extraction from 3 groups of horses: horses in which acute laminitis had been induced by the administration of starch; chronically foundered horses; nonlaminitic horses. The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from all laminitic horses (1573.0 +/- 392.8 pg/g of tissue; n = 10) was increased when compared with tissues obtained from nonlaminitic horses (392.5 +/- 117.4 pg/g of tissue; n = 5) (P<0.05). The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from the experimentally induced, acute laminitic horses (1043.6 +/- 254.4 pg/g of tissue; n = 7) and from the spontaneously affected, chronic laminitic horses (2808.3 +/- 878.6 pg/g of tissue; n = 3) was increased compared with the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from the chronic laminitic horses was greater than that of the experimentally induced, acute laminitic group (P<0.05). It is suggested that the data provide a strong argument that increased ET-1 expression in the connective tissues of the equine hoof represent a potentially important and hitherto unrecognised component of the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether inhibitors of ET-1 converting enzyme or antagonists of ET-1 receptors might be useful in the treatment

  16. ANTIGENIC VARIANTS OF EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Casals, Jordi

    1964-01-01

    A study by hemagglutination-inhibition test showed that 19 strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus grouped themselves in two main types, which have been designated North American and South American. The former consists of ten strains from the eastern half of the United States, from Massachusetts to Florida; Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, and, subject to confirmation, Thailand. The South American type comprises nine strains from Panama, Trinidad, British Guiana, Brazil, and Argentina. The strains were isolated from different natural hosts over a period of 30 years. PMID:14151098

  17. Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

    2014-04-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia.

  18. Compounding of Veterinary Drugs for Equine Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott D; Moffitt, Krysta; Wiebe, Valerie

    2017-04-01

    Equine practitioners should follow these recommendations when using compounded medications: (1) the decision must be veterinary driven, based on a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship and on evidence-based medicine; (2) compliance with the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994; and (3) use limited to (a) horses for which no other method or route of drug delivery is practical; (b) those drugs for which safety, efficacy, and stability have been demonstrated; or (c) disease conditions for which a quantifiable response to therapy or drug concentration can be monitored.

  19. [Liver diseases of infectious aetiology].

    PubMed

    Chalupa, P

    2007-01-01

    Review article is dealing with the problems of infectious diseases of the liver. Attention is paid to the basic infectious agents, jaundice accompanying infectious diseases and focal infections of the liver. Specific infections of the liver are supplemented by brief pathological and anatomical characteristics.

  20. Genetic strategies for the treatment of sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is a severe inherited blood disorder for which there is presently no curative therapy other than allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. This therapeutic option, however, is not available to most patients because of the lack of a matched related donor. Different genetic strategies aiming to treat the anaemia and prevent sickling are under investigation. They include strategies to transfer a regulated globin gene in autologous HSCs-the most developed approach, which is about to undergo clinical evaluation-, and strategies to either restore endogenous HBG expression, repair or eliminate HBB(S) mutant transcripts, or correct the sickle mutation in HSCs or induced pluripotent stem cells. Their common ultimate goals are to afford therapeutic levels of HbA or HbF in the erythroid progeny of autologous HSCs (sufficient to prevent pathological sickling) and engraft the genetically modified HSCs with minimal short-term toxicity (primarily caused by the conditioning regimen) and long-term toxicity (primarily caused by genotoxicity). We discuss here the status of application of these technologies, outlining recent advances and the hurdles that lay ahead.

  1. New Strategies for Anaemia Management in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron therapy are the standard of care for normocytic normochromic anaemia, which is a frequent comorbidity of patients with chronic kidney disease. In a large percentage of patients, ESAs and iron increase haemoglobin levels, thus reducing the risk of blood transfusions and improving patient quality of life. However, randomised trials have raised some concerns about higher haemoglobin targets and/or high ESA dose use. These concerns include higher cardiovascular and thrombosis risk, cancer progression, and increased mortality. A more cautious approach was then advised and partial anaemia correction (haemoglobin 10-12 g/dl) is now strongly suggested. The clinical concerns about ESAs and economic constraints have led to larger intravenous iron use. However, severe anaphylactic reactions, although infrequent, can occur and excessive iron use may be dangerous as well, possibly causing iron overload. Several attempts are being made to develop new drugs with theoretically better activity and safety, and/or easier manufacturing processes as compared to available ESAs. These include drugs manipulating the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) system, which stimulates the endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production and avoids unphysiological EPO plasma levels. Several phase I and II studies support the beneficial role of augmenting HIFs to stimulate erythropoiesis. Here we give an update on this new investigational strategy.

  2. Acetanilide oxidation in phenylbutazone-associated hypoplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J L; Leyland, M J; Delamore, I W; Evans, D A

    1974-08-03

    Acetanilide like phenylbutazone is paraoxidized by the liver endoplasmic reticulum as a primary biotransformation step. Both compounds were given at different times to each of 10 healthy volunteer subjects and the plasma disappearances measured. Correlation was shown between plasma clearance values of the two compounds (r = + 0.7067; P < 0.05).Eight patients with hypoplastic anaemia after phenylbutazone therapy were investigated. Plasma clearance values and half lives of acetanilide were measured in this group of patients and compared with those of a group of 30 healthy volunteer controls. There was a significant decrease in clearance (P < 0.01) and lengthening of half lives (P < 0.001 in the patients with phenylbutazone-associated hypoplasia. Five patients with idiopathic aplastic anaemia-that is, without history of antecedent phenylbutazone ingestion-were similarly investigated with acetanilide and there was no significant difference between the results in these patients and those in the control group.It is suggested that relatively poor paraoxidation of phenylbutazone producing high blood concentrations on a given dose may be a factor responsible for the drug-associated hypoplasia even though it does not explain the similar pattern of adverse reactions reported in association with oral administration of the metabolite oxyphenbutazone.

  3. A fast-track anaemia clinic in the Emergency Department: feasibility and efficacy of intravenous iron administration for treating sub-acute iron deficiency anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Díaz, Manuel; Fabra-Cadenas, Sara; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; Martínez-Virto, Ana; García-Erce, José A.; Muñoz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically significant anaemia, requiring red blood cell transfusions, is frequently observed in Emergency Departments (ED). To optimise blood product use, we developed a clinical protocol for the management of iron-deficiency anaemia in a fast-track anaemia clinic within the ED. Materials and methods From November 2010 to January 2014, patients presenting with sub-acute, moderate-to-severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) and confirmed or suspected iron deficiency were referred to the fast-track anaemia clinic. Those with absolute or functional iron deficiency were given intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose 500–1,000 mg/week and were reassessed 4 weeks after receiving the total iron dose. The primary study outcome was the haematological response (Hb≥12 g/dL and/or Hb increment ≥2 g/dL). Changes in blood and iron parameters, transfusion rates and IV iron-related adverse drug effects were secondary outcomes. Results Two hundred and two anaemic patients with iron deficiency (150 women/52 men; mean age, 64 years) were managed in the fast-track anaemia clinic, and received a median IV iron dose of 1,500 mg (1,000–2,000 mg). Gastro-intestinal (44%) or gynaecological (26%) bleeding was the most frequent cause of the anaemia. At follow-up (183 patients), the mean Hb increment was 3.9±2.2 g/dL; 84% of patients were classified as responders and blood and iron parameters normalised in 90%. During follow-up, 35 (17%) patients needed transfusions (2 [range: 1–3] units per patient) because they had low Hb levels, symptoms of anaemia and/or were at risk. Eight mild and one moderate, self-limited adverse drug effects were witnessed. Discussion Our data support the feasibility of a clinical protocol for management of sub-acute anaemia with IV iron in the ED. IV iron was efficacious, safe and well tolerated. Early management of anaemia will improve the use of blood products in the ED. PMID:26674819

  4. Bedbugs and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Pascal; Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-15

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance.

  5. Bedbugs and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Véronique; Del Giudice, Pascal; Levy-Bencheton, Anna; Chosidow, Olivier; Marty, Pierre; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bedbugs are brown and flat hematophagous insects. The 2 cosmopolite species, Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, feed on humans and/or domestic animals, and recent outbreaks have been reported in occidental countries. Site assessment for bedbug eradication is complex but can be assured, despite emerging insecticide resistance, by hiring a pest-control manager. The common dermatological presentation of bites is an itchy maculopapular wheal. Urticarial reactions and anaphylaxis can also occur. Bedbugs are suspected of transmitting infectious agents, but no report has yet demonstrated that they are infectious disease vectors. We describe 45 candidate pathogens potentially transmitted by bedbugs, according to their vectorial capacity, in the wild, and vectorial competence, in the laboratory. Because of increasing demands for information about effective control tactics and public health risks of bedbugs, continued research is needed to identify new pathogens in wild Cimex species (spp) and insecticide resistance. PMID:21288844

  6. Screening results of anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Quek, K F; Hokama, T; Yogi, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the baseline characteristics of the results of a screening test for anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan. The groups were classified into two; infants with and without anaemia. A total of 201 infants were screened at 3-4 months, 9-10 months and 18 months. The study showed that gestational age and BMI were predictive of anaemia at 3-4 months of age. At 9-10 months, types of feeding and weight ratio were the only factors that were found to be significantly predictive of anaemia. However, no factor was found to be predictive of anaemia at 18 months. Anaemia cases were found to occur at 3-4 months and 9-10 months. Most of the anaemia cases have successfully undergone treatment.

  7. INFECTIOUS PAPILLOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.; Hurst, E. Weston

    1933-01-01

    A papilloma has been observed in wild cottontail rabbits and has been found to be transmissible to both wild and domestic rabbits. The clinical and pathological pictures of the condition have been described. It has been found that the causative agent is readily filtrable through Berkefeld but not regularly through Seitz filters, that it stores well in glycerol, that it is still active after heating to 67°C. for 30 minutes, but not after heating to 70°C., and that it exhibits a marked tropism for cutaneous epithelium. The activities and properties of the papilloma-producing agent warrant its classification as a filtrable virus. Rabbits carrying experimentally produced papillomata are partially or completely immune to reinfection and, furthermore, their sera partially or completely neutralize the causative virus. The disease is transmissible in series through wild rabbits and virus of wild rabbit origin is readily transmissible to domestic rabbits, producing in this species papillomata identical in appearance with those found in wild rabbits. However, the condition is not transmissible in series through domestic rabbits. The possible significance of this observation has been discussed. The virus of infectious papillomatosis is not related immunologically to either the virus of infectious fibroma or to that of infectious myxoma of rabbits. PMID:19870219

  8. Immunoserology of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    James, K

    1990-01-01

    The immune response to microorganisms not only participates in the elimination of unwanted organisms from the body, but also assists in diagnosis of infectious diseases. The nonspecific immune response is the first line of defense, assisting the body until the specific immune response can be mobilized to provide protective mechanisms. The specific immune response involves humoral or cell-mediated immunity or both, dependent on the nature of the organism and its site of sequestration. A variety of test systems have been developed to identify the causative organisms of infectious diseases. Test systems used in immunoserology have classically included methods of detecting antigen-antibody reactions which range from complement fixation to immunoassay methods. Relevant test systems for detecting antigens and antibodies are described. With numerous test systems available to detect antigens and antibodies, there can be confusion regarding selection of the appropriate system for each application. Methods for detecting antibody to verify immunity differ from immunologic methods to diagnose disease. Techniques to detect soluble antigens present in active infectious states may appear similar to those used to detect antibody, but their differences should be appreciated. PMID:2187592

  9. [Renaissance of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Gładysz, Andrzej; Fleischer-Stepniewska, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    According to the report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, infectious diseases are one of the eight most common causes of illness since 1990. Due to breaking down barriers of interspecies, the state of immunosuppression, widespread use of antibiotics, there are still new threats, and earlier known to cause disease of a different course, resistant to previously effective therapies. The evolution of infectious diseases directs our attention primarily on the validity of the principles of rational antibiotic use to the increasing resistance of microorganisms. The movements of the opponents of vaccination appear to be more effective than the planned education of doctors and their patients, and the absence of sufficient administrative control performance of vaccination, raises a serious problem in contemporary clinical researcher. Infectious diseases will continue to exist as long as host organisms. It is important to the fight against them, making the best use of expertise and funds. In such a situation, the balance may move to benefit us--humans.

  10. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, Lori H.; Zolman, Eric S.; Balmer, Brian C.; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R. Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A.; Kucklick, John R.; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A.; McFee, Wayne E.; Place, Ned J.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Wells, Randall S.; Rowles, Teresa K.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters. PMID:21613298

  11. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-07

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Similarly, T-lymphocyte proliferation and indices of innate immunity decreased with blubber PCB concentration, suggesting an increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Other persistent contaminants such as DDT which could potentially confound results were similar in the Georgia dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  12. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anaemia Among School Children in Kenitra, Northwest of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M

    2015-04-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin < 11.5 g dL(-1). A questionnaire was developed to obtain information about the daily food consumption and socio-economic conditions. The prevalence of anaemia was 16.2%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.53 g dL(-1) in boys and 12.52 g dL(-1) in girls. The results suggest that iron deficiency is an important determinant of anaemia in this population. There was a significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.

  13. Hereditary ring sideroblastic anaemia and Christmas disease in a Swedish family.

    PubMed

    Hast, R; Miale, T; Westin, J; Birgegård, G; Möller, E; Reizenstein, P; Teger-Nilsson, A C; Wetterberg, L

    1983-05-01

    The association of hereditary ring sideroblastic anaemia with Christmas disease in a Swedish family is described. We have studied the transmission of the sideroblastic trait, in relation to HLA groups and Christmas disease, and also evaluated the erythrocyte morphology, uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase activity and S-ferritin for the detection of latent cases of ring sideroblastic anaemia. The proband had ring sideroblastic anaemia, Christmas disease and haemochromatosis. 3 cases of ring sideroblastic anaemia were found among the 12 family members studied. Using the factor IX deficiency as a marker of the X chromosome, it appeared that autosomal transmission of the sideroblastic trait was most likely. The sideroblastic trait did not seem to be linked to HLA-A3-alloantigen. Erythrocyte morphology was normal in all non-anaemic subjects. S-ferritin was found to be increased in all 3 cases of sideroblastic anaemia as well as in 1 non-anaemic relative. Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase was elevated in 10 of the 12 family members; those with sideroblastic anaemia had the highest values indicating that uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase is of importance in the disturbed haem-synthesis of ring sideroblastic anaemia. This interpretation is supported by the positive correlation between S-ferritin values and the uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase activity.

  14. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    PubMed

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-08-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.' Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance of such effects is then performed and correlated with the general classification criteria used for this endpoint. This review intends to give guidance when carrying out an assessment for classification for this endpoint and to allow for better transparency in the decision-making process on when to classify based on the presence of haemolytic anaemia in repeated dose toxicity studies. The extended classification criteria for haemolytic anaemia outlined in this review were accepted by the EU Commission Working Group on the Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Substances in September 2004.

  15. Comparative sequence analysis of the eastern equine encephalitis virus pathogenic strains FL91-4679 and GA97 to other North American strains.

    PubMed

    Platteborze, Peter L; Kondig, John P; Schoepp, Randal J; Wasieloski, Leonar P

    2005-08-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a significant public health concern due to the high mortality rates observed in infected humans, equines and game birds. The EEE genomic sequences available prior to this report are based on laboratory strains with unknown passage histories that may contain an array of cell culture adaptations. Here we report the complete genomic sequences of two recently isolated EEE pathogenic strains with low passage histories. FL91-4697 was isolated in Florida from Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and GA97 was derived from brain tissue of a human fatality that occurred in 1997. Sequence alignment of these new genomes with the documented EEE's permitted us to generate a North American consensus sequence and identify regions of significant diversity. Sequence analysis of the FL91-4679 genome was essential to the production of an EEE infectious clone that is being used to create live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  16. Development of a Genetically Engineered Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-15

    antibody neutralization titers of sera from the TC-5A immunized horses ranged from 64 to > 128; however, the sera did not neutralize the equine virulent VEE...human adenovirus 5 DNA. Virology 52:456-467. Groot, H. 1972. The health and economic impact of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE). p. 7-16. In... equine encephalitis (VEE). p. 7-16. In Venezuelan Encephalitis, Sci. Pub. 243, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C. Hunt, A.R., Johnson, A.J

  17. Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Burns, Teresa A

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly.

  18. Iron deficiency and anaemia in bariatric surgical patients: causes, diagnosis and proper management.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Botella-Romero, F; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Campos, A; García-Erce, J A

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-induced chronic inflammation leads to activation of the immune system that causes alterations of iron homeostasis including hypoferraemia, iron-restricted erythropoiesis, and finally mild-to-moderate anaemia. Thus, preoperative anaemia and iron deficiency are common among obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery (BS). Assessment of patients should include a complete haematological and biochemical laboratory work-up, including measurement of iron stores, vitamin B12 and folate. In addition, gastrointestinal evaluation is recommended for most patients with iron-deficiency anaemia. On the other hand, BS is a long-lasting inflammatory stimulus in itself and entails a reduction of the gastric capacity and/or exclusion from the gastrointestinal tract which impair nutrients absorption, including dietary iron. Chronic gastrointestinal blood loss and iron-losingenteropathy may also contribute to iron deficiency after BS. Perioperative anaemia has been linked to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and decreased quality of life after major surgery, whereas treatment of perioperative anaemia, and even haematinic deficiency without anaemia, has been shown to improve patient outcomes and quality of life. However, long-term follow-up data in regard to prevalence, severity, and causes of anaemia after BS are mostly absent. Iron supplements should be administered to patients after BS, but compliance with oral iron is no good. In addition, once iron deficiency has developed, it may prove refractory to oral treatment. In these situations, IV iron (which can circumvent the iron blockade at enterocytes and macrophages) has emerged as a safe and effective alternative for perioperative anaemia management. Monitoring should continue indefinitely even after the initial iron repletion and anaemia resolution, and maintenance IV iron treatment should be provided as required. New IV preparations, such ferric carboxymaltose, are safe, easy to use and up to 1000 mg can

  19. Anaemia, folate, zinc and copper deficiencies among adolescent schoolgirls in eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Ishraga I; Mahgoub, Hyder M; Mohamed, Ayoub A; Ali, Naji I; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Adam, I

    2009-12-01

    Anaemia is a widespread problem especially in the tropics. Among adolescent girls, it has negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, iron, folate, zinc and copper deficiencies amongst adolescent schoolgirls in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, and to examine the relationship of these micronutrients with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Out of 187 adolescent schoolgirls, 181 (96.8%) had anaemia (Hb<12 g/dl); 21% had mild anaemia (Hb 11.0-11.9 g/dl); 66.8.1% had moderate anaemia (Hb 8.0-10.9 g/dl), and 12.1% had severe anaemia (Hb<8 g/dl), respectively. Iron deficiency (S-ferritin<12 μg/l), iron deficiency anaemia (<12 m/dl and S- ferritin<12 μg/l) and folate deficiency (S-folate<3 ng/ml) were prevalent in 17.6%, 16.5% and 69% of these girls, respectively. Nine percent and 5.9% of these girls had zinc (<75 μg/ml) and copper deficiency (<75 μg/ml), respectively. Twenty-six (14%) girls had ≥ 2 micronutrient deficiencies. S-ferritin and zinc were significantly lower in patients with severe anaemia. Haemoglobin levels were significantly positively correlated with zinc levels (r=0.161, P=0.03) and with copper levels (r=0.151, P=0.03). Thus, interventions are required to prevent and control anaemia in this setting. Further research is needed.

  20. Non-Invasive Detection of Anaemia Using Digital Photographs of the Conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    Collings, Shaun; Thompson, Oliver; Hirst, Evan; Goossens, Louise; George, Anup; Weinkove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Anaemia is a major health burden worldwide. Although the finding of conjunctival pallor on clinical examination is associated with anaemia, inter-observer variability is high, and definitive diagnosis of anaemia requires a blood sample. We aimed to detect anaemia by quantifying conjunctival pallor using digital photographs taken with a consumer camera and a popular smartphone. Our goal was to develop a non-invasive screening test for anaemia. Patients and Methods The conjunctivae of haemato-oncology in- and outpatients were photographed in ambient lighting using a digital camera (Panasonic DMC-LX5), and the internal rear-facing camera of a smartphone (Apple iPhone 5S) alongside an in-frame calibration card. Following image calibration, conjunctival erythema index (EI) was calculated and correlated with laboratory-measured haemoglobin concentration. Three clinicians independently evaluated each image for conjunctival pallor. Results Conjunctival EI was reproducible between images (average coefficient of variation 2.96%). EI of the palpebral conjunctiva correlated more strongly with haemoglobin concentration than that of the forniceal conjunctiva. Using the compact camera, palpebral conjunctival EI had a sensitivity of 93% and 57% and specificity of 78% and 83% for detection of anaemia (haemoglobin < 110 g/L) in training and internal validation sets, respectively. Similar results were found using the iPhone camera, though the EI cut-off value differed. Conjunctival EI analysis compared favourably with clinician assessment, with a higher positive likelihood ratio for prediction of anaemia. Conclusions Erythema index of the palpebral conjunctiva calculated from images taken with a compact camera or mobile phone correlates with haemoglobin and compares favourably to clinician assessment for prediction of anaemia. If confirmed in further series, this technique may be useful for the non-invasive screening for anaemia. PMID:27070544

  1. Anaemia, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Mohamed; Elhassan, Elhassan M; Ali, Naji I; Osman, Elfatih; Bakheit, Khalid H; Adam, Ishag I

    2010-12-01

    Anaemia is a widespread problem in many parts of the world especially in tropic areas. Among pregnant women, it has negative consequences on maternal and perinatal outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, iron, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in Wad Medani hospital, central Sudan and to examine the relationship of these micronutrients with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. One hundred four (52.5%) out of 200 pregnant women had anaemia (Hb < 11 gm/dl) and 3 (1.5) % had severe anaemia (Hb < 7 gm/dl). Iron deficiency (S-ferritin < 15 µg/l), iron deficiency anaemia (<11 gm/dl and S-ferritin < 15 µg/l) were prevalent in 25 (12.5%) and 13 (6.5%) of these women, respectively. Ninety (45.0%) and eight (4.0%) of these women had zinc (<80 µg/ml) and copper (<80 µg/ml) deficiency, respectively. In 24 (12.0%) of these women, there were ≥2 deficiencies of these elements. S-copper was not [corrected] significantly lower in patients with anaemia. While age, parity, gestational age, ferritin, zinc and copper were not predictors for anaemia, women who practiced pica were at higher risk for anaemia (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-7.9, P = 0.004). Gestational age was significantly inversely correlated with haemoglobin (r = 0.161, P = 0.03), S-ferritin (r = 0.285, P = 0.001) and S-zinc (r = 0.166, P = 0.02). Thus, dietary and supplement interventions are required to prevent and control anaemia in this setting. Further research is needed.

  2. Giant crystals inside mitochondria of equine chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, S; Rentenberger, C; Thiel, K; Schädl, B; Grunwald, I; Ponomarev, I; Marlovits, St; Meyer, Ch; Barnewitz, D

    2016-12-24

    The present study reports for the first time the presence of giant crystals in mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. These structures show dark contrast in TEM images as well as a granular substructure of regularly aligned 1-2 nm small units. Different zone axes of the crystalline structure were analysed by means of Fourier transformation of lattice-resolution TEM images proving the crystalline nature of the structure. Elemental analysis reveals a high content of nitrogen referring to protein. The outer shape of the crystals is geometrical with an up to hexagonal profile in cross sections. It is elongated, spanning a length of several micrometres through the whole cell. In some chondrocytes, several crystals were found, sometimes combined in a single mitochondrion. Crystals were preferentially aligned along the long axis of the cells, thus appearing in the same orientation as the chondrocytes in the tissue. Although no similar structures have been found in the cartilage of any other species investigated, they have been found in cartilage repair tissue formed within a mechanically stimulated equine chondrocyte construct. Crystals were mainly located in superficial regions of cartilage, especially in joint regions of well-developed superficial layers, more often in yearlings than in adult horses. These results indicate that intramitochondrial crystals are related to the high mechanical stress in the horse joint and potentially also to the increased metabolic activity of immature individuals.

  3. Characterization of arginase expression by equine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Martin, James G; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Neutrophils are the predominant cells recruited in the airways of horses suffering from heaves. These cells have been shown to express arginase in some species. The metabolism of l-arginine is thought to be involved in chronic inflammation, and airway obstruction and remodeling. The aim of this study was to assess the expression, regulation, activity, and functional role of arginase isoforms in equine neutrophils. Arginase I, arginase II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) expression were assessed in resting and stimulated (IL-4, LPS/fMLP, PMA; 5 and 18 h) blood neutrophils using quantitative PCR. Arginase expression was also studied by Western blot and enzyme activity assay. The effect of nor-NOHA (1mM), a specific arginase inhibitor, was assessed on arginase activity in vitro and ex vivo on neutrophil's inflammatory gene expression and viability. Results showed that equine neutrophils constitutively express arginase isoform 2, ODC and OAT. Neutrophil ex vivo stimulation did not induce arginase I or influence arginase II mRNA expression. Ex vivo inhibition of arginase activity by nor-NOHA had no effect on neutrophils inflammatory gene expression induced by LPS/fMLP (5h) but significantly reversed the cell loss observed after this stimulation.

  4. Functional modelling of an equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome provides experimental confirmation and functional annotation of equine genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Bright, L A; Mujahid, N; Nanduri, B; McCarthy, F M; Costa, L R R; Burgess, S C; Swiderski, C E

    2011-08-01

    The equine genome sequence enables the use of high-throughput genomic technologies in equine research, but accurate identification of expressed gene products and interpreting their biological relevance require additional structural and functional genome annotation. Here, we employ the equine genome sequence to identify predicted and known proteins using proteomics and model these proteins into biological pathways, identifying 582 proteins in normal cell-free equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We improved structural and functional annotation by directly confirming the in vivo expression of 558 (96%) proteins, which were computationally predicted previously, and adding Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for 174 proteins, 108 of which lacked functional annotation. Bronchoalveolar lavage is commonly used to investigate equine respiratory disease, leading us to model the associated proteome and its biological functions. Modelling of protein functions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified carbohydrate metabolism, cell-to-cell signalling, cellular function, inflammatory response, organ morphology, lipid metabolism and cellular movement as key biological processes in normal equine BALF. Comparative modelling of protein functions in normal cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage proteomes from horse, human, and mouse, performed by grouping GO terms sharing common ancestor terms, confirms conservation of functions across species. Ninety-one of 92 human GO categories and 105 of 109 mouse GO categories were conserved in the horse. Our approach confirms the utility of the equine genome sequence to characterize protein networks without antibodies or mRNA quantification, highlights the need for continued structural and functional annotation of the equine genome and provides a framework for equine researchers to aid in the annotation effort.

  5. Anaemia among children in a drought affected community in south-central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Loha, Eskindir; Deressa, Wakgari; Solomon, Tarekegn; Atsbeha, Hanibale; Assegid, Meselech; Hailu, Alemayehu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Introduction As part of a field trial (PACTR201411000882128) to provide evidence on the combined use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spray for malaria prevention, we measured haemoglobin values among children aged 6 to 59 months. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anaemia, and to determine the risk factors of anaemia and change in haemoglobin value in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. Methods Repeated cross-sectional surveys among 2984 children in 2014 and 3128 children in 2015; and a cohort study (malaria as exposure and anaemia as outcome variable) were conducted. The study area faced severe drought and food shortages in 2015. Anaemia was diagnosed using HemoCue Hb 301, and children with haemoglobin <11 g/dl were classified as anaemic. Multilevel and Cox regression models were applied to assess predictors of anaemia. Results The prevalence of anaemia was 28.2% [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 26.6–29.8] in 2014 and increased to 36.8% (95% CI, 35.1–38.5) in 2015 (P<0.001). The incidence of anaemia was 30; (95% CI, 28–32) cases per 100 children years of observation. The risk of anaemia was high (adjusted Hazard Ratio = 10) among children with malaria. Children from poor families [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR); 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1–1.6)], stunted children (AOR 1.5; 95% CI; 1.2–1.8), and children aged less than 36 months (AOR; 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6–2.4) were at risk of anaemia compared to their counterparts. There was no significant difference in risk of anaemia among the trial arms. Conclusions Young age, stunting, malaria and poverty were the main predictors of anaemia. An increase in the prevalence of anaemia was observed over a year, despite malaria prevention effort, which could be related to the drought and food shortage. Therefore, conducting trials in settings prone to drought and famine may bring unexpected challenges. PMID:28291790

  6. The diagnostic challenge of congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia: two cases of 'CDA type II'.

    PubMed

    Dukka, Srivasavi; King, May-Jean; Hill, Quentin A

    2014-04-01

    The congenital dyserythropoietic anaemias (CDAs) are a group of rare hereditary disorders characterised by ineffective erythropoiesis and morphological abnormalities in the erythroblasts. Patients may present with jaundice or with symptoms of anaemia, gall stones or iron overload. The diagnosis can be challenging and cases have been confused with haemolytic anaemia, haemochromatosis or a haemoglobinopathy. A delayed diagnosis can lead to inappropriate treatment or delayed management of iron overload. We present two patients previously diagnosed as CDA type II in whom the diagnosis was revised to CDA type I and to hereditary spherocytosis. The conditions are compared and the approach to diagnosis is discussed.

  7. A Rare Case of Successfully Treated Coombs Negative Immune Haemolytic Anaemia in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Japleen; Bagga, Rashmi; Kalra, Jaswinder Kaur; Jain, Arihant

    2017-01-01

    Immune haemolytic anaemia in pregnancy, although rare, but it can be life threatening. Severe anaemia with jaundice, unresponsive to blood transfusion can clinch the diagnosis of immune haemolytic anaemia. Our patient was a 27-year-old second gravida, with all the above features, but there was diagnostic challenge as her Coombs test was negative. A high index of suspicion and rapid response to glucocorticoids, pointed towards the diagnosis. Thereafter, the course of pregnancy and postpartum period was uneventful. Thus, successful maternal and fetal outcome can be achieved with prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Fanconi anaemia and the repair of Watson and Crick DNA crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Kottemann, Molly C; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2013-01-17

    The function of Fanconi anaemia proteins is to maintain genomic stability. Their main role is in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks, which, by covalently binding the Watson and the Crick strands of DNA, impede replication and transcription. Inappropriate repair of interstrand crosslinks causes genomic instability, leading to cancer; conversely, the toxicity of crosslinking agents makes them a powerful chemotherapeutic. Fanconi anaemia proteins can promote stem-cell function, prevent tumorigenesis, stabilize replication forks and inhibit inaccurate repair. Recent advances have identified endogenous aldehydes as possible culprits of DNA damage that may induce the phenotypes seen in patients with Fanconi anaemia.

  9. Iron deficiency and anaemia in heart failure: understanding the FAIR-HF trial.

    PubMed

    González-Costello, José; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction has traditionally focused on erythropoietin-stimulating agents. However, recent studies have shown that treatment with intravenous (IV) iron can improve the symptoms and quality of life in patients with CHF and iron deficiency (ID), with or without anaemia. The management of ID is becoming an important therapeutic target in patients with CHF, and in this article, we will review iron metabolism in the context of anaemia and heart failure. We will also focus on the importance of diagnosing and treating ID, preferably with IV iron preparations, in patients with CHF.

  10. Diversity of interferon inducible Mx gene in horses and association of variations with susceptibility vis-à-vis resistance against equine influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Manuja, Balvinder K; Manuja, Anju; Dahiya, Rajni; Singh, Sandeep; Sharma, R C; Gahlot, S K

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is primarily an infection of the upper respiratory tract and is one of the major infectious respiratory diseases of economic importance in equines. Re-emergence of the disease, species jumping by H3N8 virus in canines and possible threat of human pandemic due to the unpredictable nature of the virus have necessitated research on devising strategies for preventing the disease. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) has been reported to confer resistance to Orthomyxo virus infection by modifying cellular functions needed along the viral replication pathway. Polymorphisms and differential antiviral activities of Mx gene have been reported in pigs and chicken. Here we report the diversity of Mx gene, its expression in response to stimulation with interferon (IFN) α/β and their association with EI resistance and susceptibility in Marwari horses. Blood samples were collected from horses declared positive for equine influenza and in contact animals with a history of no clinical signs. Mx gene was amplified by reverse transcription from total RNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with IFN α/β using gene specific primers. The amplified gene products from representative samples were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed. Out of a total 24 amino acids substitutions sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) analysis predicted 13 substitutions with functional consequences. Five substitutions (V67A, W123L, E346Y, N347Y, S689N) were observed only in resistant animals. Evolutionary distances based on nucleotide sequences with in equines ranged between 0.3-2.0% and 20-24% with other species. On phylogenetic analysis all equine sequences clustered together while other species formed separate clades.

  11. Noncytopathic Replication of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicons in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M.; Frolov, Ilya

    2005-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5′ untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions, and the ability to cause CPE in tissue culture does not necessarily correlate with pathogenesis and strongly depends on the sequence of viral nonstructural proteins. PMID:15919912

  12. Noncytopathic replication of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and eastern equine encephalitis virus replicons in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M; Frolov, Ilya

    2005-06-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5' untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions, and the ability to cause CPE in tissue culture does not necessarily correlate with pathogenesis and strongly depends on the sequence of viral nonstructural proteins.

  13. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents... these viruses. Equine encephalomyelitis viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of insects, such as mosquitos and ticks, and may cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), rash, acute...

  18. Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Baier, Margaret E Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of children who participated in a non-equine intervention (N = 8). Parents noted significant improvements in their child's physical, emotional and social functioning following the first 6 weeks of EAA. The children participating in the non-equine program also demonstrated improvement in behavior, but to a lesser degree. The favorable outcome of this study lends support for continuation of programs utilizing EAA in the treatment of children with ASD.

  19. Update of inactivated equine influenza vaccine strain in Japan

    PubMed Central

    GAMOH, Koichiro; NAKAMURA, Shigeyuki

    2017-01-01

    Japan established a vaccine selection system, in which a committee evaluates veterinary influenza vaccines to determine if the vaccine should be updated. In 2013, it was concluded that the present equine influenza vaccine strains did not have to be updated, but clade 2 (Fc2) viruses of the Florida sublineage should be included. We collected three Fc2 viruses as candidates and conducted comparative tests. Results indicated that A/equine/Carlow/2011 (H3N8) is not suitable, because of its unstable antigenic characteristics. A comparison between A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) (Richmond/07) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) (Yokohama/10) in eggs showed that they shared equal growth properties. Immunogenicity test in mice showed that Yokohama/10 induced higher HI antibody titers than Richmond/07. Therefore, we concluded that Yokohama/10 was the most suitable strain. PMID:28163276

  20. The transition from veterinary school to equine practice.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Katherine S

    2009-12-01

    The transition from veterinary school to equine practice can be challenging. This article provides suggestions and advice for new graduates in areas that include internships, associate positions, financial considerations, balancing personal and professional responsibilities, mentorship, continuing education, and professionalism.

  1. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  2. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  3. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a child with Fanconi's anaemia.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Naureen; Wali, Rabia; Fadoo, Zehra; Saleem, Ali Faisal

    2012-07-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder with progressive bone marrow failure, associated congenital malformation and solid and haematological malignancies. Acute myeloid leukemia is the commonest haematological malignancy followed by myelodysplastic syndrome in children with FA. FA transformed into acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a rare phenomenon and one of the rarest haematological malignancies associated with this disorder. We are reporting a 13 years old girl with FA and positive chromosomal breakage. She required regular blood product transfusion. She was planned for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but the sibling-matched donor was found to have chromosomal breaks as well. Later on, her peripheral smear showed blast cell. Bone marrow showed pre-B ALL. She was started on chemotherapy but died shortly due to complications of the treatment. For this rare condition conservative management is indeed essential, however, safe and appropriate chemotherapy regimen is needed.

  4. [Iron-deficiency anaemia in patients in their 80s].

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Sophia E; Royen, Hilde; Hamaker, Marije; Blom, Harmjo; Portielje, Johanneke; Bartelsman, Joep F

    2012-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia in very old patients is a frequent finding; this often poses a diagnostic dilemma for the physician. For example, should additional testing take place? And if so, what kind of tests? Is prescribing iron supplement therapy and adopting an expectative course sufficient? The two cases in this article illustrate different treatment strategies. If doubts about which strategy to choose arise, it is recommended that iron first be supplied and the effect of this treatment checked after three weeks. The haemoglobin level should have risen at least 0.7 mmol/l. If there has been no effect, supplemental (endoscopic) examinations may be considered, provided they meet a therapeutic goal.

  5. Idiopathic facial swelling secondary to sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Swapnil; Pillai, Ajay; Guru, Kanishka Navin; Nair, Preeti P

    2012-10-10

    Sickle cell disease is a common inherited autosomal disease that is characterised by abnormally shaped (sickle-shaped) red blood cells (RBCs). It can involve virtually any organ system. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease vary and are classified as vaso-occlusion, chronic anaemia and infection. The imaging appearances of central nervous system and musculoskeletal involvement by sickle cell disease have been well documented; however, involvement of the head and neck region is often unreported, although it is not uncommon. In the head and neck, sickle cell disease can involve the inner ears, orbits, paranasal sinuses, bones, lymph nodes and vessels. This paper describes a case of idiopathic facial swelling associated with sickle cell disease in a young patient.

  6. [Angiogenesis and radiotherapy (vessels, anaemia, oxygen and radiosensitivity)].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen plays a direct role in cell death after exposure to ionizing radiations and tumour hypoxia, favoured by anaemia, is a factor of poor treatment response. Tumour phenotype is directly influenced by tissue oxygenation, inducing tumour cells adaptation to the environment and potential resistance to treatment. The correction of tumour hypoxia can increase treatment response. It is however difficult to directly correlate pO2 and vascularisation. Vessels from angiogenesis get endothelial cells but have lost the functions of normal vessels (receptors, muscles...). The role of angiogenesis has been demonstrated on initial tumour growth and on metastatic potential and regulation. Many pre clinical studies have demonstrated the benefit of combining anti angiogenic compounds and cytotoxic agents (chemotherapy drugs and ionizing radiations). Clinical studies are on going and new evaluation models of treatment response will be necessary.

  7. Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia caused by levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Sukhal, Shashvat; Gupta, Shweta

    2014-08-01

    Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia (DIIHA) is extremely rare. We herein report a case of life-threatening DIIHA due to levofloxacin. This is the second case reported in the literature. A 51-year-old woman presented with complaints of fatigue after 4-5 days of levofloxacin therapy for a lung infection. At presentation, she was found to have haemolysis with a positive Coombs test and IgG autoantibodies. Levofloxacin was identified as the probable culprit, using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale. Upon discontinuation of the drug and initiation of steroids, the patient's haematological parameters stabilised. Diagnosis of DIIHA is made through a history of intake of levofloxacin, clinical and laboratory features of haemolysis and a positive Coombs test. An autoantibody screen is most commonly positive for warm antibodies (IgG type). It is essential for clinicians to recognise this rare complication caused by a commonly prescribed medication, discontinue the offending drug and initiate treatment.

  8. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Kawamoto, Adelia Hiroko Nagamori; Alves, Rosely Cabette Barbosa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses. PMID:24878995

  9. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  10. Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2007-02-01

    We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling.

  11. FIND-CKD: a randomized trial of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Macdougall, Iain C.; Bock, Andreas H.; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Nolen, Jacqueline G.; Roger, Simon D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal iron therapy regimen in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Methods Ferinject® assessment in patients with Iron deficiency anaemia and Non-Dialysis-dependent Chronic Kidney Disease (FIND-CKD) was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective and randomized study of 626 patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, anaemia and iron deficiency not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patients were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting a higher (400–600 µg/L) or lower (100–200 µg/L) ferritin or oral iron therapy. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA, other iron therapy or blood transfusion) or haemoglobin (Hb) trigger of two consecutive values <10 g/dL during Weeks 8–52. Results The primary end point occurred in 36 patients (23.5%), 49 patients (32.2%) and 98 patients (31.8%) in the high-ferritin FCM, low-ferritin FCM and oral iron groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR): 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44–0.95; P = 0.026 for high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron]. The increase in Hb was greater with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (P = 0.014) and a greater proportion of patients achieved an Hb increase ≥1 g/dL with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.52–2.72; P < 0.001). Rates of adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in all groups. Conclusions Compared with oral iron, IV FCM targeting a ferritin of 400–600 µg/L quickly reached and maintained Hb level, and delayed and/or reduced the need for other anaemia management including ESAs. Within the limitations of this trial, no renal toxicity was observed, with no difference in cardiovascular or infectious events. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00994318. PMID:24891437

  12. Refractory cold agglutinin-immunohaemolytic anaemia associated to marginal zone lymphoma responding to rituximab.

    PubMed

    Petit, José; Clavo, Mercedes; de Sevilla, Alberto Fernández; González-Barca, Eva; Domingo-Doménech, Eva; Grañena, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Cold agglutinin immunohaemolytic anaemia (CAIA) responds poorly to standard treatment. We report a case of marginal zone lymphoma complicated by CAIA that responded to rituximab after failing to respond to corticosteroids and chlorambucil.

  13. Diagnosing anaemia in pregnancy in rural clinics: assessing the potential of the Haemoglobin Colour Scale.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, N. R.; Ntonya, C.; Mhango, E.; White, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a common and severe problem in many developing countries. Because of lack of resources and staff motivation, screening for anaemia is often solely by clinical examination of the conjunctiva or is not carried out at all. A new colour scale for the estimation of haemoglobin concentration has been developed by WHO. The present study compares the results obtained using the new colour scale on 729 women visiting rural antenatal clinics in Malawi with those obtained by HemoCue haemoglobinometer and electronic Coulter Counter and with the assessment of anaemia by clinical examination of the conjunctiva. Sensitivity using the colour scale was consistently better than for conjunctival inspection alone and interobserver agreement and agreement with Coulter Counter measurements was good. The Haemoglobin Colour Scale is simple to use, well accepted, cheap and gives immediate results. It shows considerable potential for use in screening for anaemia in antenatal clinics in settings where resources are limited. PMID:10063656

  14. NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF FOETAL ANAEMIA IN KELL SENSITIZED PREGNANCY.

    PubMed

    Memon, Zaibunnisa; Sheikh, Sana Sadiq

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Kell sensitized pregnancy with good neonatal outcome. Anti-K antibodies were detected in maternal serum in early pregnancy as a part of routine antibody screening test. The middle cerebral artery doppler monitoring and serial titers were carried out to screen for foetal anaemia. Despite of rising antibody titers, serial middle cerebral artery doppler was normal and did not showed foetal anaemia. The pregnancy was carried out till term and patient delivered at 37 weeks of pregnancy with no evidence of foetal anaemia. This case underlines the need of general screening on rare antibodies in all pregnant women and that non-invasive monitoring of foetal anaemia can be done with anti-k titers and middle cerebral artery Doppler.

  15. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  16. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  17. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  18. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Bailey, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from <3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain Bucyrus at 4°C was significantly higher in HEK-EqCXCL16 cells than nontransfected HEK-293T cells. Finally, the results demonstrated that EAV preferentially infects subpopulations of horse CD14+ monocytes expressing EqCXCL16 and that infection of these cells is significantly reduced by pretreatment with Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb. The collective data from this study provide confirmatory evidence that the transmembrane form of EqCXCL16 likely plays a major role in EAV host cell entry processes, possibly acting as a primary receptor molecule for this virus. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EVA can be a source of significant economic loss for the equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a

  19. Surveillance of Anaemia: Mapping and Grading the High Risk Territories and Populations

    PubMed Central

    Amirapu, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of anaemia is an ongoing process for assessing iron status and anaemia prevalence among individuals and the communities they live in. Measuring blood haemoglobin levels is the commonest method espoused worldwide for screening individuals and populations for anaemia and iron deficiency. World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a classification of public health significance of anaemia in populations on the basis of prevalence estimated from blood levels of haemoglobin. India falls under “Severe public health problem” category. An attempt has been made to categorise “Severe public health problem” into grades of severity that will help in prioritising the states and districts for targeted action. Aim To adapt the “WHO Classification of anaemia as a problem of public health significance” and to use the same to identify and map high risk population groups in the southern states of India. Materials and Methods The category of ’Severe Public Health Problem’ has been graded based on prevalence of anaemia. Secondary data published in the District Level Household and Facility Survey - 4 is analysed for five states and 1 UT (Union Territory) of southern part of India. Choropleth Mapping was done to visually depict the intensity of anaemia problem across the geographic territories. Results Children from 6 months to 59 months were having highest prevalence of both, anaemia (68%) and severe anaemia (10%). This was followed by pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years and Girl Child 6 to 9 years. Four of the Southern states of India including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana and Tamil Nadu fall in the Grade 2 SPHP (Severe Public Health Problem) Conclusion The sixteen districts fall under Grade 3 Severe Public Health Problem in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana, require special focus for identifying and addressing the determinants of such high prevalence of Anaemia. These populations and territories require priority in the

  20. Equine Amplification and Virulence of Subtype IE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses Isolated during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican Epizootics

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Dante; Estrada-Franco, José G.; Carrara, Anne-Sophie; Aronson, Judith F.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of horses as amplification hosts during the 1993 and 1996 Mexican Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) epizootics, we subcutaneously infected 10 horses by using four different equine isolates. Most horses showed little or no disease and low or nonexistent viremia. Neurologic disease developed in only 1 horse, and brain histopathologic examination showed meningeal lymphocytic infiltration, perivascular cuffing, and focalencephalitis. Three animals showed mild meningoencephalitis without clinical disease. Viral RNA was detected in the brain of several animals 12-14 days after infection. These data suggest that the duration and scope of the recent Mexican epizootics were limited by lack of equine amplification characteristic of previous, more extensive VEE outbreaks. The Mexican epizootics may have resulted from the circulation of a more equine-neurotropic, subtype IE virus strain or from increased transmission to horses due to amplification by other vertebrate hosts or transmission by more competent mosquito vectors. PMID:12603985

  1. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of iron deficiency anaemia of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Helena; Forné, Montserrat; Esteve, Maria; Rosinach, Mercé; Loras, Carme; Espinós, Jorge C; Viver, Josep M; Salas, Antonio; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the aetiological role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in adult patients with iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) with H. pylori infection and a negative standard work-up were prospectively evaluated. All of them had either iron refractoriness or iron dependency. Response to H. pylori eradication was assessed at 6 and 12 mo from follow-up. H. pylori infection was considered to be the cause of the anaemia when a complete anaemia resolution without iron supplements was observed after eradication. RESULTS: H. pylori was eradicated in 88 of the 89 patients. In the non-eradicated patient the four eradicating regimens failed. There were violations of protocol in 4 patients, for whom it was not possible to ascertain the cause of the anaemia. Thus, 84 H. pylori eradicated patients (10 men; 74 women) were available to assess the effect of eradication on IDA. H. pylori infection was considered to be the aetiology of IDA in 32 patients (38.1%; 95%CI: 28.4%-48.8%). This was more frequent in men/postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (75% vs 23.3%; P < 0.0001) with an OR of 9.8 (95%CI: 3.3-29.6). In these patients, anaemia resolution occurred in the first follow-up visit at 6 mo, and no anaemia or iron deficiency relapse was observed after a mean follow-up of 21 ± 2 mo. CONCLUSION: Gastric H. pylori infection is a frequent cause of iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin in adult patients. PMID:23864779

  3. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  4. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries.

  5. Equine sweating and anhidrosis Part 2: anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David McEwan; Elder, Hugh Y; Bovell, Douglas L

    2007-02-01

    The condition of anhidrosis is described in this review, and the latest theories on the causal factors are explored. The evidence supports the hypothesis that anhidrosis is an inappropriate response to prolonged climatic stress (generally combined heat and high humidity), which can be evoked in a small (approximately 10 +/- 5%) proportion of the equine population. It is caused by gradual failure of the glandular secretory cell processes, initiated by desensitization and subsequent down-regulation of the cell receptors as a result of continued adrenaline-driven hyperactivity. It progresses through secretory failure and culminates in gradual, probably irreversible, glandular dedifferentiation and ultimate degeneration. There is a need for considerably more research on the secretory and transcriptional processes to document the changes arising within the glandular secretory mechanism as a prelude to development of a corrective treatment.

  6. A review of equine dental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Dacre, I

    2005-03-01

    Equine dentistry is a very important but until recently rather neglected area of equine practice, with many horses suffering from undiagnosed, painful dental disorders. A thorough clinical examination using a full mouth speculum is a pre-requisite to performing any equine dental procedure. Common incisor disorders include: prolonged retention of deciduous incisors, supernumerary incisors and overjet--the latter usually accompanied by cheek teeth (CT) overgrowths. Overjet can be surgically corrected, but perhaps should not be in breeding animals. In younger horses, traumatically fractured incisors with pulpar exposure may survive by laying down tertiary dentine. Loss or maleruption of incisors can cause uneven occlusal wear that can affect mastication. Idiopathic fractures and apical infection of incisors are rare. The main disorder of canine teeth is the development of calculus of the lower canines, and occasionally, developmental displacements and traumatic fractures. The main indications for extraction of "wolf teeth" (Triadan 05s) are the presence of displaced or enlarged wolf teeth, or their presence in the mandible. Developmental abnormalities of the CT include; rostral positioning of the upper CT rows in relation to the lower CT rows--with resultant development of focal overgrowths on the upper 06s and the lower 11s. Displaced CT develop overgrowths on unopposed aspects of the teeth and also develop periodontal disease in the inevitable abnormal spaces (diastemata) that are present between displaced and normal teeth. Diastemata of the CT due to excessive developmental spacing between the CT or to inadequate compression of the CT rows is a common but under diagnosed problem in many horses and causes very painful periodontal disease and quidding. Supernumerary CT mainly occur at the caudal aspect of the CT rows and periodontal disease commonly occurs around these teeth. Eruption disorders of CT include prolonged retention of remnants of deciduous CT ("caps

  7. A survey of equine oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James; Waldner, Cheryl; Grier, Candace; Laycock, Amanda R

    2010-01-01

    Dental abnormalities in horses can lead to weight-loss, poor performance, pain, behavioral abnormalities, and illness. Despite this impact, the occurrence and type of dental disease in horse populations is infrequently reported in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey of horses presented for slaughter at a processing plant in Western Canada was to measure the prevalence of equine oral abnormalities, examine associations between the most common abnormalities, and consider the relationship between the age of horse and types of abnormalities observed. The horses used in this research consisted of a variety of ages, breeds, body conditions, and origins. Horses ranged in age from 18-months to 30-years (median = 11-years). The most common oral pathologies included sharp edges, buccal abrasions, calculus, lingual ulcers, gingival recession, periodontal pockets, ramps, and waves. Several types of pathology were strongly associated with other dental disorders. The prevalence of periodontal pockets, gingival recession, and waves was highest in older horses.

  8. Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis.

    PubMed

    Staszyk, Carsten; Bienert, Astrid; Kreutzer, Robert; Wohlsein, Peter; Simhofer, Hubert

    2008-12-01

    A poorly described, painful disorder of incisor and canine teeth, variably causing periodontitis, with resorptive or proliferative changes of the calcified dental tissues, has recently been documented in aged horses. No plausible aetiopathogenesis for this syndrome has been recorded. Eighteen diseased teeth from eight horses were examined grossly and microscopically and showed the presence of odontoclastic cells by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. A chronological sequence of odontoclastic resorption followed by hypercementosis was demonstrated and, consequently, the term equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is proposed for this disorder. EOTRH shares many features with similar dental syndromes described in humans and cats. An aetiological hypothesis proposes mechanical stress of the periodontal ligament as the initiating factor.

  9. Equine recurrent uveitis: the European viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Spiess, B M

    2010-03-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) has always been and still is an important disease with a significant impact on the horse industry in Europe, with a prevalence of 8-10%. The need to understand and manage the disease has spurred the development of veterinary ophthalmology in general, although the aetiology of the disease remains the subject of intense discussion. It is most probably an autoimmune disease triggered, at least in Europe, in the majority of cases by Leptospira spp. The therapy of ERU has evolved over the centuries from various methods of bloodletting to rational medical therapy using mydriatics and steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, to surgical therapies, such as vitrectomy or implantation of cyclosporin-releasing devices. In Europe, pars plana vitrectomy in horses testing positive for Leptospira spp. appears to be the most successful form of therapy at the present time.

  10. Immunohistochemical studies in equine recurrent uveitis (ERU).

    PubMed

    Romeike, A; Brügmann, M; Drommer, W

    1998-11-01

    Despite extensive clinical research, the etiology of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is still unknown. After an immunologic pathogenesis was established in recurrent uveitis in humans, a similar pathogenic mechanism was assumed to exist in ERU. To investigate whether immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in ERU, 20 eyes of 15 horses with ERU were examined immunohistochemically with a T cell marker, B cell marker, and anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antibodies. Twenty-six eyes of 20 horses were used for investigation of MHC class II antigen expression in normal equine eyes. In 18 eyes of 14 horses, the number of T cells in the inflammatory cell population within the uvea was assessed. In 16/18 eyes (89%), the T lymphocyte fraction was > 70%. This cell population was distributed mostly in a diffuse manner throughout the uvea and also within the mantle zone of follicular lymphocytic aggregates. Foci of B lymphocytes could be found within the center of follicular aggregates in three eyes. The expression of MHC class II antigen on resident ocular cells was evaluated in 10 eyes of six horses with ERU. An increase of MHC class II antigen expression in the trabecular meshwork and on the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium was noted as was a deviant expression on proliferating Müller cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells. The predominance of T cells in the inflammatory infiltrates supports the central role of a cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, the observation of a deviant MHC class II expression on resident ocular cells suggests that aberrant immune regulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ERU.

  11. Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob

    2004-03-01

    Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine.

  12. Exploring socioeconomic vulnerability of anaemia among women in eastern Indian States.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigates the socioeconomic risk factors of anaemia among women belonging to eastern Indian states. An attempt has been made to find out differences in anaemia related to social class and place of residence, and age and marital status. It was hypothesized that rural women would have a higher prevalence of anaemia compared with their urban counterparts, particularly among the poorest social strata, and that ever-married women would be at elevated risk of anaemia compared with never-married women, particularly in the adolescent age group. Using data from National Family Health Survey-3, 2005-6, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that provided information on anaemia level among 19,695 women of this region, the present study found that the prevalence of anaemia was high among all women cutting across social class, location and other attributes. In all 47.9% were mildly anaemic (10.0-11.9.9 g/dl), 16.1% were moderately anaemic (7.0-9.9 g/dl) and 1.6% were severely anaemic (<7.0 g/dl). Protective factors include frequent consumption of pulses, milk and milk products, fruits and fish, educational attainment, mass media exposure and high socioeconomic status. Urban poor women and adolescent ever-married women had very high odds of being anaemic. New programme strategies are needed, particularly those that improve iron storage and enhance the overall nutritional status of women throughout the life-cycle.

  13. [Causes of anaemia in African children aged 5 to 10 years].

    PubMed

    Mbanya, Dora; Tagny, Claude Tayou; Akamba, Anastasie; Mekongo, Martin Ondoua; Tetanye, Ekoe

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted among two groups of 105 children in a hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon, to determine the causes of anaemia in children aged 5- 10-years-old. The study group included children presenting clinical evidence of anaemia while the control group was made of children without anaemia. Both sets of children were matched for neighbourhoods within the city of Yaoundé. Each child had a complete physical examination, full blood count, haemoglobin electrophoresis, reticulocyte counts, and stool samples examined for parasites and hemoparasites. The mean haemoglobin level was 7.77 +/- 1.54 g/dL in the study group and 12.37 +/- 1.23 in the control group. The anaemia was mainly normocytic, normochromic and regenerative in the study group, usually associated with evidence of haemolysis. Patients with homozygous sickle cell disease were found only in the study group (n = 13; 12.3%). Malaria parasites were noted in 89 children (84.7%) in the study group, compared with 34 (32.4%) in the control group (p = 0.0004). Prevalence of intestinal parasites was similar in both groups (50.8%). Protein-calorie malnutrition was rare and was not associated with anemia. We conclude that both malaria and sickle cell anaemia play an important role in anaemia in children aged 5-10 years.

  14. Anaemia in pregnancy: a public health problem in Enugu, southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezugwu, E C; Mbah, B O; Chigbu, C O; Onah, H E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy at booking and to determine factors associated with its occurrence in order to proffer solutions. This was a 12-month cross-sectional study of pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic for the first time (booking visit) at ESUTTH, Enugu, Nigeria from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2010. Sociodemographic characteristics of the mothers were extracted using an already prepared proforma. The blood haemoglobin concentration and HIV status of the women were determined and the results were analysed. The prevalence rate of anaemia in pregnancy was 64.1%. Based on severity, 94.6%, 4.3%, 1.1% of them had mild, moderate and severe anaemia. The mean age of the anaemic women was significantly lower than that of the non-anaemic women (p = 0.0001). Those that had no formal education and those that booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester had a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia. HIV-positive pregnant women had a significantly higher prevalence of anaemia than HIV-negative pregnant women (p = 0.0072, odds ratio 2.37). It was concluded that the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy from the study is unacceptably high. To achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, efforts must be geared towards its prevention to ensure a healthy baby and mother.

  15. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    PubMed

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anaemia among African-Americans in a U.S. cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ellen M.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Martin, Greg S.; Zughaier, Susu M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the U.S. population and is associated with numerous diseases, including those characterized by inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the link between vitamin D status and anaemia, hypothesizing that lower vitamin D status would be associated with increased odds of anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of race in the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of generally healthy adults in Atlanta, GA (N=638). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 50 nmol/l (compared to 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l) was associated with anaemia in bivariate analysis (OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.43, 4.86). There was significant effect modification by race (P=0.003), such that blacks with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l had increased odds of anaemia (OR 6.42; 95% CI 1.88, 21.99), versus blacks with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, controlling for potential confounders; this association was not apparent in whites. When categorized by subtype of anaemia, blacks with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l had significantly increased odds of anaemia with inflammation compared to blacks with serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (OR 8.42; 95% CI 1.96, 36.23); there was no association with anaemia without inflammation. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l was significantly associated with anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation, among blacks in a generally healthy adult U.S. cohort. PMID:25876674

  17. Recurrent life-threatening reactions to platelet transfusion in an aplastic anaemia patient with a paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria clone.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Bates, G; Richardson, D; Burrows, L

    2014-09-01

    A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with non-severe aplastic anaemia when she presented with anaemia and thrombocytopenia. She developed recurrent life-threatening hypotensive reactions during transfusion of leukodepleted platelet concentrates, and washed platelet concentrates prevented the development of such reactions subsequently. A paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria clone was detected on investigating for aplastic anaemia, which has been speculated to play a role in the recurrent hypotensive reactions.

  18. Development of a Genetically-Engineered Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-13

    necrosis. We have evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant vaccinia/VEE virus vaccine (TC-5A) to protect horses against challenge with equine virulent...of horse vaccinees with equine virulent VEE virus 71-180 and vaccinia viruses ........ 27 7. ELISA cross-reactivity of sera from immunized equines ...antibodies in equines after immuniza- tion with TC-83, TC-5A and wild-type vaccinia viruses . .40 5. Body temperature of horses immunized with TC-5A (A

  19. A new understanding of oral and dental pathology of the equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Casey, Miriam

    2013-08-01

    Equine dental disease has a high prevalence. Because of developmental, functional, and anatomic differences, limited inference can be made from brachydont dental pathology to that of equine cheek teeth. This article reviews the pathology of equine cheek teeth and their associated oral tissues, with specific information on periodontitis, pulpitis, maxillary infundibular changes, dental fractures, dental overgrowths, mucosal ulceration, and the regenerative capacity of equine teeth.

  20. Global mapping of infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; Battle, Katherine E; Pigott, David M; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Brownstein, John S; Collier, Nigel; Myers, Monica F; George, Dylan B; Gething, Peter W

    2013-03-19

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for all infectious diseases. This revealed that of 355 infectious diseases identified, 174 (49%) have a strong rationale for mapping and of these only 7 (4%) had been comprehensively mapped. A variety of ambitions, such as the quantification of the global burden of infectious disease, international biosurveillance, assessing the likelihood of infectious disease outbreaks and exploring the propensity for infectious disease evolution and emergence, are limited by these omissions. An overview of the factors hindering progress in disease cartography is provided. It is argued that rapid improvement in the landscape of infectious diseases mapping can be made by embracing non-conventional data sources, automation of geo-positioning and mapping procedures enabled by machine learning and information technology, respectively, in addition to harnessing labour of the volunteer 'cognitive surplus' through crowdsourcing.

  1. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  2. [Anaemia, iron index status and acute phase proteins in malaria (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Ahiboh, H; Oga, A S; Yapi, H F; Kouakou, G; Boua, K D; Edjeme, N; Monnet, D

    2008-02-01

    Clinical signs of malaria are the combined expression of several biological mechanisms. During this parasite infection, anaemia can be the consequence of several different pathogenic mechanisms. It can be an acute haemolytic anaemia due to a mechanical and immune action of the parasite or an inflammation. Besides, in Africa malaria matches with iron deficiency area. So, malarial anaemia in tropical area can be a characteristic of iron deficiency The purpose of this survey was to define the features of malarial anaemia and elucidate the link of all biological processes involved. A black population living in tropical urban areas, with fever and diagnosed Plasmodium-infection was assessed. Parasitaemia, haemoglobin, hematocrit, average corpuscular volume and average corpuscular haemoglobin were determined. For each patient, iron index status and acute phase protein were assessed with the plasmatic iron, ferritin, haptoglobin, transferrin and C-reactive protein. Regardless of gender and age, the characteristics of malarial anaemia are microcythaemia and hypochromia. Anaemia occurs as frequently as parasitaemia is high. When parasitaemia is low anaemia gets a haemolytic feature. When parasitaemia is high, anaemia gets haemolytic and inflammatory features. Anaemia occurs more often with a good iron index status.

  3. Evaluation of clinical signs to diagnose anaemia in Uganda and Bangladesh, in areas with and without malaria.

    PubMed

    Kalter, H D; Burnham, G; Kolstad, P R; Hossain, M; Schillinger, J A; Khan, N Z; Saha, S; de Wit, V; Kenya-Mugisha, N; Schwartz, B; Black, R E

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess the ability of pallor and other clinical signs, including those in the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines developed by WHO and UNICEF, to identify severe anaemia and some anaemia in developing country settings with and without malaria. A total of 1226 and 668 children aged 2 months to 5 years were prospectively sampled from patients presenting at, respectively, a district hospital in rural Uganda and a children's hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study physicians obtained a standardized history and carried out a physical examination that included pallor, signs of respiratory distress, and the remaining IMCI referral signs. The haematocrit or haemoglobin level was determined in all children with conjunctival or palmar pallor, and in a sample of the rest. Children with a blood level measurement and assessment of pallor at both sites were included in the anaemia analysis. Using the haematocrit or haemoglobin level as the reference standard, the correctness of assessments using severe and some pallor and other clinical signs in classifying severe and some anaemia was determined. While the full IMCI process would have referred most of the children in Uganda and nearly all the children in Bangladesh with severe anaemia to hospital, few would have received a diagnosis of severe anaemia. Severe palmar and conjunctival pallor, individually and together, had 10-50% sensitivity and 99% specificity for severe anaemia; the addition of grunting increased the sensitivity to 37-80% while maintaining a reasonable positive predictive value. Palmar pallor did not work as well as conjunctival pallor in Bangladesh for the detection for severe or some anaemia. Combining "conjunctival or palmar pallor" detected 71-87% of moderate anaemia and half or more of mild anaemia. About half the children with no anaemia were incorrectly classified as having "moderate or mild" anaemia. Anaemia was more easily diagnosed in Uganda in

  4. Evaluation of efficacy of school-based anthelmintic treatments against anaemia in children in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Guyatt, H. L.; Brooker, S.; Kihamia, C. M.; Hall, A.; Bundy, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of deworming on anaemia as part of a large-scale school-based anthelmintic treatment programme in the Tanga Region of the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Both the reduction in the prevalence of anaemia and the cost per case prevented were taken into consideration. Cross-sectional studies involved parasitological examination and anaemia evaluation before and at 10 months and 15 months after schoolchildren were dewormed. FINDINGS: Baseline studies indicated that the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin < 110 g/l) was high (54%) among schoolchildren, particularly those with high intensities of hookworm and schistosomiasis. Attributable fraction analysis suggested that hookworm and schistosomiasis were responsible for 6% and 15% of anaemia cases, respectively. Fifteen months after deworming with albendazole and praziquantel the prevalence of anaemia was reduced by a quarter and that of moderate-to-severe anaemia (haemoglobin <90 g/l) was reduced by nearly a half. The delivery of these anthelmintics through the school system was achieved at the relatively low cost of US$ 1 per treated child. The cost per anaemia case prevented by deworming schoolchildren was in the range US$ 6-8, depending on the haemoglobin threshold used. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that deworming programmes should be included in public health strategies for the control of anaemia in schoolchildren where there are high prevalences of hookworm and schistosomiasis. PMID:11545325

  5. Conserved arginine residues in the carboxyl terminus of the equine arteritis virus E protein may play a role in heparin binding but may not affect viral infectivity in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhengchun; Sarkar, Sanjay; Zhang, Jianqiang; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-04-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, has relatively broad cell tropism in vitro. In horses, EAV primarily replicates in macrophages and endothelial cells of small blood vessels. Until now, neither the cellular receptor(s) nor the mechanism(s) of virus attachment and entry have been determined for this virus. In this study, we investigated the effect of heparin on EAV infection in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Heparin, but not other glycosaminoglycans, could reduce EAV infection up to 93 %. Sequence analysis of the EAV E minor envelope protein revealed a conserved amino acid sequence (52 RSLVARCSRGARYR 65) at the carboxy terminus of the E protein, which was predicted to be the heparin-binding domain. The basic arginine (R) amino acid residues were subsequently mutated to glycine by site-directed mutagenesis of ORF2a in an E protein expression vector and an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. Two single mutations in E (R52G and R57G) did not affect the heparin-binding capability, whereas the E double mutation (R52,60G) completely eliminated the interaction between the E protein and heparin. Although the mutant R52,60G EAV did not bind heparin, the mutations did not completely abolish infectivity, indicating that heparin is not the only critical factor for EAV infection. This also suggested that other viral envelope protein(s) might be involved in attachment through heparin or other cell-surface molecules, and this warrants further investigation.

  6. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  7. Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E

    2010-05-01

    Immunodeficiencies caused by infectious agents may result from disruption of normal host barriers or dysregulation of cellular immunity, the latter serving to promote survival of the infectious agent through immune evasion. Such infections may be followed by opportunistic infections with a variety of other microorganisms. Classic infectious causes of immunodeficiency in companion animals are the immunodeficiency retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Other important causes include canine distemper virus; canine parvovirus 2; feline infectious peritonitis virus; rickettsial organisms that infect leukocytes; Leishmania; and fungal pathogens, such as Cryptococcus. Considerable research effort has been invested in understanding the mechanisms of pathogen-induced immunosuppression, with the hope that effective therapies may be developed that reverse the immunodeficiencies developed and in turn assist the host to clear persistent or life-threatening infectious diseases.

  8. [Anaemia and iron deficiency in clinical practice:from cardiology to gastroenterology and beyond].

    PubMed

    Češka, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Anaemia is one of the most common diseases. Worldwide affects up to 25% of the population. Anaemia with iron deficiency (Fe) is the leading one. It is not surprising that iron deficiency mainly affects women. Generally, anaemia is one of the major problems in every department of internal medicine. There is no ambition to provide a comprehensive review of the diagnosis and treatment of anaemia. The aim is to point out the common (but sometimes neglected) facts from daily practice in internal department and on the other hand, to highlight the news in the treatment focusing on parenteral Fe.The importance of anaemia at the department of internal medicine. Mentioned above, anaemia is very frequent in internal medicine. Especially, it is anaemia of Fe deficiency and anaemia of chronic disease. Mostly elderly and polymorbid patients (often with one dominant, sometimes cryptogenic disease) suffer from anaemia. I am concern about the fact that anaemia is often seen only as a sign of other disease and usually is not the target of diagnostic and therapeutic efforts.Diagnosis and treatment. The internal department physician is responsible for patient care, but cooperates with haematologist in case of severe anaemia in diagnostic and therapeutic process. Basic examination contains analysis of Fe, ferritin, transferrin, circulating serum transferrin receptors or other parameters. Of course, the focus in iron deficiency anaemia is on its possible loss or in case of chronic disease anaemia on primary disease.Notes to Fe treatment. If the patient has iron deficiency the Fe treatment is often indicated (after finding the cause). Iron is administered orally in most cases. There are several situations when parenteral Fe is not only preferable, but also represents the only therapeutic option. Currently, the best evidence for the positive effects is observed in parenterally administered Fe ferric carboxymaltose, Ferinject.Parenteral administration of Fe in gastroenterology

  9. Association of aplastic anaemia and Fanconi's disease with HLA-DRB1 alleles.

    PubMed

    Yari, F; Sobhani, M; Vaziri, M Z; Bagheri, N; Sabaghi, F; Talebian, A

    2008-12-01

    One of the most fascinating areas of research within the field of histocompatibility at present time concerns an observation that a major human histocompatibility system, human leucocyte antigen (HLA), is deeply involved in the development of a great number of diseases. Major histocompatibility complex is the most polymorphic system in the genome of different species. Recognition of HLA alleles could be useful in transplantation and disease studies. Genetic construct of HLA DRB1 was studied in Iranian normal populations and patients with aplastic anaemia and Fanconi's disease. DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 466 normal, 35 aplastic anaemia and 10 Fanconi's individuals. Then DRB1 gene polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method. The HLA DRB1 gene analysis showed increase of DRB1*07 in aplastic anaemia patients compared to normal population (P = 0.02). According to this study, the frequency of DRB1*07 in normal individuals was 8.3, and in aplastic anaemia patients, 15.7%. Additionally, the frequency of DRB1*04 in normal, aplastic anaemia and Fanconi's individuals was 10, 5.7 and 20%, respectively. Our results of investigation showed correlation between some HLA alleles with the studied diseases. We reported the frequency of various DR types in aplastic and Fanconi's patients. This study could imply the possible role of HLA-DRB1*07 in the incidence of aplastic anaemia. Moreover, the frequency of DRB1*04, DRB1*03 and DRB1*15 alleles showed intermediate correlation with Fanconi's anaemia.

  10. Clinicohaematological analysis of aplastic anaemia among children of northern districts of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Bidyut Krishna; Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Pramanik, Raghunath; Raha, Kalpana; Das, Shikha

    2009-01-01

    Though aplastic anaemia in children is an important haematological disorder, not many studies have been undertaken in India and especially in the northern districts of West Bengal. The present study was carried out at North Bengal Medical College and Hospital to find the occurrence, clinical and hematological profile of children with aplastic anaemia. All the children (less than 15 years) having relevant history and clinical features underwent a complete blood count and bone marrow aspiration study (smear and histological sections) and trephine biopsy. Total number of children diagnosed were 21 (M = 17, F = 4), having an age range of 6-14.5 years (mean 11.36). Relevant aetiological factors were noted in 10 cases (47.61%), including history of exposure to insecticides, fungicides and fertilisers in 5 cases (23.81%). The common symptoms were due to anaemia (weakness, pallor in all cases), leucopoenia [fever in 16 cases (76.19%)] and thrombocytopenia [bleeding in 10 cases (47.61%)]. Severe and moderate aplastic anaemia were noted in 7 (33.33%) and 12 (57.14%) cases respectively. The calculated occurrence of aplastic anaemia is 1.96/million population of children/year in the four northern districts of West Bengal. The bone marrow aspiration was satisfactory in all cases. Histological sections of aspirated marrow particle produced better architectural relationship among different components. Aplastic anaemia is a major hematological problem among the children of northern districts of West Bengal. Simultaneous examination of smear and histological sections of marrow particles is a satisfactory method for detection of aplastic anaemia.

  11. Suspected nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant E. coli, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, in an equine clinic.

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Stamm, Ivonne; Gehlen, Heidrun; Barton, Ann Kristin; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli are common commensals as well as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. They cause a broad spectrum of infectious diseases in various hosts, including hospital-associated infections. In recent years, the rise of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) has been striking. However, reports on nosocomial infections are mostly anecdotic. Here we report on the suspected nosocomial spread of both ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing multi-drug resistant E. coli isolates in three equine patients within an equine clinic. Unlike easy-to-clean hospitalization opportunities available for small animal settings like boxes and cages made of ceramic floor tiles or stainless steel, clinical settings for horses are challenging environments for infection control programs due to unavoidable extraneous material including at least hay and materials used for horse bedding. The development of practice-orientated recommendations is needed to improve the possibilities for infection control to prevent nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant and other transmissible pathogens in equine clinical settings.

  12. Eastern equine encephalitis in Tennessee: 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Moody, Erin E; Lewokzco, Kenneth; Huddleston, Dora B; Huang, Junjun; Rowland, Meghan E; Wilson, Ron; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2012-05-01

    Human and equine outbreaks caused by eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) typically occur in North America adjacent to coastal wetlands associated with the presence of Culiseta melanura (Coquillet) mosquitoes. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) is an emerging disease in Tennessee, as the first records of equine disease began in 2002. In 2006 we trapped and tested mosquitoes for EEEV at hardwood swamps in western Tennessee that were at the epicenter of a multi-equine outbreak in fall of 2005. Additionally, the Tennessee Valley Authority tested mosquito pools collected in Tennessee swamps from 2000 to 2007 for the presence of arboviruses. Two pools of EEEV positive Culex erraticus (Dyer and Knab) mosquitoes were found (one each in 2003 and 2004) in a county adjacent to where the 2005 outbreak occurred. In 2008, another EEE outbreak involving multiple horses occurred in West Tennessee. A brain specimen was collected from a horse during this outbreak and the first isolate of EEEV from Tennessee was obtained. In total, 74,531 mosquitoes collected from 2000 to 2008 were tested via polymerase chain reaction and VecTest for EEEV. The traditional enzootic vector, Cs. melanura, was found in low numbers at all collection sites. Cx. erraticus, however, was consistently found in high numbers and was the only mosquito species in which EEEV was detected. We suggest that EEE transmission may be maintained by Cx. erraticus in a nontraditional cycle. We discuss the importance of a nontraditional cycle from the perspective of EEEV adaptation and emergence.

  13. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TAKEHANA, Kazushige; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  14. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    PubMed

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  15. NON-INFECTIOUS DISORDERS OF WARMWATER FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared with infectious diseases and disorders, few non-infectious diseases and disorders in cultured fish have severe biologic or economic impact. Culture practices, however, often establish environments that promote infectious disease by weakening the immune response or by pro...

  16. Prioritising Infectious Disease Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Wiebe, Antoinette; Battle, Katherine E.; Golding, Nick; Gething, Peter W.; Dowell, Scott F.; Farag, Tamer H.; Garcia, Andres J.; Kimball, Ann M.; Krause, L. Kendall; Smith, Craig H.; Brooker, Simon J.; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing volumes of data and computational capacity afford unprecedented opportunities to scale up infectious disease (ID) mapping for public health uses. Whilst a large number of IDs show global spatial variation, comprehensive knowledge of these geographic patterns is poor. Here we use an objective method to prioritise mapping efforts to begin to address the large deficit in global disease maps currently available. Methodology/Principal Findings Automation of ID mapping requires bespoke methodological adjustments tailored to the epidemiological characteristics of different types of diseases. Diseases were therefore grouped into 33 clusters based upon taxonomic divisions and shared epidemiological characteristics. Disability-adjusted life years, derived from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study, were used as a globally consistent metric of disease burden. A review of global health stakeholders, existing literature and national health priorities was undertaken to assess relative interest in the diseases. The clusters were ranked by combining both metrics, which identified 44 diseases of main concern within 15 principle clusters. Whilst malaria, HIV and tuberculosis were the highest priority due to their considerable burden, the high priority clusters were dominated by neglected tropical diseases and vector-borne parasites. Conclusions/Significance A quantitative, easily-updated and flexible framework for prioritising diseases is presented here. The study identifies a possible future strategy for those diseases where significant knowledge gaps remain, as well as recognising those where global mapping programs have already made significant progress. For many conditions, potential shared epidemiological information has yet to be exploited. PMID:26061527

  17. Patient-specific blood rheology in sickle-cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E; Lei, Huan; Tang, Yu-Hang; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-02-06

    Sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous cell morphology and abnormal rheology, especially under hypoxic conditions. By using a multiscale red blood cell (RBC) model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the haemodynamic and rheological characteristics of blood from SCA patients with hydroxyurea (HU) treatment (on-HU) and those without HU treatment (off-HU). We determine the shear viscosity of blood in health as well as in different states of disease. Our results suggest that treatment with HU improves or worsens the rheological characteristics of blood in SCA depending on the degree of hypoxia. However, on-HU groups always have higher levels of haematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR) than off-HU groups, indicating that HU can indeed improve the oxygen transport potential of blood. Our patient-specific computational simulations suggest that the HVR level, rather than the shear viscosity of sickle RBC suspensions, may be a more reliable indicator in assessing the response to HU treatment.

  18. Iron deficiency anaemia and blood lead concentrations in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Conde, Andréia; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Sakuma, Alice

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between iron deficiency/iron deficiency anaemia, assessed by several parameters, and blood lead concentration in children. This cross-sectional study involved 384 Brazilian children, aged 2-11 years, who lived near a lead-manipulating industry. Complete blood counts were obtained by an automated cell counter. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin were determined respectively, by colorimetric, turbidimetric methods and chemiluminescence. Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The impact of several parameters for assessment of iron status (haemoglobin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, red cell indices and red cell distribution width) and variables (gender, age, mother's education, income, body mass index, iron intake, and distance from home to lead-manipulating industry) on blood lead concentration was determined by multiple linear regression. There were significant negative associations between blood lead and the distance from home to the lead-manipulating industry (P<0.001), Hb (P=0.019), and ferritin (P=0.023) (R(2)=0.14). Based on these results, further epidemiological studies are necessary to investigate the impact of interventions like iron supplementation or fortification, as an attempt to decrease blood lead in children.

  19. Haemolysis and abnormal haemorheology in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Connes, Philippe; Lamarre, Yann; Waltz, Xavier; Ballas, Samir K; Lemonne, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Although pulmonary hypertension, leg ulcers, priapism, stroke and glomerulopathy in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) result from the adverse effects of chronic haemolysis on vascular function (haemolytic phenotype), osteonecrosis, acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crises are caused by abnormal vascular cell adhesion and increased blood viscosity (viscosity-vaso-occlusion phenotype). However, this model with two sub-phenotypes does not take into account the haemorheological dimension. We tested the relationships between the biological parameters reflecting the haemolytic rate (haemolytic component) and red blood cell (RBC) rheological characteristics in 97 adults with SCA. No significant difference in the proportion of patients with low or high haemolytic component in the low and high blood viscosity groups was observed. The RBC elongation index (i.e. deformability) was negatively correlated with the haemolytic component. The RBC aggregates strength (i.e. RBC aggregates robustness) was negatively correlated with RBC elongation index. Sickle RBCs with high density had lower elongation index and higher aggregates strength. In conclusion, (i) the 'haemolytic' phenotype is characterized by decreased RBC deformability and increased RBC aggregates strength and (ii) the viscosity-vaso-occlusive phenotype is characterized by increased RBC deformability but not always by increased blood viscosity. α-thalassaemia modulates the haemorheological properties but other factors seem to be involved.

  20. Serum "uracil+uridine" levels in pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Parry, T E; Blackmore, J A

    1976-12-01

    The serum "uracil+uridine" level, expressed as uracil, has been measured in 21 cases of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which the serum folate was normal, and compared with the level in 97 normal subjects. The level in the vitamin B12 deficient group (11.9 mumol/1). was significantly lower than in the controls (15.7 mumol/1., P less than 0.005). Nine of the former were complicated by stystemic illness but the clinical and haematological features in the remaining 12 were consistent with the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in relapse. The serum uracil level in this group was even lower (10.21 mumol/1., P less than 0.01). This finding is unexpected in view of the generally accepted indirect role of vitamine B12 in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate to deoxythymidine monophosphate. Reasons are given for not accepting these results as reflecting the main biochemical lesion in vitamin B12 deficiency. Although they do not give direct support to an impairment in the methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate, they do not exclude it as they test only one possible metabolic pathway and moreover they could represent the result of more than one action of vitamin B12 on uracil metabolism. They do show, however, that some aspect of uracil metabolism other than methylation is affected in vitamin B12 deficiency in man.

  1. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated with mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Eve, Heather E; Rule, Simon A J

    2010-03-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is a well-recognised complication of lymphoproliferative disorders, and has been reported in association with all B and T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes with the exception of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). We describe herein a case of MCL diagnosed in an initially asymptomatic 66-year-old woman who developed transfusion-dependent AIHA 6 months later coincident with lymphoma progression. The AIHA failed to respond satisfactorily to conventional treatment (high-dose oral prednisolone) but rapidly resolved following commencement of non-rituximab-containing combination chemotherapy in parallel with complete remission of the lymphoma. This is the first of such cases to be described in the literature and confirms that the immune environment of MCL can predispose to AIHA in the same way as in other lymphoma subtypes. Despite this being an infrequent occurrence, clinicians should be aware that AIHA is a potential complication of MCL and may be more successfully controlled by treating the underlying lymphoma rather than relying on conventional anti-haemolytic strategies such as steroids.

  2. Parenteral iron therapy in the anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, D P; Williams, P

    1982-05-01

    Thirty anaemic patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were each given 800 mg of iron , as iron dextran, intramuscularly over an interval of four weeks. The haemoglobin concentration rose significantly within two months in 26 of the patients but this was followed by a significant fall to the pre-treatment level nine months after treatment. The response to iron therapy was not related to the initial haemoglobin concentration, serum iron concentration, transferrin saturation nor to the amount of storage iron, whether assessed by bone marrow stainable iron or the serum ferritin concentration. There was an unexpected fall in the serum ferritin concentration within the first two months after treatment in half of the patients and this was followed by a rise towards the pre-treatment level during the following seven months, such that there was no apparent addition to the amount of storage iron over the period of the study. The possible mechanisms for these findings are discussed. A response to parenteral iron therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis should not be regarded as evidence of iron deficiency and only by correction of the underlying inflammatory process will lasting improvement in the anaemia be obtained.

  3. Clinical significance of acquired somatic mutations in aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J C W; Mufti, G J

    2016-08-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is frequently associated with other disorders of clonal haemopoiesis such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and T-large granular lymphocytosis. Certain clones may escape the immune attack within the bone marrow environment and proliferate and attain a survival advantage over normal haemopoietic stem cells, such as trisomy 8, loss of heterozygosity of short arm of chromosome 6 and del13q clones. Recently acquired somatic mutations (SM), excluding PNH clones, have been reported in around 20-25 % of patients with AA, which predispose to a higher risk of later malignant transformation to MDS/acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, certain SM, such as ASXL1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor survival following immunosuppressive therapy, whereas PIGA, BCOR/BCORL1 predict for good response and survival. Further detailed and serial analysis of the immune signature in AA is needed to understand the pathogenetic basis for the presence of clones with SM in a significant proportion of patients.

  4. Characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, Edita; Whiting, Karen; Gordon Smith, Edward; Pettengell, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    In aplastic anaemia (AA), haemopoietic activity is significantly reduced and generally attributed to failure of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) within the bone marrow (BM). The regulation of haemopoiesis depends on the interaction between HSC and various cells of the BM microenvironment, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). MSC involvement in the functional restriction of HSC in AA is largely unknown and therefore, the physical and functional properties of AA MSC were studied in vitro. MSC were characterized by their phenotype and ability to form adherent stromal layers. The functional properties of AA MSC were assessed through proliferative, clonogenic and cross-over culture assays. Results indicate that although AA MSC presented typical morphology and distinctive mesenchymal markers, stromal formation was reduced, with 50% of BM samples failing to produce adherent layers. Furthermore, their proliferative and clonogenic capacity was markedly decreased (P = 0·03 and P = 0·04 respectively) and the ability to sustain haemopoiesis was significantly reduced, as assessed by total cell proliferation (P = 0·032 and P = 0·019 at Week 5 and 6, respectively) and clonogenic potential of HSC (P = 0·02 at Week 6). It was concluded that the biological characteristics of AA MSC are different from those of control MSC and their in vitro haemopoiesis-supporting ability is significantly reduced.

  5. Genetic heterogeneity of megaloblastic anaemia type 1 in Tunisian patients.

    PubMed

    Bouchlaka, Chiraz; Maktouf, Chokri; Mahjoub, Bahri; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Sfar, M Tahar; Sioud, Mahbouba; Gueddich, Neji; Belhadjali, Zouheir; Rebaï, Ahmed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Dellagi, Koussay

    2007-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia 1 (MGA1) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by selective intestinal vitamin B12 malabsorption and proteinuria. More than 200 MGA1 patients have been identified worldwide, but the disease is relatively prevalent in Finland, Norway and several Eastern Mediterranean regions. MGA1 is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutations in either the cubilin (CUBN) or the amnionless (AMN) gene. In the present study we investigated the molecular defect underlying MGA1 in nine Tunisian patients belonging to six unrelated consanguineous families. Haplotype and linkage analyses, using microsatellite markers surrounding both CUBN and AMN genes, indicated that four out of the six families were likely to be linked to the CUBN gene. Patients from these families were screened for the Finnish, Mediterranean and Arabian mutations already published. None of the screened mutations could be detected in our population. One family showed a linkage to AMN gene. Direct screening of the AMN gene allowed the identification of the c.208-2A>G mutation, previously described in a Jewish Israeli patient of Tunisian origin and in Turkish patients. This suggests that the c.208-2A>G mutation may derive from a single Mediterranean founder ancestor. For the last family, haplotype analysis excluded both CUBN and AMN genes, suggesting the existence of a third locus that may cause MGA1.

  6. Patient-specific blood rheology in sickle-cell anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejin; Du, E.; Lei, Huan; Tang, Yu-Hang; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-01-01

    Sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder exhibiting heterogeneous cell morphology and abnormal rheology, especially under hypoxic conditions. By using a multiscale red blood cell (RBC) model with parameters derived from patient-specific data, we present a mesoscopic computational study of the haemodynamic and rheological characteristics of blood from SCA patients with hydroxyurea (HU) treatment (on-HU) and those without HU treatment (off-HU). We determine the shear viscosity of blood in health as well as in different states of disease. Our results suggest that treatment with HU improves or worsens the rheological characteristics of blood in SCA depending on the degree of hypoxia. However, on-HU groups always have higher levels of haematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR) than off-HU groups, indicating that HU can indeed improve the oxygen transport potential of blood. Our patient-specific computational simulations suggest that the HVR level, rather than the shear viscosity of sickle RBC suspensions, may be a more reliable indicator in assessing the response to HU treatment. PMID:26855752

  7. Estimating the prevalence of anaemia: a comparison of three methods.

    PubMed Central

    Sari, M.; de Pee, S.; Martini, E.; Herman, S.; Sugiatmi; Bloem, M. W.; Yip, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the most effective method for analysing haemoglobin concentrations in large surveys in remote areas, and to compare two methods (indirect cyanmethaemoglobin and HemoCue) with the conventional method (direct cyanmethaemoglobin). METHODS: Samples of venous and capillary blood from 121 mothers in Indonesia were compared using all three methods. FINDINGS: When the indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method was used the prevalence of anaemia was 31-38%. When the direct cyanmethaemoglobin or HemoCue method was used the prevalence was 14-18%. Indirect measurement of cyanmethaemoglobin had the highest coefficient of variation and the largest standard deviation of the difference between the first and second assessment of the same blood sample (10-12 g/l indirect measurement vs 4 g/l direct measurement). In comparison with direct cyanmethaemoglobin measurement of venous blood, HemoCue had the highest sensitivity (82.4%) and specificity (94.2%) when used for venous blood. CONCLUSIONS: Where field conditions and local resources allow it, haemoglobin concentration should be assessed with the direct cyanmethaemoglobin method, the gold standard. However, the HemoCue method can be used for surveys involving different laboratories or which are conducted in relatively remote areas. In very hot and humid climates, HemoCue microcuvettes should be discarded if not used within a few days of opening the container containing the cuvettes. PMID:11436471

  8. Targeting BMP signalling in cardiovascular disease and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Nicholas W.; Bloch, Donald B.; ten Dijke, Peter; Goumans, Marie-Jose T.H.; Hata, Akiko; Smith, Jim; Yu, Paul B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors, known to be essential regulators of embryonal patterning and organogenesis, are also critical for the regulation of cardiovascular structure and function. In addition to their contributions to syndromic disorders of heart and vascular development, BMP signalling is increasingly recognized for its influence on endocrine-like functions in postnatal cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis. In this Review, we discuss several critical and novel aspects of BMP signalling in cardiovascular health and disease, which highlight the cell- and context-specific nature of BMP signalling. Based on advancing knowledge of the physiological roles and regulation of BMP signaling, we indicate opportunities for therapeutic intervention in a range of cardiovascular conditions including atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and well as for anaemia of chronic disease. Depending on the context and the repertoire of ligands and receptors involved in specific disease processes, the selective inhibition or enhancement of signaling via particular BMP ligands (such as in atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension, respectively) might be beneficial. The development of selective small molecule antagonists of BMP receptors, and the identification of ligands selective for BMP receptor complexes expressed in the vasculature provide the most immediate opportunities for new therapies. PMID:26461965

  9. Pathogenesis of the erythroid failure in Diamond Blackfan anaemia.

    PubMed

    Sieff, Colin A; Yang, Jing; Merida-Long, Lilia B; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-02-01

    Diamond Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a severe congenital failure of erythropoiesis. Despite mutations in one of several ribosome protein genes, including RPS19, the cause of the erythroid specificity is still a mystery. We hypothesized that, because the chromatin of late erythroid cells becomes condensed and transcriptionally inactive prior to enucleation, the rapidly proliferating immature cells require very high ribosome synthetic rates. RNA biogenesis was measured in primary mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitor cells; during the first 24 h, cell number increased three to fourfold while, remarkably, RNA content increased sixfold, suggesting an accumulation of an excess of ribosomes during early erythropoiesis. Retrovirus infected siRNA RPS19 knockdown cells showed reduced proliferation but normal differentiation, and cell cycle analysis showed a G1/S phase delay. p53 protein was increased in the knockdown cells, and the mRNA level for p21, a transcriptional target of p53, was increased. Furthermore, we show that RPS19 knockdown decreased MYB protein, and Kit mRNA was reduced, as was the amount of cell surface KIT protein. Thus, in this small hairpin RNA murine model of DBA, RPS19 insufficient erythroid cells may proliferate poorly because of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, and also because of decreased expression of the key erythroid signalling protein KIT.

  10. Anaemia and Iron Homeostasis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obirikorang, Christian; Issahaku, Razak Gyesi; Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Osei-Yeboah, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART) and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (P < 0.05). Hb, iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased from grade 1 to grade 3 anaemia and CD4/CD3 lymphocyte count was lowest in grade 3 anaemia (P < 0.05). Iron (P = 0.0072) decreased with disease severity whilst transferrin (P = 0.0143) and TIBC (P = 0.0143) increased with disease severity. Seventy-six (23.8%) participants fulfilled the criteria for anaemia, 86 (26.9%) for iron deficiency, 41 (12.8%) for iron deficiency anaemia, and 17 (5.3%) for iron overload. The frequency of anaemia was higher amongst participants not on HAART (OR 2.6 for grade 1 anaemia; OR 3.0 for grade 3 anaemia). Conclusion. In this study population, HIV-associated anaemia is common and is related to HAART status and disease progression. HIV itself is the most important cause of anaemia and treatment of HIV should be a priority compared to iron supplementation. PMID:27092270

  11. Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in children's anaemia risk in northern Angola.

    PubMed

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Langa, Antonio; Pedro, João Mário; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos; Clements, Archie C A; Vaz Nery, Susana

    2013-05-01

    Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ≤15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i) quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in anaemia endemicity; and (ii) develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ≤15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR≤15), S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR≤15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86%) were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ≤15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.

  12. Differential susceptibility of equine and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells to equine herpesvirus 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, R; Kimura, T; Nakamura, K; Ochiai, K; Okazaki, K; Wada, R; Umemura, T

    2006-04-01

    Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) shows endotheliotropism in the central nervous system (CNS) of infected horses. However, infection of endothelial cells has not been observed in the CNS of infected mice. To explore the basis for this difference in endotheliotropism, we compared the susceptibility of equine brain microvascular endothelial cells (EBMECs) and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (MBMECs) to EHV-1 infection. The kinetics of viral growth in EBMECs was typical of a fully productive infection whereas viral infection in MBMECs seemed to be nonproductive. Immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-EHV-1 polyclonal antibody demonstrated viral antigen in infected EBMECs, but not infected MBMECs. EHV-1 immediate early (IE), early (ICP0), and late (gB, gD and gK) transcripts were expressed in infected EBMECs. However, none of these genes was detected in infected MBMECs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Electron microscopic examination at the stage of viral entry showed that viral particles were present within uncoated vesicles in the cytoplasm of EBMECs, but absent from those of MBMECs. These results suggest that viral entry is an important determinant of the susceptibility of EBMECs and MBMECs to EHV-1 infection.

  13. Equine herpesvirus-1 suppresses type-I interferon induction in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2015-10-15

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is one of the most common and important respiratory viral pathogens of horses. EHV-1 in horses replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systematically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord, and highly pathogenic virus strains can produce aborted fetuses or myeloencephalopathy. Like other herpes viruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion. Some herpes viruses down-regulate the type-I interferon (IFN) response to infection, but such activity has not been described for EHV-1. Here, in an in vitro system utilizing an established equine endothelial cell line, we studied the temporal effect on IFN-β responses following infection with the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1. Results show that after an early induction of IFN-β, the virus actively shut down further production of IFN-β and this was correlated with expression of the viral late genes. Expression of the IFN response factor viperin, a marker of host cell type-I IFN responses, was also suppressed by T953 virus infection. EHV-1-mediated suppression of host type-I IFN responses may play an important role in EHV-1 pathogenesis and the mechanism of this, presumably involving a viral late gene product, warrants investigation.

  14. The characterization of equine herpes virus-1-infected cell polypeptides recognized by equine lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bridges, C G; Ledger, N; Edington, N

    1988-02-01

    Ponies, without evidence of previous exposure to Equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1), were experimentally infected with EHV-1 subtype 2 and investigated for lymphocyte transformation to virus-infected cell polypeptides, as shown by separation with gel electrophoresis. Animals made significant responses to Western blot fractions that corresponded to molecular weights of approximately 30,000, 40,000-45,000, 60,000-65,000, 80,000-95,000 and 100,000-140,000 MW. These molecular weight ranges correlated with the positions of major EHV-1 subtype 2 glycoproteins that were found at migration distances approximating to 137,000, 111,000, 90,000, 65,000 and 47,000 MW. Responses were also made to a subset of similar points on the subtype 1 profile. Hyperimmune equine serum precipitated numerous infected-cell proteins of both subtypes; in particular the recognition of polypeptides with MW of 142,000, 132,000, 114,000, and 46,000 was in agreement with the mitogenic responses. Labelling with 125I indicated that immunoprecipitated greater than 250,000, 182,000, 142,000, 132,000, 75,000, 46,000 and 32,000/34,000 MW products were exposed on the surface of infected cells.

  15. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  16. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  17. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS.

  18. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  19. Eastern equine encephalitis: a classical case.

    PubMed

    Baig, Basarat; Mehta, Tapan; Khalid, Nauman; Chhabra, Lovely

    2014-10-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old man with rapidly deteriorating acute meningoencephalitis, finally diagnosed as eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). The course and timing in this patient are quite characteristic. EEE is an arthropod borneviral illness in which the mosquito serves as the vector. It is amongst the most severe of the arbovirus encephalitides and has a high mortality and morbidity. In nonfatal cases, residual neurological deficits are often severe and permanent. North American lineage of EEE is mainly found in the northeast especially along the coastal areas. EEE is primarily found in horses and other domestic mammals that remain outdoors nocturnally. In humans, symptoms range from nonspecific constitutional features to catastrophic neurological sequelae including death. Hyponatremia and increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count are independent predictors of poor outcomes. Diagnosis is suggestive by demonstrating IgM antibody in blood or CSF samples and can be confirmed by other serologic assay including immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Measures recommended by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) for prevention include using repellents, protective clothing, screens, and eradication of mosquito breeding areas. EEE remains without cure and prevention is the best medicine.

  20. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  1. Histopathological findings in equine sinonasal disorders.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, W H; Clarke, C J; Dixon, P M

    1999-07-01

    Biopsies collected from 79 referred cases of equine sinonasal disease, including 27 horses with primary sinusitis, 10 with secondary dental sinusitis, 19 with sinus cysts, 11 with progressive ethmoid haematomata (PEH), 4 with false nostril epidermal inclusion cysts, 4 with sinonasal polyps, 3 with sinonasal mycosis and from 2 control animals were examined histologically. Observations were made on epithelial type and integrity, cellular inflammatory response, fibroplasia and presence of potential pathogens. Chronic inflammatory changes including mucosal thickening, ulceration and significant fibroplasia, were found in the sinus mucosa with most sinus disorders, similar to those found in human chronic sinusitis. Bacteria were variably present on sinusitis mucosae but their aetiological significance was unclear. The presence of apparently irreversible changes including fibroplasia in some of these sinusitis cases may explain their poor or delayed response to treatment. Sinus cysts had histological similarities to human mucocoeles. Progressive ethmoid haematomata showed recent and older haemorrhage, as did sinus cysts (and occasionally some chronic sinusitis sections), but support for a common aetiology between sinus cysts and PEH was absent.

  2. [The surgical therapy of equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Werry, H; Gerhards, H

    1992-04-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequently encountered cause of eye problems and blindness in horses. Classic treatment of ERU includes mydriatics, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite vigorous topical and systemic treatment, however, in many cases, the prognosis for preserving vision remains poor. Experiences with surgical treatment of chronic endogenous uveitis in human patients have shown that vision-impairing axial opacities in the vitreous body can be removed by pars plana vitrectomy, and that a considerable decrease in the frequency and severity of uveitic relapses results. So far, 11 eyes of 10 horses were subjected to vitrectomy. All horses had suffered from 3 or more uveitic attacks and had a hazy vitreous. In all cases, at discharge from the clinic, the vitreous chamber was less hazy compared to preoperative findings. At follow-up examinations, 8 eyes (8/10) had normal i.o. pressure, and 2 (2/10) had subnormal i.o. pressure and the vitreous chambers were clear or contained only small floaters. Uveitic attacks had not been observed in the operated eyes. Postoperative complications included fibrinous, or fibrinous-haemorrhagic exudate in the anterior chamber of all eyes, and in one eye, a minor haemorrhage in the vitreous chamber. Our preliminary results indicate that pars plana vitrectomy assuring proper case selection and accurate surgical technique, may contribute to improvement of vision and may delay the progression of uveitic complications in horses.

  3. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR.

  4. Impact of intestinal parasites on haematological parameters of sickle-cell anaemia patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S G; Uraka, J

    2011-09-01

    The majority of patients with sickle-cell anaemia live in the underdeveloped nations where endemic parasitic diseases are prevalent and this may exacerbate the severity of steady-state anaemia in infected patients. We studied the impact of intestinal parasites on haematological parameters of sickle-cell anaemia patients aged 18-35 years in Kano, Nigeria. Of 100 patients studied, 27 were found to be infected with intestinal parasites. There were no significant differences between patients with and without parasitic infections with respect to leukocyte and platelet counts. However, patients without parasitic infections had a significantly higher mean haematocrit than patients with parasitic infections [0.27 L/L (SD 0.03) versus 0.23 (SD 0.03) L/L]. Anaemia in sickle-cell anaemia patients may be exacerbated by intestinal parasites, and these patients should have regular stool examinations for detection and treatment of parasitic infections in order to improve their haematocrit and avoid the risk of blood transfusion.

  5. [A flow chart for the laboratory diagnosis of anaemia as requested by general practice].

    PubMed

    Huisman, A; van Solinge, W W

    2007-10-20

    Anaemia is a common problem in primary care. It can be a symptom of an underlying disease such as a malignancy, and should therefore not be ignored. The diagnosis of anaemia is laboratory-based and is defined as a haemoglobin concentration below the lower reference value. The reference values are currently under debate; some authors argue that the WHO lower reference values are incorrect and should be replaced by higher values. Algorithms for requesting laboratory tests can be applied as a guide to the classification and diagnosis ofanaemia. The Dutch College of General Practitioners has issued such a flow chart which is based on Wintrobe's classification and in which the red cell volume is a central value i.e. the 'mean corpuscular volume' (MCV). An alternative flow chart has been proposed which starts with the determination of the ferritin concentration. However, neither of these algorithms is always practical. They often do not lead to a diagnosis, and combined diagnoses may not be accounted for. In general practice, the initial diagnosis of anaemia could be based on a reliable haemoglobin measurement which would establish if anaemia is or is not present. Consequently, a simple laboratory diagnosis algorithm could be applied to frequently occurring causes of anaemia, such as iron deficiency. Should the cause be a rarer one, then a specialist should be consulted.

  6. Anaemia among Egyptian Children between 2000 and 2005: trends and predictors.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anne M; Fawzi, Wafaie; Hill, Allan G

    2012-10-01

    Anaemia remains the most prevalent nutritional disorder among women and children in the Middle East and North Africa region. We examined anaemia trends using data from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys. Between 2000 and 2005, the prevalence of anaemia (defined as haemoglobin concentrations <11 g dL(-1) ) increased from 37.04% to over 52% among Egyptian children between 12 months and 36 months of age. We examined the associations of these changes with food consumption, vitamin A administration, recent illness, immunization status, socio-demographic factors and a child's anaemic status. Children under the age of 24 months who had recently been sick and those who resided in Upper Egypt were significantly more likely to be anaemic. Despite significant improvements in water and sanitation facilities, maternal education and asset-based household wealth, there were marked declines in the consumption of nutritive foods and increases in the prevalence of childhood diarrhoea between 2000 and 2005. Placing these analyses in the broader context of Egyptian economic trends suggests that the nutritional basket consumed by Egyptian households between 2000 and 2005 may have shifted towards less nutritive foods with lower costs per calorie, probably in response to economic difficulties and increasing food prices. Shifts in dietary consumption, in conjunction with increases in diarrhoea, are likely contributing to the rapid increase in childhood anaemia in Egypt between 2000 and 2005. National-level fortification efforts may be one way to combat rising levels of anaemia among Egyptian women and children.

  7. Socio-demographic and maternal factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwizu, E N; Iliyasu, Z; Ibrahim, S A; Galadanci, H S

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. The burden and underlying factors are varied even within countries. We studied the prevalence of anaemia at booking and underlying factors in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Using the capillary technique and blood film, the packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell morphology of 300 pregnant women was determined. Additional information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and past medical history using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 51 (17%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)=12.9%-21.7%] were anaemic. Specifically, 12.7% and 4.3% of the women had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed normochromic normocytic, haemolytic and microcytic hypochromic pictures respectively. Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low educational and economic status especially among women with background obstetric risk factors calls for vigilance, sustained health education and chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women.

  8. Incidence of iron-deficiency anaemia in infants in a prospective study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Kilbride, J; Baker, T G; Parapia, L A; Khoury, S A

    2000-04-01

    A high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia has been reported in Jordanian infants. A prospective study of infants in downtown Amman examined the relationship between anaemia in pregnancy and iron deficiency in infancy. The iron status of infants born to 107 anaemic (Hb < 11 g/dl) and 125 non-anaemic mothers was reviewed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Indicators to define iron-deficiency anaemia were Hb < 11 g/dl and either plasma ferritin < 12 microg/l or zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) > 35 microg/dl whole blood. Haemoglobin electrophoresis excluded haemoglobinopathy. There was 72% iron-deficiency anaemia throughout the year, significantly higher in infants born to anaemic mothers (81%; n = 91) compared with controls (65%; n = 112). At 12 months, 72% of the infants tested (n = 195) were anaemic. While 57% were identified as iron-deficient by research criteria of either ferritin or ZPP, only 37% were identified by ferritin alone, 40% by ZPP alone and 29% if both ferritin and ZPP were required to meet criteria. Most infant anaemia was identified as due to iron deficiency, supporting contextual setting as assisting diagnosis: infants in developing countries are recognised as vulnerable to iron deficiency. Using multiple criteria, more cases were identified when either ferritin or ZPP were abnormal than when one alone, or both parameters were required to meet research criteria.

  9. The impact of anaemia and intravenous iron replacement therapy on outcomes in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Maurice; Klein, Andrew A; Richards, Toby

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia is common in patients with cardiac disease and also in those undergoing cardiac surgery. There is increasing evidence that preoperative anaemia is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality following surgery. We performed a systematic literature review to assess the impact of anaemia and intravenous (IV) iron supplementation on outcomes in cardiac surgery. Sixteen studies examined preoperative anaemia in detail. One study examined the role of preoperative IV iron administration and a further three, the effect of postoperative iron supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb) levels and the need for transfusion. Preoperative anaemia was associated with higher mortality, more postoperative blood transfusions, longer intensive care unit (ICU) and total hospital stay and also a greater incidence of postoperative cardiovascular events. In the single study that examined preoperative IV iron in combination with erythropoietin treatment, there was decreased blood transfusion, shorter hospital stay and an increase in patient survival. However, this was a small retrospective cohort study, with the observation and treatment groups analysed over different time periods. Postoperative administration of IV iron therapy, either alone or in combination with erythropoietin, was not effective in raising Hb levels or reducing red cell concentrate transfusion. On the basis of currently available evidence, the effect of perioperative administration of IV iron to cardiac surgery patients, alone or in combination with erythropoietin, remains unproven. Well-designed and appropriately powered prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate perioperative iron supplementation in the context of cardiac surgery.

  10. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin <12 g/dL], haematinics and length of hospital stay) was analysed on 400 hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, p<0.0001) respectively. In the elective general surgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis p<0.0001, ferritin <30 p<0.0001. Mean length of stay (days) was increased in the anaemic compared to in the non-anaemic group (2.7 vs. 1.9) and patients who were anaemic immediately post-operatively, also had an increased length of stay (2.7 vs. 1.9), p<0.05. Absolute iron deficiency was more common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.

  11. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  12. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  13. The potential and limitations of quantitative electromyography in equine medicine.

    PubMed

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Franssen, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    This review discusses the scope of using (quantitative) electromyography (EMG) in diagnosing myopathies and neuropathies in equine patients. In human medicine, many EMG methods are available for the diagnosis, pathophysiological description and evaluation, monitoring, or rehabilitation of patients, and some of these techniques have also been applied to horses. EMG results are usually combined with other neurophysiological data, ultrasound, histochemistry, biochemistry of muscle biopsies, and clinical signs in order to provide a complete picture of the condition and its clinical course. EMG technology is commonly used in human medicine and has been subject to constant development and refinement since its introduction in 1929, but the usefulness of the technique in equine medicine is not yet widely acknowledged. The possibilities and limitations of some EMG applications for equine use are discussed.

  14. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2006-06-15

    Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis.

  15. Survey on the subject of equine Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Gall, Yvonne; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-05-01

    According to the results of a questionnaire on equine Lyme borreliosis addressing veterinarians in Germany, the existence of the disease was confirmed by more than half of the 118 participants. Practitioners who regarded Borrelia burgdorferi as a pathogen of horses seemed to be more sensitized in terms of the number of annually diagnosed cases as well as the frequency of occurrence of tick infestation with equine patients or prophylactic treatments against ectoparasites by horse owners. Chronically poor performance and diverse orthopaedic problems were the clinical symptoms most often leading to a Lyme borreliosis suspicion. The tentative diagnoses were predominantly confirmed by serology. Antibiotics (and anti-inflammatory agents) were mainly used for therapy. Whereas horse owners repeatedly asked for examination of their horses, and some veterinarians asserted equine Lyme borreliosis to be an underestimated problem in the horse population, others stated the disease was often enough misdiagnosed.

  16. Live, Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine (TC83) Causes Persistent Brain Infection in Mice with Non-functional αβ T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Katherine; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Ronca, Shannon E.; Estes, Mark; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    Intranasal infection with vaccine strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (TC83) caused persistent viral infection in the brains of mice without functional αβ T-cells (αβ-TCR -/-). Remarkably, viral kinetics, host response gene transcripts and symptomatic disease are similar between αβ-TCR -/- and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice during acute phase of infection [0–13 days post-infection (dpi)]. While WT mice clear infectious virus in the brain by 13 dpi, αβ-TCR -/- maintain infectious virus in the brain to 92 dpi. Persistent brain infection in αβ-TCR -/- correlated with inflammatory infiltrates and elevated cytokine protein levels in the brain at later time points. Persistent brain infection of αβ-TCR -/- mice provides a novel model to study prolonged alphaviral infection as well as the effects and biomarkers of long-term viral inflammation in the brain. PMID:28184218

  17. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... healthcare linens, transporting medical specimens, disposing of medical waste, reprocessing medical equipment); maintaining, servicing or repairing medical equipment that is contaminated with infectious agents; conducting... laboratories (e.g., clinical, biomedical research, production laboratories) that result in...

  18. Tools for the diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-France; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Respiratory disorders are among the most common problems leading horse owners to seek veterinary attention. Accurate diagnosis of these conditions allows for proper treatment to be instituted, much to the benefit of the patient and satisfaction of the client. As an introduction to this issue on equine respiratory disorders, we review some of the tools that are available to equine veterinarians for the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination, radiology, diagnostic ultrasound, techniques for sampling the respiratory tract, hematology, blood gas analysis, respiratory mechanics, and some modern diagnostic tools are briefly covered.

  19. The importance of therapeutic farriery in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Werner, Harry W

    2012-08-01

    For an equine practice to offer therapeutic farriery as a professional service, that service must be founded in individual competence and cooperation between veterinarian and farrier. Inadequate farriery education and experience may result in substandard or even contraindicated therapeutic farriery prescriptions and farrier care. Within continuing education for equine practitioners, excellent opportunities to advance one's understanding of and clinical competence in therapeutic farriery are increasingly available. It is the obligation of the veterinarian to acquire and maintain a working understanding of both basic and therapeutic farriery to work effectively with the farrier and offer a valid service to the client.

  20. Cloning, expression and biological activity of equine interleukin (IL)-5.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, F M; Vandergrifft, E; Bailey, S R; Sepulveda, M F; Goode, N T; Horohov, D W

    2003-09-15

    The cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5 stimulates eosinophil differentiation, activation and survival and can prime these cells, increasing the response to other mediators. In view of its many effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disease in man. Here we report the cloning of equine IL-5 and expression of the recombinant protein by transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The cloned cDNA sequence consisted of 405 nucleotides and encoded a protein of 135 amino acids. There is >85% identity with feline, bovine, ovine, canine, and human IL-5 sequences at the nucleotide and protein level. Supernatants containing equine IL-5 were also examined for biological activity. CHO supernatant containing equine recombinant (eqr) IL-5, like the human ortholog (hrIL-5), induced concentration dependent equine eosinophil adherence to autologous serum-coated plastic (9.7+/-1.5% with a 1:100 dilution of eqrIL-5 and 9.1+/-1.6% adherence with 1 nM hrIL-5; n = 4). The eqr protein also caused concentration dependent superoxide production (11.9+/-2.4 nmol (reduced cytochrome (cyt) C)/10(6) cells at a 1:50 dilution, n = 4). In contrast, hrIL-5 only caused significant superoxide production when diluted in conditioned CHO medium, an effect that was inhibited by the anti-human mAb, TRFK5 (4.4+/-0.3 versus 0.3+/-0.4 nmol/10(6) cells for 0.5 nM hrIL-5 in the presence of the isotype matched IgG1 control (10 microM) and TRFK5 (10 microM), respectively). TRFK5 also significantly inhibited hrIL-5 induced adherence at concentrations of 0.3 microg/ml and above but had no significant inhibitory effect on either superoxide or adherence caused by eqrIL-5. These results demonstrate that equine IL-5 expressed by CHO cells stimulates equine eosinophils, suggesting that this cytokine could play a role in eosinophil recruitment and activation in equine allergic disease. The anti-human and murine moAb TRFK5 does not appear to recognise the equine protein.

  1. The haem-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase: a molecular indicator of lead-toxicity anaemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sanjay; Pal, Jayanta K

    2002-08-01

    The haem-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase, also called the haem-regulated inhibitor (HRI), has been shown to increase in the peripheral blood cells as a function of drug-induced anaemia in rabbits, suggesting that it could be a molecular indicator of drug-induced anaemia [Anand and Pal (1997) J. Biosci. 22, 287-298]. In the present investigation, we have determined the expression of HRI during lead-induced anaemia in rabbits. The level of anaemia has been determined by routine procedures such as reticulocyte count, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume. These values were compared with the results obtained for a quantitative Western blot of HRI in the blood cell lysates of drug- and lead-induced anaemic rabbits. These results indicate that HRI could be used as a molecular marker for lead-induced anaemia since a progressive increase in HRI levels could be detected as a function of the time of lead exposure. In order to understand the role of stress proteins, heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90, in inducing anaemia during lead exposure, levels of Hsp70 and Hsp90, and their interaction with HRI, have been determined. Increased levels of these proteins and their intermolecular complexes with HRI suggest their role in regulating protein synthesis during lead-induced anaemia. These observations further reiterate the use of HRI as a potential indicator for drug- and heavy-metal-induced anaemia in humans.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in patients with HIV infection at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mijiti, Peierdun; Yuexin, Zhang; Min, Liu; Wubuli, Maimaitili; Kejun, Pan; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-03-01

    We retrospectively analysed routinely collected baseline data of 2252 patients with HIV infection registered in the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in Xinjiang province, China, from 2006 to 2011 to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. Anaemia was diagnosed using the criteria set forth by the World Health Organisation, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine its predictors. The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy were 19.2%, 17.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.9% of the patients were anaemic at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that Uyghur ethnicity, female gender, lower CD4 count, lower body mass index value, self-reported tuberculosis infection, and oral candidiasis were associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia, whereas higher serum alanine aminotransferase level was associated with a lower prevalence of anaemia. The results suggest that the overall prevalence of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection is high in Xinjiang, China, but severe anaemia is uncommon. Patients in China should be routinely checked for anaemia prior to combined antiretroviral therapy initiation, and healthcare providers should carefully select the appropriate first-line combined antiretroviral therapy regimens for anaemic patients.

  3. Bioterrorism Preparedness for Infectious Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    strain, there is an increased likelihood that the virus will be expressed as a much more severe form of the disease , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHS...Emerging Infectious Diseases B-3: Presentation: The Global Resurgence of Epidemic Dengue / Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever B-4: Presentation: Joint Clinical... Diseases ", BioTerrorism Preparedness: Clinical Trials in Infectious Disease , June 15-18, 2004, Bangkok, Thailand. (See Appendix B-2) 15 APPENDIX A THE DENGUE

  4. Anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso, west Africa, 1995-96: prevalence and associated factors. DITRAME Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Mandelbrot, L.; Cartoux, M.; Dao, B.; Ouangré, A.; Dabis, F.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out in 1995-96 on anaemia in pregnant women who were attending two antenatal clinics in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, as part of a research programme including a clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnancy (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). For women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa, anaemia is of particular concern when considering the use of ZDV to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for maternal anaemia in the study population, and the effect of HIV infection on the severity of maternal anaemia. HIV counselling and testing were offered to all women, and haemograms were determined for those women who consented to serological testing. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were available for 2308 of the 2667 women who accepted HIV testing. The prevalence of HIV infection was 9.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-10.8%). The overall prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy (Hb level < 11 g/dl) was 66% (95% CI: 64-68%). The prevalence of mild (10 g/dl < or = Hb < 11 g/dl), moderate (7 g/dl < or = Hb < 10 g/dl) and severe (Hb < 7 g/dl) anaemia was 30.8%, 33.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 78.4% in HIV-infected women versus 64.7% in HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001). Although the relative risk of HIV-seropositivity increased with the severity of anaemia, no significant association was found between degree of anaemia and HIV serostatus among the study women with anaemia. Logistic regression analysis showed that anaemia was significantly and independently related to HIV infection, advanced gestational age, and low socioeconomic status. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Antenatal care in this population must include iron supplementation. Although HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of anaemia, severe anaemia was infrequent, possibly because few

  5. Severe Childhood Anaemia and Blood Transfusion in a Nigerian Secondary Level Facility.

    PubMed

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade; Fetuga, Bolanle; Olowonyo, Michael; Adekoya, Adesola; Adetola, Oluseyi; Ajetunmobi, Adebimpe

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the pattern and immediate outcome of severe childhood anaemia requiring blood transfusion at a secondary level of care in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of children hospitalized in a secondary health facility in Ogun State, Nigeria, with packed cell volume <20% and who received blood transfusion was done. Of the 253 children admitted between March 2013 and June 2014, 79 (31.2%) had severe anaemia and were transfused with blood. Two-thirds had multiple transfusions. Higher rates of blood transfusion were obtained among underweight children. Fever (98.7%), hypoglycaemia (65.8%) and tender liver (54.4%) were the leading co-morbidities. The case fatality rate was 21.5%. Respiratory distress, convulsions and altered sensorium were significantly associated with mortality. In conclusion, severe anaemia was associated with major morbidities and mortality at the secondary level of paediatric care in Nigeria.

  6. Recurrent Severe Anaemia: A Rare Presentation of Parvovirus B19 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Gian; Charan, Shiv; Arora, Sahil; Singh, Parampreet

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pure red cell aplasia is usually seen in immunocompromised hosts or patients who have chronic haemolytic anaemia, which is caused by blood transfusion related transmission. The present patient, a 30-year-old immunocompetent female, presented several times with recurrent severe anaemia, over a period of one and half years. Her history, clinical examination and investigations did not reveal any indigenous drug intake, previous blood transfusions, haemolytic disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, pregnancies, autoimmune diseases or thymoma. She was found to have a thalassaemia minor trait, on the basis of which severity and recurrence of anaemia could not be explained, and on further evaluation, she was diagnosed to have acute aplastic crisis caused by Parvovirus B19 induced, acquired pure red cell aplasia. The co- existence of these two haematological disorders in an immunocompetent, non-transfusion dependent individual is rare, which makes our case report unique. PMID:24959472

  7. Prevalence and type of anaemia in young Egyptian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Salah, N; El Hamid, F Abd; Abdelghaffar, S; El Sayem, M

    2005-01-01

    Over a 2-month period, 200 type 1 diabetic patients attending a paediatric diabetic clinic in Cairo, Egypt were screened for anaemia and other complications of diabetes. The mean age was 11.2 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 4.0 years. Anaemia was diagnosed in 75 patients (37.5%) overall: 45 had microcytic hypochromic anaemia, 18 normocytic normochromic and 12 macrocytic hyperchromic. Of the 75, 41 patients (54.7%) had iron deficiency, 14 (18.7%) had folate deficiency and 14 (18.7%) had thalassaemia minor. Three patients (4%) had coeliac disease, and 18 patients (24%) had parasitic infections. None of the patients had hypothyroidism, renal failure or vitamin B12 deficiency.

  8. Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor centre

    PubMed Central

    John, Celestine Osita; Korubo, Kaladada; Ogu, Rosemary; Mmom, Chigozirim Faith; Mba, Alpheus Gogo; Chidiadi, Ezenwa-Ahanene; Akani, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia occurring in pregnancy is a rare event with life threatening challenges for both mother and child. We present a successful fetomaternal outcome despite the challenges in the management of this rare condition in a tertiary but resource poor centre. This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0+5managed with repeated blood transfusions from 28 weeks of gestation for bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds. She had a cesarean section at 37 weeks for pre-eclampsia and oligohydraminous with good feto-maternal outcome. She was managed entirely with fresh whole blood and received 21 units. Aplastic Anaemia in Pregnancy is a rare event with poor feto maternal prognosis. Successful management is possible with good multi-disciplinary approach and availability of supportive comprehensive obstetric care. PMID:28154632

  9. Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor centre.

    PubMed

    John, Celestine Osita; Korubo, Kaladada; Ogu, Rosemary; Mmom, Chigozirim Faith; Mba, Alpheus Gogo; Chidiadi, Ezenwa-Ahanene; Akani, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Aplastic anaemia occurring in pregnancy is a rare event with life threatening challenges for both mother and child. We present a successful fetomaternal outcome despite the challenges in the management of this rare condition in a tertiary but resource poor centre. This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0(+5)managed with repeated blood transfusions from 28 weeks of gestation for bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds. She had a cesarean section at 37 weeks for pre-eclampsia and oligohydraminous with good feto-maternal outcome. She was managed entirely with fresh whole blood and received 21 units. Aplastic Anaemia in Pregnancy is a rare event with poor feto maternal prognosis. Successful management is possible with good multi-disciplinary approach and availability of supportive comprehensive obstetric care.

  10. Diagnostic and management dilemma of a pancreas-kidney transplant recipient with aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea; Hessamodini, Hannah; Augustson, Bradley; Lim, Wai Hon

    2014-09-25

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman with type I diabetes who had received a simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant maintained on tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and prednisolone. Her renal allograft failed 6 years post-transplant but she continued to have a normal functioning pancreatic allograft. Over the course of 5 years, she developed progressive bone marrow failure with repeat bone marrow aspirates demonstrating an evolution from erythroid hypoplasia to hypocellular marrow and eventual aplastic anaemia despite discontinuation of MPA and reduction of tacrolimus. She was transfusion-dependent and had frequent admissions for sepsis. Despite treatment with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine for aplastic anaemia, she developed fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis within 3 weeks of treatment. Even though the cause of aplastic anaemia is likely multifactorial, this case highlights the difficulty in balancing the need for versus the risk of ongoing immunosuppression in a SPK transplant recipient who continues to have normal pancreatic graft function.

  11. Pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy in iron deficiency anaemia: the role of noradrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M. A.; Carillo, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the effect of long-term administration of reserpine, an adrenergic blocking agent, on cardiac hypertrophy in animals with severe iron deficiency anaemia. This condition was induced by feeding rats on an iron-deficient diet for 30 days from the time of weaning. Anaemia was indicated by lowering of blood haemoglobin levels. Reserpine was administered i.p. (0.15 mg/kg body wt) every day during the experiment. Marked cardiac hypertrophy, as indicated by increase heart weight and increased size of cardiac muscle cells, was evidenced in iron-deficient rats, while the heart weights and myocardial cell size of drug-treated anaemic rats were in the normal range. The successful prevention of cardiac hypertrophy in anaemic iron-deficient rats by reserpine administration supports the hypothesis that noradrenaline plays a key role in the cardiac-hypertrophy process in iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:6212077

  12. The cardio-renal-anaemia syndrome predicts survival in peritoneally dialyzed patients

    PubMed Central

    Zbroch, Edyta; Malyszko, Jacek; Mysliwiec, Michal; Iaina, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anaemia is one of the arms of the cardio-renal-anaemia syndrome (CRA) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The correction of anaemia was effective in the amelioration of both cardiac and renal failure. We studied the relationship between the severity of CRA syndrome in peritoneally dialyzed patients and their survival probability. Material and methods Fifty-six patients on peritoneal dialysis were followed for 1 year. Definition of the severity of the CRA in dialysis patients: cardiac arm – NYHA class I-IV = 1-4 points, renal arm – non-diabetic patients age < 65 =1 point, non-diabetic patients age>65 = 2 points, diabetic patients age < 65 = 3 points, diabetic patients age>65 = 4 points, anaemia arm – Hb 11-13 g/dl (male), 11-12 g/dl (female) = 1 point, Hb 10-11 g/dl = 2 points, Hb 9-10 g/dl = 3 points, Hb < 9 g/dl = 4 points. The severity score = cardiac + renal + anaemia arms score divided by 3 (maximum 4 points). Results A total of 10/56 patients (18%) died during the study. The median value for the severity score of the whole group was 1.69. In Kaplan-Meier analysis CRA severity score was strongly associated with mortality (p < 0.001). It also correlated with albumin, CRP, erythropoietin treatment, Hb and fasting glucose. In the multivariate regression analysis age, Hb, albumin, and presence of diabetes remained significant predictors of death. Conclusions The severity score of CRA syndrome in peritoneally dialyzed patients is an independent and very significant predictor of death. The patients with a high severity score had more hypoalbuminaemia, higher inflammation markers and higher prevalence of diabetes and chronic heart failure. Cardio-renal-anaemia syndrome severity scoring as defined by us could be an easy tool to predict outcome of dialysis patients. PMID:22371797

  13. Can an integrated approach reduce child vulnerability to anaemia? Evidence from three African countries.

    PubMed

    Siekmans, Kendra; Receveur, Olivier; Haddad, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the complex, multi-factorial causes of childhood anaemia is best done through integrated packages of interventions. We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a "buffering" of risk associated with known causes of anaemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community-based health and nutrition program intervention. Cross-sectional data on the nutrition and health status of children 24-59 mo (N=2405) were obtained in 2000 and 2004 from program evaluation surveys in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania. Linear regression models estimated the association between haemoglobin and immediate, underlying and basic causes of child anaemia and variation in this association between years. Lower haemoglobin levels were observed in children assessed in 2000 compared to 2004 (difference -3.30 g/L), children from Tanzania (-9.15 g/L) and Malawi (-2.96 g/L) compared to Ghana, and the youngest (24-35 mo) compared to oldest age group (48-59 mo; -5.43 g/L). Children who were stunted, malaria positive and recently ill also had lower haemoglobin, independent of age, sex and other underlying and basic causes of anaemia. Despite ongoing morbidity, risk of lower haemoglobin decreased for children with malaria and recent illness, suggesting decreased vulnerability to their anaemia-producing effects. Stunting remained an independent and unbuffered risk factor. Reducing chronic undernutrition is required in order to further reduce child vulnerability and ensure maximum impact of anaemia control programs. Buffering the impact of child morbidity on haemoglobin levels, including malaria, may be achieved in certain settings.

  14. Anaemia in pregnant Ghanaian women: importance of malaria, iron deficiency, and haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, F P; Rong, B; Günther, M; Beck, S; Till, H; Kohne, E; Thompson, W N; Bienzle, U

    2000-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, anaemia in pregnancy results from multiple causes including malaria, iron deficiency and haemoglobinopathies. In a cross-sectional study among 530 pregnant women in Ghana in November-December 1998, red blood cell indices were analysed with respect to malaria, serum concentrations of ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP), and the haemoglobin and alpha-globin genotypes. Anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] < 11 g/dL) was found in 54% of the women; 63% harboured malaria parasites at predominantly low numbers. Ferritin levels were considerably influenced by malaria and inflammatory processes (CRP > 0.6 mg/dL). Depending on the definition applied, the prevalence of iron deficiency ranged between 5% and 46%. The HbAS trait was observed in 14%, HbAC and elevated HbF in 7% each, and sickle cell disease in 1%. Heterozygous beta-thalassaemia was present in 1% of the women and alpha(+)-thalassaemia in 33% (29% heterozygous, 4% homozygous). Women with HbAS had higher malaria parasite densities than those with HbAA. In individuals with highly elevated HbF (> 10%), parasitaemia occurred in 27% only. Low gravidity, second trimester of pregnancy, malaria, raised CRP levels, and homozygous alpha(+)-thalassaemia were independent risk factors for anaemia in multivariate analysis. alpha(+)-Thalassaemia, however, was associated with a lesser degree of malarial anaemia when compared to non-thalassaemic women. Iron deficiency appears not to be a major health problem in this population. Haemoglobinopathies are common but, except for homozygous alpha(+)-thalassaemia, do not substantially contribute to anaemia in pregnancy. alpha(+)-Thalassaemia ameliorates malarial anaemia in pregnant women.

  15. Soluble transferrin receptor, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor--Ferritin index in assessment of anaemia in rhaeumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pavai, S; Jayaranee, S; Sargunan, S

    2007-10-01

    Anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) is a frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A diagnostic difficulty in RA is the distinction between iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and ACD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and sTfR/log ferritin (TfR-F) index to diagnose iron deficiency in RA patients with anaemia. Routine laboratory indices of anaemia and sTfR were measured in 20 healthy persons to form the control group, 30 patients with iron deficiency anaemia and 28 RA patients with anaemia. Serum sTfR levels were significantly elevated above the cut-off value in patients with IDA and those in the iron depleted RA subgroup (ferritin < 60 microg/L) compared with those in the control and iron repleted RA subgroup (ferritin > 60 microg/L). The same was observed for TfR-F index. However, five patients in the iron repleted RA sub group had an elevated sTfR level, of which two had increased TfR-F index. Serum sTfR correlated well with the markers of anaemia and not with ESR. Ferritin had no correlation with markers of anaemia but correlated well with ESR. Measurement of sTfR and TfR-F index are good indicators of iron deficiency in RA patients with anaemia. To be cost effective, sTfR can be estimated in RA patients with anaemia when the ferritin level is more than 60 microg/L.

  16. Neuropathic changes in equine laminitis pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; Viñuela-Fernandez, Ignacio; Eager, Rachel A; Delaney, Ada; Anderson, Heather; Patel, Anisha; Robertson, Darren C; Allchorne, Andrew; Sirinathsinghji, Eva C; Milne, Elspeth M; MacIntyre, Neil; Shaw, Darren J; Waran, Natalie K; Mayhew, Joe; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M

    2007-12-05

    Laminitis is a common debilitating disease in horses that involves painful disruption of the lamellar dermo-epidermal junction within the hoof. This condition is often refractory to conventional anti-inflammatory analgesia and results in unremitting pain, which in severe cases requires euthanasia. The mechanisms underlying pain in laminitis were investigated using quantification of behavioural pain indicators in conjunction with histological studies of peripheral nerves innervating the hoof. Laminitic horses displayed consistently altered or abnormal behaviours such as increased forelimb lifting and an increased proportion of time spent at the back of the box compared to normal horses. Electron micrographic analysis of the digital nerve of laminitic horses showed peripheral nerve morphology to be abnormal, as well as having reduced numbers of unmyelinated (43.2%) and myelinated fibers (34.6%) compared to normal horses. Sensory nerve cell bodies innervating the hoof, in cervical, C8 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), showed an upregulated expression of the neuronal injury marker, activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) in both large NF-200-immunopositive neurons and small neurons that were either peripherin- or IB4-positive. A significantly increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was also observed in myelinated afferent neurons. These changes are similar to those reported in other neuropathic pain states and were not observed in the C4 DRG of laminitic horses, which is not associated with innervation of the forelimb. This study provides novel evidence for a neuropathic component to the chronic pain state associated with equine laminitis, indicating that anti-neuropathic analgesic treatment may well have a role in the management of this condition.

  17. Ultrafiltration of equine digital lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Collins, Simon N; van Eps, Andrew W; Allavena, Rachel E; Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    There are no experimentally validated pharmacological means of preventing laminitis; however, locally acting pharmaceutical agents with the potential to prevent laminitis have been identified. Demonstrating therapeutic drug concentrations in lamellar tissue is essential for evaluating the efficacy of these agents. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique for repeatedly sampling lamellar interstitial fluid. A technique for placing ultrafiltration probes was developed in vitro using 15 cadaver limbs. Subsequently, lamellar ultrafiltration probes were placed in one forelimb in six living horses. Interstitial fluid was collected continuously from the probes as ultrafiltrate for 4 (n = 4) or 14 days (n = 2). The rate of ultrafiltrate collection was calculated every 12 h. Biochemical analyses were performed on ultrafiltrate collected on night 1 (12-24 h post-implantation) and night 4 (84-96 h post-implantation). Sections surrounding the probe and control tissue from the contralateral limb were harvested, stained with H&E and Masson's trichrome and scored based on the tissue response to the probe. Ultrafiltration probes were placed in the lamellar tissue in all six horses. Ultrafiltrate was collected from these probes at 55 (30-63) μL/h (median [interquartile range]). Fluid production decreased significantly with time from night 3 onwards (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in the constituents of the ultrafiltrate between nights 1 and 4 (P > 0.05). The technique was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ultrafiltration can be used to sample equine digital lamellar interstitial fluid, and has potential for measuring lamellar drug levels.

  18. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated with a thymoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, K; Peeters, P; Verhelst, C; Dendooven, A; Vonck, A; Vanholder, R

    2009-01-01

    A 67-year-old female presents with a small mass in the anterior mediastinum on chest computed tomography. A biopsy proves the mass to be a spindle-cell-type or type A thymoma. Subsequently the patient develops fever and severe Coombs-positive haemolytic anaemia. She is initially treated with oral corticosteroids. Because of persistence of the haemolysis subsequent thymectomy is performed. Haemolysis disappears almost instantly and does not return after discontinuation of the oral corticosteroids. Review of the literature reveals only 17 other cases of thymoma-associated autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

  19. Ibrutinib Is Effective in the Treatment of Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemia in Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Galinier, Aliénor; Delwail, Vincent; Puyade, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare but life-threatening complication. To date, there are no relevant data for treatment of AIHA in MCL. Ibrutinib, which has been approved for relapse/refractory MCL, is an immunomodulatory drug inhibiting Th2 activation and consequently the production of autoantibodies. We report a case of MCL with AIHA in which this form of anaemia was not controlled with the usual chemotherapy. Ibrutinib was used when MCL with AIHA relapsed, and it allowed rapid remission of AIHA and rapid discontinuation of steroid therapy. PMID:28203175

  20. Severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia secondary to Trichuris dysentery syndrome - a case report.

    PubMed

    Azira N, M S; Zeehaida, M

    2012-12-01

    Trichuris dysentery syndrome is caused by Trichuris trichiura which contributes to one of the most common helminthic infections in the world. It is associated with heavy colonic infection that manifests as mucoid diarrhoea, rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse, iron deficiency anaemia, and finger clubbing. Here, we report a case of trichuris dysentery syndrome complicated with severe chronic iron deficiency anaemia in a 4-year-old girl who required blood transfusion. The nematode was visualized on stool microscopic and colonoscopic examination. A longer duration of anti-helminthic treatment is required to achieve effective and better outcome.