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Sample records for er associeret med

  1. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  2. Pet Meds Sending Kids to the ER

    MedlinePlus

    ... study authors said just one poison center in Ohio received more than 1,400 calls for poisoning ... and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. "However, pets often require medications to keep them ...

  3. Mediator subunits MED1 and MED24 cooperatively contribute to pubertal mammary gland development and growth of breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Natsumi; Sumitomo, Akiko; Fujita, Azusa; Aritome, Nami; Mizuta, Shumpei; Matsui, Keiji; Ishino, Ruri; Inoue, Kana; Urahama, Norinaga; Nose, Junko; Mukohara, Toru; Kamoshida, Shingo; Roeder, Robert G; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2012-04-01

    The Mediator subunit MED1 is essential for mammary gland development and lactation, whose contribution through direct interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) is restricted to involvement in pubertal mammary gland development and luminal cell differentiation. Here, we provide evidence that the MED24-containing submodule of Mediator functionally communicates specifically with MED1 in pubertal mammary gland development. Mammary glands from MED1/MED24 double heterozygous knockout mice showed profound retardation in ductal branching during puberty, while single haploinsufficient glands developed normally. DNA synthesis of both luminal and basal cells were impaired in double mutant mice, and the expression of ER-targeted genes encoding E2F1 and cyclin D1, which promote progression through the G(1)/S phase of the cell cycle, was attenuated. Luciferase reporter assays employing double mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed selective impairment in ER functions. Various breast carcinoma cell lines expressed abundant amounts of MED1, MED24, and MED30, and attenuated expression of MED1 and MED24 in breast carcinoma cells led to attenuated DNA synthesis and growth. These results indicate functional communications between the MED1 subunit and the MED24-containing submodule that mediate estrogen receptor functions and growth of both normal mammary epithelial cells and breast carcinoma cells.

  4. MED12 Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John M.; Schwartz, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    MED12 is a member of the large Mediator complex, which has a critical and central role in RNA polymerase II transcription. As a multiprotien complex, Mediator regulates signals involved in cell growth, development and differentiation, and it is involved in a protein network required for extraneuronal gene silencing and also functions as a direct suppressor of Gli3-dependent Sonic hedgehog signaling. This may may explain its role in several different X-linked intellectual disability syndromes that share some overlapping clinical features. This review will compare and contrast four different clinical conditions that have been associated with different mutations in MED12, which is located at Xq13. To date, these conditions include Opitz–Kaveggia (FG) syndrome, Lujan syndrome, Ohdo syndrome (Maat-Kievit-Brunner type, or OSMKB), and one large family with profound X-linked intellectual disability due to a novel c.5898insC frameshift mutation that unlike the other 3 syndromes, resulted in affected female carriers and truncation of the MED12 protein. It is likely that more MED12 mutations will be detected in sporadic patients and X-linked families with intellectual disability and dysmorphic features as exome sequencing becomes more commonly utilized, and this overview of MED12-related disorders may help to correlate MED12 genotypes with clinical findings. PMID:24123922

  5. Living MedsCheck

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Niki; Rahmaan, Israa; Roy, Meghna; Tritt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To share the experiences of graduating students as they learn to deliver a new medication review service in community pharmacies in Ontario, Canada. Practice description: Four graduating pharmacy students volunteered in different community pharmacies to learn how to navigate a new provincial program called MedsCheck, which pays pharmacists to do medication reviews. Each student selected his or her own practice site, including 2 independent community pharmacies, a grocery store chain pharmacy and a hospital outpatient pharmacy. Practice innovation: To help the students learn to deliver the new MedsCheck services, a faculty mentor met with them on a weekly basis. To reflect on doing MedsChecks in the “real world” and to elicit feedback from the online community, each student blogged about his or her experiences. Results: All 4 students felt that peer mentoring improved their ability to deliver MedsCheck services. They also identified a number of barriers to delivering the MedsChecks and helped each other try to overcome the barriers. Conclusion: MedsCheck is a new service in Ontario and is not easily implemented in the current pharmacy model of practice. Peer mentoring is a helpful way to share successes and overcome barriers to delivery. Can Pharm J 2013;146:33-38. PMID:23795167

  6. MedIntegrate

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Marko; Crown, Natalie; Borschel, Debaroti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medication reconciliation (MR) is associated with reduced discrepancies and adverse events within institutions. In ambulatory care, MR is often considered more challenging due to periodic, brief patient encounters and the involvement of multiple prescribers who lack shared records. MedsCheck, a community pharmacy program in Ontario for patients with diabetes or those taking 3 or more medications, generates a best possible medication history (BPMH) that can serve as a starting point for MR. Our objectives were to develop and evaluate a program to integrate MedsCheck into the workflow of an ambulatory clinic. Methods: An initiative was implemented within the Complex Care Clinic (CCC), an academic internal medicine clinic at Women’s College Hospital (WCH). During booking of their first appointment, patients were encouraged to receive a MedsCheck. A letter was faxed to the patient’s preferred community pharmacy with a request to conduct a MedsCheck and send documentation to the clinic. Evaluation included patient and health care provider questionnaires and chart review. Results: Fifty-five of 86 new patients referred to the CCC were eligible for a MedsCheck. Fifty-four patients consented to having their community pharmacy contacted, and documentation was received for 21 (39%) of these reviews. Chart review was conducted for patients who completed the patient feedback questionnaire (n = 32). Community pharmacists reported at least 1 drug therapy problem for 12 (57%) patients with a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.5) per patient. Medical residents reported an estimated mean appointment time savings of 7.9 minutes (SD 2.4). Conclusion: The program was feasibly integrated into clinic workflow and shortened the time spent creating BPMHs. This approach could be adopted by other ambulatory care clinics. PMID:25364339

  7. Functional Studies of the Yeast Med5, Med15 and Med16 Mediator Tail Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Miriam; Uvell, Hanna; Sandström, Jenny; Rydén, Patrik; Selth, Luke A.; Björklund, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Mediator complex can be divided into three modules, designated Head, Middle and Tail. Tail comprises the Med2, Med3, Med5, Med15 and Med16 protein subunits, which are all encoded by genes that are individually non-essential for viability. In cells lacking Med16, Tail is displaced from Head and Middle. However, inactivation of MED5/MED15 and MED15/MED16 are synthetically lethal, indicating that Tail performs essential functions as a separate complex even when it is not bound to Middle and Head. We have used the N-Degron method to create temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants in the Mediator tail subunits Med5, Med15 and Med16 to study the immediate effects on global gene expression when each subunit is individually inactivated, and when Med5/15 or Med15/16 are inactivated together. We identify 25 genes in each double mutant that show a significant change in expression when compared to the corresponding single mutants and to the wild type strain. Importantly, 13 of the 25 identified genes are common for both double mutants. We also find that all strains in which MED15 is inactivated show down-regulation of genes that have been identified as targets for the Ace2 transcriptional activator protein, which is important for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Supporting this observation, we demonstrate that loss of Med15 leads to a G1 arrest phenotype. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the function of the Mediator Tail module. PMID:23991176

  8. Med1 plays a critical role in the development of tamoxifen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nagalingam, Arumugam; Tighiouart, Mourad; Ryden, Lisa; Joseph, Leena; Landberg, Goran; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Dipali

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the development of tamoxifen resistance is a critical research priority as acquired tamoxifen resistance is the principal cause of poor prognosis and death of patients with originally good prognosis hormone-responsive breast tumors. In this report, we provide evidence that Med1, an important subunit of mediator coactivator complex, is spontaneously upregulated during acquired tamoxifen-resistance development potentiating agonist activities of tamoxifen. Phosphorylated Med1 and estrogen receptor (ER) are abundant in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells due to persistent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Mechanistically, phosphorylated Med1 exhibits nuclear accumulation, increased interaction with ER and higher tamoxifen-induced recruitment to ER-responsive promoters, which is abrogated by inhibition of Med1 phosphorylation. Stable knockdown of Med1 in tamoxifen-resistant cells not only reverses tamoxifen resistance in vitro but also in vivo. Finally, higher expression levels of Med1 in the tumor significantly correlated with tamoxifen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer patients on adjuvant tamoxifen monotherapy. In silico analysis of breast cancer, utilizing published profiling studies showed that Med1 is overexpressed in aggressive subsets. These findings provide what we believe is the first evidence for a critical role for Med1 in tamoxifen resistance and identify this coactivator protein as an essential effector of the tamoxifen-induced breast cancer growth. PMID:22345290

  9. The MedDRA Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Gary H.

    2008-01-01

    MedDRA (the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology) is a controlled vocabulary widely used as a medical coding scheme. However, MedDRA’s characterization of its structural hierarchy exhibits some confusing and paradoxical features. The goal of this paper is to examine these features, determine whether there is a coherent view of the MedDRA hierarchy that emerges, and explore what lessons are to be learned from this for using MedDRA and similar terminologies in a broad medical informatics context that includes relations among multiple disparate terminologies, thesauri, and ontologies. PMID:18998828

  10. The MedDRA paradox.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Gary H

    2008-11-06

    MedDRA (the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology) is a controlled vocabulary widely used as a medical coding scheme. However, MedDRA's characterization of its structural hierarchy exhibits some confusing and paradoxical features. The goal of this paper is to examine these features, determine whether there is a coherent view of the MedDRA hierarchy that emerges, and explore what lessons are to be learned from this for using MedDRA and similar terminologies in a broad medical informatics context that includes relations among multiple disparate terminologies, thesauri, and ontologies.

  11. MSL Launches With MEDLI Sensors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA engineers Michelle Munk and David Way explain the MEDLI -- Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation -- package on the MSL aeroshell that will measure the heatin...

  12. The Mediator Complex Subunits MED14, MED15, and MED16 Are Involved in Defense Signaling Crosstalk in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenggang; Du, Xuezhu; Mou, Zhonglin

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a highly conserved protein complex that functions as a transcriptional coactivator in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-mediated transcription. The Arabidopsis Mediator complex has recently been implicated in plant immune responses. Here, we compared salicylic acid (SA)-, methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-, and the ethylene (ET) precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced defense and/or wound-responsive gene expression in 14 Arabidopsis Mediator subunit mutants. Our results show that MED14, MED15, and MED16 are required for SA-activated expression of the defense marker gene PATHOEGNESIS-RELATED GENE1, MED25 is required for MeJA-induced expression of the wound-responsive marker gene VEGATATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN1 (VSP1), MED8, MED14, MED15, MED16, MED18, MED20a, MED25, MED31, and MED33A/B (MED33a and MED33B) are required for MeJA-induced expression of the defense maker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2), and MED8, MED14, MED15, MED16, MED25, and MED33A/B are also required for ACC-triggered expression of PDF1.2. Furthermore, we investigated the involvement of MED14, MED15, and MED16 in plant defense signaling crosstalk and found that MED14, MED15, and MED16 are required for SA- and ET-mediated suppression of MeJA-induced VSP1 expression. This result suggests that MED14, MED15, and MED16 not only relay defense signaling from the SA and JA/ET defense pathways to the RNAPII transcription machinery, but also fine-tune defense signaling crosstalk. Finally, we show that MED33A/B contributes to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea-induced expression of the defense genes PDF1.2, HEVEIN-LIKE, and BASIC CHITINASE and is required for full-scale basal resistance to B. cinerea, demonstrating a positive role for MED33 in plant immunity against necrotrophic fungal pathogens. PMID:28066497

  13. The Mediator Complex Subunits MED14, MED15, and MED16 Are Involved in Defense Signaling Crosstalk in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenggang; Du, Xuezhu; Mou, Zhonglin

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a highly conserved protein complex that functions as a transcriptional coactivator in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-mediated transcription. The Arabidopsis Mediator complex has recently been implicated in plant immune responses. Here, we compared salicylic acid (SA)-, methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-, and the ethylene (ET) precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced defense and/or wound-responsive gene expression in 14 Arabidopsis Mediator subunit mutants. Our results show that MED14, MED15, and MED16 are required for SA-activated expression of the defense marker gene PATHOEGNESIS-RELATED GENE1, MED25 is required for MeJA-induced expression of the wound-responsive marker gene VEGATATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN1 (VSP1), MED8, MED14, MED15, MED16, MED18, MED20a, MED25, MED31, and MED33A/B (MED33a and MED33B) are required for MeJA-induced expression of the defense maker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2), and MED8, MED14, MED15, MED16, MED25, and MED33A/B are also required for ACC-triggered expression of PDF1.2. Furthermore, we investigated the involvement of MED14, MED15, and MED16 in plant defense signaling crosstalk and found that MED14, MED15, and MED16 are required for SA- and ET-mediated suppression of MeJA-induced VSP1 expression. This result suggests that MED14, MED15, and MED16 not only relay defense signaling from the SA and JA/ET defense pathways to the RNAPII transcription machinery, but also fine-tune defense signaling crosstalk. Finally, we show that MED33A/B contributes to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea-induced expression of the defense genes PDF1.2, HEVEIN-LIKE, and BASIC CHITINASE and is required for full-scale basal resistance to B. cinerea, demonstrating a positive role for MED33 in plant immunity against necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

  14. The MedCLIVAR Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Medclivar Sc, The

    2014-05-01

    MedCLIVAR serves as a scientific network to promote interaction among different scientific disciplines and to develop a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of the Mediterranean climate through studies that integrate atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial climate components at time scales ranging from paleoreconstructions to future climate scenarios. The network deals with scientific issues including past climate variability; connections between the Mediterranean and global climate; the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level; feedbacks on the global climate system; and regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. The MedCLIVAR initiative was proposed at the 2003 European Geosciences Union assembly in Nice, France. In 2005, it was endorsed by the International Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) office. Subsequently, the MedCLIVAR Research Network Project was formally approved by the European Science Foundation and launched in May 2006 for a five year duration. Now MedCLIVAR is continuing with self supporting initiatives, such as the third MedCLIVAR conference, which will be held in June 2014 in Ankara (Turkey) , the publication of a special issue of Regional Environmental Change devoted to the climate of the Mediterranean region, and a newsletter, which is published every six months. More information available in Lionello, P., Gacic, M., Gomis, D., Garcia-Herrera, R., Giorgi, F., Planton, S., Trigo, R., (...), Xoplaki, E. (2012) Program focuses on climate of the Mediterranean region, Eos Trans. AGU 93:105-106

  15. Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) Testing

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Chandler, Rachel; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Benson, Amy; Rooney, Deborah; Munshi, Teja; Darlow, Susan D.; Perlis, Clifford; Manne, Sharon L.; Oslin, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) therapy is sometimes used as a treatment for various common skin conditions, including psoriasis, acne, and eczema. The dosage of UV light is prescribed according to an individual's skin sensitivity. Thus, to establish the proper dosage of UV light to administer to a patient, the patient is sometimes screened to determine a minimal erythema dose (MED), which is the amount of UV radiation that will produce minimal erythema (sunburn or redness caused by engorgement of capillaries) of an individual's skin within a few hours following exposure. This article describes how to conduct minimal erythema dose (MED) testing. There is currently no easy way to determine an appropriate UV dose for clinical or research purposes without conducting formal MED testing, requiring observation hours after testing, or informal trial and error testing with the risks of under- or over-dosing. However, some alternative methods are discussed. PMID:23748556

  16. Overview of the MEDLI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael J.; Little, Alan; Cheatwood, F. Neil; Wright, Michael J.; Herath, Jeff A.; Martinez, Edward R.; Munk, Michelle; Novak, Frank J.; Wright, Henry S.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) Project s objectives are to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heatshield material response, vehicle orientation, and atmospheric density for the atmospheric entry and descent phases of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle. The flight science objectives of MEDLI directly address the largest uncertainties in the ability to design and validate a robust Mars entry system, including aerothermal, aerodynamic and atmosphere models, and thermal protection system (TPS) design. The instrumentation suite will be installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars entry and aerocapture missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models and clarify the design margins for future Mars missions. MEDLI thermocouple and recession sensor data will significantly improve the understanding of aeroheating and TPS performance uncertainties for future missions. MEDLI pressure data will permit more accurate trajectory reconstruction, as well as separation of aerodynamic and atmospheric uncertainties in the hypersonic and supersonic regimes. This paper provides an overview of the project including the instrumentation design, system architecture, and expected measurement response.

  17. Overview of the MEDLI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael J.; Hwang, Helen; Little, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil; Wright, Michael; Herath, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) Project's objectives are to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heatshield material response, vehicle orientation, and atmospheric density for the atmospheric entry and descent phases of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle. The flight science objectives of MEDLI directly address the largest uncertainties in the ability to design and validate a robust Mars entry system, including aerothermal, aerodynamic and atmosphere models, and thermal protection system (TPS) design. The instrumentation suite will be installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars entry and aerocapture missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models and clarify the design margins for future Mars missions. MEDLI thermocouple and recession sensor data will significantly improve the understanding of aeroheating and TPS performance uncertainties for future missions. MEDLI pressure data will permit more accurate trajectory reconstruction, as well as separation of aerodynamic and atmospheric uncertainties in the hypersonic and supersonic regimes. This paper provides an overview of the project including the instrumentation design, system architecture, and expected measurement response.

  18. The MedCLIVAR Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Piero; Medclivar sg, The

    2013-04-01

    The MedCLIVAR initiative was first proposed at the 2003 European Geosciences Union assembly in Nice, France. In 2005, it was endorsed by the International Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) office. Subsequently, the MedCLIVAR Research Network Project was formally approved by the European Science Foundation and launched in May 2006 with the support of funding agencies from 12 countries. Since then, MedCLIVAR has served as a scientific network to promote interaction among different scientific disciplines and to develop a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of the Mediterranean climate through studies that integrate atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial climate components at time scales ranging from paleoreconstructions to future climate scenarios. Presently, the network continues dealing with scientific issues including past climate variability; connections between the Mediterranean and global climate; the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level; feedbacks on the global climate system; and regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. Its present activities include the publication of a newsletter, the organization of the next MedCLIVAR conference in 2014 and the publication of a special issue of Regional Environmental Change devoted to the climate of the Mediterranean region.

  19. Reticulons Regulate the ER Inheritance Block during ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Piña, Francisco Javier; Fleming, Tinya; Pogliano, Kit; Niwa, Maho

    2016-05-09

    Segregation of functional organelles during the cell cycle is crucial to generate healthy daughter cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ER stress causes an ER inheritance block to ensure cells inherit a functional ER. Here, we report that formation of tubular ER in the mother cell, the first step in ER inheritance, depends on functional symmetry between the cortical ER (cER) and perinuclear ER (pnER). ER stress induces functional asymmetry, blocking tubular ER formation and ER inheritance. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we show that the ER chaperone Kar2/BiP fused to GFP and an ER membrane reporter, Hmg1-GFP, behave differently in the cER and pnER. The functional asymmetry and tubular ER formation depend on Reticulons/Yop1, which maintain ER structure. LUNAPARK1 deletion in rtn1Δrtn2Δyop1Δ cells restores the pnER/cER functional asymmetry, tubular ER generation, and ER inheritance blocks. Thus, Reticulon/Yop1-dependent changes in ER structure are linked to ER inheritance during the yeast cell cycle.

  20. Silencing MED1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijiang; Cui, Jiajun; Leonard, Marissa; Nephew, Kenneth; Li, Yongquan; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2013-01-01

    Pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising ER antagonist for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients developed resistance to this type of endocrine therapy but the molecular mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent remain poorly understood. Here, we've reported that knockdown of estrogen receptor coactivator MED1 sensitized fulvestrant resistance breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. We found that MED1 knockdown further promoted cell cycle arrest induced by fulvestrant. Using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, we found that knockdown of MED1 significantly reduced tumor growth in mice. Importantly, knockdown of MED1 further potentiated tumor growth inhibition by fulvestrant. Mechanistic studies indicated that combination of fulvestrant treatment and MED1 knockdown is able to cooperatively inhibit the expression of ER target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further supported a role for MED1 in regulating the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional corepressor HDAC1 on endogenous ER target gene promoter in the presence of fulvestrant. These results demonstrate a role for MED1 in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Silencing MED1 Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Pure Anti-Estrogen Fulvestrant In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijiang; Cui, Jiajun; Leonard, Marissa; Nephew, Kenneth; Li, Yongquan; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2013-01-01

    Pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising ER antagonist for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients developed resistance to this type of endocrine therapy but the molecular mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent remain poorly understood. Here, we’ve reported that knockdown of estrogen receptor coactivator MED1 sensitized fulvestrant resistance breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. We found that MED1 knockdown further promoted cell cycle arrest induced by fulvestrant. Using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, we found that knockdown of MED1 significantly reduced tumor growth in mice. Importantly, knockdown of MED1 further potentiated tumor growth inhibition by fulvestrant. Mechanistic studies indicated that combination of fulvestrant treatment and MED1 knockdown is able to cooperatively inhibit the expression of ER target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further supported a role for MED1 in regulating the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional corepressor HDAC1 on endogenous ER target gene promoter in the presence of fulvestrant. These results demonstrate a role for MED1 in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23936234

  2. MED-SUV Data policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    MED-SUV proposes the development and implementation of a digital infrastructure for data access and for volcanic risk management aimed at applying the rationale of Supersites GEO initiative to Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Mt. Etna. It's fully recognized the clear need of an open data policy in order to ensure that data will be properly and in an ethical manner managed and can be used and accessed from its community. In MED-SUV there is a multitude of different partners with varying scientific, technical, legal and economical interests and therefore data and data products produced will be wide-ranging so it's necessary to set principles and legal arrangements. Within Europe several Directives and Regulations have brought into force which provide the leading guidelines in terms of the principle of openness to knowledge and access to scientific information. So in creating a suite policy the EC Supersites (MarSite and FutureVolc, under the EPOS umbrella) projects need to strength their efforts in defining a common data management strategy. In this presentation we will show the leading principles of the data policy, as for instance Open Access, flexibility of approach in order to harmonize the different methods of data distribution among its partners, Creative Commons licensing, data preservation and unique identification through Persistent Identifiers.

  3. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  4. The MUN Med Gateway Project

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Brunger, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Access to a continuum of care from a family physician is an essential component of health and well-being; however, refugees have particular barriers in accessing medical care. Objective of program To provide access to family physicians and continuity of care for newly arrived refugees; to provide opportunities for medical students to practise cross-cultural health care; and to mentor medical students in advocacy for underserved populations. Program description The MUN Med Gateway Project, based at Memorial University of Newfoundland in St John’s, is a medical student initiative that partners with the local refugee settlement agency to provide health care for new refugees to the province. Medical students conduct in-depth medical histories, with provision of some basic physical screening, while working through an interpreter with supervision by a family doctor and settlement public health nurse. Each patient or family is matched with a family physician. Conclusion The project’s adaptation of student-run clinics, which connects refugees with the existing mainstream medical system, has been an overwhelming success, making it a model for community action as an educational strategy. PMID:25821872

  5. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  6. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  7. ER Stress and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2015-10-06

    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  8. Redefining the MED13L syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Abidemi; Musante, Luciana; Callewaert, Bert; Maciel, Patricia; Hu, Hao; Isidor, Bertrand; Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Delle Chiaie, Barbara; Vanakker, Olivier; Menten, Björn; Dheedene, Annelies; Bockaert, Nele; Roelens, Filip; Decaestecker, Karin; Silva, João; Soares, Gabriela; Lopes, Fátima; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kahrizi, Kimia; Cox, Gerald F; Angus, Steven P; Staropoli, John F; Fischer, Ute; Suckow, Vanessa; Bartsch, Oliver; Chess, Andrew; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2015-01-01

    Congenital cardiac and neurodevelopmental deficits have been recently linked to the mediator complex subunit 13-like protein MED13L, a subunit of the CDK8-associated mediator complex that functions in transcriptional regulation through DNA-binding transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Heterozygous MED13L variants cause transposition of the great arteries and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we report eight patients with predominantly novel MED13L variants who lack such complex congenital heart malformations. Rather, they depict a syndromic form of ID characterized by facial dysmorphism, ID, speech impairment, motor developmental delay with muscular hypotonia and behavioral difficulties. We thereby define a novel syndrome and significantly broaden the clinical spectrum associated with MED13L variants. A prominent feature of the MED13L neurocognitive presentation is profound language impairment, often in combination with articulatory deficits. PMID:25758992

  9. New Meds Make Inroads Against Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164622.html New Meds Make Inroads Against Crohn's Disease Study finds ... hospital than in the past, according to a new federal study. Crohn's is a chronic inflammatory bowel ...

  10. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials ... 25, 2017 THURSDAY, May 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol ...

  11. [CanMEDS 2015: better doctors?].

    PubMed

    Borleffs, J C C; Mourits, M J E; Scheele, F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the CanMEDS model, which forms the basis for competency-based learning in both undergraduate and postgraduate training, has been renewed by the introduction of CanMEDS 2015. The most prominent change is the emphasis on leadership skills, which is also reflected by the name change for the role of 'manager' to 'leader'. The addition of milestones provides clearly defined targets for learning and assessment, which facilitates the monitoring of the progression in competence. Furthermore, CanMEDS 2015 strongly focusses on the overall coherence of the separate competencies. CanMEDS, designed as a model that helps to train young doctors to become good doctors, also helps us - the trainers - to become better doctors ourselves.

  12. MEDLI Will Aid in Understanding of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The MEDLI instrument package, contained in the heat shield of the Mars Science Laboratory, will help scientists and engineers improve their computer models and simulations, and provide data to help...

  13. Trip to ER

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuan; Cao, Xiaofeng; Mo, Beixin; Chen, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs elicit gene silencing at the post-transcriptional level by several modes of action: translational repression, mRNA decay, and mRNA cleavage. Studies in animals have suggested that translational repression occurs at early steps of translation initiation, which can be followed by deadenylation and mRNA decay. Plant miRNAs were originally thought to solely participate in mRNA cleavage, but increasing evidence has indicated that they are also commonly involved in translational inhibition. Here we discuss recent findings on miRNA-mediated translational repression in plants. The identification of AMP1 in Arabidopsis as a protein required for the translational repression but not the mRNA cleavage activity of miRNAs links miRNA-based translational repression to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Future work is required to further elucidate the miRNA machinery on the ER. PMID:24100209

  14. Anti-Addiction Meds Given in ER Can Help Battle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Americans die every day from prescription opioids or heroin, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ... painkillers -- such as oxycodone (Oxycontin) -- as well as heroin and methadone have more than quadrupled since 1999, ...

  15. PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.

    PubMed

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2008-05-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip.

  16. PubMedAlertMe - Standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI Software Application

    PubMed Central

    Ma’ayan, Avi

    2008-01-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip PMID:18402930

  17. The MED-SUV Multidisciplinary Interoperability Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; D'Auria, Luca; Reitano, Danilo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Roncella, Roberto; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In accordance with the international Supersite initiative concept, the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to enable long-term monitoring experiment in two relevant geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: Mt. Vesuvio/Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. This objective requires the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases and novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters. Moreover, MED-SUV is also a direct contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as one the volcano Supersites recognized by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO). To achieve its goal, MED-SUV set up an advanced e-infrastructure allowing the discovery of and access to heterogeneous data for multidisciplinary applications, and the integration with external systems like GEOSS. The MED-SUV overall infrastructure is conceived as a three layer architecture with the lower layer (Data level) including the identified relevant data sources, the mid-tier (Supersite level) including components for mediation and harmonization , and the upper tier (Global level) composed of the systems that MED-SUV must serve, such as GEOSS and possibly other global/community systems. The Data level is mostly composed of existing data sources, such as space agencies satellite data archives, the UNAVCO system, the INGV-Rome data service. They share data according to different specifications for metadata, data and service interfaces, and cannot be changed. Thus, the only relevant MED-SUV activity at this level was the creation of a MED-SUV local repository based on Web Accessible Folder (WAF) technology, deployed in the INGV site in Catania, and hosting in-situ data and products collected and generated during the project. The Supersite level is at the core of the MED-SUV architecture, since it must mediate between the disparate data sources in the layer below, and provide a harmonized view to

  18. Naltrexone ER/Bupropion ER: A Review in Obesity Management.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L; Keating, Gillian M

    2015-07-01

    Oral naltrexone extended-release/bupropion extended-release (naltrexone ER/bupropion ER; Contrave(®), Mysimba(™)) is available as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity in adults with an initial body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (i.e. obese) or a BMI of ≥ 27 kg/m(2) (i.e. overweight) in the presence of at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension or dyslipidaemia. In 56-week phase III trials in these patient populations, oral naltrexone ER/bupropion ER 32/360 mg/day was significantly more effective than placebo with regard to percentage bodyweight reductions from baseline and the proportion of patients who achieved bodyweight reductions of ≥ 5 and ≥ 10%. Significantly greater improvements in several cardiometabolic risk factors were also observed with naltrexone ER/bupropion ER versus placebo, as well as greater improvements in glycated haemoglobin levels in obese or overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. Naltrexone ER/bupropion ER was generally well tolerated in phase III trials, with nausea being the most common adverse event. Thus, naltrexone ER/bupropion ER 32/360 mg/day as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, is an effective and well tolerated option for chronic bodyweight management in obese adults or overweight adults with at least one bodyweight-related comorbidity.

  19. Predicting clicks of PubMed articles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed.

  20. Predicting clicks of PubMed articles

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yuqing; Lu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the popularity or access usage of an article has the potential to improve the quality of PubMed searches. We can model the click trend of each article as its access changes over time by mining the PubMed query logs, which contain the previous access history for all articles. In this article, we examine the access patterns produced by PubMed users in two years (July 2009 to July 2011). We explore the time series of accesses for each article in the query logs, model the trends with regression approaches, and subsequently use the models for prediction. We show that the click trends of PubMed articles are best fitted with a log-normal regression model. This model allows the number of accesses an article receives and the time since it first becomes available in PubMed to be related via quadratic and logistic functions, with the model parameters to be estimated via maximum likelihood. Our experiments predicting the number of accesses for an article based on its past usage demonstrate that the mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of our model are 4.0% and 8.1% lower than the power-law regression model, respectively. The log-normal distribution is also shown to perform significantly better than a previous prediction method based on a human memory theory in cognitive science. This work warrants further investigation on the utility of such a log-normal regression approach towards improving information access in PubMed. PMID:24551386

  1. A Decade of ChemMedChem.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott D; Ortúzar, Natalia

    2016-01-05

    Happy birthday! Issue 01/2016 marks the 10th anniversary of ChemMedChem. With a complete set of 10 volumes, the Editorial Team takes a look back at how the journal, and indeed the field of medicinal chemistry, have evolved and changed over the past decade.

  2. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  3. MED-SUV final strategic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Letizia; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2016-04-01

    Aside the scientific, technical and financial aspects managed by the "Project Management" Work Package (WP1), the great challenge and more time consuming task of this WP has surely been the definition and application of some strategic guidelines crucial to trace the project right path to its final success and for the project outcome sustainability after month 36. In particular, given that one of the main objectives of MED-SUV is that to be compliant with the GEO initiative, particularly concerning the data sharing, great efforts have been made by WP1 at first to define the MED-SUV Data Policy Guidelines, and currently to make it suitable for the EU Supersites. At present, WP1 is also dealing with the exploitation of the achieved foreground among the project's participant and to define a Memorandum of Understanding to sustain the monitoring systems and e-infrastructure developed in the project framework. Whilst the Data Policy guidelines document was implemented in the first year of MED-SUV, WP1 is now focused on the last deliverable 'Strategic and Legal deliverables', which includes the remaining issues. To the aim, WP1 has strategically separated the Exploitation of Foreground document preparation from the Memorandum of Understanding definition. The Exploitation of Foreground process has regarded the identification of Foreground, the exploitable results, the purpose of such Foreground, the collection of information from either the scientific community of MED-SUV or industrial participants; to this aim WP1 circulated an ad hoc questionnaire to put together information on (the) every kind of MED-SUV outcome, on their owners, on the kind of ownership (single/joint), on the outcome exploitation, and on proposals for its sustainability. While the first information will allow us to prepare the final Exploitation Agreement among the project's participant, the information on the exploitation of the outcome and likely sustainability proposals will contribute to the

  4. Author Name Disambiguation for PubMed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kim, Sun; Comeau, Donald C; Kim, Won; Yeganova, Lana; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2014-04-01

    Log analysis shows that PubMed users frequently use author names in queries for retrieving scientific literature. However, author name ambiguity may lead to irrelevant retrieval results. To improve the PubMed user experience with author name queries, we designed an author name disambiguation system consisting of similarity estimation and agglomerative clustering. A machine-learning method was employed to score the features for disambiguating a pair of papers with ambiguous names. These features enable the computation of pairwise similarity scores to estimate the probability of a pair of papers belonging to the same author, which drives an agglomerative clustering algorithm regulated by 2 factors: name compatibility and probability level. With transitivity violation correction, high precision author clustering is achieved by focusing on minimizing false-positive pairing. Disambiguation performance is evaluated with manual verification of random samples of pairs from clustering results. When compared with a state-of-the-art system, our evaluation shows that among all the pairs the lumping error rate drops from 10.1% to 2.2% for our system, while the splitting error rises from 1.8% to 7.7%. This results in an overall error rate of 9.9%, compared with 11.9% for the state-of-the-art method. Other evaluations based on gold standard data also show the increase in accuracy of our clustering. We attribute the performance improvement to the machine-learning method driven by a large-scale training set and the clustering algorithm regulated by a name compatibility scheme preferring precision. With integration of the author name disambiguation system into the PubMed search engine, the overall click-through-rate of PubMed users on author name query results improved from 34.9% to 36.9%.

  5. Living MedsCheck: Learning how to deliver MedsCheck in community practice in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Kelly; Sanghera, Niki; Rahmaan, Israa; Roy, Meghna; Tritt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To share the experiences of graduating students as they learn to deliver a new medication review service in community pharmacies in Ontario, Canada. Four graduating pharmacy students volunteered in different community pharmacies to learn how to navigate a new provincial program called MedsCheck, which pays pharmacists to do medication reviews. Each student selected his or her own practice site, including 2 independent community pharmacies, a grocery store chain pharmacy and a hospital outpatient pharmacy. To help the students learn to deliver the new MedsCheck services, a faculty mentor met with them on a weekly basis. To reflect on doing MedsChecks in the "real world" and to elicit feedback from the online community, each student blogged about his or her experiences. All 4 students felt that peer mentoring improved their ability to deliver MedsCheck services. They also identified a number of barriers to delivering the MedsChecks and helped each other try to overcome the barriers. MedsCheck is a new service in Ontario and is not easily implemented in the current pharmacy model of practice. Peer mentoring is a helpful way to share successes and overcome barriers to delivery. Can Pharm J 2013;146:33-38.

  6. Technical development of PubMed Interact: an improved interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background The project aims to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed that may provide assistance to the novice user and added convenience to the advanced user. An earlier version of the project was the 'Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches' (SLIM) which provided JavaScript slider bars to control search parameters. In this new version, recent developments in Web-based technologies were implemented. These changes may prove to be even more valuable in enhancing user interactivity through client-side manipulation and management of results. Results PubMed Interact is a Web-based MEDLINE/PubMed search application built with HTML, JavaScript and PHP. It is implemented on a Windows Server 2003 with Apache 2.0.52, PHP 4.4.1 and MySQL 4.1.18. PHP scripts provide the backend engine that connects with E-Utilities and parses XML files. JavaScript manages client-side functionalities and converts Web pages into interactive platforms using dynamic HTML (DHTML), Document Object Model (DOM) tree manipulation and Ajax methods. With PubMed Interact, users can limit searches with JavaScript slider bars, preview result counts, delete citations from the list, display and add related articles and create relevance lists. Many interactive features occur at client-side, which allow instant feedback without reloading or refreshing the page resulting in a more efficient user experience. Conclusion PubMed Interact is a highly interactive Web-based search application for MEDLINE/PubMed that explores recent trends in Web technologies like DOM tree manipulation and Ajax. It may become a valuable technical development for online medical search applications. PMID:17083729

  7. [Optical parameters of Er3+ in Er3+ : YVO4].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Xiao-bo; Chen, Luan; Liu, Da-he; Song, Zeng-fu; Li, Yong-liang; Li, Song; Zeng, Yong-zhi; Wu, Zheng-long; Zhang, Chun-lin; Wang, Ya-fei; Guo, Jing-hua

    2010-07-01

    In the present paper the authors firstly measured the absorption spectra of Er3+ in the sample Er3+ : YVO4 (0.5%), then calculated the intensity parameters are calculated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. After that the authors dealed with some predicted spectroscopic parameters, such as the oscillator strength, spontaneous radiative transition rate, branching ratio and integrated emission cross section. And Er : YVO4 crystal application value has been analyzed with the optical parameters. Especially there are large oscillator strengths and large integrated emission cross sections in the transitions of 4 I1/2 --> 4 I15/2, 2 H11/2 --> 4I15/2, 4S3/2 --> 4 I15/2, and 4F9/2 --> 4 I15/2. So, they are more worth of attention. Moreover, by comparing the Er-doped yttrium vanadate crystal and other Er-doped crystal optical properties, the authors can see the advantages of YVO4 as laser crystal. Finally, the authors discussed the splitting of the energy levels of Er3+ in the crystal YVO4 based on the group theory.

  8. New Perpectives at MedNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, S.; Olivieri, M.; Mandiello, A.; Scognamiglio, L.; Pondrelli, S.; Amato, A.

    2007-05-01

    MedNet (Mediterranean Network) is a network of very broad band seismic stations installed in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The project started in 1987, with the aim of providing high quality real-time data to the comprehension of one of the most active seismic regions of the World. Its main objectives were mapping the structure of the Mediterranean region, studying the seismic source properties of intermediate and large events, and applying this knowledge to measures for hazard mitigation and civil protection. Although general goals still hold, the network has now a different valence in the Euro-Mediterranean seismological landscape. National networks are now equipped with similar high quality instrumentation, real time transmission is adopted everywhere for seismic monitoring and infrastructures can support high rate data exchange among networks. MedNet objectives have then shifted toward contributing to real time monitoring of the Euro-Med region. The network presently comprises 22 operating seismic stations installed and maintained in cooperation with 13 geophysical institutions in Italy and in most of the Euro-Mediterranean. All the stations are equipped with 24-bit digitizers and very broad band sensors (Streckeisen STS2, with a few STS1). The MedNet Data Center (MNDC) exchanges data in real time with many seismological observatories, as well as ORFEUS and IRIS DMS. Over 15 years of archived very broad band data are distributed at users request by standard NetDC and AutoDRM protocols (in SEED and GSE formats respectively). Within the EC Project NERIES, MNDC hosts the European Integrated Data Archive, providing support and/or backup to the partner institutions. Presently, fully automatic network functions include: i)daily monitoring of state of health; ii) data recover after link failures; iii) triggered retrieval of event waveforms (with magnitude- and region- specific selection criteria) from continuous; iv) web pages update (http

  9. PubMed-EX: a web browser extension to enhance PubMed search with text mining features.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Dai, Hong-Jie; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Chi-Hsin

    2009-11-15

    PubMed-EX is a browser extension that marks up PubMed search results with additional text-mining information. PubMed-EX's page mark-up, which includes section categorization and gene/disease and relation mark-up, can help researchers to quickly focus on key terms and provide additional information on them. All text processing is performed server-side, freeing up user resources. PubMed-EX is freely available at http://bws.iis.sinica.edu.tw/PubMed-EX and http://iisr.cse.yzu.edu.tw:8000/PubMed-EX/.

  10. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  11. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

  12. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  13. The Effectiveness of Core ER Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun-Young; Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion piece continues the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) from the April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language." In that forum, a number of the discussions were concerned with the principles of ER (Day & Bamford, 2002) in implementing ER. Our discussion also concerns the principles; we examine ER programs…

  14. The Effectiveness of Core ER Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun-Young; Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion piece continues the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) from the April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language." In that forum, a number of the discussions were concerned with the principles of ER (Day & Bamford, 2002) in implementing ER. Our discussion also concerns the principles; we examine ER programs…

  15. The MEDIATOR genes MED12 and MED13 control Arabidopsis root system configuration influencing sugar and auxin responses.

    PubMed

    Raya-González, Javier; López-Bucio, Jesús Salvador; Prado-Rodríguez, José Carlos; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Guevara-García, Ángel Arturo; López-Bucio, José

    2017-08-05

    Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth. The MEDIATOR (MED) complex plays diverse functions in plant development, hormone signaling and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance through coordination of transcription. Here, we performed genetic, developmental, molecular and pharmacological analyses to characterize the role of MED12 and MED13 on the configuration of root architecture and its relationship with auxin and sugar responses. Arabidopsis med12 and med13 single mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes consistent with altered auxin homeostasis including altered primary root growth, lateral root development, and root hair elongation. MED12 and MED13 were required for activation of cell division and elongation in primary roots, as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression. Remarkably, most of these mutant phenotypes were rescued by supplying sucrose to the growth medium. The growth response of primary roots of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants to sucrose and application of auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) revealed the correlation of med12 phenotype with the activity of the auxin intake permease and suggests that MED12 acts upstream of AUX1 in the root growth response to sugar. These data provide compelling evidence that MEDIATOR links sugar sensing to auxin transport and distribution during root morphogenesis.

  16. PubMed Informer: monitoring MEDLINE/PubMed through e-mail alerts, SMS, PDA downloads and RSS feeds.

    PubMed

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    PubMed Informer is a Web-based monitoring tool for topics of interest from MEDLINE/PubMed primarily designed for healthcare professionals. Five tracking methods are available: Web access, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), PDA downloads and RSS feeds. PubMed Informer delivers focused search updates and specific information to users with varying information-seeking practices.

  17. Pub-Med-dot-com, here we come!

    PubMed

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    As of April 8, 2016, articles in Neurology® Genetics can be searched using PubMed. Launched in 1996, PubMed is a search engine that accesses citations and abstracts of more than 26 million articles. Its primary sources include the MEDLINE database, which was started in the 1960s, and biomedical and life sciences journal articles that date back to 1946. In addition, PubMed accesses other sources, for example, citations to those life sciences journals that submit full-text articles to PubMed Central (PMC). PubMed Central was launched in 2000 as a free archive of biomedical and life science journals.

  18. COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation planner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio; Scopa, Tiziana; Serva, Stefano; Caltagirone, Francesco; De Luca, Giuseppe Francesco; Pacaccio, Alessandro; Profili, Mario

    2014-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation (CSG) system has been conceived, according to Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defence (It-MoD) requirements, at the twofold objective of ensuring operational continuity to the current constellation (COSMO-SkyMed - CSK), while improving functionality and performances. It is an "end-to-end" Italian Earth Observation Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) Space System with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in X-Band. CSG mission planning purpose is to fully employ the system resources, shared between partners with very different needs, producing a mission plan that satisfies the higher priority requests and optimizes the overall plan with the remaining requests according to the users programming rights consumption. CSG Mission Planning tool provides new performances in terms of adaptability and flexibility of the planning and scheduling algorithms conceived to select and synchronize data acquisition and downloading activities. CSG planning and scheduling problem is characterized by a large size of research space and a particular structure of technical and managerial constraints that has led to the implementation of innovative design of the planning algorithms based on both priority criteria and saturation of system resources. This approach envisages two scheduling strategies: the rank-based and the optimization-based. The former strategy is firstly applied to the most important request categories, with an associated rank value or priority level; the latter is subsequently applied to the unranked or lower priority requests. This is an iterative dynamic process of finding optimal solutions able to better answer the demanding requirements coming from the needs of heterogeneous users.

  19. The ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway regulates daughter cell ER protein aggregate inheritance.

    PubMed

    Piña, Francisco J; Niwa, Maho

    2015-09-01

    Stress induced by cytoplasmic protein aggregates can have deleterious consequences for the cell, contributing to neurodegeneration and other diseases. Protein aggregates are also formed within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although the fate of ER protein aggregates, specifically during cell division, is not well understood. By simultaneous visualization of both the ER itself and ER protein aggregates, we found that ER protein aggregates that induce ER stress are retained in the mother cell by activation of the ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway, which prevents inheritance of stressed ER. In contrast, under conditions of normal ER inheritance, ER protein aggregates can enter the daughter cell. Thus, whereas cytoplasmic protein aggregates are retained in the mother cell to protect the functional capacity of daughter cells, the fate of ER protein aggregates is determined by whether or not they activate the ERSU pathway to impede transmission of the cortical ER during the cell cycle.

  20. Analysis of PubMed User Sessions Using a Full-Day PubMed Query Log: A Comparison of Experienced and Nonexperienced PubMed Users

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest biomedical bibliographic information source on the Internet. PubMed has been considered one of the most important and reliable sources of up-to-date health care evidence. Previous studies examined the effects of domain expertise/knowledge on search performance using PubMed. However, very little is known about PubMed users’ knowledge of information retrieval (IR) functions and their usage in query formulation. Objective The purpose of this study was to shed light on how experienced/nonexperienced PubMed users perform their search queries by analyzing a full-day query log. Our hypotheses were that (1) experienced PubMed users who use system functions quickly retrieve relevant documents and (2) nonexperienced PubMed users who do not use them have longer search sessions than experienced users. Methods To test these hypotheses, we analyzed PubMed query log data containing nearly 3 million queries. User sessions were divided into two categories: experienced and nonexperienced. We compared experienced and nonexperienced users per number of sessions, and experienced and nonexperienced user sessions per session length, with a focus on how fast they completed their sessions. Results To test our hypotheses, we measured how successful information retrieval was (at retrieving relevant documents), represented as the decrease rates of experienced and nonexperienced users from a session length of 1 to 2, 3, 4, and 5. The decrease rate (from a session length of 1 to 2) of the experienced users was significantly larger than that of the nonexperienced groups. Conclusions Experienced PubMed users retrieve relevant documents more quickly than nonexperienced PubMed users in terms of session length. PMID:26139516

  1. PubMed Interact: an Interactive Search Application for MEDLINE/PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Online search and retrieval systems are important resources for medical literature research. Progressive Web 2.0 technologies provide opportunities to improve search strategies and user experience. Using PHP, Document Object Model (DOM) manipulation and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (Ajax), PubMed Interact allows greater functionality so users can refine search parameters with ease and interact with the search results to retrieve and display relevant information and related articles. PMID:17238658

  2. Ames ER-2 ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, R., Jr.; Vedder, James F.; Starr, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study ozone (O3) in the stratosphere. Measurements of the ozone mixing ratio at 1 s intervals are obtained with an ultraviolet photometer which flies on the ER-2 aircraft. The photometer determines the amount of ozone in air by measuring the transmission of ultraviolet light through a fixed path with and without ambient O3 present.

  3. ERS-1 SAR data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, K.; Bicknell, T.; Vines, K.

    1986-01-01

    To take full advantage of the synthetic aperature radar (SAR) to be flown on board the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) (1989) and the Canadian Radarsat (1990), the implementation of a receiving station in Alaska is being studied to gather and process SAR data pertaining in particular to regions within the station's range of reception. The current SAR data processing requirement is estimated to be on the order of 5 minutes per day. The Interim Digital Sar Processor (IDP) which was under continual development through Seasat (1978) and SIR-B (1984) can process slightly more than 2 minutes of ERS-1 data per day. On the other hand, the Advanced Digital SAR Processore (ADSP), currently under development for the Shuttle Imaging Radar C (SIR-C, 1988) and the Venus Radar Mapper, (VMR, 1988), is capable of processing ERS-1 SAR data at a real time rate. To better suit the anticipated ERS-1 SAR data processing requirement, both a modified IDP and an ADSP derivative are being examined. For the modified IDP, a pipelined architecture is proposed for the mini-computer plus array processor arrangement to improve throughout. For the ADSP derivative, a simplified version is proposed to enhance ease of implementation and maintainability while maintaing real time throughput rates. These processing systems are discussed and evaluated.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  6. PubMed Informer: Monitoring MEDLINE/PubMed through E-mail Alerts, SMS, PDA downloads and RSS feeds

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Ackerman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Summary PubMed Informer is a Web-based monitoring tool for topics of interest from MEDLINE/PubMed primarily designed for healthcare professionals. Five tracking methods are available: Web access, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), PDA downloads and RSS feeds. PubMed Informer delivers focused search updates and specific information to users with varying information-seeking practices. PMID:16779344

  7. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  8. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed.

  9. MedEdPORTAL: Educational Scholarship for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robby J.; Candler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    MedEdPORTAL is an online publication service provided at no charge by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The intent is to promote collaboration and educational scholarship by helping educators publish and share educational resources. With MedEdPORTAL, users can quickly locate high-quality, peer-reviewed teaching materials in both…

  10. 47 CFR 95.628 - MedRadio transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters. 95.628 Section 95.628 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.628 MedRadio transmitters. (a) Frequency...

  11. 75 FR 39201 - MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Forest Service MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Steamboat Springs, Colorado... Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the...

  12. MedEdPORTAL: Educational Scholarship for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robby J.; Candler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    MedEdPORTAL is an online publication service provided at no charge by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The intent is to promote collaboration and educational scholarship by helping educators publish and share educational resources. With MedEdPORTAL, users can quickly locate high-quality, peer-reviewed teaching materials in both…

  13. Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-24

    This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

  14. NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The contents include: 1) ER-2 Specifications; 2) ER-2 Basic Configuration; 3) ER-2 Payload Areas: Nose Area; 4) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Fore and Aftbody; 5) ER-2 Payload Areas: SuperPod Midbody; 6) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay; 7) ER-2 Payload Areas: Q-Bay Hatch Designs; 8) ER-2 Payload Areas: External Pods; 9) ER-2 Electrical/Control Interface; 10) ER-2 Typical Flight Profile; 11) Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling TC-4; 12) TC-4 Timeline; 13) TC4 Area of Interest; 14) ER-2 TC4 Payload; 15) A/C ready for fuel; 16) ER-2 Pilot being suited; 17) ER-2 Taxing; 18) ER-2 Pilot post flight debrief; and 19) NASA ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies and Remote Sensing.

  15. Mitochondria-Associated Membranes and ER Stress.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2017-03-28

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a crucial organelle for coordinating cellular Ca(2+) signaling and protein synthesis and folding. Moreover, the dynamic and complex membranous structures constituting the ER allow the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including among others the mitochondria and the plasma membrane (PM). The contact sites that the ER form with mitochondria is a hot topic in research, and the nature of the so-called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) is continuously evolving. The MAMs consist of a proteinaceous tether that physically connects the ER with mitochondria. The MAMs harness the main functions of both organelles to form a specialized subcompartment at the interface of the ER and mitochondria. Under homeostatic conditions, MAMs are crucial for the efficient transfer of Ca(2+) from the ER to mitochondria, and for proper mitochondria bioenergetics and lipid synthesis. MAMs are also believed to be the master regulators of mitochondrial shape and motility, and to form a crucial site for autophagosome assembly. Not surprisingly, MAMs have been shown to be a hot spot for the transfer of stress signals from the ER to mitochondria, most notably under the conditions of loss of ER proteostasis, by engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this chapter after an introduction on ER biology and ER stress, we will review the emerging and key signaling roles of the MAMs, which have a root in cellular processes and signaling cascades coordinated by the ER.

  16. ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Renata; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. PMID:23850759

  17. NMR structure of the human Mediator MED25 ACID domain.

    PubMed

    Bontems, François; Verger, Alexis; Dewitte, Frédérique; Lens, Zoé; Baert, Jean-Luc; Ferreira, Elisabeth; de Launoit, Yvan; Sizun, Christina; Guittet, Eric; Villeret, Vincent; Monté, Didier

    2011-04-01

    MED25 (ARC92/ACID1) is a 747 residues subunit specific to higher eukaryote Mediator complex, an essential component of the RNA polymerase II general transcriptional machinery. MED25 is a target of the Herpes simplex virus transactivator protein VP16. MED25 interacts with VP16 through a central MED25 PTOV (Prostate tumour overexpressed)/ACID (Activator interacting domain) domain of unknown structure. As a first step towards understanding the mechanism of recruitment of transactivation domains by MED25, we report here the NMR structure of the MED25 ACID domain. The domain architecture consists of a closed β-barrel with seven strands (Β1-Β7) and three α-helices (H1-H3), an architecture showing similarities to that of the SPOC (Spen paralog and ortholog C-terminal domain) domain-like superfamily. Preliminary NMR chemical shift mapping showed that VP16 H2 (VP16C) interacts with MED25 ACID through one face of the β-barrel, defined by strands B4-B7-B6.

  18. Performance of a MedArray silicone hollow fiber oxygenator.

    PubMed

    LaFayette, Nathan G; Schewe, Rebecca E; Montoya, J Patrick; Cook, Keith E

    2009-01-01

    A silicone hollow fiber oxygenator was evaluated to characterize gas transfer and biocompatibility. The device's fiber bundle was composed of MedArray's silicone hollow fibers with a 320 microm outside diameter, a 50 microm wall thickness, a surface area of 0.45 m, and a 0.49 void fraction. An in vitro gas exchange study was performed comparing the MedArray device (n = 9) with the Medtronic 0600 oxygenator (n = 6) using Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards and blood flow rates of 0.5-1.75 L/min, and an oxygen to blood flow ratio of two. Biocompatibility and resistance studies were performed in vivo using a swine venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation model (MedArray n = 5, Medtronic n = 5). Average O(2) transfer at 1 L/min was 86 ml/min/m in the MedArray device and 101.1 ml/min/m in the Medtronic device. At 0.5 L/min the MedArray and Medtronic device average resistance was 15.5 and 148.5 mm Hg/(L/min), respectively. Both devices had similar platelet consumption and hemolysis. Results indicate that the MedArray device has lower O(2) transfer efficiency, similar biocompatibility, and lower resistance than the Medtronic 0600 oxygenator. Optimization of the MedArray fiber bundle and housing design is necessary to improve O(2) transfer efficiency while maintaining lower device resistance than the Medtronic oxygenator.

  19. Frequent MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumours of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, M; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Yoshida, H; Maeshima, A; Kanai, Y; Kinoshita, T; Ochiai, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial tumours of the breast, that include benign, borderline, and malignant lesions. Although the molecular basis of phyllodes tumours largely remains unknown, a recent exome study identified MED12 mutations as a sole recurrent genetic alteration in fibroadenoma, a common benign fibroepithelial tumour that shares some histological features with the phyllodes tumour. Methods: Forty-six phyllodes tumours and 58 fibroadenomas of the breast were analysed for MED12 mutations by using Sanger sequencing. Results: MED12 mutations were identified in 37 out of the 46 phyllodes tumours (80%). The prevalence of MED12 mutations was similar among benign (15/18, 83%), borderline (12/15, 80%), and malignant tumours (10/13, 77%). MED12 mutations were also identified in 36 of the 58 fibroadenomas (62%). The mutations were frequent among intracanalicular-type (24/32, 75%) and complex-type lesions (4/6, 67%), but were significantly less common among the pericanalicular-type lesions (8/20, 40%). A microdissection-based analysis showed that MED12 mutations were confined to the stromal components in both phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas. Conclusions: MED12 mutations were frequent among the phyllodes tumours of the breast, regardless of the tumour grade. Phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas share, at least in part, a common genetic background. PMID:25839987

  20. Frequent MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Yoshida, H; Maeshima, A; Kanai, Y; Kinoshita, T; Ochiai, A

    2015-05-12

    Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial tumours of the breast, that include benign, borderline, and malignant lesions. Although the molecular basis of phyllodes tumours largely remains unknown, a recent exome study identified MED12 mutations as a sole recurrent genetic alteration in fibroadenoma, a common benign fibroepithelial tumour that shares some histological features with the phyllodes tumour. Forty-six phyllodes tumours and 58 fibroadenomas of the breast were analysed for MED12 mutations by using Sanger sequencing. MED12 mutations were identified in 37 out of the 46 phyllodes tumours (80%). The prevalence of MED12 mutations was similar among benign (15/18, 83%), borderline (12/15, 80%), and malignant tumours (10/13, 77%). MED12 mutations were also identified in 36 of the 58 fibroadenomas (62%). The mutations were frequent among intracanalicular-type (24/32, 75%) and complex-type lesions (4/6, 67%), but were significantly less common among the pericanalicular-type lesions (8/20, 40%). A microdissection-based analysis showed that MED12 mutations were confined to the stromal components in both phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas. MED12 mutations were frequent among the phyllodes tumours of the breast, regardless of the tumour grade. Phyllodes tumours and fibroadenomas share, at least in part, a common genetic background.

  1. Electronic state of Er in sputtered AlN:Er films determined by magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, V.; Seehra, M. S.; Korakakis, D.

    2014-12-07

    The optoelectronic and piezoelectric properties of AlN:Er thin films have been of great recent interest for potential device applications. In this work, the focus is on the electronic state of Er in AlN:Er thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering on (001) p-type Si substrate. X-ray diffraction shows that Er doping expands the lattice and the AlN:Er film has preferential c-plane orientation. To determine whether Er in AlN:Er is present as Er metal, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+}, detailed measurements and analysis of the temperature dependence (2 K–300 K) of the magnetization M at a fixed magnetic field H along with the M vs. H data at 2 K up to H = 90 kOe are presented. The presence of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Er metal is ruled out since their characteristic magnetic transitions are not observed in the AlN:Er sample. Instead, the observed M vs. T and M vs. H variations are consistent with Er present as Er{sup 3+} substituting for Al{sup 3+} in AlN:Er at a concentration x = 1.08% in agreement with x = 0.94% ± 0.20% determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The larger size of Er{sup 3+} vs. Al{sup 3+}explains the observed lattice expansion of AlN:Er.

  2. Local structure and bonding of Er in GaN: A contrast with Er in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin, P. H.; Northrup, P. A.; Birkhahn, R.; Steckl, A. J.

    2000-05-15

    X-ray absorption measurements from relatively high concentrations of Er (>0.1 at. %) doped in GaN films show that Er occupies the Ga site with an unprecedentedly short Er-N bond length. Electroluminescence intensities from these GaN:Er films correlate with the concentration of Er atoms that replace Ga, not with the abundantly present O impurities in the host. Simple chemical concepts are used to explain each of these results and their striking difference from those obtained for Er-doped Si. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  4. Wider Access to Meds Cuts Global AIDS Deaths in Half

    MedlinePlus

    ... 167323.html Wider Access to Meds Cuts Global AIDS Deaths in Half But eastern Europe and Middle ... 20, 2017 THURSDAY, July 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- AIDS-related deaths worldwide have been halved since 2005 ...

  5. Using PubMed effectively to access the orthopaedic literature.

    PubMed

    Clough, J F Myles; Hitchcock, Kristin; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    PubMed is the free public Internet interface to the US National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database of citations to medical scientific articles. Many orthopaedic surgeons use PubMed on a regular basis, but most orthopaedic surgeons have received little or no training in how to use PubMed effectively and express frustration with the experience. Typical problems encountered are data overload with very large numbers of returns to look through, failure to find a specific article, and a concern that a search has missed important papers. It is helpful to understand the system used to enter journal articles into the database and the classification of the common types of searches and to review suggestions for the best ways to use the PubMed interface and find sources for search teaching and assistance.

  6. Electric Brain Stimulation No Better Than Meds for Depression: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166920.html Electric Brain Stimulation No Better Than Meds For Depression: Study ... depression and can't find relief, stimulating the brain with electric impulses may help. But a new ...

  7. Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 166931.html Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk: Study New research debunks other studies suggesting ... drugs may increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in people aged 75 and older. PPIs ...

  8. Dozens of Potential Alzheimer's Meds in The Pipeline

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167277.html Dozens of Potential Alzheimer's Meds in the Pipeline Last new drug for ... 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly three dozen new Alzheimer's drugs may reach the market in the next ...

  9. PubMed searches: overview and strategies for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R

    2013-04-01

    PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search.

  10. The ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway regulates daughter cell ER protein aggregate inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Piña, Francisco J; Niwa, Maho

    2015-01-01

    Stress induced by cytoplasmic protein aggregates can have deleterious consequences for the cell, contributing to neurodegeneration and other diseases. Protein aggregates are also formed within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although the fate of ER protein aggregates, specifically during cell division, is not well understood. By simultaneous visualization of both the ER itself and ER protein aggregates, we found that ER protein aggregates that induce ER stress are retained in the mother cell by activation of the ER Stress Surveillance (ERSU) pathway, which prevents inheritance of stressed ER. In contrast, under conditions of normal ER inheritance, ER protein aggregates can enter the daughter cell. Thus, whereas cytoplasmic protein aggregates are retained in the mother cell to protect the functional capacity of daughter cells, the fate of ER protein aggregates is determined by whether or not they activate the ERSU pathway to impede transmission of the cortical ER during the cell cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06970.001 PMID:26327697

  11. Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar literature searches.

    PubMed

    Anders, Michael E; Evans, Dennis P

    2010-05-01

    Literature searches are essential to evidence-based respiratory care. To conduct literature searches, respiratory therapists rely on search engines to retrieve information, but there is a dearth of literature on the comparative efficiencies of search engines for researching clinical questions in respiratory care. To compare PubMed and Google Scholar search results for clinical topics in respiratory care to that of a benchmark. We performed literature searches with PubMed and Google Scholar, on 3 clinical topics. In PubMed we used the Clinical Queries search filter. In Google Scholar we used the search filters in the Advanced Scholar Search option. We used the reference list of a related Cochrane Collaboration evidence-based systematic review as the benchmark for each of the search results. We calculated recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) with 2 x 2 contingency tables. We compared the results with the chi-square test of independence and Fisher's exact test. PubMed and Google Scholar had similar recall for both overall search results (71% vs 69%) and full-text results (43% vs 51%). PubMed had better precision than Google Scholar for both overall search results (13% vs 0.07%, P < .001) and full-text results (8% vs 0.05%, P < .001). Our results suggest that PubMed searches with the Clinical Queries filter are more precise than with the Advanced Scholar Search in Google Scholar for respiratory care topics. PubMed appears to be more practical to conduct efficient, valid searches for informing evidence-based patient-care protocols, for guiding the care of individual patients, and for educational purposes.

  12. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  13. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  14. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-04

    ER-2 tail number 706, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.

  16. Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P = 0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR = 2.20, P = 0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that

  17. TwiMed: Twitter and PubMed Comparable Corpus of Drugs, Diseases, Symptoms, and Their Relations

    PubMed Central

    Miyao, Yusuke; Collier, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Background Work on pharmacovigilance systems using texts from PubMed and Twitter typically target at different elements and use different annotation guidelines resulting in a scenario where there is no comparable set of documents from both Twitter and PubMed annotated in the same manner. Objective This study aimed to provide a comparable corpus of texts from PubMed and Twitter that can be used to study drug reports from these two sources of information, allowing researchers in the area of pharmacovigilance using natural language processing (NLP) to perform experiments to better understand the similarities and differences between drug reports in Twitter and PubMed. Methods We produced a corpus comprising 1000 tweets and 1000 PubMed sentences selected using the same strategy and annotated at entity level by the same experts (pharmacists) using the same set of guidelines. Results The resulting corpus, annotated by two pharmacists, comprises semantically correct annotations for a set of drugs, diseases, and symptoms. This corpus contains the annotations for 3144 entities, 2749 relations, and 5003 attributes. Conclusions We present a corpus that is unique in its characteristics as this is the first corpus for pharmacovigilance curated from Twitter messages and PubMed sentences using the same data selection and annotation strategies. We believe this corpus will be of particular interest for researchers willing to compare results from pharmacovigilance systems (eg, classifiers and named entity recognition systems) when using data from Twitter and from PubMed. We hope that given the comprehensive set of drug names and the annotated entities and relations, this corpus becomes a standard resource to compare results from different pharmacovigilance studies in the area of NLP. PMID:28468748

  18. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit

    PubMed Central

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2010-01-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.—Takanaga, H., Frommer, W. B. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit. PMID:20354141

  19. CyberMedVPS: visual programming for development of simulators.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline M; Machado, Liliane S

    2011-01-01

    Computer applications based on Virtual Reality (VR) has been outstanding in training and teaching in the medical filed due to their ability to simulate realistic in which users can practice skills and decision making in different situations. But was realized in these frameworks a hard interaction of non-programmers users. Based on this problematic will be shown the CyberMedVPS, a graphical module which implement Visual Programming concepts to solve an interaction trouble. Frameworks to develop such simulators are available but their use demands knowledge of programming. Based on this problematic will be shown the CyberMedVPS, a graphical module for the CyberMed framework, which implements Visual Programming concepts to allow the development of simulators by non-programmers professionals of the medical field.

  20. Gaps in affiliation indexing in Scopus and PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Cynthia M.; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V.; Hartman, Teresa L.; Magee, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. Methods First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. Results We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Conclusions Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators. PMID:27076801

  1. Gaps in affiliation indexing in Scopus and PubMed.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cynthia M; Cox, Roxanne; Fial, Alissa V; Hartman, Teresa L; Magee, Martha L

    2016-04-01

    The authors sought to determine whether unexpected gaps existed in Scopus's author affiliation indexing of publications written by the University of Nebraska Medical Center or Nebraska Medicine (UNMC/NM) authors during 2014. First, we compared Scopus affiliation identifier search results to PubMed affiliation keyword search results. Then, we searched Scopus using affiliation keywords (UNMC, etc.) and compared the results to PubMed affiliation keyword and Scopus affiliation identifier searches. We found that Scopus's records for approximately 7% of UNMC/NM authors' publications lacked appropriate UNMC/NM author affiliation identifiers, and many journals' publishers were supplying incomplete author affiliation information to PubMed. Institutions relying on Scopus to track their impact should determine whether Scopus's affiliation identifiers will, in fact, identify all articles published by their authors and investigators.

  2. MedAustron: The Austrian ion therapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    MedAustron is a synchrotron-based light-ion beam therapy center for cancer treatment as well as for clinical and non-clinical research in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. The center is designed for the treatment of up to 1200 patients per year and for non-clinical research in the areas of radiobiology and medical radiation physics, as well as in experimental physics. MedAustron is an interdisciplinary project, benefiting from close cooperation and knowledge transfer with medical, scientific and research institutes on the national and international level. Three medical irradiation rooms will allow quasi-permanent patient treatment during two shifts on working days. The remaining beam time will be used for non-clinical research applications in a dedicated fourth irradiation room. The expected start of operation of MedAustron is mid-2016...

  3. Death, dying and informatics: misrepresenting religion on MedLine

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez del Pozo, Pablo; Fins, Joseph J

    2005-01-01

    Background The globalization of medical science carries for doctors worldwide a correlative duty to deepen their understanding of patients' cultural contexts and religious backgrounds, in order to satisfy each as a unique individual. To become better informed, practitioners may turn to MedLine, but it is unclear whether the information found there is an accurate representation of culture and religion. To test MedLine's representation of this field, we chose the topic of death and dying in the three major monotheistic religions. Methods We searched MedLine using PubMed in order to retrieve and thematically analyze full-length scholarly journal papers or case reports dealing with religious traditions and end-of-life care. Our search consisted of a string of words that included the most common denominations of the three religions, the standard heading terms used by the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature (NRCBL), and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine. Eligible articles were limited to English-language papers with an abstract. Results We found that while a bibliographic search in MedLine on this topic produced instant results and some valuable literature, the aggregate reflected a selection bias. American writers were over-represented given the global prevalence of these religious traditions. Denominationally affiliated authors predominated in representing the Christian traditions. The Islamic tradition was under-represented. Conclusion MedLine's capability to identify the most current, reliable and accurate information about purely scientific topics should not be assumed to be the same case when considering the interface of religion, culture and end-of-life care. PMID:15992401

  4. Death, dying and informatics: misrepresenting religion on MedLine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Del Pozo, Pablo; Fins, Joseph J

    2005-07-01

    The globalization of medical science carries for doctors worldwide a correlative duty to deepen their understanding of patients' cultural contexts and religious backgrounds, in order to satisfy each as a unique individual. To become better informed, practitioners may turn to MedLine, but it is unclear whether the information found there is an accurate representation of culture and religion. To test MedLine's representation of this field, we chose the topic of death and dying in the three major monotheistic religions. We searched MedLine using PubMed in order to retrieve and thematically analyze full-length scholarly journal papers or case reports dealing with religious traditions and end-of-life care. Our search consisted of a string of words that included the most common denominations of the three religions, the standard heading terms used by the National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature (NRCBL), and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine. Eligible articles were limited to English-language papers with an abstract. We found that while a bibliographic search in MedLine on this topic produced instant results and some valuable literature, the aggregate reflected a selection bias. American writers were over-represented given the global prevalence of these religious traditions. Denominationally affiliated authors predominated in representing the Christian traditions. The Islamic tradition was under-represented. MedLine's capability to identify the most current, reliable and accurate information about purely scientific topics should not be assumed to be the same case when considering the interface of religion, culture and end-of-life care.

  5. Grateful Med on an institutional local area network.

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, D. R.; Sequeira, E. P.; Graeff, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    Grateful Med version 6.0 provides new features very desirable to network users. These include: a single copy of the application resident on a server providing access to many users; a new communications architecture which provides access to Medline via the Internet or local network modems; additional scripting capabilities allowing local customization. These new features reduce the overhead in installing and maintaining Grateful Med (GM), allow much quicker downloading of citations and abstracts from Medline, and remove the requirement of a local modem for each PC accessing Medline. PMID:1482923

  6. [E-med: illustration and vector of globalization in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Dixneuf, M

    2006-12-01

    Destined for healthcare professionals interested in public health policy in developing countries, E-med is one of the few francophone forums on essential medicines. Bringing together users with diverse backgrounds, discussion groups illustrate the effects of globalization on health policy: disappearance of distance, convergence of political and sanitary issues, enhanced cooperation between public and private sectors, coalitions of heterogeneous players and destruction of national and international barriers. Having benefited from the development of the Internet in recent years, as a secondary tool, E-med, must now evolve with this tool that is now ubiquitous in international health policy.

  7. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

    DOE PAGES

    Small, Leo J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; ...

    2016-09-15

    Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due tomore » the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.« less

  8. High Performance Calcium Titanate Nanoparticle ER Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuezhao; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia; Lu, Kunquan

    A type of calcium titanate (CTO) nanoparticles was synthesized by means of wet chemical method [1] without coating on the particles. The CTO/silicone oil ER fluid exhibits excellent electrorheological properties: high shear stress (~50-100 kPa) under dc electric field, a low current density (less than 2μA/cm2 at 5kV/mm), and long term stability against sedimentation. Although there are not special additives in the ER fluids, it is found from the chemical analysis that a trace of alkyl group, hydroxyl group, carbonyl group and some ions is remained in the particles which may dominate the ER response.

  9. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit.

    PubMed

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-08-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.

  10. Concern noted: A descriptive study of editorial expressions of concern in PubMed and PubMed Central

    PubMed Central

    Vaught, Melissa; Jordan, Diana C.; Bastian, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    Background An editorial expression of concern (EEoC) is issued by editors or publishers to draw attention to potential problems in a publication, without itself constituting a retraction or correction. Methods We searched PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), and Google Scholar to identify EEoCs issued for publications in PubMed and PMC up to 22 August 2016. We also searched the archives of the Retraction Watch blog, some journal and publisher websites, and studies of EEoCs. In addition, we searched for retractions of EEoCs and affected articles in PubMed up to 8 December 2016. We analyzed overall historical trends, as well as reported reasons and subsequent editorial actions related to EEoCs issued between August 2014 and August 2016. Results After screening 5,076 records, we identified 230 EEoCs that affect 300 publications indexed in PubMed, the earliest issued in 1985. Half of the primary EEoCs were issued between 2014 and 2016 (52%). We found evidence of some EEoCs that had been removed by the publisher without leaving a record and some were not submitted for PubMed or PMC indexing. A minority of publications affected by EEoCs had been retracted by early December 2016 (25%). For the subset of 92 EEoCs issued between August 2014 and August 2016, affecting 99 publications, the rate of retraction was similar (29%). The majority of EEoCs were issued because of concerns with validity of data, methods, or interpretation of the publication (68%), and 31% of cases remained open. Issues with images were raised in 40% of affected publications. Ongoing monitoring after the study identified another 17 EEoCs to year’s end in 2016, increasing the number of EEoCs to 247 and publications in PubMed known to be affected by EEoCs to 320 at the end of 2016. Conclusions EEoCs have been rare publishing events in the biomedical literature, but their use has been increasing. Most have not led to retractions, and many remain unresolved. Lack of prominence and inconsistencies in management

  11. 47 CFR 95.628 - MedRadio transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... human body, radiated emissions and EIRP measurements for transmissions by stations authorized under this section may be made in accordance with a Commission-approved human body simulator and test technique. A... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.628 MedRadio transmitters. (a) Frequency monitoring...

  12. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  13. Med-Tech Program. Tech Prep Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Public Schools, IL.

    Staff from DuSable High School in Chicago, Illinois, collaborated with Malcolm X College and three area hospitals to develop a medical technician training program focusing on career awareness and development of the basic reading and math skills needed for any career. A 3-year Med Tech curriculum for grades 9, 10, and 11 and a career awareness…

  14. Student employment opportunities within ORD, with an emphasis on MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a talk to undergraduate Juniors and Seniors in the UW-Madison School of Pharmacy's Pharm/Tox program about student employment opportunities w/in ORD such as SSC, ORISE, etc. wtih an emphasis on MED. I would classify as this as Outreach: how to navigate EPA websites to f...

  15. Student employment opportunities within ORD, with an emphasis on MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a talk to undergraduate Juniors and Seniors in the UW-Madison School of Pharmacy's Pharm/Tox program about student employment opportunities w/in ORD such as SSC, ORISE, etc. wtih an emphasis on MED. I would classify as this as Outreach: how to navigate EPA websites to f...

  16. The COSMO-SkyMed support to earthquake events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, P.; Battagliere, M. L.; Daraio, M. G.; Coletta, A.

    2014-10-01

    The frequency and impact of natural disasters worldwide is constantly highlighting the need for quick and appropriate decisions from civil protection, always supported by the increasing availability of higher resolution, better accuracy, better revisit and response time data. With COSMO-SkyMed Italy has offered, and still offers today, an efficient response to actual needs of environment management during a high number of real emergency events, such as earthquakes. COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean basin observation) is the largest investment of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Earth Observation (EO), completely commissioned and funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the Ministry of Defense. It is a Dual-Use (Civilian and Defense) system aimed at establishing a global service supplying provision of data and services relevant to a wide range of applications, such as Risk and Emergency Management. The COSMO-SkyMed constellation is providing a significant contribution to Emergency Management providing timely and accurate radar images used in a wide variety of applications such as earthquake damage assessment. In this paper the analysis related to the application of COSMO-SkyMed data supporting emergency response operations in case of earthquakes as well as the description of some real use cases occurred in the last years will be presented.

  17. On the geolocation accuracy of COSMO-SkyMed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitti, Davide O.; Nutricato, Raffaele; Lorusso, Rino; Lombardi, Nunzia; Bovenga, Fabio; Bruno, Maria F.; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Milillo, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Accurate geolocation of SAR data is nowadays strongly required because of the increasing number of high resolution SAR sensors available as for instance from TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X and COSMO-SkyMed space-borne missions. Both stripmap and spotlight acquisition modes provide from metric to sub metric spatial resolution which demands the ability to ensure a geolocation accuracy of the same order of magnitude. Geocoding quality depends on several factors and in particular on the knowledge of the actual values of the satellite position along the orbit, and the delay introduced by the additional path induced by changes in the refractivity index due to the presence of the atmosphere (the so called Atmospheric Path Delay or APD). No definitive results are reported yet in the scientific literature, concerning the best performances achievable by the COSMO-SkyMed constellation in terms of geolocation accuracy. Preliminary studies have shown that sub-pixel geolocation accuracies are hardly achievable with COSMO-SkyMed data. The present work aims at inspecting the origin of the geolocation error sources in COSMO-SkyMed Single-look Complex Slant (SCS) products, and to investigate possible strategies for their compensation or mitigation. Five different test sites have been selected in Italy and Argentina, where up to 30 corner reflectors are installed, pointing towards ascending or descending passes. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  18. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  19. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were

  20. The ERS Research Agency: the beginning.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Joan B; Paton, James; Martin Burrieza, Fernando; Bill, Werner; Pannetier, Carine; Aliberti, Stefano; Adcock, Ian M; Wagers, Scott; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2016-04-01

    There is at the current time a significant opportunity for the ERS to leverage its experience and reputation as an international umbrella organisation to promote high-quality, multinational respiratory research with the goal of improving the health of respiratory patients. This editorial proposes a model for the role and structure of an ERS Research Agency. It is based upon research, implicit knowledge and explicit feedback from ERS members and selected external individuals and organisations.As with any new endeavour there are challenges and threats. Building a Research Agency will be a major undertaking that will require significant organisational planning, resources, effort and commitment.Organisations with multiple stakeholders tend to have a status quo inertia that has to be overcome for any significant new endeavour. The ERS Research Agency could be an investment in the future of respiratory research.

  1. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-04-26

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  2. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  3. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  4. Fusing a lasting relationship between ER tubules

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Tyler J.; Daga, Andrea; McNew, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Atlastin is an integral membrane GTPase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In vitro and in vivo analyses indicate that atlastin is a membrane fusogen capable of driving membrane fusion, suggesting a role in ER structure and maintenance. Interestingly, mutations in the human atlastin-1 gene, SPG3A, cause a form of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). The etiology of HSP is unclear but two predominant forms of the disorder are caused by mutant proteins that affect ER structure, formation, and maintenance in motor neurons. In this review, we describe what is known about the molecular mechanism of atlastin function and its potential role in HSP. Greater understanding of the function of atlastin and associated proteins should lend significant insight into normal ER biogenesis and maintenance, as well as the pathology of disease. PMID:21550242

  5. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  6. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  7. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  8. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca2+ Probe D4ER

    PubMed Central

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca2+ store and the free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) within its lumen ([Ca2+]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca2+ sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca2+ probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca2+, low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca2+] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca2+ affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca2+] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca2+]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer’s Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca2+ affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca2+ content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls. PMID:27598166

  9. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca(2+) Probe D4ER.

    PubMed

    Greotti, Elisa; Wong, Andrea; Pozzan, Tullio; Pendin, Diana; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-09-02

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represents the major intracellular Ca(2+) store and the free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) within its lumen ([Ca(2+)]ER) can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca(2+) sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca(2+) probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd) for Ca(2+), low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca(2+)] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca(2+) affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca(2+)] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca(2+)]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer's Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2). The lower Ca(2+) affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca(2+) content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls.

  10. 77 FR 65438 - MedLink International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... COMMISSION MedLink International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading October 24, 2012. It appears to the... securities of MedLink International, Inc. (``MedLink''). Questions have arisen concerning the accuracy of publicly disseminated information concerning the company's public filings and financial statements. MedLink...

  11. The Aspergillus nidulans peripheral ER: disorganization by ER stress and persistence during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Markina-Iñarrairaegui, Ane; Pantazopoulou, Areti; Espeso, Eduardo A; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The genetically amenable fungus Aspergillus nidulans is well suited for cell biology studies involving the secretory pathway and its relationship with hyphal tip growth by apical extension. We exploited live-cell epifluorescence microscopy of the ER labeled with the translocon component Sec63, endogenously tagged with GFP, to study the organization of 'secretory' ER domains. The Sec63 A. nidulans ER network includes brightly fluorescent peripheral strands and more faintly labeled nuclear envelopes. In hyphae, the most abundant peripheral ER structures correspond to plasma membrane-associated strands that are polarized, but do not invade the hyphal tip dome, at least in part because the subapical collar of endocytic actin patches constrict the cortical strands in this region. Thus the subapical endocytic ring might provide an attachment for ER strands, thereby ensuring that the growing tip remains 'loaded' with secretory ER. Acute disruption of secretory ER function by reductive stress-mediated induction of the unfolded protein response results in the reversible aggregation of ER strands, cessation of exocytosis and swelling of the hyphal tips. The secretory ER is insensitive to brefeldin A treatment and does not undergo changes during mitosis, in agreement with the reports that apical extension continues at normal rates during this period.

  12. Materia Socio Medica is Indexed in Pubmed and Archived in PubMed Central.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    Materia Socio Medica Journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011. The journal started in 1993 as offi cial journal of Social Medicine Association of B&H. During last 3 years Mat Soc Med has included in almost all femous on-line databases (except WoS). All issues of Mat Soc Med published in 2012 are now visible on PubMed/PubMed Central.

  13. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-07-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20-50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole.

  14. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20–50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole. PMID:26181331

  15. [ER stress and cardiometabolic disease: role of adipokines].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song-Yang; Feng, Juan; Wang, Xian

    2013-10-01

    ER stress is defined as an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein folding capacity, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded protein in ER. Temperate ER stress through UPR enhances the folding capacity of ER and restores the ER homeostasis, exerting a cell protection role. While prolonged ER stress lead to inflammation, cell dysfunction and apoptosis, which takes part in the progression of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In the condition of obesity or hyperhomocysteinemia, ER stress in adipose tissue, hypothalamus, liver and other tissue or organs causes the dysregulation of adipokines secretion as well as abnormal receptor or post-receptor signal transduction, which plays an significant role in cardiometabolic disease.

  16. SmartMed: A Medication Management System to Improve Adherence.

    PubMed

    Diemert, Simon; Richardson, Kirk; Hunter, Paul; Weber, Jens; Price, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is the degree to which patients comply with their caregivers prescribed treatments. Lack of adherence due to various causes negatively affects health objectives. Prior work in the field of medication management has indicated the usefulness of IT as a possible aid for those who have difficulty adhering to prescribed medication regimes. In this paper we present a medication management system (SmartMed) that has been designed to monitor and increase adherence. The SmartMed system consists of a portable pill bottle device, a local base station, and a cloud data service. It reminds users when it is time to take their medications, and acquires adherence data which is accessible for applications that query the data service. The project was undertaken as an undergraduate engineering design project. This paper describes the design and prototype implementation of this system and provides direction for future work.

  17. AliBaba: PubMed as a graph.

    PubMed

    Plake, Conrad; Schiemann, Torsten; Pankalla, Marcus; Hakenberg, Jörg; Leser, Ulf

    2006-10-01

    The biomedical literature contains a wealth of information on associations between many different types of objects, such as protein-protein interactions, gene-disease associations and subcellular locations of proteins. When searching such information using conventional search engines, e.g. PubMed, users see the data only one-abstract at a time and 'hidden' in natural language text. AliBaba is an interactive tool for graphical summarization of search results. It parses the set of abstracts that fit a PubMed query and presents extracted information on biomedical objects and their relationships as a graphical network. AliBaba extracts associations between cells, diseases, drugs, proteins, species and tissues. Several filter options allow for a more focused search. Thus, researchers can grasp complex networks described in various articles at a glance. http://alibaba.informatik.hu-berlin.de/

  18. TeleMed: A distributed virtual patient record system

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Phillips, R.L.; Kilman, D.G.; Cook, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    TeleMed is a distributed diagnosis and analysis system, which permits physicians who are not collocated to consult on the status of a patient. The patient`s record is dynamically constructed from data that may reside at several sites but which can be quickly assembled for viewing by pointing to the patient`s name. Then, a graphical patient record appears, through which consulting physicians can retrieve textual and radiographic data with a single mouse click. TeleMed uses modern distributed object technology and emerging telecollaboration tools. The authors describe in this paper some of the motivation for this change, what they mean by a virtual patient record, and some results of some early implementations of a virtual patient record.

  19. Clinical Investigation Program Report, RCS MED-300 (R1).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-31

    Correlations Between Extent of Patient Involvement and Effectiveness of Published Behavioral Treatments of Hypertension . (C) 28 1982 Development of an...Investigation of Dose Related Tissue Response to Dimethylsiloxane in Rabbits. (W) 94 USA MEDDAC, FORT BENNING, GEORGIA 1980 Intraocular Lens Study. (0) 95 1984...Med Rehab. Pashley DH, Leibach J, Horner J: Effects of burnishing NaF/kaolin/glycerine paste on dentin permeability. Accepted - J Periodontology

  20. Evaluating the completeness and accuracy of MedWatch data.

    PubMed

    Getz, Kenneth A; Stergiopoulos, Stella; Kaitin, Kenneth I

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's MedWatch system--a voluntary surveillance program--received 600,000 adverse event reports on marketed drugs and devices in 2011. The Food and Drug Administration credits the MedWatch system with improving awareness, and expediting early detection, of drug and device risks and in illuminating the adoption of medical treatments. Reporting bias has been acknowledged as a limitation of the MedWatch system. No systematic assessment of the accuracy and completeness of adverse event reporting has been conducted, yet inaccurate adverse event reporting may lead drug safety professionals to draw incorrect conclusions, manufacturers may be wrongly forced to suspend and withdraw medications and interventions, health professionals may mistakenly alter their clinical practices, and patients may be denied safe and effective treatments. In 2011, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development gathered and analyzed 10.2 million adverse event reports filed with the MedWatch system. Patient information was generally complete and accurate. Suspect product information, on the other hand, showed high levels of incomplete and inaccurate data. Start and end dates of suspect product use had 37% and 23% completion rates, respectively. Dosage level was completed only 31% of the time, and product lot numbers had only a 9% completion rate. More than 25% of the names of reported suspect products were inaccurate, and 31% of suspect product start dates were inaccurate. Higher levels of completion and accuracy were associated with reports filed closer to the date when the adverse event was observed. Implications of the results and suggested improvements are discussed.

  1. The medical dictionary for regulatory activities (MedDRA).

    PubMed

    Brown, E G; Wood, L; Wood, S

    1999-02-01

    The International Conference on Harmonisation has agreed upon the structure and content of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) version 2.0 which should become available in the early part of 1999. This medical terminology is intended for use in the pre- and postmarketing phases of the medicines regulatory process, covering diagnoses, symptoms and signs, adverse drug reactions and therapeutic indications, the names and qualitative results of investigations, surgical and medical procedures, and medical/social history. It can be used for recording adverse events and medical history in clinical trials, in the analysis and tabulations of data from these trials and in the expedited submission of safety data to government regulatory authorities, as well as in constructing standard product information and documentation for applications for marketing authorisation. After licensing of a medicine, it may be used in pharmacovigilance and is expected to be the preferred terminology for international electronic regulatory communication. MedDRA is a hierarchical terminology with 5 levels and is multiaxial: terms may exist in more than 1 vertical axis, providing specificity of terms for data entry and flexibility in data retrieval. Terms in MedDRA were derived from several sources including the WHO's adverse reaction terminology (WHO-ART), Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms (COSTART), International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9 and ICD9-CM. It will be maintained, further developed and distributed by a Maintenance Support Services Organisation (MSSO). It is anticipated that using MedDRA will improve the quality of data captured on databases, support effective analysis by providing clinically relevant groupings of terms and facilitate electronic communication of data, although as a new tool, users will need to invest time in gaining expertise in its use.

  2. The MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project aims at gaining new insights in the knowledge of the processes on the base of the volcanic phenomena observable at the surface by using the broad inventory of multidisciplinary data available for Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. These active volcanic areas, which have been here considered as a cluster of supersites, represent test cases since they embrace the main characteristics typical of both "opened- and closed-conduit" volcanic systems. For the purpose, MED-SUV objectives focus on the (i) development of novel monitoring instrumentations and data collection methods, (ii) implementation of the current observation infrastructures, (iii) better constraint of crucial volcanic parameters by integration of in-situ and satellite data, and (iv) the development of an e-infrastructure for data sharing. In this framework, MED-SUV is a great opportunity for scientific collaboration among diverse research institutions and industrial sectors. MED-SUV aims to use the achieved results to gain robust sets of multi-parametric observations using the most advanced analytic data processing techniques and volcanic process and hazard modelling methods. These will provide new insights in the current and past eruptive activity of the three test case volcanoes that will increase our technical-scientific ability of tracking volcanic-related hazards in the targeted areas, and of communicating with the proper decision-maker bodies. The implementation of an e-infrastructure compliant with EPOS and the other two supersite projects, MARsite and FUTUREVOLC, will contribute to the GEO/GEOSS interoperability principles and to the GEO 2012-15 work plan.

  3. [Surgical implantation of the Med-El vibrant Soundbridge].

    PubMed

    Ramos Macías, Angel

    2008-11-01

    Surgical implantation of the Med-El Vibrant Soundbridge is, in the initial phases, similar to that of other otologic processes but differs in certain aspects that should be known. The surgical steps are as follows: incision, mastoidectomy, posterior tympanotomy, preparation of the implant bed, and placement of the device. The present article also describes the surgical procedure for placement of the device in the round window.

  4. Regen compressors power Capo Bon trans-med station

    SciTech Connect

    de Biasi, V.

    1981-11-01

    It is expected that Algeria will begin deliveries of natural gas from the Hassi-R'Mel gasfield in the Sahara Desert to Italy by the end of 1981 or early 1982. The main station for the Trans-Med natural gas pipeline, powered by five regenerative M5322R gas turbines, has a design throughput of some 1.6 million m/sup 3//hr and serves as the boost station for the submarine section of the pipeline.

  5. MED1: an intelligent computer program for thoracic pain diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Puppe, B; Puppe, F

    1985-06-03

    MED1 is a fully implemented, medical expert system providing assistance in the diagnosis of patients complaining of chest pain. Its reasoning strategy combines efficient mechanisms for hypothesis generation and hypothesis evaluation in a model simulalting the basic features of the hypothesize-and-test approach found to be applied by diagnosing physicians. The knowledge acquisition facility of the program is comfortable enough to allow the expert physician to alter the knowledge base without understanding the basic code (LISP) of the program.

  6. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-23

    JSC2004-E-26519 --- Dr. Michael DeBakey (far right) observes preparation procedures before the implantation of a MicroMed DeBakey VAD® (ventricular assist device). The revolutionary heart pump received FDA approval in February 2004 for use in critically ill children awaiting heart transplants. The heart pump was designed with the help of NASA engineers who began working with Dr. DeBakey on the pump's development in the mid-1980s.

  7. The Care and Feeding of Pre-Meds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magleby, Stephanie

    2008-10-01

    Most physics instructors will at some point in their teaching career face a room full of students bound for medical or dental school. This particular student clientele presents a host of distinctive challenges. My presentation will discuss insights gained while teaching premed sections of algebra-based College Physics over the last ten semesters. Topics will include syllabus structure, quiz techniques, testing strategies, letters of recommendation and how to get a good teaching evaluation from a pre-med.

  8. The Care and Feeding of Pre-Meds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magleby, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    Most physics instructors will at some point in their teaching career face a room full of students bound for medical or dental school. This particular student clientele presents a host of distinctive challenges. My presentation will discuss insights gained while teaching premed sections of algebra-based College Physics over the last ten semesters. Topics will include syllabus structure, grading techniques, testing strategies, letters of recommendation and most importantly: how to get a good teaching evaluation from a Pre-Med.

  9. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; White, Todd R.; Wright, Henry S.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Trombetta, Dominic; Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomomi; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Mahzari, Milad; Pennington, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2) sensor suite will measure aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and TPS performance during the atmospheric entry, descent, and landing phases of the Mars 2020 mission. The key objectives are to reduce design margin and prediction uncertainties for the aerothermal environments and aerodynamic database. For MEDLI2, the sensors are installed on both the heatshield and backshell, and include 7 pressure transducers, 17 thermal plugs, and 3 heat flux sensors (including a radiometer). These sensors will expand the set of measurements collected by the highly successful MEDLI suite, collecting supersonic pressure measurements on the forebody, a pressure measurement on the aftbody, direct heat flux measurements on the aftbody, a radiative heating measurement on the aftbody, and multiple near-surface thermal measurements on the thermal protection system (TPS) materials on both the forebody and aftbody. To meet the science objectives, supersonic pressure transducers and heat flux sensors are currently being developed and their qualification and calibration plans are presented. Finally, the reconstruction targets for data accuracy are presented, along with the planned methodologies for achieving the targets.

  10. Overview of the SkyMed/COSMO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caltagirone, Francesco; Spera, Paolo; Vigliotti, R.; Manoni, Gemma

    1998-12-01

    The impact of natural and man-made disasters on the social and economic progress is going to become more significant, making necessary to consider natural disasters reduction. Therefore civil protection and resource managers need elements to make quicker and better decisions on a day-to-day basis, so giving the start to an emerging world-wide remote sensing market. A deep analysis on the potential users, mainly devoted to Mediterranean basin, highlights that existing and/or planned systems are not able to completely satisfy their requirements. To fulfill this gap, Italy decided to promote the SkyMed/COSMO system, presently financed by the Italian Space Agency. SkyMed/COSMO is a constellation of small satellites for observation, remote sensing and data exploitation for risks management and coastal zone monitoring, conceived to provide products, services and logistics to both institutional and commercial remote sensing users on global scale. Furthermore the system is able to satisfy a broad spectrum of important applications also in the field of the resource management, land use and law enforcement. The SkyMed/COSMO current system architecture foresees a constellation of small satellites in two different orbit planes composed by 4 satellite equipped with X-band SAR and 3 satellites equipped with optical sensors. The system is characterized by good spatial resolution, day and night/all-weather imaging capability and by a very good revisit time. The program, currently in phase B, is carried out by an industrial consortium lead by Alenia Aerospazio.

  11. Mutations in MED12 Cause X-Linked Ohdo Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; de Vries, Bert B.A.; van Bon, Bregje W.M.; Hoischen, Alexander; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Gilissen, Christian; Gao, Fangjian; van Zwam, Marloes; Harteveld, Cornelis L.; van Essen, Anthonie J.; Hamel, Ben C.J.; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Willemsen, Michèl A.A.P.; Yntema, Helger G.; van Bokhoven, Hans; Brunner, Han G.; Boyer, Thomas G.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ohdo syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by intellectual disability (ID) and typical facial features, including blepharophimosis. Clinically, these blepharophimosis-ID syndromes have been classified in five distinct subgroups, including the Maat-Kievit-Brunner (MKB) type, which, in contrast to the others, is characterized by X-linked inheritance and facial coarsening at older age. We performed exome sequencing in two families, each with two affected males with Ohdo syndrome MKB type. In the two families, MED12 missense mutations (c.3443G>A [p.Arg1148His] or c.3493T>C [p.Ser1165Pro]) segregating with the phenotype were identified. Upon subsequent analysis of an additional cohort of nine simplex male individuals with Ohdo syndrome, one additional de novo missense change (c.5185C>A [p.His1729Asn]) in MED12 was detected. The occurrence of three different hemizygous missense mutations in three unrelated families affected by Ohdo syndrome MKB type shows that mutations in MED12 are the underlying cause of this X-linked form of Ohdo syndrome. Together with the recently described KAT6B mutations resulting in Ohdo syndrome Say/Barber/Biesecker/Young/Simpson type, our findings point to aberrant chromatin modification as being central to the pathogenesis of Ohdo syndrome. PMID:23395478

  12. Complex event extraction at PubMed scale

    PubMed Central

    Björne, Jari; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Salakoski, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: There has recently been a notable shift in biomedical information extraction (IE) from relation models toward the more expressive event model, facilitated by the maturation of basic tools for biomedical text analysis and the availability of manually annotated resources. The event model allows detailed representation of complex natural language statements and can support a number of advanced text mining applications ranging from semantic search to pathway extraction. A recent collaborative evaluation demonstrated the potential of event extraction systems, yet there have so far been no studies of the generalization ability of the systems nor the feasibility of large-scale extraction. Results: This study considers event-based IE at PubMed scale. We introduce a system combining publicly available, state-of-the-art methods for domain parsing, named entity recognition and event extraction, and test the system on a representative 1% sample of all PubMed citations. We present the first evaluation of the generalization performance of event extraction systems to this scale and show that despite its computational complexity, event extraction from the entire PubMed is feasible. We further illustrate the value of the extraction approach through a number of analyses of the extracted information. Availability: The event detection system and extracted data are open source licensed and available at http://bionlp.utu.fi/. Contact: jari.bjorne@utu.fi PMID:20529932

  13. MedRapid--medical community & business intelligence system.

    PubMed

    Finkeissen, E; Fuchs, H; Jakob, T; Wetter, T

    2002-01-01

    currently, it takes at least 6 months for researchers to communicate their results. This delay is caused (a) by partial lacks of machine support for both representation as well as communication and (b) by media breaks during the communication process. To make an integrated communication between researchers and practitioners possible, a general structure for medical content representation has been set up. The procedure for data entry and quality management has been generalized and implemented in a web-based authoring system. The MedRapid-system supports the medical experts in entering their knowledge into a database. Here, the level of detail is still below that of current medical guidelines representation. However, the symmetric structure for an area-wide medical knowledge representation is highly retrievable and thus can quickly be communicated into daily routine for the improvement of the treatment quality. In addition, other sources like journal articles and medical guidelines can be references within the MedRapid-system and thus be communicated into daily routine. The fundamental system for the representation of medical reference knowledge (from reference works/books) itself is not sufficient for the friction-less communication amongst medical staff. Rather, the process of (a) representing medical knowledge, (b) refereeing the represented knowledge, (c) communicating the represented knowledge, and (d) retrieving the represented knowledge has to be unified. MedRapid will soon support the whole process on one server system.

  14. Knockdown of NtMed8, a Med8-like gene, causes abnormal development of vegetative and floral organs in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqing; Wei, He; Tong, Zhijun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Yang, Zemao; Lan, Tao; Duan, Yuanlin; Wu, Weiren

    2011-11-01

    Med8, a subunit of mediator complex, has proved to possess crucial functions in many organisms from yeast to human. In plant, the med8 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana displayed delayed anthesis and increased number of leaves during the vegetative period. However, the roles of Med8 in other flowering plants are still unknown. To investigate the function of Med8 ortholog in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.; named as NtMed8), we created transgenic tobacco plants with repressed NtMed8 expression mediated by RNA interference (RNAi). Compared with the wild type, the NtMed8-RNAi plants exhibited: more leaves with smaller but thicker blades; larger cells and vascular bundles with lower stomata density in leaves; swelled chloroplasts with thicker and lumen-enlarged thylakoids; weaker root system with fewer lateral roots; larger flowers and floral organs; flowering earlier under long day, but later under short day conditions; and male sterile with larger but less germinable pollens. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR indicated that NtMed8 is expressed in both vegetative and floral tissues. Subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that NtMed8 was located in both plasma membrane and nucleus. These results suggest that NtMed8 plays important roles in both vegetative and reproductive development, and the function of Med8 appears to be, at least partially, conserved in flowering plants.

  15. 20 CFR 216.68 - Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability period for widow(er), surviving divorced spouse, or remarried widow(er). 216.68 Section 216.68 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT... Divorced Spouse, and Remarried Widow(er) Annuities § 216.68 Disability period for widow(er),...

  16. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology. PMID:26884552

  17. The changing role of ER in endocrine resistance.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Trivedi, Meghana V; Osborne, C Kent; Schiff, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in approximately 70% of newly diagnosed breast tumors. Although endocrine therapy targeting ER is highly effective, intrinsic or acquired resistance is common, significantly jeopardizing treatment outcomes and minimizing overall survival. Even in the presence of endocrine resistance, a continued role of ER signaling is suggested by several lines of clinical and preclinical evidence. Indeed, inhibition or down-regulation of ER reduces tumor growth in preclinical models of acquired endocrine resistance, and many patients with recurrent ER+ breast tumors progressing on one type of ER-targeted treatment still benefit from sequential endocrine treatments that target ER by a different mechanism. New insights into the nature and biology of ER have revealed several mechanisms sustaining altered ER signaling in endocrine-resistant tumors, including deregulated growth factor receptor signaling that results in ligand-independent ER activation, unbalanced ER co-regulator activity, and genomic alterations involving the ER gene ESR1. Therefore, biopsies of recurrent lesions are needed to assess the changes in epi/genomics and signaling landscape of ER and associated pathways in order to tailor therapies to effectively overcome endocrine resistance. In addition, more completely abolishing the levels and activity of ER and its co-activators, in combination with selected signal transduction inhibitors or agents blocking the upstream or downstream targets of the ER pathway, may provide a better therapeutic strategy in combating endocrine resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Retrieval of diagnostic and treatment studies for clinical use through PubMed and PubMed's Clinical Queries filters

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K Ann; Walter, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Objective Clinical Queries filters were developed to improve the retrieval of high-quality studies in searches on clinical matters. The study objective was to determine the yield of relevant citations and physician satisfaction while searching for diagnostic and treatment studies using the Clinical Queries page of PubMed compared with searching PubMed without these filters. Materials and methods Forty practicing physicians, presented with standardized treatment and diagnosis questions and one question of their choosing, entered search terms which were processed in a random, blinded fashion through PubMed alone and PubMed Clinical Queries. Participants rated search retrievals for applicability to the question at hand and satisfaction. Results For treatment, the primary outcome of retrieval of relevant articles was not significantly different between the groups, but a higher proportion of articles from the Clinical Queries searches met methodologic criteria (p=0.049), and more articles were published in core internal medicine journals (p=0.056). For diagnosis, the filtered results returned more relevant articles (p=0.031) and fewer irrelevant articles (overall retrieval less, p=0.023); participants needed to screen fewer articles before arriving at the first relevant citation (p<0.05). Relevance was also influenced by content terms used by participants in searching. Participants varied greatly in their search performance. Discussion Clinical Queries filtered searches returned more high-quality studies, though the retrieval of relevant articles was only statistically different between the groups for diagnosis questions. Conclusion Retrieving clinically important research studies from Medline is a challenging task for physicians. Methodological search filters can improve search retrieval. PMID:21680559

  19. Retrieval of diagnostic and treatment studies for clinical use through PubMed and PubMed's Clinical Queries filters.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Cynthia; Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, K Ann; Walter, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Queries filters were developed to improve the retrieval of high-quality studies in searches on clinical matters. The study objective was to determine the yield of relevant citations and physician satisfaction while searching for diagnostic and treatment studies using the Clinical Queries page of PubMed compared with searching PubMed without these filters. Forty practicing physicians, presented with standardized treatment and diagnosis questions and one question of their choosing, entered search terms which were processed in a random, blinded fashion through PubMed alone and PubMed Clinical Queries. Participants rated search retrievals for applicability to the question at hand and satisfaction. For treatment, the primary outcome of retrieval of relevant articles was not significantly different between the groups, but a higher proportion of articles from the Clinical Queries searches met methodologic criteria (p=0.049), and more articles were published in core internal medicine journals (p=0.056). For diagnosis, the filtered results returned more relevant articles (p=0.031) and fewer irrelevant articles (overall retrieval less, p=0.023); participants needed to screen fewer articles before arriving at the first relevant citation (p<0.05). Relevance was also influenced by content terms used by participants in searching. Participants varied greatly in their search performance. Clinical Queries filtered searches returned more high-quality studies, though the retrieval of relevant articles was only statistically different between the groups for diagnosis questions. Retrieving clinically important research studies from Medline is a challenging task for physicians. Methodological search filters can improve search retrieval.

  20. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  1. Structural Determination of Certain Novel ER Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    and Parker, T. M. (1992). Hydrophobicity-induced pK shifts in elastin protein-based polymers . Biopolymers 32, 373-379. Webb, P., Nguyen, P., and...between the aligned H12 from different complex struc- Chemicals, Materials, and Plasmids tures (OHT-ER and GW-ER) were calculated using a python script...buffer consisting of 1.5%-2% ethylene were used. 100 nM of GW7604 were added to the cells 18-24 hr imine polymer , 100 mM trisodium citrate (pH 5.6-5.7

  2. Caries inhibition potential of Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.; Visuri, Steven R.; Seka, Wolf D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Dental hard tissues can be ablated efficiency by (lambda) equals 3 micrometers laser irradiation with minimal subsurface thermal damage. However, the potential of lasers operating in the region of the infrared for caries preventive treatments has not been investigated. In this study, the caries inhibition potential of Er:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) and Er:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) laser radiation on dental enamel was evaluated at various irradiation intensities. Pulsed IR radiometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to measure the time-resolved surface temperatures during laser irradiation and to detect changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependent on the wavelength, irradiation intensity, and the number of laser pulses. Radiometry and SEM micrographs indicated that ablation was initiated at temperatures of approximately 300 degree(s)C for Er:YAG and 800 degree(s)C for Er:YSGG laser irradiation, well below the melting and vaporization temperatures of the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral component (m.p. equals 1200 degree(s)C). Nevertheless, there was marked caries inhibition for irradiation intensities below those temperature thresholds, notably 60% and 40% inhibition was achieved after Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation, respectively. These results indicate that the Er:YSGG laser can be used effectively for both preventive dental treatments and for hard tissue removal.

  3. Molecular diagnostics: Molecular Med Tri-Con 2013.

    PubMed

    Klein, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    The 20th annual Molecular Med Tri-Con conference, sponsored by Cambridge Health Institute (MA, USA), consisted of over 250 presentations within five parallel 'channels': 'Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Clinical, Informatics and Cancer', along with five preliminary symposia, 15 short courses, a plenary keynote session entitled 'Personalized Oncology - Fulfilling the Promise for Today's Patients' and a keynote panel entitled, 'Emerging Technologies and Industry Perspectives'. Over 3000 individuals from academia, clinical laboratories and industry were in attendance. This article will focus on the Keynote Session of 'Molecular Diagnostics' track within the Diagnostics Channel.

  4. Thirty percent of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in Japan is extremely low-grade ER(+)/HER2(-) type without comedo necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Miyuki; Morimoto, Masami; Takahashi, Masako; Honda, Junko; Bando, Yoshimi; Moriya, Takuya; Tadokoro, Yukiko; Nakagawa, Misako; Takechi, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Takahiro; Toba, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kajikawa, Aiichiro; Tangoku, Akira; Imoto, Issei; Sasa, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Overdiagnosis in mammography (MMG) is a problem. Combination of MMG and ultrasonography for breast cancer screening may increase overdiagnosis. Most cases of overdiagnosis are low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (LGD), but no reports have focused on them. Materials and methods We immunostained 169 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cases for ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki67 and classified them into 4 subtypes: ER(+)/HER2(-), ER(+)/HER2(+), ER(-)/HER2(-) and ER(-)/HER2(+). The Ki67 index was used to evaluate the grade of malignancy and examined for correlations with each ER/HER2 subtype and the nuclear grade (NG), with/without comedo necrosis. Results The Ki67 index correlated significantly with NG, both with/without comedo necrosis, and reliably evaluated the grade of malignancy. The index for ER(+)/HER2(-) (n=117, 69.2%) was 7.45±7.10, which was significantly lower than for each of the other types. The index was 5.71±6.94 for ER(+)/HER2(-) without comedo necrosis (n=52, 30.8%), which was significantly lower than with comedo necrosis. This was considered LGD, characterized by absence of microcalcification in MMG and either presence of a solid mass or cystic lesion or absence of hypoechoic areas in ultrasound. Conclusion In Japan, ER(+)/HER2(-) without comedo necrosis accounts for about 30% of DCIS and is LGD. This may be being overdiagnosed. J. Med. Invest. 63: 192-198, August, 2016.

  5. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  6. ERS--Local School Budget Profile Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Presents data on school district expenditures for budget years 1996-97, 1991-92, and 1986-87, gathered by the Educational Research Service (ERS). Provides information on budgets; intragroup variations; trends in allocation patterns; personnel costs; school district revenues; and trends in revenue available from local, state, and federal sources.…

  7. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  8. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  9. PingER History and Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the PingER toolkit/project. It provides some examples of how the results have been used to identify evolutionary changes in WAN response times and connectivity quality over the past 10 years, as well as some of the challenges faced in maintaining and deploying the system.

  10. The QuEChERS revolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this page, ... latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is ...

  12. Mediator MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to drive osteoblast differentiation and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Xiao; Yan, Guang; Xu, YiChi; Yan, Jun; Zou, Weiguo; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    How lineage specifiers are regulated during development is an outstanding question, and the molecular regulation of osteogenic factor RUNX2 remains to be fully understood. Here we report that the Mediator subunit MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone development. Med23 deletion in mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblast precursors results in multiple bone defects similar to those observed in Runx2+/− mice. In vitro, Med23-deficient progenitor cells are refractory to osteoblast differentiation, and Med23 deficiency reduces Runx2-target gene activity without changing Runx2 expression. Mechanistically, MED23 binds to RUNX2 and modulates its transcriptional activity. Moreover, Med23 deficiency in osteoprogenitor cells exacerbates the skeletal abnormalities observed in Runx2+/− mice. Collectively, our results establish a genetic and physical interaction between RUNX2 and MED23, suggesting that MED23 constitutes a molecular node in the regulatory network of anabolic bone formation and related diseases. PMID:27033977

  13. Cohort profile: Greifswald approach to individualized medicine (GANI_MED)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individualized Medicine aims at providing optimal treatment for an individual patient at a given time based on his specific genetic and molecular characteristics. This requires excellent clinical stratification of patients as well as the availability of genomic data and biomarkers as prerequisites for the development of novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. The University Medicine Greifswald, Germany, has launched the “Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine” (GANI_MED) project to address major challenges of Individualized Medicine. Herein, we describe the implementation of the scientific and clinical infrastructure that allows future translation of findings relevant to Individualized Medicine into clinical practice. Methods/design Clinical patient cohorts (N > 5,000) with an emphasis on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are being established following a standardized protocol for the assessment of medical history, laboratory biomarkers, and the collection of various biosamples for bio-banking purposes. A multi-omics based biomarker assessment including genome-wide genotyping, transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses complements the multi-level approach of GANI_MED. Comparisons with the general background population as characterized by our Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) are performed. A central data management structure has been implemented to capture and integrate all relevant clinical data for research purposes. Ethical research projects on informed consent procedures, reporting of incidental findings, and economic evaluations were launched in parallel. PMID:24886498

  14. MedCast: a discussion support system for cooperative work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Lima, Vinícius; Lopes, Isidro; Gutierrez, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    The availability of low cost Internet connections and specialized hardware, like webcams and headsets, makes possible the development of solutions for remote collaborative work. These solutions can provide advantages compared to presential meetings, such as: availability of experts on remote locations; lower price compared to presential meetings; creation of online didactic material (e.g. video-classes); richer forms of interaction between participants. These technologies are particularly interesting for continent-sized countries where typically there is a short number of skilled people in remote areas. However, the application of these technologies in medical field represents a special challenge due to the more complex requirements of this area, such as: Provide confidentiality (patient de-identification) and integrity of patient data; Guarantee availability of the system; Guarantee authenticity of data and users; Provide simple and effective user interface; Be compliant with medical standards such as DICOM and HL7. In order to satisfy those requirements a prototype called MedCast is under development whose architecture allows the integration of the Hospital Information System (HIS) with a collaborative tool in compliance with the HIPAA rules. Some of the MedCast features are: videoconferencing, chat, recording of the sessions, sharing of documents and reports and still and dynamic images presentation. Its current version allows the remote discussion of clinical cases and the remote ECG evaluation.

  15. 75 FR 31788 - Appointments to the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... OFFICE Appointments to the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) AGENCY: Government... the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...., Washington, DC 20548. MedPAC: 601 New Jersey Avenue, NW., Suite 9000, Washington, DC 20001. FOR...

  16. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+, Yb3 + and Er3 + /Yb3+ doped metaphosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Speghini, A; Francini, R; Martinez, A; Tavernese, M; Bettinell, M

    2001-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopies of Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Ca(PO3)2, Sr(PO3)2 and Ba(PO3)2 glasses have been studied. From the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, the spontaneous emission probabilities of some relevant transitions and the radiative lifetimes of several excited states of Er3+ have been calculated. The decay curves of the Er3+ emission at 1.5 microm have been measured at different temperatures. The data have been fitted using a stretched exponential function and the obtained experimental lifetimes have been compared with the calculated radiative lifetimes. The difference between the experimental and calculated lifetimes is attributed to the presence of traces of OH groups in the host glasses. The absolute OH content in some glasses has been determined from the infrared spectra. The emission spectra at 1.5 microm of the Er3+ ion in the codoped glasses have been measured at different temperatures. The integrated emission intensities decrease significantly on passing from room temperature to 13 K, suggesting a temperature dependence of the rate of the energy transfer process between Yb3+ and Er3+.

  17. Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, A V; Popov, A V; Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

    2010-08-03

    The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

  18. Increased ER-mitochondrial coupling promotes mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetics during early phases of ER stress.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Roberto; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Parra, Valentina; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Bui, Michael; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreira, Jorge; Iglewski, Myriam; Chiong, Mario; Simmen, Thomas; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A; Rothermel, Beverly A; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the adaptive phase of ER stress, before the cell death response, remain unknown. Here, we show that, during the onset of ER stress, the reticular and mitochondrial networks are redistributed towards the perinuclear area and their points of connection are increased in a microtubule-dependent fashion. A localized increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential is observed only in redistributed mitochondria, whereas mitochondria that remain in other subcellular zones display no significant changes. Spatial re-organization of these organelles correlates with an increase in ATP levels, oxygen consumption, reductive power and increased mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uptake. Accordingly, uncoupling of the organelles or blocking Ca²⁺ transfer impaired the metabolic response, rendering cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Overall, these data indicate that ER stress induces an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism that depends crucially upon organelle coupling and Ca²⁺ transfer, which, by enhancing cellular bioenergetics, establishes the metabolic basis for the adaptation to this response.

  19. ER-Golgi Traffic Is a Prerequisite for Efficient ER Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Taxis, Christof; Vogel, Frank; Wolf, Dieter H.

    2002-01-01

    Protein quality control is an essential function of the endoplasmic reticulum. Misfolded proteins unable to acquire their native conformation are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, retro-translocated back into the cytosol, and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We show that efficient degradation of soluble malfolded proteins in yeast requires a fully competent early secretory pathway. Mutations in proteins essential for ER-Golgi protein traffic severely inhibit ER degradation of the model substrate CPY*. We found ER localization of CPY* in WT cells, but no other specific organelle for ER degradation could be identified by electron microscopy studies. Because CPY* is degraded in COPI coat mutants, only a minor fraction of CPY* or of a proteinaceous factor required for degradation seems to enter the recycling pathway between ER and Golgi. Therefore, we propose that the disorganized structure of the ER and/or the mislocalization of Kar2p, observed in early secretory mutants, is responsible for the reduction in CPY* degradation. Further, we observed that mutations in proteins directly involved in degradation of malfolded proteins (Der1p, Der3/Hrd1p, and Hrd3p) lead to morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi, escape of CPY* into the secretory pathway and a slower maturation rate of wild-type CPY. PMID:12058050

  20. 150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  1. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_April-June 2016_October 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.

    2016-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the April, May, and June 2016 quarterly reporting period.

  2. 146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. Credit ER. Rubble masonry header box with dual intake pipes at Coleman powerhouse forebay. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. The cervical malignant cells display a down regulation of ER-α but retain the ER-β expression

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Garrido-Guerrero, Efraín; Rangel-López, Angélica; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Lazos-Ochoa, Minerva; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Bandala, Cindy; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The human cervix is a tissue target of sex steroid hormones as estradiol (E2) which exerts its action through of the estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER-α and ER-β). In this study we investigated the expression of ER-α and ER-β in human invasive cervical carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses and compared with that observed in the corresponding normal tissue. The results show nuclear expression of ER-α mainly in the first third of normal cervical epithelium, however, decreased or absent expression were present in invasive cervical carcinoma, indicating that expression of ER-α is lost in cervical cancer. Nevertheless, by RT-PCR we were able to demonstrate mRNA expression of ER-α in invasive cervical tissues. These results suggest that loss of ER-α could be due to a mechanism of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of its gene during the progression to invasive carcinoma. On the other hand, ER-β was expressed in normal cervix with an expression pattern similar to ER-α. In addition to its nuclear localization, cytoplasmic immunoreaction of ER-β was present in the epithelium of invasive cervical carcinomas, suggesting an association between cytoplasmic ER-β expression and invasive phenotype in the cervical tumors. In summary, the results show that the cervical malignant cells tend to loss the ER-α but maintain the ER-β actively expressed. Loss of expression of ER-α in neoplastic tissue suggests that the estrogenic effects could be conducted through the ER-β in human neoplastic cervical tissue. More detailed studies are needed to confirm this suggestion and to determine the role of ER-β in cervical cancer. PMID:23923078

  5. PERK is required at the ER-mitochondrial contact sites to convey apoptosis after ROS-based ER stress.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, T; Rubio, N; Garg, A D; Bultynck, G; Rizzuto, R; Decuypere, J-P; Piette, J; Linehan, C; Gupta, S; Samali, A; Agostinis, P

    2012-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is emerging as an important modulator of different pathologies and as a mechanism contributing to cancer cell death in response to therapeutic agents. In several instances, oxidative stress and the onset of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occur together; yet, the molecular events linking reactive oxygen species (ROS) to ER stress-mediated apoptosis are currently unknown. Here, we show that PERK (RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase), a key ER stress sensor of the unfolded protein response, is uniquely enriched at the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). PERK(-/-) cells display disturbed ER morphology and Ca(2+) signaling as well as significantly weaker ER-mitochondria contact sites. Re-expression of a kinase-dead PERK mutant but not the cytoplasmic deletion mutant of PERK in PERK(-/-) cells re-establishes ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and mitochondrial sensitization to ROS-mediated stress. In contrast to the canonical ER stressor thapsigargin, during ROS-mediated ER stress, PERK contributes to apoptosis twofold by sustaining the levels of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and by facilitating the propagation of ROS signals between the ER and mitochondria through its tethering function. Hence, this study reveals an unprecedented role of PERK as a MAMs component required to maintain the ER-mitochondria juxtapositions and propel ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, it suggests that loss of PERK may cause defects in cell death sensitivity in pathological conditions linked to ROS-mediated ER stress.

  6. Recognition of Terrestrial Impact Craters with COSMO-SkyMed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virelli, M.; Staffieri, S.; Battagliere, M. L.; Komatsu, G.; Di Martino, M.; Flamini, E.; Coletta, A.

    2016-08-01

    All bodies having a solid surface, without distinction, show, with greater or lesser evidence, the marks left by the geological processes they undergone during their evolution. There is a geomorphological feature that is evident in all the images obtained by the probes sent to explore our planetary system: impact craters.Craters formed by the impact of small cosmic bodies have dimensions ranging from some meters to hundreds of kilometers. However, for example on the Lunar regolith particles, have been observed also sub- millimeter craters caused by dust impacts. The kinetic energy of the impactor, which velocity is in general of the order of tens km/s, is released in fractions of a second, generally in a explosive way, generating complex phenomena that transform not only the morphology of the surface involved by the impact, but also the mineralogy and crystallography of the impacted material. Even our planet is not immune to these impacts. At present, more than 180 geological structures recognized as of impact origin are known on Earth.In this article, we aim to show how these impact structures on Earth's surface are observed from space. To do this, we used the images obtained by the COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation.Starting from 2013, ASI proposed, in collaboration with the Astrophysical Observatory of Turin and University D'Annunzio of Chieti, the realization of an Encyclopedic Atlas of Terrestrial Impact Craters using COSMO-SkyMed data that will become the first atlas of all recognized terrestrial impact craters based on images acquired by a X band radar. To observe these impact craters all radar sensor modes have been used, according to the size of the analyzed crater.The project includes research of any new features that could be classified as impact craters and, for the sites whereby it is considered necessary, the implementation of a geological survey on site to validate the observations.In this paper an overview of the Atlas of Terrestrial Impact

  7. Cardiac Med1 deletion promotes early lethality, cardiac remodeling, and transcriptional reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Kathryn M; Ponce, Jessica M; Oudit, Gavin Y; Hall, Duane D; Grueter, Chad E

    2017-04-01

    The mediator complex, a multisubunit nuclear complex, plays an integral role in regulating gene expression by acting as a bridge between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Genetic deletion of mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in embryonic lethality, due in large part to impaired cardiac development. We first established that Med1 is dynamically expressed in cardiac development and disease, with marked upregulation of Med1 in both human and murine failing hearts. To determine if Med1 deficiency protects against cardiac stress, we generated two cardiac-specific Med1 knockout mouse models in which Med1 is conditionally deleted (Med1cKO mice) or inducibly deleted in adult mice (Med1cKO-MCM mice). In both models, cardiac deletion of Med1 resulted in early lethality accompanied by pronounced changes in cardiac function, including left ventricular dilation, decreased ejection fraction, and pathological structural remodeling. We next defined how Med1 deficiency alters the cardiac transcriptional profile using RNA-sequencing analysis. Med1cKO mice demonstrated significant dysregulation of genes related to cardiac metabolism, in particular genes that are coordinated by the transcription factors Pgc1α, Pparα, and Errα. Consistent with the roles of these transcription factors in regulation of mitochondrial genes, we observed significant alterations in mitochondrial size, mitochondrial gene expression, complex activity, and electron transport chain expression under Med1 deficiency. Taken together, these data identify Med1 as an important regulator of vital cardiac gene expression and maintenance of normal heart function.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Disruption of transcriptional gene expression is a hallmark of dilated cardiomyopathy; however, its etiology is not well understood. Cardiac-specific deletion of the transcriptional coactivator mediator subunit 1 (Med1) results in dilated cardiomyopathy, decreased cardiac function, and lethality. Med1 deletion disrupted cardiac

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and photoluminescence of Er2O3-Er2SO2 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kalugin, Nikolai G; Roy, Aaron; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Serov, Alexey

    2017-03-30

    Thermal reduction of erbium nitrate and S-doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mixture resulted in the formation of small (~3-18 nm-sized) Er2O3-Er2SO2 nanoparticles with a high degree of surface coverage on the reduced graphene oxide support. The morphology, structure, and the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and by optical spectroscopies. The rGO-supported Er2O3-Er2SO2 nanoparticles (Er2O3-Er2SO2 /rGO) demonstrate sufficiently strong light emission (luminescence and upconversion) in the visible and near-infrared range via intra-4f Er3+ optical transitions. The reported synthetic approach demonstrates a novel method for synthesizing Er-containing nanoparticles for sensor applications.

  9. Acta stomatologica Croatica and PubMed Central

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    April 15 2016 marked the 50th anniversary of continuous publishing of the journal Acta stomatologica Croatica (ASCRO). The celebration was held in the great hall of the Croatian Medical Association, with numerous guests from the biomedical field. The history of the journal was presented by Goran Knežević (editor-in-chief 1996-2006) and Hrvoje Brkić (current editor-in-chief), who presented all the current information on the electronical editing and its current indexation. Only a few days later, the Editorial Office received the information that ASCRO has been included in PubMed Central since volume 48, an impulse for the members of the Editorial Board and the Editor-in-Chief to make ASCRO better and more cited PMID:27789906

  10. A Shielding Concept for the MedAustron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägerhofer, L.; Feldbaumer, E.; Roesler, S.; Theis, C.; Vincke, H.

    2017-09-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based accelerator facility for cancer therapy and research in Wiener Neustadt, 50 km south of Vienna. The facility will provide protons up to kinetic energies of 250 MeV and carbon ions up to 400 MeV/n for ion beam therapy. Additionally, protons up to 800 MeV kinetic energy will be used in a dedicated room for non-clinical research. In order to obtain a shielding concept for this facility a detailed geometry of the accelerator facility was implemented into the Monte-Carlo code FLUKA and shielding simulations were performed. In the course of these simulations the contributions of different particle types to the mixed fields around the accelerator and behind shielding were analysed. In an iterative process with the architect the final design of the shielding concept was developed until it was capable of reducing the effect of secondary radiation on humans and the environment below Austrian legal limits.

  11. Spotlight COSMO-SkyMed DEM generation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, N.; Lorusso, R.; Milillo, G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with COSMO SkyMed Spotlight data in providing DEMs. In particular, the peculiarity of Spotlight data (affected from Doppler centroid drift) is investigated, and the use of the processing chain included in the Delft Object-oriented Radar Interferometric Software (DORIS [1]). The effects of not correctly handled Doppler drift is shown. The standard interferometric processing, without Doppler drift handling, has been applied to Spotlight image pairs, resulting in interferometric coherence loss in interferograms as we move away from scene center. So, the standard processing chain has been modified to take in account the Doppler centroid drift affecting Spotlight data and very high resolution and accuracy DEMs have been obtained. Some Spotlight image pairs have been processed and the obtained DEMs have been shown and analyzed proving the high details and product accuracy.

  12. Conditional Ablation of Mediator Subunit MED1 (MED1/PPARBP) Gene in Mouse Liver Attenuates Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonist Dexamethasone-Induced Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    JIA, YUZHI; VISWAKARMA, NAVIN; FU, TAO; YU, SONGTAO; RAO, M. SAMBASIVA; BORENSZTAJN, JAYME; REDDY, JANARDAN K.

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist dexamethasone (Dex) induces hepatic steatosis and enhances constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) expression in the liver. CAR is known to worsen hepatic injury in nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. Because transcription coactivator MED1/PPARBP gene is required for GR- and CAR-mediated transcriptional activation, we hypothesized that disruption of MED1/PPARBP gene in liver cells would result in the attenuation of Dex-induced hepatic steatosis. Here we show that liver-specific disruption of MED1 gene (MED1ΔLiv) improves Dex-induced steatotic phenotype in the liver. In wild-type mice Dex induced severe hepatic steatosis and caused reduction in medium- and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that are responsible for mitochondrial β-oxidation. In contrast, Dex did not induce hepatic steatosis in mice conditionally null for hepatic MED1, as it failed to inhibit fatty acid oxidation enzymes in the liver. MED1ΔLiv livers had lower levels of GR-regulated CAR mRNA compared to wild-type mouse livers. Microarray gene expression profiling showed that absence of MED1 affects the expression of the GR-regulated genes responsible for energy metabolism in the liver. These results establish that absence of MED1 in the liver diminishes Dex-induced hepatic steatosis by altering the GR- and CAR-dependent gene functions. PMID:19630272

  13. SYP73 Anchors the ER to the Actin Cytoskeleton for Maintenance of ER Integrity and Streaming in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengfei; Renna, Luciana; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-12-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]. Although a three-way interaction between the ER, cytosolic myosin-XI, and F-actin mediates the plant ER streaming [6], the mechanisms underlying stable interaction of the ER membrane with actin are unknown. Early electron microscopy studies suggested a direct attachment of the plant ER with actin filaments [7, 8], but it is plausible that yet-unknown proteins facilitate anchoring of the ER membrane with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate here that SYP73, a member of the plant Syp7 subgroup of SNARE proteins [9] containing actin-binding domains, is a novel ER membrane-associated actin-binding protein. We show that overexpression of SYP73 causes a striking rearrangement of the ER over actin and that, similar to mutations of myosin-XI [4, 10, 11], loss of SYP73 reduces ER streaming and affects overall ER network morphology and plant growth. We propose a model for plant ER remodeling whereby the dynamic rearrangement and streaming of the ER network depend on the propelling action of myosin-XI over actin coupled with a SYP73-mediated bridging, which dynamically anchors the ER membrane with actin filaments.

  14. Coactivator MED1 ablation in keratinocytes results in hair-cycling defects and epidermal alterations.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yuko; Hu, Lizhi; Bul, Vadim; Elalieh, Hashem; Reddy, Janardan K; Bikle, Daniel D

    2012-04-01

    The transcriptional coactivator complex Mediator (MED) facilitates transcription of nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors. We have previously isolated the MED complex from primary keratinocytes (KCs) as the vitamin D receptor-interacting protein complex. We identified a role for MED in KC proliferation and differentiation in cultured KCs. Here, we investigated the in vivo role of MED by generating a conditional null mice model in which a critical subunit of the MED complex, MED1, is deleted from their KCs. The MED1 ablation resulted in aberrant hair differentiation and cycling, leading to hair loss. During the first hair follicle (HF) cycle, MED1 deletion resulted in a rapid regression of the HFs. Hair differentiation was reduced, and β-catenin/vitamin D receptor (VDR)-regulated gene expression was markedly decreased. In the subsequent adult hair cycle, MED1 ablation activated the initiation of HF cycling. Shh signaling was increased, but terminal differentiation was not sufficient. Deletion of MED1 also caused hyperproliferation of interfollicular epidermal KCs, and increased the expression of epidermal differentiation markers. These results indicate that MED1 has a critical role in regulating hair/epidermal proliferation and differentiation.

  15. OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content.

    PubMed

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J; Sladek, Ruth M

    2013-07-02

    PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed's unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms ('textwords'), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed's unique heart failure literature. We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter's MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as 'textwords'). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this 'lost set'. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed's unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter's performance in this database. The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed

  16. ER-12-1 completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous).

  17. Characterization of ER,Cr:YSGG.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-03

    State, 2800 nm Lasers, Erbium Doped % 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reuers, if necessary and identify by bloack nurnberi A study of the spectroscopic and...laser properties of the crystal erbium -and chromium- doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) has been carried out. The absorption spectra...under pulsed excitation. Energy levels of the erbium ion have been determined. Analysis of the data shows that energy transfers from excited chromium

  18. Electrorheological (ER) Fluids: A Research Needs Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    control of their dynamic response to earthquakes and windstorms. The potential exists here to render nuclear power plants more resistant to earthquakes...of stress vs. strain as illustrated in Figure 2 (Gamota and Filisko 1991a). 5.9-9 T 4000 volts SHEAR 31 3000 vot STRESS or...from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce. 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161, DOE’/ER/30O1 7)-. T UC-330,400

  19. Characterization of an ICII82, 780-Induced, Estrogen Receptor (ER)-beta Mediated Apoptotic Pathway in Prostate Cancer Cells and Establishment of (ER)-beta-Regulated Electrophile-Processing Phase II Enzyme Downregulation as a Promotional Factor in Human Prostatic Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    uterine advanced prostate cancer. Urology, 52: 257-260, 1998. endometrium and endometrial cancer. Endocr. J., 42: 289-293, 1995. 44. Landstrom, M., Eklov...Eth recept orma humaet n dyprostate usingretr GCe1nibod. Note as the strongy stainind cells In the basal layer aoignal magnification, X400). D: ER-.3... recept -an overview, J Intern 43. Gleave ME, Chung LW: Stromal-epithelial interaction affecting pros- Med 1999, 246:133-138 tate tumor growth and hormonal

  20. Present statue of Japanese ERS-1 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwada, Yasufumi; Nemoto, Yoshiaki

    1986-01-01

    Earth Resources Satellite 1 (ERS-1) will be launched in the FY 1990 with the H-1 rocket from Tanegashima Space Center. ERS-1 will seek to firmly establish remote sensing technologies from space by using synthetic aperture radar and optical sensors, as well as primarily exploring for non-renewable resources and also monitoring for land use, agriculture, forestry, fishery, conservation of environment, prevention of disasters, and surveillance of coastal regions. ERS-1 is a joint project in which the main responsibility for the development of the mission equipment is assumed by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, MITI, and the Technology Research Association of Resources Remote Sensing System, while that for the satellite itself and launching rocket is assumed by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA). In relation to this project, users have maintained a close working relationship with the manufacturers after submitting their requirements in 1984 on the specifications of the mission equipments. This missions parameters are outlined.

  1. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Ho, Jin-Yuan; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell's response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host's defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment. PMID:25140166

  3. MicroRNAs Meet Calcium: Joint Venture in ER Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that possesses a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism’s physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca2+ concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. Here, we review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca2+ handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. PMID:25372053

  4. Optical properties of Er3 +-doped oxyfluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu

    2016-02-01

    Er3 +-singly doped and Er3 +/Yb3 +-codoped 50SiO2-(50 - x)BaF2-xZnF2(SBZx) oxyfluoride glasses are prepared and the optical properties of Er3 +-singly doped glasses are investigated by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. Bright green and red upconversion luminescence of Er3 +/Yb3 +-codoped glasses is obtained under 980 nm excitation. Furthermore, factors affecting this phenomenon such as glass composition, doping concentration of Er3 + and Yb3 + ions, and pump power are discussed in details.

  5. MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-11-04

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Ternary system Er-Ni-In at T=870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Dzevenko, M.; Tyvanchuk, Yu.; Bratash, L.; Zaremba, V.; Havela, L.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2011-10-15

    Isothermal section of the Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed by means of X-ray powder diffraction and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds, namely ErNi{sub 9}In{sub 2} (YNi{sub 9}In{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 1-1.22}Ni{sub 4}In{sub 1-0.78} (MgCu{sub 4}Sn-type), Er{sub 10}Ni{sub 9.07}In{sub 20} (Ho{sub 10}Ni{sub 9}In{sub 20}-type), ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} (ZrNiAl-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}In (Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 2}Ni{sub 1.78}In (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4} (Lu{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type), Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}In (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}-type), and Er{sub 13.53}Ni{sub 3.14}In{sub 3.33} (Lu{sub 14}Co{sub 2}In{sub 3}-type), exist in the Er-Ni-In system at this temperature. The substitution of Ni for In was observed for ErNi{sub 1-0.60}In{sub 1-1.40} and In for Er in the case of related compounds ErNi{sub 2} and ErNi{sub 4}In. Er can enter NiIn (CoSn-type) leading to including-substitution type of compound Er{sub 0-0.12}NiIn{sub 1-0.89}. Basic magnetic properties of the Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97}, ErNi{sub 2}, Er{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}In{sub 0.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected. Electrical-resistivity studies were performed on the ErNiIn, ErNi{sub 0.9}In{sub 1.1}, and ErNi{sub 4}In phases. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary system Er-Ni-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray phase and EDX-analyses. Nine ternary compounds were observed. Highlights: > Isothermal section of Er-Ni-In system at T=870 K was constructed. > Nine ternary compounds were detected. > Basic magnetic properties of Er{sub 0.04}NiIn{sub 0.97} and ErNi{sub 4}In phases were inspected.

  7. Tamoxifen Action in ER-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Manna, Subrata; Holz, Marina K

    2016-02-10

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator and is mainly indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and postsurgery neoadjuvant therapy in ER-positive breast cancers. Interestingly, 5-10% of the ER-negative breast cancers have also shown sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. The involvement of molecular markers and/or signaling pathways independent of ER signaling has been implicated in tamoxifen sensitivity in the ER-negative subgroup. Studies reveal that variation in the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha, ER subtype beta, tumor microenvironment, and epigenetics affects tamoxifen sensitivity. This review discusses the background of the research on the action of tamoxifen that may inspire future studies to explore effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancers, the latter being an aggressive disease with worse clinical outcome.

  8. Tamoxifen Action in ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Subrata; Holz, Marina K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator and is mainly indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and postsurgery neoadjuvant therapy in ER-positive breast cancers. Interestingly, 5–10% of the ER-negative breast cancers have also shown sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. The involvement of molecular markers and/or signaling pathways independent of ER signaling has been implicated in tamoxifen sensitivity in the ER-negative subgroup. Studies reveal that variation in the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha, ER subtype beta, tumor microenvironment, and epigenetics affects tamoxifen sensitivity. This review discusses the background of the research on the action of tamoxifen that may inspire future studies to explore effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancers, the latter being an aggressive disease with worse clinical outcome. PMID:26989346

  9. Hair cycle control by estrogens: catagen induction via estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha is checked by ER beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Ohnemus, Ulrich; Uenalan, Murat; Conrad, Franziska; Handjiski, Bori; Mecklenburg, Lars; Nakamura, Motonobu; Inzunza, José; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Paus, Ralf

    2005-03-01

    Although 17beta-estradiol (E2) is recognized as a potent hair growth modulator, our knowledge of estrogen function, signaling, and target genes in hair biology is still very limited. Between the two recognized estrogen receptors (ERs), ER alpha and ER beta, only ER alpha had been detected in murine skin. Here we show that ER alpha, ER beta, and ER beta ins are all expressed throughout the murine hair cycle, both at the protein and RNA level, but show distinct expression patterns. We confirm that topical E2 arrests murine pelage hair follicles in telogen and demonstrate that E2 is a potent inducer of premature catagen development. The ER antagonist ICI 182.780 does not induce anagen prematurely but accelerates anagen development and wave spreading in female mice. ER beta knockout mice display accelerated catagen development along with an increase in the number of apoptotic hair follicle keratinocytes. This suggests that, contrary to previous concepts, ER beta does indeed play a significant role in murine hair growth control: whereas the catagen-promoting properties of E2 are mediated via ER alpha, ER beta mainly may function as a silencer of ER alpha action in hair biology. These findings illustrate the complexity of hair growth modulation by estrogens and suggest that one key to more effective hair growth manipulation with ER ligands lies in the use of selective ER alpha or -beta antagonists/agonists. Our study also underscores that the hair cycling response to estrogens offers an ideal model for studying the controls and dynamics of wave propagation in biological systems.

  10. Sec12 Binds to Sec16 at Transitional ER Sites

    PubMed Central

    Montegna, Elisabeth A.; Bhave, Madhura; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    COPII vesicles bud from an ER domain known as the transitional ER (tER). Assembly of the COPII coat is initiated by the transmembrane guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec12. In the budding yeast Pichia pastoris, Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites. Previously, we found that the tER localization of P. pastoris Sec12 requires a saturable binding partner. We now show that this binding partner is Sec16, a peripheral membrane protein that functions in ER export and tER organization. One line of evidence is that overexpression of Sec12 delocalizes Sec12 to the general ER, but simultaneous overexpression of Sec16 retains overexpressed Sec12 at tER sites. Additionally, when P. pastoris Sec12 is expressed in S. cerevisiae, the exogenous Sec12 localizes to the general ER, but when P. pastoris Sec16 is expressed in the same cells, the exogenous Sec12 is recruited to tER sites. In both of these experimental systems, the ability of Sec16 to recruit Sec12 to tER sites is abolished by deleting a C-terminal fragment of Sec16. Biochemical experiments confirm that this C-terminal fragment of Sec16 binds to the cytosolic domain of Sec12. Similarly, we demonstrate that human Sec12 is concentrated at tER sites, likely due to association with a C-terminal fragment of Sec16A. These results suggest that a Sec12–Sec16 interaction has a conserved role in ER export. PMID:22347445

  11. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.

    2013-12-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit '; and ';open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors

  12. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems, are

  13. Retrieving clinical evidence: a comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for quick clinical searches.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Salimah Z; Bejaimal, Shayna Ad; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-08-15

    Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles.

  14. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Centres and jointly operated with local partners across the Mediterranean region. In a number of Mediterranean mesoscale hydrological catchments TERENO-MED will investigate the long-term effects of global change on the quality and the dynamics of water resources in human-influenced environments under water scarcity. The Helmholtz Centres UFZ (overall coordinator) and FZJ have therefore initiated the set-up of a network of global change observatories in 5-10 Mediterranean river catchments. The TERENO-MED observatories will: - investigate societally relevant water problems in the context of 'typical' Mediterranean environments, - provide long-term and quality-controlled data available to the scientific community, - be operated and maintained through local research institutes and universities, - establish common monitoring platforms and foster synergies between research organizations, - provide solutions to pressing local and regional water problems by building partnerships between scientific partners and regional authorities.

  15. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  16. Novel de novo heterozygous loss-of-function variants in MED13L and further delineation of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cafiero, Concetta; Marangi, Giuseppe; Orteschi, Daniela; Ali, Marwan; Asaro, Alessia; Ponzi, Emanuela; Moncada, Alice; Ricciardi, Stefania; Murdolo, Marina; Mancano, Giorgia; Contaldo, Ilaria; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Domenica; Mercuri, Eugenio; Slavotinek, Anne M; Zollino, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    MED13L haploinsufficiency has recently been described as responsible for syndromic intellectual disability. We planned a search for causative gene variants in seven subjects with intellectual disability and overlapping dysmorphic facial features such as bulbous nasal tip, short mouth and straight eyebrows. We found two de novo frameshift variants in MED13L, consisting in single-nucleotide deletion (c.3765delC) and duplication (c.607dupT). A de novo nonsense variant (c.4420A>T) in MED13L was detected in a further subject in the course of routine whole-exome sequencing. By analyzing the clinical data of our patients along with those recently described in the literature, we confirm that there is a common, recognizable phenotype associated with MED13L haploinsufficiency, which includes intellectual disability and a distinctive facial appearance. Congenital heart diseases are found in some subjects with various degree of severity. Our observation of cleft palate, ataxia, epilepsy and childhood leukemia observed in single cases broadens the known clinical spectrum. Haploinsufficiency for MED13L should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome, due to overlapping dysmorphic facial features in some patients. The introduction of massive parallel-sequencing techniques into clinical practice is expected to allow for detection of other causative point variants in MED13L. Analysis of genomic data in connection with deep clinical evaluation of patients could elucidate genetic heterogeneity of the MED13L haploinsufficiency phenotype. PMID:25712080

  17. Novel de novo heterozygous loss-of-function variants in MED13L and further delineation of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Concetta; Marangi, Giuseppe; Orteschi, Daniela; Ali, Marwan; Asaro, Alessia; Ponzi, Emanuela; Moncada, Alice; Ricciardi, Stefania; Murdolo, Marina; Mancano, Giorgia; Contaldo, Ilaria; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Domenica; Mercuri, Eugenio; Slavotinek, Anne M; Zollino, Marcella

    2015-11-01

    MED13L haploinsufficiency has recently been described as responsible for syndromic intellectual disability. We planned a search for causative gene variants in seven subjects with intellectual disability and overlapping dysmorphic facial features such as bulbous nasal tip, short mouth and straight eyebrows. We found two de novo frameshift variants in MED13L, consisting in single-nucleotide deletion (c.3765delC) and duplication (c.607dupT). A de novo nonsense variant (c.4420A>T) in MED13L was detected in a further subject in the course of routine whole-exome sequencing. By analyzing the clinical data of our patients along with those recently described in the literature, we confirm that there is a common, recognizable phenotype associated with MED13L haploinsufficiency, which includes intellectual disability and a distinctive facial appearance. Congenital heart diseases are found in some subjects with various degree of severity. Our observation of cleft palate, ataxia, epilepsy and childhood leukemia observed in single cases broadens the known clinical spectrum. Haploinsufficiency for MED13L should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome, due to overlapping dysmorphic facial features in some patients. The introduction of massive parallel-sequencing techniques into clinical practice is expected to allow for detection of other causative point variants in MED13L. Analysis of genomic data in connection with deep clinical evaluation of patients could elucidate genetic heterogeneity of the MED13L haploinsufficiency phenotype.

  18. Relationship between RUNX1 and AXIN1 in ER-negative versus ER-positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chimge, Nyam-Osor; Ahmed-Alnassar, Sara; Frenkel, Baruch

    2017-02-16

    RUNX1 plays opposing roles in breast cancer: a tumor suppressor in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) disease and an oncogenic role in ER-negative (ER(-)) tumors. Potentially mediating the former, we have recently reported that RUNX1 prevents estrogen-driven suppression of the mRNA encoding the tumor suppressor AXIN1. Accordingly, AXIN1 protein expression was diminished upon RUNX1 silencing in ER(+) breast cancer cells and was positively correlated with AXIN1 protein expression across tumors with high levels of ER. Here we report the surprising observation that RUNX1 and AXIN1 proteins are strongly correlated in ER(-) tumors as well. However, this correlation is not attributable to regulation of AXIN1 by RUNX1 or vice versa. The unexpected correlation between RUNX1, playing an oncogenic role in ER(-) breast cancer, and AXIN1, a well-established tumor suppressor hub, may be related to a high ratio between the expression of variant 2 and variant 1 (v2/v1) of AXIN1 in ER(-) compared with ER(+) breast cancer. Although both isoforms are similarly regulated by RUNX1 in estrogen-stimulated ER(+) breast cancer cells, the higher v2/v1 ratio in ER(-) disease is expected to weaken the tumor suppressor activity of AXIN1 in these tumors.

  19. Global Assessment of Reprocessed ERS-1 and ERS-2 Altimetry (REAPER) Wind and Wave Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Saleh; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.

    2016-08-01

    ESA has been committed to reprocess its Earth Observation Missions of ERS and ENVISAT to produce long and homogeneous time series suitable for climate studies. The full-mission reprocessing of the ERS Altimetry Level 2 REAPER was completed sometime ago. The REAPER wind and wave products are assessed mainly against ERA-Interim which is a rather consistent model run. Several numerical experiments were carried out in order to assess the impact of assimilating the reprocessed significant wave height data in the ECMWF wave model for potential use in the most recent ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis ERA-5. The results show positive impact.

  20. Bulk Er:YAP and Er:Yb:YAP optical emission studies for eyesafe laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Efstratios; Boquillon, Jean-Pierre; Musset, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Emission and excitation spectra of Er-doped YAP crystals reveal a broad emission band in the eyesafe region with peaks around 1545-nm and 1608-nm and pump-bands suitable for common 800-nm and 970-nm diode lasers, suggesting YAP as a candidate crystalline host for diode-pumped laser in the 1.5-μm eyesafe regime. Erbium-doped YAP-crystal results are comparable with analogous measurements on Er:Yb:YAG, which has already demostrated efficient lasing action in the eyesafe region.

  1. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Keith A.; Liechty, Gary H.; Jaramillo, Dennis C.; Munger, Alan C.; McHugh, Douglas C.; Kennedy, James E.

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  2. Gas hydrates over the Egyptian Med. Coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaf El Din, Sayed; Nassar, Marawan

    2010-05-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur worldwide in different oceanic environments, especially in areas of onshore and offshore permafrost and in sediments on continental slops, PT conditions required to initiate the hydrate formation and to stabilize its structure are encountered along the continental slop of the nile delta. Hydocarbon gases in the Nile Delta are not geochemically homogeneous, originating from the decomposition of organic matter by biochemical and thermal processes. The structure of the hydrate determines the type of gas molecules contained. Although Gas hydrates exist over the Egyptian Med. Coastal waters, very little is known on its, origin, quality and quantity. Several studies had been done by several oil companies in the vicinity of the Egyptian territory. High concentration in thin, patchy zones just above the BSR may be, destabilized by Tectonic uplift or climate changes. The seismic profiles taken over the continental slope of the Nile Delta from Damietta to Rashid gave strong evidence of MH with very clear BSR. Geological and geochemical setting of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in front of the Egyptian Nile Delta need more investigations.

  3. Document needs in a rural GRATEFUL MED outreach project.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, J L; Landwirth, T K

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of documents provided to eight rural Illinois hospital sites during a GRATEFUL MED outreach project involving end-user searching revealed significant patterns that have implications for collection development and information services in small, underserved hospitals. Document requests were analyzed by user groups making the requests, subject matter, inclusion on the Brandon/Hill lists and in Abridged Index Medicus, and publication date. Of the 359 documents requested, 86% came from health professional groups other than physicians and nurses. Eighty-five percent of all requests came from two sites that had active project-trained intermediaries, with most requests forwarded by the intermediaries. Subject analysis revealed a strong need for administrative and allied health information in addition to clinical information. Fewer than half of the titles on the recommended lists were requested during the project. Most documents requested had been published in the past five years. Introduction of end-user searching is not the complete answer to improved information access at small hospitals; the authors conclude that basic collections and library personnel are still needed locally to respond effectively to health professionals' information needs. PMID:7841902

  4. Exploitation of a large COSMO-SkyMed interferometric dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Chiaradia, Maria T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we explored a dataset made by more than 100 images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation over the Port-au-Prince (Haiti) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the January 12th, 2010 earthquake. The images were acquired along ascending pass by all the four sensors of the constellation with a mean rate of 1 acquisition/week. This consistent CSK dataset was fully exploited by using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry algorithm SPINUA with the aim of: i) providing a displacement map of the area; ii) assessing the use of CSK and PSI for ground elevation measurements; iii) exploring the CSK satellite orbital tube in terms of both precision and size. In particular, significant subsidence phenomena were detected affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the Port-au-Prince and Carrefour region, as well as very slow slope movements and local ground instabilities. Ground elevation was also measured on PS targets with resolution of 3m. The density of these measurable targets depends on the ground coverage, and reaches values higher than 4000 PS/km2 over urban areas, while it drops over vegetated areas or along slopes affected by layover and shadow. Heights values were compared with LIDAR data at 1m of resolution collected soon after the 2010 earthquake. Furthermore, by using geocoding procedures and the precise LIDAR data as reference, the orbital errors affecting CSK records were investigated. The results are in line with other recent studies.

  5. A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise. PMID:20224767

  6. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J; Jena, Bhanu P; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong; Chen, Xuequn

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival.

  7. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J.; Jena, Bhanu P.; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival. PMID:26083833

  8. Caffeine attenuated ER stress-induced leptin resistance in neurons.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Toyoda, Keisuke; Nakatsu, Kanako; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-05-21

    Exposing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to stress causes the accumulation of unfolded proteins, and subsequently results in ER stress. ER stress may be involved in various disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Leptin is an important circulating hormone, that inhibits food intake and accelerates energy consumption, which suppresses body weight gain. Recent studies demonstrated that leptin resistance is one of the main factors involved in the development of obesity. We and other groups recently reported the role of ER stress in the development of leptin resistance. Therefore, identifying drugs that target ER stress may be a promising fundamental strategy for the treatment of obesity. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeine could affect ER stress and the subsequent development of leptin resistance. We showed that caffeine exhibited chaperone activity, which attenuated protein aggregation. Caffeine also inhibited the ER stress-induced activation of IRE1 and PERK, which suggested the attenuation of ER stress. Moreover, caffeine markedly improved ER stress-induced impairments in the leptin-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, these results suggest caffeine may have pharmacological properties that ameliorate leptin resistance by reducing ER stress.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  10. MED12 mutations occurring in benign and malignant mammalian smooth muscle tumors.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Huhle, Sonja; Nimzyk, Rolf; Stenman, Göran; Löning, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Mutations of the mediator subcomplex 12 gene (MED12) recently have been described in a large group of uterine leiomyomas (UL) but only in a single malignant uterine smooth muscle tumor. To further address the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in smooth muscle tumors, we have analyzed samples from 34 leiomyosarcomas (LMS), 21 UL, two extrauterine leiomyomas (EL), and 10 canine genital leiomyomas for the presence of MED12 mutations of the UL-type. Interestingly, besides UL MED12 mutations were found in one uterine LMS, one EL, and two canine vaginal leiomyomas. The results confirm the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors thus suggesting a rare but existing leiomyoma-LMS sequence. In addition, for the first time MED12 mutations are reported in smooth muscle tumors in a non-primate mammalian species.

  11. Developing ER Stress Inhibitors for Treating ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Page 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………. 1 2. Body …….……………………………………………………………. 1 3. Accomplishments...ER) stress pathways in motor neurons of affected individuals. Apoptosis signal- regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a critical signaling molecule involved... Body : The Specific Aims of this project are: Aim 1: Design and synthesize small molecule modulators of ASK1 that are potent, selective, brain

  12. Atomic transition probabilities of Er i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Wyart, J.-F.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Atomic transition probabilities for 562 lines of the first spectrum of erbium (Er i) are reported. These data are from new branching fraction measurements on Fourier transform spectra normalized with previously reported radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements (Den Hartog et al 2010 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43 155004). The wavelength range of the data set is from 298 to 1981 nm. In this work we explore the utility of parametric fits based on the Cowan code in assessing branching fraction errors due to lines connecting to unobserved lower levels.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric determination of Er (III) with diantipyrylmethane.

    PubMed

    Sungur, S

    2001-02-01

    The optimum fluorescence conditions for erbium (III) are obtained by irradiating this lanthanide at 435 nm in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution at pH = 8 (lambdaem = 510 nm). The method proposed is satisfactory for the determination of erbium (III) in the range of 0.001 to 1 microg ml(-1). The relative standard deviation 0.02 microg ml(-1) Er (III) in 0.04 microg ml(-1) diantipyrylmethane solution is 1.1%. The effect of other rare earths upon the intensity of the fluorescence emitted by erbium (III) is discussed.

  14. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  15. Obesity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Yamini B.; Pandey, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    In obesity, the adipose cells behave as inflammatory source and result to low grade inflammation. This systemic inflammation along with oxidative stress is a silent killer and damages other vital organs also. High metabolic process, induced due to high nutritional intake, results to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial stress. This review describes the triggering factor and basic mechanism behind the obesity mediated these stresses in relation to inflammation. Efforts have been made to describe the effect-response cycle between adipocytes and non-adipocyte cells with reference to metabolic syndrome (MS). PMID:22891067

  16. MED28 regulates MEK1-dependent cellular migration in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yin; Chou, Yu-Hsuan; Hsieh, Nien-Tsu; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2012-12-01

    MED28, a mammalian Mediator subunit, exhibits several cellular roles, including a merlin, Grb2, and cytoskeleton-associated protein (magicin), a repressor of smooth muscle cell differentiation, and an endothelial-derived gene (EG-1). Overexpression of MED28 may stimulate cell proliferation which presumably results from the transcriptional activation of the Mediator function. Additionally, several tumors, including breast cancer, highly express MED28. We have found recently that MED28 potentiated epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration in human breast cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the role of MED28 in the aspect of cellular migration and invasion in human breast cancer cells. Suppression of MED28 blocked cellular migration and invasion with concomitant reduced expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1; MEK1); overexpression of MED28 enhanced cellular migration and upregulated MMP2 and MEK1 expression. Moreover, suppression of MEK1, by dominant-negative, kinase-dead MEK1 cDNA construct or MEK1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) as well as MEK1 inhibitors, blocked MED28-induced MMP2 activation, cellular migration, and invasion in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of MEK1 rescued the inhibitory effect of MED28 knockdown on invasion, and exogenous MMP2 recombinant protein recovered the suppression on invasion upon MED28 or MEK1 knockdown. Our data indicate that MED28 regulates cellular migration in a MEK1-dependent manner in human breast cancer cells, reinforcing the important cellular roles of MED28.

  17. How Do Users Find Things with PubMed? Towards Automatic Utility Evaluation with User Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    experimental variable was the algorithm for suggesting related articles. We considered two: • Using language modeling retrieval, implemented with Lemur [16...similarity algorithm in PubMed, accessed through the PubMed eUtils API.5 Quite explicitly, our goal was not to compare Lemur with PubMed, but rather to...for the simulation (utility). The top graph shows the greedy browsing strategy and the bottom graph the breadth-like browsing strategy, both with Lemur

  18. Liver Med23 ablation improves glucose and lipid metabolism through modulating FOXO1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yajing; Rosso, Leonardo Gómez; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhichao; Xu, Yichi; Yao, Xiao; Bao, Menghan; Yan, Jun; Song, Haiyun; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Mediator complex is a molecular hub integrating signaling, transcription factors, and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) machinery. Mediator MED23 is involved in adipogenesis and smooth muscle cell differentiation, suggesting its role in energy homeostasis. Here, through the generation and analysis of a liver-specific Med23-knockout mouse, we found that liver Med23 deletion improved glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as insulin responsiveness, and prevented diet-induced obesity. Remarkably, acute hepatic Med23 knockdown in db/db mice significantly improved the lipid profile and glucose tolerance. Mechanistically, MED23 participates in gluconeogenesis and cholesterol synthesis through modulating the transcriptional activity of FOXO1, a key metabolic transcription factor. Indeed, hepatic Med23 deletion impaired the Mediator and RNAPII recruitment and attenuated the expression of FOXO1 target genes. Moreover, this functional interaction between FOXO1 and MED23 is evolutionarily conserved, as the in vivo activities of dFOXO in larval fat body and in adult wing can be partially blocked by Med23 knockdown in Drosophila. Collectively, our data revealed Mediator MED23 as a novel regulator for energy homeostasis, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies against metabolic diseases. PMID:25223702

  19. ER/PR Status of the Originating Cell of ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    levels. Therefore, the best ER BAC clon available at this time cannot express an However, while we were in the process of starting to make TVA...knock-in, we found the following surprise result that provides an alternati We have also created a transgenic line expressing tva from the whey acidic

  20. Infrared radiometry of dental enamel during Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Visuri, Steven R.; Featherstone, John D.; Walsh, Joseph T.; Seka, Wolf D.; Glena, Richard E.; McCormack, Sandra M.; Wigdor, Harvey A.

    1996-10-01

    Time-resolved infrared radiometry was used to measure surface temperatures during pulsed Er:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation of dental enamel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the melting and vaporization thresholds and to characterize other changes in the surface morphology. The magnitude and temporal evolution of the surface temperature during multiple-pulse irradiation of the tissue was dependant on the wavelength, fluence, and pre- exposure to laser pulses. Radiometry and SEM micrographs indicate that ablation is initiated at temperatures well below the melting and vaporization temperatures of the carbonated hydroxyapatite mineral component. Ablation occurred at lower surface temperatures and at a lower fluences for Er:YAG than for Er:YSGG laser irradiation: 400 degrees C versus 800 degrees C and above 7 J/cm2 versus 18/Jcm2, respectively. However, the measured surface temperatures were higher at (lambda) equals 2.79 (Mu) m than at (lambda) equals 2.94 during low fluence irradiation. Spatially dependent absorption in the enamel matrix is proposed to explain this apparent contradiction.

  1. Crystal Lattice Defects in MBE Grown Si Layers Heavily Doped with Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, N. D.; Werner, P.; Vdovin, V. I.; Denisov, D. V.; Sobolev, N. A.; Gösele, U.

    The main types of crystal structure defects in [Er]>2×1019 doped layers are: (i) spherical Er and (ii) ellipsoidal ErSi precipitates, as well as (iii) ErSi2 platelets on {111} planes. In the sample with [Er]=4x1019, small complexes consisting of tiny Er precipitates and four petals of ErSi2 platelets have been found additionally. The layer with [Er]= 8×1018 cm-3 was defect free. The formation of silicides from a supersaturated solid solution and Er precipitates is accompanied by the emission of vacancies V resulting in the formation of pores, V-V and V-Er complexes.

  2. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-02-18

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development.

  3. Dysfunction of Wntless triggers the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of Wingless and induces ER stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Lujun; Pei, Chunli; Lin, Xinhua; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Secreted Wnts play diverse roles in a non-cell-autonomous fashion. However, the cell-autonomous effect of unsecreted Wnts remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in specialized secretory cells and participates in pathophysiological processes. The correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that Drosophila miR-307a initiates ER stress specifically in wingless (wg)-expressing cells through targeting wntless (wls/evi). This phenotype could be mimicked by retromer loss-of-function or porcupine (porc) depletion, and rescued by wg knockdown, arguing that unsecreted Wg triggers ER stress. Consistently, we found that disrupting the secretion of human Wnt5a also induced ER stress in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we showed that a C-terminal KKVY-motif of Wg is required for its retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport, thus inducing ER stress. Next, we investigated if COPI, the regulator of retrograde transport, is responsible for unsecreted Wg to induce ER stress. To our surprise, we found that COPI acts as a novel regulator of Wg secretion. Taken together, this study reveals a previously unknown Golgi-to-ER retrograde route of Wg, and elucidates a correlation between Wnt secretion and ER stress during development. PMID:26887613

  4. Armet/Manf and Creld2 are components of a specialized ER stress response provoked by inappropriate formation of disulphide bonds: implications for genetic skeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Claire L.; Edwards, Sarah; Mullan, Lorna; Bell, Peter A.; Fresquet, Maryline; Boot-Handford, Raymond P.; Briggs, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Mutant matrilin-3 (V194D) forms non-native disulphide bonded aggregates in the rER of chondrocytes from cell and mouse models of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Intracellular retention of mutant matrilin-3 causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces an unfolded protein response (UPR) including the upregulation of two genes recently implicated in ER stress: Armet and Creld2. Nothing is known about the role of Armet and Creld2 in human genetic diseases. In this study, we used a variety of cell and mouse models of chondrodysplasia to determine the genotype-specific expression profiles of Armet and Creld2. We also studied their interactions with various mutant proteins and investigated their potential roles as protein disulphide isomerases (PDIs). Armet and Creld2 were up-regulated in cell and/or mouse models of chondrodysplasias caused by mutations in Matn3 and Col10a1, but not Comp. Intriguingly, both Armet and Creld2 were also secreted into the ECM of these disease models following ER stress. Armet and Creld2 interacted with mutant matrilin-3, but not with COMP, thereby validating the genotype-specific expression. Substrate-trapping experiments confirmed Creld2 processed PDI-like activity, thus identifying a putative functional role. Finally, alanine substitution of the two terminal cysteine residues from the A-domain of V194D matrilin-3 prevented aggregation, promoted mutant protein secretion and reduced the levels of Armet and Creld2 in a cell culture model. We demonstrate that Armet and Creld2 are genotype-specific ER stress response proteins with substrate specificities, and that aggregation of mutant matrilin-3 is a key disease trigger in MED that could be exploited as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23956175

  5. Magnetic properties of ErN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C.; Ruck, B. J.; Preston, A. R. H.; Granville, S.; Williams, G. V. M.; Trodahl, H. J.

    2010-07-01

    We report a magnetization study of stoichiometric ErN nanocrystalline films grown on Si and protected by a GaN passivating layer. According to the temperature dependence of the resistivity the films are heavily doped semiconductors. Above 100 K the magnetization data fit well to a Curie-Weiss behavior with a moment expected within the free-ion ErJ={15}/{2} multiplet. Below 50 K the Curie-Weiss plot steepens to an effective moment corresponding to that in the crystal-field determined quartet ground state, and develops a clear paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature of about 4.5 K. Zero-field- and field-cooled magnetization curves and the AC susceptibility firmly establish a ferromagnetic ground state within that multiplet below a Curie temperature of 6.3±0.7 K. Due to the (1 1 1) texture of the film the comparison between the magnetization behavior, when the field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the film plane, gives new information about the magnetic structure. An arrangement of the moments according to the model derived from neutron diffraction for bulk HoN is strongly suggested.

  6. Validation of ERS-1 environmental data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodberlet, Mark A.; Swift, Calvin T.; Wilkerson, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation of the launch-version algorithms used by the European Space Agency (ESA) to derive wind field and ocean wave estimates from measurements of sensors aboard the European Remote Sensing satellite, ERS-1, has been accomplished through comparison of the derived parameters with coincident measurements made by 24 open ocean buoys maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). During the period from November 1, 1991 through February 28, 1992, data bases with 577 and 485 pairs of coincident sensor/buoy wind and wave measurements were collected for the Active Microwave Instrument (AMI) and Radar Altimeter (RA) respectively. Based on these data, algorithm retrieval accuracy is estimated to be plus or minus 4 m/s for AMI wind speed, plus or minus 3 m/s for RA wind speed and plus or minus 0.6 m for RA wave height. After removing 180 degree ambiguity errors, the AMI wind direction retrieval accuracy was estimated at plus or minus 28 degrees. All of the ERS-1 wind and wave retrievals are relatively unbiased. These results should be viewed as interim since improved algorithms are under development. As final versions are implemented, additional assessments should be conducted to complete the validation.

  7. Connecting the Dots between PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2012-01-01

    Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred

  8. ER chaperones in neurodegenerative disease: Folding and beyond.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Huerta, Paula; Bargsted, Leslie; Rivas, Alexis; Matus, Soledad; Vidal, Rene L

    2016-10-01

    Proteins along the secretory pathway are co-translationally translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded polypeptide chains. Afterwards, they are usually modified with N-linked glycans, correctly folded and stabilized by disulfide bonds. ER chaperones and folding enzymes control these processes. The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER activates a signaling response, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The hallmark of this response is the coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of ER chaperones and folding enzymes. In order to discuss the importance of the proper folding of certain substrates we will address the role of ER chaperones in normal physiological conditions and examine different aspects of its contribution in neurodegenerative disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:ER stress.

  9. Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

  10. Cooperative Dynamics of AR and ER Activity in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Nicholas C; Gordon, Michael A; Babbs, Beatrice; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Carson Butterfield, Kiel T; Torkko, Kathleen C; Phan, Vernon T; Barton, Valerie N; Rogers, Thomas J; Sartorius, Carol A; Elias, Anthony; Gertz, Jason; Jacobsen, Britta M; Richer, Jennifer K

    2016-11-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in 90% of estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER(+)) breast tumors, but its role in tumor growth and progression remains controversial. Use of two anti-androgens that inhibit AR nuclear localization, enzalutamide and MJC13, revealed that AR is required for maximum ER genomic binding. Here, a novel global examination of AR chromatin binding found that estradiol induced AR binding at unique sites compared with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Estradiol-induced AR-binding sites were enriched for estrogen response elements and had significant overlap with ER-binding sites. Furthermore, AR inhibition reduced baseline and estradiol-mediated proliferation in multiple ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancer cell lines, and synergized with tamoxifen and fulvestrant. In vivo, enzalutamide significantly reduced viability of tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 xenograft tumors and an ER(+)/AR(+) patient-derived model. Enzalutamide also reduced metastatic burden following cardiac injection. Finally, in a comparison of ER(+)/AR(+) primary tumors versus patient-matched local recurrences or distant metastases, AR expression was often maintained even when ER was reduced or absent. These data provide preclinical evidence that anti-androgens that inhibit AR nuclear localization affect both AR and ER, and are effective in combination with current breast cancer therapies. In addition, single-agent efficacy may be possible in tumors resistant to traditional endocrine therapy, as clinical specimens of recurrent disease demonstrate AR expression in tumors with absent or refractory ER. This study suggests that AR plays a previously unrecognized role in supporting E2-mediated ER activity in ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancer cells, and that enzalutamide may be an effective therapeutic in ER(+)/AR(+) breast cancers. Mol Cancer Res; 14(11); 1054-67. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Fluorescence of Er3+:AlN Polycrystalline Ceramic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    using heating techniques and sintering aids such as hot pressing with Ca(NO3)2•4H2O [19], spark plasma sintering with CaF2 [20], and pressureless...Cleveland, OH, U.S.A.) to determine the levels of Er before and after sintering . The starting powders (measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma ...optical spectroscopy of Er3+ doped into bulk AlN ceramic. The material was prepared via hot press sintering of AlN with Er2O3 and [NH4][ErF4], which

  12. Ire1 supports normal ER differentiation in developing Drosophila photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zuyuan; Chikka, Madhusudana Rao; Xia, Hongai; Ready, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves virtually all aspects of cell physiology and, by pathways that are incompletely understood, is dynamically remodeled to meet changing cell needs. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (Ire1), a conserved core protein of the unfolded protein response (UPR), participates in ER remodeling and is particularly required during the differentiation of cells devoted to intense secretory activity, so-called ‘professional’ secretory cells. Here, we characterize the role of Ire1 in ER differentiation in the developing Drosophila compound eye photoreceptors (R cells). As part of normal development, R cells take a turn as professional secretory cells with a massive secretory effort that builds the photosensitive membrane organelle, the rhabdomere. We find rough ER sheets proliferate as rhabdomere biogenesis culminates, and Ire1 is required for normal ER differentiation. Ire1 is active early in R cell development and is required in anticipation of peak biosynthesis. Without Ire1, the amount of rough ER sheets is strongly reduced and the extensive cortical ER network at the rhabdomere base, the subrhabdomere cisterna (SRC), fails. Instead, ER proliferates in persistent and ribosome-poor tubular tangles. A phase of Ire1 activity early in R cell development thus shapes dynamic ER. PMID:26787744

  13. Links between ER stress and autophagy in plants.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yunting; Bassham, Diane C

    2013-06-01

    Autophagy is a major pathway for the delivery of proteins or organelles to be degraded in the vacuole and recycled. It can be induced by abiotic stresses, senescence, and pathogen infection. Recent research has shown that autophagy is activated by ER stress. Here we review the major progress that has been made in the study of autophagy and ER stress in plants, and describe the links between ER stress and autophagy to guide further study on how autophagy is regulated in response to ER stress.

  14. Lanthanum Titanate Nanoparticles ER Fluids with High Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De; Shen, Rong; Wei, Shiqiang; Lu, Kunquan

    A new type of electrorheological (ER) fluid consisting of lanthanum titanate (LTO) nanoparticles is developed. The ER fluids were prepared by suspending LTO powder in silicone oil and the particles were fabricated by wet chemical method. This ER fluid shows excellent ER properties: The static yield stress reaches over 150 kPa under 5 kV/mm with linear dependence on the applied DC electric field, and the current density is below 10 μA/cm2. In order to investigate the affect factor on the ER behavior, the LTO powder were heated under different temperatures. The ER performances of two particles treated under different temperatures were compared and the composition changes for those particles were analyzed with TG-FTIR technique. It was found that the static yield stress of the suspensions fell from over 150 kPa to about 40 kPa and the current densities decreased prominently as the rise of the heating temperature. TG-FTIR analysis indicated that polar groups remained in the particles such as alkyl group, hydroxyl group and carbonyl group etc., contribute to the ER effect significantly. The experimental results are helpful to understand the mechanism of the high ER effect and to synthesize better ER materials.

  15. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 1. background and basic searching.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2013-12-01

    PubMed provides free access via the Internet to more than 23 million records, of which over 19 million are from the MEDLINE database of journal articles. PubMed also provides access to other databases, such as the NCBI Bookshelf. To perform a basic search, you can simply enter the search terms or the concept that you are looking for in the search box. However, taking care to clarify your key concepts may save much time later on, because a non-specific search is likely to produce an overwhelming number of result hits. One way to make your search more specific is to specify which field you want to search using field tags. By default, the results of a search are sorted by the date added to PubMed and displayed in summary format with 20 result hits (records) on each page. In summary format, the title of the article, list of authors, source of information (e.g., journal name followed by date of publication, volume, issue, pages) and the unique PubMed record number called the PubMed identifier (PMID) are shown. Although information is stored about the articles, PubMed/MEDLINE does not store the full text of the papers themselves. However, PubMedCentral (PMC) stores more than 2.8 million articles (roughly 10% of the articles in PubMed) and provides access to them for free to the users.

  16. Exome sequencing identifies highly recurrent MED12 somatic mutations in breast fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Weng Khong; Ong, Choon Kiat; Tan, Jing; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Ooi, Wei Siong; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Puay Hoon; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

    2014-08-01

    Fibroadenomas are the most common breast tumors in women under 30 (refs. 1,2). Exome sequencing of eight fibroadenomas with matching whole-blood samples revealed recurrent somatic mutations solely in MED12, which encodes a Mediator complex subunit. Targeted sequencing of an additional 90 fibroadenomas confirmed highly frequent MED12 exon 2 mutations (58/98, 59%) that are probably somatic, with 71% of mutations occurring in codon 44. Using laser capture microdissection, we show that MED12 fibroadenoma mutations are present in stromal but not epithelial mammary cells. Expression profiling of MED12-mutated and wild-type fibroadenomas revealed that MED12 mutations are associated with dysregulated estrogen signaling and extracellular matrix organization. The fibroadenoma MED12 mutation spectrum is nearly identical to that of previously reported MED12 lesions in uterine leiomyoma but not those of other tumors. Benign tumors of the breast and uterus, both of which are key target tissues of estrogen, may thus share a common genetic basis underpinned by highly frequent and specific MED12 mutations.

  17. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MedRadio system devices intend to occupy. The monitoring system antenna shall be the antenna normally... of 10 milliseconds per channel. (3) Based on use of an isotropic monitoring system antenna, the... the MedRadio programmer/control transmitter monitoring system antenna gain relative to an...

  18. A Study of GRATEFUL MED Use in a Graduate Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Marcia Klinger

    A study of "Grateful Med," an interface to Medline, was conducted at California State University/Northridge to discover how efficiently students enrolled in graduate-level research methods classes in health sciences and communicative disorders could access Medline using Grateful Med, what the average costs would be, and how frequently…

  19. Three PubMed skills to support evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Deahl, S Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database can powerfully assist dentists in evidence-based practice. Three useful PubMed skills can improve the efficiency of the clinician's search: (1) Use of MeSH terms; (2) Use of Limits; (3) Use of Clinical Queries.

  20. Insertional mutation of the motor endplate disease (med) locus on mouse chromosome 15

    SciTech Connect

    Kohrman, D.C.; Plummer, N.W.; Schuster, T.

    1995-03-20

    Homozygous transgenic mice from line A4 have an early-onset progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by paralysis of the rear limbs, muscle atrophy, and lethality by 4 weeks of age. The transgene insertion site was mapped to distal chromosome 15 close to the locus motor endplate disease (med). The sequence of mouse DNA flanking the insertion site junctions was determined. A small (<20 kb) deletion was detected at the insertion site, with no evidence of additional rearrangement of the chromosomal DNA. Noncomplementation of the transgene-induced mutation and med was demonstrated in a cross with med{sup J}/ + mice. The new allele is designated med{sup TgNA4Bs}(med{sup tg}). The homologous human locus MED was assigned to chromosome 12. Synaptotagmin 1 and contactin 1 were eliminated as candidate genes for the med mutation. The transgene-induced allele provides molecular access to the med gene, whose function is required for synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and long-term survival of cerebellar Purkinje cells. 49 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  2. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  3. Formalizing MedDRA to support semantic reasoning on adverse drug reaction terms.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Cédric; Sadou, Éric; Souvignet, Julien; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Declerck, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    Although MedDRA has obvious advantages over previous terminologies for coding adverse drug reactions and discovering potential signals using data mining techniques, its terminological organization constrains users to search terms according to predefined categories. Adding formal definitions to MedDRA would allow retrieval of terms according to a case definition that may correspond to novel categories that are not currently available in the terminology. To achieve semantic reasoning with MedDRA, we have associated formal definitions to MedDRA terms in an OWL file named OntoADR that is the result of our first step for providing an "ontologized" version of MedDRA. MedDRA five-levels original hierarchy was converted into a subsumption tree and formal definitions of MedDRA terms were designed using several methods: mappings to SNOMED-CT, semi-automatic definition algorithms or a fully manual way. This article presents the main steps of OntoADR conception process, its structure and content, and discusses problems and limits raised by this attempt to "ontologize" MedDRA.

  4. Mastering CanMEDS roles in psychiatric residency: a resident's perspective.

    PubMed

    Tuhan, Isolda

    2003-05-01

    Postgraduate trainees in psychiatry are being evaluated on their proficiency at competencies that comprise the physician roles identified by the CanMEDS 2000 Project. This paper provides an overview of each CanMEDS role and its associated competencies and suggests strategies to help residents prepare for the new format of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (RCPSC) certification examination in psychiatry.

  5. Mediator MED23 regulates basal transcription in vivo via an interaction with P-TEFb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xiao; Huang, Yan; Hu, Xiangming; Liu, Runzhong; Hou, Dongming; Chen, Ruichuan; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator is a multi-subunit complex that transduces regulatory information from transcription regulators to the RNA polymerase II apparatus. Growing evidence suggests that Mediator plays roles in multiple stages of eukaryotic transcription, including elongation. However, the detailed mechanism by which Mediator regulates elongation remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 subunit controls a basal level of transcription by recruiting elongation factor P-TEFb, via an interaction with its CDK9 subunit. The mRNA level of Egr1, a MED23-controlled model gene, is reduced 4-5 fold in Med23 (-/-) ES cells under an unstimulated condition, but Med23-deficiency does not alter the occupancies of RNAP II, GTFs, Mediator complex, or activator ELK1 at the Egr1 promoter. Instead, Med23 depletion results in a significant decrease in P-TEFb and RNAP II (Ser2P) binding at the coding region, but no changes for several other elongation regulators, such as DSIF and NELF. ChIP-seq revealed that Med23-deficiency partially reduced the P-TEFb occupancy at a set of MED23-regulated gene promoters. Further, we demonstrate that MED23 interacts with CDK9 in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, these results provide the mechanistic insight into how Mediator promotes RNAP II into transcription elongation.

  6. Role of SERCA1 Truncated Isoform in the Proapoptotic Calcium Transfer from ER to Mitochondria during ER Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Mounia; Oulès, Bénédicte; Szabadkai, György; Tacine, Rachida; Rizzuto, Rosario; Paterlini-Bréchot, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Among the new players at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria interface regulating interorganelle calcium signaling, those specifically involved during ER stress are not known at present. We report here that the truncated variant of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 1 (S1T) amplifies ER stress through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP pathway. S1T, which is localized in the ER-mitochondria microdomains, determines ER Ca2+ depletion due to increased Ca2+ leak, an increased number of ER-mitochondria contact sites, and inhibition of mitochondria movements. This leads to increased Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria in both resting and stimulated conditions and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Interestingly, S1T knockdown was shown to prevent ER stress, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, and subsequent apoptosis. Thus, by bridging ER stress to apoptosis through increased ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer, S1T acts as an essential determinant of cellular fate. PMID:19061639

  7. Defect structures and optical characteristics of Er3+ ion in Er:LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yannan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Biao; Xu, Chao; Xing, Lili; Xu, Yanling

    2013-03-01

    Congruent Er:LiNbO3 crystals were grown by Czochraski method. The OH- absorption and UV-vis-near infrared absorption spectra indicated that Er3+ cluster sites were formed in LiNbO3 crystal doped with 3 mol% Er3+ ions. Studies on the stokes and anti-stokes spectra showed that the formation of Er3+ cluster sites could increase the rate of cross relaxation processes. Judd-Ofelt theory was carried out to discuss the spectral characteristics of Er3+ ions in Er:LiNbO3 crystals. Based on Füchtbauer-Ladenburg and McCumber theory, the emission cross section of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ion was calculated, and the potential laser performance was evaluated by the gain cross section spectra. Er:LiNbO3 crystal codoped with Zn2+ ions was also grown to discuss the relation between the defect structure and optical characteristics of Er3+ ion.

  8. ER trapping reveals Golgi enzymes continually revisit the ER through a recycling pathway that controls Golgi organization

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Satpute-Krishnan, Prasanna; Seo, Arnold Y.; Burnette, Dylan T.; Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Whether Golgi enzymes remain localized within the Golgi or constitutively cycle through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is unclear, yet is important for understanding Golgi dependence on the ER. Here, we demonstrate that the previously reported inefficient ER trapping of Golgi enzymes in a rapamycin-based assay results from an artifact involving an endogenous ER-localized 13-kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP13) competing with the FKBP12-tagged Golgi enzyme for binding to an FKBP-rapamycin binding domain (FRB)-tagged ER trap. When we express an FKBP12-tagged ER trap and FRB-tagged Golgi enzymes, conditions precluding such competition, the Golgi enzymes completely redistribute to the ER upon rapamycin treatment. A photoactivatable FRB-Golgi enzyme, highlighted only in the Golgi, likewise redistributes to the ER. These data establish Golgi enzymes constitutively cycle through the ER. Using our trapping scheme, we identify roles of rab6a and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in Golgi enzyme recycling, and show that retrograde transport of Golgi membrane underlies Golgi dispersal during microtubule depolymerization and mitosis. PMID:26598700

  9. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, William W.

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  10. Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, York E.; Setzler, Scott D.; Snell, Kevin J.; Budni, Peter A.; Pollak, Thomas M.; Chicklis, E. P.

    2004-05-01

    We report a resonantly fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1645 nm, exhibiting 43% optical efficiency and 54% incident slope efficiency and emitting 7-W average power when repetitively Q switched at 10 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the best performance (conversion efficiency and average power) obtained from a bulk solid-state Q-switched erbium laser. At a 1.1-kHz pulse repetition frequency the laser produces 3.4-mJ pulses with a corresponding peak power of 162 kW. Frequency doubling to produce 822.5-nm, 4.7-kW pulses at 10 kHz was performed to demonstrate the laser's utility.

  11. ER@CEBAF: Modeling code developments

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Roblin, Y.

    2016-04-13

    A proposal for a multiple-pass, high energy, energy-recovery experiment using CEBAF is under preparation in the frame of a JLab-BNL collaboration. In view of beam dynamics investigations regarding this project, in addition to the existing model in use in Elegant a version of CEBAF is developed in the stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi, Beyond the ER experiment, it is also planned to use the latter for the study of polarization transport in the presence of synchrotron radiation, down to Hall D line where a 12 GeV polarized beam can be delivered. This Note briefly reports on the preliminary steps, and preliminary outcomes, based on an Elegant to Zgoubi translation.

  12. Spectroscopy of the Er-doped lithium tetraborate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padlyak, B. V.; Lisiecki, R.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption, and luminescence (emission and excitation) spectra as well as luminescence kinetics of the Er-doped glasses with Li2B4O7 composition were investigated and analysed. The high optical quality glasses with Li2B4O7:Er composition containing 0.5 and 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were obtained from corresponding polycrystalline compound by standard glass synthesis. The EPR spectroscopy in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and optical spectroscopy at 300 K show that the Er impurity is incorporated into the network of Li2B4O7 glass as Er3+ (4f11, 4I15/2) ions, exclusively. The local structure of the Er3+ luminescence centres in Li sites of the glass network is proposed. Based on the standard Judd-Ofelt theory the oscillator strength (Pcal) and experimental oscillator strength (Pexp) for observed absorption transitions as well as phenomenological intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) for Er3+ centres in the Li2B4O7:Er glass containing 1.0 mol.% Er2O3 were calculated. Spectroscopic parameters of relevance for laser applications, including emission probabilities of transitions (Wr), branching ratios (β), and radiative lifetime (τrad) have been calculated for main observed emission transitions of the Er3+ centres in Li2B4O7:Er glasses. Experimental and calculated lifetimes were compared and quantum efficiency (η) for green (4S3/2 → 4I15/2 transition) and infrared (4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition) emission bands has been estimated.

  13. David A. Wright in ER-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-27

    David A. Wright is associate director for Center Operations at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. He was formerly director of Flight Operations. He is also a research pilot, flying NASA's ER-2 and T-38. The ER-2s are civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft and carry scientific instruments to study the Earth during worldwide deployments. Wright has more than 4,500 hours in six different aircraft. He held the position of deputy director of the Airborne Science Program at Dryden from 2002 until 2004. Wright came to Dryden after retiring from the U.S. Air Force as a lieutenant colonel. His final assignment was to the Joint Staff J3, Directorate of Operations at the Pentagon from November 1996 until August 1999. Prior to the Pentagon assignment, he served as commander of the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron at Beale Air Force Base near Marysville, Calif., the unit responsible for training all U-2 pilots. He was the operations officer for one the largest U-2 operations in history, flying combat missions against Iraq and managing an unprecedented U-2 flying schedule during the 1991 Desert Storm conflict. He was selected for the Air Force U-2 program in 1987 following duty as an aircraft commander in the E-3A AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) aircraft. Wright was a T-38 instructor for three years at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, following completion of pilot training in 1978. He graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1977 with a Bachelor of Science in mathematics and computer science. Wright earned a Master of Arts in Adult Education from Troy State University, Montgomery, Ala., in 1987, and a Master of Science in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College, Newport, R.I., in 1995.

  14. Using PubMed in radiology: Ten useful tips for radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Vasumathi

    2011-01-01

    PubMed contains a bibliography of articles published in around 4800 journals. It combines MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE (articles from 1960, going back till the 1940s). PubMed is updated on a daily basis; to include both published and ahead of print references. As a radiologist, one can use PubMed to track several journals, track topics, search for specific topics, verify incomplete or incorrect references, store one's own publications, and save selected references; one can also create filters depending on one's own search needs for some regular topics. This article provides some key background knowledge on searching PubMed and also describes some features that are often left unexplored. The PubMed site has undergone many changes in the last few years and this article will update users on the current features. PMID:22013289

  15. Using PubMed in radiology: Ten useful tips for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sriganesh, Vasumathi

    2011-07-01

    PubMed contains a bibliography of articles published in around 4800 journals. It combines MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE (articles from 1960, going back till the 1940s). PubMed is updated on a daily basis; to include both published and ahead of print references. As a radiologist, one can use PubMed to track several journals, track topics, search for specific topics, verify incomplete or incorrect references, store one's own publications, and save selected references; one can also create filters depending on one's own search needs for some regular topics. This article provides some key background knowledge on searching PubMed and also describes some features that are often left unexplored. The PubMed site has undergone many changes in the last few years and this article will update users on the current features.

  16. Introducing treatment strategy for cerebellar ataxia in mutant med mice: combination of acetazolamide and 4-aminopyridine.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Samira; Abbasi, Ataollah; Sarbaz, Yashar

    2014-02-01

    Purkinje neurons are the sole output neuron of the cerebellar cortex, and they generate high-frequency action potentials. Electrophysiological dysfunction of Purkinje neurons causes cerebellar ataxia. Mutant med mice have the lack of expression of the Scn8a gene. This gene encodes the NaV1.6 protein. In med Purkinje neurons, regular high-frequency firing is slowed, and med mice are ataxic. The aim of this study was to propose the neuroprotective drugs which could be useful for ataxia treatment in med mice, and to investigate the neuroprotective effects of these drugs by simulation. Simulation results showed that Kv4 channel inhibitors and BK channel activators restored the normal electrophysiological properties of the med Purkinje neurons. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) and acetazolamide (ACTZ) were proposed as neuroprotective drugs for Kv4 channel inhibitor and BK channel activator, respectively.

  17. Mars2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2): Science Objectives and Instrument Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Karlgaard, Chris; Wright, Henry

    2015-01-01

    NASAs exploration and technology roadmaps call for capability advancements in Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems to enable increased landed mass, a higher landing precision, and a wider planetary access. It is also recognized that these ambitious EDL performance goals must be met while maintaining a low mission risk in order to pave the way for future human missions. As NASA is engaged in developing new EDL systems and technologies via testing at Earth, instrumentation of existing Mars missions is providing valuable engineering data for performance improvement, risk reduction, and an improved definition of entry loads and environment. The most notable recent example is the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) suite hosted by Mars Science Laboratory for its entry in Aug 2012. The MEDLI suite provided a comprehensive dataset for Mars entry aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and thermal protection system (TPS) performance. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, and transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has demonstrated extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. The presentation will introduce a follow-on MEDLI instrumentation suite (called MEDLI2) that is being developed for Mars-2020 mission. MEDLI2 has an enhanced scope that includes backshell instrumentation, a wider forebody coverage, and instruments that specifically target supersonic aerodynamics. Similar to MEDLI, MEDLI2 uses thermal plugs with embedded thermocouples and ports through the TPS to measure surface pressure. MEDLI2, however, also includes heat flux sensors in the backshell and a low range pressure transducer to measure afterbody pressure.

  18. Towards a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.

  19. Retrieving Clinical Evidence: A Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for Quick Clinical Searches

    PubMed Central

    Bejaimal, Shayna AD; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. Objective To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Methods We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Results Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). Conclusions For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles. PMID:23948488

  20. Enabling multi-level relevance feedback on PubMed by integrating rank learning into DBMS

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Finding relevant articles from PubMed is challenging because it is hard to express the user's specific intention in the given query interface, and a keyword query typically retrieves a large number of results. Researchers have applied machine learning techniques to find relevant articles by ranking the articles according to the learned relevance function. However, the process of learning and ranking is usually done offline without integrated with the keyword queries, and the users have to provide a large amount of training documents to get a reasonable learning accuracy. This paper proposes a novel multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, called RefMed, which supports both ad-hoc keyword queries and a multi-level relevance feedback in real time on PubMed. Results RefMed supports a multi-level relevance feedback by using the RankSVM as the learning method, and thus it achieves higher accuracy with less feedback. RefMed "tightly" integrates the RankSVM into RDBMS to support both keyword queries and the multi-level relevance feedback in real time; the tight coupling of the RankSVM and DBMS substantially improves the processing time. An efficient parameter selection method for the RankSVM is also proposed, which tunes the RankSVM parameter without performing validation. Thereby, RefMed achieves a high learning accuracy in real time without performing a validation process. RefMed is accessible at http://dm.postech.ac.kr/refmed. Conclusions RefMed is the first multi-level relevance feedback system for PubMed, which achieves a high accuracy with less feedback. It effectively learns an accurate relevance function from the user’s feedback and efficiently processes the function to return relevant articles in real time. PMID:20406504

  1. A study on PubMed search tag usage pattern: association rule mining of a full-day PubMed query log.

    PubMed

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi

    2013-01-09

    The practice of evidence-based medicine requires efficient biomedical literature search such as PubMed/MEDLINE. Retrieval performance relies highly on the efficient use of search field tags. The purpose of this study was to analyze PubMed log data in order to understand the usage pattern of search tags by the end user in PubMed/MEDLINE search. A PubMed query log file was obtained from the National Library of Medicine containing anonymous user identification, timestamp, and query text. Inconsistent records were removed from the dataset and the search tags were extracted from the query texts. A total of 2,917,159 queries were selected for this study issued by a total of 613,061 users. The analysis of frequent co-occurrences and usage patterns of the search tags was conducted using an association mining algorithm. The percentage of search tag usage was low (11.38% of the total queries) and only 2.95% of queries contained two or more tags. Three out of four users used no search tag and about two-third of them issued less than four queries. Among the queries containing at least one tagged search term, the average number of search tags was almost half of the number of total search terms. Navigational search tags are more frequently used than informational search tags. While no strong association was observed between informational and navigational tags, six (out of 19) informational tags and six (out of 29) navigational tags showed strong associations in PubMed searches. The low percentage of search tag usage implies that PubMed/MEDLINE users do not utilize the features of PubMed/MEDLINE widely or they are not aware of such features or solely depend on the high recall focused query translation by the PubMed's Automatic Term Mapping. The users need further education and interactive search application for effective use of the search tags in order to fulfill their biomedical information needs from PubMed/MEDLINE.

  2. OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed’s unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms (‘textwords’), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed’s unique heart failure literature. Methods We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter’s MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as ‘textwords’). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this ‘lost set’. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed’s unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter’s performance in this database. Results The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and

  3. Apoptosis/Necrosis Induction by Ultraviolet, in ER Positive and ER Negative Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shokrollahi Barough, Mahdieh; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Barati, Mehdi; Pak, Fatemeh; Kokhaei, Parviz; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure has been one of the major inducers of apoptosis. UV exposure has caused pyrimidine dimers and DNA fragmentation which might lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis signals activation. UV induced apoptosis has investigated in MDA-MB 468 as an ER negative breast adenocarcinoma and MCF-7 as an ER positive breast cancer cell line. Apoptosis induction rate by UV might be different in these two types of cells due to different biological characteristics of the cell. Objectives: In this paper we have evaluated serial dose of UV-B exposure on ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines and its effect on apoptosis or necrosis induction in these cells. Materials and Methods: MDA-MB468 and MCF-7 cell lines have cultured for 24 hours and UV exposure has carried out at 290 nm at dose of 154 J/m2 to 18 KJ/m2 using UV lamp. UV exposed cells have incubated in cell culture condition for 24 or 48 hours following UV exposure and the cells have stained and analyzed by flow cytometry for apoptosis evaluation by Annexin V/PI method. Results: Apoptosis rate (PI and Annexin V double positive cells) after 24 hours incubation was higher in 24 hours in comparison with 48 hours incubation in both cell lines. The frequency of PI positive MDA-MB 468 cells was higher than PI and Annexin V double positive cells after 48 hours. PI positive MDA-MB 468 cells were significantly higher than MCF-7 cells in 24 hours incubation time. Conclusions: The results have shown that MDA-MB 468 cells were more sensitive to UV exposure and DNA fragmentation and necrosis pathway was dominant in these cells. PMID:26855725

  4. Reaction Diffusion Modeling of Calcium Dynamics with Realistic ER Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Means, Shawn; Smith, Alexander J.; Shepherd, Jason; Shadid, John; Fowler, John; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J. H.; Mazel, Tomas; Smith, Gregory D.; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a finite-element model of mast cell calcium dynamics that incorporates the endoplasmic reticulum's complex geometry. The model is built upon a three-dimensional reconstruction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from an electron tomographic tilt series. Tetrahedral meshes provide volumetric representations of the ER lumen, ER membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane. The reaction-diffusion model simultaneously tracks changes in cytoplasmic and ER intraluminal calcium concentrations and includes luminal and cytoplasmic protein buffers. Transport fluxes via PMCA, SERCA, ER leakage, and Type II IP3 receptors are also represented. Unique features of the model include stochastic behavior of IP3 receptor calcium channels and comparisons of channel open times when diffusely distributed or aggregated in clusters on the ER surface. Simulations show that IP3R channels in close proximity modulate activity of their neighbors through local Ca2+ feedback effects. Cytoplasmic calcium levels rise higher, and ER luminal calcium concentrations drop lower, after IP3-mediated release from receptors in the diffuse configuration. Simulation results also suggest that the buffering capacity of the ER, and not restricted diffusion, is the predominant factor influencing average luminal calcium concentrations. PMID:16617072

  5. Stability and optical activity of Er implanted MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. V.; da Silva, R. C.; Alves, E.; Soares, M. J.; Monteiro, T.; González, R.

    2004-06-01

    MgO single crystals were implanted with Er ions to a fluence of 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The implantations were carried out at room temperature with an energy of 150 keV. Despite the large amount of damage produced during the implantation the Er ions are incorporated in optically active sites. Photoluminescence measurements at 77 K reveal the presence of the fingerprint Er 3+ emission at 1.54 μm due to 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition. Angular scans performed through the main axes show complete overlap between Er and magnesium curves. Subsequent annealing in a reducing atmosphere at 1000 °C for 1 h leads to the recovery of the implantation damage. During the annealing the fraction of Er in Mg sites decreases from 100% to 53%. This movement of the Er ions is accompanied by changes in the optical spectra. Further annealing for 2 h at the same temperature leads to more precipitation of Er into random sites, whereby the fraction of Er in Mg lattice sites decreases to 20% while there is an enhancement of optical activity.

  6. Operational durability of a giant ER valve for Braille display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luning, Xu; Han, Li; Yufei, Li; Shen, Rong; Kunquan, Lu

    2017-05-01

    The compact configuration of giant ER (electrorheological) valves provides the possibility of realizing a full-page Braille display. The operational durability of ER valves is a key issue in fulfilling a Braille display. A giant ER valve was used to investigate the variations in pressure drops and critical pressure drops of the valves over a long period under some typical operational parameters. The results indicate that neither the pressure drops nor critical pressure drops of giant ER valves show apparent deterioration over a long period. Without ER fluid exchange, a blockage appears in the channel of the valve because the ER structures induced by an external electric field cannot be broken by the Brownian motion of hydraulic oil molecules when the external electric field is removed. Forcing ER fluid flow is an effective and necessary method to keep the channel of the valve unblocked. Thus the operational durability of the valve using giant ER fluids is able to meet the demands of Braille display.

  7. The Electrocardiogram of an ER Patient With Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, Arunkumar; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2011-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an essential investigation in the evaluation of chest pain in the emergency room (ER). Correct interpretation of the ECG findings, determines the diagnosis and management strategy. This ECG spot diagnosis will improve the skills of the residents and physicians working in ER.

  8. CW YVO4:Er Laser with Resonant Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Matrosov, V. N.; Tolstik, N. A.; Kuleshov, N. V.

    2015-05-01

    The lasing characteristics of a YVO4:Er laser with resonant pumping in the 1.5-1.6 μm range are studied. Lasing is obtained at λ = 1603 nm with a differential efficiency of up to 61%. YVO4:Er crystals are found to offer promise for use in efficient resonantly (in-band) pumped lasers.

  9. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-11-04

    ER-2 tail number 706, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.

  10. Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-03-02

    ER-2 tail number 709, was one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft were platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They were also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation.

  11. Abrupt dependence of ultrafast extrinsic photoconductivity on Er fraction in GaAs:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. R.; Mingardi, A.; Zhang, W.-D.; Feldman, A. D.; Harvey, T. E.; Mirin, R. P.

    2017-07-01

    We present a study of room-temperature, ultrafast photoconductivity associated with a strong, sub-bandgap, resonant absorption around λ = 1550 nm in three MBE-grown GaAs epitaxial layers heavily doped with Er at concentrations of ≈2.9 × 1018 (control sample), 4.4 × 1020, and 8.8 × 1020 cm-3, respectively. Transmission-electron microscopy reveals lack of nanoparticles in the control sample, but abundant in the other two samples in the 1.0-to-3.0-nm-diameter range, which is consistent with the previously known results. We measure very high photoelectron (Hall) mobility (2.57 × 103 cm2/V-s) and terahertz power (46 μW average) in the 4.4 × 1020 sample, but then, an abrupt decay in these properties as well as the dark resistivity is seen as the Er doping is increased just 2 times. The Er doping has little effect on the picosecond-scale, 1550-nm photocarrier lifetime.

  12. Stability and subsidence across Rome (Italy) in 2011-2013 based on COSMO-SkyMed Persistent Scatterer Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesca, Cigna; Lasaponara, Rosa; Nicola, Masini; Pietro, Milillo; Deodato, Tapete

    2015-04-01

    Ground stability of the built environment of the city of Rome in central Italy has been extensively investigated in the last years by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), with focus on deformation of both the monuments of the historic centre (e.g., [1-2]) and the southern residential quarters (e.g., [3]). C-band ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ASAR time series deformation analyses brought evidence of overall stability across the town centre, except for localized deformation concentrated in areas geologically susceptible to instability (e.g. western slope of the Palatine Hill), whereas clear subsidence patterns were detected over the compressible alluvial deposits lying in proximity of the Tiber River. To retrieve an updated picture of stability and subsidence across the city, we analysed a time series of 32 COSMO-SkyMed StripMap HIMAGE, right-looking, ascending mode scenes with an image swath of 40 km, 3-m resolution and HH polarization, acquired between 21 March 2011 and 10 June 2013, with repeat cycle mostly equal to 16 days. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing was undertaken by using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) as detailed in [4], and more than 310,000 radar targets (i.e. PS) were identified, with an average target density of over 2,800 PS/km2. The performance of StaMPS to retrieve satisfactory PS coverage over the urban features of interest was assessed against their orientation and visibility to the satellite Line-Of-Sight, as well as their conservation history throughout the biennial investigated (2011-2013). In this work we discuss effects due to local land cover and land use by exploiting the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) European Urban Atlas (IT001L) of Rome at 1:10,000 scale, thereby also evaluating the capability of the X-band to spatially resolve targets coinciding with man-made structures in vegetated areas. Based on this assessment, our PSI results highlight those environmental

  13. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  14. ER-2 Observations of Precipitation Systems During TRMM-LBA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Tian, Lin; Geerts, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 performed numerous flights over precipitation systems in Rondonia, Brazil. The ER-2 carried a payload including the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR), the Lightning Instrument Package, and other instruments. This presentation will overview the types of data sets collected during TRMM-LBA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite-Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) with particular emphasis on EDOP measurements. Numerous cases of convection ranging from weak to very intense, were overflown by the ER-2. Two TRMM overpasses were coincident with ER-2 flights which allowed for intercomparisons between the Precipitation Radiometer (PR), EDOP, and the S-POL (S-band Polarimetric Radar) and TOGA (Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere) ground-based radars. Preliminary results from this comparison will be presented as well as initial selection of case studies and efforts involving vertical motions in convection.

  15. SR/ER-mitochondrial local communication: calcium and ROS.

    PubMed

    Csordás, György; Hajnóczky, György

    2009-11-01

    Mitochondria form junctions with the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER), which support signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways and affect organellar distribution. Recently, these junctions have received attention because of their pivotal role in mediating calcium signal propagation to the mitochondria, which is important for both ATP production and mitochondrial cell death. Many of the SR/ER-mitochondrial calcium transporters and signaling proteins are sensitive to redox regulation and are directly exposed to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria and SR/ER. Although ROS has been emerging as a novel signaling entity, the redox signaling of the SR/ER-mitochondrial interface is yet to be elucidated. We describe here possible mechanisms of the mutual interaction between local Ca(2+) and ROS signaling in the control of SR/ER-mitochondrial function.

  16. Erbium induced magnetic properties of Er/ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandraiah, C.; Divya, A.; Sivakumar, K.; Krishnaiah, G.

    2016-05-23

    Pure and Er (2, 3 and 4 at. %) doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of Zn, O and Er in the synthesized samples. The XRD measurements confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO for all samples. The crystallite size of the samples decreases with increase in concentration and are compatible with the results that obtained from TEM analysis.EPR spectra exhibitedferromagnetic signals the substitution Er The possible ferromagnetic zinc interstials signal is appeared for 2 at. % of Er dopant. The room temperature ferromagnetic is observed only for 2 at. % of Er while all other samples exhibiting weak ferromagnetic nature.

  17. The ER in 3D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jonathan R; Voeltz, Gia K

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contacts with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. The 3D structure of the ER is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. In this review, we describe some of the factors that are known to regulate ER structure and discuss how this structural organization and the dynamic nature of the ER membrane network allow it to perform its many different functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhance the Er3+ Upconversion Luminescence by Constructing NaGdF4:Er3+@NaGdF4:Er3+ Active-Core/Active-Shell Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiangfu; Meng, Lan; Bu, Yanyan; Yan, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    NaGdF4:12%Er3+@NaGdF4: x%Er3+ ( x = 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) active-core/active-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were peculiarly synthesized via a delayed nucleation pathway with procedures. The phase, shape, and size of the resulting core-shell NPs are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Coated with a NaGdF4:10%Er3+ active shell around the NaGdF4:12%Er3+ core NPs, a maximum luminescent enhancement of about 336 times higher than the NaGdF4:12%Er3+ core-only NPs was observed under the 1540 nm excitation. The intensity ratio of green to red was adjusted through the construction of the core-shell structure and the change of Er3+ concentration in the shell. By analyzing the lifetimes of emission bands and exploring the energy transition mechanism, the giant luminescence enhancement is mainly attributed to the significant increase in the near-infrared absorption at 1540 nm and efficient energy migration from the shell to core.

  19. Enhance the Er(3+) Upconversion Luminescence by Constructing NaGdF4:Er(3+)@NaGdF4:Er(3+) Active-Core/Active-Shell Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiangfu; Meng, Lan; Bu, Yanyan; Yan, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    NaGdF4:12%Er(3+)@NaGdF4:x%Er(3+) (x = 0, 6, 8, 10, and 12) active-core/active-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were peculiarly synthesized via a delayed nucleation pathway with procedures. The phase, shape, and size of the resulting core-shell NPs are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Coated with a NaGdF4:10%Er(3+) active shell around the NaGdF4:12%Er(3+) core NPs, a maximum luminescent enhancement of about 336 times higher than the NaGdF4:12%Er(3+) core-only NPs was observed under the 1540 nm excitation. The intensity ratio of green to red was adjusted through the construction of the core-shell structure and the change of Er(3+) concentration in the shell. By analyzing the lifetimes of emission bands and exploring the energy transition mechanism, the giant luminescence enhancement is mainly attributed to the significant increase in the near-infrared absorption at 1540 nm and efficient energy migration from the shell to core.

  20. ER stress and cancer: The FOXO forkhead transcription factor link.

    PubMed

    Alasiri, Glowi; Fan, Lavender Yuen-Nam; Zona, Stefania; Goldsbrough, Isabella Galeno; Ke, Hui-Ling; Auner, Holger Werner; Lam, Eric Wing-Fai

    2017-05-29

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle with central roles in maintaining proteostasis due to its involvement in protein synthesis, folding, quality control, distribution and degradation. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen causes 'ER stress' and threatens overall cellular proteostasis. To restore ER homeostasis, cells evoke an evolutionarily conserved adaptive signalling and gene expression network collectively called the 'unfolded protein response (UPR)', a complex biological process which aims to restore proteostasis. When ER stress is overwhelming and beyond rectification, the normally pro-survival UPR can shift to induce cell termination. Emerging evidence from mammalian, fly and nematode worm systems reveals that the FOXO Forkhead proteins integrate upstream ER stress and UPR signals with the transcriptional machinery to decrease translation, promote cell survival/termination and increase the levels of ER-resident chaperones and of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) components to restore ER homeostasis. The high rates of protein synthesis/translation associated with cancer cell proliferation and metabolism, as well as mutations resulting in aberrant proteins, also induce ER stress and the UPR. While the pro-survival side of the UPR underlies its ability to sustain and promote cancers, its apoptotic functions can be exploited for cancer therapies by offering the chance to 'flick the proteostatic switch'. To this end, further studies are required to fully reevaluate the roles and regulation of these UPR signalling molecules, including FOXO proteins and their targets, in cancer initiation and progression as well as the effects on inhibiting their functions in cancer cells. This information will help to establish these UPR signalling molecules as possible therapeutic targets and putative biomarkers in cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Med19 promotes bone metastasis and invasiveness of bladder urothelial carcinoma via bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Feng, Chen-chen; Ding, Guan-xiong; Meng, Dong-liang; Ding, Qiang; Fang, Zu-jun; Xia, Guo-wei; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Hao-wen

    2013-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) remained a major health problem. Med19 was related to tumor growth of BCa. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were reported to be critical in bone metastasis of cancer. We therefore investigated the relations between Med19 and BMPs in BCa and their effect on bone metastasis of BCa. Bladder cancer cell lines were cultured and interfered with Med19 shRNA and control. Expressions of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-9, and BMP-15 were studied between 2 groups. Fifty-two BCa samples were included for immunohistochemical staining of Med19 and BMP-2. Expressions were scored and studied statistically. Invasiveness was studied with Transwell assay. Silencing or Med19 in BCa cells induced altered expressions of BMPs. Increased expressions of BMP-1, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7, and BMP-15 and decreased expressions of BMP-2, BMP-5, and BMP-9 were noticed, but only BMP-2 reached statistical significance. Expressions of Med19 and BMP-2 were significantly higher in cases with bone metastasis and were positively correlated in cases with bone metastasis and muscle invasion. Med19 is a critical factor involved in the invasiveness and promotion of bone metastasis of BCa, possibly via BMP-2.

  2. Quantity and quality assessment of randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice in PubMed.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tatsuo; Takayama, Hisako; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2010-07-01

    To find current high-quality evidence for orthodontic practice within a reasonable time, we tested the performance of a PubMed search. PubMed was searched using publication type randomized controlled trial and medical subject heading term "orthodontics" for articles published between 2003 and 2007. The PubMed search results were compared with those from a hand search of four orthodontic journals to determine the sensitivity of PubMed search. We evaluated the precision of the PubMed search result and assessed the quality of individual randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. Sensitivity and precision were 97.46% and 58.12%, respectively. In PubMed, of the 277 articles retrieved, 161 (58.12%) were randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, and 115 of the 161 articles (71.42%) were published in four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics. Assessment by the Jadad scale revealed 60 high-quality randomized controlled trials on orthodontic practice, of which 45 (75%) were published in these four journals. PubMed is a highly desirable search engine for evidence-based orthodontic practice. To stay current and get high-quality evidence, it is reasonable to look through four orthodontic journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, The Angle Orthodontist, the European Journal of Orthodontics, and the Journal of Orthodontics.

  3. MED12 Alterations in Both Human Benign and Malignant Uterine Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Gaëlle; Croce, Sabrina; Ribeiro, Agnès; Lagarde, Pauline; Velasco, Valérie; Neuville, Agnès; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Floquet, Anne; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Chibon, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between benign uterine leiomyomas and their malignant counterparts, i.e. leiomyosarcomas and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), is still poorly understood. The idea that a leiomyosarcoma could derive from a leiomyoma is still controversial. Recently MED12 mutations have been reported in uterine leiomyomas. In this study we asked whether such mutations could also be involved in leiomyosarcomas and STUMP oncogenesis. For this purpose we examined 33 uterine mesenchymal tumors by sequencing the hot-spot mutation region of MED12. We determined that MED12 is altered in 66.6% of typical leiomyomas as previously reported but also in 11% of STUMP and 20% of leiomyosarcomas. The mutated allele is predominantly expressed in leiomyomas and STUMP. Interestingly all classical leiomyomas exhibit MED12 protein expression while 40% of atypical leiomyomas, 50% of STUMP and 80% of leiomyosarcomas (among them the two mutated ones) do not express MED12. All these tumors without protein expression exhibit complex genomic profiles. No mutations and no expression loss were identified in an additional series of 38 non-uterine leiomyosarcomas. MED12 mutations are not exclusive to leiomyomas but seem to be specific to uterine malignancies. A previous study has suggested that MED12 mutations in leiomyomas could lead to Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation however our immunohistochemistry results show that there is no association between MED12 status and β-catenin nuclear/cytoplasmic localization. Collectively, our results show that subgroups of benign and malignant tumors share a common genetics. We propose here that MED12 alterations could be implicated in the development of smooth muscle tumor and that its expression could be inhibited in malignant tumors. PMID:22768200

  4. LIS Validation at The KSC-ER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Krider, E. P.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Each year, thousands of lightning electric field disturbances are recorded and archived by the ground-based field mill (FM) network at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and USAF Eastern Range (ER). The FM network has a range of several tens of kilometers, and a digital accuracy of 4 V/m. It has provided years of continuous lightning warning surveillance to KSC-ER space vehicle launch operations, and has undergone one major hardware upgrade since its inception in the early 1970s. Additional KSC lightning warning data is derived from a multistation radio time-of-arrival system called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR). This system provides the location and space-time mapping of individual lightning channels (for both cloud and ground flashes). Additional lightning information for the KSC region is available from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and a 5-station local magnetic direction finder network. In this study, all of the above mentioned data are used to ground-validate data derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The FM network can be used to retrieve the charges deposited in a lightning flash, provided the flash is within a few kilometers of the FM Network. Although it is rare to obtain a TRMM overpass of thunderstorms hat occur this close to the FM network, seven such storms have been found and examined in this study. We compare the times and locations of LIS optical pulses with the spatial-temporal character of the FM, LDAR, and magnetic direction finder data. We also inter-compare LIS optical pulse amplitude data with FM-derived charge magnitudes, number of LDAR radio sources, and peak current values from magnetic direction finder data. Generally speaking, LIS lightning locations and times agree favorably with the KSC ground-based systems for most cases, but little correlation appears to exist between optical pulse amplitude and any of charge, # LDAR sources, peak current

  5. LIS Validation at The KSC-ER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Krider, E. P.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Each year, thousands of lightning electric field disturbances are recorded and archived by the ground-based field mill (FM) network at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and USAF Eastern Range (ER). The FM network has a range of several tens of kilometers, and a digital accuracy of 4 V/m. It has provided years of continuous lightning warning surveillance to KSC-ER space vehicle launch operations, and has undergone one major hardware upgrade since its inception in the early 1970s. Additional KSC lightning warning data is derived from a multistation radio time-of-arrival system called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR). This system provides the location and space-time mapping of individual lightning channels (for both cloud and ground flashes). Additional lightning information for the KSC region is available from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and a 5-station local magnetic direction finder network. In this study, all of the above mentioned data are used to ground-validate data derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The FM network can be used to retrieve the charges deposited in a lightning flash, provided the flash is within a few kilometers of the FM Network. Although it is rare to obtain a TRMM overpass of thunderstorms hat occur this close to the FM network, seven such storms have been found and examined in this study. We compare the times and locations of LIS optical pulses with the spatial-temporal character of the FM, LDAR, and magnetic direction finder data. We also inter-compare LIS optical pulse amplitude data with FM-derived charge magnitudes, number of LDAR radio sources, and peak current values from magnetic direction finder data. Generally speaking, LIS lightning locations and times agree favorably with the KSC ground-based systems for most cases, but little correlation appears to exist between optical pulse amplitude and any of charge, # LDAR sources, peak current

  6. Dielectronic recombination of Er-like tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    Theoretical studies of dielectronic recombination, a very important process for both atomic and plasma physics, are carried out for low-ionized Er-like W. The dielectronic recombination (DR) of the Er-like ion W6+ proceeds via electron capture into the intermediate autoionizing states of the Tm-like ion W5+ followed by the radiative decay to singly-excited bound states. In particular, energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and autoionization rates for [Cd]4f145p55l'nl, [Cd]4f145p56l''nl, [Cd]4f135p65l'nl, and [Cd]4f135p66l''nl (l'=d,f,g, l''=s,p,d,f,g, n=5-7) states in Tm-like tungsten (W5+) are calculated using the relativistic many-body perturbation theory and relativistic all-order single-double method as well as the Hartree-Fock-relativistic method (cowan code). Branching ratios relative to the first threshold and intensity factors are calculated for satellite lines. DR rate coefficients are determined for the singly-excited [Cd]4f145p6nl (n=5-7) and nonautoionizing doubly-excited [Cd]4f145p55d2, [Cd]4f135p65d2, [Cd]4f135p66s2, [Cd]4f135p65d6s, and [Cd]4f135p65d6p states. Also, contributions from the autoionizing doubly-excited [Cd]4f145p55l'nl, [Cd]4f145p56l''nl, [Cd]4f135p65l'nl, and [Cd]4f135p66l''nl states (with n up to 100), which are very important for calculating total DR rates, are estimated. Synthetic dielectronic satellite spectra from Tm-like W are simulated in a broad spectral range from 140 to 1200 Å. These relativistic calculations provide recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of W5+ ion properties useful for a variety of applications, including for fusion applications.

  7. Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence of Er3+ in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped Gd2O3 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kezhi; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Daisheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Qin, Weiping

    2011-11-01

    Under 980 nm excitation, room-temperature ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Er3+ from the 4G(9/2), 2K(13/2), and 2P(3/2) states were observed in Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanotubes, which were synthesized via a simple wet-chemical route at low temperature and ambient pressure followed by a subsequent heat treatment at 800 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited that these UV emissions came from four-photon UC processes. In the Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ nanocrystals, the energy transfers (ETs) from Yb3+ to Er3+ played important roles in populating the high-energy states of Er3+ ions. This material provides a possible candidate for building UV compact solid-state lasers or fiber lasers.

  8. Effects of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence in silicon-rich silicon oxide/Er-doped silica multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Soo; Jhe, Ji-Hong; Yang, Moon-Seung; Shin, Jung H.; Kim, Kyung Joong; Moon, Dae Won

    2006-10-30

    The effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on Er{sup 3+} luminescence is investigated by using multilayers of 2.5 nm thin SiO{sub x} (x<2) and 10 nm thin Er-doped silica (SiO{sub 2}:Er). By separating excess Si and Er atoms into separate, nanometer-thin layers, the effect of silicon nanostructure evolution on np-Si sensitized Er{sup 3+} luminescence could be investigated while keeping the microscopic Er{sup 3+} environment the same. The authors find that while the presence of np-Si is necessary for efficient sensitization, the overall quality of np-Si layer has little effect on the Er{sup 3+} luminescence. On the other hand, intrusion of np-Si into Er-doped silica layers leads to deactivation of np-Si/Er{sup 3+} interaction, suggesting that there is a limit to excess Si and Er contents that can be used.

  9. Quertle and KNALIJ: searching PubMed has never been so easy and effective.

    PubMed

    Giglia, E

    2011-12-01

    Quertle and KNALIJ are two innovative tools created to search PubMed in a easier and more effective way. They dramatically reduce time to discover meaningful results. Quertle allows a semantic search in multiple biomedical databases (PubMed included) and runs a query via relationships between concepts, so that you retrieve at ease more pertinent results and can navigate them by "key concepts". KNALIJ is a visualization tool which searches PubMed and presents the results in the form of visual, interactive maps you can zoom, scale, and explore according to new paths.

  10. A novel MED12 mutation associated with non-specific X-linked intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimojima, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The mediator complex subunit 12 gene (MED12) is responsible for an X-linked recessive intellectual disability syndrome that is characterized by dysmorphic features such as a long, narrow face and blepharophimosis, which is now recognized as an MED12-related syndrome. We identified a novel non-synonymous single-nucleotide variant, p.Ile1023Val, in a male patient with non-specific X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Our results, together with the existence of similar reports, suggest a relationship between MED12 variants and XLID. PMID:27081531

  11. Automatic Export of PubMed Citations to EndNote.

    PubMed

    London, Sue; Gurdal, Osman; Gall, Carole

    2010-04-01

    The export of MEDLINE references to EndNote can be accomplished in various ways. Unlike Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed does not have a direct export feature to EndNote. Until recently, PubMed references had to be saved as a text file to import into EndNote. Now, the automatic export of PubMed references can be done using Internet Explorer (IE) or Mozilla Firefox Web browsers. The development and teaching of seamless citation management is a value-added service to health professionals.

  12. Comparing efficiency and root surface morphology after scaling with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers.

    PubMed

    Etemadi, Ardavan; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Razavi, Fahime; Aoki, Akira; Azad, Reza Fekr; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the root morphology of teeth and efficiency of scaling after using Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers. Thirty-two periodontally hopeless teeth were extracted. The border of an appropriate calculus was marked using a diamond bur on each tooth, and the calculus was divided into two almost equal parts. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser with pulse energy of 50 mJ, power of 1 W, and energy density of 17.7 J/cm2 and an Er:YAG laser with pulse energy of 200 mJ, power of 2.4 W, and energy density of 21 J/cm2 were used to remove the calculus. The time for scaling was recorded for each group, and using stereomicroscopic analysis, the calculus remnant, carbonization, and number of craters were investigated. The mean time required for calculus removal in the Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser groups was 15.22 ± 6.18 seconds and 7.12 ± 4.11 seconds, respectively. The efficiency of calculus removal in the Er:YAG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group. Under stereomicroscope examination, no carbonization or remaining calculus was found in samples from either group, but all samples had craters. The number of craters in the Er,Cr:YSGG laser group was significantly higher than in the Er:YAG laser group. According to the parameters used and limitations of this study, there was no significant difference in efficiency per power for calculus removal between the two groups.

  13. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  14. Up Conversion Measurements in Er:YAG; Comparison with 1.6 Micrometer Laser Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reichle, Donald J.; Busch, George E.; Carrion, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Up conversion significantly affects Er:YAG lasers. Measurements performed here for low Er concentration are significantly different than reported high Er concentration. The results obtained here are used to predict laser performance and are compared with experimental results.

  15. Multi-temporal interferometric monitoring of ground deformations in Haiti with COSMO/SkyMed HIMAGE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, R.; Wasowski, J.; Chiaradia, M.; Piard, B. E.; Généa, S.

    2013-12-01

    The catastrophic Mw=7.0 shallow earthquake of 12 January 2010 that struck Haiti have led to numerous studies focused on the geodynamics of the region. In particular, the co-seismic fault mechanism of the 2010 Haiti earthquake as well as post-seismic deformations have been investigated through SAR interferometry (InSAR) techniques, thanks to the availability of satellite SAR sensors operating in different radar bands (ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO/SkyMed). Moreover, advanced multitemporal SAR interferometry (MTI) based on COSMO/SkyMED (CSK) data is well suited for the detection and monitoring of post-seismic ground or structural instabilities. Indeed, with its short revisit time (up to 4 days) CSK allows building interferometric stacks much faster than previous satellite missions, like ERS/ENVISAT. Here we report the first outcomes of the MTI investigation based on high resolution (3 m) CSK data, conducted in the framework of a scientific collaboration between the Centre National de l'Information Géo-Spatiale (CNIGS) of Haiti and the Department of Physics (DIF) of the University of Bari, Italy. We rely on a stack of 89 CSK data (image mode: HIMAGE; polarization: HH; look side: right; pass direction: ascending; beam: H4-0A) acquired by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the Port-au-Prince (PaP) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the 2010 earthquake. CSK acquisitions span the period June 2011 ÷ February 2013, which is sufficient for detecting and monitoring significant ground instabilities. The MTI results were obtained through the application of the SPINUA processing chain, a Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI)-like technique. In particular, we detected significant subsidence phenomena affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the PaP and Carrefour region. The maximum rate of subsidence movements exceed few cm/yr and this implies increasing flooding (or tsunami) hazard. Furthermore, maximum subsidence rates were

  16. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Hess, Ryan F.

    2016-09-15

    Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due to the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.

  17. Ammonia synthesis and ER-MCFC-technology - a profitable combination?

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkema, G.P.J.; Vervoort, J.; Daniels, R.J.E.; Luteijn, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Similar to stand-alone ER-MCFC power systems industrial ammonia production facilities include hydrogen-rich synthesis-gas production. Therefore, integration of ER-MCFC stacks in a conventional industrial ammonia plant was investigated. By preliminary process design calculations three promising process structures were evaluated: (1) ER-MCFC is fed by the ammonia plant`s steam-reformer; anode off-gas to firing (2) similar to structure 1; in this case the anode off-gas is redirected to the ammonia process (3) ER-MCFC is fed by ammonia-synthesis purge gas The results indicate that for options 1 and 3 a return-on-investment for the ER-MCFC of around 8% is achievable at a stack cost of $250/kW and a revenue of 7c/kWh. Option 2 is not profitable, because of the associated reduction in ammonia production. The degree of hydrogen-utilization in the ER-MCFC to be selected for maximum profit varies with the process structure and indicates that there is scope for ER-MCFC stacks which operate at low hydrogen-utilization.

  18. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Leo J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Hess, Ryan F.

    2016-09-15

    Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due to the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.

  19. ER stress induced by ionising radiation in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Pang, Xueli; Su, Yongping; Ai, Guoping; Wang, Tao

    2010-06-01

    Ionising radiation (IR) can evoke a series of biochemical events inside the cell. However, whether IR can directly induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is not clear. In our previous study, we found that there might be a causative link between IR and ER stress. In this study, we further characterised the type of ER stress induced by IR. Rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC-6 were irradiated at a dose of 10 Gy, and total RNA and proteins were harvested at indicated time points. The mRNA and protein expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94) was detected along with proteins associated with ER stress signal pathways. Our results indicated that IR induced up-regulation of ER stress marker including BiP and GRP94 at protein and mRNA levels in IEC-6 cells. Increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) and induced mRNA splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) suggested that PERK (interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PRKR) -like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) and IRE1 (inositol requirement 1) signal transduction pathways were involved in this kind of ER stress. However, the active form of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) did not change significantly in irradiated cells, which suggested that the ATF6 pathway was not involved. Thus, we concluded that IR could induce moderate ER stress directly in IEC-6 cells.

  20. Structure and Dynamics of ER: Minimal Networks and Biophysical Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei; Sparkes, Imogen; Ashwin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in live cells is a highly mobile network whose structure dynamically changes on a number of timescales. The role of such drastic changes in any system is unclear, although there are correlations with ER function. A better understanding of the fundamental biophysical constraints on the system will allow biologists to determine the effects of molecular factors on ER dynamics. Previous studies have identified potential static elements that the ER may remodel around. Here, we use these structural elements to assess biophysical principles behind the network dynamics. By analyzing imaging data of tobacco leaf epidermal cells under two different conditions, i.e., native state (control) and latrunculin B (treated), we show that the geometric structure and dynamics of ER networks can be understood in terms of minimal networks. Our results show that the ER network is well modeled as a locally minimal-length network between the static elements that potentially anchor the ER to the cell cortex over longer timescales; this network is perturbed by a mixture of random and deterministic forces. The network need not have globally minimum length; we observe cases where the local topology may change dynamically between different Euclidean Steiner network topologies. The networks in the treated cells are easier to quantify, because they are less dynamic (the treatment suppresses actin dynamics), but the same general features are found in control cells. Using a Langevin approach, we model the dynamics of the nonpersistent nodes and use this to show that the images can be used to estimate both local viscoelastic behavior of the cytoplasm and filament tension in the ER network. This means we can explain several aspects of the ER geometry in terms of biophysical principles. PMID:25099815

  1. Thermal safety of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in hard tissue removal.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Evren; Roshkind, David M; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E; Hardigan, Patrick C; Siegel, Sharon C; Thomas, James W

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the thermal safety of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers with conventional multi-use and single-use diamond burs. Thermal effect of tooth preparation is mostly evaluated through the pulp chamber because it is difficult to measure the temperature of the preparation surface. A new in vitro method was introduced to simultaneously evaluate the heat increase of the preparation surface together with the pulp chamber. Six laser and bur instrument groups were used to make standardized preparations on buccal surfaces of 60 intact third molars. The preparations removed an equal volume of hard tissue from each tooth (4 mm occluso-gingival x 8 mm mesial-distal x 1.6 mm bucco-lingual). The teeth also included tunnel preparations from the opposite (lingual) surface, exposing the pulpal axial wall (axial dentin wall in contact with the pulp chamber from the preparation surface site). An infrared thermal camera was positioned to capture the preparation surface in direct vision, while the pulpal axial wall was indirectly reflected to the thermal camera via a minimal-energy-loss mirror. Data from both surfaces were analyzed statistically using Nested Least Squares Analysis. The laser groups generated significantly lower heat compared to bur groups on the preparation surfaces. In contrast, both lasers generated greater pulpal heat increase, and the Er:YAG laser group showed significance (p < 0.0001). Lasers produced less heat on the preparation surface but more on the pulpal axial wall. However the temperature rise was less than the 5.5 degrees C threshold margin of safety.

  2. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  3. Arctic geodynamics: Arctic science and ERS-1 satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed gravity field map of the mid Arctic Ocean, spreading ridge system was produced on the basis of ERS-1 satellite altimetry data. Areas of special concern, the Barents and Kara Seas, and areas surrounding the islands of Svalbard, Frans Josef Land and Novoya Zemlya are reviewed. ERS-1 altimetry covers unique Arctic and Antarctic latitudes above 72 degrees. Before ERS-1 it was not possible to study these areas with satellite altimetry. Gravity field solutions for the Barents Sea, portions of the Arctic Ocean and the Norwegian sea are shown. The largest gravity anomalies occur along the Greenland fracture zone as well as along transform faults near Svalbard.

  4. Harvard ER-2 OH laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Anderson, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Harvard ER-2 OH instrument is scheduled to be integrated into the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft ozone payload in August 1992. Design and fabrication is presently underway. This experiment is a descendant of a balloon borne instrument designed and built in the mid-1980s. The ER-2 instrument is being designed to measure OH and HO2 as part of the NASA ozone payload for the investigation of processes controlling the concentration of stratospheric ozone. Although not specifically designed to do so, it is hoped that valid measurements of OH and HO2 can be made in the remote free troposphere with this instrument.

  5. MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events. Potential Signals of Serious Risks/New Safety Information ...

  6. [Use of PubMed to improve evidence-based medicine in routine urological practice].

    PubMed

    Rink, M; Kluth, L A; Shariat, S F; Chun, F K; Fisch, M; Dahm, P

    2013-03-01

    Applying evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice is the basis of patient-centered medicine and knowledge of accurate literature acquisition skills is necessary for informed clinical decision-making. PubMed is an easy accessible, free bibliographic database comprising over 21 million citations from the medical field, life-science journals and online books. The article summarizes the effective use of PubMed in routine urological clinical practice based on a common case scenario. This article explains the simple use of PubMed to obtain the best search results with the highest evidence. Accurate knowledge about the use of PubMed in routine clinical practice can improve evidence-based medicine and also patient treatment.

  7. Could a Monetary Perk Help Keep HIV Patients on Their Meds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients on Their Meds? Study involving $70 gift cards suggests the approach might help, but only for ... C., found that financial incentives such as gift cards could improve the likelihood that HIV patients would ...

  8. A Reminder That Meds and Grapefruit Don't Always Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... html A Reminder That Meds and Grapefruit Don't Always Mix Could be a dangerous combination, depending ... antihistamines, such as Allegra (fexofenadine). Grapefruit juice doesn't affect all drugs in the listed categories. And, ...

  9. Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163928.html Many People Don't Take Their High Blood Pressure Meds: Study Failure to follow doctors' orders leads ... 20 percent of patients seeking care for stubborn high blood pressure take all the medicine they're supposed to, ...

  10. Automatic annotation of ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Gunnar; Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Robust alignments between ICD and MedDRA are essential to enable the secondary use of clinical data for pharmacovigilance research. UMLS makes available ICD-to-MedDRA mappings, but they are only poorly specified, which introduces difficulties when exploited in an automatic way. SKOS vocabulary can help achieve quality and machine-processable mappings. We have developed an algorithm based on several simple rules which annotates automatically ICD-to-MedDRA mappings with SKOS predicates. The method was tested and evaluated on a sample of ICD-10-to MedDRA mappings extracted from UMLS. The algorithm demonstrated satisfying performances, especially for skos:exactMatch properties, which suggests that automatic methods can be used to improve the quality of terminology mappings.

  11. What Diabetics Need to Know about Over-The-Counter Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167630.html What Diabetics Need to Know About Over-the-Counter Meds Many ... or not they contain carbohydrates -- if you just need them for a few days," she said. Read ...

  12. EPA MED-DULUTH'S ECOTOX AND ECO-SSL WEB APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the USEPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic...

  13. Return of Collective Rotation in {sup 157}Er and {sup 158}Er at Ultrahigh Spin

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E. S.; Twin, P. J.; Evans, A. O.; Choy, P. T. W.; Nolan, P. J.; Pipidis, A.; Riley, M. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Simpson, J.; Appelbe, D. E.; Joss, D. T.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Ward, D.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2007-01-05

    A new frontier of discrete-line {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at ultrahigh spin has been opened in the rare-earth nuclei {sup 157,158}Er. Four rotational structures, displaying high moments of inertia, have been identified, which extend up to spin {approx}65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and bypass the band-terminating states in these nuclei which occur at {approx}45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations suggest that these structures arise from well-deformed triaxial configurations that lie in a valley of favored shell energy which also includes the triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 161-167}Lu.

  14. The Web-based CanMEDS Resident Learning Portfolio Project (WEBCAM): how we got started

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Peter; Balaa, Fady; Momoli, Franco; Martin, Louise; Found, Dorothy; Arnaout, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Summary The CanMEDS framework is ubiquitous in Canadian postgraduate medical education; however, training programs do not have a universal method of assessing competence. We set out to develop a novel portfolio that allowed trainees to generate a longitudinal record of their training and development within the framework. The portfolio provided an objective means for the residency program director to document and evaluate resident progress within the CanMEDS roles. PMID:28234618

  15. Malnutrition: role of the TwoCal HN Med Pass program.

    PubMed

    Bender, S; Pusateri, M; Cook, A; Ferguson, M; Hall, J C

    2000-12-01

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and is associated with poor outcomes. The causes and outcomes of malnutrition are discussed, and the TwoCal HN Med Pass program, designed to overcome poor dietary intake, is described. Benefits of the program, role of the pharmacist, identification of candidates for the TwoCal HN Med Pass program, and health care team roles and responsibilities are reviewed.

  16. PubMedPortable: A Framework for Supporting the Development of Text Mining Applications

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Kersten; Grüning, Björn A.; Telukunta, Kiran K.; Thomas, Philippe; Günther, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools. Therefore, an appropriate data environment is needed as a basis to combine different software solutions and to develop customised text mining applications. PubMedPortable builds a relational database and a full text index on PubMed citations. It can be applied either to the complete PubMed data set or an arbitrary subset of downloaded PubMed XML files. The software provides the infrastructure to combine stand-alone applications by exporting different data formats, e.g. BioC. The presented workflows show how to use PubMedPortable to retrieve, store, and analyse a disease-specific data set. The provided use cases are well documented in the PubMedPortable wiki. The open-source software library is small, easy to use, and scalable to the user’s system requirements. It is freely available for Linux on the web at https://github.com/KerstenDoering/PubMedPortable and for other operating systems as a virtual container. The approach was tested extensively and applied successfully in several projects. PMID:27706202

  17. PubMedPortable: A Framework for Supporting the Development of Text Mining Applications.

    PubMed

    Döring, Kersten; Grüning, Björn A; Telukunta, Kiran K; Thomas, Philippe; Günther, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools. Therefore, an appropriate data environment is needed as a basis to combine different software solutions and to develop customised text mining applications. PubMedPortable builds a relational database and a full text index on PubMed citations. It can be applied either to the complete PubMed data set or an arbitrary subset of downloaded PubMed XML files. The software provides the infrastructure to combine stand-alone applications by exporting different data formats, e.g. BioC. The presented workflows show how to use PubMedPortable to retrieve, store, and analyse a disease-specific data set. The provided use cases are well documented in the PubMedPortable wiki. The open-source software library is small, easy to use, and scalable to the user's system requirements. It is freely available for Linux on the web at https://github.com/KerstenDoering/PubMedPortable and for other operating systems as a virtual container. The approach was tested extensively and applied successfully in several projects.

  18. The Web-based CanMEDS Resident Learning Portfolio Project (WEBCAM): how we got started.

    PubMed

    Glen, Peter; Balaa, Fady; Momoli, Franco; Martin, Louise; Found, Dorothy; Arnaout, Angel

    2016-12-01

    The CanMEDS framework is ubiquitous in Canadian postgraduate medical education; however, training programs do not have a universal method of assessing competence. We set out to develop a novel portfolio that allowed trainees to generate a longitudinal record of their training and development within the framework. The portfolio provided an objective means for the residency program director to document and evaluate resident progress within the CanMEDS roles.

  19. Use of scientific social networking to improve the research strategies of PubMed readers.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Pavel; Kudryavtsev, Alexey; Ilgisonis, Ekaterina; Ponomarenko, Elena; Lisitsa, Andrey

    2016-02-18

    Keeping up with journal articles on a daily basis is an important activity of scientists engaged in biomedical research. Usually, journal articles and papers in the field of biomedicine are accessed through the Medline/PubMed electronic library. In the process of navigating PubMed, researchers unknowingly generate user-specific reading profiles that can be shared within a social networking environment. This paper examines the structure of the social networking environment generated by PubMed users. A web browser plugin was developed to map [in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms] the reading patterns of individual PubMed users. We developed a scientific social network based on the personal research profiles of readers of biomedical articles. A browser plugin is used to record the digital object identifier or PubMed ID of web pages. Recorded items are posted on the activity feed and automatically mapped to PubMed abstract. Within the activity feed a user can trace back previously browsed articles and insert comments. By calculating the frequency with which specific MeSH occur, the research interests of PubMed users can be visually represented with a tag cloud. Finally, research profiles can be searched for matches between network users. A social networking environment was created using MeSH terms to map articles accessed through the Medline/PubMed online library system. In-network social communication is supported by the recommendation of articles and by matching users with similar scientific interests. The system is available at http://bioknol.org/en/.

  20. Calcium homoeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) reduces the calcium content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers ER stress.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Sandín, Sonia; Alonso, María Teresa; García-Sancho, Javier

    2011-08-01

    CALHM1 (calcium homoeostasis modulator 1), a membrane protein with similarity to NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channels that localizes in the plasma membrane and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) of neurons, has been shown to generate a plasma-membrane Ca(2+) conductance and has been proposed to influence Alzheimer's disease risk. In the present study we have investigated the effects of CALHM1 on intracellular Ca(2+) handling in HEK-293T [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 (simian virus 40)] cells by using targeted aequorins for selective monitorization of Ca(2+) transport by organelles. We find that CALHM1 increases Ca(2+) leak from the ER and, more importantly, reduces ER Ca(2+) uptake by decreasing both the transport capacity and the Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase). As a result, the Ca(2+) content of the ER is drastically decreased. This reduction in the Ca(2+) content of the ER triggered the UPR (unfolded protein response) with induction of several ER stress markers, such as CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein], ERdj4, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa) and XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Thus CALHM1 might provide a relevant link between Ca(2+) homoeostasis disruption, ER stress and cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  1. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  2. Absorption and photoluminescence properties of Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.F.; Zhang, Q.Y.; Lee, Y.P.

    2004-11-01

    Er-doped and Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate laser glasses with various concentrations of Er and Yb were fabricated. The absorption and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured and analyzed. For the Er- doped soda-slilicate glasses, the optimum Er concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm turns out to be 0.5 at. %, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectrum increases from 18 to 26 nm, with the increase of the concentration from 0.1 to 0.8 at. %. The PL intensity of Er/Yb codoped soda-silicate glasses with an Er concentration of 0.5 at. % is enhanced approximately by four times, and the optimum Yb concentration for the PL intensity at 1536 nm is analyzed to be 3.0 at. %. The PL spectrum becomes broader with increasing the Yb concentration, up to a FWHM of 80 nm at 6.0 at. %. Yb. The relation between the absorption and PL spectra, together with the mechanism of PL broadening, has also been addressed.

  3. Electron spin resonance study of Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Elmasry, F.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Er-concentration effect in GaAs;Er,O containing charge carriers (n-type, high resistance, p-type) has been studied by X-band Electron spin resonance (ESR) at low temperature (4.7 K < T < 18 K). Observed A, B, and C types of ESR signals were identical to those observed previously in GaAs:Er,O without carrier. The local structure around Er-2O centers is not affected by carriers because similar angular dependence of g-values was observed in both cases (with/without carrier). For temperature dependence, linewidth and lineshape analysis suggested the existence of Er dimers with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of about 7 K. Moreover, drastic decrease of ESR intensity for C signal in p-type sample was observed and it correlates with the decrease of photoluminescence (PL) intensity. Possible model for the Er-2O trap level in GaAs:Er,O is discussed from the ESR and PL experimental results.

  4. Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone at the ER-Mitochondrion Interface Mediates the Mitochondrion-ER-Nucleus Signaling for Cellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus. PMID:24204710

  5. Exciting transition metal doped dilute magnetic thin films: MgO:Er and ZnO:Er

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćakıcı, T.; Sarıtaş, S.; Muǧlu, G. Merhan; Yıldırım, M.

    2017-02-01

    Erbium doped MgO and doped ZnO thin films have reasonably important properties applications in spintronic devices. These films were synthesized on glass substrates by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. In the literature there has been almost no report on preparation of MgO:Er dilute magnetic thin films by means of CSP. Because doped thin films show different magnetic behaviors, depending upon the type of magnetic material ions, concentration of them, synthesis route and experimental conditions, synthesized MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were compared to thin film properties. Optical analyses of the synthesized thin films were examined spectral absorption and transmittance measurements by UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer technique. Structural analysis of the thin films was examined by using XRD, Raman Analysis, FE-SEM, EDX and AFM techniques. Also, magnetic properties of the MgO:Er and ZnO:Er films were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) which show that diamagnetic behavior of the MgO:Er thin film and ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of the ZnO:Er film were is formed.

  6. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Antarctic Ice Sheet Grounding line migration monitoring using COSMO-SkyMed very short repeat-time SAR Interferometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, P.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Morlighem, M.; Li, X.; Salzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    We employ data from the second generation of SAR systems e.g. the Italian COSMO-SkyMed constellation and the German TanDEM-X formation to monitor the characteristics of grounding line migration using short repeat-time interferometry and accurate InSAR DEM in the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), West Antarctica. The ASE is a marine-based ice sheet with a retrograde bed containing enough ice to raise global sea level by 120 cm. Several studies have inferred the mechanical properties of portions of ASE using observationally constrained numerical models, but these studies offer only temporal snapshots of basal mechanics owing to a dearth of observational time series. Using 1-day CSK repeat pass data and TanDEM-X DEMs, we collected frequent, high-resolution grounding line measurements of Pine Island (PIG), Thwaites, Kohler and Smith glaciers spanning 2015-2016. We compare the results with ERS data spanning 1996-2011, and Sentinel-1a 2014-2015 data. We observe an ongoing, rapid 2km/yr grounding line retreat on Smith, 0.5 km/yr retreat on Pope, ongoing 1 km/yr retreat on Thwaites and PIG and a slight re-advance on Kohler since 2011. On PIG, the data reveal seawater infiltration at high tides over many km along the glacier flanks, significantly more than in 1996/2000. We attribute these infiltrations to the fast retreat of PIG over a rough bed. Such intrusion of warm water fuel the melting of basal ice at the grounding line, which provides an additional positive feedback to the glacier retreat not accounted for in models. We do not observe similar patterns on the other glaciers.

  8. GOClonto: an ontological clustering approach for conceptualizing PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-Tao; Borchert, Charles; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2010-02-01

    Concurrent with progress in biomedical sciences, an overwhelming of textual knowledge is accumulating in the biomedical literature. PubMed is the most comprehensive database collecting and managing biomedical literature. To help researchers easily understand collections of PubMed abstracts, numerous clustering methods have been proposed to group similar abstracts based on their shared features. However, most of these methods do not explore the semantic relationships among groupings of documents, which could help better illuminate the groupings of PubMed abstracts. To address this issue, we proposed an ontological clustering method called GOClonto for conceptualizing PubMed abstracts. GOClonto uses latent semantic analysis (LSA) and gene ontology (GO) to identify key gene-related concepts and their relationships as well as allocate PubMed abstracts based on these key gene-related concepts. Based on two PubMed abstract collections, the experimental results show that GOClonto is able to identify key gene-related concepts and outperforms the STC (suffix tree clustering) algorithm, the Lingo algorithm, the Fuzzy Ants algorithm, and the clustering based TRS (tolerance rough set) algorithm. Moreover, the two ontologies generated by GOClonto show significant informative conceptual structures.

  9. Software-Enabled Distributed Network Governance: The PopMedNet Experience

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Melanie; Erickson, Kyle; Wyner, Zachary; Malenfant, Jessica; Rosen, Rob; Brown, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The expanded availability of electronic health information has led to increased interest in distributed health data research networks. Distributed Research Network Model: The distributed research network model leaves data with and under the control of the data holder. Data holders, network coordinating centers, and researchers have distinct needs and challenges within this model. Software Enabled Governance: PopMedNet: The concerns of network stakeholders are addressed in the design and governance models of the PopMedNet software platform. PopMedNet features include distributed querying, customizable workflows, and auditing and search capabilities. Its flexible role-based access control system enables the enforcement of varying governance policies. Selected Case Studies: Four case studies describe how PopMedNet is used to enforce network governance models. Issues and Challenges: Trust is an essential component of a distributed research network and must be built before data partners may be willing to participate further. The complexity of the PopMedNet system must be managed as networks grow and new data, analytic methods, and querying approaches are developed. Conclusions: The PopMedNet software platform supports a variety of network structures, governance models, and research activities through customizable features designed to meet the needs of network stakeholders. PMID:27141522

  10. MED1 mediates androgen receptor splice variant induced gene expression in the absence of ligand

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Sprenger, Cynthia; Wu, Pin-Jou; Sun, Shihua; Uo, Takuma; Haugk, Kathleen; Epilepsia, Kathryn Soriano; Plymate, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) has been proposed as one of the causes of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the underlying mechanism of AR-Vs in CRPC transcriptional regulation has not been defined. A distinct transcriptome enriched with cell cycle genes, e.g. UBE2C, has been associated with AR-Vs, which indicates the possibility of an altered transcriptional mechanism when compared to full-length wild-type AR (ARfl). Importantly, a recent study reported the critical role of p-MED1 in enhancing UBE2C expression through a locus looping pattern, which only occurs in CRPC but not in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC). To investigate the potential correlation between AR-V and MED1, in the present study we performed protein co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and cell proliferation assays and found that MED1 is necessary for ARv567es induced UBE2C up-regulation and subsequent prostate cancer cell growth. Furthermore, p-MED1 is bound to ARv567es independent of full-length AR; p-MED1 has higher recruitment to UBE2C promoter and enhancer regions in the presence of ARv567es. Our data indicate that p-MED1 serves as a key mediator in ARv567es induced gene expression and suggests a mechanism by which AR-Vs promote the development and progression of CRPC. PMID:25481872

  11. MED23-associated refractory epilepsy successfully treated with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Anath C; Monfared, Nasim; Scherer, Stephen W; Marshall, Christian R; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2016-09-01

    We report a new patient with refractory epilepsy associated with a novel pathogenic homozygous MED23 variant. This 7.5-year-old boy from consanguineous parents had infantile onset global developmental delay and refractory epilepsy. He was treated with the ketogenic diet at 2.5 years of age and became seizure free on the first day. He had microcephaly and truncal hypotonia. His brain MRI showed delayed myelination and thin corpus callosum. He was enrolled in a whole exome sequencing research study, which identified a novel, homozygous, likely pathogenic (c.1937A>G; p.Gln646Arg) variant in MED23. MED23 is a regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose production. Liver-specific Med23-knockout mice showed reduced liver gluconeogenesis and lower blood glucose levels compared to control mice. This is the first patient with documented refractory epilepsy caused by a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in MED23 expanding the phenotypic spectrum. Identification of the underlying genetic defect in MED23 sheds light on the possible mechanism of complete response to the ketogenic diet in this child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MED GATA factors promote robust development of the C. elegans endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Maduro, Morris F.; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Choi, Hailey; Carranza, Francisco; Wu, Allison Chia-Yi; Rifkin, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The MED-1,2 GATA factors contribute to specification of E, the progenitor of the C. elegans endoderm, through the genes end-1 and end-3, and in parallel with the maternal factors SKN-1, POP-1 and PAL-1. END-1,3 activate elt-2 and elt-7 to initiate a program of intestinal development, which is maintained by positive autoregulation. Here, we advance the understanding of MED-1,2 in E specification. We find that expression of end-1 and end-3 is greatly reduced in med-1,2(−) embryos. We generated strains in which MED sites have been mutated in end-1 and end-3. Without MED input, gut specification relies primarily on POP-1 and PAL-1. 25% of embryos fail to make intestine, while those that do display abnormal numbers of gut cells due to a delayed and stochastic acquisition of intestine fate. Surviving adults exhibit phenotypes consistent with a primary defect in the intestine. Our results establish that MED-1,2 provide robustness to endoderm specification through end-1 and end-3, and reveal that gut differentiation may be more directly linked to specification than previously appreciated. The results argue against an “all-or-none” description of cell specification, and suggest that activation of tissue-specific master regulators, even when expression of these is maintained by positive autoregulation, does not guarantee proper function of differentiated cells. PMID:25959238

  13. MED12 is frequently mutated in breast phyllodes tumours: a study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Thike, Aye Aye; Salahuddin, Syed Ahmed; Iqbal, Jabed; Busmanis, Inny; Chong, Angela Phek Yoon; Teh, Bin Tean; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2015-09-01

    To determine the frequency of MED12 mutations in a series of 112 breast phyllodes tumours, and to correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters and survival outcomes. Phyllodes tumours from the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories. Genomic DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded phyllodes tumours was extracted, purified and subjected to ultra-deep-targeted amplicon sequencing across exon 2 of the MED12 gene. Sequencing was performed on the Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platform and bioinformatics analysis applied. Appropriate statistical analyses were carried out. There were 66 benign, 32 borderline and 14 malignant tumours, with 43 (65.1%), 21 (65.6%) and 6 (42.8%) disclosing MED12 mutations (missense, splice site, indel), respectively. For 97 cases with available follow-up, there were 10 (10.3%) recurrences. Patients with phyllodes tumours that harboured MED12 mutations experienced improved disease-free survivals, with higher recurrence likelihood in those without MED12 mutations (HR 9.99, 95% CIs 1.55 to 64.42, p=0.015). Similar to fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours show a high frequency of MED12 mutations, affirming the close biological relationship between these fibroepithelial neoplasms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent And Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Hardware Performance and Data Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Alan; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Chris; Munk, Michelle; Kuhl, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark; Antill, Chuck; Verhappen, Ron; Kutty, Prasad; White, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) hardware was a first-of-its-kind sensor system that gathered temperature and pressure readings on the MSL heatshield during Mars entry on August 6, 2012. MEDLI began as challenging instrumentation problem, and has been a model of collaboration across multiple NASA organizations. After the culmination of almost 6 years of effort, the sensors performed extremely well, collecting data from before atmospheric interface through parachute deploy. This paper will summarize the history of the MEDLI project and hardware development, including key lessons learned that can apply to future instrumentation efforts. MEDLI returned an unprecedented amount of high-quality engineering data from a Mars entry vehicle. We will present the performance of the 3 sensor types: pressure, temperature, and isotherm tracking, as well as the performance of the custom-built sensor support electronics. A key component throughout the MEDLI project has been the ground testing and analysis effort required to understand the returned flight data. Although data analysis is ongoing through 2013, this paper will reveal some of the early findings on the aerothermodynamic environment that MSL encountered at Mars, the response of the heatshield material to that heating environment, and the aerodynamic performance of the entry vehicle. The MEDLI data results promise to challenge our engineering assumptions and revolutionize the way we account for margins in entry vehicle design.

  15. Tracking Australian health and medical research expenditure with a PubMed bibliometric method.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Kumara; Bailey, Jannine; McLean, Rick

    2015-06-01

    To assess Australian health and medical research (HMR) investment returns by measuring the trends in HMR expenditure and PubMed publications by Australian authors. Bibliometric analysis collating Australian HMR expenditure reported by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian HMR publications indexed in PubMed. Similar methods were applied to data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand. From financial year 2000/01 through 2011/12, HMR investment increased by 232% from $1.49 to $4.94 billion (current prices adjusted for inflation), while PubMed publications increased by 123% from 10,696 to 23,818. The average HMR investment required for a single PubMed publication rose by 49% from $139,304 in 2000/01 to $207,364 in 2011/12. Quality analyses showed an increase in systematic reviews, cohort studies and clinical trials, and a decrease in publications in PubMed's core clinical journal collection. Comparisons with New Zealand and the United Kingdom showed that Australia has had the greatest overall percentage increase in gross publication numbers and publications per capita. Our analyses confirm that increased HMR expenditure is associated with an increase in HMR publications in PubMed. Tracking HMR investment outcomes using this method could be useful for future policy and funding decisions at a federal and specific institution level. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Direct estrogen receptor (ER) / HER family crosstalk mediating sensitivity to lumretuzumab and pertuzumab in ER+ breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Denis; Jacob, Wolfgang; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Ceppi, Maurizio; James, Ian; Hasmann, Max; Crown, John; Cervantes, Andrés; Weisser, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional cross talk between members of the human epidermal growth factor family of receptors (HER) and the estrogen receptor (ER) is believed to underlie resistance mechanisms that develop in response to treatment with anti-HER agents and endocrine therapy. We investigated the interaction between HER2, HER3 and the ER in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells transfected with human HER2, HER3, and ERα. We also investigated the additive efficacy of combination regimens consisting of anti-HER3 (lumretuzumab), anti-HER2 (pertuzumab), and endocrine (fulvestrant) therapy in vivo. Our data show that both HER2 and HER3 can directly complex with the ER and can mediate phosphorylation of the ER. Phosphorylation of the ER was only observed in cells that expressed both HER2 and ERα or in heregulin-stimulated cells that expressed both HER3 and ERα. Using a mouse xenograft model of ER+/HER2-low (HER2 immunohistochemistry 1+ or 2+ without gene amplification) human breast cancer we show that the combination of lumretuzumab and pertuzumab is highly efficacious and induces long-lasting tumor regression in vivo and adding endocrine therapy (fulvestrant) to this combination further improved efficacy. In addition, a prolonged clinical response was observed with the combination of lumretuzumab and pertuzumab in a patient with ER+/HER2-low breast cancer who had failed endocrine therapy. These preclinical data confirm that direct cross talk exists between HER2/HER3 and ER which may explain the resistance mechanisms to endocrine therapy and monoclonal antibodies that target HER2 and HER3. Our data also indicate that the triplet of anti-HER2, anti-HER3, and endocrine therapy might be an efficacious combination for treating patients with ER+/HER2-low breast cancer, which is an area of significant unmet medical need. PMID:28493933

  17. GO2PUB: Querying PubMed with semantic expansion of gene ontology terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the development of high throughput methods of gene analyses, there is a growing need for mining tools to retrieve relevant articles in PubMed. As PubMed grows, literature searches become more complex and time-consuming. Automated search tools with good precision and recall are necessary. We developed GO2PUB to automatically enrich PubMed queries with gene names, symbols and synonyms annotated by a GO term of interest or one of its descendants. Results GO2PUB enriches PubMed queries based on selected GO terms and keywords. It processes the result and displays the PMID, title, authors, abstract and bibliographic references of the articles. Gene names, symbols and synonyms that have been generated as extra keywords from the GO terms are also highlighted. GO2PUB is based on a semantic expansion of PubMed queries using the semantic inheritance between terms through the GO graph. Two experts manually assessed the relevance of GO2PUB, GoPubMed and PubMed on three queries about lipid metabolism. Experts’ agreement was high (kappa = 0.88). GO2PUB returned 69% of the relevant articles, GoPubMed: 40% and PubMed: 29%. GO2PUB and GoPubMed have 17% of their results in common, corresponding to 24% of the total number of relevant results. 70% of the articles returned by more than one tool were relevant. 36% of the relevant articles were returned only by GO2PUB, 17% only by GoPubMed and 14% only by PubMed. For determining whether these results can be generalized, we generated twenty queries based on random GO terms with a granularity similar to those of the first three queries and compared the proportions of GO2PUB and GoPubMed results. These were respectively of 77% and 40% for the first queries, and of 70% and 38% for the random queries. The two experts also assessed the relevance of seven of the twenty queries (the three related to lipid metabolism and four related to other domains). Expert agreement was high (0.93 and 0.8). GO2PUB and GoPubMed performances

  18. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The first flights of the ER-2 solar cell calibration demonstration were conducted during September-October of 2014. Three flights were performed that not only tested out the equipment and operational procedures, but also demonstrated the capability of this unique facility by conducting the first short-circuit measurements on a variety of test solar cells. Very preliminary results of these first flights were presented at the 2014 Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT) Conference in Cleveland, OH shortly following these first flights. At the 2015 Space Power Workshop, a more detailed description of these first ER-2 flights will be presented, along with the final flight data from some of the test cells that were flown and has now been reduced and corrected for ER-2 atmospheric flight conditions. Plans for ER-2 flights during the summer of 2015 will also be discussed.

  19. Opportunistic intruders: how viruses orchestrate ER functions to infect cells.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Madhu Sudhan; Bagchi, Parikshit; Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Tsai, Billy

    2016-07-01

    Viruses subvert the functions of their host cells to replicate and form new viral progeny. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been identified as a central organelle that governs the intracellular interplay between viruses and hosts. In this Review, we analyse how viruses from vastly different families converge on this unique intracellular organelle during infection, co-opting some of the endogenous functions of the ER to promote distinct steps of the viral life cycle from entry and replication to assembly and egress. The ER can act as the common denominator during infection for diverse virus families, thereby providing a shared principle that underlies the apparent complexity of relationships between viruses and host cells. As a plethora of information illuminating the molecular and cellular basis of virus-ER interactions has become available, these insights may lead to the development of crucial therapeutic agents.

  20. ERS-1 and Almaz ocean wave monitoring experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beal, R. C.; Tilley, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results from two ocean wave monitoring experiments conducted in 1991 using the high-altitude ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and the low-altitude ex-USSR Almaz 1 SAR are presented. ERS-1 imagery of the Gulf Stream supports the idea that a future wide-swath scansar will be a valuable tool for monitoring large-scale ocean dynamics at high resolution. A direct comparison of ERS-1 and Almaz 1 ocean wave spectra shows major deficiencies in the ERS-1 high range-to-velocity ratio R/V sensor that are partially resolved with the lower-altitude Almaz platform. Optimum wave imaging from space will require both a low R/V and low off-nadir angle.

  1. More Babies in Strollers, Cribs Winding Up in ER

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Strollers, Cribs Winding Up in ER: Study Concussions driving upswing, with only 1 percent of cases ... of the increase in injuries was related to concussions: The rate of concussion diagnoses more than doubled ...

  2. Opportunistic intruders: how viruses orchestrate ER functions to infect cells

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Corey Nathaniel; Tsai, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Viruses subvert the functions of their host cells to replicate and form new viral progeny. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been identified as a central organelle that governs the intracellular interplay between viruses and hosts. In this Review, we analyse how viruses from vastly different families converge on this unique intracellular organelle during infection, co-opting some of the endogenous functions of the ER to promote distinct steps of the viral life cycle from entry and replication to assembly and egress. The ER can act as the common denominator during infection for diverse virus families, thereby providing a shared principle that underlies the apparent complexity of relationships between viruses and host cells. As a plethora of information illuminating the molecular and cellular basis of virus–ER interactions has become available, these insights may lead to the development of crucial therapeutic agents. PMID:27265768

  3. Neuronal ER Stress in Axon Injury and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Selzer, Michael E.; Hu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to CNS axons result not only in Wallerian degeneration of the axon distal to the injury, but also in death or atrophy of the axotomized neurons, depending on injury location and neuron type. No method of permanently avoiding these changes has been found, despite extensive knowledge concerning mechanisms of secondary neuronal injury. The autonomous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in neurons has recently been implicated in retrograde neuronal degeneration. In addition to the emerging role of ER morphology in axon maintenance, we propose that ER stress is a common neuronal response to disturbances in axon integrity and a general mechanism for neurodegeneration. Thus manipulation of the ER stress pathway could have important therapeutic implications for neuroprotection. PMID:23955583

  4. Spectroscopic study of Er:Sm doped barium fluorotellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, A; Dwivedi, Y; Rai, S B

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we report the physical and spectroscopic properties of Er(3+), Sm(3+) and Er(3+):Sm(3+) ions codoped barium fluorotellurite (BFT) glasses. Different Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions were observed under 532 nm and 976 nm laser excitations. Energy transfer from Er(3+) ion to Sm(3+) ion was confirmed on the basis of luminescence intensity variation and decay curve analysis in both the cases. Under green (532 nm) excitation emission intensity of Sm(3+) ion bands improves whereas on NIR (976 nm) excitation new emission bands of Sm(3+) ions were observed in Er:Sm codoped samples. Ion interactions and the different energy transfer parameters were also calculated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline ErCo(2).

    PubMed

    Das, Sitikantha D; Mohapatra, Niharika; Iyer, Kartik K; Bapat, R D; Sampathkumaran, E V

    2009-07-22

    We have investigated the magnetic behavior of the nanocrystalline form of a well-known Laves phase compound, ErCo(2)-the bulk form of which has been known to undergo an interesting first-order ferrimagnetic ordering near 32 K-synthesized by high-energy ball-milling. It is found that, in these nanocrystallites, Co exhibits ferromagnetic order at room temperature, as inferred from the magnetization data. However, the magnetic transition temperature for the Er sub-lattice remains essentially unaffected suggesting the (Er)4f-Co(3d) coupling is weak on Er magnetism. The net magnetic moment as measured at high fields, for example at 120 kOe, is significantly reduced with respect to that for the bulk in the ferrimagnetically ordered state and possible reasons are outlined for this. We have also compared the magnetocaloric behavior for the bulk and for nanoparticles.

  6. Balancing ER dynamics: shaping, bending, severing, and mending membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pendin, Diana; McNew, James A.; Daga, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a multifunctional organelle composed of functionally and morphologically distinct domains. These include the relatively planar nuclear envelope and the peripheral ER, a network of sheet-like cisternae interconnected with tubules that spread throughout the cytoplasm. The ER is highly dynamic and the shape of its domains as well as their relative content are in constant flux. The multiple forces driving these morphological changes depend on the interaction between the ER and microtubules, membrane fusion and fission events and the action of proteins capable of actively shaping membranes. The interplay between these forces is ultimately responsible for the dynamic morphology of the ER, which in turn is crucial for properly executing the varied functions of this organelle. PMID:21641197

  7. Transitions of protein traffic from cardiac ER to junctional SR.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Naama H; McFarland, Timothy P; Jones, Larry R; Cala, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR) is an important and unique ER subdomain in the adult myocyte that concentrates resident proteins to regulate Ca(2+) release. To investigate cellular mechanisms for sorting and trafficking proteins to jSR, we overexpressed canine forms of junctin (JCT) or triadin (TRD) in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Protein accumulation over time was visualized by confocal fluorescence microscopy using species-specific antibodies. Newly synthesized JCTdog and TRDdog appeared by 12-24h as bright fluorescent puncta close to the nuclear surface, decreasing in intensity with increasing radial distance. With increasing time (24-48h), fluorescent puncta appeared at further radial distances from the nuclear surface, eventually populating jSR similar to steady-state patterns. CSQ2-DsRed, a form of CSQ that polymerizes ectopically in rough ER, prevented anterograde traffic of newly made TRDdog and JCTdog, demonstrating common pathways of intracellular trafficking as well as in situ binding to CSQ2 in juxtanuclear rough ER. Reversal of CSQ-DsRed interactions occurred when a form of TRDdog was used in which CSQ2-binding sites are removed ((del)TRD). With increasing levels of expression, CSQ2-DsRed revealed a novel smooth ER network that surrounds nuclei and connects the nuclear axis. TRDdog was retained in smooth ER by binding to CSQ2-DsRed, but escaped to populate jSR puncta. TRDdog and (del)TRD were therefore able to elucidate areas of ER-SR transition. High levels of CSQ2-DsRed in the ER led to loss of jSR puncta labeling, suggesting a plasticity of ER-SR transition sites. We propose a model of ER and SR protein traffic along microtubules, with prominent transverse/radial ER trafficking of JCT and TRD along Z-lines to populate jSR, and an abundant longitudinal/axial smooth ER between and encircling myonuclei, from which jSR proteins traffic.

  8. ER stress induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Lebeaupin, C; Proics, E; de Bieville, C H D; Rousseau, D; Bonnafous, S; Patouraux, S; Adam, G; Lavallard, V J; Rovere, C; Le Thuc, O; Saint-Paul, M C; Anty, R; Schneck, A S; Iannelli, A; Gugenheim, J; Tran, A; Gual, P; Bailly-Maitre, B

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of chronic liver disease is constantly increasing, owing to the obesity epidemic. However, the causes and mechanisms of inflammation-mediated liver damage remain poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an initiator of cell death and inflammatory mechanisms. Although obesity induces ER stress, the interplay between hepatic ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death signaling has not yet been explored during the etiology of chronic liver diseases. Steatosis is a common disorder affecting obese patients; moreover, 25% of these patients develop steatohepatitis with an inherent risk for progression to hepatocarcinoma. Increased plasma LPS levels have been detected in the serum of patients with steatohepatitis. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of increased plasma LPS, ER stress could be induced and lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation and hepatocyte death associated with steatohepatitis progression. In livers from obese mice, administration of LPS or tunicamycin results in IRE1α and PERK activation, leading to the overexpression of CHOP. This, in turn, activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, subsequently initiating hepatocyte pyroptosis (caspase-1, -11, interleukin-1β secretion) and apoptosis (caspase-3, BH3-only proteins). In contrast, the LPS challenge is blocked by the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA, resulting in: CHOP downregulation, reduced caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-3 activities, lowered interleukin-1β secretion and rescue from cell death. The central role of CHOP in mediating the activation of proinflammatory caspases and cell death was characterized by performing knockdown experiments in primary mouse hepatocytes. Finally, the analysis of human steatohepatitis liver biopsies showed a correlation between the upregulation of inflammasome and ER stress markers, as well as liver injury. We demonstrate here that ER stress leads to hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome pyroptotic death, thus contributing as a novel mechanism of

  9. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  10. Promoter and Cofactor Requirements for SERM-ER Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Rett syndrome . Nat. Genet. 37, 31–40. keda, K., Sato, M., Tsutsumi, O., Tsuchiya, F., Tsuneizumi, M., Emi, ., Imoto, I., Inazawa, J., Muramatsu, M., and...already found a number of novel ER associated proteins that appear to be essential for ER-mediated transcription 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF...identify long distance cis-regulatory elements, which proved successful in two of the three assessed cases, including TFF-1 and NRIP-1. This for the first

  11. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx protein in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer: specific correlation with progesterone receptor.

    PubMed

    Saji, Shigehira; Omoto, Yoko; Shimizu, Chikako; Warner, Margaret; Hayashi, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Toru; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Toi, Masakazu

    2002-09-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) (beta)cx, a splice variant of ERbeta, is a dominant repressor of ER(alpha) function. In this study we investigated the possibility that because the progesterone receptor (PR) gene is a downstream target of activated ER(alpha), in ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers, expression of ER(beta)cx would result in repression of PR. In ER(alpha)-positive MCF-7 cells, stable transfection of an ER(beta)cx expression vector resulted in reduced expression of PR without affecting ER(alpha) expression. In breast cancers, immunohistochemical evaluation of ER(alpha)-positive foci for the expression of PR and ER(beta)cx revealed a significant correlation between a PR-negative phenotype and the presence of ER(beta)cx within the foci. However, when entire lesions were evaluated by Allred scoring in 115 ER(alpha)-positive breast cancer specimens, the presence of two distinct groups of patients could be discerned. One group expressed ER(beta)cx and had very reduced levels of PR expression, as expected. The second group showed both ER(beta)cx and high levels of PR. To evaluate the role of ER(beta)cx in sensitivity to tamoxifen, 18 core needle biopsies, obtained before preoperative treatment with tamoxifen, were investigated. The results show that expression of ER(beta)cx in primary lesions correlated with a poor response to tamoxifen, especially in cancers with a low PR expression in Allred score. This is the first evidence that evaluation of ER(beta)cx along with PR may contribute to a better characterization of ER(alpha)-positive breast cancers.

  12. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-08-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  13. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-12-18

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  14. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-17

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  15. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  16. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  17. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  18. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  19. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  20. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  1. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  2. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  3. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  4. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  5. Memantine ER/Donepezil: A Review in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Greig, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    A once-daily, fixed-dose combination of memantine extended-release (ER)/donepezil 28/10 mg (Namzaric™) is available in the USA for patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) on stable memantine and donepezil therapy. The fixed-dose formulation is bioequivalent to coadministration of the individual drugs. In a 24-week, phase III trial in patients with moderate to severe AD, addition of memantine ER 28 mg once daily to stable cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, global clinical status, dementia behaviour and semantic processing ability, although between-group differences on a measure of daily function did not significantly differ. In subgroup analyses in donepezil-treated patients, add-on memantine ER was more effective than add-on placebo on measures of cognition, dementia behaviour and semantic processing, although there were no significant between-group differences on measures of global clinical status and daily function. Memantine ER plus ChEI combination therapy was generally well tolerated in the phase III trial, with diarrhoea, dizziness and influenza occurring at least twice as often with add-on memantine ER as add-on placebo in donepezil-treated patients. Thus, memantine ER plus donepezil combination therapy is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for patients with moderate to severe AD. The fixed-dose combination is potentially more convenient than coadministration of the individual agents.

  6. Oceanographic results from analysis of ERS-1 altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Chambers, D. P.; Peterson, G. E.; Ries, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Large scale dynamic ocean topography and its variations were observed using ERS-1 radar altimeter measurements. The altimeter measurements analyzed are primarily from the ESA ocean product (OPR02) and from the Interim Geophysical Data Records (IGDR) generated by NOAA from the fast delivery (FD) data during the ERS-1 35 day repeat orbit phase. The precise orbits used for the dynamic topography solution are computed using dual satellite crossover measurements from ERS-1 and TOPEX (Topology Ocean Experiment)/Poseidon (T/P) as additional tracking data, and using improved models and constants which are consistent with T/P. Analysis of the ERS-1 dynamic topography solution indicates agreement with the T/P solution at the 5 cm root mean square level, with regional differences as large as 15 cm tide gauges at the 8 to 9 cm level. There are differences between the ERS-1 OPR02 and IGDR determined dynamic topography solutions on the order of 5 cm root mean square. Mesoscale oceanic variability time series obtained using collinear analysis of the ERS-1 altimeter data show good qualitative agreement when compared with the T/P results.

  7. Reference threshold levels for an ER-3A insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Frank, T; Vavrek, M J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain normal hearing thresholds for an ER-3A insert earphone as a contribution for future standardization and for comparison with previous studies and interim ANSI and ISO insert earphone reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (RETSPLs). Hearing thresholds were obtained on each ear of 48 normal-hearing subjects from 125 to 8000 Hz using ER-3A and TDH-49P earphones referenced to a Bruel and Kjaer DB-0138 HA-2 and NBS-9A acoustic coupler, respectively. The mean unadjusted and adjusted ER-3A thresholds were in very good agreement with the mean thresholds averaged over eight other studies. Further, the mean adjusted ER-3A thresholds were in very good agreement with the interim ANSI RETSPLs while the mean unadjusted ER-3A thresholds were slightly higher than the ISO RETSPLs. Also, mean ER-3A thresholds averaged over a nine study data base were in closer agreement with the interim ANSI than the ISO RETSPLS. Overall, the interim ANSI insert earphone RETSPLs were recommended for clinical use.

  8. A model for the generation and interconversion of ER morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Tom; Klemm, Robin W.; Romano, Fabian B.; Wang, Songyu; Vaughan, Joshua; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Kozlov, Michael M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms different morphologies composed of tubules and sheets. Proteins such as the reticulons shape the ER by stabilizing the high membrane curvature in cross-sections of tubules and sheet edges. Here, we show that membrane curvature along the edge lines is also critical for ER shaping. We describe a theoretical model that explains virtually all observed ER morphologies. The model is based on two types of curvature-stabilizing proteins that generate either straight or negatively curved edge lines (R- and S-type proteins). Dependent on the concentrations of R- and S-type proteins, membrane morphologies can be generated that consist of tubules, sheets, sheet fenestrations, and sheet stacks with helicoidal connections. We propose that reticulons 4a/b are representatives of R-type proteins that favor tubules and outer edges of sheets. Lunapark is an example of S-type proteins that promote junctions between tubules and sheets. In a tubular ER network, lunapark stabilizes three-way junctions, i.e., small triangular sheets with concave edges. The model agrees with experimental observations and explains how curvature-stabilizing proteins determine ER morphology. PMID:25404289

  9. Herp enhances ER-associated protein degradation by recruiting ubiquilins

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Eunmin; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2008-05-02

    ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control system of ER, which eliminates misfolded proteins by proteasome-dependent degradation and ensures export of only properly folded proteins from ER. Herp, an ER membrane protein upregulated by ER stress, is implicated in regulation of ERAD. In the present study, we show that Herp interacts with members of the ubiquilin family, which function as a shuttle factor to deliver ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation. Knockdown of ubiquilin expression by small interfering RNA stabilized the ERAD substrate CD3{delta}, whereas it did not alter or increased degradation of non-ERAD substrates tested. CD3{delta} was stabilized by overexpressed Herp mutants which were capable of binding to ubiquilins but were impaired in ER membrane targeting by deletion of the transmembrane domain. Our data suggest that Herp binding to ubiquilin proteins plays an important role in the ERAD pathway and that ubiquilins are specifically involved in degradation of only a subset of ubiquitinated targets, including Herp-dependent ERAD substrates.

  10. Laser performance of in-band pumped Er : LiYF4 and Er : LiLuF4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kurilchik, S. V.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Nizamutdinov, A. S.; Korableva, S. L.; Semashko, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Spectroscopic properties of Er : LiLuF4 and Er : LiYF4 crystals in the spectral region near 1.5 μm and the lasing characteristics of these crystals under in-band pumping at a wavelength of 1522 nm are studied. With the Er : LiLuF4 crystal, the maximum slope efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power was 44% at a wavelength of 1609 nm. Continuous-wave operation of an inband pumped Er : LiYF4 laser is obtained for the first time. The output power at a wavelength of 1606 nm was 58 mW with a slope efficiency of 21%.

  11. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2009-10-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments.

  12. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A.

    2007-09-01

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  13. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users’ search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1,539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1,396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments. PMID:19162232

  14. An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER.

    PubMed

    Markgraf, Daniel F; Klemm, Robin W; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Rapoport, Tom A

    2014-01-16

    Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p) facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG degradation and synthesis, promoting the rapid relocalization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bond strength of composites on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Christian; Gutknecht, Norbert

    1999-02-01

    In an in vitro study the bond strength of composite materials on Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-radiated enamel was examined. The results achieved on enamel surfaces conditioned conventionally using the acid etching method served as a control. On 80 extracted cariesfree third molars an enamel area of 4 X 4 mm was conditioned with three different systems. The Er:YAG laser was used at pulse frequencies of 8 Hz, 10 Hz, 12 Hz and 15 Hz using an energy of 120 mJ at each setting. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used at the settings of 20 Hz/50 mJ, 20 Hz/100 mJ and 20 Hz/150 mJ. The repetition rate for this device is constantly 20 Hz. In the reference group 10 teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. In order to be able to perform the tensile tests under standard conditions metal brackets were placed on the conditioned surfaces. The 'Orthodontic-Bonding-System' was used as an adhesive system. The brackets were pulled off from the etched surfaces vertically to the tooth using a tensile testing machine. The results confirmed the highest bond strengths in the group of enamel surfaces which have been conditioned with acid etching gel. The bond strength of the Er:YAG laser (8, 10 and 12 Hz)- and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (20 Hz/150 mJ)-conditioned enamel surfaces was not significantly lower.

  16. Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+ (4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Bradley, William M.; Perez, John J.; Gruber, John B.; Zandi, Bahram; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Trussell, C. Ward; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-03-01

    Spectroscopic and laser properties of three different Er3+-doped garnet systems are characterized by employing the Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis. The three garnet hosts are Y3Al5O12 (YAG), Y3Sc2Ga3O12 (YSGG), and Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG). The JO model has been applied to the room temperature absorption intensities of Er3+ (4f11) transitions to establish the so-called JO intensity parameters: Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 in the three garnet hosts. The intensity parameters are used to determine the radiative decay rates (emission probabilities of transitions) and branching ratios of the Er3+ transitions from the excited state J manifolds to the lower-lying J' manifolds. The predicted decay rates and branching ratios of these Er3+ transitions in YAG, YSGG, and GGG hosts are compared. From the radiative decay rates, the radiative lifetimes of the Er3+ excited states are determined in the three garnets and are also compared. We also report the spectroscopic quality factors, Ω4/Ω6, obtained for the three garnets. The quantum efficiencies of the 4I13/2→4I15/2 Er3+ transition in YAG, YSGG, and GGG are determined to be ˜79%, 82%, and 85%, respectively.

  17. mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin and ER stressor tunicamycin induce differential patterns of ER-mitochondria coupling

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; López-Crisosto, Camila; Parra, Valentina; Rodriguez-Peña, Marcelo; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake takes place at contact points between the ER and mitochondria, and represents a key regulator of many cell functions. In a previous study with HeLa cells, we showed that ER-to-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer increases during the early phase of ER stress induced by tunicamycin as an adaptive response to stimulate mitochondrial bioenergetics. It remains unknown whether other types of stress signals trigger similar responses. Here we observed that rapamycin, which inhibits the nutrient-sensing complex mTORC1, increased ER-mitochondria coupling in HeLa cells to a similar extent as did tunicamycin. Interestingly, although global responses to both stressors were comparable, there were notable differences in the spatial distribution of such changes. While tunicamycin increased organelle proximity primarily in the perinuclear region, rapamycin increased organelle contacts throughout the entire cell. These differences were paralleled by dissimilar alterations in the distribution of regulatory proteins of the ER-mitochondria interface, heterogeneities in mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, and the formation of domains within the mitochondrial network with varying mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Collectively, these data suggest that while increasing ER-mitochondria coupling appears to represent a general response to cell stress, the intracellular distribution of the associated responses needs to be tailored to meet specific cellular requirements. PMID:27808250

  18. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    SciTech Connect

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-06-25

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-L{alpha}, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm{sup 2} UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  19. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET.Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway.

  20. The MedCLIVAR program and the climate of the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Gacic, M.; Gomis, G.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Giorgi, F.; Planton, S.; Trigo, R.; Theocharis, A.; Tsimplis, M. N.; Ulbrich, U.; Xoplaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    MedCLIVAR has become an independent platform for scientific discussion, the exchange of information and the coordination of activities across scientific groups around the Mediterranean. The scientific objects of the programme include past climate variability, connections between the Mediterranean and global climate, the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level, feedbacks on the global climate system, and the regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. A strength of the MedCLIVAR programme is the development of a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of Mediterranean climate, which includes atmospheric, marine and terrestrial components at multiple time scales, covering the range from paleo-reconstructions to future climate scenarios. MedCLIVAR has promoted scientific dissemination with many publication and by producing two books, which review the climate-related knowledge of the Mediterranean basin, one published at the beginning of the project and the second just recently finalized. Over these years, MedCLIVAR (www.medclivar.eu) has held 6 workshops and 2 schools, assigned 31 young scientist exchange grants and 7 senior scientist short visits, sponsored or co-sponsored 11 scientific meetings and organized annual sessions during the European Geophysical Union general assembly. A systematic archive of observations and model data simulations on the Mediterranean Climate, in order to both share data across the scientific community and ensure the data availability for 10 years, is presently being organized at the WDCC (http://cera-www.dkrz.de/CERA/MedCLIVAR.html)

  1. C-Med 100, a hot water extract of Uncaria tomentosa, prolongs lymphocyte survival in vivo.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Ch; Pero, R W; Ivars, F

    2003-01-01

    Water extracts of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa, a vine indigenous to South America, has been used for generations as an "immuno modulator". To understand the basis of this immuno modulatory effect we fed mice in their drinking water with C-Med 100, which is a commercially available water extract from Uncaria tomentosa. We found a dose-dependent increase in spleen cell numbers in the supplemented mice, but the proportions of B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, and memory lymphocytes were normal. However, there were no detectable changes of the lymphoid architecture of the spleen even after long-term treatment. Further, when C-Med 100 treatment was interrupted the cellularity returned to normal level within four weeks. The increased number of lymphocytes was most likely not due to increased production because C-Med 100 did not have any significant effect on precursor cells nor on the accumulation of recent thymic emigrants in the spleen. We conclude that accumulation is most likely due to prolonged cell survival, because adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that C-Med 100 treatment significantly prolonged lymphocyte survival in peripheral lymphoid organs, without increasing their proliferation rate. Since the accumulation was reversible and without detectable pathological effects, these results suggest the use of C-Med 100 as a potential agent for clinically accelerating the recovery of patients from leukopenia.

  2. Observing floods from space: Experience gained from COSMO-SkyMed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdicca, N.; Pulvirenti, L.; Chini, M.; Guerriero, L.; Candela, L.

    2013-03-01

    The COSMO-SkyMed mission offers a unique opportunity to obtain all weather radar images characterized by short revisit time, thus being useful for flood evolution mapping. The COSMO-SkyMed system has been activated several times in the last few years in occasion of flood events all over the world in order to provide very high resolution X-band SAR images useful for flood detection purposes. This paper discusses the major outcomes of the experience gained, within the framework of the OPERA Pilot Project funded by the Italian Space Agency, from using COSMO-SkyMed data for the purpose of near real time generation of flood maps. A review of the mechanisms which determine the imprints of the inundation on the radar images and of the fundamental simulation tools able to predict these imprints and help image interpretation is provided. The approach developed to process the data and to generate the flood maps is also summarized. Then, the paper illustrates the experience gained with COSMO-SkyMed by describing and discussing a number of significant examples. These examples demonstrate the potential of the COSMO-SkyMed system and the suitability of the approach developed for generating the final products, but they also highlight some critical aspects that require further investigations to improve the reliability of the flood maps.

  3. ProMED-mail: 22 years of digital surveillance of emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Malwina; Madoff, Lawrence C

    2017-05-01

    ProMED-mail (ProMED) was launched in 1994 as an email service to identify unusual health events related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and toxins affecting humans, animals and plants. It is used daily by public health leaders, government officials at all levels, physicians, veterinarians and other healthcare workers, researchers, private companies, journalists and the general public. Reports are produced and commentary provided by a global team of subject matter experts in a variety of fields including virology, parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, veterinary and plant disease specialists. ProMED operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and has over 83 000 subscribers, representing every country in the world. Additionally, ProMED disseminates information via its website and through social media channels such as Twitter and Facebook as well as through RSS feeds. Over the last 22 years, it has been the first to report on numerous major and minor disease outbreaks including SARS, MERS, Ebola and the early spread of Zika. ProMED is transparent, apolitical, open to all and free of charge, making it an important and longstanding contributor to global health surveillance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET. Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway PMID:27242035

  5. Chemical discrimination between dC and 5MedC via their hydroxylamine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Martin; Lercher, Lukas; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the methylated nucleobase 5MedC in CpG islands is a key factor that determines gene silencing. False methylation patterns are responsible for deteriorated cellular development and are a hallmark of many cancers. Today genes can be sequenced for the content of 5MedC only with the help of the bisulfite reagent, which is based exclusively on chemical reactivity differences established by the additional methyl group. Despite intensive optimization of the bisulfite protocol, the method still has specificity problems. Most importantly ∼95% of the DNA analyte is degraded during the analysis procedure. We discovered that the reagent O-allylhydroxylamine is able to discriminate between dC and 5MedC. The reagent, in contrast to bisulfite, does not exploit reactivity differences but gives directly different reaction products. The reagent forms a stable mutagenic adduct with dC, which can exist in two states (E versus Z). In case of dC the allylhydroxylamine adduct switches into the E-isomeric form, which generates dC to dT transition mutations that can easily be detected by established methods. Significantly, the 5MedC-adduct adopts exclusively the Z-isomeric form, which causes the polymerase to stop. O-allylhydroxylamine does allow differentiation between dC and 5MedC with high accuracy, leading towards a novel and mild chemistry for methylation analysis. PMID:20813757

  6. PosMed: Ranking genes and bioresources based on Semantic Web Association Study.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuko; Kobayashi, Norio; Yoshida, Yuko; Doi, Koji; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Nishikata, Koro; Matsushima, Akihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishii, Manabu; Takatsuki, Terue; Bhatia, Rinki; Khadbaatar, Zolzaya; Watabe, Hajime; Masuya, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, OMIM, pathways, co-expressions, molecular interactions and ontology terms. Since 2005, PosMed has long been used for in silico positional cloning studies to infer candidate disease-responsible genes existing within chromosomal intervals. PosMed is redesigned as a workbench to discover possible functional interpretations for numerous genetic variants found from exome sequencing of human disease samples. We also show that the association search engine enhances the value of mouse bioresources because most knockout mouse resources have no phenotypic annotation, but can be associated inferentially to phenotypes via genes and biomedical documents. For this purpose, we established text-mining rules to the biomedical documents by careful human curation work, and created a huge amount of correct linking between genes and documents. PosMed associates any phenotypic keyword to mouse resources with 20 public databases and four original data sets as of May 2013.

  7. Software-Enabled Distributed Network Governance: The PopMedNet Experience.

    PubMed

    Davies, Melanie; Erickson, Kyle; Wyner, Zachary; Malenfant, Jessica; Rosen, Rob; Brown, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The expanded availability of electronic health information has led to increased interest in distributed health data research networks. The distributed research network model leaves data with and under the control of the data holder. Data holders, network coordinating centers, and researchers have distinct needs and challenges within this model. The concerns of network stakeholders are addressed in the design and governance models of the PopMedNet software platform. PopMedNet features include distributed querying, customizable workflows, and auditing and search capabilities. Its flexible role-based access control system enables the enforcement of varying governance policies. Four case studies describe how PopMedNet is used to enforce network governance models. Trust is an essential component of a distributed research network and must be built before data partners may be willing to participate further. The complexity of the PopMedNet system must be managed as networks grow and new data, analytic methods, and querying approaches are developed. The PopMedNet software platform supports a variety of network structures, governance models, and research activities through customizable features designed to meet the needs of network stakeholders.

  8. Structural Analysis of the QCM Aboard the ER-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Phyllis D.; Bainum, Peter M.; Xing, Guangqian

    1997-01-01

    As a result of recent supersonic transport (SST) studies on the effect they may have on the atmosphere, several experiments have been proposed to capture and evaluate samples of the stratosphere where SST's travel. One means to achieve this is to utilize the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) installed aboard the ER-2, formerly the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The QCM is a cascade impactor designed to perform in-situ, real-time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors at an altitude of 60,000 - 70,000 feet. The ER-2 is primarily used by NASA for Earth resources to test new sensor systems before they are placed aboard satellites. One of the main reasons the ER-2 is used for this flight experiment is its capability to fly approximately twelve miles above sea level (can reach an altitude of 78,000 feet). Because the ER-2 operates at such a high altitude, it is of special interest to scientists interested in space exploration or supersonic aircraft. Some of the experiments are designed to extract data from the atmosphere around the ER-2. For the current flight experiment, the QCM is housed in a frame that is connected to an outer pod that is attached to the fuselage of the ER-2. Due to the location of the QCM within the housing frame and the location of the pod on the ER-2, the pod and its contents are subject to structural loads. In addition to structural loads, structural vibrations are also of importance because the QCM is a frequency induced instrument. Therefore, a structural analysis of the instrument within the frame is imperative to determine if resonance and/or undesirable deformations occur.

  9. The Implantation Of MeV Er Into Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, H. B.; Klein, P. B.; Mrstik, B. J.; Ingram, David C.

    1985-04-01

    The rare earth (RE) doping of III-V compounds and Si is currently of interest due to the potential development of these materials for LED's and electrically injected lasers which operate in the near infrared (1-3 pm). Er and Yb have been studied extensively, and have been incorporated into semiconductor hosts either during growth or by subsequent implantation. Implantation is of interest because of the greater degree of flexibility it affords for device fabrication in an integrated format. The use of conventional implantation energies is hampered by the large mass of the rare earths which restricts the range and creates a high density of displacement damage. In this paper, we discuss the use of MeV implantation for the incorporation of Er in Si. Rutherford backscattering (RBS), photoluminescence (PL) and electrical measurements have been carried out on Si substrates implanted with Er at MeV energies. The RBS data show that 1E13cm-2 1 MeV implants do not produce a distinct damage peak and are well annealed by a 2 900°C 30 min anneal. They also show that MeV implants of 2.5E14cm-2 produce a thick amor-phous layer while 5E13cm-implants result in a damage peak which is 50% of the random. A characteristic 806 meV Er PL peak is present in all the samples annealed at 700°C or higher. The integrated Er PL intensity is found to decrease with increasing anneal temperature, and may be related to interstitial Er3+. All samples annealed at 650°C or higher also show an n-type layer associated with the implanted Er. The carrier concentration is a maximum for 700°C anneals and decreases monotonically for higher anneal temperatures.

  10. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ER STRESS TO LIVER DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Dara, Lily; Ji, Cheng; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway which is activated to regulate protein synthesis and restore homeostatic equilibrium when the cell is stressed from increased client protein load or the accumulation of unfolded or malfolded proteins. Once activated, this signaling pathway can either result in the recovery of homeostasis, , or can activate a cascade of events which ultimately result in cell death. The UPR/ER stress response spectrum and its interplay with other cellular organelles play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease in secretory cells rich in endoplasmic reticulum, such as hepatocytes. Over the past two decades the contribution of ER stress to various forms of liver diseases has been examined. Robust support for a contributing as opposed to a secondary role for ER stress response is seen in the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, ischemia reperfusion injury and cholestatic models of liver disease. The exact direction of the cause and effect relationship between modes of cell injury and ER stress remains elusive. It is apparent that a complex interplay exists between ER stress response, conditions that promote it, and those that result from it. A vicious cycle in which ER stress promotes inflammation, cell injury and steatosis and in which steatogenesis, inflammation and cell injury aggravate ER stress seems to be at play. It is perhaps the nature of such a vicious cycle that is the key pathophysiologic concept. Therapeutic approaches aimed at interrupting the cycle may dampen the stress response and the ensuing injury. PMID:21384408

  11. The widow(er)'s limit provision of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Weaver, D A

    Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as his or her retirement benefit. Over time, arguments were made that a widow(er) should be treated as generously as his or her spouse was. The 1972 amendments to the Social Security Act allowed for a widow(er) to receive a full PIA, subject to actuarial reductions if the widow(er) benefit was claimed before the normal retirement age (NRA) and subject to a new provision of the law commonly referred to as the widow(er)'s limit. Generally, the widow(er)'s limit specifies that if a worker received reduced retirement benefits (because the worker claimed benefits before the NRA), then the worker's widow(er) cannot receive a monthly benefit equal to the full PIA. Rather, the widow(er)'s benefit is generally limited to the amount the worker would receive if he or she was still alive. The limit provision appears to be motivated by the overall intent of the 1972 Congress to pay a benefit to a widow(er) that was comparable with what the worker received. A number of changes to the limit provision have been discussed. This article looks at the following options: Abolishing the limit, Raising the limit by requiring that it never be set below the average PIA among all retired-worker beneficiaries. Adjusting the limit for some widow(er)s--that is, only persons who are widowed before the NRA (the ARLA option), Making a simpler adjustment to the limit by abolishing it for persons who are widowed before age 62 (the SARLA option), and A proposal by Robert J. Myers that would make modest adjustments to the limit for cases in which the worker died before the NRA. The most fundamental change--abolishing the limit--would increase benefits

  12. Effects of Y3+/Er3+ ratio on the 2.7 μm emission of Er3+ ions in oxyfluoride glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Chao; Xia, Mengling; Wang, Jing; Han, Jianjun; Xie, Jun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2016-04-01

    Y3+/Er3+ ions co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics were investigated to realize efficient 2.7 μm emission. Incorporation of Er3+ ions into the fluoride nanocrystals was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction patterns, absorption spectra, emission spectra and Judd-Ofelt analysis. With an increase in the Y3+/Er3+ ratio, radiative lifetime, quantum efficiency and emission cross section of the 2.7 μm emission from Er3+ ions were greatly improved, due to the reduced effective concentration of Er3+ ions and suppressed cross relaxation processes among Er3+ ions in the fluoride nanocrystals. Compared to other Er3+-doped glasses, Y3+/Er3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics showed a promising potential for gain medium.

  13. TeleMed: Wide-area, secure, collaborative object computing with Java and CORBA for healthcare

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed computing is becoming commonplace in a variety of industries with healthcare being a particularly important one for society. The authors describe the development and deployment of TeleMed in a few healthcare domains. TeleMed is a 100% Java distributed application build on CORBA and OMG standards enabling the collaboration on the treatment of chronically ill patients in a secure manner over the Internet. These standards enable other systems to work interoperably with TeleMed and provide transparent access to high performance distributed computing to the healthcare domain. The goal of wide scale integration of electronic medical records is a grand-challenge scale problem of global proportions with far-reaching social benefits.

  14. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  15. Lessons learned from building the iMED intelligent medical search engine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Searching for medical information on the Web has become highly popular, but it remains a challenging task because searchers are often uncertain about their exact medical situations and unfamiliar with medical terminology. To address this challenge, we have built an intelligent medical Web search engine called iMed. iMed introduces and extends expert system technology into the search engine domain. It uses medical knowledge and an interactive questionnaire to help searchers form queries. This paper reports the lessons we learned from building the iMed system. We believe that many of these lessons can be applied to other medical search engines as well. We systematically discuss important issues in the new field consumer-centric intelligent medical search, including input interface, output interface, search system, medical knowledge base, help system, and testing.

  16. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  17. MedTxting: Learning based and Knowledge Rich SMS-style Medical Text Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Houston, Thomas K.; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    In mobile health (M-health), Short Message Service (SMS) has shown to improve disease related self-management and health service outcomes, leading to enhanced patient care. However, the hard limit on character size for each message limits the full value of exploring SMS communication in health care practices. To overcome this problem and improve the efficiency of clinical workflow, we developed an innovative system, MedTxting (available at http://medtxting.askhermes.org), which is a learning-based but knowledge-rich system that compresses medical texts in a SMS style. Evaluations on clinical questions and discharge summary narratives show that MedTxting can effectively compress medical texts with reasonable readability and noticeable size reduction. Findings in this work reveal potentials of MedTxting to the clinical settings, allowing for real-time and cost-effective communication, such as patient condition reporting, medication consulting, physicians connecting to share expertise to improve point of care. PMID:23304328

  18. Enriching PubMed Related Article Search with Sentence Level Co-citations

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nam; Alves, Pedro; Ma, Shuangge

    2009-01-01

    PubMed related article links identify closely related articles and enhance our ability to navigate the biomedical literature. They are derived by calculating the word similarity between two articles, relating articles with overlapping word content. In this paper, we propose to enrich PubMed with a new type of related article link based on citations within a single sentence (i.e. sentence level co-citations or SLCs). Using different similarity metrics, we demonstrated that articles linked by SLCs are highly related. We also showed that only half of SLCs are found among PubMed related article links. Additionally, we discuss how the citing sentence of an SLC explains the connection between two articles. PMID:20351935

  19. MedEvi: retrieving textual evidence of relations between biomedical concepts from Medline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Jae; Pezik, Piotr; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2008-06-01

    Search engines running on MEDLINE abstracts have been widely used by biologists to find publications that are related to their research. The existing search engines such as PubMed, however, have limitations when applied for the task of seeking textual evidence of relations between given concepts. The limitations are mainly due to the problem that the search engines do not effectively deal with multi-term queries which may imply semantic relations between the terms. To address this problem, we present MedEvi, a novel search engine that imposes positional restriction on occurrences matching multi-term queries, based on the observation that terms with semantic relations which are explicitly stated in text are not found too far from each other. MedEvi further identifies additional keywords of biological and statistical significance from local context of matching occurrences in order to help users reformulate their queries for better results. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tc-test/textmining/medevi/

  20. MedReach: building an Area Health Education Center medical information outreach system for northwest Ohio.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Victoria; Hartmann, Jonathan; Ronau, Theodore

    2002-07-01

    In collaboration with regional partners in northwest Ohio, the Area Health Education Center (AHEC) program at the Medical College of Ohio (MCO) at Toledo is reaching out to underserved areas, helping to provide educational opportunities to health care professionals in these communities. This paper describes the development of MedReach, a medical information outreach system that connects regional AHEC sites to MCO via the Internet. MedReach provides physicians and other health care professionals access and support to search computerized textbooks and databases for current information on medical diagnoses, treatments, and research. A unique aspect of the MedReach project is that users are able to receive personal help with information retrieval by calling or emailing MCO's outreach librarian. Periodically, the AHEC program and the Mulford Library at MCO also sponsor an educational program, titled "Medical Applications of Computers," for regional practitioners. Current feedback on both the medical information outreach system and the educational program has been positive.

  1. Technical Note: minimal access surgery for cochlear implantation with MED-EL devices.

    PubMed

    Mann, Wolf J; Gosepath, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Minimally invasive techniques have been described for cochlear implant surgery, but so far this had not been the case for Med-EL devices. To describe a newly developed minimal access approach for the implantation of Med-EL devices and report our results after up to 1 year of follow-up in 52 patients. The use of a minimally invasive approach without raising a flap or extensive drilling of a bony well was feasible in all 52 patients of this series. It shortened the surgical time to an average of 45 min and there were no specific postoperative complications. The average follow-up of 8.4 months was uneventful with the implants well covered and fixed in their position. The described approach therefore appears to be a safe, time- and cost-effective alternative to the standard procedure in cochlear implant surgery using Med-EL devices.

  2. ER bodies in plants of the Brassicales order: biogenesis and association with innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryohei T.; Yamada, Kenji; Bednarek, Paweł; Nishimura, Mikio; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms highly organized network structures composed of tubules and cisternae. Many plant species develop additional ER-derived structures, most of which are specific for certain groups of species. In particular, a rod-shaped structure designated as the ER body is produced by plants of the Brassicales order, which includes Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses and characterization of A. thaliana mutants possessing a disorganized ER morphology or lacking ER bodies have provided insights into the highly organized mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique ER structures. The accumulation of proteins specific for the ER body within the ER plays an important role in the formation of ER bodies. However, a mutant that exhibits morphological defects of both the ER and ER bodies has not been identified. This suggests that plants in the Brassicales order have evolved novel mechanisms for the development of this unique organelle, which are distinct from those used to maintain generic ER structures. In A. thaliana, ER bodies are ubiquitous in seedlings and roots, but rare in rosette leaves. Wounding of rosette leaves induces de novo formation of ER bodies, suggesting that these structures are associated with resistance against pathogens and/or herbivores. ER bodies accumulate a large amount of β-glucosidases, which can produce substances that potentially protect against invading pests. Biochemical studies have determined that the enzymatic activities of these β-glucosidases are enhanced during cell collapse. These results suggest that ER bodies are involved in plant immunity, although there is no direct evidence of this. In this review, we provide recent perspectives of ER and ER body formation in A. thaliana, and discuss clues for the functions of ER bodies. We highlight defense strategies against biotic stress that are unique for the Brassicales order, and discuss how ER structures could contribute to these strategies. PMID

  3. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 μs at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 μm diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was

  4. Genomics of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. Strain MED134▿†

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Coll-Lladó, Montserrat; González-Velázquez, Mónica; Puigbò, Pere; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Goesmann, Alexander; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Proteorhodopsin phototrophy is expected to have considerable impact on the ecology and biogeochemical roles of marine bacteria. However, the genetic features contributing to the success of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria remain largely unknown. We investigated the genome of Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 (Bacteroidetes) for features potentially explaining its ability to grow better in light than darkness. MED134 has a relatively high number of peptidases, suggesting that amino acids are the main carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, MED134 shares with other environmental genomes a reduction in gene copies at the expense of important ones, like membrane transporters, which might be compensated by the presence of the proteorhodopsin gene. The genome analyses suggest Dokdonia sp. MED134 is able to respond to light at least partly due to the presence of a strong flavobacterial consensus promoter sequence for the proteorhodopsin gene. Moreover, Dokdonia sp. MED134 has a complete set of anaplerotic enzymes likely to play a role in the adaptation of the carbon anabolism to the different sources of energy it can use, including light or various organic matter compounds. In addition to promoting growth, proteorhodopsin phototrophy could provide energy for the degradation of complex or recalcitrant organic matter, survival during periods of low nutrients, or uptake of amino acids and peptides at low concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the ability to harness light potentially makes MED134 less dependent on the amount and quality of organic matter or other nutrients. The genomic features reported here may well be among the keys to a successful photoheterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:22003006

  5. Development of eMed: a comprehensive, modular curriculum-management system.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eilean G S; Moloney, Peter J; Toohey, Susan M; Hughes, Christopher S; Mobbs, Suzanne L; Leeper, James B; McNeil, H Patrick

    2007-04-01

    In 2001 the University of New South Wales Faculty of Medicine embarked on designing a curriculum-management system to support the development and delivery of its new, fully integrated, outcome-based, six-year undergraduate medicine program. The Web-enabled curriculum-management system it developed is known as eMed, and it comprises a suite of integrated tools used for managing graduate outcomes, content, activities, and assessment in the new program. The six main tools are a curriculum map, timetable, student portfolio, peer feedback tool, assessment tracking, and results tools. The eMed functions were determined by organizational and curricular needs, and a business management perspective guided its development. The eMed project was developed by a multidisciplinary team, and its successful development was achieved mostly by methodically identifying the scope of each tool and the business processes it supports. Evaluation results indicated a high level of user acceptance and approval. The eMed system is a simple yet effective educational technology system that allows users to evaluate and improve the curriculum in real time. As a second-generation curriculum-management system, eMed is much more than an educational administration system; it is a knowledge network system used by staff and students to transform data and information into knowledge and action. The integration of learning and assessment activities data in the one system gives a depth of curriculum information that is unusual and that allows for data-based decision making. Technologically, eMed helps to keep the medicine program up to date. Organizationally, it strengthens the school's data-driven decision-making process and knowledge network culture.

  6. A new Bacillus subtilis gene, med, encodes a positive regulator of comK.

    PubMed

    Ogura, M; Ohshiro, Y; Hirao, S; Tanaka, T

    1997-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis degR, a positive regulator of the production of degradative enzymes, is negatively regulated by the competence transcription factor ComK which is overproduced in mecA null mutants. We used transposon Tn10 to search for a mutation that reduced the repression level of degR caused by a mecA mutation. A new gene exerting positive regulation on comK was obtained and designated med (suppressor of mecA effect on degR). Sequence determination, Northern analysis, and primer extension analyses revealed that the med gene contained an open reading frame (ORF) composed of 317 codons and was transcribed into an approximately 1,250-nucleotide mRNA together with its short downstream gene. The expression of comK is positively regulated by factors such as ComK itself, ComS (SrfA)-MecA, DegU, SinR, and AbrB. Quantitative analyses using comK'-'lacZ, srfA-lacZ, degU'-'lacZ, and sinR'-'lacZ fusions showed that disruption of med caused a significant decrease in comK expression in both mecA+ and mecA strains, while expression of srfA, sinR, and degU was not affected by the mutation. An epistatic analysis revealed that overproduction of ComK resulted in alteration of med expression, suggesting a regulatory loop between comK and med. Several possible mechanisms for positive regulation of comK by Med are discussed.

  7. Understanding PubMed® user search behavior through log analysis

    PubMed Central

    Islamaj Dogan, Rezarta; Murray, G. Craig; Névéol, Aurélie; Lu, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a detailed investigation of PubMed users’ needs and behavior as a step toward improving biomedical information retrieval. PubMed is providing free service to researchers with access to more than 19 million citations for biomedical articles from MEDLINE and life science journals. It is accessed by millions of users each day. Efficient search tools are crucial for biomedical researchers to keep abreast of the biomedical literature relating to their own research. This study provides insight into PubMed users’ needs and their behavior. This investigation was conducted through the analysis of one month of log data, consisting of more than 23 million user sessions and more than 58 million user queries. Multiple aspects of users’ interactions with PubMed are characterized in detail with evidence from these logs. Despite having many features in common with general Web searches, biomedical information searches have unique characteristics that are made evident in this study. PubMed users are more persistent in seeking information and they reformulate queries often. The three most frequent types of search are search by author name, search by gene/protein, and search by disease. Use of abbreviation in queries is very frequent. Factors such as result set size influence users’ decisions. Analysis of characteristics such as these plays a critical role in identifying users’ information needs and their search habits. In turn, such an analysis also provides useful insight for improving biomedical information retrieval. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed PMID:20157491

  8. An objective structured clinical exam to measure intrinsic CanMEDS roles

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Aliya; Cowan, Michèle; Donnon, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Background The CanMEDS roles provide a comprehensive framework to organize competency-based curricula; however, there is a challenge in finding feasible, valid, and reliable assessment methods to measure intrinsic roles such as Communicator and Collaborator. The objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) is more commonly used in postgraduate medical education for the assessment of clinical skills beyond medical expertise. Method We developed the CanMEDS In-Training Exam (CITE), a six-station OSCE designed to assess two different CanMEDS roles (one primary and one secondary) and general communication skills at each station. Correlation coefficients were computed for CanMEDS roles within and between stations, and for general communication, global rating, and total scores. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences between year of residency, sex, and the type of residency program. Results In total, 63 residents participated in the CITE; 40 residents (63%) were from internal medicine programs, whereas the remaining 23 (37%) were pursuing other specialties. There was satisfactory internal consistency for all stations, and the total scores of the stations were strongly correlated with the global scores r=0.86, p<0.05. Noninternal medicine residents scored higher in terms of the Professional competency overall, whereas internal medicine residents scored significantly higher in the Collaborator competency overall. Discussion The OSCE checklists developed for the assessment of intrinsic CanMEDS roles were functional, but the specific items within stations required more uniformity to be used between stations. More generic types of checklists may also improve correlations across stations. Conclusion An OSCE measuring intrinsic competence is feasible; however, further development of our cases and checklists is needed. We provide a model of how to develop an OSCE to measure intrinsic CanMEDS roles that educators may adopt as residency programs move

  9. MED12 mutations in uterine fibroids--their relationship to cytogenetic subgroups.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Bartnitzke, Sabine; Löning, Thomas; Drieschner, Norbert; Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2012-10-01

    Recurrent chromosomal alterations are found in roughly 20% of all uterine fibroids but in the majority cytogenetic changes are lacking. Recently, mutations of the gene mediator subcomplex 12 (MED12) have been detected in a majority of fibroids but no information is available whether or not they co-occur with cytogenetic subtypes as, e.g., rearrangements of the genes encoding high mobility group AT-hook (HMGA) proteins. In a total of 80 cytogenetically characterized fibroids from 50 patients, we were not only able to confirm the frequent occurrence of MED12 mutations but also to stratify two mutually exclusive pathways of leiomyomagenesis with either rearrangements of HMGA2 reflected by clonal chromosome abnormalities affecting 12q14~15 or by mutations affecting exon 2 of MED12. On average the latter mutations were associated with a significantly smaller tumor size. However, G>A transitions of nucleotides c.130 or c.131 correlate with a significantly larger size of the fibroids compared to other MED12 mutations thus explaining the high prevalence of the former mutations among clinically detectable fibroids. Interestingly, fibroids with MED12 mutations expressed significantly higher levels of the gene encoding wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4 (WNT4). Based on these findings and data from the literature, we hypothesize that estrogen and the mutated MED12 cooperate in activating the Wnt pathway which in turn activates β-catenin known to cause leiomyoma-like lesions in a mouse model. The occurrence of a "fibroid-type mutation" in a rare histologic subtype of endometrial polyps suggests that this mechanism is not confined to uterine leiomyomas.

  10. MedEdPORTAL: a report on oral health resources for health professions educators.

    PubMed

    Chickmagalur, Nithya S; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Sandmeyer, Sue; Valachovic, Richard W; Candler, Christopher S; Saleh, Michael; Cahill, Emily; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2013-09-01

    MedEdPORTAL is a unique web-based peer-reviewed publication venue for clinical health educators sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The open exchange of educational resources promotes professional collaboration across health professions. In 2008, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) collaborated with AAMC to allow dental educators to use the platform to publish dental curriculum resources. Oral health is integral to general health; hence, collaboration among health care professionals brings enormous value to patient-centered care. The aim of this study was to conduct a current survey of metrics and submission statistics of MedEdPORTAL resources. The data were collected using the MedEdPORTAL search engine and ADEA and AAMC staff. The data collected were categorized and reported in tables and charts. Results showed that at the time of this study there were over 2,000 medical and dental resources available to anyone worldwide. Oral health resources constituted approximately 30 percent of the total resources, which included cross-indexing with information relevant to both medical and dental audiences. There were several types of dental resources available; the most common were the ones focusing on critical thinking. The usage of MedEdPORTAL has been growing, with participation from over 190 countries and 10,000 educational institutions around the world. The findings of this report suggest that MedEdPORTAL is succeeding in its aim to foster global collaborative education, professional education, and educational scholarship. As such, MedEdPORTAL is providing a new forum for collaboration and opens venues for promising future work in professional education.

  11. Semantically linking and browsing PubMed abstracts with gene ontology

    PubMed Central

    Vanteru, Bhanu C; Shaik, Jahangheer S; Yeasin, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Background The technological advances in the past decade have lead to massive progress in the field of biotechnology. The documentation of the progress made exists in the form of research articles. The PubMed is the current most used repository for bio-literature. PubMed consists of about 17 million abstracts as of 2007 that require methods to efficiently retrieve and browse large volume of relevant information. The State-of-the-art technologies such as GOPubmed use simple keyword-based techniques for retrieving abstracts from the PubMed and linking them to the Gene Ontology (GO). This paper changes the paradigm by introducing semantics enabled technique to link the PubMed to the Gene Ontology, called, SEGOPubmed for ontology-based browsing. Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) framework is used to semantically interface PubMed abstracts to the Gene Ontology. Results The Empirical analysis is performed to compare the performance of the SEGOPubmed with the GOPubmed. The analysis is initially performed using a few well-referenced query words. Further, statistical analysis is performed using GO curated dataset as ground truth. The analysis suggests that the SEGOPubmed performs better than the classic GOPubmed as it incorporates semantics. Conclusions The LSA technique is applied on the PubMed abstracts obtained based on the user query and the semantic similarity between the query and the abstracts. The analyses using well-referenced keywords show that the proposed semantic-sensitive technique outperformed the string comparison based techniques in associating the relevant abstracts to the GO terms. The SEGOPubmed also extracted the abstracts in which the keywords do not appear in isolation (i.e. they appear in combination with other terms) that could not be retrieved by simple term matching techniques. PMID:18366599

  12. #GeriMedJC: The Twitter Complement to the Traditional-Format Geriatric Medicine Journal Club.

    PubMed

    Gardhouse, Amanda I; Budd, Laura; Yang, Seu Y C; Wong, Camilla L

    2017-06-01

    Twitter is a public microblogging platform that overcomes physical limitations and allows unrestricted participation beyond academic silos, enabling interactive discussions. Twitter-based journal clubs have demonstrated growth, sustainability, and worldwide communication, using a hashtag (#) to follow participation. This article describes the first year of #GeriMedJC, a monthly 1-hour live, 23-hour asynchronous Twitter-based complement to the traditional-format geriatric medicine journal club. The Twitter moderator tweets from the handle @GeriMedJC; encourages use of #GeriMedJC; and invites content experts, study authors, and followers to participate in critical appraisal of medical literature. Using the hashtag #GeriMedJC, tweets were categorized according to thematic content, relevance to the journal club, and authorship. Third-party analytical tools Symplur and Twitter Analytics were used for growth and effect metrics (number of followers, participants, tweets, retweets, replies, impressions). Qualitative analysis of follower and participant profiles was used to establish country of origin and occupation. A semistructured interview of postgraduate trainees was conducted to ascertain qualitative aspects of the experience. In the first year, @GeriMedJC has grown to 541 followers on six continents. Most followers were physicians (43%), two-thirds of which were geriatricians. Growth metrics increased over 12 months, with a mean of 121 tweets, 25 participants, and 105,831 impressions per journal club. Tweets were most often related to the article being appraised (87.5%) and ranged in thematic content from clinical practice (29%) to critical appraisal (24%) to medical education (20%). #GeriMedJC is a feasible example of using social media platforms such as Twitter to encourage international and interprofessional appraisal of medical literature. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. A Computational Protein Phenotype Prediction Approach to Analyze the Deleterious Mutations of Human MED12 Gene.

    PubMed

    Banaganapalli, Babajan; Mohammed, Kaleemuddin; Khan, Imran Ali; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Elango, Ramu; Shaik, Noor Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Genetic mutations in MED12, a subunit of Mediator complex are seen in a broad spectrum of human diseases. However, the underlying basis of how these pathogenic mutations elicit protein phenotype changes in terms of 3D structure, stability and protein binding sites remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the structural and functional impacts of MED12 mutations, using computational methods as an alternate to traditional in vivo and in vitro approaches. The MED12 gene mutations details and their corresponding clinical associations were collected from different databases and by text-mining. Initially, diverse computational approaches were applied to categorize the different classes of mutations based on their deleterious impact to MED12. Then, protein structures for wild and mutant types built by integrative modeling were analyzed for structural divergence, solvent accessibility, stability, and functional interaction deformities. Finally, this study was able to identify that genetic mutations mapped to exon-2 region, highly conserved LCEWAV and Catenin domains induce biochemically severe amino acid changes which alters the protein phenotype as well as the stability of MED12-CYCC interactions. To better understand the deleterious nature of FS-IDs and Indels, this study asserts the utility of computational screening based on their propensity towards non-sense mediated decay. Current study findings may help to narrow down the number of MED12 mutations to be screened for mediator complex dysfunction associated genetic diseases. This study supports computational methods as a primary filter to verify the plausible impact of pathogenic mutations based on the perspective of evolution, expression and phenotype of proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2023-2035, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. ER Ursae Majoris: A dwarf nova with surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miguel, Enrique; Patterson, Joe; Kemp, Jonathan; Stein, William; Roberts, George; Campbell, T.; Hambsch, Franz-J.; Krajci, Tom; Dvorak, Shawn; Koff, Robert A.; Morelle, Etienne; Potter, Michael; Cejudo, David; Brady, Steve; Menzies, Kenneth

    2012-05-01

    ER Ursae Majoris is a relatively bright member of the SU UMa-type dwarf novae that undergoes frequent eruptions of amplitude ~2 mag every ~4 d. In addition to these ordinary dwarf-nova outbursts, ER UMa shows brighter eruptions (superoutbursts) lasting ~20 d with a recurrence time of ~44 d. As other members of the SU UMa class, ER UMa displays a characteristic periodic modulation (superhumps) in its light curve during the course of a superoutburst, the period being a few percent longer than the orbital period of the underlying binary system. A routine photometric patrol of ER UMa during its January 2011superoutburst became much more interesting after noticing the presence of an additional modulation in its light curve, with a period slightly shorter than the orbital period. Similar photometric waves (known as negative superhumps) have already been observed in other cataclysmic variables, mainly in nova-like systems, but only in a small handful of SU UMa-type stars during quiescence, and never before during a superoutburst. We report in this communication the results of a worldwide photometric campaign that was orchestrated right after the discovery of negative superhumps in ER UMa, and provide a thorough analysis of the data obtained from more than 10 stations of the Center of Backyard Astrophysics (CBA) network, which include more than 1000 hours of photometric data over a 4-month baseline on 2011, and a similar (still in progress) dense coverage in 2012.

  15. Towards Understanding ER Fluids Using Sals/rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Bryan J.; McLeish, Tom; Block, Harry

    This paper details work in Cranfield and Leeds Universities of making a stock of transparent ER fluids, which could later be utilised in a new optical electro rheometer (OER) to be assembled at Leeds University. Two basic routes were attempted. One was to use glass microspheres and the other was to use polymer spheres. In order to increase the strength of the ER effect, it was necessary to increase the volume loading while still maintaining sufficient transmission (about 75% over 2 mm). It was found to be possible to increase the ER effect quite substantially in some instances, and in others it was possible to get a near perfect refractive index match. It was not possible to combine both requirements in one fluid such that a high static yield stress was apparent in a transparent ER fluid. However one fluid was made which gave acceptable diffraction losses at high volume fractions, remained in suspension for extended periods and provide about 700 Pa yield stress at 4kV/mm and about 30% volume fraction viz: untreated poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) microspheres in Cereclor/bromonaphthalene/polystyrene solution. The OER being assembled at Leeds University is intended to record small angle light scattering (SALS) profiles, electrical and mechanical properties of ER fluids simultaneously. The OER is based around a DSR 500 machine purchased from Rheometric Scientific with quartz tools coated with transparent indium tin oxide(ITO), which is capable of measuring both steady state (DC) and oscillatory (AC) material parameters.

  16. Hippocampal ER Stress and Learning Deficits Following Repeated Pyrethroid Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Muhammad M.; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits. PMID:25359175

  17. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  18. ER-2: Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), (Edwards, California, USA) has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER-2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 has been utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodation areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of DFRC or from remote bases worldwide. The NASA ER-2 is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community.

  19. ER Stress Proteins in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Morito, Daisuke; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in inflammatory responses and autoimmunity. HSPs were originally believed to maintain protein quality control in the cytosol. However, they also exist extracellularly and appear to act as inflammatory factors. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested that the other class of stress proteins such as, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins, which originally act as protein quality control factors in the secretory pathway and are induced by ER stress in inflammatory lesions, also participate in inflammation and autoimmunity. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (Bip)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calnexin, calreticulin, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94)/gp96, oxygen regulated protein 150 (ORP150)/glucose-regulated protein 170 (GRP170), homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp) and heat shock protein 47 (hsp47)/Serpin H1, which are expressed not only in the ER but also occasionally at the cell surface play pathophysiological roles in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as pro- or anti-inflammatory factors. Here we describe the accumulating evidence of the participation of ER stress proteins in autoimmunity and inflammation and discuss the critical differences between the two classes of stress proteins.

  20. Hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits following repeated pyrethroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Muhammad M; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits.

  1. Multiscale Structural Analysis of Plant ER-PM Contact Sites.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Heather E; Lee, Eun Kyoung; van Bezouwen, Laura S; Ross, Bradford; Rosado, Abel; Samuels, A Lacey

    2017-03-01

    Membrane contact sites are recognized across eukaryotic systems as important nanostructures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites (EPCS) are involved in excitation-contraction coupling, signaling, and plant responses to stress. In this report, we perform a multiscale structural analysis of Arabidopsis EPCS that combines live cell imaging, quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography over a developmental gradient. To place EPCS in the context of the entire cortical ER, we examined green fluorescent protein (GFP)-HDEL in living cells over a developmental gradient, then Synaptotagmin1 (SYT1)-GFP was used as a specific marker of EPCS. In all tissues examined, young, rapidly elongating cells showed lamellar cortical ER and higher density of SYT1-GFP puncta, while in mature cells the cortical ER network was tubular, highly dynamic and had fewer SYT1-labeled puncta. The higher density of EPCS in young cells was verified by quantitative TEM of cryo-fixed tissues. For all cell types, the size of each EPCS had a consistent range in length along the PM from 50 to 300 nm, with microtubules and ribosomes excluded from the EPCS. The structural characterization of EPCS in different plant tissues, and the correlation of EPCS densities over developmental gradients illustrate how ER-PM communication evolves in response to cellular expansion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Excitation mechanisms of Er optical centers GaN epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Matthew; Jiang, Hongxing; Lin, Jingyu; Zavada, John; Vinh, Nguyen

    We report direct evidence of two mechanisms responsible for the excitation of optically active Er3 + ions in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. These mechanisms, resonant excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, lead to narrow emission lines from isolated and the defect-related Er optical centers. However, these centers have different photoluminescence spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross sections. The photoluminescence at 1.54 micrometer from the isolated Er optical center which can be excited by either mechanism has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher excitation cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the photoluminescence at 1.54 micrometer from the defect-related Er optical center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest excitation cross-section. These results explain the difficulty in achieving gain in Er doped GaN and indicate approaches for realization of optical amplification, and possibly lasing, at room temperature.

  3. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  4. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; Chu, Berbie; Stanford-Moore, Gaelen; Sampayo, Rocío; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2015-12-12

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER+ adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistent with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44High subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44Low cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER+ cancers. This model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.

  5. PyMedTermino: an open-source generic API for advanced terminology services.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The integration of terminologies is still a challenging problem in medical informatics research and software applications, due to the high number of heterogeneous terminologies. In this paper, we present a generic API (Application Programming Interface) for a multi-terminology multilingual terminology service, and PyMedTermino, its open-source implementation in Python with 5 terminological resources (ICD10, SNOMED CT, MedDRA, CDF, VCM iconic language) and the UMLS compendium. This service has been designed for research and educational purpose. It offers various advanced functionalities rarely present in terminology services.

  6. Can We CanMEDS? Intangible Learning Through Tangible Simulation Case Development.

    PubMed

    Alani, Sabrina; Black, Holly; Harty, Chris; Murphy, Justin; Whalen, Desmond; Williams, Kerry-Lynn

    2016-07-13

    The Royal College CanMEDS framework has become a guide for medical school curricula. This framework aims to improve patient care by identifying and explaining seven key roles that physicians must fulfill in order to deliver high-quality healthcare to their patients. While medical schools incorporate these roles in their teaching processes, students can also apply them outside the classroom. Here, we describe a unique model developed at Memorial University of Newfoundland's Tuckamore Simulation Research Collaborative (TSRC), where students develop simulation cases with the guidance of expert mentors and apply the Royal College CanMEDS framework to writing clinical simulations.

  7. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rey, David; Jimenez-Castellanos, Ana; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Crespo, Jose; Maojo, Victor

    2012-04-05

    Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs). In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i) load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA), (ii) identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii) generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard PubMed interface. It has been tested on a public dataset

  8. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-06-20

    Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70-90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. We successfully created a web-based prototype capable of creating domain

  9. Determining correspondences between high-frequency MedDRA concepts and SNOMED: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is being advocated as the foundation for encoding clinical documentation. While the electronic medical record is likely to play a critical role in pharmacovigilance - the detection of adverse events due to medications - classification and reporting of Adverse Events is currently based on the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Complete and high-quality MedDRA-to-SNOMED CT mappings can therefore facilitate pharmacovigilance. The existing mappings, as determined through the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), are partial, and record only one-to-one correspondences even though SNOMED CT can be used compositionally. Efforts to map previously unmapped MedDRA concepts would be most productive if focused on concepts that occur frequently in actual adverse event data. We aimed to identify aspects of MedDRA that complicate mapping to SNOMED CT, determine pattern in unmapped high-frequency MedDRA concepts, and to identify types of integration errors in the mapping of MedDRA to UMLS. Methods Using one years' data from the US Federal Drug Administrations Adverse Event Reporting System, we identified MedDRA preferred terms that collectively accounted for 95% of both Adverse Events and Therapeutic Indications records. After eliminating those already mapping to SNOMED CT, we attempted to map the remaining 645 Adverse-Event and 141 Therapeutic-Indications preferred terms with software assistance. Results All but 46 Adverse-Event and 7 Therapeutic-Indications preferred terms could be composed using SNOMED CT concepts: none of these required more than 3 SNOMED CT concepts to compose. We describe the common composition patterns in the paper. About 30% of both Adverse-Event and Therapeutic-Indications Preferred Terms corresponded to single SNOMED CT concepts: the correspondence was detectable by human inspection but had been missed during the integration process, which had created

  10. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-01-01

    Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype

  11. Google Scholar versus PubMed in locating primary literature to answer drug-related questions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Maisha Kelly; Lauderdale, Stacy A; Kendrach, Michael G; Woolley, Thomas W

    2009-03-01

    Google Scholar linked more visitors to biomedical journal Web sites than did PubMed after the database's initial release; however, its usefulness in locating primary literature articles is unknown. To assess in both databases the availability of primary literature target articles; total number of citations; availability of free, full-text journal articles; and number of primary literature target articles retrieved by year within the first 100 citations of the search results. Drug information question reviews published in The Annals of Pharmacotherapy Drug Information Rounds column served as targets to determine the retrieval ability of Google Scholar and PubMed searches. Reviews printed in this column from January 2006 to June 2007 were eligible for study inclusion. Articles were chosen if at least 2 key words of the printed article were included in the PubMed Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) database, and these terms were searched in both databases. Twenty-two of 33 (67%) eligible Drug Information Rounds articles met the inclusion criteria. The median number of primary literature articles used in each of these articles was 6.5 (IQR 4.8, 8.3; mean +/- SD 8 +/- 5.4). No significant differences were found for the mean number of target primary literature articles located within the first 100 citations in Google Scholar and PubMed searches (5.1 +/- 3.9 vs 5.3 +/- 3.3; p = 0.868). Google Scholar searches located more total results than PubMed (2211.6 +/- 3999.5 vs 44.2 +/- 47.4; p = 0.019). The availability of free, full-text journal articles per Drug Information Rounds article was similar between the databases (1.8 +/- 1.7 vs 2.3 +/- 1.7; p = 0.325). More primary literature articles published prior to 2000 were located with Google Scholar searches compared with PubMed (62.8% vs 34.9%; p = 0.017); however, no statistically significant differences between the databases were observed for articles published after 2000 (66.4 vs 77.1; p = 0.074). No significant differences

  12. Can We CanMEDS? Intangible Learning Through Tangible Simulation Case Development

    PubMed Central

    Alani, Sabrina; Black, Holly; Harty, Chris; Murphy, Justin; Williams, Kerry-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College CanMEDS framework has become a guide for medical school curricula. This framework aims to improve patient care by identifying and explaining seven key roles that physicians must fulfill in order to deliver high-quality healthcare to their patients. While medical schools incorporate these roles in their teaching processes, students can also apply them outside the classroom. Here, we describe a unique model developed at Memorial University of Newfoundland’s Tuckamore Simulation Research Collaborative (TSRC), where students develop simulation cases with the guidance of expert mentors and apply the Royal College CanMEDS framework to writing clinical simulations. PMID:27555983

  13. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs). In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. Results We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i) load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA), (ii) identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii) generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. Conclusions CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard PubMed interface. It has

  14. MED13-dependent signaling from the heart confers leanness by enhancing metabolism in adipose tissue and liver

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Kedryn K; Grueter, Chad E; Kusminski, Christine M; Holland, William L; Bookout, Angie L; Satapati, Santosh; Kong, Y Megan; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Scherer, Philipp E; Newgard, Christopher B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-01-01

    The heart requires a continuous supply of energy but has little capacity for energy storage and thus relies on exogenous metabolic sources. We previously showed that cardiac MED13 modulates systemic energy homeostasis in mice. Here, we sought to define the extra-cardiac tissue(s) that respond to cardiac MED13 signaling. We show that cardiac overexpression of MED13 in transgenic (MED13cTg) mice confers a lean phenotype that is associated with increased lipid uptake, beta-oxidation and mitochondrial content in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. Cardiac expression of MED13 decreases metabolic gene expression in the heart but enhances them in WAT. Although exhibiting increased energy expenditure in the fed state, MED13cTg mice metabolically adapt to fasting. Furthermore, MED13cTg hearts oxidize fuel that is readily available, rendering them more efficient in the fed state. Parabiosis experiments in which circulations of wild-type and MED13cTg mice are joined, reveal that circulating factor(s) in MED13cTg mice promote enhanced metabolism and leanness. These findings demonstrate that MED13 acts within the heart to promote systemic energy expenditure in extra-cardiac energy depots and point to an unexplored metabolic communication system between the heart and other tissues. See also: M Nakamura & J Sadoshima (December 2014) PMID:25422356

  15. MED13-dependent signaling from the heart confers leanness by enhancing metabolism in adipose tissue and liver.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Kedryn K; Grueter, Chad E; Kusminski, Christine M; Holland, William L; Bookout, Angie L; Satapati, Santosh; Kong, Y Megan; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Scherer, Philipp E; Newgard, Christopher B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-12-01

    The heart requires a continuous supply of energy but has little capacity for energy storage and thus relies on exogenous metabolic sources. We previously showed that cardiac MED13 modulates systemic energy homeostasis in mice. Here, we sought to define the extra-cardiac tissue(s) that respond to cardiac MED13 signaling. We show that cardiac overexpression of MED13 in transgenic (MED13cTg) mice confers a lean phenotype that is associated with increased lipid uptake, beta-oxidation and mitochondrial content in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. Cardiac expression of MED13 decreases metabolic gene expression in the heart but enhances them in WAT. Although exhibiting increased energy expenditure in the fed state, MED13cTg mice metabolically adapt to fasting. Furthermore, MED13cTg hearts oxidize fuel that is readily available, rendering them more efficient in the fed state. Parabiosis experiments in which circulations of wild-type and MED13cTg mice are joined, reveal that circulating factor(s) in MED13cTg mice promote enhanced metabolism and leanness. These findings demonstrate that MED13 acts within the heart to promote systemic energy expenditure in extra-cardiac energy depots and point to an unexplored metabolic communication system between the heart and other tissues.

  16. MEDS Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Burr, Richard [R-NC

    2009-03-19

    Senate - 03/19/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Microtensile bond strength analysis of adhesive systems to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-treated dentin.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Thaysa Monteiro; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro; Moretto, Simone Gonçalves; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments (control, diamond bur, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser) on sound dentin surface morphology and on microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Sixteen dentin fragments were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4), and different surface treatments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Ninety-six third molars were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 12) according to type of surface treatment and adhesive system: G1 = Control + Clearfil SE Bond (SE); G2 = Control + Single Bond (SB); G3 = diamond bur (DB) + SE; G4 = DB + SB, G5 = Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm, 60 mJ, 2 Hz, 0.12 W, 19.3 J/cm(2)) + SE; G6 = Er:YAG + SB, G7 = Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2.78 μm, 50 mJ, 30 Hz, 1.5 W, 4.5 J/cm(2)) + SE; and G8 = Er,Cr:YSGG + SB. Composite blocks were bonded to the samples, and after 24-h storage in distilled/deionized water (37 °C), stick-shaped samples were obtained and submitted to μTBS test. Bond strength values (in megapascal) were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). G1 (54.69 ± 7.8 MPa) showed the highest mean, which was statistically significantly higher than all the other groups (p < 0.05). For all treatments, SE showed higher bond strength than SB, except only for Er,Cr:YSGG treatment, in which the systems did not differ statistically from each other. Based on the irradiation parameters considered in this study, it can be concluded that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation presented lower values than the control group; however, their association with self-etching adhesive does not have a significantly negative effect on sound dentin (μTBS values of >20 MPa).

  18. Er-doped and Er, Yb co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics, structural and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, Radosław; Augustyn, Elżbieta; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Żelechower, Michał

    2011-09-01

    The selected glasses and glass-ceramics pertinent to following chemical composition in mol%:48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-11%PbF 2-3%ErF 3 and 48%SiO 2-11%Al 2O 3-7%Na 2O-10%CaO-10%PbO-10%PbF 2-1%ErF 3-3%YbF 3 have been manufactured from high purity components (Aldrich) at 1450 °C in normal atmosphere. Glass optical fibers were successfully drawn. Subsequently they were subject to the heat-treatment at 700 °C in various time periods. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. It has been observed that the controlled heat-treatment of oxyfluoride glass fibers results in the creation of Pb 5Al 3F 19, Er 4F 2O 11Si 3 and Er 3FO 10Si 3 crystalline phases. The identified phases were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The fibers consist of mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. Their morphology was investigated applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties and excited state relaxation dynamics of optically active ions (Er 3+, Yb 3+) in glass and glass-ceramics have been studied. Based on absorption spectra the Judd-Ofelt analysis was carried out. The main attention was directed to NIR luminescence at. 1.6 μm related to 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and less effective emission associated with 4I 11/2 → 4I 15/2 Er 3+ and 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 Yb 3+ transitions. The dissimilar spectroscopic properties have been revealed for glasses and glass-ceramic samples, respectively. The reduction of emission linewidth at 1.6 and 1.0 μm combined with substantial increase of 4I 13/2 lifetimes of erbium in glass-ceramics appear to be evidences that Er 3+ ions are accommodated in crystalline phases. The structural and optical characteristics of oxyfluoride glass

  19. Optical characterization, luminescence properties of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses for broadband amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meruva, Seshadri; Carlos, Barbosa Luiz; Alberto Peres, Ferencz Junior Julio

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, optical absorption and emission spectra and luminescence decay lifetimes of different concentrations, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mol% of Er3+ and 0.1Er3+/0.5Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses (TeO2-Bi2O3-ZnONb2O5) were reported. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were determined and used to calculate spontaneous radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τR), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) for certain emission transitions. NIR emission at 1.5μm and up-conversion spectra of Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses were measured under excitation wavelength of 980 nm. The absorption, emission and gain cross-sections for 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of Er3+ are determined. The peak emission cross-section of this transition is found to be higher (9.95×10-21 cm2) for 0.1 mol% of Er3+ and lower (6.81×10-21 cm2) for 1.0 mol% of Er3+ doped tellurite glasses, which is comparable to other oxide glasses. The larger peak emission cross-section for lower concentration of Er3+ is due to the high refractive index of glass matrix (2.1547), relation established from Judd-Ofelt theory. The observed full-widths at half maxima (FWHM) for lower and higher concentrations of Er3+ are 64nm and 96 nm respectively. The larger values of FWHM and peak emission cross-sections are potentially useful for optical amplification processes in the design of Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFs). Under 980 nm excitation three strong up-conversion bands were observed at 530nm, 546nm and 665nm. The pump power dependent intensities and mechanisms involved in the up-conversion process have been studied. The luminescence decay profiles for 4I13/2 level were reported for all glass matrices.

  20. Er:YAG laser metal and ceramic bracket debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Remeš, Marek; Jelínková, Helena; Å ulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Vyhlídal, David

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the study was investigation of Er:YAG radiation (wavelength 2.94 μm) interaction with various metal and ceramic brackets and adhesive materials. The source of radiation was a free-running Er: YAG laser generating pulses with energy 280 mJ, 250 μs long and repetition rate 6 Hz (mean power 1.7 W). During the treatment lasting 140 s, water cooling was implemented and only the brackets were irradiated. It has been observed that the brackets were removed easily after the Er:YAG laser irradiation, and temperature rise was limited also for metal brackets. SEM investigation has confirmed less damage of enamel in comparison with non-irradiated samples.

  1. Tapentadol-ER for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Games, Gina; Hutchison, Amber

    2013-10-01

    With the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increasing, pathologic complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are also becoming more common. Of those diagnosed with DM, 10% to 20% of patients suffer from painful DPN. Until recently, only pregabalin and duloxetine possessed Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for this condition. However, FDA recently approved tapentadol-ER [extended release] (Nucynta ER) for painful DPN. Tapentadol-ER is an opioid analgesic commonly used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain that contains a unique dual mechanism acting as both a weak mu-opiod receptor agonist and norepinephine-reuptake inhibitor. It is by way of this unique dual mechanism that allows for effective analgesic effects with increased tolerability. This new FDA approval provides an additional therapeutic option to treat DPN in symptomatic patients.

  2. Ultra-High Spin Spectroscopy In Er Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.

    2008-11-11

    The discoveries observed in the ongoing conflict between collective and single-particle nuclear behaviour with increasing angular momentum have driven the field of nuclear spectroscopy for many decades and have given rise to new nuclear phenomena. Recently a new frontier of {gamma} spectroscopy at ultra-high spin has been opened in the rare-earth region with rotational bands that bypass the classic band-terminating states that appear at spin 45({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in the N 90 Er nuclei. These weakly populated rotational structures have characteristics of triaxial strongly-deformed bands. Such structures have been observed in {sup 157,158,160}Er, following a series of experiments using the Gammasphere spectrometer. These observations herald a return to collective excitations at spins of about 50 to 65({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). This talk reviews the status of the spectroscopy and understanding of the observed structures in these Er and neighbouring nuclei.

  3. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  4. Biological properties of ER 42859, a novel erythromycin derivative.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Hannan, P C; Shillingford, C; Knowles, D J

    1989-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new semi-synthetic oral erythromycin derivative, ER 42859, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in comparison with erythromycin, spiramycin, josamycin, oleandomycin and the newer semi-synthetic derivatives flurithromycin, roxithromycin and A-56268. MIC values of ER 42859 were superior to those of roxithromycin, oleandomycin, josamycin and spiramycin but generally 2-fold poorer than those of erythromycin. The activity equalled that of erythromycin against Haemophilus influenzae and was superior to that of roxithromycin and A-56268 against this organism. MIC values of the compound were greatly influenced by pH due to the dibasic nature of the molecule. ER 42859 had markedly superior activity to erythromycin, spiramycin, josamycin, oleandomycin and flurithromycin against experimental infections in mice and similar activity to roxithromycin and A-56268. Blood and tissue levels were high and prolonged in rodents. In volunteers, blood levels were prolonged but inferior to those of erythromycin.

  5. Residual vibration suppression of flexible arms using ER adaptive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kexiang; Meng, Guang; Tang, Huanqing; Liu, Yingchun

    2007-07-01

    In the past decades, there have been a number of research activities to control unwanted vibration of flexible robot arms. The electrorheological (ER) adaptive structures, which behave as viscoelastic damping structures with controllable shear modulus, are used to suppress the residual vibrations of the rotating flexible arm in this study. The flexible arm is designed as an ER sandwich structures, in which ER fluids is sandwiched between two elastic surface layers. Experimental tests are conducted. The vibration response performances of the beam subjected to different electric field intensity and motion conditions are demonstrated and evaluated. The experimental results obtained indicate that significant vibration attenuation is achieved at different operating conditions by applying an electric field to the rotating flexible arm.

  6. The Role of ER Bodies in Brassicaceae Resistance under Clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, S. M.; Kordyum, E. L.

    2013-02-01

    Results of the electron-microscopic investigation of root apices of Arabidopsis thaliana 3- and 7-day old seedlings grown in the stationary conditions and under clinorotation are presented. It was shown the similarity in the root apex cell ultrastructure in control and under clinorotation. In the same time there were some differences in the ultrustructure of statocytes and the distal elongation zone under clinorotation. For the first time, the sensitivity of ER-bodies, which are derivative of granular endoplasmic reticulum and contain a β-glucosidase enzyme, to the influence of simulated microgravity that was demonstrated by increasing quantity and area of ER-bodies per cell section, as well as by higher variability of their shape under clinorotation. A degree of these changes correlated with the duration of clinorotation. On the basis of obtained data, a protective role of ER-bodies in adaptation of plants to microgravity is discussed.

  7. Klotho ameliorates chemically induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Srijita; Zhao, Yanhua; Sarkar, Partha S; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Tilton, Ronald G; Choudhary, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a fundamental cell response associated with stress-initiated unfolded protein response (UPR), and loss of Klotho, an anti-aging hormone linked to NF-κB-induced inflammation, occur in chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated if the loss of Klotho is causally linked to increased ER stress. We treated human renal epithelial HK-2, alveolar epithelial A549, HEK293, and SH-SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with ER stress-inducing agents, thapsigargin and/or tunicamycin. Effects of overexpression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Klotho on UPR signaling was investigated by immunoblotting and Real-time PCR. Elevated Klotho levels in HK-2 cells decreased expression of ER stress markers phospho--IRE1, XBP-1s, BiP, CHOP, pJNK, and phospho-p38, all of which were elevated in response to tunicamycin and/or thapsigargin. Similar results were observed using A549 cells for XBP-1s, BiP, and CHOP in response to thapsigargin. Conversely, knockdown of Klotho in HEK 293 cells using siRNA caused further thapsigargin-induced increases in pIRE-1, XBP-1s, and BiP. Klotho overexpression in A549 cells blocked thapsigargin-induced caspase and PARP cleavage and improved cell viability. Our data indicate that Klotho has an important role in regulating ER stress and that loss of Klotho is causally linked to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Atlastin GTPases are required for Golgi apparatus and ER morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rismanchi, Neggy; Soderblom, Cynthia; Stadler, Julia; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Blackstone, Craig

    2008-06-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (SPG1-33) comprise a cluster of inherited neurological disorders characterized principally by lower extremity spasticity and weakness due to a length-dependent, retrograde axonopathy of corticospinal motor neurons. Mutations in the gene encoding the large oligomeric GTPase atlastin-1 are responsible for SPG3A, a common autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia. Here we describe a family of human GTPases, atlastin-2 and -3 that are closely related to atlastin-1. Interestingly, while atlastin-1 is predominantly localized to vesicular tubular complexes and cis-Golgi cisternae, mostly in brain, atlastin-2 and -3 are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are most enriched in other tissues. Knockdown of atlastin-2 and -3 levels in HeLa cells using siRNA (small interfering RNA) causes disruption of Golgi morphology, and these Golgi structures remain sensitive to brefeldin A treatment. Interestingly, expression of SPG3A mutant or dominant-negative atlastin proteins lacking GTPase activity causes prominent inhibition of ER reticularization, suggesting a role for atlastin GTPases in the formation of three-way junctions in the ER. However, secretory pathway trafficking as assessed using vesicular stomatitis virus G protein fused to green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP) as a reporter was essentially normal in both knockdown and dominant-negative overexpression conditions for all atlastins. Thus, the atlastin family of GTPases functions prominently in both ER and Golgi morphogenesis, but they do not appear to be required generally for anterograde ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Abnormal morphogenesis of the ER and Golgi resulting from mutations in atlastin-1 may ultimately underlie SPG3A by interfering with proper membrane distribution or polarity of the long corticospinal motor neurons.

  9. ER stress induces epithelial differentiation in the mouse oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Rosekrans, Sanne L; Heijmans, Jarom; Büller, Nikè V J A; Westerlund, Jessica; Lee, Amy S; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2015-02-01

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Xbp1, a key component of the UPR has recently been linked to the risk of developing oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting an important role for the UPR in the oesophageal epithelium. Here we examined the role of ER stress and the UPR in oesophageal epithelial homoeostasis. We examined the expression of components of the UPR in the oesophageal epithelium. We used a pharmacological approach and a genetic approach to examine the effects of ER stress in vivo in the mouse oesophagus. The oesophagus of these mice was examined using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Components of the UPR were heterogeneously expressed in the basal layer of the epithelium. Induction of ER stress by 24-h treatment with thapsigargin resulted in depletion of proliferating cells in the basal layer of the oesophagus and induced differentiation. We next activated the UPR by inducible deletion of the major ER chaperone Grp78 in Ah1Cre-Rosa26-LacZ-Grp78(-/-) mice in which mutant cells could be traced by expression of LacZ. In these mice LacZ-positive mutant cells in the basal layer lost their proliferative capacity, migrated towards the oesophageal lumen and were replaced by LacZ-negative non-mutant cells. We observed no apoptosis in mutant cells. These results show that ER stress induces epithelial differentiation in precursor cells in the oesophageal epithelium. This UPR induced differentiation may serve as a quality control mechanism that protects against oesophageal cancer development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  11. ADMiER-ing thin but complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Amarin G.; Bhattacharjee, Pradipto K.; Pan, Sharadwata; Hill, David; Danquah, Michael K.; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Prabhakar, Ranganathan

    2011-12-01

    The Acoustics Driven Microfluidic Extensional Rheometer (ADMiER) utilises micro litre volumes of liquid, with viscosities as low as that of water, to create valid and observable extensional flows, liquid bridges that pinch off due to capillary forces in this case. ADMiER allows the study fluids that have been beyond conventional methods and also study more subtle fluid properties. We can observe polymeric fluids with solvent viscosities far below those previously testable, accentuating elastic effects. Also, it has enabled the testing of aqueous solutions of living motile particles, which significantly change fluid properties, opening up the potential for diagnostic applications.

  12. Orchestration of secretory protein folding by ER chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Gidalevitz, Tali; Stevens, Fred; Argon, Yair

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major compartment of protein biogenesis in the cell, dedicated to production of secretory, membrane and organelle proteins. The secretome has distinct structural and post-translational characteristics, since folding in the ER occurs in an environment that is distinct in terms of its ionic composition, dynamics and requirements for quality contol. The folding machinery in the ER therefore includes chaperones and folding enzymes that introduce, monitor and react to disulfide bonds, glycans, and fluctuations of luminal calcium. We describe the major chaperone networks in the lumen and discuss how they have distinct modes of operation that enable cells to accomplish highly efficient production of the secretome. PMID:23507200

  13. Optical properties of Er3+ ions doped in oxyfluoroborate glass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akshaya; Rai, D K; Rai, S B

    2002-12-01

    In this paper the Stark components of 4S(3/2), 2H(11/2) and 4I(15/2) levels of Er3+ ion doped in oxyfluoroborate glass have been resolved using laser excitation and fluorescence measurements. The lifetime of 4S(3/2) level as a function of Er3+ concentration in the glass host has also been measured. Concentration quenching due to interaction among rare earth ions and the mechanism responsible for the same has been elucidated. The Judd-Ofelt analysis of the absorption spectrum has also been carried out.

  14. Two-phonon excitations in 170Er

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, D E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Johns, G D; Kadi, M; Martin, A; Nelson, R O; Warr, N; Wilburn, W S; Yates, S W; Younes, W

    1998-09-29

    Recent experiments at the GEANIE/WNR facility and the University of Kentucky accelerator have yielded strong evidence for a two-gamma excitation in 170Er. This new case can be added to a handful of previously identified examples of two-gamma vibrations, all of them discovered in this decade. In this paper the experimental evidence for a two-phonon excitation 170Er is presented and the current state of understanding of these structures is reviewed in the context of this and other recent findings.

  15. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host

  16. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  17. Ocean wind field measurement performance of the ERS-1 scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hans, P.; Schuessler, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Active Microwave Instrumentation (AMI), which will be implemented on the ERS-1, is a 5.3 GHz multipurpose radar for land surface imaging, ocean wave spectrum measurement and wind observations over oceans. The imaging and wave measurements apply Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques, while wind field detection is performed by the Scatterometer as part of the AMI. The Scatterometer system design was developed and optimized with the aid of a performance simulator. This paper, aimed at giving an overview, is presented about the: (1) ERS-1 Scatterometer system design; (2) Error budget; and the (3) Overall calibration concept.

  18. Finding the evidence for protein-protein interactions from PubMed abstracts.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunchul; Lim, Jaesoo; Lim, Joon-Ho; Park, Soo-Jun; Lee, Kyu-Chul; Park, Seon-Hee

    2006-07-15

    Protein-protein interactions play critical roles in biological processes, and many biologists try to find or to predict crucial information concerning these interactions. Before verifying interactions in biological laboratory work, validating them from previous research is necessary. Although many efforts have been made to create databases that store verified information in a structured form, much interaction information still remains as unstructured text. As the amount of new publications has increased rapidly, a large amount of research has sought to extract interactions from the text automatically. However, there remain various difficulties associated with the process of applying automatically generated results into manually annotated databases. For interactions that are not found in manually stored databases, researchers attempt to search for abstracts or full papers. As a result of a search for two proteins, PubMed frequently returns hundreds of abstracts. In this paper, a method is introduced that validates protein-protein interactions from PubMed abstracts. A query is generated from two given proteins automatically and abstracts are then collected from PubMed. Following this, target proteins and their synonyms are recognized and their interaction information is extracted from the collection. It was found that 67.37% of the interactions from DIP-PPI corpus were found from the PubMed abstracts and 87.37% of interactions were found from the given full texts. Contact authors.

  19. Risk factors for bladder cancer: challenges of conducting a literature search using PubMed.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ashish; Preslan, Elicia

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for bladder cancer using PubMed articles from January 2000 to December 2009. The study also aimed to describe the challenges encountered in the methodology of a literature search for bladder cancer risk factors using PubMed. Twenty-six categories of risk factors for bladder cancer were identified using the National Cancer Institute Web site and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Web site. A total of 1,338 PubMed searches were run using the term "urinary bladder cancer" and a risk factor term (e.g., "cigarette smoking") and were screened to identify 260 articles for final analysis. The search strategy had an overall precision of 3.42 percent, relative recall of 12.64 percent, and an F-measure of 5.39 percent. Although search terms derived from MeSH had the highest overall precision and recall, the differences did not reach significance, which indicates that for generalized, free-text searches of the PubMed database, the searchers' own terms are generally as effective as MeSH terms.

  20. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  1. Finding translational science publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with translational science filters.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of "translational" filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E-Utilities, a user's query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively.

  2. Finding Translational Science Publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with Translational Science Filters

    PubMed Central

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of “translational” filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E‐Utilities, a user’s query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 455–459 PMID:22212228

  3. Kononenko conducts a session of the Russian MedOps Assessment MO-12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-21

    ISS030-E-078132 (21 Feb. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko, Expedition 30 flight engineer, conducts a session of the Russian MedOps assessment MO-12 (Study of the Veins in the Lower Extremities), using the KARDIOMED (Cardiomed) complex with orthogonal leads in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  4. The Reliability of Encounter Cards to Assess the CanMEDs Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbino, Jonathan; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Worster, Andrew; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a computer-based encounter card (EC) to assess medical students during an emergency medicine rotation. From April 2011 to March 2012, multiple physicians assessed an entire medical school class during their emergency medicine rotation using the CanMEDS framework. At the end of an…

  5. The Reliability of Encounter Cards to Assess the CanMEDs Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbino, Jonathan; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Worster, Andrew; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a computer-based encounter card (EC) to assess medical students during an emergency medicine rotation. From April 2011 to March 2012, multiple physicians assessed an entire medical school class during their emergency medicine rotation using the CanMEDS framework. At the end of an…

  6. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Mercer University MEd, EdS, and Doctoral Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Gaiek, Lura S.; White, Torian A.; Slappey, Lisa A.; Chastain, Andrea; Harris, Rose Prejean

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative content analysis of a body of research not only helps budding researchers understand the culture, language, and expectations of scholarship, it helps identify deficiencies and inform policy and practice. Because of these benefits, an analysis of a census of 980 Mercer University MEd, EdS, and doctoral theses was conducted. Each thesis…

  7. Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information.

  8. What Supervisors Say in Their Feedback: Construction of CanMEDS Roles in Workplace Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renting, Nienke; Dornan, Tim; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.

    2016-01-01

    The CanMEDS framework has been widely adopted in residency education and feedback processes are guided by it. It is, however, only one of many influences on what is actually discussed in feedback. The sociohistorical culture of medicine and individual supervisors' contexts, experiences and beliefs are also influential. Our aim was to find how…

  9. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  10. A MED13-dependent skeletal muscle gene program controls systemic glucose homeostasis and hepatic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Amoasii, Leonela; Holland, William; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Baskin, Kedryn K; Pearson, Mackenzie; Burgess, Shawn C; Nelson, Benjamin R; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-02-15

    The Mediator complex governs gene expression by linking upstream signaling pathways with the basal transcriptional machinery. However, how individual Mediator subunits may function in different tissues remains to be investigated. Through skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Mediator subunit MED13 in mice, we discovered a gene regulatory mechanism by which skeletal muscle modulates the response of the liver to a high-fat diet. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of MED13 in mice conferred resistance to hepatic steatosis by activating a metabolic gene program that enhances muscle glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. The consequent insulin-sensitizing effect within skeletal muscle lowered systemic glucose and insulin levels independently of weight gain and adiposity and prevented hepatic lipid accumulation. MED13 suppressed the expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle by inhibiting the nuclear receptor NURR1 and the MEF2 transcription factor. These findings reveal a fundamental molecular mechanism for the governance of glucose metabolism and the control of hepatic lipid accumulation by skeletal muscle. Intriguingly, MED13 exerts opposing metabolic actions in skeletal muscle and the heart, highlighting the customized, tissue-specific functions of the Mediator complex.

  11. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S.; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W.; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J.; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5′ terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted. PMID:25595892

  12. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kämpjärvi, Kati; Järvinen, Tiina M; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5'terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted.

  13. A MED13-dependent skeletal muscle gene program controls systemic glucose homeostasis and hepatic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Amoasii, Leonela; Holland, William; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Baskin, Kedryn K.; Pearson, Mackenzie; Burgess, Shawn C.; Nelson, Benjamin R.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediator complex governs gene expression by linking upstream signaling pathways with the basal transcriptional machinery. However, how individual Mediator subunits may function in different tissues remains to be investigated. Through skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Mediator subunit MED13 in mice, we discovered a gene regulatory mechanism by which skeletal muscle modulates the response of the liver to a high-fat diet. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of MED13 in mice conferred resistance to hepatic steatosis by activating a metabolic gene program that enhances muscle glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. The consequent insulin-sensitizing effect within skeletal muscle lowered systemic glucose and insulin levels independently of weight gain and adiposity and prevented hepatic lipid accumulation. MED13 suppressed the expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle by inhibiting the nuclear receptor NURR1 and the MEF2 transcription factor. These findings reveal a fundamental molecular mechanism for the governance of glucose metabolism and the control of hepatic lipid accumulation by skeletal muscle. Intriguingly, MED13 exerts opposing metabolic actions in skeletal muscle and the heart, highlighting the customized, tissue-specific functions of the Mediator complex. PMID:26883362

  14. The Relation between Iranian Medical Science Research in PubMed and Burden of Disease.

    PubMed

    Foroughi, Zahra; Siamian, Hasan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Davodi, Ali

    2016-07-16

    Scientific productions have been accelerated in Iran in past decades but its association with health problems and disease burden is doubtful. The aim of this study is assessment of the relationship between scientific productions with disease burden in Iran in PubMed dataset during 2010 to 2014. The study was performed with the library method. Data Gathered using Scientometrics indicators and direct observation. The current research includes all articles written by Iranian researchers during 2010 to 2014 which were published in PubMed-indexed journals. The search was performed using keywords included road accident, ischaemic heart diseases, major depression disorders and cerebral vascular diseases. In total 910 articles had been published PubMed -indexed journals. Among them Substance-Related Disorders and Accidents, Traffic had the highest (263 records) and lowest (94 records) records respectively. There was not a direct correlation between Years of Life Lost, Years Lost due to Disability and mortality rate with scientific productions. our results showed Iranian scientific productions in PubMed data set are not related to disease burden however they are not related to high mortality diseases.

  15. Effect of soil application of cyantraniliprole on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  16. Effect of dinotefuran on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  17. Effect of foliar application of pyrifluquinazon on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the overall goal to integrate the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii in the management program of MED whitefly, the specific objective of this study was to evaluate pyrifluquinazon, a pyridine insecticide for whitefly control, and assess its compatibility with swirskii mite, and assess its comp...

  18. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  19. Flower Power: The Armoured Expert in the CanMEDS Competency Framework?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Cynthia R.; Austin, Zubin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Competency frameworks based on roles definitions are currently being used extensively in health professions education internationally. One of the most successful and widely used models is the CanMEDS Roles Framework. The medical literature has raised questions about both the theoretical underpinnings and the practical application of outcomes-based…

  20. Vigi4Med Scraper: A Framework for Web Forum Structured Data Extraction and Semantic Representation

    PubMed Central

    Audeh, Bissan; Beigbeder, Michel; Zimmermann, Antoine; Jaillon, Philippe; Bousquet, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    The extraction of information from social media is an essential yet complicated step for data analysis in multiple domains. In this paper, we present Vigi4Med Scraper, a generic open source framework for extracting structured data from web forums. Our framework is highly configurable; using a configuration file, the user can freely choose the data to extract from any web forum. The extracted data are anonymized and represented in a semantic structure using Resource Description Framework (RDF) graphs. This representation enables efficient manipulation by data analysis algorithms and allows the collected data to be directly linked to any existing semantic resource. To avoid server overload, an integrated proxy with caching functionality imposes a minimal delay between sequential requests. Vigi4Med Scraper represents the first step of Vigi4Med, a project to detect adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from social networks founded by the French drug safety agency Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament (ANSM). Vigi4Med Scraper has successfully extracted greater than 200 gigabytes of data from the web forums of over 20 different websites. PMID:28122056