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Sample records for erbium 168 target

  1. Position based nucleotide analysis of miR168 family in higher plants and its targets in mammalian transcripts.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mohammed; Solanki, Manish; Sinha, Anshika; Shukla, Lata Israni

    2017-02-15

    The conserved miR168 family is evaluated for position based nucleotide preference in higher plants. The mature miRNA sequences include miR168-5p and miR168-3p, were obtained from miRBase (v21, June 2014) for 15 families (28 plants) containing a-c subfamilies. The preferred position based nucleotide sequences were obtained for miR168-5p and miR168-3p using Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution (DAMBE). miR168-5p shows same nucleotides at positions 1-6, 8-9, 11-12, 15-17 and 19. Also, miR168-3p is present in 3 families (10 plants) shows the same nucleotide at position 1-11, 13-15 and 17-21. Our work suggests that miR168 family has conserved sequence in higher plants. The miR168-5p was subjected to cross kingdom analysis using psRNATarget. The seed region position 2-8 shows 70-95% pairing and cleavage site at position 10-14 were analysed for the base preference, in which pairing with the targets showed 80-96% Watson Crick pairing. The 123 targets in human transcriptome were identified showing 58% cleavage and 41% translation repression. Earlier reported Low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1(LDLRAP1) target validated for miR168a obtained from rice origin, could also be targeted from miR168 from any other plant sources. The randomly selected 10 targets include some important genes like RPL34, ATXN1, AKAPI3 and ALS2 and is involved in transcription, cell trafficking, cell metabolism and neurodegenerative disorder. This paper provides DAMBE analysis for miR168 across the plant kingdom and identification of new cross kingdom targets for miR168 using psRNATarget.

  2. Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Freeman, R. R.; Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Espada, L.; Chen, C. D.

    2009-09-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

  3. Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Dongxia; Chen, Xi; Li, Donghai; Zhu, Lingyun; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Jing; Bian, Zhen; Liang, Xiangying; Cai, Xing; Yin, Yuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Tianfu; Zhu, Dihan; Zhang, Dianmu; Xu, Jie; Chen, Qun; Ba, Yi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Jianqun; Wang, Jin; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qipeng; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that stable microRNAs (miRNAs) in mammalian serum and plasma are actively secreted from tissues and cells and can serve as a novel class of biomarkers for diseases, and act as signaling molecules in intercellular communication. Here, we report the surprising finding that exogenous plant miRNAs are present in the sera and tissues of various animals and that these exogenous plant miRNAs are primarily acquired orally, through food intake. MIR168a is abundant in rice and is one of the most highly enriched exogenous plant miRNAs in the sera of Chinese subjects. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that MIR168a could bind to the human/mouse low-density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (LDLRAP1) mRNA, inhibit LDLRAP1 expression in liver, and consequently decrease LDL removal from mouse plasma. These findings demonstrate that exogenous plant miRNAs in food can regulate the expression of target genes in mammals. PMID:21931358

  4. Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Dongxia; Chen, Xi; Li, Donghai; Zhu, Lingyun; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Jing; Bian, Zhen; Liang, Xiangying; Cai, Xing; Yin, Yuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Tianfu; Zhu, Dihan; Zhang, Dianmu; Xu, Jie; Chen, Qun; Ba, Yi; Liu, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Jianqun; Wang, Jin; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Qipeng; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that stable microRNAs (miRNAs) in mammalian serum and plasma are actively secreted from tissues and cells and can serve as a novel class of biomarkers for diseases, and act as signaling molecules in intercellular communication. Here, we report the surprising finding that exogenous plant miRNAs are present in the sera and tissues of various animals and that these exogenous plant miRNAs are primarily acquired orally, through food intake. MIR168a is abundant in rice and is one of the most highly enriched exogenous plant miRNAs in the sera of Chinese subjects. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that MIR168a could bind to the human/mouse low-density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (LDLRAP1) mRNA, inhibit LDLRAP1 expression in liver, and consequently decrease LDL removal from mouse plasma. These findings demonstrate that exogenous plant miRNAs in food can regulate the expression of target genes in mammals.

  5. Target dependent femtosecond laser plasma implantation dynamics in enabling silica for high density erbium doping.

    PubMed

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Murray, Matthew; Kakkar, Tarun; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil; Zolnai, Zsolt; Steenson, D P; Jha, Animesh; Jose, Gin

    2015-09-15

    Chemical dissimilarity of tellurium oxide with silica glass increases phase separation and crystallization tendency when mixed and melted for making a glass. We report a novel technique for incorporating an Er(3+)-doped tellurite glass composition into silica substrates through a femtosecond (fs) laser generated plasma assisted process. The engineered material consequently exhibits the spectroscopic properties of Er(3+)-ions, which are unachievable in pure silica and implies this as an ideal material for integrated photonics platforms. Formation of a well-defined metastable and homogeneous glass structure with Er(3+)-ions in a silica network, modified with tellurite has been characterized using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and structural analyses using HRTEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and laser excitation techniques, confirm that such fs-laser plasma implanted glasses may be engineered for significantly higher concentration of Er(3+)-ions without clustering, validated by the record high lifetime-density product 0.96 × 10(19) s.cm(-3). Characterization of planar optical layers and photoluminescence emission spectra were undertaken to determine their thickness, refractive indices and photoluminescence properties, as a function of Er(3+) concentration via different target glasses. The increased Er(3+) content in the target glass enhance the refractive index and photoluminescence intensity of the modified silica layer whilst the lifetime and thickness decrease.

  6. Target dependent femtosecond laser plasma implantation dynamics in enabling silica for high density erbium doping

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Murray, Matthew; Kakkar, Tarun; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil; Zolnai, Zsolt; Steenson, D.P.; Jha, Animesh; Jose, Gin

    2015-01-01

    Chemical dissimilarity of tellurium oxide with silica glass increases phase separation and crystallization tendency when mixed and melted for making a glass. We report a novel technique for incorporating an Er3+-doped tellurite glass composition into silica substrates through a femtosecond (fs) laser generated plasma assisted process. The engineered material consequently exhibits the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-ions, which are unachievable in pure silica and implies this as an ideal material for integrated photonics platforms. Formation of a well-defined metastable and homogeneous glass structure with Er3+-ions in a silica network, modified with tellurite has been characterized using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and structural analyses using HRTEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and laser excitation techniques, confirm that such fs-laser plasma implanted glasses may be engineered for significantly higher concentration of Er3+-ions without clustering, validated by the record high lifetime-density product 0.96 × 1019 s.cm−3. Characterization of planar optical layers and photoluminescence emission spectra were undertaken to determine their thickness, refractive indices and photoluminescence properties, as a function of Er3+ concentration via different target glasses. The increased Er3+ content in the target glass enhance the refractive index and photoluminescence intensity of the modified silica layer whilst the lifetime and thickness decrease. PMID:26370060

  7. Target dependent femtosecond laser plasma implantation dynamics in enabling silica for high density erbium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Murray, Matthew; Kakkar, Tarun; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil; Zolnai, Zsolt; Steenson, D. P.; Jha, Animesh; Jose, Gin

    2015-09-01

    Chemical dissimilarity of tellurium oxide with silica glass increases phase separation and crystallization tendency when mixed and melted for making a glass. We report a novel technique for incorporating an Er3+-doped tellurite glass composition into silica substrates through a femtosecond (fs) laser generated plasma assisted process. The engineered material consequently exhibits the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-ions, which are unachievable in pure silica and implies this as an ideal material for integrated photonics platforms. Formation of a well-defined metastable and homogeneous glass structure with Er3+-ions in a silica network, modified with tellurite has been characterized using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and structural analyses using HRTEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and laser excitation techniques, confirm that such fs-laser plasma implanted glasses may be engineered for significantly higher concentration of Er3+-ions without clustering, validated by the record high lifetime-density product 0.96 × 1019 s.cm-3. Characterization of planar optical layers and photoluminescence emission spectra were undertaken to determine their thickness, refractive indices and photoluminescence properties, as a function of Er3+ concentration via different target glasses. The increased Er3+ content in the target glass enhance the refractive index and photoluminescence intensity of the modified silica layer whilst the lifetime and thickness decrease.

  8. RHAMM/HMMR (CD168) is not an ideal target antigen for immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Snauwaert, Sylvia; Vanhee, Stijn; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Verstichel, Greet; Van Caeneghem, Yasmine; Velghe, Imke; Philippé, Jan; Berneman, Zwi N.; Plum, Jean; Taghon, Tom; Leclercq, Georges; Thielemans, Kris; Kerre, Tessa; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Background Criteria for good candidate antigens for immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia are high expression on leukemic stem cells in the majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and low or no expression in vital tissues. It was shown in vaccination trials that Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid Mediated Motility (RHAMM/HMMR) generates cellular immune responses in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and that these responses correlate with clinical benefit. It is not clear however whether this response actually targets the leukemic stem cell, especially since it was reported that RHAMM is expressed maximally during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. In addition, tumor specificity of RHAMM expression remains relatively unexplored. Design and Methods Blood, leukapheresis and bone marrow samples were collected from both acute myeloid leukemia patients and healthy controls. RHAMM expression was assessed at protein and mRNA levels on various sorted populations, either fresh or after manipulation. Results High levels of RHAMM were expressed by CD34+CD38+ and CD34- acute myeloid leukemia blasts. However, only baseline expression of RHAMM was measured in CD34+CD38- leukemic stem cells, and was not different from that in CD34+CD38- hematopoietic stem cells from healthy controls. RHAMM was significantly up-regulated in CD34+ cells from healthy donors during in vitro expansion and during in vivo engraftment. Finally, we demonstrated an explicit increase in the expression level of RHAMM after in vitro activation of T cells. Conclusions RHAMM does not fulfill the criteria of an ideal target antigen for immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia. RHAMM expression in leukemic stem cells does not differ significantly from the expression in hematopoietic stem cells from healthy controls. RHAMM expression in proliferating CD34+ cells of healthy donors and activated T cells further compromises RHAMM-specific T-cell-mediated immunotherapy. PMID:22532518

  9. The Installation of a Solid Target System Produced by Newton Scientific on a 168 JSW Baby Cyclotron Capable of Loading and Delivering Multiple Solid Targets with a Single Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Gaehle, G.; Margenau, P.; McCarthy, D.; Rowland, D.; Welch, M.; Hughey, B.; Klinkowstein, R.; Shefer, R.; Dart, A.; Ledoux, R.

    2003-08-26

    At Washington University we have used a single load and deliver solid target system since the early 90s. Currently we can produce Cd-109, Cu-64, Cu-60, Cu-61, Br-76, Br-77, Ga-66, I-124, Ti-45, Tc-94m, and Y-86. To increase our production capacity of these isotopes and increase safety of our personnel, we have installed a solid target system on our 168 JSW baby cyclotron capable of loading and delivering multiple solid targets with a single setup. The solid target has a cartridge with slots to house 6 electroplated solid target disks. The solid target holder can accommodate foil targets and inclined target using 1 slot and 3 slots respectively. Any combination of targets can be used taking up to 6 slots. The solid target system uses a Flex Link conveyor system with an egg shaped cart to safely deliver the bombarded target into a pig outside the vault area. The entire system is fully automated using a software package from Pyramid Technical Consultants being controlled by a Windows based personal computer.

  10. Helium trapping at erbium oxide precipitates in erbium hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Foiles, Stephen M.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler

    2016-02-01

    The formation of He bubbles in erbium tritides is a significant process in the aging of these materials. Due to the long-standing uncertainty about the initial nucleation process of these bubbles, there is interest in mechanisms that can lead to the localization of He in erbium hydrides. Previous work has been unable to identify nucleation sites in homogeneous erbium hydride. This work builds on the experimental observation that erbium hydrides have nano- scale erbium oxide precipitates due to the high thermodynamic stability of erbium oxide and the ubiquitous presence of oxygen during materials processing. Fundamental DFT calculations indicate that the He is energetically favored in the oxide relative to the bulk hydride. Activation energies for the motion of He in the oxide and at the oxide-hydride interface indicate that trapping is kinetically feasible. A simple kinetic Monte Carlo model is developed that demonstrates the degree of trapping of He as a function of temperature and oxide fraction.

  11. Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2010-10-04

    Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

  12. [Synthesis, characterization and NIR luminescence properties of erbium organic complexes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-shan; Qian, Guo-dong; Wang, Min-quan; Luo, Yong-shi; Lin, Jiu-ling

    2005-03-01

    Several erbium organic complexes, hydrated erbium binary complexes with acetylacetone (AcAc) or dibenzoylmethane (DBM), erbium ternary complexes derived from 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with acetylacetone (AcAc), dibenzoylmethane (DBM) or trifluoroacetylacetone (TFA), were synthesized and identified by elemental analysis. The UV-Vis absorption and FTIR spectra measurements have been employed for all the erbium complexes. Near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence properties, such as luminescence intensity and effective bandwidth, of the erbium complexes were also studied. As a result, the erbium ternary complex with AcAc and Phen exhibits the most excellent luminescence properties among those investigated complexes.

  13. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided for... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping...

  14. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  15. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  16. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  17. 46 CFR 168.15-50 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation. 168.15-50 Section 168.15-50 Shipping COAST... Accommodations § 168.15-50 Ventilation. (a) All quarters must be adequately ventilated in a manner suitable to the purpose of the space and route of the vessel. (b) When mechanical ventilation is provided...

  18. 33 CFR 168.01 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 168.01 Section 168.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY ESCORT REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN TANKERS § 168.01 Purpose. (a) This part prescribes regulations...

  19. 25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental value of all uses of Hopi Partitioned lands by...

  20. 25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental value of all uses of Hopi Partitioned lands by...

  1. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...

  2. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...

  3. 12 CFR 168.3 - Security program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security program. 168.3 Section 168.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITY PROCEDURES § 168.3 Security program. (a) Contents of security program. The security program shall: (1) Establish procedures...

  4. 12 CFR 168.3 - Security program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security program. 168.3 Section 168.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITY PROCEDURES § 168.3 Security program. (a) Contents of security program. The security program shall: (1) Establish procedures...

  5. 25 CFR 168.14 - Livestock trespass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Livestock trespass. 168.14 Section 168.14 Indians BUREAU... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.14 Livestock trespass. The owner of any livestock grazing in trespass on the Hopi... Hopi Partitioned Lands of any livestock without an approved grazing or crossing permit; (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 168.15-40 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting. 168.15-40 Section 168.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-40 Lighting. All quarters, including washrooms, toilet rooms, and hospital spaces,...

  7. 46 CFR 168.15-40 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting. 168.15-40 Section 168.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-40 Lighting. All quarters, including washrooms, toilet rooms, and hospital spaces,...

  8. 46 CFR 168.15-40 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting. 168.15-40 Section 168.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-40 Lighting. All quarters, including washrooms, toilet rooms, and hospital spaces,...

  9. 46 CFR 168.15-40 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lighting. 168.15-40 Section 168.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-40 Lighting. All quarters, including washrooms, toilet rooms, and hospital spaces,...

  10. 46 CFR 168.15-40 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting. 168.15-40 Section 168.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-40 Lighting. All quarters, including washrooms, toilet rooms, and hospital spaces,...

  11. 40 CFR 98.168 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 98.168 Section 98.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.168 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  12. 40 CFR 98.168 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 98.168 Section 98.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.168 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  13. 40 CFR 98.168 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 98.168 Section 98.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.168 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  14. 40 CFR 98.168 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 98.168 Section 98.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.168 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  15. 40 CFR 98.168 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 98.168 Section 98.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.168 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  16. 33 CFR 168.10 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 168.10 Section 168.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY ESCORT REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN TANKERS § 168.10 Responsibilities. (a) The...

  17. 33 CFR 168.10 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibilities. 168.10 Section 168.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY ESCORT REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN TANKERS § 168.10 Responsibilities. (a) The...

  18. 33 CFR 168.10 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 168.10 Section 168.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY ESCORT REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN TANKERS § 168.10 Responsibilities. (a) The...

  19. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office...

  1. 32 CFR 168a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 168a.2 Section 168a.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.2 Applicability. This part applies to the Office...

  2. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or...

  3. 34 CFR 300.168 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Membership. 300.168 Section 300.168 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Eligibility State Advisory Panel § 300.168 Membership. (a) General. The advisory panel...

  4. 34 CFR 300.168 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Membership. 300.168 Section 300.168 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Eligibility State Advisory Panel § 300.168 Membership. (a) General. The advisory panel...

  5. 34 CFR 300.168 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Membership. 300.168 Section 300.168 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Eligibility State Advisory Panel § 300.168 Membership. (a) General. The advisory panel...

  6. 34 CFR 300.168 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership. 300.168 Section 300.168 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Eligibility State Advisory Panel § 300.168 Membership. (a) General. The advisory panel...

  7. 34 CFR 300.168 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Membership. 300.168 Section 300.168 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES State Eligibility State Advisory Panel § 300.168 Membership. (a) General. The advisory panel...

  8. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...

  9. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...

  10. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of...

  11. 28 CFR 16.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business information. 16.8 Section 16.8... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Department from a submitter will be disclosed under the...

  12. 28 CFR 16.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business information. 16.8 Section 16.8... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Department from a submitter will be disclosed under the...

  13. 28 CFR 16.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business information. 16.8 Section 16.8... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Department from a submitter will be disclosed under the...

  14. 28 CFR 16.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business information. 16.8 Section 16.8... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Department from a submitter will be disclosed under the...

  15. 28 CFR 16.8 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business information. 16.8 Section 16.8... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 16.8 Business information. (a) In general. Business information obtained by the Department from a submitter will be disclosed under the...

  16. 25 CFR 168.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 168.1 Section 168.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 168.1 Definitions. As used in this part, terms shall have the meanings set forth in this section. (a... productivity or usability. (j) Permit means a revocable privilege granted in writing limited to entering on...

  17. Erbium Doped Fiber Optic Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pérez-Torres, J. R.; Flores-Bravo, J. A.; Álvarez-Chávez, J. A.; Martínez-Piñón, F.

    2017-01-01

    Gravimeters are devices that can be used in a wide range of applications, such as mining, seismology, geodesy, archeology, geophysics and many others. These devices have great sensibility, which makes them susceptible to external vibrations like electromagnetic waves. There are several technologies regarding gravimeters that are of use in industrial metrology. Optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, and together with long period gratings can form high sensibility sensors of small size, offering advantages over other systems with different technologies. This paper shows the development of an optical fiber gravimeter doped with Erbium that was characterized optically for loads going from 1 to 10 kg in a bandwidth between 1590nm to 1960nm, displaying a weight linear response against power. Later on this paper, the experimental results show that the previous described behavior can be modeled as characteristic function of the sensor.

  18. Data acquisition using the 168/E. [CERN ISR

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.T.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Martin, B.; Norton, A.; Porte, J.P.; Rossi, P.; Storr, K.M.

    1983-03-01

    Event sizes and data rates at the CERN anti p p collider compose a formidable environment for a high level trigger. A system using three 168/E processors for experiment UA1 real-time event selection is described. With 168/E data memory expanded to 512K bytes, each processor holds a complete event allowing a FORTRAN trigger algorithm access to data from the entire detector. A smart CAMAC interface reads five Remus branches in parallel transferring one word to the target processor every 0.5 ..mu..s. The NORD host computer can simultaneously read an accepted event from another processor.

  19. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  20. Photonic properties of erbium activated coated microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jestin, Y.; Armellini, C.; Chiappini, A.; Chiasera, A.; Dumeige, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Féron, P.; Ghisa, L.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Trebaol, S.; Righini, G. C.

    2008-02-01

    μA simple method based on the sol-gel technology has been developed to coat passive microspheres with an active coating. The microspheres were prepared by fusion of a standard telecom fiber with a dimension of about 200 μm and 400 μm and have been respectively dipped in a 70SiO II-30HfO II sol activated by 1 mol% and 0.1 mol% of erbium ions. Here we first report about the luminescence properties of a silica-hafnia coating doped with erbium ions and then whispering gallery mode spectra were analysed for different sphere diameters, thickness of coating and erbium concentration. The thickness of the coating has been chosen in order to support at least one whispering gallery mode at 1.5 μm.

  1. 12 CFR 16.8 - Small issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small issues. 16.8 Section 16.8 Banks and....8 Small issues. (a) The OCC will deem offers and sales of bank issued securities that satisfy the requirements of Commission Regulation A (17 CFR part 230, Regulation A—Conditional Small Issues Exemption)...

  2. 27 CFR 17.168 - Recovered spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovered spirits. 17.168 Section 17.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... separate alcohol is subject to the registration requirements of 26 U.S.C. 5179 and subpart C of part 29...

  3. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  4. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  5. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  6. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  7. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  8. 46 CFR 168.15-10 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction. 168.15-10 Section 168.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS... lighted, heated, drained, ventilated, equipped, located, arranged, and insulated from undue noise,...

  9. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  10. 46 CFR 168.15-10 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction. 168.15-10 Section 168.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS... lighted, heated, drained, ventilated, equipped, located, arranged, and insulated from undue noise,...

  11. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  12. 46 CFR 168.15-1 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intent. 168.15-1 Section 168.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations... insulated from undue noise, heat and odors....

  13. 46 CFR 168.15-10 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction. 168.15-10 Section 168.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS... lighted, heated, drained, ventilated, equipped, located, arranged, and insulated from undue noise,...

  14. 46 CFR 168.15-10 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction. 168.15-10 Section 168.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS... lighted, heated, drained, ventilated, equipped, located, arranged, and insulated from undue noise,...

  15. 46 CFR 168.15-10 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction. 168.15-10 Section 168.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS... lighted, heated, drained, ventilated, equipped, located, arranged, and insulated from undue noise,...

  16. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  17. 50 CFR 665.168 - Seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons. 665.168 Section 665.168 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Seasons. The fishing year for precious coral begins on July 1 and ends on June 30 the following year....

  18. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423... Improvement Requirements § 423.168 Accreditation organizations. (a) Conditions for approval. CMS may approve an accreditation organization for a given standard under this part if the organization meets...

  19. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423... Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.168 Accreditation organizations. (a) Conditions for approval. CMS may approve an accreditation organization for a given standard under this part if the...

  20. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423... Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.168 Accreditation organizations. (a) Conditions for approval. CMS may approve an accreditation organization for a given standard under this part if the...

  1. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423... Improvement Requirements § 423.168 Accreditation organizations. (a) Conditions for approval. CMS may approve an accreditation organization for a given standard under this part if the organization meets...

  2. 42 CFR 423.168 - Accreditation organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accreditation organizations. 423.168 Section 423... Quality Improvement Requirements § 423.168 Accreditation organizations. (a) Conditions for approval. CMS may approve an accreditation organization for a given standard under this part if the...

  3. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  4. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  5. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  6. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  7. 25 CFR 168.13 - Fences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.13 Fences. Fencing will be erected by the Federal Government around the perimeter of the 1882... partitioned to each tribe by the Judgment of Partition of April 18, 1979. Fencing of other areas in the former... established under § 168.4. Such fencing shall be erected at Government expense and ownership shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  9. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  10. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  11. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  12. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  13. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  14. 21 CFR 168.122 - Lactose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactose. 168.122 Section 168.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  15. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  16. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  17. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  18. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  19. 21 CFR 168.140 - Maple sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maple sirup. 168.140 Section 168.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  20. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dextrose monohydrate. 168.111 Section 168.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  1. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  2. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  3. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dextrose anhydrous. 168.110 Section 168.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners...

  4. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  5. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  6. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  7. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as required by the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 168

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2010-07-15

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to all nuclei with mass A=168 (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt) have been evaluated and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication (V.S. Shirley, Nuclear Data Sheets 71, 261 (1994) (literature cutoff date July 1993)) and subsequent ENSDF file revisions for Tb and Dy (C. Baglin, literature cutoff date of 15 June 1999) and Hf (B. Singh, literature cutoff date of 30 April 2001), and includes literature available by 15 June 2010. Since the above evaluations, the first excited states in {sup 168}Pt have been identified (1998Ki20, 2009Go16) and {alpha} decay from {sup 172}Hg has been observed (2009Sa27, 2004Ke06, 1999Se14). New levels in {sup 168}Dy have been excited using the {sup 170}Er({sup 82}Se,{sup 84}Kr{gamma}) reaction (2010So03). (HI,xn{gamma}) studies have significantly expanded our knowledge of level structure in {sup 168}Lu (1999Ka17, 2002Ha33), {sup 168}Ta (2008QiZZ), {sup 168}Yb (1995Fi01), {sup 168}Tm (2007CaZW), {sup 168}Hf (2009Ya21), {sup 168}Os (2001Jo11, 2009Od02) and, for {sup 168}Tm, important information has come also from (d,2n{gamma}) and ({alpha},n{gamma}) reactions (1995Si20). Revised decay schemes are available following new studies of {sup 168}Hf {epsilon} decay (6.7 min) (1997Ba26), {sup 168}Lu {epsilon} decay (1999Ba65), {sup 168}Ta {epsilon} decay (2007Mc08) and {sup 172}Au {alpha} decay (2009Ha42). Significant new information for {sup 168}Er is available from (p,t) (2006Bu09), (d,p) and (t,d) (1996Ma50), ({gamma},{gamma}') (1996Ma18), (136Xe, X{gamma}) (2010Dr02), ({sup 238}U,{sup 238}U{sup '{gamma}}) (2003Wu07) and (n,n{sup '{gamma}}) (1998Be20, 1998Be62) reactions, and the availability of {gamma}{gamma} coin data (1994Ju02, 1996Gi09) for the (n,{gamma}) E=thermal reaction has resulted in some significant level scheme revisions.

  9. Erbium:YAG laser for cataract extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Robert W.; Jani, Mahendra G.; Yarborough, Mike; Marcellino, George R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Kramer, Theresa R.; Vidaurri, Jesus

    1998-06-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser may be an effective laser for use in cataract surgery. At 2.94 mm the energy is maximally absorbed by water thereby efficiently disrupting tissue with minimal surrounding thermal damage. The laser may be safer to use in the eye than conventional ultrasonic emulsifiers. Preliminary clinical studies of the safety and efficacy have begun.

  10. Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

  11. Luminescence from Erbium Oxide Grown on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    H9.14 Luminescence from erbium oxide grown on silicon E. Nogales’, B. Mrndez , J.Piqueras’, R.Plugaru2 , J. A. Garcfa3 and T. J. Tate4 ’ Universidad ... Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Ffsica de Materiales, 28040 Madrid, Spain.2Inst. of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania.3Universidad del Pais Vasco, Dpto

  12. 46 CFR 168.15-15 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 168.15-15 Size. (a) Sleeping accommodations must be divided into rooms, no one of which may berth more...) for each person accommodated. In measuring sleeping quarters, any furnishings contained therein...

  13. 46 CFR 168.15-15 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 168.15-15 Size. (a) Sleeping accommodations must be divided into rooms, no one of which may berth more...) for each person accommodated. In measuring sleeping quarters, any furnishings contained therein...

  14. 46 CFR 168.15-25 - Washrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Accommodations § 168.15-25 Washrooms. (a) There must be provided 1 shower for each 10 persons or fraction thereof... which private or semi-private facilities are attached. (b) All wash basins and showers must be...

  15. 40 CFR 168.68 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.68 Applicability. This subpart applies to all export pesticide products and export pesticide devices that...

  16. 46 CFR 168.15-15 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 168.15-15 Size. (a) Sleeping accommodations must be divided into rooms, no one of which may berth more...) for each person accommodated. In measuring sleeping quarters, any furnishings contained therein...

  17. 46 CFR 168.15-15 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 168.15-15 Size. (a) Sleeping accommodations must be divided into rooms, no one of which may berth more...) for each person accommodated. In measuring sleeping quarters, any furnishings contained therein...

  18. 46 CFR 168.15-15 - Size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 168.15-15 Size. (a) Sleeping accommodations must be divided into rooms, no one of which may berth more...) for each person accommodated. In measuring sleeping quarters, any furnishings contained therein...

  19. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191....

  20. 32 CFR 168a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.1 Purpose. This part: (a) Establishes guidelines for the award of National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowships, as required by 10 U.S.C. 2191....

  1. RNF168 and USP10 regulate topoisomerase IIα function via opposing effects on its ubiquitylation

    PubMed Central

    Guturi, Kiran Kumar Naidu; Bohgaki, Miyuki; Bohgaki, Toshiyuki; Srikumar, Tharan; Ng, Deborah; Kumareswaran, Ramya; El Ghamrasni, Samah; Jeon, Justin; Patel, Parasvi; Eldin, Mohamed Saad; Bristow, Rob; Cheung, Peter; Stewart, Grant S.; Raught, Brian; Hakem, Anne; Hakem, Razqallah

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase IIα (TOP2α) is essential for chromosomal condensation and segregation, as well as genomic integrity. Here we report that RNF168, an E3 ligase mutated in the human RIDDLE syndrome, interacts with TOP2α and mediates its ubiquitylation. RNF168 deficiency impairs decatenation activity of TOP2α and promotes mitotic abnormalities and defective chromosomal segregation. Our data also indicate that RNF168 deficiency, including in human breast cancer cell lines, confers resistance to the anti-cancer drug and TOP2 inhibitor etoposide. We also identify USP10 as a deubiquitylase that negatively regulates TOP2α ubiquitylation and restrains its chromatin association. These findings provide a mechanistic link between the RNF168/USP10 axis and TOP2α ubiquitylation and function, and suggest a role for RNF168 in the response to anti-cancer chemotherapeutics that target TOP2. PMID:27558965

  2. Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, S.; Rotzinger, H.; Tkalčec, A.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Wünsch, S.; Siegel, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P. A.

    2014-10-20

    We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

  3. Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser with enhanced feedback coupling using common Erbium gain section.

    PubMed

    Samsuri, N M; Zamzuri, A K; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ahmad, A; Mahdi, M A

    2008-10-13

    We demonstrate an enhanced architecture of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser utilizing the reverse-S-shaped fiber section as the coupling mechanism. The enhancement is made by locating a common section of Erbium-doped fiber next to the single-mode fiber to amplify the Brillouin pumps and the oscillating Stokes lines. The requirement of having two Erbium gain sections to enhance the multiple Brillouin Stokes lines generation is neglected by the proposed fiber laser structure. The mode competitions arise from the self-lasing cavity modes of the fiber laser are efficiently suppressed by the stronger pre-amplified Brillouin pump power before entering the single mode fiber section. The maximum output power of 20 mW is obtained from the proposed fiber laser with 10 laser lines that equally separated by 0.089 nm spacing.

  4. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-09-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  5. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-2 - Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f)(8) lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 168(f)(8) lease. 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f... property was first placed in service, as defined in § 5c.168(f)(8)-6(b)(2)(i) (or prior to November...

  6. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-2 - Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f)(8) lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section 168(f)(8) lease. 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f... property was first placed in service, as defined in § 5c.168(f)(8)-6(b)(2)(i) (or prior to November...

  7. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-2 - Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f)(8) lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section 168(f)(8) lease. 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f... property was first placed in service, as defined in § 5c.168(f)(8)-6(b)(2)(i) (or prior to November...

  8. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-2 - Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f)(8) lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 168(f)(8) lease. 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f... property was first placed in service, as defined in § 5c.168(f)(8)-6(b)(2)(i) (or prior to November...

  9. Slow light propagation in a ring erbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Bencheikh, K; Baldit, E; Briaudeau, S; Monnier, P; Levenson, J A; Mélin, G

    2010-12-06

    Slow light propagation is demonstrated by implementing Coherent Population Oscillations in a silica fiber doped with erbium ions in a ring surrounding the single mode core. Though only the wings of the mode interact with erbium ions, group velocities around 1360 m/s are obtained without any spatial distortion of the propagating mode.

  10. Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid.

    PubMed Central

    Gumpel, J M; Matthews, S A; Fisher, M

    1979-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection. PMID:386961

  11. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-2 - Lease term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease term. 1.168(i)-2 Section 1.168(i)-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(i)-2 Lease term. (a) In general. For purposes of section 168, a lease term is determined under all the facts...

  12. 32 CFR 168a.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering (Research and Advanced Technology) , shall: (1) Administer this part and issue DoD... representative of the Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering (Research and Advanced...

  13. 32 CFR 168a.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering (Research and Advanced Technology) , shall: (1) Administer this part and issue DoD... representative of the Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering (Research and Advanced...

  14. 40 CFR 35.168 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.168...) The State monitors and compiles, analyzes, and reports water quality data as described in section 106(e)(1) of the Clean Water Act; (2) The State has authority comparable to that in section 504 of...

  15. 40 CFR 35.168 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.168...) The State monitors and compiles, analyzes, and reports water quality data as described in section 106(e)(1) of the Clean Water Act; (2) The State has authority comparable to that in section 504 of...

  16. 40 CFR 35.168 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.168...) The State monitors and compiles, analyzes, and reports water quality data as described in section 106(e)(1) of the Clean Water Act; (2) The State has authority comparable to that in section 504 of...

  17. 40 CFR 35.168 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.168...) The State monitors and compiles, analyzes, and reports water quality data as described in section 106(e)(1) of the Clean Water Act; (2) The State has authority comparable to that in section 504 of...

  18. 40 CFR 35.168 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.168...) The State monitors and compiles, analyzes, and reports water quality data as described in section 106(e)(1) of the Clean Water Act; (2) The State has authority comparable to that in section 504 of...

  19. 22 CFR 16.8 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.8 Agency review. (a...), the Director of Personnel and Manpower (AID), and the Chief, Employee-Management Relations Division (USIA). (3) Contents. (i) A request for agency review shall include a description of the act...

  20. 22 CFR 16.8 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.8 Agency review. (a... officials. The responsible officials of the agencies are the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Personnel (State... rests; the identity of individuals having knowledge of relevant facts; and a statement of the...

  1. 12 CFR 16.8 - Small issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... part. (b) A filer should consult the Commission's Securities Act Industry Guide 3—Statistical... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.8 Small issues. (a) The OCC will deem offers and sales of bank issued securities that satisfy...

  2. Preparative scale separation of thulium from erbium for neutron capture cross section measurements - Part: Preparative scale

    DOE PAGES

    Birnbaum, Eva R.; Bene, Balazs J.; Taylor, Wayne Allen; ...

    2016-06-04

    Here, this paper discusses the development of a separation method for isolation of Tm-171 from a half-gram irradiated erbium target in support of stockpile stewardship and astrophysics research. The developed procedure is based on cation exchange separation using alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as chelating agent. It is able to achieve either a decontamination factor of 1.4(4) × 105 with 68.9(3) % recovery or 95.4(3) % recovery with a decontamination factor of 5.82(7) × 103 for a mock 500-mg target containing 17.9 mg thulium in a single pass-through at room temperature.

  3. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA).

  4. Film type SO-168 radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. N.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were performed to determine optimum exposure and processing procedures necessary to partially offset the effect of radiation to which film type SO-168 will be exposed during the Skylab Mission. This task became necessary when it was determined that original predictions of 2 to 3 RADS of radiation to which the film will be exposed were too low, and that levels as high as 3.5 to 4.0 RADS may be incurred, thus reducing image quality below an acceptable level. Tests results show that forced processing of type SO-168 film tended to reduce the density range to an unusable level, and that processing to a lower ASA value would provide greater image quality for the user.

  5. Erbium triflate promoted multicomponent synthesis of highly substituted imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Suresh, Rajendran; Mariappan, Arumugam; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2014-02-07

    The synthesis of highly substituted imidazole derivatives has been achieved from various α-azido chalcones, aryl aldehydes, and anilines. This multicomponent protocol employs erbium triflate as a catalyst resulting in excellent yield of the imidazoles.

  6. Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Abedin, K S; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J; Supradeepa, V R; Fini, J M; Yan, M F; Zhu, B; Monberg, E M; Dimarcello, F V

    2012-08-27

    A cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped fiber amplifier for simultaneous amplification of 6 channels is demonstrated. Peak gain over 32 dB has been obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm and the bandwidth measured at 20-dB gain was about 35 nm. Numerical modeling of cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped amplifier was also performed to study the properties of the amplifier. The results of experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement.

  7. RNF168 cooperates with RNF8 to mediate FOXM1 ubiquitination and degradation in breast cancer epirubicin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kongsema, M; Zona, S; Karunarathna, U; Cabrera, E; Man, E P S; Yao, S; Shibakawa, A; Khoo, U-S; Medema, R H; Freire, R; Lam, E W-F

    2016-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) transcription factor has a central role in genotoxic agent response in breast cancer. FOXM1 is regulated at the post-translational level upon DNA damage, but the key mechanism involved remained enigmatic. RNF168 is a ubiquitination E3-ligase involved in DNA damage response. Western blot and gene promoter-reporter analyses showed that the expression level and transcriptional activity of FOXM1 reduced upon RNF168 overexpression and increased with RNF168 depletion by siRNA, suggesting that RNF168 negatively regulates FOXM1 expression. Co-immunoprecipitation studies in MCF-7 cells revealed that RNF168 interacted with FOXM1 and that upon epirubicin treatment FOXM1 downregulation was associated with an increase in RNF168 binding and conjugation to the protein degradation-associated K48-linked polyubiquitin chains. Consistently, RNF168 overexpression resulted in an increase in turnover of FOXM1 in MCF-7 cells treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Conversely, RNF168, knockdown significantly enhanced the half-life of FOXM1 in both absence and presence of epirubicin. Using a SUMOylation-defective FOXM1-5x(K>R) mutant, we demonstrated that SUMOylation is required for the recruitment of RNF168 to mediate FOXM1 degradation. In addition, clonogenic assays also showed that RNF168 mediates epirubicin action through targeting FOXM1, as RNF168 could synergise with epirubicin to repress clonal formation in wild-type but not in FOXM1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). The physiological relevance of RNF168-mediated FOXM1 repression is further emphasized by the significant inverse correlation between FOXM1 and RNF168 expression in breast cancer patient samples. Moreover, we also obtained evidence that RNF8 recruits RNF168 to FOXM1 upon epirubicin treatment and cooperates with RNF168 to catalyse FOXM1 ubiquitination and degradation. Collectively, these data suggest that RNF168 cooperates with RNF8 to mediate the ubiquitination and

  8. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V.

    2013-11-01

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO2) there were used such oxides as WO3, MoO3, La2O3, Li2CO3, ZnO—Bi2O2CO3 and active components such as high purity Er2O3, Yb2O3, ErF3 and YbF3. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er3+ and Yb3+ as active elements for fiber and integrated optics.

  9. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V.

    2013-11-15

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) there were used such oxides as WO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZnO—Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and active components such as high purity Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ErF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: In contrast to the case of ZBLAN glass the TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (Er{sup 3+}) glass has bright intensity of luminescence at 1.53 µm for erbium ions that should be caused by excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined changes in growth of luminescence in doubly-doped tellurite glasses. • We found that luminescence grows in two orders by using Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} at 1.53 μm. • We see possibility to use those glasses as active elements for integrated optics.

  10. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168 Section 440.168 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.168...

  11. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168... FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall be conducted in accordance with recognized principles of good range management....

  12. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168... FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall be conducted in accordance with recognized principles of good range management....

  13. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168... FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall be conducted in accordance with recognized principles of good range management....

  14. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168... FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall be conducted in accordance with recognized principles of good range management....

  15. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168... FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall be conducted in accordance with recognized principles of good range management....

  16. 46 CFR 168.15-5 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 168.15-5 Section 168.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-5 Location of crew spaces. (a) Quarters must be located so that...

  17. 46 CFR 168.15-35 - Hospital space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital space. 168.15-35 Section 168.15-35 Shipping... VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-35 Hospital space. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a hospital space. This space must be situated with due regard for the comfort of the sick so that they may receive...

  18. 46 CFR 168.15-5 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 168.15-5 Section 168.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-5 Location of crew spaces. (a) Quarters must be located so that...

  19. 46 CFR 168.15-35 - Hospital space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital space. 168.15-35 Section 168.15-35 Shipping... VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-35 Hospital space. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a hospital space. This space must be situated with due regard for the comfort of the sick so that they may receive...

  20. 46 CFR 168.15-5 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 168.15-5 Section 168.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-5 Location of crew spaces. (a) Quarters must be located so that...

  1. 46 CFR 168.15-35 - Hospital space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital space. 168.15-35 Section 168.15-35 Shipping... VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-35 Hospital space. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a hospital space. This space must be situated with due regard for the comfort of the sick so that they may receive...

  2. 25 CFR 168.4 - Establishment of range units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Establishment of range units. 168.4 Section 168.4 Indians... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.4 Establishment of range units. The Area Director will use Soil and Range Inventory data to establish range units on the Hopi Partitioned Area to provide for a surface...

  3. 25 CFR 168.4 - Establishment of range units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of range units. 168.4 Section 168.4 Indians... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.4 Establishment of range units. The Area Director will use Soil and Range Inventory data to establish range units on the Hopi Partitioned Area to provide for a surface...

  4. 25 CFR 168.4 - Establishment of range units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment of range units. 168.4 Section 168.4 Indians... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.4 Establishment of range units. The Area Director will use Soil and Range Inventory data to establish range units on the Hopi Partitioned Area to provide for a surface...

  5. 25 CFR 168.4 - Establishment of range units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of range units. 168.4 Section 168.4 Indians... PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.4 Establishment of range units. The Area Director will use Soil and Range Inventory data to establish range units on the Hopi Partitioned Area to provide for a surface...

  6. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  7. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  8. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  9. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  10. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fort Lewis Area Access Office. 552.168 Section 552.168 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM...

  11. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fort Lewis Area Access Office. 552.168 Section 552.168 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM...

  12. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Fort Lewis Area Access Office. 552.168 Section 552.168 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY..., Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM...

  13. 25 CFR 168.7 - Kind of livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kind of livestock. 168.7 Section 168.7 Indians BUREAU OF... LANDS AREA § 168.7 Kind of livestock. Unless determined otherwise by the Area Director for conservation purposes, the Hopi Tribe may determine, subject to the authorized carrying capacity, the kind of...

  14. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  15. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  16. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  17. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  18. 46 CFR 168.15-45 - Heating and cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 168.15-45 Section 168.15-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-45 Heating and cooling. All quarters must be adequately heated and...

  19. 46 CFR 168.05-15 - Right of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right of appeal. 168.05-15 Section 168.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS General Requirements § 168.05-15 Right of appeal. Any person directly affected by a decision...

  20. 31 CFR 16.8 - Service of complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service of complaint. 16.8 Section 16.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.8 Service of complaint. (a) Service of a complaint must...

  1. 25 CFR 168.4 - Establishment of range units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment of range units. 168.4 Section 168.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.4 Establishment of range units. The Area Director will use Soil and...

  2. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  3. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  4. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  5. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  6. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident...

  7. 46 CFR 168.15-35 - Hospital space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital space. 168.15-35 Section 168.15-35 Shipping... VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-35 Hospital space. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a hospital space. This space must be situated with due regard for the comfort of the sick so that they may receive...

  8. 46 CFR 168.15-35 - Hospital space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital space. 168.15-35 Section 168.15-35 Shipping... VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-35 Hospital space. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a hospital space. This space must be situated with due regard for the comfort of the sick so that they may receive...

  9. 46 CFR 168.15-5 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 168.15-5 Section 168.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-5 Location of crew spaces. (a) Quarters must be located so that...

  10. 46 CFR 168.15-5 - Location of crew spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of crew spaces. 168.15-5 Section 168.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Accommodations § 168.15-5 Location of crew spaces. (a) Quarters must be located so that...

  11. A self-Q-switched all-fiber erbium laser at 1530 nm using an auxiliary 1570-nm erbium laser.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzong-Yow; Fang, Yen-Cheng

    2009-11-23

    We demonstrate a self-Q-switched, all-fiber, tunable, erbium laser at 1530 nm with high pulse repetition rates of 0.9-10 kHz. Through the use of an auxiliary 10-mW, 1570 nm laser that shortened the relaxation time of erbium, sequentially Q-switched pulses with pulse energies between 4 and 6 microJ and pulse widths of 40 ns were steadily achieved. A peak pulse power of 165 W was obtained.

  12. Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

    2014-07-01

    It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

  13. Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxing; Mou, Chengbo; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate generation of sub-100 fs pulses at 1.5 µm in a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating element. The laser features a genuine all-fiber configuration. Based on the unique polarization properties of the 45°-tilted fiber grating, we managed to produce sub-100 fs laser pulses through proper dispersion management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse generated from mode-locked lasers with fiber gratings. The output pulse has an average power of 8 mW, with a repetition rate of 47.8 MHz and pulse energy of 1.68 nJ. The performance of laser also matches well the theoretical simulations.

  14. Suppressor System in Bacillus subtilis 168

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Multiple auxotrophic strains of Bacillus subtilis 168 were tested for joint one-step reversion of two or more auxotrophic markers to the wild-type phenotype. Mu8u5u5, a strain requiring leucine, methionine, and threonine, yielded revertants that grew without added methionine or threonine and proved to have a suppressor gene. When transferred by transformation with deoxyribonucleic acid, this suppressor gene also suppressed the adenine mutation in another strain, Mu8u5u6. The one-step double revertants fell into two distinct classes: strains of class su+I grow well in broth; strains of class su+II grow poorly. Strains su+II tend to revert frequently to the su+I or su− state. Conditional lethal mutants of phage φe were isolated which can grow on the su+ and not on the su− strains. PMID:4975748

  15. High pressure studies of the erbium hydrogen system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palasyuk, T.; Tkacz, M.; Vajda, P.

    2005-07-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction investigations up to 25 GPa using diamond anvil cell techniques (DAC) have been carried out on erbium and a series of erbium hydrides. The equations of state have been evaluated for ErH 1.95, ErH 2.091 (in the β-phase) and for γ-ErH 3. For comparison, the compressibility of pure erbium metal has also been determined in the same pressure range. A rapid drop of lattice volume at a pressure of about 14.5 GPa has been observed for ErH 2.091 accompanied by a color change of reflected light. This phenomenon was not observed in ErH 1.95 where the molar volume varied smoothly up to the highest pressure. A pressure-induced transformation from hexagonal to cubic phase has been detected for erbium trihydride. For pure erbium metal, a transition from hexagonal to samarium structure has been revealed, confirming previously reported behavior.

  16. Activatino of Erbium Films for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    M Brumbach; j Ohlhausen; K Zavadil; C Snow; J Woicik

    2011-12-31

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  17. Laser cooling transitions in atomic erbium.

    PubMed

    Ban, H; Jacka, M; Hanssen, J; Reader, J; McClelland, J

    2005-04-18

    We discuss laser cooling opportunities in atomic erbium, identifying five J ? J + 1 transitions from the 4f126s2 3H6 ground state that are accessible to common visible and near-infrared continuous-wave tunable lasers. We present lifetime measurements for the 4f11(4Io 15/2)5d5/26s2 (15/2, 5/2)7o state at 11888 cm-1 and the 4f11(4Io 13/2)5d3/26s2 (13/2, 5/2)7o state at 15847 cm-1, showing values of 20 +/- 4 micros and 5.6 +/- 1.4 micros, respectively. We also present a calculated value of 13 +/- 7 s-1 for the transition rate from the 4f11(4Io 15/2)5d3/26s2 (15/2, 3/2)7 o state at 7697 cm-1 to the ground state, based on scaled Hartree-Fock energy parameters. Laser cooling on these transitions in combination with a strong, fast (5.8 ns) laser cooling transition at 401 nm, suggest new opportunities for narrowband laser cooling of a large-magnetic moment atom, with possible applications in quantum information processing, high-precision atomic clocks, quantum degenerate gases, and deterministic single-atom doping of materials.

  18. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S. Rohani, M. S. Sahar, M. R. Arifin, R. Ghoshal, S. K. Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  19. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing using a novel portable device.

    PubMed

    Gordon, James; Khan, Misbah H; Khatri, Khalil A

    2007-05-01

    Laser resurfacing of facial rhytids has become a popular treatment for many patients who have wrinkles, photodamage, and acne scarring. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing has emerged as one of the safer, more effective methods of facial rejuvenation and its increasing popularity has led to its widespread use for resurfacing. However, size and high initial and maintenance cost are among the problems with currently available laser devices. The LightPod portable Erbium:YAG laser from Aerolase offers a new paradigm for more cost effective means of performing ablative resurfacing with reduced initial and maintenance cost and the ease of portability with significantly reduced size and weight. The objective of this pilot study was to analyze the efficacy of The LightPod Erbium:YAG laser in different skin types for various indications.

  20. On-line experience with the 168/E

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.T.; Brau, J.E.; Maruyama, T.; Parker, D.B.; Chima, J.S.; Price, D.R.; Rankin, P.; Hatley, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    Current 20 GeV/c photoproduction experiments at the SLAC Hybrid Facility require a decision to take a picture within 150 to 300 ..mu..s after the beam pulse. A charged track trigger is provided by a 168/E processor which finds tracks in a downstream PWC system. To meet trigger time requirements the 168/E SNOOP module CAMAC interface is augmented by a CAMAD Auxiliary Controller and dedicated I/0 cards in the 168/E chassis. Between beam pulses a floating point Fortran program executing on a 168/E monitors data acquisition. Experiences with software development and application are reviewed.

  1. Spectroscopic properties and Judd-Ofelt theory analysis of erbium chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaishan; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Minquan

    2005-11-01

    Erbium chelates including tris(acetylacetonato) erbium(III) monohydrate, tris(acetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) and tris(trifluoroacetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) are synthesized. Judd-Ofelt theory is employed on basis of the UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of erbium chelates dissolved in methanol. Judd-Ofelt parameters of erbium chelates are determined by a least square fitting and dealt with the chemical structure of erbium chelates. Photoluminescence characteristics of erbium chelates are investigated upon excitation at 488 nm by an Ar + laser. The qualitative correlation of Judd-Ofelt parameters with photoluminescence properties for erbium chelates is also discussed. It is found that larger Ω6 value for erbium chelate is and larger photoluminescence intensity at 1.54 μm is, and Ω2 value should contribute to the photoluminescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1.54 μm. The changes of Judd-Ofelt parameters result from the introduction of the second ligand phenathroline or the substitution of electron-drawing group CF 3 in β-diketone for erbium chelates.

  2. Spectroscopic properties and Judd-Ofelt theory analysis of erbium chelates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaishan; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Minquan

    2005-11-01

    Erbium chelates including tris(acetylacetonato) erbium(III) monohydrate, tris(acetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) and tris(trifluoroacetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) are synthesized. Judd-Ofelt theory is employed on basis of the UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of erbium chelates dissolved in methanol. Judd-Ofelt parameters of erbium chelates are determined by a least square fitting and dealt with the chemical structure of erbium chelates. Photoluminescence characteristics of erbium chelates are investigated upon excitation at 488 nm by an Ar(+) laser. The qualitative correlation of Judd-Ofelt parameters with photoluminescence properties for erbium chelates is also discussed. It is found that larger Omega(6) value for erbium chelate is and larger photoluminescence intensity at 1.54 microm is, and Omega(2) value should contribute to the photoluminescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1.54 microm. The changes of Judd-Ofelt parameters result from the introduction of the second ligand phenathroline or the substitution of electron-drawing group CF(3) in beta-diketone for erbium chelates.

  3. Study of upconversion in PCFs with high erbium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdejo, Víctor; Vallés, Juan A.; Rebolledo, Miguel Á.; Diez, Antonio; Martin, Juan C.; Sanchez-Martin, José A.; Álvarez, José M.; Andrés, Miguel V.

    2011-09-01

    We report on a comparison of characterization techniques for high concentration erbium-doped photonic crystal fibres (PCFs). A highly erbium-doped-silica PCF was fabricated and an amplifier based on the PCF was built. Then, measurements on the amplifier output optical powers were carried out. To model the amplifier, three different formalisms were assumed for the Er3+-ion upconversion mechanism and the numerical results were fitted to the experimental ones. The sets of best-fit parameters are compared and the use of these techniques for active PCF characterisation is discussed.

  4. Brillouin gain spectrum dependences on temperature and strain in erbium-doped optical fibers with different erbium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingjie; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    Brillouin Stokes power in erbium-doped optical fibers (EDFs) can be potentially controlled by pumping, but no report has been provided on its detailed characterization. In this study, as the first step toward this goal, the Brillouin gain spectra in EDFs with three different erbium concentrations (0.72, 1.20, and 2.28 wtppt) are measured at 1.55 μm without pumping, and the Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) and their dependences on strain, temperature, and erbium concentration are fully investigated. In the EDF with 0.72-wtppt concentration, the BFS was 11.42 GHz, and its temperature and strain coefficients were 0.87 MHz/K and 479 MHz/%, respectively.

  5. Improved Production of Sublancin 168 Biosynthesized by Bacillus subtilis 168 Using Chemometric Methodology and Statistical Experimental Designs

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shengyue; Li, Weili; Xin, Haiyun; Wang, Shan; Cao, Binyun

    2015-01-01

    Sublancin 168, as a distinct S-linked antimicrobial glycopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis 168, is effective in killing specific microorganisms. However, the reported yield of sublancin 168 is at a low level of no more than 60 mg from 1 L fermentation culture of B. subtilis 168 by using the method in the literature. Thus optimization of fermentation condition for efficiently producing sublancin 168 is required. Here, Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimal combination of three fermentation parameters, namely, corn powder, soybean meal, and temperature that were identified previously by Plackett-Burman design and the steepest ascent experiment. Subsequently, based on the response surface methodology, the quadratic regression model for optimally producing sublancin 168 was developed, and the optimal combination of culture parameters for maximum sublancin 168 production of 129.72 mg/L was determined as corn powder 28.49 g/L, soybean meal 22.99 g/L, and incubation temperature 30.8°C. The results showed that sublancin 168 production obtained experimentally was coincident with predicted value of 125.88 mg/L, and the developed model was proved to be adequate, and the aim of efficiently producing sublancin 168 was achieved. PMID:26339632

  6. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-10-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  7. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  8. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  9. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  10. 25 CFR 168.11 - Range improvements; ownership; new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Range improvements; ownership; new construction. 168.11... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.11 Range improvements; ownership; new construction. Except as provided by the Relocation Act, range improvements placed on the permitted land shall...

  11. 25 CFR 168.11 - Range improvements; ownership; new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Range improvements; ownership; new construction. 168.11... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.11 Range improvements; ownership; new construction. Except as provided by the Relocation Act, range improvements placed on the permitted land shall...

  12. 25 CFR 168.11 - Range improvements; ownership; new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Range improvements; ownership; new construction. 168.11... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.11 Range improvements; ownership; new construction. Except as provided by the Relocation Act, range improvements placed on the permitted land shall...

  13. 25 CFR 168.11 - Range improvements; ownership; new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Range improvements; ownership; new construction. 168.11... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.11 Range improvements; ownership; new construction. Except as provided by the Relocation Act, range improvements placed on the permitted land shall...

  14. 25 CFR 168.11 - Range improvements; ownership; new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Range improvements; ownership; new construction. 168.11... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.11 Range improvements; ownership; new construction. Except as provided by the Relocation Act, range improvements placed on the permitted land shall...

  15. 40 CFR 168.71 - Export pesticide devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Export pesticide devices. 168.71 Section 168.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting...

  16. 40 CFR 168.71 - Export pesticide devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Export pesticide devices. 168.71 Section 168.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting...

  17. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  18. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  19. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  20. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  1. 37 CFR 1.68 - Declaration in lieu of oath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration in lieu of oath. 1.68 Section 1.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... all statements made of the declarant's own knowledge are true and that all statements made...

  2. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.168 - Duties of the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duties of the Committee. 1260.168 Section 1260.168 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... contracting party shall keep accurate records of all of its transactions and make periodic reports to...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.168 - Duties of the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of the Committee. 1260.168 Section 1260.168 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... contracting party shall keep accurate records of all of its transactions and make periodic reports to...

  5. 7 CFR 1260.168 - Duties of the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duties of the Committee. 1260.168 Section 1260.168 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... contracting party shall keep accurate records of all of its transactions and make periodic reports to...

  6. 7 CFR 1260.168 - Duties of the Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duties of the Committee. 1260.168 Section 1260.168 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... contracting party shall keep accurate records of all of its transactions and make periodic reports to...

  7. 28 CFR 0.168 - Redelegation by Assistant Attorneys General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Redelegation by Assistant Attorneys General. 0.168 Section 0.168 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT... the Assistant Attorney General level must be presented to the Assistant Attorney General...

  8. 27 CFR 25.168 - Employer identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer identification number. 25.168 Section 25.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax...

  9. 27 CFR 25.168 - Employer identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employer identification number. 25.168 Section 25.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax...

  10. 27 CFR 25.168 - Employer identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employer identification number. 25.168 Section 25.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax...

  11. 27 CFR 25.168 - Employer identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employer identification number. 25.168 Section 25.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax...

  12. 26 CFR 1.168A-2 - Election of amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of amortization. 1.168A-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168A-2 Election of amortization. (a) General rule. An election by the taxpayer to take amortization deductions...

  13. 32 CFR 644.168 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exercise of options. 644.168 Section 644.168... Exercise of options. Upon issuance of a real estate directive for acquisition of the optioned real property, the District or Division Engineer will exercise the option and proceed with the acquisition...

  14. 27 CFR 25.168 - Employer identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer identification number. 25.168 Section 25.168 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of Tax...

  15. 26 CFR 1.168(b)-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.168(b)-1 Section 1.168(b)-1... tangible, depreciable property that is placed in service after December 31, 1986 (or after July 31, 1986, if the taxpayer made an election under section 203(a)(1)(B) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986; 100...

  16. 49 CFR 173.168 - Chemical oxygen generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical oxygen generators. 173.168 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.168 Chemical oxygen generators. An oxygen generator, chemical (defined in § 171.8 of this subchapter) may be transported only under the following conditions: (a) Approval. A chemical oxygen...

  17. 49 CFR 173.168 - Chemical oxygen generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical oxygen generators. 173.168 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.168 Chemical oxygen generators. An oxygen generator, chemical (defined in § 171.8 of this subchapter) may be transported only under the following conditions: (a) Approval. A chemical oxygen...

  18. 49 CFR 173.168 - Chemical oxygen generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical oxygen generators. 173.168 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.168 Chemical oxygen generators. An oxygen generator, chemical (defined in § 171.8 of this subchapter) may be transported only under the following conditions: (a) Approval. A chemical oxygen...

  19. 49 CFR 173.168 - Chemical oxygen generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical oxygen generators. 173.168 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.168 Chemical oxygen generators. An oxygen generator, chemical (defined in § 171.8 of this subchapter) may be transported only under the following conditions: (a) Approval. A chemical oxygen...

  20. 49 CFR 173.168 - Chemical oxygen generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical oxygen generators. 173.168 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.168 Chemical oxygen generators. An oxygen generator, chemical (defined in § 171.8 of this subchapter) may be transported only under the following conditions: (a) Approval. A chemical oxygen...

  1. Simplified ASE correction algorithm for variable gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Sheih, Shou-Jong; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate a simplified algorithm to manifest the contribution of amplified spontaneous emission in variable gain-flattened Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The detected signal power at the input and output ports of EDFA comprises of both signal and noise. The generated amplified spontaneous emission from EDFA cannot be differentiated by photodetector which leads to underestimation of the targeted gain value. This gain penalty must be taken into consideration in order to obtain the accurate gain level. By taking the average gain penalty within the dynamic gain range, the targeted output power is set higher than the desired level. Thus, the errors are significantly reduced to less than 0.15 dB from 15 dB to 30 dB desired gain values.

  2. Preparative scale separation of thulium from erbium for neutron capture cross section measurements - Part: Preparative scale

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, Eva R.; Bene, Balazs J.; Taylor, Wayne Allen; Sudowe, Ralf

    2016-06-04

    Here, this paper discusses the development of a separation method for isolation of Tm-171 from a half-gram irradiated erbium target in support of stockpile stewardship and astrophysics research. The developed procedure is based on cation exchange separation using alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as chelating agent. It is able to achieve either a decontamination factor of 1.4(4) × 105 with 68.9(3) % recovery or 95.4(3) % recovery with a decontamination factor of 5.82(7) × 103 for a mock 500-mg target containing 17.9 mg thulium in a single pass-through at room temperature.

  3. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, and ytterbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-15

    Currently, thirty-one dysprosium, thirty-two holmium, thirty-two erbium, thirty-three thulium, and thirty-one ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-8 - Loss of section 168(f)(8) protection; recapture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY... and of accelerated cost recovery deductions after a disqualifying event shall be determined...

  5. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-8 - Loss of section 168(f)(8) protection; recapture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY... and of accelerated cost recovery deductions after a disqualifying event shall be determined...

  6. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-8 - Loss of section 168(f)(8) protection; recapture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY... and of accelerated cost recovery deductions after a disqualifying event shall be determined...

  7. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-8 - Loss of section 168(f)(8) protection; recapture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY... and of accelerated cost recovery deductions after a disqualifying event shall be determined...

  8. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-2 - Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f)(8) lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-2 Election to characterize transaction as a section 168(f... center with which the income tax returns of the lessor and lessee are filed; (C) A description of...

  9. Erbium--169 versus triamcinolone hexacetonide in the treatment of rheumatoid finger joints.

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsi, A; Hypén, M; Rekonen, A; Oka, M

    1979-01-01

    Erbium--169 was compared with triamcinolone hexacetonide in the topical treatment of 32 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Erbium--169 was injected into 83 and triamcinolone hexacetonide into 54 proximal interphalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joints. Both treatments produced alleviation of joint pain and swelling and improvement of grip strength. At every check-up (1--18 months) the percentage of remissions was higher after triamcinolone hexacetonide injection than after erbium--169. The difference was significant at 1, 3, and 6 months. PMID:434946

  10. Effect of temperature on the active properties of erbium-doped optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Ignat'ev, A D; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of heating on the performance of erbium-doped fibre based devices and determined temperaturedependent absorption and emission cross sections of the erbium ion in silica glass. The results demonstrate that heating of fibres in claddingpumped high-power (∼100 W) erbium-doped fibre lasers causes no significant decrease in their efficiency. In contrast, superluminescent sources operating in the long-wavelength region (1565 – 1610 nm) are extremely sensitive to temperature changes. (fiber optics)

  11. 27 CFR 40.168 - Remittance with return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... Taxes on Tobacco Products § 40.168 Remittance with return. Except when an electronic fund transfer...

  12. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF VACUUM SPHERES 146 AND 168 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF VACUUM SPHERES 146 AND 168 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  13. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST OF VACUUM SPHERES 168 AND 146 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST OF VACUUM SPHERES 168 AND 146 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Supersonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  14. Transition energy and half-life determinations of photonuclear reaction products of erbium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Tuncay; Akkoyun, Serkan; Uruk, Serhat; Dapo, Haris; Dulger, Fatih; Boztosun, Ismail

    Photon induced reactions are called as photonuclear reactions and used in many research fields of nuclear science and nuclear physics. The photonuclear data are used in many nuclear applications such as radiation shielding and protection, radiation transport analyses, reactor core design, activation analysis and nuclear waste transmutation. In the past, many studies had been devoted to extract photonuclear data covering the isotopic chart. However, there is still lack of existing data. In the present study, we have performed photonuclear reactions on erbium (Er) target by using clinical electron linear accelerators (cLINAC). By using measured residual activity of photonuclear reaction products of Er nuclei, we have determined the half-life of 161Er nucleus and transition energies of 161Ho nucleus. Also, new measurements on gamma-ray energies of the products have been determined accurately. Furthermore, this study shows that repurposed cLINAC with limited budget can contribute to the global nuclear science knowledge.

  15. Urbach absorption edge in epitaxial erbium-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Shmagin, V. B. Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2015-02-07

    We investigate the dependencies of the photocurrent in Si:Er p-n junctions on the energy of the incident photons. The exponential absorption edge (Urbach edge) just below fundamental edge of silicon was observed in the absorption spectra of epitaxial Si:Er layers grown at 400–600 C. It is shown that the introduction of erbium significantly enhances the structural disorder in the silicon crystal which was estimated from the slope of the Urbach edge. We discuss the possible nature of the structural disorder in Si:Er and a new mechanism of erbium excitation, which does not require the presence of deep levels in the band gap of silicon.

  16. Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films

    SciTech Connect

    Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD{sub 2}) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950{degrees}C) and low temperature (25{degrees}C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950{degrees}C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950{degrees}C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well.

  17. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  18. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  19. Transient photoacoustic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans; Ith, Michael; Asshauer, Thomas; Rink, Klaus; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Romano, Valerio; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Weber, Heinz P.

    1994-08-01

    The intense interest in the investigation of erbium laser radiation in medicine is due to the fact that radiation at 3 micrometers is very strongly absorbed by water, which is present in all biological tissue. As a consequence of this high absorption the interaction of pulsed radiation is characterized by an explosive process with a low ablation threshold and a thin coagulation zone along the laser incisions. Erbium lasers, therefore, have a wide field of potential medical applications which become even more attractive with the availability of reliable delivery systems. An interesting situation arises in orthopaedics and angioplasty, where a precise cutting instrument is needed in a liquid environment. For this reason, we experimentally investigated the interaction mechanism of fiber transmitted, pulsed, free-running and Q- switched Erbium:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) and Erbium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) laser radiation with liquid water. The dynamics of the bubble formation and the propagation of shockwaves in water was studied and visualized by flash photography. Acoustic transients of a few hundreds of bars accompanying the ablation process were measured with a needle hydrophone. A clear correlation between the spikes of the laser pulse and those of the pressure signal was observed. Additionally, strong pressure transients were measured after the end of the laser pulse, which could be associated with the collapse of the vapor bubble and further collapses after multiple rebounds. The influence of pulse energy, fiber size and pulse duration on the formation and the amplitude of the pressure waves is demonstrated.

  20. 40 CFR 168.75 - Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements. 168.75 Section 168.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Unregistered Pesticides § 168.75 Procedures...

  1. 40 CFR 168.75 - Procedures for exporting unregistered pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides-purchaser acknowledgement statements. 168.75 Section 168.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.75 Procedures for...

  2. Erbium doped ceramic nanofiber synthesis for thermophotovoltaic selective emitter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifon, George Sebastian

    This thesis explored the development of isothermal selective emitters for harvesting thermal energy to be used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. The selective emitters were Erbium doped Titania nanofibers and Erbium and Yttrium doped Titania nanofibers that may be used with a Gallium Antimonide photovoltaic cell. The ultimate aim of this research was to develop Erbium doped Yttrium Titanate nanofibers. This research is of importance in recovering heat from a number of resources including power plant boilers. The thermal energy lost in the boilers can be as high as 20% of the input fuel energy and a recovery of this energy would boost the thermal performance of the power plants. It has been observed that the temperatures of the flue gas reaching the heat recovery region may be higher than 1600K and the radiation and convective losses in the burner occurs at even higher temperatures. Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) offer a solution in terms of converting the thermal energy to electricity without any moving parts. The efficiencies of conventional TPVs are very small (10-20%) and thus not a solution as the primary electric generator. However, in the field of the harvesting of waste energy, TPVs have tremendous potential. In order to improve efficiencies, Erbia (which can absorb thermal energy and convert it to electromagnetic radiation with a narrow wavelength spectrum with mean wavelength of 1500nm) can be used as a selective emitter with GaSb PV cells (which have its maximum efficiency in the same wavelength range) as the collector. In order to further improve its performance, the Erbia was proposed to be supported by Titania, which is transparent to IR in this range. However, past research has shown that the Erbia doped Titania nanofibers essentially have Erbium in the form of pyrochlore Erbium Titanate. Thus the research focused on a way to synthesize ErxY2-xTi 2O7 pyrochlore structure to act as the selective emitter. The self-supporting composite was designed to

  3. Efficiency and tuning of the erbium-doped glass lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromzel, Victor A.; Kuchma, Igor G.; Lunter, Sergei G.; Mak, Artur A.; Petrov, Aleksey A.

    1992-11-01

    Erbium-doped glass lasers operated near by 1 5 mm wavelength are helpful for medicine and biology optical communication and eye-safe range finder systems. Advances in erbium-doped glass especially phosphate glass and lasers based on it have been extensive in recent years. Nowadays we can approve that erbium glass lasers are not worse compared with the neodymium ones by many spectroscopic and laser properties. Developments of the energy spectral and temporal characteristics and tuning near the 1500 nm wavelength of the erbium - doped phosphate glass lasers are reported. 2. SPECTROSCOPIC PECULIARITIES OF THE ERBIUM DOPED GLASS Phosphate erbium-doped glass possess a number of spectroscopic peculiarities as a laser active medium. Energy level diagrams of Er3 ions and two other its co-doped ions -Yb3 and Cr3 and the actual transitions (radiate and nonradiate) between them are shown in Fig. 1 (a). Absorption spectrum of that phosphate glass is also shown in Fig. 1 (b) . One can see that the whole pum energy is absorbed only by coactivators - Yb Cr - Yb E r and Cr3 - and then quickly and efficiently transferred from them to Er3 ions. Thus ''7 lasing and pumping of the erbium glass are ''4 realized by means of quite different ions. 4 Thanks to that one can get a low laser threshold t1/2 usin a small doping of Er3 ions (about 1019 I3/2 cm ) and the same time have a high efficient 4T pumoing by using the big concentration of ions 15/2 Yb3 and Cr3 in them (1021 cm3 and 1020 b cm3 accordingly). Obstacles for high efficiency of the lasers may be connected with either increase of the back pump energy transfer from Yb3 ions to Cr3 ones by too large concentration of Cr3 ions or thermal distortions of the active medium. Optimal pumping conditions for lamp pumped Er - doped glass laser differ from neodymium ones. It is explained by the important role of pump energy transfer processes in Er - doped glass. In order to have of high efficient pumping it is necessary that energy transfer

  4. High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

    2012-05-31

    We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

  5. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  6. Performance analysis of a concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifier supporting four mode groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zujun; Fan, Di; Zhang, Wentao; Xiong, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) supporting four mode groups has been theoretically designed by concatenating two sections of erbium-doped fibers (EDFs). Each EDF has a simple erbium doping profile for the purpose of reducing its fabrication complexity. We propose a modified genetic algorithm (GA) to provide detailed investigations on the concatenated amplifier. Both the optimal fiber length and erbium doping radius in each EDF have been found to minimize the gain difference between signal modes. Results show that the parameters of the central-doped EDF have a greater impact on the amplifier performance compared to those of the annular-doped one. We then investigate the influence of the small deviations of the erbium fiber length, doping radius and doping concentration of each EDF from their optimal values upon the amplifier performance, and discuss their design tolerances in obtaining a desirable amplification characteristics.

  7. Centrifugal stretching along the ground state band of Hf168

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costin, A.; Reese, M.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Dusling, K.; Fitzpatrick, C. R.; Gürdal, G.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Meyer, D. A.; Möller, O.; Petkov, P.; Pietralla, N.; Qian, J.; Rainovski, G.; Werner, V.

    2009-02-01

    The lifetimes of the Jπ=4+, 6+, 8+, and 10+ levels along the ground state band in Hf168 were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) method using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) and the SPEEDY detection array at Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Excited states in Hf168 were populated using the Sn124(Ti48,4n) fusion evaporation reaction. The new lifetime values are sufficiently precise to clearly prove the increase of quadrupole deformation as a function of angular momentum in the deformed nucleus Hf168. The data agree with the predictions from the geometrical confined β-soft (CBS) rotor model that involves centrifugal stretching in a soft potential.

  8. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines...

  9. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines...

  10. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  11. 40 CFR 168.85 - Other export requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... apply to exporters of pesticides, devices, and active ingredients used in producing a pesticide. (a) Recordkeeping and inspection. Exporters of pesticides, devices and active ingredients must keep records and... accompanied each shipment of a pesticide product to a foreign country. As stated at § 168.75(c), when...

  12. 46 CFR 168.15-30 - Toilet rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Accommodations § 168.15-30 Toilet rooms. (a) There must be provided 1 toilet for each 10 persons or fraction thereof to be accommodated who do not occupy rooms to which private facilities are attached. (b) The... semiprivate facilities. (c) Where more than 1 toilet is located in a space or compartment, each toilet must...

  13. 27 CFR 19.168 - Description of plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description of plant. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.168 Description of plant. (a) The application for registration shall include a description of...

  14. 168. Photocopy of drawing (1979 civil engineering drawing by the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. Photocopy of drawing (1979 civil engineering drawing by the Space and Missile Test Center, USAF) NITROGEN AND HELIUM PUMPING SYSTEM INSTALLATION SITE PLAN, SHEET 511-C-1 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 28 CFR 0.168 - Redelegation by Assistant Attorneys General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redelegation by Assistant Attorneys..., Penalties, and Forfeitures § 0.168 Redelegation by Assistant Attorneys General. (a) Assistant Attorneys... subordinate division officials and United States Attorneys any of the authority delegated by §§ 0.160 (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 1.168 - Procedure for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.168 Procedure for hearing. (a) Time and place. The oral hearing shall be held at such time and place as specified in the complaint, and not less than 30 days after service thereof. The time and place of the hearing may be changed for good cause,...

  17. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring Agencies, in awarding NDSEG fellowships, shall award: (1) Solely to U.S. citizens and nationals who agree to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated,...

  18. 168. ARAIV Index of drawings prepared by Norman Engineering Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. ARA-IV Index of drawings prepared by Norman Engineering Company in preparation for construction of ARA-IV. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/ML-1index. Date: March 1961. Ineel index code no. 066-9999-90-613-102731. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products....168 Advertising of restricted use products. (a) Any product classified for restricted use shall not be advertised unless the advertisement contains a statement of its restricted use classification. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products....168 Advertising of restricted use products. (a) Any product classified for restricted use shall not be advertised unless the advertisement contains a statement of its restricted use classification. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products....168 Advertising of restricted use products. (a) Any product classified for restricted use shall not be advertised unless the advertisement contains a statement of its restricted use classification. (b)...

  2. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM Range Division operates the Area Access Section to issue permits and grant non-training access to the...

  3. 32 CFR 552.168 - Fort Lewis Area Access Office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.168 Fort Lewis Area Access Office. (a) DPTM Range Division operates the Area Access Section to issue permits and grant non-training access to the...

  4. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  5. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  6. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  7. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  8. 40 CFR 16.8 - Special procedures: Medical Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special procedures: Medical Records. 16... PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Special procedures: Medical Records. Should EPA receive a request for access to medical records (including psychological records) disclosure of which the system manager decides would...

  9. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring Agencies, in awarding NDSEG fellowships, shall award: (1) Solely to U.S. citizens and nationals who agree to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated,...

  10. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring Agencies, in awarding NDSEG fellowships, shall award: (1) Solely to U.S. citizens and nationals who agree to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated,...

  11. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring Agencies, in awarding NDSEG fellowships, shall award: (1) Solely to U.S. citizens and nationals who agree to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated,...

  12. 32 CFR 168a.4 - Policy and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.4 Policy and procedures. (a) Sponsoring Agencies, in awarding NDSEG fellowships, shall award: (1) Solely to U.S. citizens and nationals who agree to pursue graduate degrees in science, engineering, or other fields of study that are designated,...

  13. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all qualified... Commission, no later than May 31st following the grant of that licensee's first Commercial Mobile...

  14. 33 CFR 168.50 - Performance and operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... steady course against a 35-degree locked rudder at a speed of 6 knots; and (4) Turning the tanker 90 degrees, assuming a free-swinging rudder and a speed of 6 knots, within the same distance (advance and... Performance and operational requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of § 168.10, at all...

  15. 33 CFR 168.50 - Performance and operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... steady course against a 35-degree locked rudder at a speed of 6 knots; and (4) Turning the tanker 90 degrees, assuming a free-swinging rudder and a speed of 6 knots, within the same distance (advance and... Performance and operational requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of § 168.10, at all...

  16. 33 CFR 168.50 - Performance and operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... steady course against a 35-degree locked rudder at a speed of 6 knots; and (4) Turning the tanker 90 degrees, assuming a free-swinging rudder and a speed of 6 knots, within the same distance (advance and... Performance and operational requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of § 168.10, at all...

  17. 33 CFR 168.50 - Performance and operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... steady course against a 35-degree locked rudder at a speed of 6 knots; and (4) Turning the tanker 90 degrees, assuming a free-swinging rudder and a speed of 6 knots, within the same distance (advance and... Performance and operational requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of § 168.10, at all...

  18. 33 CFR 168.50 - Performance and operational requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... steady course against a 35-degree locked rudder at a speed of 6 knots; and (4) Turning the tanker 90 degrees, assuming a free-swinging rudder and a speed of 6 knots, within the same distance (advance and... Performance and operational requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of § 168.10, at all...

  19. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  20. 168. Photocopy of Photograph (original in Roger Lewis' private collection). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. Photocopy of Photograph (original in Roger Lewis' private collection). Photographer and date unknown. MILNER DAM TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; WORKERS STANDING IN TUNNEL (ONE CAN BE SEEN AT FAR END OF TUNNEL). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-8 - Loss of section 168(f)(8) protection; recapture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY... its income tax return as required in § 5c.168(f) (8)-2 (a)(3)(iii). (3) The lessee (or any transferee... transferee fail to file statements with their income tax returns as required by that paragraph. (4)...

  2. Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints.

    PubMed Central

    Menkes, C J; Gô, A L; Verrier, P; Aignan, M; Delbarre, F

    1977-01-01

    A double-blind study of erbium 169 injection into rheumatoid digital joints was carried out with saline as control. 201 joints in 36 patients were studied (137 metacarpophalalangeal, 64 proximal interphalangeal). Erbium 169 was injected into 121 joints and saline water into 80 joints. Local injection of corticosteroids was given to both groups. A definite improvement was observed in 55% to 58% of cases with erbium 169 (+prednisolone acetate) and in 26% to 28% of cases with saline (+prednisolone acetate). The difference was highly significant. PMID:327948

  3. Excited states and reduced transition probabilities in 168Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, T.; Stolze, S.; Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Sayǧı, B.; O'Donnell, D.; Akmali, M.; Andgren, K.; Bianco, L.; Cullen, D. M.; Dewald, A.; Greenlees, P. T.; Heyde, K.; Iwasaki, H.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Judson, D. S.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Lumley, N.; Mason, P. J. R.; Möller, O.; Nomura, K.; Nyman, M.; Petts, A.; Peura, P.; Pietralla, N.; Pissulla, Th.; Rahkila, P.; Sapple, P. J.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Simpson, J.; Sorri, J.; Stevenson, P. D.; Uusitalo, J.; Watkins, H. V.; Wood, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    The level scheme of the neutron-deficient nuclide 168Os has been extended and mean lifetimes of excited states have been measured by the recoil distance Doppler-shift method using the JUROGAM γ -ray spectrometer in conjunction with the IKP Köln plunger device. The 168Osγ rays were measured in delayed coincidence with recoiling fusion-evaporation residues detected at the focal plane of the RITU gas-filled separator. The ratio of reduced transition probabilities B (E 2 ;41+→21+) /B (E 2 ;21+→01+) is measured to be 0.34(18), which is very unusual for collective band structures and cannot be reproduced by interacting boson model (IBM-2) calculations based on the SkM* energy-density functional.

  4. 168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. VIEW OF MILLING FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER AT MIDDLE LEFT. PRIMARY MILL SURGE TANK AND LAUNDERS AT MIDDLE BOTTOM. STAIR TO TROJAN CLASSIFIER LEVEL BEHIND CRANE BENT, UPPER RIGHT. PAIRED PIPES FROM PRIMARY PULP PUMPS TO PRIMARY THICKENERS RISE VERTICALLY AT MIDDLE RIGHT AND RUN HORIZONTALLY ACROSS TOP OF VIEW - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. Self-contained eye-safe laser radar using an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Thomas A.; Radecki, Dan J.; Tindal, Nan E.; Corriveau, John P.; Denman, Richard

    2003-07-01

    An Eye-safe Laser Radar has been developed under White Sands Missile Range sponsorship. The SEAL system, the Self-contained Eyesafe Autonomous Laser system, is designed to measure target position within a 0.5 meter box. Targets are augmented with Scotchlite for ranging out to 6 km and augmented with a retroreflector for targets out to 20 km. The data latency is less than 1.5 ms, and the position update rate is 1 kHz. The system is air-cooled, contained in a single 200-lb, 6-cubic-foot box, and uses less than 600 watts of prime power. The angle-angle-range data will be used to measure target dynamics and to control a tracking mount. The optical system is built around a diode-pumped, erbium-doped fiber laser rated at 1.5 watts average power at 10 kHz repetition rate with 25 nsec pulse duration. An 8 inch-diameter, F/2.84 telescope is relayed to a quadrant detector at F/0.85 giving a 5 mrad field of view. Two detectors have been evaluated, a Germanium PIN diode and an Intevac TE-IPD. The receiver electronics uses a DSP network of 6 SHARC processors to implement ranging and angle error algorithms along with an Optical AGC, including beam divergence/FOV control loops.Laboratory measurements of the laser characteristics, and system range and angle accuracies will be compared to simulations. Field measurements against actual targets will be presented.

  6. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped-nanoparticles optical fiber for space applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël; Troussellier, Laurent; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Boivin, David; Mélin, Gilles; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Signoret, Philippe

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites.

  7. Excited states in 168Yb from electron-capture decay of 168Lum (T1/2=6.7 min)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.

    1999-08-01

    The electron-capture decay of the 168Lum (T1/2=6.7 min, Jπ=3+) isomer was studied with high purity sources, obtained by using a new radiochemical method consisting of fast continous on-line separation of reaction products. A complex spectrum composed of about 200 γ rays was observed. From these, 162 transitions were assigned to a level scheme of 39 excited levels of 168Yb, primarily by γ-γ coincidence spectroscopic measurements. About 60 transitions were placed for the first time and >90% of the decay intensity was clearly identified. The structure of the levels directly fed by the electron-capture decay was reviewed as particle-hole excitations of the core.

  8. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  9. Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium-Doped Magnesium Oxide Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7441 ● SEPT 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium-Doped Magnesium Oxide...Laboratory Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium-Doped Magnesium Oxide Ceramics by T Sanamyan and M Dubinskii Sensors and...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) Sep 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium

  10. Probing the spiral magnetic phase in 6 nm textured erbium using polarised neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchell, N.; Witt, J. D. S.; Burnell, G.; Curran, P. J.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Langridge, S.; Cooper, J. F. K.

    2017-02-01

    We characterise the magnetic state of highly-textured, sputter deposited erbium for a film of thickness 6 nm. Using polarised neutron reflectometry it is found that the film has a high degree of magnetic disorder, and we present some evidence that the film’s local magnetic state is consistent with bulk-like spiral magnetism. This, combined with complementary characterisation techniques, show that thin film erbium is a strong candidate material for incorporation into device structures.

  11. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barmenkov, Yuri O. Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V.

    2014-03-03

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  12. An Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope with a Reflective Objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Hebert, Anne; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team

    2016-05-01

    Dipolar atoms present an exciting opportunity to extend previous quantum gas microscope (QGM) experiments to more complex systems influenced by long range, anisotropic interactions. We present on current progress toward the construction of a QGM for ultracold Erbium atoms in an optical lattice, including the development of a novel imaging system for single-site resolution. While most QGMs until now have typically utilized a high numerical aperture microscope objective, we discuss a reflective mirror alternative that offers an equally high NA (.9-.95), a comparable field of view (34 micrometers radial), and a larger working distance (25 millimeters) that keeps the atoms far from any surfaces. By operating in a Schmidt telescope configuration, this imaging system is well-suited both for collecting 401 nm imaging fluorescence and for the creation of an expandable lattice with a variety of associated lattice geometries.

  13. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, V. V. Klevkov, Yu. V.; Dravin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries.

  14. A higher-order-mode erbium-doped-fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Fini, J M; DeSantolo, A M; Monberg, E; DiMarcello, F; Fleming, J; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J; Ghalmi, S; Ramachandran, S

    2010-08-16

    We demonstrate the first erbium-doped fiber amplifier operating in a single, large-mode area, higher-order mode. A high-power, fundamental-mode, Raman fiber laser operating at 1480 nm was used as a pump source. Using a UV-written, long-period grating, both pump and 1564 nm signal were converted to the LP(0,10) mode, which had an effective area of 2700 microm(2) at 1550 nm. A maximum output power of 5.8 W at 1564 nm with more than 20 dB of gain in a 2.68 m long amplifier was obtained. The mode profile was undistorted at the highest output power.

  15. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  16. Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bohua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Chaoshi; Wu, Kan; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    We report a tungsten diselenide (WSe2) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based, saturable absorber and related experiment results of a Q-switched fiber laser. WSe2-PVA film is synthesized by liquid phase exfoliation method, and its saturable absorption is measured via a nonlinear transmission experiment. The result shows that WSe2-PVA saturable absorber has a modulation depth of 3.5%, which means it has potential for generating an ultrafast pulse laser. We apply this absorber into a ring-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser and obtain Q-switched pulses under appropriate pump power. Our work demonstrates the reliable nonlinear optical characteristics of WSe2 and the feasibility for this two-dimensional material to be applied in the field of nonlinear optics.

  17. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system. PMID:27966662

  18. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system.

  19. Characteristics of the Brillouin spectra in Erbium-Ytterbium fibers.

    PubMed

    Canat, G; Durécu, A; Lesueur, G; Lombard, L; Bourdon, P; Jolivet, V; Jaouën, Y

    2008-03-03

    This paper reports the main characteristics of the Stokes spectra for typical pumped and unpumped Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers. Doped fibers show shorter Brillouin shifts and their spectra are up to 1.6 times broader than undoped fibers. Those spectra are composed of several peaks originating from several longitudinal acoustic modes. The effective Brillouin gain of the secondary modes can be as large as 20% of the main peak gain. They can merge into a more complex structure for the largest cores. Simulations allow to relate these characteristics to the influence of codoping and index profile inhomogeneity. An additional broadening of the Stokes spectrum in pumped fibers is reported and attributed to thermal effects.

  20. Deep sclerectomy using erbium:YAG laser in pigs eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Yehia A.; Taher, Ibrahim M.; Bahgat, Mostafa M.; Ghoneim, Dina F.

    2004-07-01

    The potential benefits of using pulsed Erbium: YAG laser in removing the deep lamella of the sclera during the procedure of deep sclerectomy was studied. Thirty porcine eyes were divided into 3 groups. A superficial lamellar scleral flap with an area of 5x5 mm as for trabeculectomy was surgically prepared. Using an Erbium: YAG laser (2.94 micron), the deep lamella with an area of 3x1.8 mm was removed. Group I was subjected to an energy level of 40-60 m.J, Descemet's membrane was preserved and trabecular meshwork was left intact and no thermal damage on the contiguous structures in all eyes, group II to 60-80 m.J Descemet's membrane was ruptured in 30% (3 eyes), thermal damage was 20% (2 eyes) on superficial structures, while group III to 80-100m.J there was a high risk of rupture of Descemet's membrane 50% (5 eyes), thermal damage was 30%(3 eyes) on superficial structures & 20%(2 eyes) on deep & superficial structures. Eyes were analyzed histologically by electron microscopy to study Descemet's membrane & the trabecular meshwork & the thermal damage on contiguous structures. Eyes with rupture of Descemet's membrane had total energy power of 11.75 J +/- 6.39, average power was 0.58W +/- 0.07 & power density 1155W/cm2 +/- 144, compared to eyes with no rupture 24.23J +/- 11.77 total energy power, 0.46W average power & 916.4W/cm2 +/- 227 power density. Thermal damage changes occurred at total energy power of 10.14 J, average power was 0.59W & power density 1180W/cm2, compared to eyes with no rupture 24.17J total energy power, 0.46W average power & 919.1W/cm2 power density.

  1. Comprehensive study of the conditions for obtaining hydrogenated amorphous erbium- and oxygen-doped silicon suboxide films, a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , by dc-magnetron deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Undalov, Yu. K. Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B.; Lebedev, V. M.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2011-12-15

    The results of a comprehensive study of the conditions for growing a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket films are presented. The effect of the composition of various erbium-containing targets (a-SiO{sub x}:H , ErO{sub x}, Er{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Er), substrate temperature, and annealing temperatures in argon, air, and under conditions of SiH{sub 4} + Ar + O{sub 2} plasma glow is studied. In order to obtain a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket films with the highest photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions, it is recommended for the following technological conditions to be used: the substrate holder should be insulated from dc-magnetron electrodes and the working gas mixture should include silane, argon, and oxygen. Single-crystal silicon and metal erbium should be used as targets. The erbium target should be placed only in the Si-target erosion zone.

  2. Water flow on erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation: effects on dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Vivian; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2009-09-01

    Since lasers were introduced in dentistry, there has been considerable advancement in technology. Several wavelengths have been investigated as substitutes for high-speed air turbine. Owing to its high absorbability in water and hydroxyapatite, the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has been of great interest among dental practitioners and scientists. In spite of its great potential for hard tissue ablation, Er:YAG laser effectiveness and safety is directly related to an adequate setting of the working patterns. It is assumed that the ablation rate is influenced by certain conditions, such as water content of the target tissue, and laser parameters. It has been shown that Er:YAG irradiation with water coolant attenuates temperature rise and, hence, minimizes the risk of thermally induced pulp injury. It also increases ablation efficiency and enhances adhesion to the lased dental tissue. The aim of this review was to obtain insights into the ablation process and to discuss the effects of water flow on dental tissue ablation using Er:YAG laser.

  3. 24 CFR 16.8 - Request for correction or amendment to record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for correction or amendment to record. 16.8 Section 16.8 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 16.8 Request for correction...

  4. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Minimum investment of lessor. 5c.168(f)(8)-4....168(f)(8)-4 Minimum investment of lessor. (a) Minimum investment. Under section 168(f)(8)(B)(ii), an... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the...

  5. 25 CFR 16.8 - Summary distribution of small liquid estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Summary distribution of small liquid estates. 16.8 Section 16.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE ESTATES OF INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES § 16.8 Summary distribution of small liquid estates. Where...

  6. 25 CFR 16.8 - Summary distribution of small liquid estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Summary distribution of small liquid estates. 16.8 Section 16.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE ESTATES OF INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES § 16.8 Summary distribution of small liquid estates. Where...

  7. 25 CFR 16.8 - Summary distribution of small liquid estates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Summary distribution of small liquid estates. 16.8 Section 16.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROBATE ESTATES OF INDIANS OF THE FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES § 16.8 Summary distribution of small liquid estates. Where...

  8. 26 CFR 1.168(k)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction. 1.168(k)-1 Section 1.168(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(k)-1 Additional first...

  9. 26 CFR 1.168(k)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction. 1.168(k)-1 Section 1.168(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(k)-1 Additional first...

  10. 26 CFR 1.168(k)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction. 1.168(k)-1 Section 1.168(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(k)-1 Additional first...

  11. 26 CFR 1.168(k)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction. 1.168(k)-1 Section 1.168(k)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(k)-1 Additional first...

  12. 40 CFR 81.168 - Great Falls Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Falls Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.168 Section 81.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.168 Great Falls Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Great...

  13. BEPS redesign of 168 commercial buildings: summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Stoops, J.L.; Deringer, J.J.; Moreno, S.; Misuriello, H.P.

    1984-05-01

    The objective of this report is to present, in usable form, summary data from the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) Phase II commercial buildings energy research conducted in 1978-1979. Summary data presented were obtained from two major research efforts: the BEPS Phase II Redesign experiment; and the related research on ASHRAE Standard 90-75R. The bulk of this report consists of data tabulations of key energy parameters for the 168 sample buildings, which were tabulated from computer-stored files of the 1978-1979 data. Two kinds of tabulations are included: numerical tabulations that extracted information from the computer-stored data base for the 168 sample buildings; and graphic presentations of the computer-generated data, plus data extracted from other sources. The intent is to provide a single data compendium of key energy-related factors from the 1978 redesign experiment and the associated 1978-1979 ASHRAE Standard 90-75R research. This report also supplements the information for which there was not space in the magazine articles. Thus, for some building types, additional analysis, comments, and data tabulations are included that could not be included in the articles because space was limited. These additional analysis items are not consistent across building types because both the energy conservation opportunities and the design strategies applied by the building designers varied considerably by building type. The chapters have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  14. First observation of rotational structures in 168Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Riedinger, L. L.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X.; Miller, S. L.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bertone, P. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Garg, U.; Gürdal, G.; Hota, S. S.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Matta, J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pedicini, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Zhu, S.

    2016-11-01

    The first rotational sequences have been assigned to the odd-odd nucleus 168Re. Coincidence relationships of these structures with rhenium x rays confirm the isotopic assignment, while arguments based on the γ -ray multiplicity (K -fold) distributions observed with the new bands lead to the mass assignment. Configurations for the two bands were determined through analysis of the rotational alignments of the structures and a comparison of the experimental B (M 1 )/B (E 2 ) ratios with theory. Tentative spin assignments are proposed for the π h11 /2ν i13 /2 band, based on energy level systematics for other known sequences in neighboring odd-odd rhenium nuclei, as well as on systematics seen for the signature inversion feature that is well known in this region. The spin assignment for the π h11 /2ν (h9 /2/f7 /2) structure provides additional validation of the proposed spins and configurations for isomers in the 176Au → 172Ir→168Re α -decay chain.

  15. Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratisto, Hans; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Jansen, E. Duco; Weber, Heinz P.

    1996-07-01

    Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 mu m, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400- mu m ZrF4 fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200- mu s, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 mu s) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 mu m as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50- mu m collateral tissue damage. wave, cavitation, channel formation, infrared-fiber-delivery system, tissue damage, cartilage.

  16. Excited states in the doubly odd 168Lu nucleus fed by electron-capture decay of 168Hf (T1/2=25.95 min)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.

    1997-05-01

    The low-spin levels of the odd-odd nucleus 168Lu from 168Hf (T1/2=25.95 min) electron-capture decay were investigated by direct γ and γ-γ coincidence measurements. The sources of 168Hf were produced with the 156Gd(16O,4n) reaction and radiochemically separated using chromatographic methods. A level scheme of 39 new levels in the 168Lu nucleus was proposed, accounting for 107 of 119 observed γ transitions assigned to 168Hf electron-capture decay. Transition multipolarities, level-spins, and parities were deduced or proposed. A tentative decay scheme was proposed. Level structure was discussed in the framework of the particle-rotor and Nilsson models.

  17. A simple theoretical model for erbium doped PCF ring lasers design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, J. A.; Álvarez, J. M.; Rebolledo, M. A.; Andrés, M. V.; Vallés, J. A.; Martín, J. C.; Berdejo, V.; Díez, A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper a simple theoretical model is presented where the energy conservation principle is used. The model is based on semi-analytical equations describing the behaviour of an erbium-doped photonic crystal fibre (PCF) inside a ring laser. These semi-analytical equations allow the characterisation of the erbium-doped PCF. Spectral absorption and emission coefficients can be determined through the measurement of the gain in the PCF as a function of pump power attenuation for several fibre lengths by means of a linear fitting. These coefficients are proportional to the erbium concentration and to the corresponding absorption or emission cross section. So if the concentration is known the erbium cross sections can be immediately determined. The model was successfully checked by means of two different home-made erbium doped PCFs. Once the fibres were characterised the values of the spectral absorption and emission coefficients were used to simulate the behaviour of a back propagating ring laser made of each fibre. Passive losses of the components in the cavity were previously calibrated. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental values of efficiency, pump power threshold and output laser power for a wide set of experimental situations (several values of the input pump power, output coupling factor, laser wavelength and fibre length).

  18. Silicon-erbium ytterbium silicate nanowire waveguides with optimized optical gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Zheng, Wei-Hao; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Hong; Zhuang, Xiu-Juan; Pan, An-Lian; Duan, Xiang-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Single-crystal erbium silicate nanowires have attracted considerable attention because of their high optical gain. In this work, we report the controlled synthesis of silicon-erbium ytterbium silicate core-shell nanowires and fine-tuning the erbium mole fraction in the shell from x = 0:3 to x = 1:0, which corresponds to changing the erbium concentration from 4:8 × 1021 to 1:6 × 1022 cm-3. By controlling and properly optimizing the composition of erbium and ytterbium in the nanowires, we can effectively suppress upconversion photoluminescence while simultaneously enhancing near-infrared emission. The composition-optimized nanowires have very long photoluminescence lifetimes and large emission cross-sections, which contribute to the high optical gain that we observed. We suspended these concentration-optimized nanowires in the air to measure and analyze their propagation loss and optical gain in the near-infrared communication band. Through systematic measurements using wires with different core sizes, we obtained a maximum net gain of 20±8 dB·mm-1, which occurs at a wavelength of 1534 nm, for a nanowire with a diameter of 600 nm and a silicon core diameter of 300 nm.

  19. Laser-assisted cavity preparation and adhesion to erbium-lased tooth structure: part 1. Laser-assisted cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Delmé, Katleen Ilse Maria

    2009-12-01

    The use of the ruby laser (693.4 nm) was first described in 1960, and it was applied for hard tissue ablation in 1964. Different wavelengths [Nd:YAG (1.065 microm), CO2 (9.6 microm), Ho:YAG (2.12 microm)] were consequently explored. Due to massive thermal side effects, these wavelengths caused increased temperature in dental pulp, as well as microcracks and carbonization. The use of this laser for dental hard tissue preparation was eventually abandoned. At the end of the 1980s, excimer lasers (ultraviolet) and the erbium laser (infrared) were developed, with the advantages of improved temperature control and smaller penetration depths. With the development of smaller devices and improved knowledge of how to limit damage to the surrounding tissues, new ablation techniques were established in the 1990s. There is still contradiction in the current literature, however, in that different wavelengths are advocated for hard tissue removal, and heterogeneity in laser parameters and power densities remain. In this review, the effects of the wavelengths presently used for cavity preparation are evaluated. We conclude that erbium lasers (Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG) are most efficient and, with the right parameters, the thermal side effects are small. There is a substantial need for "gold standards", although this is difficult to establish in practice owing to different laser parameters (including pulse repetition rate, amount of cooling, energy delivered per pulse, and types of pulses) and target specificity (tissue interaction with sound or decayed enamel or dentin, and the extent of (de)mineralization) which influence tissue interaction.

  20. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr; Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid; Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  1. Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber chaotic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Juan C.; Used, Javier; Sánchez-Martín, José A.; Berdejo, Víctor; Vallés, Juan A.; Álvarez, José M.; Rebolledo, Miguel A.

    2011-09-01

    An erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser has been designed, constructed and characterized in order to examine the feasibility of this kind of devices for secure communications applications based on two identical chaotic lasers. Inclusion of a tailored photonic crystal fiber as active medium improves considerably the security of the device because it allows customization of the mode transversal profile, very influential on the laser dynamics and virtually impossible to be cloned by undesired listeners. The laser design has been facilitated by the combination of characterization procedures and models developed by us, which allow prediction of the most suitable laser features (losses, length of active fiber, etc.) to a given purpose (in our case, a laser that emits chaotically for a wide assortment of pump modulation conditions). The chaotic signals obtained have been characterized by means of topological analysis techniques. The underlying chaotic attractors found present topological structures belonging to classes of which very scarce experimental results have been reported. This fact is interesting from the point of view of the study of nonlinear systems and, besides, it is promising for secure communications: the stranger the signals, the more difficult for an eavesdropper to synthesize another system with similar dynamics.

  2. Clinical application of erbium:YAG laser in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Isao; Aoki, Akira; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Various lasers have been introduced for the treatment of oral diseases and their applications in dental clinics have become a topic of much interest among practitioners. Technological advances and improvements have increased the choices of the available laser systems for oral use. Among them, a recently developed erbium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser system possesses suitable characteristics for oral soft and hard tissue ablation. Due to its high absorption in water, an effective ablation with a very thin surface interaction occurs on the irradiated tissues without any major thermal damage to the irradiated and surrounding tissues. In the field of periodontics, the application of Er:YAG laser for periodontal hard tissue has begun with studies from Japanese and German researchers. Several in vitro and clinical studies have already demonstrated an effective application of the Er:YAG laser for calculus removal and decontamination of the diseased root surface in periodontal non-surgical and surgical procedures. However, further studies are required to better understand the various effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on biological tissues for its safe and effective application during periodontal and implant therapy. Randomized controlled clinical trials and more basic studies have to be encouraged and performed to confirm the status of Er:YAG laser treatment as an adjunct or alternative to conventional mechanical periodontal therapy. In this paper, the advantages and current clinical applications of this laser in periodontics and implant dentistry are summarized based on current scientific evidence.

  3. Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D.; Wu, P. Zhang, S. P.; Liang, L.; Yang, F.; Pei, Y. L.; Chen, S.

    2013-11-21

    As a heavy rare earth oxide, erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has many attractive properties. Monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} has useful properties not found in stable cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, such as unique optical properties and high radiation damage tolerance. In this study, cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with mixed phases were prepared. The Raman scattering spectra of these coatings were investigated by using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with 325, 473, 514, 532, 633, and 784 nm lasers. A total of 17 first-order Raman modes of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were identified and assigned. The modes at 83, 112, 152, 170, 278, 290, 409, 446, 478, 521, 603, and 622 cm{sup −1} are of A{sub g} symmetry, whereas modes at 71, 98, 333, 409, 446, and 468 cm{sup −1} are of B{sub g} symmetry. This research provides basic data necessary for the characterization of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} by Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J. M.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  5. Ablation characteristics of quantum square pulse mode dental erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Suhovršnik, Tomaž; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-01-01

    Erbium lasers are by now an accepted tool for performing ablative medical procedures, especially when minimal invasiveness is desired. Ideally, a minimally invasive laser cutting procedure should be fast and precise, and with minimal pain and thermal side effects. All these characteristics are significantly influenced by laser pulse duration, albeit not in the same manner. For example, high cutting efficacy and low heat deposition are characteristics of short pulses, while vibrations and ejected debris screening are less pronounced at longer pulse durations. We report on a study of ablation characteristics on dental enamel and cementum, of a chopped-pulse Er:YAG [quantum square pulse (QSP)] mode, which was designed to reduce debris screening during an ablation process. It is shown that in comparison to other studied standard Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser pulse duration modes, the QSP mode exhibits the highest ablation drilling efficacy with lowest heat deposition and reduced vibrations, demonstrating that debris screening has a considerable influence on the ablation process. By measuring single-pulse ablation depths, we also show that tissue desiccation during the consecutive delivery of laser pulses leads to a significant reduction of the intrinsic ablation efficacy that cannot be fully restored under clinical settings by rehydrating the tooth using an external water spray.

  6. Advanced experiments with an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo V. S.; Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.

    2014-07-01

    This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

  7. Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, S.; Aluguri, R.; Bar, R.; Das, S.; Prtljaga, N.; Pavesi, L.; Ray, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 μm, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol-gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er3+ ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established.

  8. Low-temperature growth of silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shengurov, D. V.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, S. A.; Shengurov, V. G.; Stepikhova, M. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2013-03-15

    The fabrication technology and properties of light-emitting Si structures codoped with erbium and oxygen are reported. The layers are deposited onto (100) Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an Er-doped silicon sublimation source. The partial pressure of the oxygen-containing gases in the growth chamber of the MBE facility before layer growth is lower than 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Torr. The oxygen and erbium concentrations in the Si layers grown at 450 Degree-Sign C is {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen have high crystal quality and yield effective photoluminescence and electroluminescence signals with the dominant optically active Er-1 center forming upon postgrowth annealing at a temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C.

  9. Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Vdovin, V. I.; Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I.

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

  10. Erbium oxide thin films on Si(100) obtained by laser ablation and electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queralt, X.; Ferrater, C.; Sánchez, F.; Aguiar, R.; Palau, J.; Varela, M.

    1995-02-01

    Erbium oxide thin films have been obtained by laser ablation and electron beam evaporation techniques on Si(100) substrates. The samples were grown under different conditions of oxygen atmosphere and substrate temperature without any oxidation process after deposition. The crystal structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction. Films obtained by laser ablation are highly textured in the [ hhh] direction, although this depends on the conditions of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature. In order to study the depth composition profile of the thin films and the interdiffusion of erbium metal and oxygen towards the silicon substrates, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses have been carried out.

  11. Infrared luminescence from spark-processed silicon and erbium-doped spark-processed silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanghoon

    Spark-processed silicon has substantial potential as an optical material. In the past 15 years, our group has investigated a multitude of properties of this unique material, concentrating mostly on the visible and near UV spectral region. The present study expands our endeavors to infrared photoluminescence (PL) of undoped spark-processed silicon. A broad infrared photoluminescence peak at around 945 nm under Ar ion laser excitation was observed at room temperature when investigating a spark-processed layer on a silicon wafer. This light emission is interpreted to be the result of energy transfers between certain energy levels involving the spark-processed silicon matrix. The infrared PL intensity of spark-processed silicon was found to be proportional to the excitation energy. However, telecommunication requires presently a light emission near 1.54 mum (because fiber-optics "conductors" have a minimum in absorption at this wavelength). This cannot be achieved with pure spark-processed silicon. Therefore spark-processed silicon needs to be doped with a rare-earth element such as erbium to shift the emission to longer wavelengths. It is known that erbium has a light emission from intrashell energy transition, that is, from 4I13/2 →4I15/2. Erbium was deposited on a silicon wafer followed by spark-processing, which enables diffusion of some erbium into the SiOx matrix, thus achieving opto-electronically active spark-processed silicon. Rapid thermal annealing enhances the 1.54 mum wavelength intensity from erbium-doped spark-processed silicon. The processing conditions that result in the most efficient photoluminescence have been established and will be presented in this dissertation. In contrast to erbium-doped crystalline silicon, whose light emission is highly affected by temperature (103 times reduction in intensity when heating from 12 K to 150 K), the intensity of erbium-doped spark-processed silicon decreases by only a factor of 4 when heated from 15 K to room

  12. Pump absorption and temperature distribution in erbium-doped double-clad fluoride-glass fibers.

    PubMed

    Gorjan, Martin; Marincek, Marko; Copic, Martin

    2009-10-26

    We investigate diode pump absorption and temperature distribution in three erbium-doped double-clad fluoride fibers. Absorption is measured via fluorescence intensity and temperature distribution is measured with thermal imaging. Ray-tracing calculations of absorption and heat-equation modeling of temperature distribution are also conducted. We found excellent agreement between measurements and calculations for all fibers. Results indicate that erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers have already reached maximum output powers allowed under natural convection cooling, with fiber end being the most critical. We propose cooling and fiber design optimizations that may allow an order-of-magnitude further power-scaling.

  13. Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber laser based on multimode interference effect.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Guzman, A; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Selvas-Aguilar, R; May-Arrioja, D A; Estudillo-Ayala, J; LiKamWa, P

    2010-01-18

    A widely tunable erbium-doped all-fiber laser has been demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on a novel tunable filter using multimode interference effects (MMI). The tunable MMI filter was applied to fabricate a tunable erbium-doped fiber laser via a standard ring cavity. A tuning range of 60 nm was obtained, ranging from 1549 nm to 1609 nm, with a signal to noise ratio of 40 dB. The tunable MMI filter mechanism is very simple and inexpensive, but also quite efficient as a wavelength tunable filter.

  14. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  15. Multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on random distributed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyang; Dong, Xinyong; Jiang, Meng; Yu, Xia; Shum, Ping

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on random distributed feedback via a 20-km-long single-mode fiber together with a Sagnac loop mirror. The number of channels can be modulated from 2 to 8 at room temperature when the pump power is changed from 30 to 180 mW, indicating that wavelength competition caused by homogenous gain broadening of erbium-doped fiber is significantly suppressed. Other advantages of the laser include low cost, low-threshold pump power and simple fabrication.

  16. Manufacture and properties of erythromycin beads containing neutron-activated erbium-171

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, A.F.; Digenis, G.A.; Sandefer, E.P.; Ghebre-Sellassie, I.; Iyer, U.; Nesbitt, R.U.; Scheinthal, B.M. )

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.

  17. Optical Properties of Potassium Erbium Double Tungstate KEr(WO4)2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11914 TITLE: Optical Properties of Potassium Erbium Double Tungstate ...potassium erbium double tungstate KEr(W0 4)2 T.Zayarnyukl*, M.T.Borowiecl*, V.DyakonovŖ, H.Szymczak’, E.Zubov Ŗ, A.Pavlyuk3, M.Barafiski’ 1Institute of... tungstate KEr(WO4)2 are reported. The single crystals of KEr(WO4)2 were grown by Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) technique. They belong to the chain

  18. Ablation of brain by erbium laser: study of dynamic behavior and tissue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Sozzi, C.; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca; Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Croce, Anna C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work two aspects of the ablation of brain by Erbium laser have been mainly addressed: the time evolution of the phenomenon and the damages, both thermal and mechanical, produced in the tissues. The time resolved images acquired during the laser interaction revealed that deep lacerations develop in the tissue due to a mechanical stress. The damages have been evaluated by studying the changes in the autofluorescence emission properties and the reduction in enzymatic activities (NADH Oxidase and ATPase). The results obtained in this study indicate that the thermal alterations resulting from the exposure to Erbium laser are limited, whereas the mechanical damages can be very pronounced.

  19. Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

  20. Novel Thermal Effects at the First Order Magnetic Phase Transition in Erbium, and a Comparison with Dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Fort, D.

    1997-06-01

    In low temperature studies of ultrapure erbium (and dysprosium) we have discovered unusual thermal effects at the first order magnetic transformation of erbium ({congruent} 19K). These include (1)superheating (i.e., {ital the metal is colder after heat has been added to it than before the heat pulse }), (2)supercooling, and (3)the existence of metastable intermediate phases during this phase transformation in erbium (four on heating and two on cooling). In comparison, dysprosium exhibits both superheating and supercooling, but no intermediate metastable phases are observed. Furthermore, none of these effects are observed in less pure metals. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Perfluorinated nitrosopyrazolone-based erbium chelates: a new efficient solution processable NIR emitter.

    PubMed

    Beverina, Luca; Crippa, Maurizio; Sassi, Mauro; Monguzzi, Angelo; Meinardi, Francesco; Tubino, Riccardo; Pagani, Giorgio A

    2009-09-14

    We show the design and synthesis of new perfluorinated nitrosopyrazolone-based ligands and the original method employed for their complexation of erbium ions in the presence of the co-ligand perfluorotriphenylphosphine oxide; the resulting chelate is non-hygroscopic, solution processable and possesses a NIR emission with lifetimes as long as 16 micros.

  2. Ultrasonic approach for formation of erbium oxide nanoparticles with variable geometries.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Skirtach, André; Gessner, Andre; Kumke, Michael U; Zhang, Wei; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2011-12-06

    Ultrasound (20 kHz, 29 W·cm(-2)) is employed to form three types of erbium oxide nanoparticles in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a template material in water. The nanoparticles are (i) erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles deposited on the external walls of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Er(2)O(3) in the bulk with (ii) hexagonal and (iii) spherical geometries. Each type of ultrasonically formed nanoparticle reveals Er(3+) photoluminescence from crystal lattice. The main advantage of the erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes is the electromagnetic emission in the visible region, which is new and not examined up to the present date. On the other hand, the photoluminescence of hexagonal erbium oxide nanoparticles is long-lived (μs) and enables the higher energy transition ((4)S(3/2)-(4)I(15/2)), which is not observed for spherical nanoparticles. Our work is unique because it combines for the first time spectroscopy of Er(3+) electronic transitions in the host crystal lattices of nanoparticles with the geometry established by ultrasound in aqueous solution of carbon nanotubes employed as a template material. The work can be of great interest for "green" chemistry synthesis of photoluminescent nanoparticles in water.

  3. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.

    2010-07-07

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  4. RBS, PIXE and NDP study of erbium incorporation into glass surface for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, Anna; Havránek, Vladimír; Vacík, Jiří; Salavcová, Linda; Špirková, Jarmila

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and the characterisation of successful erbium in-diffusion into silicate glass surface for potential use in photonics active structures through ion beam analytical methods. The erbium doping occurred by ion exchange of erbium ions from a molten source for lithium ions from the specially designed glass substrates. Composition of the optical layers was studied by ion beam analytical techniques: RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy) characterized depth distribution of the incorporated Er3+ ions and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy) gave information on the total amount of erbium incorporated in the samples. The NDP (neutron depth profiling) method was used to evaluate changes in distribution of Li+ ions in the surfaces of the fabricated samples. We observed shallow Er profiles that were accompanied by more mobile Cs+, Rb+ ions incorporated in the much deeper layer as compared to the Er. The Li concentration in the glass substrate occurs as the most important parameter for Er diffusion into the glass substrate.

  5. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  6. Argon laser versus erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkader, Mona; Alashry, Shereen Ezzelregal

    2014-01-01

    Background Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common of the xanthomas with asymptomatic, symmetrical, bilateral, soft, yellow, polygonal papules around the eyelids. Though it is a benign lesion causing no functional disturbance, it is esthetically annoying. The surgical laser offers an extremely elegant and powerful solution to this problem. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of erbium:YAG and argon lasers in the treatment of xanthelasma lesions. Patients and methods Forty patients were included in the study. Twenty patients (15 patients were bilateral with 30 eyes either in the upper or lower lid and 5 patients were unilateral) were treated with erbium:YAG laser. Another 20 patients (10 patients were bilateral with 20 eyes and 10 patients were unilateral) were treated with argon laser. Results In the majority of treated patients (either treated with erbium:YAG or argon laser), xanthelasma lesions were completely disappeared or significantly decreased in size. Two patients showed pigmentary changes in the form of hypopigmentation with erbium:YAG laser (one case), another case showed hyperpigmentation. No intraoperative complication was observed. No significant scar or recurrence was observed. Conclusion Argon laser in xanthelasma is an easy, effective, and safe method of treatment for small lesions and YAG laser is more better for large lesions than argon laser. PMID:25892929

  7. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  8. Optical Parametric Oscillator on GaSe Crystal Pumped by a 3 Micron Erbium Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    based on Ho3+ and Er - doped crystals have been developed. Holmium lasers have wavelengths near 2 micron and Erbium lasers near 3 micron. Both...experience in working with GaSe OPO pumped by Q-switched pulses shows that pumping of GaSe by 2 |im laser radiation (a holmium laser) is also possible

  9. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  10. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  11. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  12. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  13. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  14. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-1 - Special rules for leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 5c.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... allowed accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS) deductions under section 168 and the investment tax...

  15. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-11 - Consolidated returns. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Consolidated returns. 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  16. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-3 - Requirements for lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 5c.168(f)(8)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... leases it back under a section 168(f)(8) lease. Within 3 months after the property was placed in...

  17. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-3 - Requirements for lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 5c.168(f)(8)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... leases it back under a section 168(f)(8) lease. Within 3 months after the property was placed in...

  18. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-1 - Special rules for leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 5c.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... allowed accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS) deductions under section 168 and the investment tax...

  19. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-5 - Term of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)(8)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-5... must at least equal the period prescribed under section 168(c)(2) for the recovery property class...

  20. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-11 - Consolidated returns. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consolidated returns. 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  1. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-1 - Special rules for leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 5c.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... allowed accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS) deductions under section 168 and the investment tax...

  2. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-11 - Consolidated returns. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Consolidated returns. 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  3. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-5 - Term of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...)(8)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-5... must at least equal the period prescribed under section 168(c)(2) for the recovery property class...

  4. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-3 - Requirements for lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5c.168(f)(8)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... leases it back under a section 168(f)(8) lease. Within 3 months after the property was placed in...

  5. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-5 - Term of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)(8)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-5... must at least equal the period prescribed under section 168(c)(2) for the recovery property class...

  6. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-10 - Leases between related parties. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Leases between related parties. 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  7. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-5 - Term of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(8)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c.168(f)(8)-5... must at least equal the period prescribed under section 168(c)(2) for the recovery property class...

  8. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-3 - Requirements for lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 5c.168(f)(8)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... leases it back under a section 168(f)(8) lease. Within 3 months after the property was placed in...

  9. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-10 - Leases between related parties. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Leases between related parties. 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  10. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-11 - Consolidated returns. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consolidated returns. 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  11. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-10 - Leases between related parties. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leases between related parties. 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  12. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-1 - Special rules for leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5c.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... allowed accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS) deductions under section 168 and the investment tax...

  13. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-10 - Leases between related parties. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leases between related parties. 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  14. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  15. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  16. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  17. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  18. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-7 - Accounting for MACRS property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting for MACRS property. 1.168(i)-7....168(i)-7 Accounting for MACRS property. (a) In general. A taxpayer may account for MACRS property (as...) Change in method of accounting. A change to comply with this section for depreciable assets placed...

  19. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  20. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  1. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  2. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  3. 9 CFR 381.168 - Maximum percent of skin in certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry products. 381.168 Section 381.168 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  4. 19 CFR 191.168 - Time limit for exportation or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time limit for exportation or destruction. 191.168 Section 191.168 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Distilled Spirits, Wines, or Beer Which Are Unmerchantable...

  5. 19 CFR 191.168 - Time limit for exportation or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time limit for exportation or destruction. 191.168 Section 191.168 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Distilled Spirits, Wines, or Beer Which Are Unmerchantable...

  6. 25 CFR 168.16 - Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. 168... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.16 Impoundment and disposal of unauthorized livestock. Unauthorized livestock within any range unit of the Hopi Partitioned Lands which are not removed...

  7. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-10 - Leases between related parties. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases between related parties. 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  8. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-5 - Term of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Term of lease. 5c.168(f)(8)-5 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  9. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum investment of lessor. 5c.168(f)(8)-4 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  10. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-11 - Consolidated returns. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated returns. 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Section 5c.168(f)(8)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  11. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-3 - Requirements for lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... qualified lessor. See § 5c.168(f)(8)-8 for the Federal income tax consequences of such a disqualification... section. See § 5c.168(f)(8)-8 for the Federal income tax consequences where a lease ceases to...

  12. 19 CFR 191.168 - Time limit for exportation or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limit for exportation or destruction. 191.168 Section 191.168 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Distilled Spirits, Wines, or Beer Which Are Unmerchantable...

  13. Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

  14. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-04

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  15. Development of erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Hussain, Shah; Meischl, Florian; Sasse, Michael; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a novel method for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides using erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns is presented. Erbium phosphate was synthesized by precipitation from boiling phosphoric acid and incubated overnight in erbium chloride solutions. The resulting powder was embedded in a monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. The monolith was synthesized in a spin column by radical polymerization. Erbium phosphate demonstrated a high affinity and selectivity for phosphopeptides due to the strong interaction of trivalent erbium ions with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides. The high selectivity and performance of the designed spin columns were demonstrated by successfully enriching phosphopeptides from tryptically digested protein mixtures containing the model phosphoproteins α- and β-casein, bovine milk, and human saliva. By the implementation of several washing steps, unspecific components were removed and the enriched phosphopeptides were effectively eluted from the spin columns under alkaline conditions. The selective performance of the presented method was further demonstrated by the enrichment of two synthetic phosphopeptides, which were spiked in tryptically digested and dephosphorylated HeLa cell lysates at low ratios. Finally, the presented approach was compared to conventional phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium oxide and revealed higher recoveries for the erbium phosphate doped monoliths.

  16. Efficacy of Erbium:YAG laser treatment compared to topical estriol treatment for symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Hugo; Gomez, Valentin; Luque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. Methods Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0.5 mg estriol ovules 3 times per week to hydrate the mucosa and then received three sessions with 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser in non‐ablative mode. Biopsies were taken before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post‐treatment. Maturation index, maturation value and pH where recorded up to 12‐months post‐treatment, while the VAS analysis of symptoms was recorded up to 18 months post‐treatment. Results Statistically significant (P < 0.05), reduction of all assessed symptoms was observed in the laser group at all follow‐ups up to 18 months post‐treatment. Significant improvement in maturation value and a decrease of pH in the laser group was detected up to 12 months after treatment. The improvement in all endpoints was more pronounced and longer lasting in the laser group. Histological examination showed changes in the tropism of the vaginal mucosa and also angiogenesis, congestion, and restructuring of the lamina propria in the laser group. Side effects were minimal and of transient nature in both groups, affecting 4% of patients in the laser group and 12% of patients in the estriol group. Conclusions Our results show that Er:YAG laser treatment successfully relieves symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause and that the results are more pronounced and longer lasting compared to topical estriol treatment. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:160–168, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27546524

  17. Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Omi, H.; Tawara, T.; Tateishi, M.

    2012-03-15

    The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O{sub 2}/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 degree sign C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 degree sign C in O{sub 2}/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 degree sign C. The I{sub 15/2}-I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions of the erbium compounds.

  18. Photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped fibre by femtosecond pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Chu-En; Chou, Fong-In; Tai, Chao-Yi; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped glass fibre is investigated. Two commercial erbium-doped fibres (EDFs) with different doping concentrations were sealed inside a chamber with a cobalt-60 gamma source for 6 h to give an accumulated dose of 3.18 kGy. A tunable femtosecond pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 80 MHz was then used to pump EDF to generate 1550 nm fluorescence and green up-conversion emission, resulting in the annealing effect of the gamma-irradiated EDF. The fluorescence power of gamma-irradiated EDF with a moderate level of doping was almost returned to the initial state by photo-annealing, unlike that of a heavily doped EDF. This finding may facilitate the development of anti-irradiated superfluorescence fibre source for space navigation.

  19. Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A; Dijkstra, Meindert; Bernhardi, Edward H; Ay, Feridun; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Herek, Jennifer L; García-Blanco, Sonia M; Pollnau, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped aluminum oxide on a silicon wafer are fabricated and characterized. Spirals of several lengths and four different erbium concentrations are studied experimentally and theoretically. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 12.9 cm and 24.4 cm and concentrations of 1.92 × 10(20) cm(-3) and 0.95 × 10(20) cm(-3), respectively. The noise figures of these samples are reported. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power and the temperature dependence of gain are studied.

  20. Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar; Bhatnagar, Anil K.

    2014-04-24

    A series of [(70TeO{sub 2}−(30−x)ZnO−xPbO){sub 0.99}−(Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01}; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 μm has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

  1. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

  2. Healing of bone in the rat following surgery with the erbium-YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh; El Montaser, Monsour A.; Sloan, Philip

    1996-12-01

    Background and objectives: the aim of this study was to examine the pattern of healing in rat calvarial defects prepared with the erbium-YAG laser, using the 'guided tissue regeneration' technique. Materials and method: PTFE membranes were placed over lased skull defects, and the skin wounds sutured. Rats were killed humanely at intervals after surgery, and the skulls processed for paraffin wax histology. A further group of mature rats were also killed humanely and the calvariae removed. Slots were prepared using the erbium-YAG laser and immediately examined under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) in hydrated conditions, which avoided drying artifacts. Results: An amorphous, mineral-rich carbon layer surrounds the lased bone defect, which in the in vivo experiments was seen as a basophilic zone which was resistant to resorption.

  3. Reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber-amplifier-based fiber loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hongyun; Liu, Songhao; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on fiber loop mirror, which reflects the backward ASE to the EDF as a secondary pumping source. A gain of 30 dB increased 6 dB compared to the forward end-pumped EDFA has been achieved in the wavelength region from 1570 to 1603 nm. In order to improve the gain and NF further, we constructed a novel configuration for reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier via inserting a 980 nm LD in the input part. Adjusting the ratio of power of the two LDs, the gain and NF are greatly improved in different degree in the region from 1565 to 1615 nm. Compared to the configuration pumped by only 1480 nm LD with given power, the gain enhanced 1.5-9.9 dB and the NF decreases 1.3-9.4 dB.

  4. Electric and magnetic long-range interactions between two Erbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Lepers, Maxence; Aymar, Mireille; Luc, Eliane; Wyart, Jean-Francois

    2011-05-01

    Lanthanides have recently attracted a lot of interest in the field of laser-cooling and trapping. Their high magnetic dipole moment - seven Bohr magnetons for Erbium - opens new prospects for the precise control of their mutual interactions. As they are also characterized by a high orbital angular momentum, they also interact through their permanent electric quadrupole moments. We have studied the combined effects of the magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole interaction as functions of the distance R between two atoms of Erbium. Although they scale as R-3 and R-5 respectively, we have shown that the two types of interaction can compete with each other in a wide range of interatomic distances. This is due to the weakness of magnetic forces compared to electric ones. For example, we observe long-range wells, which could drastically influence the collisional properties of the atoms. Our calculations can be generalized to other lanthanides, like Dysprosium.

  5. 1.54 micron Emission from Erbium implanted GaN for Photonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaik, Myo; Hommerich, U.; Schwartz, R. N.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of efficient and compact light sources operating at 1.54 micron is of enormous importance for the advancement of new optical communication systems. Erbium (1%) doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) or semiconductor lasers are currently being employed as near infrared light sources. Both devices, however, have inherent limitations due to their mode of operation. EDFA's employ an elaborate optical pumping scheme, whereas diode lasers have a strongly temperature dependent lasing wavelength. Novel light emitters based on erbium doped III-V semiconductors could overcome these limitations. Er doped semiconductors combine the convenience of electrical excitation with the excellent luminescence properties of Er(3+) ions. Electrically pumped, compact, and temperature stable optoelectronic devices are envisioned from this new class of luminescent materials. In this paper we discuss the potential of Er doped GaN for optoelectronic applications based on temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation studies.

  6. Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN).

    PubMed

    Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thünemann, Andreas F; Mašić, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er(2)O(3) particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell.

  7. Opportunities for Low Cost Processing of Erbium 8-Quinolinolates for Active Integrated Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Penna, Stefano; Mattiello, Leonardo; Di Bartolo, Silvia; Pizzoleo, Angelo; Attanasio, Vincenzo; Beleffi, Giorgio Maria Tosi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Erbium-doped organic emitters are promising active materials for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) due to their emission shown at 1550 nm combined to the potential low cost processing. In particular, Erbium Quinoline (ErQ) gained a strong interest in the last decade for the good emission efficiency. This contribution reports the results derived from the application of ErQ as active core material within a buried optical waveguide, following the development of a purposed optical process to control the refractive index of ErQ and then to define a patterned structure from a single thin film deposition step. The reported results show the potential of Er-doped organic materials for low cost processing and application to planar PICs.

  8. Erbium-doped all-fiber laser at 2.94 microm.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Dominic; Bernier, Martin; Caron, Nicolas; Vallée, Réal

    2009-11-01

    We report what we believe is the first demonstration of laser emission at 2.94 microm in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser. The low-loss all-fiber Fabry-Perot laser cavity was formed by two fiber Bragg gratings of 90% and 15% reflectivities in a 6.6 m, 7 mol.% Er-doped double-clad fiber. A maximum cw output power of 5.2 W was measured, which is to our knowledge the highest reported to date for a diode-pumped laser at this wavelength. A coreless endcap was fused at the output fiber end to prevent its deterioration at high output powers. Our results, including the slope efficiency of 26.6% with respect to launched pump power, suggest that erbium could be a better alternative than holmium in the search for a replacement for the flashlamp-pumped Er:YAG at 2.94 microm.

  9. Cavity-dumped 2.70 microm erbium laser using optomechanical shutter.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Ho; Won Lee, Dong; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Yeong Sik

    2008-12-01

    A cavity-dumped 2.70 microm erbium laser with a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) shutter was investigated and compared with a Q-switched erbium laser using the FTIR shutter. The Q-switched and the cavity-dumped 2.70 microm laser outputs were obtained with a dichroic coated mirror with high reflectance at 2.70 microm and high transmittance at 2.79 microm. For the Q-switched operation, a maximum peak power of 33.5 kW was achieved, and its pulse width was 1.3 mus. For the cavity-dumped operation, the laser pulse energy was optimized by changing the switching time of the FTIR shutter. When the pulse width is reduced to 210 ns, the peak power increases to 154 kW.

  10. Tunable multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser utilizing passive EDF absorber section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mashhadani, T. F.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Abdullah, F.; Abass, A. K.; Rawi, N. I. M.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple tunable L-band multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser that utilizes a short passive erbium doped fiber (PEDF) as an absorber section. The impact of including the PEDF absorber section on the laser tunability is investigated. The proposed laser structure exhibits a wide tuning range of 24.4 nm (from 1583.5 nm to 1607.9 nm) at 1480 nm pump and Brillouin pump powers of 100 and 4 mW, respectively. This tuning range represents a 31% increase compared with a laser without a PEDF absorber section. The average number of stable output channels produced within this wavelength range is 16 channels with a spacing of 0.089 nm.

  11. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  12. C-band wavelength-swept single-longitudinalmode erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2008-09-01

    A wavelength-swept single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser capable of operating at sweeping frequency in the order of a few kHz is designed and demonstrated by using a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter and a Sagnac loop incorporated with a 3.5-meter unpumped erbium-doped fiber. The laser operates in continuous-wave (CW) mode and can sweep approximately 45 nm over the entire C-band (1520nm-1570nm) window with linewidth less than 0.7 kHz. The optimum wavelength sweeping frequency in order to achieve the best output power stability was found to be approximately20Hz with sweeping-induced power fluctuation of only 0.1%.

  13. Simulation of an erbium-doped chalcogenide micro-disk mid-infrared laser source.

    PubMed

    Al Tal, Faleh; Dimas, Clara; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C

    2011-06-20

    The feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) lasing in erbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) micro-disks was examined. Lasing condition at 4.5 µm signal using 800 nm pump source was simulated using rate equations, mode propagation and transfer matrix formulation. Cavity quality (Q) factors of 1.48 × 10(4) and 1.53 × 10(6) were assumed at the pump and signal wavelengths, respectively, based on state-of-the-art chalcogenide micro-disk resonator parameters. With an 80 µm disk diameter and an active erbium concentration of 2.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), lasing was shown to be possible with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.26 × 10(-4) and associated pump threshold of 0.5 mW.

  14. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  15. 25 CFR 168.6 - Grazing on range units authorized by permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... range unit. Interim grazing permits will not be issued in excess of one-half the authorized carrying capacity of the Hopi Partition area. (4) Subject to the provisions of § 168.9(b), permits shall expire...

  16. 25 CFR 168.6 - Grazing on range units authorized by permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... range unit. Interim grazing permits will not be issued in excess of one-half the authorized carrying capacity of the Hopi Partition area. (4) Subject to the provisions of § 168.9(b), permits shall expire...

  17. 25 CFR 168.6 - Grazing on range units authorized by permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... range unit. Interim grazing permits will not be issued in excess of one-half the authorized carrying capacity of the Hopi Partition area. (4) Subject to the provisions of § 168.9(b), permits shall expire...

  18. 25 CFR 168.6 - Grazing on range units authorized by permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... range unit. Interim grazing permits will not be issued in excess of one-half the authorized carrying capacity of the Hopi Partition area. (4) Subject to the provisions of § 168.9(b), permits shall expire...

  19. 49 CFR 1.68 - Delegations to the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security for the Transportation Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation for Security for the Transportation Security Administration. 1.68 Section 1.68 Transportation... § 1.68 Delegations to the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security for the Transportation Security Administration. (a) Carry out the functions vested in the Secretary by 49 U.S.C. 5103a relating...

  20. 49 CFR 1.68 - Delegations to the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security for the Transportation Security...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation for Security for the Transportation Security Administration. 1.68 Section 1.68 Transportation... § 1.68 Delegations to the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security for the Transportation Security Administration. (a) Carry out the functions vested in the Secretary by 49 U.S.C. 5103a relating...

  1. Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Eric; Monnom, Gérard; Dussardier, Bernard; Ostrowsky, D. B.

    1995-12-01

    Nonsaturable absorption experiments in heavily erbium-doped fibers demonstrate that the behavior of the absorption with pump power cannot be interpreted with an ion-pair model but requires that the presence of larger clusters be taken into account. Numerical modeling permits the determination of the percentage of ions organized in clusters, as much as 52% of the dopants in the tested fiber, and the intracluster transfer rate, up to 2 \\times 106s -1 .

  2. Bidirectional optical bistability in a dual-pumped erbium doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Lai, W J; Shum, P; Binh, L

    2004-11-15

    We investigate bidirectional optical wave propagations in a dual-pumped erbium doped fiber ring laser without isolator, and observe optical bistability behaviors. Consequently, we propose and construct a NOLM-NALM fiber ring laser to demonstrate and exploit this bidirectional optical bistability phenomenon in optical switching by introducing two tunable variable ratio couplers in the system. Numerical analyses based on the proposed laser structure have also been demonstrated corroborated with the experimental results.

  3. Erbium ion implantation into diamond - measurement and modelling of the crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sedmidubský, David; Hušák, Michal; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Böttger, Roman; Oswald, Jiří

    2017-02-22

    Diamond is proposed as an extraordinary material usable in interdisciplinary fields, especially in optics and photonics. In this contribution we focus on the doping of diamond with erbium as an optically active centre. In the theoretical part of the study based on DFT simulations we have developed two Er-doped diamond structural models with 0 to 4 carbon vacancies in the vicinity of the Er atom and performed geometry optimizations by the calculation of cohesive energies and defect formation energies. The theoretical results showed an excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental cohesive energies for the parent diamond. The highest values of cohesive energies and the lowest values of defect formation energies were obtained for models with erbium in the substitutional carbon position with 1 or 3 vacancies in the vicinity of the erbium atom. From the geometry optimization the structural model with 1 vacancy had an octahedral symmetry whereas the model with 3 vacancies had a coordination of 10 forming a trigonal structure with a hexagonal ring. In the experimental part, erbium doped diamond crystal samples were prepared by ion implantation of Er(+) ions using ion implantation fluences ranging from 1 × 10(14) ions per cm(2) to 5 × 10(15) ions per cm(2). The experimental results revealed a high degree of diamond structural damage after the ion implantation process reaching up to 69% of disordered atoms in the samples. The prepared Er-doped diamond samples annealed at the temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C in a vacuum revealed clear luminescence, where the 〈110〉 cut sample has approximately 6-7 times higher luminescence intensity than the 〈001〉 cut sample with the same ion implantation fluence. The reported results are the first demonstration of the Er luminescence in the single crystal diamond structure for the near-infrared spectral region.

  4. Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, T Toney; Della Valle, G; Osellame, R; Jose, G; Chiodo, N; Jha, A; Laporta, P

    2008-09-15

    We report on fs-laser micromachining of active waveguides in a new erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass by means of a compact cavity-dumped Yb-based writing system. The spectroscopic properties of the glass were investigated, and the fs-laser written waveguides were characterized in terms of passive as well as active performance. In particular, internal gain was demonstrated in the whole C+L band of optical communications (1530- 1610 nm).

  5. Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S; Wise, Frank

    2014-02-15

    We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair.

  6. Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fuchuan; Peng, Bo; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya Yang, Lan; Long, Gui Lu

    2014-09-08

    We report Fano-like asymmetric resonances modulated by optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated from erbium-doped silica. A time-dependent gain profile leads to dynamically varying sharp asymmetric resonances with features similar to Fano resonances. Depending on the scan speed of the frequency of the probe laser and the pump-probe power ratio, transmission spectra of the active microcavity exhibit a resonance dip, a resonance peak, or a Fano-like resonance.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped YAlO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Baig, Huma Nazli; Saluja, Jagjeet Kaur; Dhoble, S J

    2016-03-01

    In the yttrium aluminium system, the YAlO3 phosphor is a prominent host because of the yttrium aluminium ratio (1:1). Phosphor was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method at variable concentrations of erbium (0.1-2.5 mol%). This method is suitable for large-scale production and is a less time-consuming method when compared with the soft synthesis method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and the crystallite size was calculated by Scherer's formula. Vibrational and bending analysis of prepared phosphor for optimized concentration of erbium ion is described based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic technique. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of prepared phosphor for variable concentrations of erbium ion were recorded and the excitation spectrum was found to be at 291 nm with three shoulder peaks at 305, 270 and 242 nm. For 291 nm excitation, the emission spectrum was found at 546 nm and 552 nm. PL intensity increased with increasing concentrations of erbium and after 2 mol% emission intensity decreased due to concentration quenching. Spectrophotometric determination of YAlO3:Er(3+) is described by CIE co-ordinates and shows an intense emission in the green region such that the prepared phosphor can act as a single host for green light emission. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of the YAlO3:Er(3+) phosphor was recorded for different ultraviolet (UV) light exposures and gamma exposure. Different gamma doses 0.5-2 kGy show a linear response. Kinetic parameters were calculated by the peak shape method.

  8. RBS measurement of depth profiles of erbium incorporated into lithium niobate for optical amplifier applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Vratislav; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatovicz, Vladimír.; Červená, Jarmila; Kolářová, Pavla; Špirková-Hradilová, Jarmila; Schröfel, Josef

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for the determination of Er 3+ concentration profiles in locally doped lithium niobate. The doped layers are the basic substrates for the fabrication of optical waveguiding structures which may be utilized as planar optical amplifiers and waveguiding lasers making use of the 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition in Er 3+, which falls into the third low loss telecommunication window (1.5 μm). We present a new aproach of fabrication of locally doped lithium niobate single crystal wafers. The doping occurs under moderate temperature (˜350°C) from reaction melts containing ca. 10 wt% of erbium nitrate. The erbium content in particular cuts varies dramatically between ca. 3 at.% in the Y- and Z-cut up to 20 at.% in the X-cuts. Erbium ions are localized in a 50 nm thick layer, but they can be diffused deeper into the substrate by subsequent annealing at 350°C. The Er concentrations of the samples doped at moderated temperature are compared with the Er concentrations of the samples doped by a standard high-temperature diffusion (>1000°C) from evaporated metal layers. To utilize the Er doped substrates in integrated optic circuits high quality waveguides must be subsequently fabricated. For that we used the Annealed Proton Exchange (APE) method with adipic acid. For the actual fabrication of the waveguides the following order of operation should be kept: the erbium doping should be done before the APE because the substantially changed structure of APE layers prevents the doping process. The APE process is checked by measurements of lithium depth profiles by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP).

  9. Observation of central wavelength dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiwen; Lei, Dajun; Wen, Shuangchun; Fu, Xiquan; Zhang, Jinggui; Shao, Yufeng; Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Dianyuan

    2008-05-12

    We report on the observation of central wavelength dynamics in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser by using the nonlinear polarization rotating technique. The evolution of central wavelength with the laser operation state was observed experimentally. Numerical simulations confirmed the experimental observation and further demonstrated that the dynamics of wavelength evolution is due to the combined effects of fiber birefringence, fiber nonlinearity, and cavity filter.

  10. Erbium: YAG Laser Incision of Urethral Structures for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence After Prostate Cancer Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    devoted to in vivo animal studies comparing the wound healingafter Erbium and Holmium laser incision of the urethra and bladder neck. Further...urinary incontinence. Conventional treatments for stricture (including balloon dilation, cold knife incision, electrocautery, and Holmium laser incision...urethral tissue with a thermal damage zone of only 10-20 µm. This thermal damage zone was much less than that of the Holmium laser which produced 300 µm of

  11. Evaluation of an erbium modulator in x-ray scatter correction using primary modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hewei; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    A primary modulator made of erbium is evaluated in X-ray scatter correction using primary modulation. Our early studies have shown that erbium is the optimal modulator material for an X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system operated at 120 kVp, exhibiting minimum beam hardening which otherwise weakens the modulator's ability to separate scatter from primary. In this work, the accuracy of scatter correction is compared for two copper modulators (105 and 210 μm of thickness) and one erbium modulator (25.4 μm of thickness) with the same modulation frequencies. The variations in the effective transmission factors of these three modulators as functions of object filtrations are first measured to show the magnitudes of beam hardening caused by the modulators themselves. Their scatter correction performances are then tested using a Catphan©600 phantom on our tabletop CBCT system. With and without 300 μm of copper in the beam, the measured variations for these three modulators are 4.3%, 7.8%, and 0.9%, respectively. Using the 105- and 210-μm copper modulators, our scatter correction method reduces the average CT number error from 327.3 Hounsfield units (HU) to 19.4 and 20.9 HU in the selected regions of interest, and enhances the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from 10.7 to 16.5 and 15.9, respectively. With the 25.4-μm erbium modulator, the CT number error is markedly reduced to 2.8 HU and the CNR is further increased to 17.4.

  12. Silica fibers doped with erbium ions obtained by the sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Elzbieta; Strek, Wieslaw; Wojcik, Jan; Wojciechowski, C.; Malashkevich, G. E.; Melnichenko, I. M.; Poddenezhny, E. N.

    1997-08-01

    The paper presents the optical properties of glasses and optical fibers from quartz glass, obtained by the sol-gel method. A new technique of sol-gel glass preparation is described. Rods were formed from the glass thus produced from which PCS-type fibers were next drawn. Using the same sol-gel technology, the erbium-doped quartz glasses were obtained. The transmission and luminescence characteristics were measured for the glasses as well as for fibers drawn from them.

  13. Erbium-formate frameworks templated by diammonium cations: syntheses, structures, structural transition and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengyuan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Bingwu; Wang, Zheming; Gao, Song; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2011-06-14

    Two structurally different Er-formate frameworks, one NaCl-like [dmenH(2)][Er(HCOO)(4)](2) (1) and the other pillared-layer type [tmenH(2)][Er(HCOO)(4)](2) (2), were obtained when templated by the corresponding protonated N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (dmenH(2)) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl- ethylenediamine (tmenH(2)). The shape and size of the template cations dictate the different coordination geometries of erbium and consequently the framework topologies, though erbium adopts eight coordination in the two compounds. In the NaCl-like structure of 1, erbium is coordinated by eight anti-anti bridging formates in a square antiprism, while in the pillared-layer structure of 2, it is coordinated by six anti-anti bridging formates and one chelating formate in a pentagonal bipyramid. 2 exhibits a structural phase transition around -70 °C which is related to the disorder-order transition of the template cation. Both compounds behave as paramagnets between 2 and 300 K. However, they display field-dependent ac-susceptibilities with complicated field-induced magnetic relaxation processes, and the major slow ones probably results from spin-lattice relaxation.

  14. Investigation on the effect of EDFA location in ring cavity Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2009-07-06

    We have investigated the characteristics of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with variation of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) locations in a ring cavity configuration. Three possible locations of the EDFA in the laser cavity have been studied. The experimental results show that the location of EDFA plays vital role in determining the output power and the tuning range. Besides the Erbium gain, Brillouin gain also contributes to the performance of the BEFL. By placing the EDFA next to the Brillouin gain medium (dispersion compensating fiber), the Brillouin pump signal is amplified thereby generating higher intensities of Brillouin Stokes line. This efficient process suppresses the free running self-lasing cavity modes from oscillating in cavity as a result of higher Stokes laser power and thus provide a wider tuning range. At the injected Brillouin pump power of 1.6 mW and the maximum 1480 nm pump power of 135 mW, the maximum Stokes laser power of 25.1 mW was measured and a tuning range of 50 nm without any self-lasing cavity modes was obtained.

  15. Spectroscopy of neutron-rich {sup 168,170}Dy: Yrast band evolution close to the N{sub p}N{sub n} valence maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Soederstroem, P.-A.; Nyberg, J.; Regan, P. H.; Ashley, S. F.; Catford, W. N.; Gelletly, W.; Jones, G. A.; Liu, Z.; Pietri, S.; Podolyak, Zs.; Steer, S. J.; Thompson, N. J.; Williams, S. J.; Algora, A.; Angelis, G. de; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Gottardo, A.; Grodner, E.; He, C. Y.

    2010-03-15

    The yrast sequence of the neutron-rich dysprosium isotope {sup 168}Dy has been studied using multinucleon transfer reactions following collisions between a 460-MeV {sup 82}Se beam and an {sup 170}Er target. The reaction products were identified using the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer and the gamma rays detected using the CLARA HPGe-detector array. The 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} members of the previously measured ground-state rotational band of {sup 168}Dy have been confirmed and the yrast band extended up to 10{sup +}. A tentative candidate for the 4{sup +}->2{sup +} transition in {sup 170}Dy was also identified. The data on these nuclei and on the lighter even-even dysprosium isotopes are interpreted in terms of total Routhian surface calculations and the evolution of collectivity in the vicinity of the proton-neutron valence product maximum is discussed.

  16. Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on single and multiple walled carbon nanotubes embedded in polyethylene oxide film as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Ali, N. M.; Salleh, Z. S.; Rahman, A. A.; Harun, S. W.; Manaf, M.; Arof, H.

    2015-01-01

    A passive, stable and low cost Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which are embedded in polyethylene oxide (PEO) film as a saturable absorber (SA). The film is sandwiched between two FC/PC fiber connectors and integrated into the laser cavity for Q-switching pulse generation operating at wavelength of 1533.6 nm. With SWCNTs, the laser produces a stable pulse train with repetition rate and pulse width ranging from 9.52 to 33.33 kHz and 16.8 to 8.0 μs while varying the 980 nm pump power from 48.5 mW to 100.4 mW. On the other hand, with MWCNTs, the repetition rate and pulse width can be tuned in a wider range of 6.12-33.62 kHz and 9.5- 4.2 μs, respectively as the pump power increases from 37.9 to 120.6 mW. The MWCNTs produce the pulse train at a lower threshold and attain a higher repetition rate compared to the SWCNTs. This is due to thicker carbon nanotubes layer of the MWCNTs which provides more absorption and consequently higher damage threshold. The Q-switched EDFL produces the highest pulse energy of 531 nJ at pump power of 37.9 mW with the use of MWCNTs-PEO SA.

  17. The Origins of 168, W23, and Other Bacillus subtilis Legacy Strains▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zeigler, Daniel R.; Prágai, Zoltán; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Chevreux, Bastien; Muffler, Andrea; Albert, Thomas; Bai, Renyuan; Wyss, Markus; Perkins, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is both a model organism for basic research and an industrial workhorse, yet there are major gaps in our understanding of the genomic heritage and provenance of many widely used strains. We analyzed 17 legacy strains dating to the early years of B. subtilis genetics. For three—NCIB 3610T, PY79, and SMY—we performed comparative genome sequencing. For the remainder, we used conventional sequencing to sample genomic regions expected to show sequence heterogeneity. Sequence comparisons showed that 168, its siblings (122, 160, and 166), and the type strains NCIB 3610 and ATCC 6051 are highly similar and are likely descendants of the original Marburg strain, although the 168 lineage shows genetic evidence of early domestication. Strains 23, W23, and W23SR are identical in sequence to each other but only 94.6% identical to the Marburg group in the sequenced regions. Strain 23, the probable W23 parent, likely arose from a contaminant in the mutagenesis experiments that produced 168. The remaining strains are all genomic hybrids, showing one or more “W23 islands” in a 168 genomic backbone. Each traces its origin to transformations of 168 derivatives with DNA from 23 or W23. The common prototrophic lab strain PY79 possesses substantial W23 islands at its trp and sac loci, along with large deletions that have reduced its genome 4.3%. SMY, reputed to be the parent of 168, is actually a 168-W23 hybrid that likely shares a recent ancestor with PY79. These data provide greater insight into the genomic history of these B. subtilis legacy strains. PMID:18723616

  18. Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

    2012-06-18

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 µm fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication.

  19. Surface segregation effects of erbium in GaAs growth and their implications for optical devices containing ErAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Bank, Seth R.

    2011-03-21

    We report on the integration of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles with high optical quality GaAs-based semiconductors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements provide evidence of surface segregation and incorporation of erbium into layers grown with the erbium cell hot, despite the closed erbium source shutter. We establish the existence of a critical areal density of the surface erbium layer, below which the formation of ErAs precipitates is suppressed. Based upon these findings, we demonstrate a method for overgrowing ErAs nanoparticles with III-V layers of high optical quality, using subsurface ErAs nanoparticles as a sink to deplete the surface erbium concentration. This approach provides a path toward realizing optical devices based on plasmonic effects in an epitaxially-compatible semimetal/semiconductor system.

  20. Specific features of the mechanisms of excitation of erbium photoluminescence in epitaxial Si:Er/Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonskiy, A. N. Andreev, B. A.; Krasilnikova, L. V.; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Kuznetsov, V. P.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2010-11-15

    The excitation spectra and kinetics of erbium photoluminescence and silicon interband photoluminescence in Si:Er/Si structures under conditions of high-intensity pulse optical excitation are studied. It is shown that, in the interband photoluminescence spectra of the Si:Er/Si structures, both the luminescence of free excitons and the emission associated with the electron-hole plasma can be observed, depending on the excitation power and wavelength. It is found that the formation of a peak in the erbium photoluminescence excitation spectra at high pumping powers correlates with the Mott transition from the exciton gas to the electron-hole plasma. It is demonstrated that, in the Si:Er/Si structures, the characteristic rise times of erbium photoluminescence substantially depend on the concentration of charge carriers.

  1. Centrifugal stretching along the ground state band of {sup 168}Hf

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, A.; Pietralla, N.; Reese, M.; Moeller, O.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Meyer, D. A.; Qian, J.; Werner, V.; Dusling, K.; Fitzpatrick, C. R.; Guerdal, G.; Petkov, P.; Rainovski, G.

    2009-02-15

    The lifetimes of the J{sup {pi}}=4{sup +}, 6{sup +}, 8{sup +}, and 10{sup +} levels along the ground state band in {sup 168}Hf were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) method using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) and the SPEEDY detection array at Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Excited states in {sup 168}Hf were populated using the {sup 124}Sn({sup 48}Ti,4n) fusion evaporation reaction. The new lifetime values are sufficiently precise to clearly prove the increase of quadrupole deformation as a function of angular momentum in the deformed nucleus {sup 168}Hf. The data agree with the predictions from the geometrical confined {beta}-soft (CBS) rotor model that involves centrifugal stretching in a soft potential.

  2. Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambois, O.; Berencen, Y.; Hijazi, K.; Wojdak, M.; Kenyon, A. J.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.; Garrido, B.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the current transport and electroluminescence properties of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices in which the oxide layer, which is codoped with silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions, is made by magnetron sputtering. Electrical measurements have allowed us to identify a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. We observe an important contribution of the Si nanoclusters to the conduction in silicon oxide films, and no evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The results suggest that the electroluminescence of the erbium ions in these layers is generated by energy transfer from the Si nanoparticles. Finally, we report an electroluminescence power efficiency above 10-3%.

  3. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  4. Luminescent amino-functionalized or erbium-doped silica spheres for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Enrichi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the morphological and optical properties of luminescent silica spheres, discussing applications in bioimaging and biosensing. The spheres are obtained by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and can be synthesized by following either a basic or an acidic route. Luminescence emission is induced after incorporation of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) during synthesis or by introducing an optically active element, such as erbium, or other rare-earth elements. The luminescence properties of APTES-functionalized silica spheres have been investigated and optimized by varying the annealing temperature. On the other hand, erbium incorporation in silica spheres was also studied and the corresponding Er(3+) luminescence emission at 1.54 microm was evaluated for intensity and lifetime. The basic pH environment in the synthesis allows good control of the size of the spheres (approximately 200 nm in diameter), whereas the acidic route produces a wide dispersion in particle size (200-5000 nm). Both these approaches, however, can be followed to obtain an efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission for the APTES-functionalized silica spheres after 400-600 degrees C thermal treatment. If Er(NO(3))(3) is introduced in the basic solution, a rapid precipitation of Er(OH)(3) occurs, but erbium can be easily and efficiently incorporated in the acid-synthesized spheres, showing high PL intensity at 1.54 microm with lifetime of 3.9 ms. Finally, I discuss perspectives for the applications of these luminescent silica spheres, in particular as biological markers for bioimaging and biosensing.

  5. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  6. New Types of Rogue Wave in an Erbium-Doped Fibre System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, Kuppuswamy

    2012-03-01

    We report a novel and new types of rogue optical wave propagation in an erbium-doped fibre system governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger and the Maxwell--Bloch equation. The breather solutions of the three fields, namely field envelop, polarization and population inversion, are used to generate the rogue waves. For the first time, we report bright and, in particular, dark rogue waves in a coupled nonlinear optical systems. The distinction between bright and dark rogue waves are discussed in detail through figures. The rogue wave formation in our model can also be connected to the generation of supercontinuum generation in resonant optical fibre.

  7. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment.

  8. Tunable multiwavelength narrow linewidth Brillouin erbium fiber laser based on Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yanfu; Liu, Meng; Yao, Yong

    2016-06-01

    A Rayleigh backscattering (RBS) assisted Brillouin erbium fiber laser scheme with multiwavelength narrow linewidth output is proposed and investigated experimentally. The stimulated Brillouin scattering and RBS take place at two conventional single-mode fibers (SMFs), respectively. RBS is used as a mechanism to compress the linewidth of each Stokes component, and it has been realized and maximized in conventional SMF by optimizing injection power of Stokes light through adjusting variable optical attenuator (VOA). By adjusting VOA attenuation, the laser can obtain three wavelengths output with 3 dB linewidth less than 2 KHz for each wavelength, or six wavelengths output with 3 dB linewidth less than 5 KHz.

  9. Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

    2014-03-01

    Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

  10. Investigation of dynamic properties of erbium fiber laser for ultrasonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-04-07

    Dynamic properties of an erbium fiber laser (EFL) is researched and demonstrated for ultrasonic sensing in this research. The EFL has ring cavity incorporated with a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. A numerical model is used to analyze its dynamic responses to quasi-static change, continuous wave and burst wave. The ultrasonic behavior of the EFL resembles the forced single degree of freedom vibration with damping. Corresponding experimental results fit the simulation results well, showing some interesting ultrasonic properties of this EFL. After certain data process method, this EFL can be used in practical ultrasonic nondestructive testing.

  11. Latest results and future perspectives on Few-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinel, Jean-Baptiste; Le Cocq, Guillaume; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Quiquempois, Yves; Bigot, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Space division multiplexing has generated a lot of interest during the last five years and motivated intensive work on multicore and few-mode fibers. Whereas some concepts like multimode waveguides and mode coupling have been re-visited for mode-division multiplexing, some new problems have been addressed, as is the case for multimode optical amplifiers. This paper recalls the general context of the work on Few-Mode Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers and reviews the main results reported so far on this topic.

  12. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Kazakov, Valery A.; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2015-02-01

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  13. Pulpal response to cavity preparation by an erbium, chromium:YSGG laser-powered hydrokinetic system.

    PubMed

    Eversole, L R; Rizoiu, I; Kimmel, A I

    1997-08-01

    The near red-pulsed erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser hydrokinetic system, or Er,Cr:YSGG laser HKS, is effective in cutting dental hard tissues. In this longitudinal study, the authors studied the continuously erupting open-apex incisors of New Zealand albino rabbits and the constricted apex teeth of beagles to determine the effects of HKS-produced lesions at various energy levels and of preparations produced by a tapered fissure bur on dental pulp. No pulpal inflammatory responses could be identified either immediately or 30 days after surgery in HKS preparations that removed enamel and dentin without pulp exposure.

  14. Generating few-cycle pulses for nanoscale photoemission easily with an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sebastian; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate a simple setup capable of generating four-cycle pulses at a center wavelength of 1700 nm for nanoscale photoemission. Pulses from an amplified erbium-doped fiber laser are spectrally broadened by propagation through a highly non-linear fiber. Subsequently, we exploit dispersion in two different types of glass to compress the pulses. The pulse length is estimated by measuring an interferometric autocorrelation trace and comparing it to a numerical simulation. We demonstrate highly non-linear photoemission of electrons from a nanometric tungsten tip in a hitherto unexplored pulse parameter range.

  15. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Chengbo E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Kazakov, Valery A.

    2015-02-09

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  16. Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Shahi, S; Harun, S W

    2009-01-05

    A multi-wavelength laser comb is demonstrated using a nonlinear effect in a backward pumped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) for the first time. It uses a ring cavity resonator scheme containing a 215 cm long highly nonlinear Bi-EDF, optical isolators, polarisation controller and 10 dB output coupler. The laser generates more than 10 lines of optical comb with a line spacing of approximately 0.41 nm at 1615.5 nm region using 146 mW of 1480 nm pump power.

  17. Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

    2011-05-16

    We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

  18. Effects of erbium doping of indium tin oxide electrode in resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chih-Yang; Jin, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Min-Chen; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lo, Ikai; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Sze, Simon M.

    2016-03-01

    Identical insulators and bottom electrodes were fabricated and capped by an indium tin oxide (ITO) film, either undoped or doped with erbium (Er), as a top electrode. This distinctive top electrode dramatically altered the resistive random access memory (RRAM) characteristics, for example, lowering the operation current and enlarging the memory window. In addition, the RESET voltage increased, whereas the SET voltage remained almost the same. A conduction model of Er-doped ITO is proposed through current-voltage (I-V) measurement and current fitting to explain the resistance switching mechanism of Er-doped ITO RRAM and is confirmed by material analysis and reliability tests.

  19. Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with multiple linear cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Ren, Wenhua; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-12-01

    An improved stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with multiple-linear short cavity is demonstrated. Three fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with the same parameters directly written in a homemade photosensitive EDF (PEDF) in a single step are used as the wavelength-selective and mode-selective component in a 14 cm long linear laser cavity. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is over 50 dB. The amplitude variation in nearly one hour is less than 0.3 dB. The proposed laser has the advantages such as simple fabrication and compact all-optical fiber configuration.

  20. S- plus C-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier in parallel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chien-Chung; Chi, Sien

    2004-11-01

    A new S- plus C-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) module with coupled structure over 96 nm gain bandwidth of 1480-1576 nm has been experimentally investigated and demonstrated. For this proposed configuration, 30 and 36.2 dB peak gains are observed at 1506 and 1532 nm, respectively, when the input signal power is -25 dBm. In addition, this proposed amplifier module also can provide a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source from 1480 to 1572 nm.

  1. Two simultaneous operating regimes in an Erbium doped-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demori, C. B. S.; Thoroh de Souza, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an Erbium doped fiber laser operating simultaneously in two distinct regimes, active mode-locking and continuous wave (CW), by introducing two arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) paired inside ring cavity. Active phase modulator operating at 10 GHz and a single mode fiber were introduced between the two AWGs to allow the two operating regimes. The mode-locking was able to generated pulses with 30 ps simultaneous with the CW line. Both lasers could be tunable independent and simultaneously from 1530 nm to 1565 nm.

  2. Microprocessing of human hard tooth tissues surface by mid-infrared erbium lasers radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2015-03-01

    A new method of hard tooth tissues laser treatment is described. The method consists in formation of regular microdefects on tissue surface by mid-infrared erbium laser radiation with propagation ratio M2<2 (Er-laser microprocessing). Proposed method was used for preparation of hard tooth tissues surface before filling for improvement of bond strength between tissues surface and restorative materials, microleakage reduction between tissues surface and restorative materials, and for caries prevention as a result of increasing microhardness and acid resistance of tooth enamel.

  3. Tunable C- and L-band erbium-doped fiber ring lasers for performance testing of a wavelength-division multiplexing access network with injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zih-Rong; Liu, Cheng-Kuang; Keiser, Gerd; Tseng, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Chia-Ming

    2010-10-01

    A widely wavelength-tunable erbium-doped-fiber laser (T-EDFL) located at a central office is proposed for the bidirectional high-speed performance testing of wavelength-division-multiplexing access networks in which injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes located at optical network units are used for upstream transmissions. The T-EDFL not only generates laser light for downstream transmission testing, but also serves as the injection source for upstream transmission testing. It has a wide tunable range of 64 nm (1540 to 1604 nm), a high output power of 2.2 dBm, and a good signal-to-noise ratio above 46 dB. For 10-Gb/s downstream and 1.25-Gb/s upstream transmissions over a 10-km single-mode fiber (SMF), power penalties at a bit error rate of 10-9 are less than 0.94 dB and 0.76 dB (1.26 dB and 1.68 dB) for downstream and upstream transmissions at C-band (at L-band) wavelengths, respectively. In the transmissions over a 25-km SMF, the penalties are 2.24 dB and 2.36 dB (3.66 dB and 4.18 dB) at C-band (at L-band) for downstream and upstream transmissions, respectively.

  4. 29 CFR 2570.168 - Decision of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(8) § 2570.168 Decision of the administrative law judge. For 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings, this section shall apply in lieu of § 18.57 of this title. (a... pursuant to the procedures for 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings as set forth in this subpart,...

  5. 29 CFR 2570.168 - Decision of the administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(8) § 2570.168 Decision of the administrative law judge. For 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings, this section shall apply in lieu of § 18.57 of this title. (a... pursuant to the procedures for 502(c)(8) civil penalty proceedings as set forth in this subpart,...

  6. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 5c.168(f)(8)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the...

  7. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 5c.168(f)(8)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the...

  8. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 5c.168(f)(8)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the...

  9. 49 CFR 176.168 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Shipborne Barges § 176.168 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces. (a) All...) Vehicles used to transport Class 1 (explosive) materials must conform to the requirements in §§ 177.834 and...) materials of different compatibility groups may not be stowed in the same vehicle except as allowed in §...

  10. 49 CFR 176.168 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Shipborne Barges § 176.168 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces. (a) All...) Vehicles used to transport Class 1 (explosive) materials must conform to the requirements in §§ 177.834 and...) materials of different compatibility groups may not be stowed in the same vehicle except as allowed in §...

  11. 49 CFR 176.168 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Shipborne Barges § 176.168 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces. (a) All...) Vehicles used to transport Class 1 (explosive) materials must conform to the requirements in §§ 177.834 and...) materials of different compatibility groups may not be stowed in the same vehicle except as allowed in §...

  12. 49 CFR 176.168 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Shipborne Barges § 176.168 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces. (a) All...) Vehicles used to transport Class 1 (explosive) materials must conform to the requirements in §§ 177.834 and...) materials of different compatibility groups may not be stowed in the same vehicle except as allowed in §...

  13. 40 CFR 168.66 - Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labeling of pesticide products and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.66 Labeling of pesticide products and...

  14. 40 CFR 168.66 - Labeling of pesticide products and devices intended solely for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labeling of pesticide products and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF ENFORCEMENT POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Export Policy and Procedures for Exporting Pesticides § 168.66 Labeling of pesticide products and...

  15. 40 CFR 49.168 - Does this program apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Major New Source Review Program for Nonattainment Areas in Indian Country § 49.168 Does this program apply to me? (a) In a nonattainment area for a pollutant in Indian country, the requirements of... a new major source (as defined in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A.4 of this chapter) of...

  16. 40 CFR 49.168 - Does this program apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Major New Source Review Program for Nonattainment Areas in Indian Country § 49.168 Does this program apply to me? (a) In a nonattainment area for a pollutant in Indian country, the requirements of... a new major source (as defined in part 51, Appendix S, paragraph II.A.4 of this chapter) of...

  17. 26 CFR 1.168A-3 - Election to discontinue amortization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to discontinue amortization. 1.168A-3...-3 Election to discontinue amortization. (a) If a taxpayer has elected to take amortization deductions with respect to an emergency facility, it may, after such election and prior to the expiration...

  18. 26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-1 - Special rules for leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 § 5c... regard to section 168(f)(8), or, if any party with an economic interest in the property (other than the... economic life and falls within the 5-year ACRS class. Y Corp. is a person meeting the qualifications...

  19. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-1T - General asset accounts (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... income in more than one grouping of income (statutory and residual) is a multiple category asset (as... under paragraph (l) of this section, assets that are subject to the election are grouped into one or... accounts under section 168(i)(4). The provisions of this section apply only to assets for which an...

  20. 40 CFR 80.168 - Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Detergent certification program... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.168 Detergent certification program controls and prohibitions. (a)(1) No person shall sell, offer for...