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Sample records for erbium ions

  1. Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, S.; Rotzinger, H.; Tkalčec, A.; Kukharchyk, N.; Wieck, A. D.; Wünsch, S.; Siegel, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Bushev, P. A.

    2014-10-20

    We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

  2. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V.

    2013-11-01

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO2) there were used such oxides as WO3, MoO3, La2O3, Li2CO3, ZnO—Bi2O2CO3 and active components such as high purity Er2O3, Yb2O3, ErF3 and YbF3. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er3+ and Yb3+ as active elements for fiber and integrated optics.

  3. Luminescence of erbium ions in tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Savikin, Alexander P.; Grishin, Igor A.; Sharkov, Valery V.; Budruev, Andrei V.

    2013-11-15

    Optical characteristics of new generation of tellurite glasses having high stability against crystallization have been studied. As the initial reagents for the glasses synthesis on the base of tellurium oxide (TeO{sub 2}) there were used such oxides as WO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZnO—Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and active components such as high purity Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ErF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}. Intensities of luminescence at 1.53 µm of the erbium ions were determined after excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. - Graphical abstract: In contrast to the case of ZBLAN glass the TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} (Er{sup 3+}) glass has bright intensity of luminescence at 1.53 µm for erbium ions that should be caused by excitation at 975 nm. Experimental data obtained have shown the possibility to use the studied glasses doped by Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} as active elements for fiber and integrated optics. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We examined changes in growth of luminescence in doubly-doped tellurite glasses. • We found that luminescence grows in two orders by using Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} at 1.53 μm. • We see possibility to use those glasses as active elements for integrated optics.

  4. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, V. V. Klevkov, Yu. V.; Dravin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries.

  5. Photoluminescence in silicon implanted with erbium ions at an elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.; Sakharov, V. I.; Serenkov, I. T.; Vdovin, V. I.; Parshin, E. O.; Makoviichuk, M. I.

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence spectra of n-type silicon upon implantation with erbium ions at 600 Degree-Sign C and oxygen ions at room temperature and subsequent annealings at 1100 Degree-Sign C in a chlorine-containing atmosphere have been studied. Depending on the annealing duration, photoluminescence spectra at 80 K are dominated by lines of the Er{sup 3+} ion or dislocation-related luminescence. The short-wavelength shift of the dislocation-related luminescence line observed at this temperature is due to implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature. At room temperature, lines of erbium and dislocation-related luminescence are observed in the spectra, but lines of near-band-edge luminescence predominate.

  6. Erbium ion implantation into diamond - measurement and modelling of the crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Cajzl, Jakub; Nekvindová, Pavla; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sedmidubský, David; Hušák, Michal; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Böttger, Roman; Oswald, Jiří

    2017-02-22

    Diamond is proposed as an extraordinary material usable in interdisciplinary fields, especially in optics and photonics. In this contribution we focus on the doping of diamond with erbium as an optically active centre. In the theoretical part of the study based on DFT simulations we have developed two Er-doped diamond structural models with 0 to 4 carbon vacancies in the vicinity of the Er atom and performed geometry optimizations by the calculation of cohesive energies and defect formation energies. The theoretical results showed an excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental cohesive energies for the parent diamond. The highest values of cohesive energies and the lowest values of defect formation energies were obtained for models with erbium in the substitutional carbon position with 1 or 3 vacancies in the vicinity of the erbium atom. From the geometry optimization the structural model with 1 vacancy had an octahedral symmetry whereas the model with 3 vacancies had a coordination of 10 forming a trigonal structure with a hexagonal ring. In the experimental part, erbium doped diamond crystal samples were prepared by ion implantation of Er(+) ions using ion implantation fluences ranging from 1 × 10(14) ions per cm(2) to 5 × 10(15) ions per cm(2). The experimental results revealed a high degree of diamond structural damage after the ion implantation process reaching up to 69% of disordered atoms in the samples. The prepared Er-doped diamond samples annealed at the temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C in a vacuum revealed clear luminescence, where the 〈110〉 cut sample has approximately 6-7 times higher luminescence intensity than the 〈001〉 cut sample with the same ion implantation fluence. The reported results are the first demonstration of the Er luminescence in the single crystal diamond structure for the near-infrared spectral region.

  7. Interactions between metal ions and carbohydrates. The coordination behavior of neutral erythritol to lanthanum and erbium ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Wang, Yalei; Zhang, Shiwei; Weng, Shifu; Zhao, Kui; Wu, Jinguang

    2005-12-30

    Lanthanide ions and erythritol form metal-alditol complexes with various structures. Lanthanum nitrate and erbium chloride coordinate to erythritol to give new coordination structures. The lanthanum nitrate-erythritol complex (LaEN), 2La(NO3)3.C4H10O(4).8H2O, La3+ exhibits the coordination number of 11 (namely 11 polar atoms bound to one lanthanum) and is 11-coordinated to two hydroxyl groups from one erythritol molecule, six oxygen atoms from three nitrate ions and three water molecules. One erythritol molecule is coordinated to two La3+ ions and links the two metal ions together. The ratio of M:L is 2:1. The erbium chloride-erythritol complex (ErE), ErCl2.C4H9O(4).2C2H5OH was obtained from ErCl3 and erythritol in aqueous ethanol solution and the structure shows that deprotonation reaction occurs in the reaction process. The Er3+ cation is 8-coordinated with three hydroxyl groups of one erythritol molecule, two hydroxyl groups from another erythritol molecule, two ethanol molecules, and one chloride ion. Erythritol provides its three hydroxyl groups to one erbium cation and two hydroxyl groups to another erbium cation, that is, one hydroxyl group is coordinated to two metal ions and therefore loses its hydrogen atom and becomes a oxygen bridge. Another chloride ion is hydrogen bonded in the structure. The results indicate the complexity of metal-sugar coordination.

  8. Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambois, O.; Berencen, Y.; Hijazi, K.; Wojdak, M.; Kenyon, A. J.; Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R.; Garrido, B.

    2009-09-01

    We have studied the current transport and electroluminescence properties of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices in which the oxide layer, which is codoped with silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions, is made by magnetron sputtering. Electrical measurements have allowed us to identify a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. We observe an important contribution of the Si nanoclusters to the conduction in silicon oxide films, and no evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The results suggest that the electroluminescence of the erbium ions in these layers is generated by energy transfer from the Si nanoparticles. Finally, we report an electroluminescence power efficiency above 10-3%.

  9. Temperature dependences of the photoluminescence intensities of centers in silicon implanted with erbium and oxygen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, N. A. Shtel’makh, K. F.; Kalyadin, A. E.; Shek, E. I.

    2015-12-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence in n-Cz-Si after the implantation of erbium ions at an elevated temperature and subsequent implantation of oxygen ions at room temperature is studied. So-called X and W centers formed from self-interstitial silicon atoms, H and P centers containing oxygen atoms, and Er centers containing Er{sup 3+} ions are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The energies of enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence for these centers are determined. These energies are determined for the first time for X and H centers. In the case of P and Er centers, the values of the energies practically coincide with previously published data. For W centers, the energies of the enhancing and quenching of photoluminescence depend on the conditions of the formation of these centers.

  10. Band gap and polarizability of boro-tellurite glass: Influence of erbium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the influence of rare earth ions in improving the structural and optical properties of inorganic glasses are the key issues. Er3+-doped zinc boro-tellurite glasses with composition 30B2O3-10ZnO-(60-x) TeO2-xEr2O3 are prepared (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol%) using melt quenching technique. The physical and optical characterizations are measured by density and UV-Vis-IR absorption spectroscopy. The color of the glass changed from light yellow to deep pink due to the introduction of Er3+ ions. The maximum density is found to be ∼4.73 g cm-3 for 1 mol% of Er3+ doping. The variations in the polarizability (6.7-6.8 cm3) and the molar volume (27.987-28.827 cm3 mol-1) with dopant concentration are ascribed to the formation of non-bridging oxygen. This observation is consistent with the alteration of number of bonds per unit volume. The direct and indirect optical band gaps are increased while the phonon cut-off wavelength and Urbach energy decreased with the increase of erbium content. A high density and wide transparency range in VIS-IR area are achieved. Our results on high refractive index (∼2.416) and polarizability suggest that these glasses are potential for photonics, solid state lasers and communications devices.

  11. Highly efficient precipitation of phosphoproteins using trivalent europium, terbium, and erbium ions.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Mirza, Munazza Raza; Bonn, Günther K

    2012-05-01

    This study describes a highly efficient method for the selective precipitation of phosphoproteins by trivalent europium, terbium, and erbium metal ions. These metal cations belong to the group of lanthanides and are known to be hard acceptors with an overwhelming preference for oxygen-containing anions such as phosphates to which they form very tight ionic bonds. The method could be successfully applied to specifically precipitate phosphoproteins from complex samples including milk and egg white by forming solid metal-protein complexes. Owing to the low solubility product of the investigated lanthanide salts, the produced metal-protein complexes showed high stability. The protein pellets were extensively washed to remove nonphosphorylated proteins and contaminants. For the analysis of proteins the pellets were first dissolved in 30 % formic acid and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. For peptide mass-fingerprint analysis the precipitated phosphoproteins were enzymatically digested using microwave-assisted digestion. The method was found to be highly specific for the isolation and purification of phosphoproteins. Protein quantification was performed by colorimetric detection of total precipitated phosphoproteins and revealed more than 95 % protein recovery for each lanthanide salt.

  12. [Influence of erbium ion concentration on Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ -doped tellurite glass].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Dai, Shi-xun; Yu, Chun-lei; Zhang, Jun-jie; Hu, Li-li; Jiang, Zhong-hong

    2006-03-01

    Er3+ -doped tellurite glasses with four different concentrations were fabricated, and the oscillator strength of Er3+ in the tellurite glasses were calculated through the absorption spectra of the glasses. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter omega i, spontaneous transition probability A, fluorescence branching ratio beta, and radiative lifetime tau rad of Er3+ were calculated on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory, and the effect of the erbium ion concentration on the above optical parameters was also discussed. The fluorescence spectra of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition and the lifetime of Er3+: (4)I(13/2) level of the samples were measured. The stimulated emission cross-section of (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples was finally calculated by using McCumber theory. The results show that with the increase in the Er3+ concentration, the oscillator strength and spontaneous transition probability A of Er3+ increase, while the fluorescence branching ratio beta of Er3+ shows little difference. The stimulated emission cross-section of Er3+: (4)I(13/2)--> (4)I(15/2) transition of the samples changes slightly with the increase in the Er3+ concentration. All the fluorescence effective line widths for the four different Er3+ concentration samples are nearly 50 nm.

  13. Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian; Jensen, R. V. Skougaard; Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted

    2010-10-04

    Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

  14. Specific features of erbium ion photoluminescence in structures with amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoclusters in silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Dyakov, S. A. Zhigunov, D. M.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2010-04-15

    Photoluminescence properties of the structures of amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoclusters with average sizes no larger than 4 nm in an erbium-doped silicon dioxide matrix were studied. It was found that the photoluminescence lifetime of Er{sup 3+} ions at a wavelength of 1.5 {mu}m decreases from 5.7 to 2.0 ms and from 3.5 to 1.5 ms in samples with amorphous nanoclusters and with nanocrystals, respectively, as the Er{sup 3+} concentration increases from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. The decrease in the erbium photoluminescence lifetime with the ion concentration is attributed to the effects of concentration-related quenching and residual implantation-induced defects. The difference between lifetimes for samples with amorphous and crystalline nanoclusters is interpreted as the effect of different probabilities of energy back transfer from Er{sup 3+} ions to the solid-state matrix in the structures under consideration.

  15. Silica fibers doped with erbium ions obtained by the sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Elzbieta; Strek, Wieslaw; Wojcik, Jan; Wojciechowski, C.; Malashkevich, G. E.; Melnichenko, I. M.; Poddenezhny, E. N.

    1997-08-01

    The paper presents the optical properties of glasses and optical fibers from quartz glass, obtained by the sol-gel method. A new technique of sol-gel glass preparation is described. Rods were formed from the glass thus produced from which PCS-type fibers were next drawn. Using the same sol-gel technology, the erbium-doped quartz glasses were obtained. The transmission and luminescence characteristics were measured for the glasses as well as for fibers drawn from them.

  16. Effect of the capping ligand on luminescent erbium(III) β-diketonate single-ion magnets.

    PubMed

    Ramos Silva, M; Martín-Ramos, P; Coutinho, J T; Pereira, L C J; Martín-Gil, J

    2014-05-14

    Erbium complexes featuring β-diketonate ligand 2,4-hexanedione (Hh) and N,N-donor-ligands 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (5NO2phen) and bathophenanthroline (bath) have been synthesized. The structures of the ternary complexes [Er(h)3(bipy)], [Er(h)3(5NO2phen)] and [Er(h)3(bath)] have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Excitation of the complexes in the ultraviolet region (337 nm) led to near infrared (NIR) luminescence at 1532 nm characteristic of the trivalent erbium ion in the three compounds, with an improved antenna effect in the 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline complex. The AC susceptibility studies conducted at frequencies ranging from 33 to 9995 Hz and at temperatures in the 1.7 to 10 K range revealed that the application of a static magnetic field induces a slow magnetic relaxation in all three compounds. The complex with the bulkier capping ligand (bathophenanthroline) exhibits the highest energy barrier U/k(B) = 23 K.

  17. Spectroscopic Properties of Erbium Ions Doped in Bismuth Boro-Silicate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Sunil; Shukla, Rajni; Sanghi, Sujata; Agarwal, Ashish; Pal, Inder

    Glasses with composition 20B2O3.(79.5-x)Bi2O3.xSiO2 (10 ≤ x ≤ 40) containing 0.5mol% of Er3+ ions were prepared by melt-quench technique. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded at room temperature for all glass samples. Based on the Judd-Offelt theory, spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions are discussed by changing the host glass compositions. The intensity parameters Ω2, Ω4, and Ω6 are determined by applying least square analysis method. The variation of Ω2 and Ω6 with Bi2O3 content has been attributed to changes in the asymmetry of the ligand field at the rare earth ion site and to the changes in the rare earth oxygen (RE-O) covalency. The variation of Ω4 with Bi2O3 content has been attributed to rigidity of the samples. Using these intensity parameters various radiative properties like spontaneous emission probability, branching ratio, radiative life time and stimulated emission cross-section of various emission lines have been evaluated. An intense green luminescence bands with maximum around 516 nm and 536 nm are assigned to the 2H11/2→ 4I15/2 and 4S3/2→ 4I15/2 transitions respectively has been obtained.

  18. 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+} ion induced thermoluminescence studies of nanocrystalline erbium doped ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lokesha, H. S.; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2015-06-24

    Pure and erbium (1mol%) doped nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} is synthesized by combustion technique. Thermoluminescence (TL) properties ZrO{sub 2}pellets annealed at 873 K and irradiated by 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+} ion for various fluence are recorded. The evolution crystalline structure and crystallite size are done using by XRD data. Two TL glow curves, a well resolved one peak at ∼420 K and an unresolved with peak at ∼598 K are observed. TL intensity increases up to 3×10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} beyond which the TL intensity decreases. The glow peak shape method is used to calculate the TL trap parameter and discussed in this paper.

  19. Slow light propagation in a ring erbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Bencheikh, K; Baldit, E; Briaudeau, S; Monnier, P; Levenson, J A; Mélin, G

    2010-12-06

    Slow light propagation is demonstrated by implementing Coherent Population Oscillations in a silica fiber doped with erbium ions in a ring surrounding the single mode core. Though only the wings of the mode interact with erbium ions, group velocities around 1360 m/s are obtained without any spatial distortion of the propagating mode.

  20. Photonic properties of erbium activated coated microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jestin, Y.; Armellini, C.; Chiappini, A.; Chiasera, A.; Dumeige, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Féron, P.; Ghisa, L.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Trebaol, S.; Righini, G. C.

    2008-02-01

    μA simple method based on the sol-gel technology has been developed to coat passive microspheres with an active coating. The microspheres were prepared by fusion of a standard telecom fiber with a dimension of about 200 μm and 400 μm and have been respectively dipped in a 70SiO II-30HfO II sol activated by 1 mol% and 0.1 mol% of erbium ions. Here we first report about the luminescence properties of a silica-hafnia coating doped with erbium ions and then whispering gallery mode spectra were analysed for different sphere diameters, thickness of coating and erbium concentration. The thickness of the coating has been chosen in order to support at least one whispering gallery mode at 1.5 μm.

  1. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-09-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Effect of temperature on the active properties of erbium-doped optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Ignat'ev, A D; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of heating on the performance of erbium-doped fibre based devices and determined temperaturedependent absorption and emission cross sections of the erbium ion in silica glass. The results demonstrate that heating of fibres in claddingpumped high-power (∼100 W) erbium-doped fibre lasers causes no significant decrease in their efficiency. In contrast, superluminescent sources operating in the long-wavelength region (1565 – 1610 nm) are extremely sensitive to temperature changes. (fiber optics)

  3. Helium trapping at erbium oxide precipitates in erbium hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Foiles, Stephen M.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler

    2016-02-01

    The formation of He bubbles in erbium tritides is a significant process in the aging of these materials. Due to the long-standing uncertainty about the initial nucleation process of these bubbles, there is interest in mechanisms that can lead to the localization of He in erbium hydrides. Previous work has been unable to identify nucleation sites in homogeneous erbium hydride. This work builds on the experimental observation that erbium hydrides have nano- scale erbium oxide precipitates due to the high thermodynamic stability of erbium oxide and the ubiquitous presence of oxygen during materials processing. Fundamental DFT calculations indicate that the He is energetically favored in the oxide relative to the bulk hydride. Activation energies for the motion of He in the oxide and at the oxide-hydride interface indicate that trapping is kinetically feasible. A simple kinetic Monte Carlo model is developed that demonstrates the degree of trapping of He as a function of temperature and oxide fraction.

  4. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  5. Study of upconversion in PCFs with high erbium concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdejo, Víctor; Vallés, Juan A.; Rebolledo, Miguel Á.; Diez, Antonio; Martin, Juan C.; Sanchez-Martin, José A.; Álvarez, José M.; Andrés, Miguel V.

    2011-09-01

    We report on a comparison of characterization techniques for high concentration erbium-doped photonic crystal fibres (PCFs). A highly erbium-doped-silica PCF was fabricated and an amplifier based on the PCF was built. Then, measurements on the amplifier output optical powers were carried out. To model the amplifier, three different formalisms were assumed for the Er3+-ion upconversion mechanism and the numerical results were fitted to the experimental ones. The sets of best-fit parameters are compared and the use of these techniques for active PCF characterisation is discussed.

  6. Characterization of the surface changes during the activation process of erbium/erbium oxide for hydrogen storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2010-10-01

    Erbium is known to effectively load with hydrogen when held at high temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere. To make the storage of hydrogen kinetically feasible, a thermal activation step is required. Activation is a routine practice, but very little is known about the physical, chemical, and/or electronic processes that occur during Activation. This work presents in situ characterization of erbium Activation using variable energy photoelectron spectroscopy at various stages of the Activation process. Modification of the passive surface oxide plays a significant role in Activation. The chemical and electronic changes observed from core-level and valence band spectra will be discussed along with corroborating ion scattering spectroscopy measurements.

  7. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-04

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  8. RBS, PIXE and NDP study of erbium incorporation into glass surface for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, Anna; Havránek, Vladimír; Vacík, Jiří; Salavcová, Linda; Špirková, Jarmila

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and the characterisation of successful erbium in-diffusion into silicate glass surface for potential use in photonics active structures through ion beam analytical methods. The erbium doping occurred by ion exchange of erbium ions from a molten source for lithium ions from the specially designed glass substrates. Composition of the optical layers was studied by ion beam analytical techniques: RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy) characterized depth distribution of the incorporated Er3+ ions and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy) gave information on the total amount of erbium incorporated in the samples. The NDP (neutron depth profiling) method was used to evaluate changes in distribution of Li+ ions in the surfaces of the fabricated samples. We observed shallow Er profiles that were accompanied by more mobile Cs+, Rb+ ions incorporated in the much deeper layer as compared to the Er. The Li concentration in the glass substrate occurs as the most important parameter for Er diffusion into the glass substrate.

  9. Efficiency and tuning of the erbium-doped glass lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromzel, Victor A.; Kuchma, Igor G.; Lunter, Sergei G.; Mak, Artur A.; Petrov, Aleksey A.

    1992-11-01

    Erbium-doped glass lasers operated near by 1 5 mm wavelength are helpful for medicine and biology optical communication and eye-safe range finder systems. Advances in erbium-doped glass especially phosphate glass and lasers based on it have been extensive in recent years. Nowadays we can approve that erbium glass lasers are not worse compared with the neodymium ones by many spectroscopic and laser properties. Developments of the energy spectral and temporal characteristics and tuning near the 1500 nm wavelength of the erbium - doped phosphate glass lasers are reported. 2. SPECTROSCOPIC PECULIARITIES OF THE ERBIUM DOPED GLASS Phosphate erbium-doped glass possess a number of spectroscopic peculiarities as a laser active medium. Energy level diagrams of Er3 ions and two other its co-doped ions -Yb3 and Cr3 and the actual transitions (radiate and nonradiate) between them are shown in Fig. 1 (a). Absorption spectrum of that phosphate glass is also shown in Fig. 1 (b) . One can see that the whole pum energy is absorbed only by coactivators - Yb Cr - Yb E r and Cr3 - and then quickly and efficiently transferred from them to Er3 ions. Thus ''7 lasing and pumping of the erbium glass are ''4 realized by means of quite different ions. 4 Thanks to that one can get a low laser threshold t1/2 usin a small doping of Er3 ions (about 1019 I3/2 cm ) and the same time have a high efficient 4T pumoing by using the big concentration of ions 15/2 Yb3 and Cr3 in them (1021 cm3 and 1020 b cm3 accordingly). Obstacles for high efficiency of the lasers may be connected with either increase of the back pump energy transfer from Yb3 ions to Cr3 ones by too large concentration of Cr3 ions or thermal distortions of the active medium. Optimal pumping conditions for lamp pumped Er - doped glass laser differ from neodymium ones. It is explained by the important role of pump energy transfer processes in Er - doped glass. In order to have of high efficient pumping it is necessary that energy transfer

  10. Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Omi, H.; Tawara, T.; Tateishi, M.

    2012-03-15

    The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O{sub 2}/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 degree sign C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 degree sign C in O{sub 2}/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 degree sign C. The I{sub 15/2}-I{sub 13/2} Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} levels of Er{sup 3+} ions of the erbium compounds.

  11. Enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of erbium doped silica containing Ge nanocrystals: distance dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, S.; Aluguri, R.; Bar, R.; Das, S.; Prtljaga, N.; Pavesi, L.; Ray, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-physical processes in Er-doped silica glass matrix containing Ge nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel method are presented in this article. Strong photoluminescence at 1.54 μm, important for fiber optics telecommunication systems, is observed from the different sol-gel derived glasses at room temperature. We demonstrate that Ge nanocrystals act as strong sensitizers for Er3+ ions emission and the effective Er excitation cross section increases by almost four orders of magnitude with respect to the one without Ge nanocrystals. Rate equations are considered to demonstrate the sensitization of erbium luminescence by Ge nanocrystals. Analyzing the erbium effective excitation cross section, extracted from the flux dependent rise and decay times, a Dexter type of short range energy transfer from a Ge nanocrystal to erbium ion is established.

  12. Activatino of Erbium Films for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    M Brumbach; j Ohlhausen; K Zavadil; C Snow; J Woicik

    2011-12-31

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  13. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Sazali, E. S. Rohani, M. S. Sahar, M. R. Arifin, R. Ghoshal, S. K. Hamzah, K.

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  14. Perfluorinated nitrosopyrazolone-based erbium chelates: a new efficient solution processable NIR emitter.

    PubMed

    Beverina, Luca; Crippa, Maurizio; Sassi, Mauro; Monguzzi, Angelo; Meinardi, Francesco; Tubino, Riccardo; Pagani, Giorgio A

    2009-09-14

    We show the design and synthesis of new perfluorinated nitrosopyrazolone-based ligands and the original method employed for their complexation of erbium ions in the presence of the co-ligand perfluorotriphenylphosphine oxide; the resulting chelate is non-hygroscopic, solution processable and possesses a NIR emission with lifetimes as long as 16 micros.

  15. Surface segregation effects of erbium in GaAs growth and their implications for optical devices containing ErAs nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Crook, Adam M.; Nair, Hari P.; Bank, Seth R.

    2011-03-21

    We report on the integration of semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles with high optical quality GaAs-based semiconductors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence measurements provide evidence of surface segregation and incorporation of erbium into layers grown with the erbium cell hot, despite the closed erbium source shutter. We establish the existence of a critical areal density of the surface erbium layer, below which the formation of ErAs precipitates is suppressed. Based upon these findings, we demonstrate a method for overgrowing ErAs nanoparticles with III-V layers of high optical quality, using subsurface ErAs nanoparticles as a sink to deplete the surface erbium concentration. This approach provides a path toward realizing optical devices based on plasmonic effects in an epitaxially-compatible semimetal/semiconductor system.

  16. [Synthesis, characterization and NIR luminescence properties of erbium organic complexes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-shan; Qian, Guo-dong; Wang, Min-quan; Luo, Yong-shi; Lin, Jiu-ling

    2005-03-01

    Several erbium organic complexes, hydrated erbium binary complexes with acetylacetone (AcAc) or dibenzoylmethane (DBM), erbium ternary complexes derived from 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with acetylacetone (AcAc), dibenzoylmethane (DBM) or trifluoroacetylacetone (TFA), were synthesized and identified by elemental analysis. The UV-Vis absorption and FTIR spectra measurements have been employed for all the erbium complexes. Near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence properties, such as luminescence intensity and effective bandwidth, of the erbium complexes were also studied. As a result, the erbium ternary complex with AcAc and Phen exhibits the most excellent luminescence properties among those investigated complexes.

  17. Development of erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Hussain, Shah; Meischl, Florian; Sasse, Michael; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a novel method for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides using erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns is presented. Erbium phosphate was synthesized by precipitation from boiling phosphoric acid and incubated overnight in erbium chloride solutions. The resulting powder was embedded in a monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. The monolith was synthesized in a spin column by radical polymerization. Erbium phosphate demonstrated a high affinity and selectivity for phosphopeptides due to the strong interaction of trivalent erbium ions with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides. The high selectivity and performance of the designed spin columns were demonstrated by successfully enriching phosphopeptides from tryptically digested protein mixtures containing the model phosphoproteins α- and β-casein, bovine milk, and human saliva. By the implementation of several washing steps, unspecific components were removed and the enriched phosphopeptides were effectively eluted from the spin columns under alkaline conditions. The selective performance of the presented method was further demonstrated by the enrichment of two synthetic phosphopeptides, which were spiked in tryptically digested and dephosphorylated HeLa cell lysates at low ratios. Finally, the presented approach was compared to conventional phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium oxide and revealed higher recoveries for the erbium phosphate doped monoliths.

  18. Erbium Doped Fiber Optic Gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G. G.; Pérez-Torres, J. R.; Flores-Bravo, J. A.; Álvarez-Chávez, J. A.; Martínez-Piñón, F.

    2017-01-01

    Gravimeters are devices that can be used in a wide range of applications, such as mining, seismology, geodesy, archeology, geophysics and many others. These devices have great sensibility, which makes them susceptible to external vibrations like electromagnetic waves. There are several technologies regarding gravimeters that are of use in industrial metrology. Optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, and together with long period gratings can form high sensibility sensors of small size, offering advantages over other systems with different technologies. This paper shows the development of an optical fiber gravimeter doped with Erbium that was characterized optically for loads going from 1 to 10 kg in a bandwidth between 1590nm to 1960nm, displaying a weight linear response against power. Later on this paper, the experimental results show that the previous described behavior can be modeled as characteristic function of the sensor.

  19. Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, Eric; Monnom, Gérard; Dussardier, Bernard; Ostrowsky, D. B.

    1995-12-01

    Nonsaturable absorption experiments in heavily erbium-doped fibers demonstrate that the behavior of the absorption with pump power cannot be interpreted with an ion-pair model but requires that the presence of larger clusters be taken into account. Numerical modeling permits the determination of the percentage of ions organized in clusters, as much as 52% of the dopants in the tested fiber, and the intracluster transfer rate, up to 2 \\times 106s -1 .

  20. Infrared luminescence from spark-processed silicon and erbium-doped spark-processed silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanghoon

    Spark-processed silicon has substantial potential as an optical material. In the past 15 years, our group has investigated a multitude of properties of this unique material, concentrating mostly on the visible and near UV spectral region. The present study expands our endeavors to infrared photoluminescence (PL) of undoped spark-processed silicon. A broad infrared photoluminescence peak at around 945 nm under Ar ion laser excitation was observed at room temperature when investigating a spark-processed layer on a silicon wafer. This light emission is interpreted to be the result of energy transfers between certain energy levels involving the spark-processed silicon matrix. The infrared PL intensity of spark-processed silicon was found to be proportional to the excitation energy. However, telecommunication requires presently a light emission near 1.54 mum (because fiber-optics "conductors" have a minimum in absorption at this wavelength). This cannot be achieved with pure spark-processed silicon. Therefore spark-processed silicon needs to be doped with a rare-earth element such as erbium to shift the emission to longer wavelengths. It is known that erbium has a light emission from intrashell energy transition, that is, from 4I13/2 →4I15/2. Erbium was deposited on a silicon wafer followed by spark-processing, which enables diffusion of some erbium into the SiOx matrix, thus achieving opto-electronically active spark-processed silicon. Rapid thermal annealing enhances the 1.54 mum wavelength intensity from erbium-doped spark-processed silicon. The processing conditions that result in the most efficient photoluminescence have been established and will be presented in this dissertation. In contrast to erbium-doped crystalline silicon, whose light emission is highly affected by temperature (103 times reduction in intensity when heating from 12 K to 150 K), the intensity of erbium-doped spark-processed silicon decreases by only a factor of 4 when heated from 15 K to room

  1. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    SciTech Connect

    Hajireza, P.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Abbasi-Zargaleh, S.; Emami, S. D.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.

    2010-07-07

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  2. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  3. Thermodynamic characteristics of sorption extraction and chromatographic separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B on weakly basic anionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisina, O. V.; Ponomareva, M. A.; Sagdiev, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of anionic complexes of erbium with Trilon B on D-403 anionite is studied at ionic strengths of 1 and 2 mol/kg (NaNO3) and temperatures of 298 and 343 K. The values of the stability constants of complex ions of REE with Trilon B and the Gibbs energies of complexation are calculated. The values of the Gibbs energy and the enthalpy and entropy of ion exchange are determined. Using the obtained thermo-dynamic and sorption characteristics, the possible separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B is demonstrated via frontal ion-exchange chromatography. A series of sorption capacities of anionic complexes of cerium, yttrium, and erbium is presented using the values of the Gibbs energy of ion exchange.

  4. Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

    2012-06-18

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 µm fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication.

  5. Erbium:YAG laser for cataract extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Robert W.; Jani, Mahendra G.; Yarborough, Mike; Marcellino, George R.; Noecker, Robert J.; Kramer, Theresa R.; Vidaurri, Jesus

    1998-06-01

    The Erbium:YAG laser may be an effective laser for use in cataract surgery. At 2.94 mm the energy is maximally absorbed by water thereby efficiently disrupting tissue with minimal surrounding thermal damage. The laser may be safer to use in the eye than conventional ultrasonic emulsifiers. Preliminary clinical studies of the safety and efficacy have begun.

  6. Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

  7. Luminescence from Erbium Oxide Grown on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    H9.14 Luminescence from erbium oxide grown on silicon E. Nogales’, B. Mrndez , J.Piqueras’, R.Plugaru2 , J. A. Garcfa3 and T. J. Tate4 ’ Universidad ... Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Ffsica de Materiales, 28040 Madrid, Spain.2Inst. of Microtechnology, Bucharest, Romania.3Universidad del Pais Vasco, Dpto

  8. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  9. Growth studies of erbium-doped GaAs deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using noval cyclopentadienyl-based erbium sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redwing, J. M.; Kuech, T. F.; Gordon, D. C.; Vaartstra, B. A.; Lau, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaAS layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using two new sources, bis(i-propylcyclopentadienyl)cyclopentadienyl erbium and tris(t-butylcyclopentadienyl) erbium. Controlled Er doping in the range of 10(exp 17) - 10(exp 18)/cu cm was achieved using a relatively low source temperature of 90 C. The doping exhibits a second-order dependence on inlet source partial pressure, similar to behavior obtained with cyclopentadienyl Mg dopant sources. Equivalent amounts of oxygen and Er are present in 'as-grown' films indicating that the majority of Er dopants probably exist as Er-O complexes in the material. Er(+3) luminescence at 1.54 micrometers was measured from the as-grown films, but ion implantation of additional oxygen decreases the emission intensity. Electrical compensation of n-type GaAs layers codoped with Er and Si is directly correlated to the Er concentration is proposed to arise from the deep centers associated with Er which are responsible for a broad emission band near 0.90 micrometers present in the photoluminescence spectra of GaAs:Si, Er films.

  10. 1.54 micron Emission from Erbium implanted GaN for Photonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaik, Myo; Hommerich, U.; Schwartz, R. N.; Wilson, R. G.; Zavada, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of efficient and compact light sources operating at 1.54 micron is of enormous importance for the advancement of new optical communication systems. Erbium (1%) doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) or semiconductor lasers are currently being employed as near infrared light sources. Both devices, however, have inherent limitations due to their mode of operation. EDFA's employ an elaborate optical pumping scheme, whereas diode lasers have a strongly temperature dependent lasing wavelength. Novel light emitters based on erbium doped III-V semiconductors could overcome these limitations. Er doped semiconductors combine the convenience of electrical excitation with the excellent luminescence properties of Er(3+) ions. Electrically pumped, compact, and temperature stable optoelectronic devices are envisioned from this new class of luminescent materials. In this paper we discuss the potential of Er doped GaN for optoelectronic applications based on temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation studies.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped YAlO3 phosphor.

    PubMed

    Baig, Huma Nazli; Saluja, Jagjeet Kaur; Dhoble, S J

    2016-03-01

    In the yttrium aluminium system, the YAlO3 phosphor is a prominent host because of the yttrium aluminium ratio (1:1). Phosphor was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method at variable concentrations of erbium (0.1-2.5 mol%). This method is suitable for large-scale production and is a less time-consuming method when compared with the soft synthesis method. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and the crystallite size was calculated by Scherer's formula. Vibrational and bending analysis of prepared phosphor for optimized concentration of erbium ion is described based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic technique. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of prepared phosphor for variable concentrations of erbium ion were recorded and the excitation spectrum was found to be at 291 nm with three shoulder peaks at 305, 270 and 242 nm. For 291 nm excitation, the emission spectrum was found at 546 nm and 552 nm. PL intensity increased with increasing concentrations of erbium and after 2 mol% emission intensity decreased due to concentration quenching. Spectrophotometric determination of YAlO3:Er(3+) is described by CIE co-ordinates and shows an intense emission in the green region such that the prepared phosphor can act as a single host for green light emission. Thermoluminescence glow curve analysis of the YAlO3:Er(3+) phosphor was recorded for different ultraviolet (UV) light exposures and gamma exposure. Different gamma doses 0.5-2 kGy show a linear response. Kinetic parameters were calculated by the peak shape method.

  12. Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser with enhanced feedback coupling using common Erbium gain section.

    PubMed

    Samsuri, N M; Zamzuri, A K; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ahmad, A; Mahdi, M A

    2008-10-13

    We demonstrate an enhanced architecture of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser utilizing the reverse-S-shaped fiber section as the coupling mechanism. The enhancement is made by locating a common section of Erbium-doped fiber next to the single-mode fiber to amplify the Brillouin pumps and the oscillating Stokes lines. The requirement of having two Erbium gain sections to enhance the multiple Brillouin Stokes lines generation is neglected by the proposed fiber laser structure. The mode competitions arise from the self-lasing cavity modes of the fiber laser are efficiently suppressed by the stronger pre-amplified Brillouin pump power before entering the single mode fiber section. The maximum output power of 20 mW is obtained from the proposed fiber laser with 10 laser lines that equally separated by 0.089 nm spacing.

  13. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr; Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid; Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  14. Synoviorthesis with erbium-169: a double-blind controlled comparison of erbium-169 with corticosteroid.

    PubMed Central

    Gumpel, J M; Matthews, S A; Fisher, M

    1979-01-01

    Intra-articular injections of erbium--169 citrate and methylprednisolone acetate in hand joints were compared in a randomly selected double-blind trial. The patients included 21 with rheumatoid arthritis and 3 with psoriatic arthritis, and the design was an intrapatient comparison. No difference between joints treated with the radioisotope or steroid was observed in the year following injection. PMID:386961

  15. RBS measurement of depth profiles of erbium incorporated into lithium niobate for optical amplifier applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Vratislav; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatovicz, Vladimír.; Červená, Jarmila; Kolářová, Pavla; Špirková-Hradilová, Jarmila; Schröfel, Josef

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for the determination of Er 3+ concentration profiles in locally doped lithium niobate. The doped layers are the basic substrates for the fabrication of optical waveguiding structures which may be utilized as planar optical amplifiers and waveguiding lasers making use of the 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition in Er 3+, which falls into the third low loss telecommunication window (1.5 μm). We present a new aproach of fabrication of locally doped lithium niobate single crystal wafers. The doping occurs under moderate temperature (˜350°C) from reaction melts containing ca. 10 wt% of erbium nitrate. The erbium content in particular cuts varies dramatically between ca. 3 at.% in the Y- and Z-cut up to 20 at.% in the X-cuts. Erbium ions are localized in a 50 nm thick layer, but they can be diffused deeper into the substrate by subsequent annealing at 350°C. The Er concentrations of the samples doped at moderated temperature are compared with the Er concentrations of the samples doped by a standard high-temperature diffusion (>1000°C) from evaporated metal layers. To utilize the Er doped substrates in integrated optic circuits high quality waveguides must be subsequently fabricated. For that we used the Annealed Proton Exchange (APE) method with adipic acid. For the actual fabrication of the waveguides the following order of operation should be kept: the erbium doping should be done before the APE because the substantially changed structure of APE layers prevents the doping process. The APE process is checked by measurements of lithium depth profiles by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP).

  16. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, S. S.; Pai, C. S.; Wu, C. S.; Kuech, T. F.; Liu, B. X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology.

  17. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA).

  18. Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Freeman, R. R.; Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Espada, L.; Chen, C. D.

    2009-09-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

  19. Erbium triflate promoted multicomponent synthesis of highly substituted imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Suresh, Rajendran; Mariappan, Arumugam; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2014-02-07

    The synthesis of highly substituted imidazole derivatives has been achieved from various α-azido chalcones, aryl aldehydes, and anilines. This multicomponent protocol employs erbium triflate as a catalyst resulting in excellent yield of the imidazoles.

  20. Cladding-pumped erbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Abedin, K S; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J; Supradeepa, V R; Fini, J M; Yan, M F; Zhu, B; Monberg, E M; Dimarcello, F V

    2012-08-27

    A cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped fiber amplifier for simultaneous amplification of 6 channels is demonstrated. Peak gain over 32 dB has been obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm and the bandwidth measured at 20-dB gain was about 35 nm. Numerical modeling of cladding pumped multicore erbium-doped amplifier was also performed to study the properties of the amplifier. The results of experiment and simulation are found to be in good agreement.

  1. A self-Q-switched all-fiber erbium laser at 1530 nm using an auxiliary 1570-nm erbium laser.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzong-Yow; Fang, Yen-Cheng

    2009-11-23

    We demonstrate a self-Q-switched, all-fiber, tunable, erbium laser at 1530 nm with high pulse repetition rates of 0.9-10 kHz. Through the use of an auxiliary 10-mW, 1570 nm laser that shortened the relaxation time of erbium, sequentially Q-switched pulses with pulse energies between 4 and 6 microJ and pulse widths of 40 ns were steadily achieved. A peak pulse power of 165 W was obtained.

  2. Reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles: one nano-host applicable for simultaneous optical down- and up-conversions.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Meehan, Kathleen; Hassounah, Ibrahim; Hudait, Mantu; Jain, Nikhil; Clavel, Michael; Elhelw, Sarah; Madi, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new synthesis procedure to form erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (EDC NPs) that can act as an optical medium for both up-conversion and down-conversion in the same time. This synthesis process results qualitatively in a high concentration of Ce(3+) ions required to obtain high fluorescence efficiency in the down-conversion process. Simultaneously, the synthesized nanoparticles contain the molecular energy levels of erbium that are required for up-conversion. Therefore, the synthesized EDC NPs can emit visible light when excited with either UV or IR photons. This opens new opportunities for applications where emission of light via both up- and down-conversions from a single nanomaterial is desired such as solar cells and bio-imaging.

  3. The impact of erbium incorporation on the structure and photophysics of silicon-germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Wieligor, Monika; Zerda, T Waldek; Coffer, Jeffery L

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we report multi-step processes for the fabrication of Er3+-doped SiGe nanowires (NWs) and characterization of their emissive properties. Three different alloyed architectures are obtained by altering the deposition sequences of Si and Er3+ on a Ge core NW, each involving a fixed concentration of these three elements. The deposition of Si onto the Ge NW core, followed by an Er3+-rich layer on the outermost surface, permits facile formation of a SiGe alloy given the lack of an erbium diffusion barrier; yet clustering of the erbium centers on the NW surface produces the weakest emitter. For nanowires prepared by co-depositing Si and Er3+ on top of the Ge core, the presence of impurity Er3+ ions greatly reduces the alloying rate of Si and Ge such that less Si can diffuse into the Ge core. For this structure, the reduction of Er-Er interactions by a polycrystalline Si shell results in the strongest emission at 1540 nm. If an Er3+ layer is inserted between the Ge and Si layers (a sandwich structure), it is found that Er3+ ions diffuse preferentially into the SiGe core instead of the silicon-rich shell, with a correspondingly weaker luminescence intensity. A combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray mapping, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy are employed to derive these conclusions.

  4. Erbium-Doped Hole-Assisted Optical Fiber Amplifier: Design and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudenzano, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    An erbium-doped hole-assisted optical fiber amplifier, to be employed in the third band of the optical communications, is designed and optimized via a tailor made computer code. The finite element method is used for the electromagnetic investigation of the microstructured fiber section. The simulation model takes into account all the rare earth physical phenomena, i.e., the pump and signal propagation, the amplified spontaneous emission,the secondary transitions pertaining to the ion-ion interactions, and so on. The device feasibility is tested via a number of simulations, realistically performed by taking into account the actual parameters pertaining to the dispersion of the germania/silica glass, the erbium emission and absorption cross sections,the propagation losses. By simulation, in the small signal operation, a gain close to 42.8 dB is demonstrated for a fiber 13-m long, using a pump power of 50 mW at the signal wavelength lambdas =1536 nm, the pump and the signal being copropagating.

  5. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Passive Q switches for a diode-pumped erbium glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisel', V. E.; Shcherbitskii, V. G.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Postnova, L. I.; Levchenko, V. I.; Galagan, B. I.; Denker, B. I.; Sverchkov, S. E.

    2005-07-01

    A diode-pumped, passively Q-switched 1.54-μm erbium glass laser is studied. Zinc selenide (ZnSe) crystals doped with Co2+ and Cr2+ ions and magnesium—aluminium spinel (MgAl2O4) crystals doped with Co2+ ions were used as saturable absorbers in Q switches. It is shown that, depending on the type of a saturable absorber, the pump power, and the resonator design, the laser pulse energy can vary from 0.2 to 13 μJ, the pulse duration from 16 to 980 ns, and the pulse repetition rate from 0.1 to 30 kHz.

  6. Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Borodi, G.; Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Pop, V.; Stefan, R.; Tetean, R.; Radulescu, D.

    2013-11-13

    Glasses of the system (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}⋅(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60−x)}⋅(ZnO){sub 40} (3 ≤ x ≤ 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 °C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er{sup 3+} ions and decrease with the increasing of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

  7. High pressure studies of the erbium hydrogen system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palasyuk, T.; Tkacz, M.; Vajda, P.

    2005-07-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction investigations up to 25 GPa using diamond anvil cell techniques (DAC) have been carried out on erbium and a series of erbium hydrides. The equations of state have been evaluated for ErH 1.95, ErH 2.091 (in the β-phase) and for γ-ErH 3. For comparison, the compressibility of pure erbium metal has also been determined in the same pressure range. A rapid drop of lattice volume at a pressure of about 14.5 GPa has been observed for ErH 2.091 accompanied by a color change of reflected light. This phenomenon was not observed in ErH 1.95 where the molar volume varied smoothly up to the highest pressure. A pressure-induced transformation from hexagonal to cubic phase has been detected for erbium trihydride. For pure erbium metal, a transition from hexagonal to samarium structure has been revealed, confirming previously reported behavior.

  8. Detecting Thermal Barrier Coating Delamination Using Visible and Near-Infrared Luminescence from Erbium-Doped Sublayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, J. I.; Bencic, T. J.; Martin, R. E.; Singh, J.; Wolfe, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Nondestructive diagnostic tools are needed to monitor early stages of delamination progression in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) because the risk of delamination induced coating failure will compromise engine performance and safety. Previous work has demonstrated that for TBCs composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), luminescence from a buried europium-doped sublayer can be utilized to identify the location of TBC delamination from the substantially higher luminescence intensity observed from the delaminated regions of the TBC. Luminescence measurements from buried europium-doped layers depend on sufficient transmittance of the 532 nm excitation and 606 nm emission wavelengths through the attenuating undoped YSZ overlayer to produce easily detected luminescence. In the present work, improved delamination indication is demonstrated using erbium-doped YSZ sublayers. For visible-wavelength luminescence, the erbium-doped sublayer offers the advantage of a very strong excitation peak at 517 nm that can be conveniently excited a 514 nm Ar ion laser. More importantly, the erbium-doped sublayer also produces near-infrared luminescence at 1550 nm that is effectively excited by a 980 nm laser diode. Both the 980 nm excitation and the 1550 nm emission are transmitted through the TBC with much less attenuation than visible wavelengths and therefore show great promise for delamination monitoring through thicker or more highly scattering TBCs. The application of this approach for both electron beam physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma-sprayed TBCs is discussed.

  9. Photocatalytic activity of erbium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles immobilized in macro-porous silica films

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda-Contreras, J.; Maranon-Ruiz, V.F.; Chiu-Zarate, R.; Perez-Ladron de Guevara, H.; Rodriguez, R.; Michel-Uribe, C.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erbium-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were immobilized on macro-porous silica films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films were obtained by a phase separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples exhibited photo-catalytic activity under visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitization of TiO{sub 2} was attributed to a red shift in the TiO{sub 2} band-gap. -- Abstract: A macro-porous silica film served as mechanical support to immobilize TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which were doped with erbium. The films and the nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel route. The nanoparticles exhibited photocatalytic activity under visible light. We obtained a degradation rate of methylene blue that followed first order kinetics. The sensitization of the nanoparticles to visible light was attributed to a red shift in the band-gap of the TiO{sub 2} due to the addition of erbium ions.

  10. Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber as a gain medium for L-band amplification and Brillouin fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Shahi, S.; Harun, S. W.

    2010-03-01

    Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) is demonstrated as an alternative medium for optical amplification and nonlinear applications. The bismuth glass host provides the opportunity to be doped heavily with erbium ions to allow a compact optical amplifier design. The bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) is demonstrated to operate at wavelength region from 1570 to 1620 nm using only a 215 cm long of gain medium. The maximum gain of 15.8 dB is obtained at signal wavelength of 1610 nm with the corresponding noise figure of about 6.3 dB. A multi-wavelength laser comb is also demonstrated using a stimulated Brillouin scattering in the 215 cm long Bi-EDF assisted by the 1480 nm pumping. The laser generates more than 40 lines of optical comb with a line spacing of approximately 0.08 at 1612.5 nm region using 152 mW of 1480 nm pump power.

  11. Laser cooling transitions in atomic erbium.

    PubMed

    Ban, H; Jacka, M; Hanssen, J; Reader, J; McClelland, J

    2005-04-18

    We discuss laser cooling opportunities in atomic erbium, identifying five J ? J + 1 transitions from the 4f126s2 3H6 ground state that are accessible to common visible and near-infrared continuous-wave tunable lasers. We present lifetime measurements for the 4f11(4Io 15/2)5d5/26s2 (15/2, 5/2)7o state at 11888 cm-1 and the 4f11(4Io 13/2)5d3/26s2 (13/2, 5/2)7o state at 15847 cm-1, showing values of 20 +/- 4 micros and 5.6 +/- 1.4 micros, respectively. We also present a calculated value of 13 +/- 7 s-1 for the transition rate from the 4f11(4Io 15/2)5d3/26s2 (15/2, 3/2)7 o state at 7697 cm-1 to the ground state, based on scaled Hartree-Fock energy parameters. Laser cooling on these transitions in combination with a strong, fast (5.8 ns) laser cooling transition at 401 nm, suggest new opportunities for narrowband laser cooling of a large-magnetic moment atom, with possible applications in quantum information processing, high-precision atomic clocks, quantum degenerate gases, and deterministic single-atom doping of materials.

  12. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing using a novel portable device.

    PubMed

    Gordon, James; Khan, Misbah H; Khatri, Khalil A

    2007-05-01

    Laser resurfacing of facial rhytids has become a popular treatment for many patients who have wrinkles, photodamage, and acne scarring. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing has emerged as one of the safer, more effective methods of facial rejuvenation and its increasing popularity has led to its widespread use for resurfacing. However, size and high initial and maintenance cost are among the problems with currently available laser devices. The LightPod portable Erbium:YAG laser from Aerolase offers a new paradigm for more cost effective means of performing ablative resurfacing with reduced initial and maintenance cost and the ease of portability with significantly reduced size and weight. The objective of this pilot study was to analyze the efficacy of The LightPod Erbium:YAG laser in different skin types for various indications.

  13. Spectroscopic properties and Judd-Ofelt theory analysis of erbium chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaishan; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Minquan

    2005-11-01

    Erbium chelates including tris(acetylacetonato) erbium(III) monohydrate, tris(acetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) and tris(trifluoroacetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) are synthesized. Judd-Ofelt theory is employed on basis of the UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of erbium chelates dissolved in methanol. Judd-Ofelt parameters of erbium chelates are determined by a least square fitting and dealt with the chemical structure of erbium chelates. Photoluminescence characteristics of erbium chelates are investigated upon excitation at 488 nm by an Ar + laser. The qualitative correlation of Judd-Ofelt parameters with photoluminescence properties for erbium chelates is also discussed. It is found that larger Ω6 value for erbium chelate is and larger photoluminescence intensity at 1.54 μm is, and Ω2 value should contribute to the photoluminescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1.54 μm. The changes of Judd-Ofelt parameters result from the introduction of the second ligand phenathroline or the substitution of electron-drawing group CF 3 in β-diketone for erbium chelates.

  14. Spectroscopic properties and Judd-Ofelt theory analysis of erbium chelates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaishan; Qian, Guodong; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Minquan

    2005-11-01

    Erbium chelates including tris(acetylacetonato) erbium(III) monohydrate, tris(acetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) and tris(trifluoroacetylacetonato)(1,10-phenanthroline) erbium(III) are synthesized. Judd-Ofelt theory is employed on basis of the UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra of erbium chelates dissolved in methanol. Judd-Ofelt parameters of erbium chelates are determined by a least square fitting and dealt with the chemical structure of erbium chelates. Photoluminescence characteristics of erbium chelates are investigated upon excitation at 488 nm by an Ar(+) laser. The qualitative correlation of Judd-Ofelt parameters with photoluminescence properties for erbium chelates is also discussed. It is found that larger Omega(6) value for erbium chelate is and larger photoluminescence intensity at 1.54 microm is, and Omega(2) value should contribute to the photoluminescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 1.54 microm. The changes of Judd-Ofelt parameters result from the introduction of the second ligand phenathroline or the substitution of electron-drawing group CF(3) in beta-diketone for erbium chelates.

  15. Brillouin gain spectrum dependences on temperature and strain in erbium-doped optical fibers with different erbium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Mingjie; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    Brillouin Stokes power in erbium-doped optical fibers (EDFs) can be potentially controlled by pumping, but no report has been provided on its detailed characterization. In this study, as the first step toward this goal, the Brillouin gain spectra in EDFs with three different erbium concentrations (0.72, 1.20, and 2.28 wtppt) are measured at 1.55 μm without pumping, and the Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) and their dependences on strain, temperature, and erbium concentration are fully investigated. In the EDF with 0.72-wtppt concentration, the BFS was 11.42 GHz, and its temperature and strain coefficients were 0.87 MHz/K and 479 MHz/%, respectively.

  16. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, and ytterbium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-15

    Currently, thirty-one dysprosium, thirty-two holmium, thirty-two erbium, thirty-three thulium, and thirty-one ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Jin, Jeongwan; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires the processing and storage of quantum information at local nodes and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1,532 nm wavelength photon entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20-m-long silica fibre, using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality.

  18. Influence of Bi on the Er luminescence in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Scarangella, Adriana; Miritello, Maria; Priolo, Francesco

    2014-09-28

    The influence of bismuth on erbium optical properties at 1.54 μm has been investigated in yttrium-erbium disilicate thin films synthesized by magnetron co-sputtering and implanted with two Bi different doses. The Bi depth distribution and the evolution of its oxidation states after annealing treatments at 1000 °C in two atmospheres, O₂ and N₂, have been investigated. It was found that only in O₂ the Bi³⁺ valence state is prevalent, thanks to the enhanced Bi mobility in the oxidizing ambient, as demonstrated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. At lower Bi content, although the formation of Bi⁰ metallic nanoparticles that are deleterious non radiative channels for Er luminescence, efficient energy transfer from Bi to Er has been obtained only in O₂. It is due to the excitation of ultraviolet broad Bi₃⁺ absorption band and the energy transfer to Er ions. We have evaluated that in this case, Er effective excitation cross section increased by a factor of 5 in respect with the one for direct Er absorption at 488 nm. At higher Bi dose, this mechanism is absent, but an increased Er optical efficiency at 1.54 μm has been observed under resonant excitation. It is due to the contribution of a fraction of Er ions having an increased lifetime. This phenomenon is associated with the formation of Bi agglomerates, induced at higher Bi doses, which well isolate Er from non-radiative quenching centers. The increased decay time assures higher optical efficiency at 1.54 μm.

  19. Analysis of soft x-ray emission spectra of laser-produced dysprosium, erbium and thulium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheil, John; Dunne, Padraig; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kos, Domagoj; Long, Elaine; Miyazaki, Takanori; O’Reilly, Fergal; O’Sullivan, Gerard; Sheridan, Paul; Suzuki, Chihiro; Sokell, Emma; White, Elgiva; Kilbane, Deirdre

    2017-03-01

    Soft x-ray emission spectra of dysprosium, erbium and thulium ions created in laser-produced plasmas were recorded with a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the 2.5–8 nm spectral range. The ions were produced using an Nd:YAG laser of 7 ns pulse duration and the spectra were recorded at various power densities. The experimental spectra were interpreted with the aid of the Cowan suite of atomic structure codes and the flexible atomic code. At wavelengths above 5.5 nm the spectra are dominated by overlapping n = 4 ‑ n = 4 unresolved transition arrays from adjacent ion stages. Below 6 nm, n = 4 ‑ n = 5 transitions also give rise to a series of interesting overlapping spectral features.

  20. The effect of erbium on the adsorption and photodegradation of orange I in aqueous Er3+-TiO2 suspension.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chun-Hua; Hou, Mei-Fang; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Li, Fang-Bai; Liu, Cheng-Shuai; Liu, Tong-Xu; Gao, Yuan-Xue; Wang, Xu-Gang; Lü, Jia-Long

    2006-12-01

    Pure TiO(2) and erbium ion-doped TiO(2) (Er(3+)-TiO(2)) catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method were characterized by means of XRD and diffusive reflectance spectra (DRS). The XRD results showed that erbium ion doping could enhance the thermal stability of TiO(2) and inhibit the increase of the crystallite size, and the DRS results showed that the optical absorption edge slightly shifted to red direction owing to erbium ion doping and the Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalysts had three typical absorption peaks located at 490, 523 and 654 nm owing to the transition of 4f electron from (4)I(15/2) to (4)F(7/2), (2)H(11/2) and (4)F(9/2). With a purpose of azo dyes degradation, orange I was used as a model chemical. And the adsorption isotherm, degradation and mineralization of orange I were investigated in aqueous suspension of pure TiO(2) or Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalysts. The results showed that Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalysts had higher adsorption equilibrium constants and better adsorption capacity than pure TiO(2). The adsorption equilibrium constants (K(a)) of Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalysts were about twice of that of pure TiO(2). The maximum adsorption capacity (Q(max)) of 2.0% Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalyst was 13.08x10(-5)mol/g, which was much higher than that of pure TiO(2) with 9.03x10(-5)mol/g. Among Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalysts, 2.0% Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalyst achieved the highest Q(max) and K(a) values. The kinetics of the orange I degradation using different Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalysts were also studied. The results demonstrated that the degradation and mineralization of orange I under both UV radiation and visible light were more efficient with Er(3+)-TiO(2) catalyst than with pure TiO(2), and an optimal dosage of erbium ion at 1.5% achieved the highest degradation rate. The higher photoactivity under visible light might be attributable to the transitions of 4f electrons of Er(3+) and red shifts of the optical absorption edge of TiO(2) by erbium ion doping.

  1. Erbium--169 versus triamcinolone hexacetonide in the treatment of rheumatoid finger joints.

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsi, A; Hypén, M; Rekonen, A; Oka, M

    1979-01-01

    Erbium--169 was compared with triamcinolone hexacetonide in the topical treatment of 32 patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Erbium--169 was injected into 83 and triamcinolone hexacetonide into 54 proximal interphalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joints. Both treatments produced alleviation of joint pain and swelling and improvement of grip strength. At every check-up (1--18 months) the percentage of remissions was higher after triamcinolone hexacetonide injection than after erbium--169. The difference was significant at 1, 3, and 6 months. PMID:434946

  2. Near-infrared diode-pumped white-light emission from erbium-doped calcium fluoride crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, Mical; Edwards, Vernessa M.; Reddi, B. Rami

    2016-02-01

    CaF2 is a cubic material and Erbium enters the lattice in triply ionized state. Erbium occupies Ca sites in the material. Defects occur in the material because a trivalent dopant ion replaces a divalent host ion. Er3+ occupies several different sites. Absorption spectrum of Er3+-doped CaF2 revealed absorption peaks at 255, 365, 379, 407, 441, 449, 487, 522, 539, 652 and 798 nm. When the sample was excited with an 800 nm near-infrared laser it revealed emissions at 390, 415, 462, 555, 665 and 790 nm. The absorption and emission peaks are identified with Er3+ spectral transitions. The sample color appears to be either white or green under near-infrared laser excitation. Emission color was found to be dependent on the pump laser wavelength used and laser power. Excitation spectral recordings were made by tuning the pump laser wavelength. The sample emission appears to be white under near-infrared excitation as well as violet laser excitation. Excited state lifetimes are measured to analyze the data. Our studies indicate that this sample is useful in solid state lighting applications.

  3. Urbach absorption edge in epitaxial erbium-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Shmagin, V. B. Kudryavtsev, K. E.; Shengurov, D. V.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2015-02-07

    We investigate the dependencies of the photocurrent in Si:Er p-n junctions on the energy of the incident photons. The exponential absorption edge (Urbach edge) just below fundamental edge of silicon was observed in the absorption spectra of epitaxial Si:Er layers grown at 400–600 C. It is shown that the introduction of erbium significantly enhances the structural disorder in the silicon crystal which was estimated from the slope of the Urbach edge. We discuss the possible nature of the structural disorder in Si:Er and a new mechanism of erbium excitation, which does not require the presence of deep levels in the band gap of silicon.

  4. Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films

    SciTech Connect

    Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD{sub 2}) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950{degrees}C) and low temperature (25{degrees}C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950{degrees}C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950{degrees}C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well.

  5. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, Christopher A.; Worden, Earl F.

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  6. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  7. Transient photoacoustic effects induced in liquids by pulsed erbium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenz, Martin; Pratisto, Hans; Ith, Michael; Asshauer, Thomas; Rink, Klaus; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Romano, Valerio; Salathe, Rene-Paul; Weber, Heinz P.

    1994-08-01

    The intense interest in the investigation of erbium laser radiation in medicine is due to the fact that radiation at 3 micrometers is very strongly absorbed by water, which is present in all biological tissue. As a consequence of this high absorption the interaction of pulsed radiation is characterized by an explosive process with a low ablation threshold and a thin coagulation zone along the laser incisions. Erbium lasers, therefore, have a wide field of potential medical applications which become even more attractive with the availability of reliable delivery systems. An interesting situation arises in orthopaedics and angioplasty, where a precise cutting instrument is needed in a liquid environment. For this reason, we experimentally investigated the interaction mechanism of fiber transmitted, pulsed, free-running and Q- switched Erbium:YSGG ((lambda) equals 2.79 micrometers ) and Erbium:YAG ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometers ) laser radiation with liquid water. The dynamics of the bubble formation and the propagation of shockwaves in water was studied and visualized by flash photography. Acoustic transients of a few hundreds of bars accompanying the ablation process were measured with a needle hydrophone. A clear correlation between the spikes of the laser pulse and those of the pressure signal was observed. Additionally, strong pressure transients were measured after the end of the laser pulse, which could be associated with the collapse of the vapor bubble and further collapses after multiple rebounds. The influence of pulse energy, fiber size and pulse duration on the formation and the amplitude of the pressure waves is demonstrated.

  8. Investigations Into Ytterbium, Ytterbium-Erbium and Thulium-Doped Silica-Based Fibre Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Ian Richard

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Continuous-wave monomode laser oscillation has been demonstrated in ytterbium-doped fiber at 974nm and around 1040nm for pump wavelengths in the 0.8mu m region. High slope efficiencies (up to 78%) and low threshold powers (10mW absorbed) were measured for this device. Tunable operation from 1000nm to 1162nm, the generation of Q-switched pulses, and efficient amplified spontaneous emission have also been demonstrated, and some of these features have been modelled. A fibre doped with erbium and sensitised with ytterbium has been investigated to study the effect of energy transfer from the ytterbium co-dopant to the erbium ions after excitation at wavelengths in the 0.8 μm region. The effects of pump excited state absorption on the threshold and slope efficiency have been characterised. Continuous-wave monomode laser oscillation was observed at 1.564mum with a 5mW absorbed threshold power. The laser wavelength was tunable from 1.521mum to 1.562mu m. Continuous-wave monomode laser action in a thulium -doped fibre, also pumped in the 0.8mum region, was observed at around 2mum with an absorbed threshold power of about 30mW. The laser wavelength was tunable from 1810nm to 2014nm. A change of pump source to a high power Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.064mum yielded fibre laser output powers of up to 1.35W with a threshold power of 600mW. Pump excited state absorption at 1.064mum and the resulting upconverted visible fluorescence has been investigated and modelled.

  9. Erbium-doped silicon-oxycarbide materials for advanced optical waveguide amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Spyros

    As a novel silicon based material, amorphous silicon oxycarbide (a-SiC xOyHz) has found many important applications (e.g. as a low-k material for interconnects) in Si microelectronics. This Ph.D. thesis work has explored another potential application of amorphous silicon oxycarbide: as a silicon-based host material for planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) that operate at the telecommunications wavelength of 1540 nm. Such EDWAs are an important component of planar photonic integrated circuits being developed for implementation of the fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) technology. Furthermore, these Si-based EDWAs could be combined with other Si photonic devices (e.g. light sources, detectors, modulators) for achieving opto-electronic integration on Si chips, or silicon micro/nanophotonics. This thesis will start with basics about Er-doped systems and material challenges in the design of EDWAs. A detailed study of the structural and optical properties of a-SiCxOyHz materials under various deposition and processing conditions, concerning several aspects, such as thin film composition, chemical bonding, refractive index and optical gap, will be presented and discussed. Lastly, this work will focus on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of erbium-doped amorphous silicon oxycarbides (a-SiCxOyHz:Er). Results of both Er-related (near infrared ˜1540 nm) and matrix-related (visible) luminescence properties will be presented, and mechanisms leading to efficient excitation of Er ions in the materials will be discussed. This work indicates that a-SiC xOyHz:Er can be a promising matrix for realizing high-performance EDWAs using inexpensive broadband light sources.

  10. Erbium doped ceramic nanofiber synthesis for thermophotovoltaic selective emitter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifon, George Sebastian

    This thesis explored the development of isothermal selective emitters for harvesting thermal energy to be used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. The selective emitters were Erbium doped Titania nanofibers and Erbium and Yttrium doped Titania nanofibers that may be used with a Gallium Antimonide photovoltaic cell. The ultimate aim of this research was to develop Erbium doped Yttrium Titanate nanofibers. This research is of importance in recovering heat from a number of resources including power plant boilers. The thermal energy lost in the boilers can be as high as 20% of the input fuel energy and a recovery of this energy would boost the thermal performance of the power plants. It has been observed that the temperatures of the flue gas reaching the heat recovery region may be higher than 1600K and the radiation and convective losses in the burner occurs at even higher temperatures. Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) offer a solution in terms of converting the thermal energy to electricity without any moving parts. The efficiencies of conventional TPVs are very small (10-20%) and thus not a solution as the primary electric generator. However, in the field of the harvesting of waste energy, TPVs have tremendous potential. In order to improve efficiencies, Erbia (which can absorb thermal energy and convert it to electromagnetic radiation with a narrow wavelength spectrum with mean wavelength of 1500nm) can be used as a selective emitter with GaSb PV cells (which have its maximum efficiency in the same wavelength range) as the collector. In order to further improve its performance, the Erbia was proposed to be supported by Titania, which is transparent to IR in this range. However, past research has shown that the Erbia doped Titania nanofibers essentially have Erbium in the form of pyrochlore Erbium Titanate. Thus the research focused on a way to synthesize ErxY2-xTi 2O7 pyrochlore structure to act as the selective emitter. The self-supporting composite was designed to

  11. Novel samarium/erbium and samarium/terbium codoped glass phosphor for application in warm white light-emitting-diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cosmo M.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2014-02-01

    Tunable polychromatic light emission within the low color correlated temperature range was produced using terbiumand/ or erbium-samarium co-doped PbGeO3:PbF2:CdF2 glass phosphor. The phosphors were synthesized, and their luminescence characteristics were examined under UV-blue light-emitting-diode laser excitation. Luminescence emission around 490, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Tb3+/Sm3+ and 525, 545, 600, and 645 nm in Er3+/Sm3+ co-doped phosphor was obtained and analyzed as a function of the active ions concentration, and excitation wavelength. Color tunability in the red-orange-yellow-green region was achieved combining of Tb3+, Er3+, and Sm3+ ions contents. Results suggest that the color-tunable polychromatic light emitter phosphor herein reported is a promising novel candidate for application in cold white-light LED-based illumination technology

  12. High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

    2012-05-31

    We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power ({lambda} = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

  13. An optical amplifier having 5 cm long silica-clad erbium doped phosphate glass fiber fabricated by "core-suction" technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Nitin K.; Pickrell, Gary; Stolen, Roger

    2014-08-01

    We have fabricated an erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber with a silica cladding and used 5 cm length of it to form an optical amplifier. A bulk erbium phosphate glass called MM2 was used as a core glass in a silica cladding tube to prepare a preform using "core-suction" technique. This MM2 glass preform was drawn to a fiber and the resultant fiber was of good optical quality, free from air bubbles and major defects. The fiber was mechanically strong enough to allow for ease of handling and could be spliced to conventional silica fiber using commercial fusion splicer. This fiber was then used to setup an EDFA. Our work demonstrates the potential to form silica clad optical fibers with phosphate cores doped with very high levels of rare-earth ions. It is demonstrated that the core suction technique can be used to make a high-gain erbium phosphate fiber amplifier that is compatible with conventional silica fibers.

  14. Performance analysis of a concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifier supporting four mode groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zujun; Fan, Di; Zhang, Wentao; Xiong, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) supporting four mode groups has been theoretically designed by concatenating two sections of erbium-doped fibers (EDFs). Each EDF has a simple erbium doping profile for the purpose of reducing its fabrication complexity. We propose a modified genetic algorithm (GA) to provide detailed investigations on the concatenated amplifier. Both the optimal fiber length and erbium doping radius in each EDF have been found to minimize the gain difference between signal modes. Results show that the parameters of the central-doped EDF have a greater impact on the amplifier performance compared to those of the annular-doped one. We then investigate the influence of the small deviations of the erbium fiber length, doping radius and doping concentration of each EDF from their optimal values upon the amplifier performance, and discuss their design tolerances in obtaining a desirable amplification characteristics.

  15. Hybrid Fiber-Bulk Pulsed Erbium Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Judd - Ofelt analysis (for radiative lifetimes) and the gap law (for non-radiative transitions by phonon emission). In both calculations, we have...3.6 Prospects for further power scaling 4.0 Fiber laser pumped Er:YAG laser 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Er:YAG laser design 4.3 Effect of Er3 ...procedure, so it is extremely important to identify the main factors affecting the overall efficiency. Er3 + and Yb3+ ion concentrations and background

  16. Design of an all-fiber erbium-doped laser system for simulating power load in backbone networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobořil, Radek; Bednárek, Lukáš; Vanderka, Aleš; Hájek, Lukáš; Zbořil, Ondřej; Vašinek, Vladimír

    2016-12-01

    This article is focused on the design of an all-fiber laser that was supposed to be used for simulating power load similar to the power load in backbone networks. The first part of the article is a brief introduction to the topic of lasers and erbium doped fiber amplifiers. The following parts present design of a fiber laser with ring cavity, and measuring the ideal length of a doped fiber and the split ratio of the output coupler. After proposing the first stage -a laser- we focused on the construction of the two following stages -EDFA preamplifier and EDFA amplifier. There were used fibers with various levels of erbium ion density, namely ISO-GAIN I6, and Liekki ER110-4/125. The resulting output power of the whole system was 320 mW. This value is sufficient when we take into account that we used only single-mode fibers with energy pumped directly to the fiber core. The output wavelength of the whole laser system was 1559 nm.

  17. Erbium-doped slot waveguides containing size-controlled silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, R.; Beyer, J.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.; Heitmann, J.

    2015-04-01

    Silicon based slot waveguides with a slot containing Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) and Erbium ions (Er3+) inside a silica matrix were prepared using sputter deposition and low-energy ion implantation. This sequence enabled independent optimization of nanocrystal formation and Er3+ incorporation parameters. Using a superlattice approach, the size of the Si-nc inside the slot could be controlled and optimized for maximum Er3+ luminescence yield at 1.54 μm. Er3+ is found to be efficiently pumped by Si-nc of sizes around 3 to 4 nm. Increasing Er3+ photoluminescence at 1.54 μm with increasing post-implantation annealing temperatures up to 1000 °C is attributed to annealing of matrix or Si-nc interface defects mainly. Additionally, a dependence of the Er3+ luminescence intensity on both the excitation and emission linear polarization orientation is shown, which demonstrates efficient field enhancement in sputtered slot waveguide structures.

  18. Erbium-doped slot waveguides containing size-controlled silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, R.; Beyer, J. Heitmann, J.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.

    2015-04-28

    Silicon based slot waveguides with a slot containing Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) and Erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) inside a silica matrix were prepared using sputter deposition and low-energy ion implantation. This sequence enabled independent optimization of nanocrystal formation and Er{sup 3+} incorporation parameters. Using a superlattice approach, the size of the Si-nc inside the slot could be controlled and optimized for maximum Er{sup 3+} luminescence yield at 1.54 μm. Er{sup 3+} is found to be efficiently pumped by Si-nc of sizes around 3 to 4 nm. Increasing Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence at 1.54 μm with increasing post-implantation annealing temperatures up to 1000 °C is attributed to annealing of matrix or Si-nc interface defects mainly. Additionally, a dependence of the Er{sup 3+} luminescence intensity on both the excitation and emission linear polarization orientation is shown, which demonstrates efficient field enhancement in sputtered slot waveguide structures.

  19. Erbium-doped fiber amplifier elements for structural analysis sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna-Hawver, P.; Kamdar, K. D.; Mehta, S.; Nagarajan, S.; Nasta, M. H.; Claus, R. O.

    1992-01-01

    The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. Their in-line amplification performance also makes them attractive for optical fiber sensor systems which require long effective lengths or the synthesis of special length-dependent signal processing functions. Sensor geometries incorporating EDFA's in recirculating and multiple loop sensors are discussed. Noise and polarization birefringence are also considered, and the experimental development of system components is discussed.

  20. LASERS: Study of a Tm:Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Raman shifted erbium-doped fibre laser at 1678 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalachev, Yu L.; Mikhailov, Viktor A.; Podreshetnikov, V. V.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.

    2010-06-01

    The lasing, spectral, and luminescent characteristics of a Tm:Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Raman shifted erbium-doped fibre laser (λ = 1678 nm) into the 1682-nm absorption line of the 3H6-3F4 transition of the Tm3+ ion are studied. It is shown that the total (with respect to the absorbed power) and slope laser efficiencies upon pulsed pumping reach 46% and 50%, respectively. The output radiation power in the cw regime is 400 mW. The comparative measurements showed that pumping by a fibre laser at 1678 nm is more efficient than diode pumping at 792 nm.

  1. Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints.

    PubMed Central

    Menkes, C J; Gô, A L; Verrier, P; Aignan, M; Delbarre, F

    1977-01-01

    A double-blind study of erbium 169 injection into rheumatoid digital joints was carried out with saline as control. 201 joints in 36 patients were studied (137 metacarpophalalangeal, 64 proximal interphalangeal). Erbium 169 was injected into 121 joints and saline water into 80 joints. Local injection of corticosteroids was given to both groups. A definite improvement was observed in 55% to 58% of cases with erbium 169 (+prednisolone acetate) and in 26% to 28% of cases with saline (+prednisolone acetate). The difference was highly significant. PMID:327948

  2. High-energy, in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Shaif-ul Alam; Richardson, David J

    2012-08-13

    We have demonstrated and compared high-energy, in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers operating at 1562.5 nm under both a core pumping scheme (CRS) and a cladding pumping scheme (CLS). The CRS/CLS sources generated smooth, single-peak pulses with maximum pulse energies of ~1.53/1.50 mJ, and corresponding pulse widths of ~176/182 ns respectively, with an M2 of ~1.6 in both cases. However, the conversion efficiency for the CLS was >1.5 times higher than the equivalent CRS variant operating at the same pulse energy due to the lower pump intensity in the CLS that mitigates the detrimental effects of ion concentration quenching. With a longer fiber length in a CLS implementation a pulse energy of ~2.6 mJ is demonstrated with a corresponding M2 of ~4.2. Using numerical simulations we explain that the saturation of pulse energy observed in our experiments is due to saturation of the pump absorption.

  3. Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Awwad, N S; Gad, H M H; Ahmad, M I; Aly, H F

    2010-12-01

    A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, pH, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium was quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg g(-1) for La(III) and 250 mg g(-1) for Er(III). The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/mol while it was 3.6 kJ/mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion-controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low-cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application.

  4. Laser-diode-pumped, erbium-doped, solid-state laser with high slope efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Esterowitz, L.; Allen, R.; Kintz, G.

    1989-10-31

    A laser and method for producing a laser emission at a wavelength of substantially 2.8 microns is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the laser comprises laser diode means for emitting a pump beam at a preselected wavelength; and a crystal having a preselected host material doped with a predetermined percent concentration of erbium activator ions sufficient to produce a laser emission at substantially 2.8 microns at a slope efficiency of at least 5 percent, but preferrably 10 percent, when the crystal is pumped by the pump beam. It is well known that the human body is comprised of approximately 70% water, with various human tissues containing about 60% to 90% of water, and bone and cartilage containing about 30% to 40% of water. Since the 2.8 micron wavelength has a substantially maximum absorption in water, this 2.8 micron wavelength is the ideal wavelength to use for a large variety of medical laser applications on the human body. A 2.8 micron wavelength laser could be used for precise surgery in such exemplary applications as brain surgery, neurosurgery, eye surgery, plastic surgery, burn treatment and the removal of malignancies.

  5. Realisation et Applications D'un Laser a Fibre a L'erbium Monofrequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Robert

    L'incorporation d'ions de terres rares a l'interieur de la matrice de verre d'une fibre optique a permis l'emergence de composants amplificateurs tout-fibre. Le but de cette these consiste d'une part a analyser et a modeliser un tel dispositif et d'autre part, a fabriquer puis a caracteriser un amplificateur et un oscillateur a fibre. A l'aide d'une fibre fortement dopee a l'erbium fabriquee sur demande, on realise un laser a fibre syntonisable qui fonctionne en regime multimodes longitudinaux avec une largeur de raie de 1.5 GHz et egalement comme source monofrequencielle de largeur de raie de 70 kHz. Le laser sert ensuite a caracteriser un reseau de Bragg ecrit par photosensibilite dans une fibre optique. La technique de syntonisation permet aussi l'asservissement au fond d'une resonance de l'acetylene. Le laser garde alors la position centrale de la raie avec une erreur de moins de 1 MHz corrigeant ainsi les derives mecaniques de la cavite.

  6. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped-nanoparticles optical fiber for space applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jérémie; Myara, Mikhaël; Troussellier, Laurent; Burov, Ekaterina; Pastouret, Alain; Boivin, David; Mélin, Gilles; Gilard, Olivier; Sotom, Michel; Signoret, Philippe

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a radiation-resistant Erbium-Doped Fiber exhibiting performances that can fill the requirements of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers for space applications. This is based on an Aluminum co-doping atom reduction enabled by Nanoparticules Doping-Process. For this purpose, we developed several fibers containing very different erbium and aluminum concentrations, and tested them in the same optical amplifier configuration. This work allows to bring to the fore a highly radiation resistant Erbium-doped pure silica optical fiber exhibiting a low quenching level. This result is an important step as the EDFA is increasingly recognized as an enabling technology for the extensive use of photonic sub-systems in future satellites.

  7. Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium-Doped Magnesium Oxide Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7441 ● SEPT 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium-Doped Magnesium Oxide...Laboratory Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium-Doped Magnesium Oxide Ceramics by T Sanamyan and M Dubinskii Sensors and...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) Sep 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium

  8. Probing the spiral magnetic phase in 6 nm textured erbium using polarised neutron reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchell, N.; Witt, J. D. S.; Burnell, G.; Curran, P. J.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Langridge, S.; Cooper, J. F. K.

    2017-02-01

    We characterise the magnetic state of highly-textured, sputter deposited erbium for a film of thickness 6 nm. Using polarised neutron reflectometry it is found that the film has a high degree of magnetic disorder, and we present some evidence that the film’s local magnetic state is consistent with bulk-like spiral magnetism. This, combined with complementary characterisation techniques, show that thin film erbium is a strong candidate material for incorporation into device structures.

  9. Ion beam synthesis of planar opto-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polman, A.; Snoeks, E.; van den Hoven, G. N.; Brongersma, M. L.; Serna, R.; Shin, J. H.; Kik, P.; Radius, E.

    1995-12-01

    Photonic technology requires the modification and synthesis of new materials and devices for the generation, guiding, switching, multiplexing and amplification of light. This paper reviews how some of these devices may be made using ion beam synthesis. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of erbium-doped optical waveguides.

  10. Dual-kind Q-switching of erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Barmenkov, Yuri O. Kir'yanov, Alexander V.; Cruz, Jose L.; Andres, Miguel V.

    2014-03-03

    Two different regimes of Q-switching in the same implementation of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser are demonstrated. Depending on the active fiber length and repetition rate of an intracavity Q-cell (acousto-optic modulator), the laser operates either in the regime of common, rather long and low-power, pulses composed of several sub-pulses or in the one of very short and powerful stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced pulses. The basic physical reason of the laser system to oscillate in one of these two regimes is the existence or absence of CW narrow-line “bad-cavity” lasing in the intervals when the Q-cell is blocked.

  11. An Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope with a Reflective Objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Hebert, Anne; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team

    2016-05-01

    Dipolar atoms present an exciting opportunity to extend previous quantum gas microscope (QGM) experiments to more complex systems influenced by long range, anisotropic interactions. We present on current progress toward the construction of a QGM for ultracold Erbium atoms in an optical lattice, including the development of a novel imaging system for single-site resolution. While most QGMs until now have typically utilized a high numerical aperture microscope objective, we discuss a reflective mirror alternative that offers an equally high NA (.9-.95), a comparable field of view (34 micrometers radial), and a larger working distance (25 millimeters) that keeps the atoms far from any surfaces. By operating in a Schmidt telescope configuration, this imaging system is well-suited both for collecting 401 nm imaging fluorescence and for the creation of an expandable lattice with a variety of associated lattice geometries.

  12. A higher-order-mode erbium-doped-fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Fini, J M; DeSantolo, A M; Monberg, E; DiMarcello, F; Fleming, J; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J; Ghalmi, S; Ramachandran, S

    2010-08-16

    We demonstrate the first erbium-doped fiber amplifier operating in a single, large-mode area, higher-order mode. A high-power, fundamental-mode, Raman fiber laser operating at 1480 nm was used as a pump source. Using a UV-written, long-period grating, both pump and 1564 nm signal were converted to the LP(0,10) mode, which had an effective area of 2700 microm(2) at 1550 nm. A maximum output power of 5.8 W at 1564 nm with more than 20 dB of gain in a 2.68 m long amplifier was obtained. The mode profile was undistorted at the highest output power.

  13. Tungsten diselenide Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bohua; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Chaoshi; Wu, Kan; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    We report a tungsten diselenide (WSe2) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based, saturable absorber and related experiment results of a Q-switched fiber laser. WSe2-PVA film is synthesized by liquid phase exfoliation method, and its saturable absorption is measured via a nonlinear transmission experiment. The result shows that WSe2-PVA saturable absorber has a modulation depth of 3.5%, which means it has potential for generating an ultrafast pulse laser. We apply this absorber into a ring-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser and obtain Q-switched pulses under appropriate pump power. Our work demonstrates the reliable nonlinear optical characteristics of WSe2 and the feasibility for this two-dimensional material to be applied in the field of nonlinear optics.

  14. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system. PMID:27966662

  15. Magnetic Phases of Sputter Deposited Thin-Film Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J. D. S.; Cooper, J. F. K.; Satchell, N.; Kinane, C. J.; Curran, P. J.; Bending, S. J.; Langridge, S.; Heyderman, L. J.; Burnell, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed structural and magnetic characterization of sputter deposited thin film erbium, determined by x-ray diffraction, transport measurements, magnetometry and neutron diffraction. This provides information on the onset and change of the magnetic state as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Many of the features of bulk material are reproduced. Also of interest is the identification of a conical magnetic state which repeats with a wavevector parallel to the c axis τc = 4/17 in units of the reciprocal lattice parameter c*, which is a state not observed in any other thin film or bulk measurements. The data from the various techniques are combined to construct magnetic field, temperature (H, T)–phase diagrams for the 200 nm-thick Er sample that serves as a foundation for future exploitation of this complex magnetic thin film system.

  16. Characteristics of the Brillouin spectra in Erbium-Ytterbium fibers.

    PubMed

    Canat, G; Durécu, A; Lesueur, G; Lombard, L; Bourdon, P; Jolivet, V; Jaouën, Y

    2008-03-03

    This paper reports the main characteristics of the Stokes spectra for typical pumped and unpumped Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers. Doped fibers show shorter Brillouin shifts and their spectra are up to 1.6 times broader than undoped fibers. Those spectra are composed of several peaks originating from several longitudinal acoustic modes. The effective Brillouin gain of the secondary modes can be as large as 20% of the main peak gain. They can merge into a more complex structure for the largest cores. Simulations allow to relate these characteristics to the influence of codoping and index profile inhomogeneity. An additional broadening of the Stokes spectrum in pumped fibers is reported and attributed to thermal effects.

  17. Deep sclerectomy using erbium:YAG laser in pigs eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, Yehia A.; Taher, Ibrahim M.; Bahgat, Mostafa M.; Ghoneim, Dina F.

    2004-07-01

    The potential benefits of using pulsed Erbium: YAG laser in removing the deep lamella of the sclera during the procedure of deep sclerectomy was studied. Thirty porcine eyes were divided into 3 groups. A superficial lamellar scleral flap with an area of 5x5 mm as for trabeculectomy was surgically prepared. Using an Erbium: YAG laser (2.94 micron), the deep lamella with an area of 3x1.8 mm was removed. Group I was subjected to an energy level of 40-60 m.J, Descemet's membrane was preserved and trabecular meshwork was left intact and no thermal damage on the contiguous structures in all eyes, group II to 60-80 m.J Descemet's membrane was ruptured in 30% (3 eyes), thermal damage was 20% (2 eyes) on superficial structures, while group III to 80-100m.J there was a high risk of rupture of Descemet's membrane 50% (5 eyes), thermal damage was 30%(3 eyes) on superficial structures & 20%(2 eyes) on deep & superficial structures. Eyes were analyzed histologically by electron microscopy to study Descemet's membrane & the trabecular meshwork & the thermal damage on contiguous structures. Eyes with rupture of Descemet's membrane had total energy power of 11.75 J +/- 6.39, average power was 0.58W +/- 0.07 & power density 1155W/cm2 +/- 144, compared to eyes with no rupture 24.23J +/- 11.77 total energy power, 0.46W average power & 916.4W/cm2 +/- 227 power density. Thermal damage changes occurred at total energy power of 10.14 J, average power was 0.59W & power density 1180W/cm2, compared to eyes with no rupture 24.17J total energy power, 0.46W average power & 919.1W/cm2 power density.

  18. Study of the transport properties of organic semiconductors based on europium diphthalocyanine and bi-tris-phthalocyanine complexes with ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge and based on erbium and europium dinaphthalocyanine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Pashkova, N. V.; Kladova, E. I.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    The transport properties of organic semiconductors based on europium diphthalocyanine and bitris-phthalocyanine complexes with ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge and based on europium and erbium dinaphthalocyanine are studied. The temperature dependences of the dc conductivity for all types of the structures under study are obtained; it is shown that all dependences include two activation portions. For high-temperature portions, the activation energies are determined as 0.85 eV for europium diphthalocyanine with the ortho-bis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge, 1.135 eV for europium bi-tris-phthalocyanine with the orthobis(oxymethyl)phenyl bridge, 0.98 eV for europium dinaphthalocyanine, and 1.18 eV for erbium dinaphthalocyanine. For the low-temperature activation portion, it is shown that lanthanide ions and their bond with a ligand make the dominant contribution to the conductivity of the structures under study.

  19. Optical switching and photoluminescence in erbium-implanted vanadium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Herianto Stavrias, Nikolas; Johnson, Brett C.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2014-03-07

    Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is under intensive consideration for optical switching due to its reversible phase transition, which features a drastic and rapid shift in infrared reflectivity. Classified as an insulator–to–metal transition, the phase transition in VO{sub 2} can be induced thermally, electrically, and optically. When induced optically, the transition can occur on sub-picosecond time scales. It is interesting to dope VO{sub 2} with erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) and observe their combined properties. The first excited-state luminescence of Er{sup 3+} lies within the wavelength window of minimal transmission-loss in silicon and has been widely utilized for signal amplification and generation in silicon photonics. The incorporation of Er{sup 3+} into VO{sub 2} could therefore result in a novel photonic material capable of simultaneous optical switching and amplification. In this work, we investigate the optical switching and photoluminescence in Er-implanted VO{sub 2} thin films. Thermally driven optical switching is demonstrated in the Er-implanted VO{sub 2} by infrared reflectometry. Photoluminescence is observed in the thin films annealed at ∼800 °C or above. In addition, Raman spectroscopy and a statistical analysis of switching hysteresis are carried out to assess the effects of the ion implantation on the VO{sub 2} thin films. We conclude that Er-implanted VO{sub 2} can function as an optical switch and amplifier, but with reduced switching quality compared to pure VO{sub 2}.

  20. Rapid onsite detection of bacterial spores of biothreat importance by paper-based colorimetric method using erbium-pyrocatechol violet complex.

    PubMed

    Shivakiran, M S; Venkataramana, M; Lakshmana Rao, P V

    2016-01-01

    Dipicolinic acid (DPA) is an important chemical marker for the detection of bacterial spores. In this study, complexes of lanthanide series elements such as erbium, europium, neodymium, and terbium were prepared with pyrocatechol violet and effectively immobilized the pyrocatechol violet (PV)-metal complex on a filter paper using polyvinyl alcohol. These filter paper strips were employed for the onsite detection of bacterial spores. The test filter papers were evaluated quantitatively with different concentrations of DPA and spores of various bacteria. Among the four lanthanide ions, erbium displayed better sensitivity than the other ions. The limit of detection of this test for DPA was 60 μM and 5 × 10(6) spores. The effect of other non-spore-forming bacteria and interfering chemicals on the test strips was also evaluated. The non-spore-forming bacteria did not have considerable effect on the test strip whereas chemicals such as EDTA had significant effects on the test results. The present test is rapid and robust, capable of providing timely results for better judgement to save resources on unnecessary decontamination procedures during false alarms.

  1. Optical decoherence and spectral diffusion in an erbium-doped silica glass fiber featuring long-lived spin sublevels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veissier, Lucile; Falamarzi, Mohsen; Lutz, Thomas; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Understanding decoherence in cryogenically cooled rare-earth-ion doped glass fibers is of fundamental interest and a prerequisite for applications of these material in quantum information applications. Here we study the coherence properties in a weakly doped erbium silica glass fiber motivated by our recent observation of efficient and long-lived Zeeman sublevel storage in this material and by its potential for applications at telecommunication wavelengths. We analyze photon echo decays as well as the potential mechanisms of spectral diffusion that can be caused by coupling with dynamic disorder modes that are characteristic for glassy hosts, and by the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between Er3 + ions. We also investigate the effective linewidth as a function of magnetic field, temperature, and time, and then present a model that describes these experimental observations. We highlight that the operating conditions (0.6 K and 0.05 T) at which we previously observed efficient spectral hole burning coincide with those for narrow linewidths (1 MHz)—an important property for applications that has not been reported before for a rare-earth-ion doped glass.

  2. Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratisto, Hans; Frenz, Martin; Ith, Michael; Altermatt, Hans J.; Jansen, E. Duco; Weber, Heinz P.

    1996-07-01

    Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 mu m, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400- mu m ZrF4 fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200- mu s, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 mu s) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 mu m as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50- mu m collateral tissue damage. wave, cavitation, channel formation, infrared-fiber-delivery system, tissue damage, cartilage.

  3. A simple theoretical model for erbium doped PCF ring lasers design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, J. A.; Álvarez, J. M.; Rebolledo, M. A.; Andrés, M. V.; Vallés, J. A.; Martín, J. C.; Berdejo, V.; Díez, A.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper a simple theoretical model is presented where the energy conservation principle is used. The model is based on semi-analytical equations describing the behaviour of an erbium-doped photonic crystal fibre (PCF) inside a ring laser. These semi-analytical equations allow the characterisation of the erbium-doped PCF. Spectral absorption and emission coefficients can be determined through the measurement of the gain in the PCF as a function of pump power attenuation for several fibre lengths by means of a linear fitting. These coefficients are proportional to the erbium concentration and to the corresponding absorption or emission cross section. So if the concentration is known the erbium cross sections can be immediately determined. The model was successfully checked by means of two different home-made erbium doped PCFs. Once the fibres were characterised the values of the spectral absorption and emission coefficients were used to simulate the behaviour of a back propagating ring laser made of each fibre. Passive losses of the components in the cavity were previously calibrated. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental values of efficiency, pump power threshold and output laser power for a wide set of experimental situations (several values of the input pump power, output coupling factor, laser wavelength and fibre length).

  4. Silicon-erbium ytterbium silicate nanowire waveguides with optimized optical gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Zheng, Wei-Hao; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Hong; Zhuang, Xiu-Juan; Pan, An-Lian; Duan, Xiang-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Single-crystal erbium silicate nanowires have attracted considerable attention because of their high optical gain. In this work, we report the controlled synthesis of silicon-erbium ytterbium silicate core-shell nanowires and fine-tuning the erbium mole fraction in the shell from x = 0:3 to x = 1:0, which corresponds to changing the erbium concentration from 4:8 × 1021 to 1:6 × 1022 cm-3. By controlling and properly optimizing the composition of erbium and ytterbium in the nanowires, we can effectively suppress upconversion photoluminescence while simultaneously enhancing near-infrared emission. The composition-optimized nanowires have very long photoluminescence lifetimes and large emission cross-sections, which contribute to the high optical gain that we observed. We suspended these concentration-optimized nanowires in the air to measure and analyze their propagation loss and optical gain in the near-infrared communication band. Through systematic measurements using wires with different core sizes, we obtained a maximum net gain of 20±8 dB·mm-1, which occurs at a wavelength of 1534 nm, for a nanowire with a diameter of 600 nm and a silicon core diameter of 300 nm.

  5. Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber chaotic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Juan C.; Used, Javier; Sánchez-Martín, José A.; Berdejo, Víctor; Vallés, Juan A.; Álvarez, José M.; Rebolledo, Miguel A.

    2011-09-01

    An erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser has been designed, constructed and characterized in order to examine the feasibility of this kind of devices for secure communications applications based on two identical chaotic lasers. Inclusion of a tailored photonic crystal fiber as active medium improves considerably the security of the device because it allows customization of the mode transversal profile, very influential on the laser dynamics and virtually impossible to be cloned by undesired listeners. The laser design has been facilitated by the combination of characterization procedures and models developed by us, which allow prediction of the most suitable laser features (losses, length of active fiber, etc.) to a given purpose (in our case, a laser that emits chaotically for a wide assortment of pump modulation conditions). The chaotic signals obtained have been characterized by means of topological analysis techniques. The underlying chaotic attractors found present topological structures belonging to classes of which very scarce experimental results have been reported. This fact is interesting from the point of view of the study of nonlinear systems and, besides, it is promising for secure communications: the stranger the signals, the more difficult for an eavesdropper to synthesize another system with similar dynamics.

  6. Clinical application of erbium:YAG laser in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Isao; Aoki, Akira; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Various lasers have been introduced for the treatment of oral diseases and their applications in dental clinics have become a topic of much interest among practitioners. Technological advances and improvements have increased the choices of the available laser systems for oral use. Among them, a recently developed erbium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser system possesses suitable characteristics for oral soft and hard tissue ablation. Due to its high absorption in water, an effective ablation with a very thin surface interaction occurs on the irradiated tissues without any major thermal damage to the irradiated and surrounding tissues. In the field of periodontics, the application of Er:YAG laser for periodontal hard tissue has begun with studies from Japanese and German researchers. Several in vitro and clinical studies have already demonstrated an effective application of the Er:YAG laser for calculus removal and decontamination of the diseased root surface in periodontal non-surgical and surgical procedures. However, further studies are required to better understand the various effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on biological tissues for its safe and effective application during periodontal and implant therapy. Randomized controlled clinical trials and more basic studies have to be encouraged and performed to confirm the status of Er:YAG laser treatment as an adjunct or alternative to conventional mechanical periodontal therapy. In this paper, the advantages and current clinical applications of this laser in periodontics and implant dentistry are summarized based on current scientific evidence.

  7. Assignments of the Raman modes of monoclinic erbium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, D.; Wu, P. Zhang, S. P.; Liang, L.; Yang, F.; Pei, Y. L.; Chen, S.

    2013-11-21

    As a heavy rare earth oxide, erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has many attractive properties. Monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} has useful properties not found in stable cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, such as unique optical properties and high radiation damage tolerance. In this study, cubic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with mixed phases were prepared. The Raman scattering spectra of these coatings were investigated by using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer equipped with 325, 473, 514, 532, 633, and 784 nm lasers. A total of 17 first-order Raman modes of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were identified and assigned. The modes at 83, 112, 152, 170, 278, 290, 409, 446, 478, 521, 603, and 622 cm{sup −1} are of A{sub g} symmetry, whereas modes at 71, 98, 333, 409, 446, and 468 cm{sup −1} are of B{sub g} symmetry. This research provides basic data necessary for the characterization of monoclinic Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} by Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Refractive index of erbium doped GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Alajlouni, S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.; Zavada, J. M.

    2014-08-25

    GaN is an excellent host for erbium (Er) to provide optical emission in the technologically important as well as eye-safe 1540 nm wavelength window. Er doped GaN (GaN:Er) epilayers were synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates using metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing a pulsed growth scheme, the crystalline quality of GaN:Er epilayers was significantly improved over those obtained by conventional growth method of continuous flow of reaction precursors. X-ray diffraction rocking curve linewidths of less than 300 arc sec were achieved for the GaN (0002) diffraction peak, which is comparable to the typical results of undoped high quality GaN epilayers and represents a major improvement over previously reported results for GaN:Er. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the refractive index of the GaN:Er epilayers in the 1540 nm wavelength window and a linear dependence on Er concentration was found. The observed refractive index increase with Er incorporation and the improved crystalline quality of the GaN:Er epilayers indicate that low loss GaN:Er optical waveguiding structures are feasible.

  9. Ablation characteristics of quantum square pulse mode dental erbium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Suhovršnik, Tomaž; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-01-01

    Erbium lasers are by now an accepted tool for performing ablative medical procedures, especially when minimal invasiveness is desired. Ideally, a minimally invasive laser cutting procedure should be fast and precise, and with minimal pain and thermal side effects. All these characteristics are significantly influenced by laser pulse duration, albeit not in the same manner. For example, high cutting efficacy and low heat deposition are characteristics of short pulses, while vibrations and ejected debris screening are less pronounced at longer pulse durations. We report on a study of ablation characteristics on dental enamel and cementum, of a chopped-pulse Er:YAG [quantum square pulse (QSP)] mode, which was designed to reduce debris screening during an ablation process. It is shown that in comparison to other studied standard Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser pulse duration modes, the QSP mode exhibits the highest ablation drilling efficacy with lowest heat deposition and reduced vibrations, demonstrating that debris screening has a considerable influence on the ablation process. By measuring single-pulse ablation depths, we also show that tissue desiccation during the consecutive delivery of laser pulses leads to a significant reduction of the intrinsic ablation efficacy that cannot be fully restored under clinical settings by rehydrating the tooth using an external water spray.

  10. Advanced experiments with an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo V. S.; Marques, Manuel B.; Rosa, Carla C.

    2014-07-01

    This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

  11. Low-temperature growth of silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shengurov, D. V.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Denisov, S. A.; Shengurov, V. G.; Stepikhova, M. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2013-03-15

    The fabrication technology and properties of light-emitting Si structures codoped with erbium and oxygen are reported. The layers are deposited onto (100) Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using an Er-doped silicon sublimation source. The partial pressure of the oxygen-containing gases in the growth chamber of the MBE facility before layer growth is lower than 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} Torr. The oxygen and erbium concentrations in the Si layers grown at 450 Degree-Sign C is {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The silicon epitaxial layers codoped with erbium and oxygen have high crystal quality and yield effective photoluminescence and electroluminescence signals with the dominant optically active Er-1 center forming upon postgrowth annealing at a temperature of 800 Degree-Sign C.

  12. Design of mid-infrared amplifiers based on fiber taper coupling to erbium-doped microspherical resonator.

    PubMed

    Mescia, Luciano; Bia, Pietro; De Sario, Marco; Di Tommaso, Annalisa; Prudenzano, Francesco

    2012-03-26

    A dedicated 3D numerical model based on coupled mode theory and solving the rate equations has been developed to analyse, design and optimize an optical amplifier obtained by using a tapered fiber and a Er³⁺-doped chalcogenide microsphere. The simulation model takes into account the main transitions among the erbium energy levels, the amplified spontaneous emission and the most important secondary transitions pertaining to the ion-ion interactions. The taper angle of the optical fiber and the fiber-microsphere gap have been designed to efficiently inject into the microsphere both the pump and the signal beams and to improve their spatial overlapping with the rare earth doped region. In order to reduce the computational time, a detailed investigation of the amplifier performance has been carried out by changing the number of sectors in which the doped area is partitioned. The simulation results highlight that this scheme could be useful to develop high efficiency and compact mid-infrared amplifiers.

  13. Comprehensive study of the conditions for obtaining hydrogenated amorphous erbium- and oxygen-doped silicon suboxide films, a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , by dc-magnetron deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Undalov, Yu. K. Terukov, E. I.; Gusev, O. B.; Lebedev, V. M.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2011-12-15

    The results of a comprehensive study of the conditions for growing a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket films are presented. The effect of the composition of various erbium-containing targets (a-SiO{sub x}:H , ErO{sub x}, Er{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Er), substrate temperature, and annealing temperatures in argon, air, and under conditions of SiH{sub 4} + Ar + O{sub 2} plasma glow is studied. In order to obtain a-SiO{sub x}:H Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Er,O Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket films with the highest photoluminescence intensity of erbium ions, it is recommended for the following technological conditions to be used: the substrate holder should be insulated from dc-magnetron electrodes and the working gas mixture should include silane, argon, and oxygen. Single-crystal silicon and metal erbium should be used as targets. The erbium target should be placed only in the Si-target erosion zone.

  14. Erbium oxide thin films on Si(100) obtained by laser ablation and electron beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queralt, X.; Ferrater, C.; Sánchez, F.; Aguiar, R.; Palau, J.; Varela, M.

    1995-02-01

    Erbium oxide thin films have been obtained by laser ablation and electron beam evaporation techniques on Si(100) substrates. The samples were grown under different conditions of oxygen atmosphere and substrate temperature without any oxidation process after deposition. The crystal structure has been studied by X-ray diffraction. Films obtained by laser ablation are highly textured in the [ hhh] direction, although this depends on the conditions of oxygen pressure and substrate temperature. In order to study the depth composition profile of the thin films and the interdiffusion of erbium metal and oxygen towards the silicon substrates, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses have been carried out.

  15. Pump absorption and temperature distribution in erbium-doped double-clad fluoride-glass fibers.

    PubMed

    Gorjan, Martin; Marincek, Marko; Copic, Martin

    2009-10-26

    We investigate diode pump absorption and temperature distribution in three erbium-doped double-clad fluoride fibers. Absorption is measured via fluorescence intensity and temperature distribution is measured with thermal imaging. Ray-tracing calculations of absorption and heat-equation modeling of temperature distribution are also conducted. We found excellent agreement between measurements and calculations for all fibers. Results indicate that erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers have already reached maximum output powers allowed under natural convection cooling, with fiber end being the most critical. We propose cooling and fiber design optimizations that may allow an order-of-magnitude further power-scaling.

  16. Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber laser based on multimode interference effect.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Guzman, A; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Selvas-Aguilar, R; May-Arrioja, D A; Estudillo-Ayala, J; LiKamWa, P

    2010-01-18

    A widely tunable erbium-doped all-fiber laser has been demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on a novel tunable filter using multimode interference effects (MMI). The tunable MMI filter was applied to fabricate a tunable erbium-doped fiber laser via a standard ring cavity. A tuning range of 60 nm was obtained, ranging from 1549 nm to 1609 nm, with a signal to noise ratio of 40 dB. The tunable MMI filter mechanism is very simple and inexpensive, but also quite efficient as a wavelength tunable filter.

  17. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  18. Multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on random distributed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyang; Dong, Xinyong; Jiang, Meng; Yu, Xia; Shum, Ping

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on random distributed feedback via a 20-km-long single-mode fiber together with a Sagnac loop mirror. The number of channels can be modulated from 2 to 8 at room temperature when the pump power is changed from 30 to 180 mW, indicating that wavelength competition caused by homogenous gain broadening of erbium-doped fiber is significantly suppressed. Other advantages of the laser include low cost, low-threshold pump power and simple fabrication.

  19. Manufacture and properties of erythromycin beads containing neutron-activated erbium-171

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, A.F.; Digenis, G.A.; Sandefer, E.P.; Ghebre-Sellassie, I.; Iyer, U.; Nesbitt, R.U.; Scheinthal, B.M. )

    1990-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.

  20. Optical Properties of Potassium Erbium Double Tungstate KEr(WO4)2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11914 TITLE: Optical Properties of Potassium Erbium Double Tungstate ...potassium erbium double tungstate KEr(W0 4)2 T.Zayarnyukl*, M.T.Borowiecl*, V.DyakonovŖ, H.Szymczak’, E.Zubov Ŗ, A.Pavlyuk3, M.Barafiski’ 1Institute of... tungstate KEr(WO4)2 are reported. The single crystals of KEr(WO4)2 were grown by Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) technique. They belong to the chain

  1. Ablation of brain by erbium laser: study of dynamic behavior and tissue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Sozzi, C.; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca; Bottiroli, Giovanni F.; Croce, Anna C.

    1994-02-01

    In this work two aspects of the ablation of brain by Erbium laser have been mainly addressed: the time evolution of the phenomenon and the damages, both thermal and mechanical, produced in the tissues. The time resolved images acquired during the laser interaction revealed that deep lacerations develop in the tissue due to a mechanical stress. The damages have been evaluated by studying the changes in the autofluorescence emission properties and the reduction in enzymatic activities (NADH Oxidase and ATPase). The results obtained in this study indicate that the thermal alterations resulting from the exposure to Erbium laser are limited, whereas the mechanical damages can be very pronounced.

  2. EPR and optical studies of erbium-doped beta-PbF2 single-crystals and nanocrystals in transparent glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Dantelle, Géraldine; Mortier, Michel; Vivien, Daniel

    2007-11-07

    beta-PbF(2) single-crystals and nanocrystals in transparent glass-ceramics doped with ErF(3) have been synthesized and studied with two complementary techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical spectroscopy (absorption, selective excitation, fluorescence). A comparative study shows that, in both single-crystals and glass-ceramics, Er(3+) ions occupy the same types of sites, leading to similar optical properties. An EPR investigation demonstrates that, in these materials, part of the Er(3+) ions occupy cubic symmetry sites. For these ions, we determine the crystal field splitting of the ground state (4)I(15/2) and the symmetry of its sublevels. We also provide evidence for the presence of another type of Er(3+) ions, not detectable by EPR but evidenced by optical spectroscopy. We clearly show that this Er(3+), which gives rise to up-conversion luminescence, corresponds to clusters associating Er(3+) and F(-) ions. In the single-crystals, the proportion of these two types of erbium ions is estimated. It strongly depends on the doping rate of the beta-PbF(2) crystals.

  3. Novel Thermal Effects at the First Order Magnetic Phase Transition in Erbium, and a Comparison with Dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Fort, D.

    1997-06-01

    In low temperature studies of ultrapure erbium (and dysprosium) we have discovered unusual thermal effects at the first order magnetic transformation of erbium ({congruent} 19K). These include (1)superheating (i.e., {ital the metal is colder after heat has been added to it than before the heat pulse }), (2)supercooling, and (3)the existence of metastable intermediate phases during this phase transformation in erbium (four on heating and two on cooling). In comparison, dysprosium exhibits both superheating and supercooling, but no intermediate metastable phases are observed. Furthermore, none of these effects are observed in less pure metals. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Ultrasonic approach for formation of erbium oxide nanoparticles with variable geometries.

    PubMed

    Radziuk, Darya; Skirtach, André; Gessner, Andre; Kumke, Michael U; Zhang, Wei; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2011-12-06

    Ultrasound (20 kHz, 29 W·cm(-2)) is employed to form three types of erbium oxide nanoparticles in the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a template material in water. The nanoparticles are (i) erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles deposited on the external walls of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Er(2)O(3) in the bulk with (ii) hexagonal and (iii) spherical geometries. Each type of ultrasonically formed nanoparticle reveals Er(3+) photoluminescence from crystal lattice. The main advantage of the erbium carboxioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes is the electromagnetic emission in the visible region, which is new and not examined up to the present date. On the other hand, the photoluminescence of hexagonal erbium oxide nanoparticles is long-lived (μs) and enables the higher energy transition ((4)S(3/2)-(4)I(15/2)), which is not observed for spherical nanoparticles. Our work is unique because it combines for the first time spectroscopy of Er(3+) electronic transitions in the host crystal lattices of nanoparticles with the geometry established by ultrasound in aqueous solution of carbon nanotubes employed as a template material. The work can be of great interest for "green" chemistry synthesis of photoluminescent nanoparticles in water.

  5. Microwave photonic filter using multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with double-Brillouin-frequency shift

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, K. K.; Yeo, K. S.; Shee, Y. G.

    2015-04-24

    A microwave photonic filter based on double-Brillouin-frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is experimentally demonstrated. The filter selectivity can be easily adjusted by tuning and apodizing the optical taps generated from the multiwavelength BEFL. Reconfiguration of different frequency responses are demonstrated.

  6. Argon laser versus erbium:YAG laser in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkader, Mona; Alashry, Shereen Ezzelregal

    2014-01-01

    Background Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common of the xanthomas with asymptomatic, symmetrical, bilateral, soft, yellow, polygonal papules around the eyelids. Though it is a benign lesion causing no functional disturbance, it is esthetically annoying. The surgical laser offers an extremely elegant and powerful solution to this problem. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of erbium:YAG and argon lasers in the treatment of xanthelasma lesions. Patients and methods Forty patients were included in the study. Twenty patients (15 patients were bilateral with 30 eyes either in the upper or lower lid and 5 patients were unilateral) were treated with erbium:YAG laser. Another 20 patients (10 patients were bilateral with 20 eyes and 10 patients were unilateral) were treated with argon laser. Results In the majority of treated patients (either treated with erbium:YAG or argon laser), xanthelasma lesions were completely disappeared or significantly decreased in size. Two patients showed pigmentary changes in the form of hypopigmentation with erbium:YAG laser (one case), another case showed hyperpigmentation. No intraoperative complication was observed. No significant scar or recurrence was observed. Conclusion Argon laser in xanthelasma is an easy, effective, and safe method of treatment for small lesions and YAG laser is more better for large lesions than argon laser. PMID:25892929

  7. Erbium:YAG laser contouring of the nasal dorsum: a preliminary investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mai T.; Majaron, Boris; Pandoh, Nidhi S.; Wong, Brian J.

    2001-05-01

    In conventional aesthetic rhinoplasty operations, manual or powered rasps are used to reduce the osseo-cartilagenous nasal dorsum. This tactile method requires palpation of the instrument and the dorsum during surgery to estimate the degree of volume reduction, and often requires forceful manipulation of the dorsum which may illicit pain during surgery and contribute to post-operative edema and echymosis. In this preliminary study, we investigated the use of the Erbium:YAG laser ((lambda) equals294 micrometers ) to reduce bone and cartilage using ex-vivo porcine nasal dorsum and human cadaveric tissues. The short pulsed length and high absorption of this laser in biologic tissues results in minimization of thermal injury which are ideal for non- contact optical contouring of osseous and cartilagenous tissues in the face. Two Erbium:YAG lasers were used to ablate fresh porcine nasal bone and compared for their use. One Erbium:YAG laser, the Fidelis Laser, Fontana Medical Lasers, Ljubljana, Slovenija with variable pulse repetition rates (2 to 50 Hz), pulse energy (80 to 1000 mJ), and pulse duration (100, 300, 750 and 1000 microsecond(s) ) was used and compared to the Ultrafine Erbium:YAG laser, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara California, with variable pulse repetition rate (2 to 10 Hz), pulse energy (2-16 J/cm2), and spot diameter (2-6 mm). Only laser parameters approximating the conditions for thermal confinement were evaluated.

  8. Optical Parametric Oscillator on GaSe Crystal Pumped by a 3 Micron Erbium Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    based on Ho3+ and Er - doped crystals have been developed. Holmium lasers have wavelengths near 2 micron and Erbium lasers near 3 micron. Both...experience in working with GaSe OPO pumped by Q-switched pulses shows that pumping of GaSe by 2 |im laser radiation (a holmium laser) is also possible

  9. Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 μm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Tao, Lili; Chan, Clarence Yat-Yin; Tsang, Yuen Hong; Jin, Wei; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2013-07-01

    Intense near-infrared emission located at 1.23 μm wavelength originating from the erbium (Er(3+)):(4)S3/2→(4)I11/2 transition is observed in Er(3+)-doped fluorotellurite glasses. This emission is mainly contributed by the relatively low phonon energy of the fluorotellurite glass host (~776 cm(-1)). Judd-Ofelt analysis indicates a strong asymmetry and covalent environment between Er(3+) ions and ligands in the host matrix. The emission cross-section was calculated to be 2.85×10(-21) cm(2) by the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation, and the population inversion is realized according to a simplified evaluation. The results suggest that the fluorotellurite glass system could be a promising candidate for the development of optical amplifiers and lasers operating at the relatively unexplored 1.2 μm wavelength region.

  10. Intense near-infrared emission of 1.23 μm in erbium-doped low-phonon-energy fluorotellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Tao, Lili; Yat-Yin Chan, Clarence; Tsang, Yuen Hong; Jin, Wei; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2013-07-01

    Intense near-infrared emission located at 1.23 μm wavelength originating from the erbium (Er3+):4S3/2 → 4I11/2 transition is observed in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses. This emission is mainly contributed by the relatively low phonon energy of the fluorotellurite glass host (˜776 cm-1). Judd-Ofelt analysis indicates a strong asymmetry and covalent environment between Er3+ ions and ligands in the host matrix. The emission cross-section was calculated to be 2.85 × 10-21 cm2 by the Füchtbauer-Ladenburg equation, and the population inversion is realized according to a simplified evaluation. The results suggest that the fluorotellurite glass system could be a promising candidate for the development of optical amplifiers and lasers operating at the relatively unexplored 1.2 μm wavelength region.

  11. Study of a Tm:Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Raman shifted erbium-doped fibre laser at 1678 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kalachev, Yu L; Mikhailov, Viktor A; Podreshetnikov, V V; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2010-06-23

    The lasing, spectral, and luminescent characteristics of a Tm:Ho:YLF laser pumped by a Raman shifted erbium-doped fibre laser ({lambda} = 1678 nm) into the 1682-nm absorption line of the {sup 3}H{sub 6}-{sup 3}F{sub 4} transition of the Tm{sup 3+} ion are studied. It is shown that the total (with respect to the absorbed power) and slope laser efficiencies upon pulsed pumping reach 46% and 50%, respectively. The output radiation power in the cw regime is 400 mW. The comparative measurements showed that pumping by a fibre laser at 1678 nm is more efficient than diode pumping at 792 nm. (lasers)

  12. Electroluminescence from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with erbium-doped CeO{sub 2} films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Canxing; Gao, Yuhan; Ma, Xiangyang Yang, Deren

    2015-04-06

    We report on erbium (Er)-related electroluminescence (EL) in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) from metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Er-doped CeO{sub 2} (CeO{sub 2}:Er) films on silicon. The onset voltage of such EL under either forward or reverse bias is smaller than 10 V. Moreover, the EL quenching can be avoidable for the CeO{sub 2}:Er-based MOS devices. Analysis on the current-voltage characteristic of the device indicates that the electron transportation at the EL-enabling voltages under either forward or reverse bias is dominated by trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Namely, electrons in n{sup +}-Si/ITO can tunnel into the conduction band of CeO{sub 2} host via defect states at sufficiently high forward/reverse bias voltages. Then, a fraction of such electrons are accelerated by electric field to become hot electrons, which impact-excite the Er{sup 3+} ions, thus leading to characteristic emissions. It is believed that this work has laid the foundation for developing viable silicon-based emitters using CeO{sub 2}:Er films.

  13. Development of yttrium alloy ion source and its application in nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Neumann, Ronna; Mazarov, Swetlana; Bushev, Pavel; Wieck, Andreas D.; Mazarov, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We present a new YAuSi Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source (LMAIS) generating focused ion beams of yttrium ions, and its prospective applications for nanofabrication, sample preparation, lithographic and implantation processes. Working parameters of the AuSiY LMAIS are similar to other gold-silicon based LMAIS. We found anomalously high emission current of triple charged yttrium ions. Influence of yttrium implantation on optical qualities of the implanted ion-ensembles is shown in luminescence of co-implanted Erbium ions.

  14. Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

  15. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  16. Photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped fibre by femtosecond pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung Chang, Sheng; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Chu-En; Chou, Fong-In; Tai, Chao-Yi; Chen, Chii-Chang

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a photo-annealing effect of gamma-irradiated erbium-doped glass fibre is investigated. Two commercial erbium-doped fibres (EDFs) with different doping concentrations were sealed inside a chamber with a cobalt-60 gamma source for 6 h to give an accumulated dose of 3.18 kGy. A tunable femtosecond pulsed laser with a repetition rate of 80 MHz was then used to pump EDF to generate 1550 nm fluorescence and green up-conversion emission, resulting in the annealing effect of the gamma-irradiated EDF. The fluorescence power of gamma-irradiated EDF with a moderate level of doping was almost returned to the initial state by photo-annealing, unlike that of a heavily doped EDF. This finding may facilitate the development of anti-irradiated superfluorescence fibre source for space navigation.

  17. Erbium-doped spiral amplifiers with 20 dB of net gain on silicon.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Córdova, Sergio A; Dijkstra, Meindert; Bernhardi, Edward H; Ay, Feridun; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Herek, Jennifer L; García-Blanco, Sonia M; Pollnau, Markus

    2014-10-20

    Spiral-waveguide amplifiers in erbium-doped aluminum oxide on a silicon wafer are fabricated and characterized. Spirals of several lengths and four different erbium concentrations are studied experimentally and theoretically. A maximum internal net gain of 20 dB in the small-signal-gain regime is measured at the peak emission wavelength of 1532 nm for two sample configurations with waveguide lengths of 12.9 cm and 24.4 cm and concentrations of 1.92 × 10(20) cm(-3) and 0.95 × 10(20) cm(-3), respectively. The noise figures of these samples are reported. Gain saturation as a result of increasing signal power and the temperature dependence of gain are studied.

  18. Invariant bandwidth of erbium in ZnO-PbO-tellurite glasses: Local probe/model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar; Bhatnagar, Anil K.

    2014-04-24

    A series of [(70TeO{sub 2}−(30−x)ZnO−xPbO){sub 0.99}−(Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.01}; where x = 5, 10, 15 and 20] tellurite glasses, were prepared using the melt quenching technique. Crucial emission bandwidth of erbium at 1.5 μm has been derived and found to be the same for all the glasses, irrespective of PbO content. This identical bandwidth in all tellurite glasses is attributed to the presence of erbium in tellurium rich disordered environments. This result has been complemented through XANES spectra and the obtained invariant first shell of 6.5 oxygen atoms, confirm the unchanged environment in these glasses for all PbO content.

  19. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

  20. Healing of bone in the rat following surgery with the erbium-YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh; El Montaser, Monsour A.; Sloan, Philip

    1996-12-01

    Background and objectives: the aim of this study was to examine the pattern of healing in rat calvarial defects prepared with the erbium-YAG laser, using the 'guided tissue regeneration' technique. Materials and method: PTFE membranes were placed over lased skull defects, and the skin wounds sutured. Rats were killed humanely at intervals after surgery, and the skulls processed for paraffin wax histology. A further group of mature rats were also killed humanely and the calvariae removed. Slots were prepared using the erbium-YAG laser and immediately examined under the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) in hydrated conditions, which avoided drying artifacts. Results: An amorphous, mineral-rich carbon layer surrounds the lased bone defect, which in the in vivo experiments was seen as a basophilic zone which was resistant to resorption.

  1. Reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber-amplifier-based fiber loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hongyun; Liu, Songhao; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier based on fiber loop mirror, which reflects the backward ASE to the EDF as a secondary pumping source. A gain of 30 dB increased 6 dB compared to the forward end-pumped EDFA has been achieved in the wavelength region from 1570 to 1603 nm. In order to improve the gain and NF further, we constructed a novel configuration for reflection L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier via inserting a 980 nm LD in the input part. Adjusting the ratio of power of the two LDs, the gain and NF are greatly improved in different degree in the region from 1565 to 1615 nm. Compared to the configuration pumped by only 1480 nm LD with given power, the gain enhanced 1.5-9.9 dB and the NF decreases 1.3-9.4 dB.

  2. Electric and magnetic long-range interactions between two Erbium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Lepers, Maxence; Aymar, Mireille; Luc, Eliane; Wyart, Jean-Francois

    2011-05-01

    Lanthanides have recently attracted a lot of interest in the field of laser-cooling and trapping. Their high magnetic dipole moment - seven Bohr magnetons for Erbium - opens new prospects for the precise control of their mutual interactions. As they are also characterized by a high orbital angular momentum, they also interact through their permanent electric quadrupole moments. We have studied the combined effects of the magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole interaction as functions of the distance R between two atoms of Erbium. Although they scale as R-3 and R-5 respectively, we have shown that the two types of interaction can compete with each other in a wide range of interatomic distances. This is due to the weakness of magnetic forces compared to electric ones. For example, we observe long-range wells, which could drastically influence the collisional properties of the atoms. Our calculations can be generalized to other lanthanides, like Dysprosium.

  3. Biomimetic synthesis of chiral erbium-doped silver/peptide/silica core-shell nanoparticles (ESPN).

    PubMed

    Mantion, Alexandre; Graf, Philipp; Florea, Ileana; Haase, Andrea; Thünemann, Andreas F; Mašić, Admir; Ersen, Ovidiu; Rabu, Pierre; Meier, Wolfgang; Luch, Andreas; Taubert, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Peptide-modified silver nanoparticles have been coated with an erbium-doped silica layer using a method inspired by silica biomineralization. Electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm the presence of an Ag/peptide core and silica shell. The erbium is present as small Er(2)O(3) particles in and on the silica shell. Raman, IR, UV-Vis, and circular dichroism spectroscopies show that the peptide is still present after shell formation and the nanoparticles conserve a chiral plasmon resonance. Magnetic measurements find a paramagnetic behavior. In vitro tests using a macrophage cell line model show that the resulting multicomponent nanoparticles have a low toxicity for macrophages, even on partial dissolution of the silica shell.

  4. Opportunities for Low Cost Processing of Erbium 8-Quinolinolates for Active Integrated Photonic Applications.

    PubMed

    Penna, Stefano; Mattiello, Leonardo; Di Bartolo, Silvia; Pizzoleo, Angelo; Attanasio, Vincenzo; Beleffi, Giorgio Maria Tosi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Erbium-doped organic emitters are promising active materials for Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) due to their emission shown at 1550 nm combined to the potential low cost processing. In particular, Erbium Quinoline (ErQ) gained a strong interest in the last decade for the good emission efficiency. This contribution reports the results derived from the application of ErQ as active core material within a buried optical waveguide, following the development of a purposed optical process to control the refractive index of ErQ and then to define a patterned structure from a single thin film deposition step. The reported results show the potential of Er-doped organic materials for low cost processing and application to planar PICs.

  5. Erbium-doped all-fiber laser at 2.94 microm.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Dominic; Bernier, Martin; Caron, Nicolas; Vallée, Réal

    2009-11-01

    We report what we believe is the first demonstration of laser emission at 2.94 microm in an erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser. The low-loss all-fiber Fabry-Perot laser cavity was formed by two fiber Bragg gratings of 90% and 15% reflectivities in a 6.6 m, 7 mol.% Er-doped double-clad fiber. A maximum cw output power of 5.2 W was measured, which is to our knowledge the highest reported to date for a diode-pumped laser at this wavelength. A coreless endcap was fused at the output fiber end to prevent its deterioration at high output powers. Our results, including the slope efficiency of 26.6% with respect to launched pump power, suggest that erbium could be a better alternative than holmium in the search for a replacement for the flashlamp-pumped Er:YAG at 2.94 microm.

  6. Cavity-dumped 2.70 microm erbium laser using optomechanical shutter.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Ho; Won Lee, Dong; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Yeong Sik

    2008-12-01

    A cavity-dumped 2.70 microm erbium laser with a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) shutter was investigated and compared with a Q-switched erbium laser using the FTIR shutter. The Q-switched and the cavity-dumped 2.70 microm laser outputs were obtained with a dichroic coated mirror with high reflectance at 2.70 microm and high transmittance at 2.79 microm. For the Q-switched operation, a maximum peak power of 33.5 kW was achieved, and its pulse width was 1.3 mus. For the cavity-dumped operation, the laser pulse energy was optimized by changing the switching time of the FTIR shutter. When the pulse width is reduced to 210 ns, the peak power increases to 154 kW.

  7. Tunable multiwavelength L-band Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser utilizing passive EDF absorber section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mashhadani, T. F.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Abdullah, F.; Abass, A. K.; Rawi, N. I. M.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate a simple tunable L-band multiwavelength Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser that utilizes a short passive erbium doped fiber (PEDF) as an absorber section. The impact of including the PEDF absorber section on the laser tunability is investigated. The proposed laser structure exhibits a wide tuning range of 24.4 nm (from 1583.5 nm to 1607.9 nm) at 1480 nm pump and Brillouin pump powers of 100 and 4 mW, respectively. This tuning range represents a 31% increase compared with a laser without a PEDF absorber section. The average number of stable output channels produced within this wavelength range is 16 channels with a spacing of 0.089 nm.

  8. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  9. C-band wavelength-swept single-longitudinalmode erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2008-09-01

    A wavelength-swept single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser capable of operating at sweeping frequency in the order of a few kHz is designed and demonstrated by using a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter and a Sagnac loop incorporated with a 3.5-meter unpumped erbium-doped fiber. The laser operates in continuous-wave (CW) mode and can sweep approximately 45 nm over the entire C-band (1520nm-1570nm) window with linewidth less than 0.7 kHz. The optimum wavelength sweeping frequency in order to achieve the best output power stability was found to be approximately20Hz with sweeping-induced power fluctuation of only 0.1%.

  10. Simulation of an erbium-doped chalcogenide micro-disk mid-infrared laser source.

    PubMed

    Al Tal, Faleh; Dimas, Clara; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C

    2011-06-20

    The feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) lasing in erbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) micro-disks was examined. Lasing condition at 4.5 µm signal using 800 nm pump source was simulated using rate equations, mode propagation and transfer matrix formulation. Cavity quality (Q) factors of 1.48 × 10(4) and 1.53 × 10(6) were assumed at the pump and signal wavelengths, respectively, based on state-of-the-art chalcogenide micro-disk resonator parameters. With an 80 µm disk diameter and an active erbium concentration of 2.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), lasing was shown to be possible with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.26 × 10(-4) and associated pump threshold of 0.5 mW.

  11. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Bidirectional optical bistability in a dual-pumped erbium doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Lai, W J; Shum, P; Binh, L

    2004-11-15

    We investigate bidirectional optical wave propagations in a dual-pumped erbium doped fiber ring laser without isolator, and observe optical bistability behaviors. Consequently, we propose and construct a NOLM-NALM fiber ring laser to demonstrate and exploit this bidirectional optical bistability phenomenon in optical switching by introducing two tunable variable ratio couplers in the system. Numerical analyses based on the proposed laser structure have also been demonstrated corroborated with the experimental results.

  13. Active waveguides written by femtosecond laser irradiation in an erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, T Toney; Della Valle, G; Osellame, R; Jose, G; Chiodo, N; Jha, A; Laporta, P

    2008-09-15

    We report on fs-laser micromachining of active waveguides in a new erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass by means of a compact cavity-dumped Yb-based writing system. The spectroscopic properties of the glass were investigated, and the fs-laser written waveguides were characterized in terms of passive as well as active performance. In particular, internal gain was demonstrated in the whole C+L band of optical communications (1530- 1610 nm).

  14. Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S; Wise, Frank

    2014-02-15

    We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair.

  15. Dynamic Fano-like resonances in erbium-doped whispering-gallery-mode microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Fuchuan; Peng, Bo; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya Yang, Lan; Long, Gui Lu

    2014-09-08

    We report Fano-like asymmetric resonances modulated by optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated from erbium-doped silica. A time-dependent gain profile leads to dynamically varying sharp asymmetric resonances with features similar to Fano resonances. Depending on the scan speed of the frequency of the probe laser and the pump-probe power ratio, transmission spectra of the active microcavity exhibit a resonance dip, a resonance peak, or a Fano-like resonance.

  16. Observation of central wavelength dynamics in erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiwen; Lei, Dajun; Wen, Shuangchun; Fu, Xiquan; Zhang, Jinggui; Shao, Yufeng; Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Dianyuan

    2008-05-12

    We report on the observation of central wavelength dynamics in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser by using the nonlinear polarization rotating technique. The evolution of central wavelength with the laser operation state was observed experimentally. Numerical simulations confirmed the experimental observation and further demonstrated that the dynamics of wavelength evolution is due to the combined effects of fiber birefringence, fiber nonlinearity, and cavity filter.

  17. Erbium: YAG Laser Incision of Urethral Structures for Treatment of Urinary Incontinence After Prostate Cancer Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    devoted to in vivo animal studies comparing the wound healingafter Erbium and Holmium laser incision of the urethra and bladder neck. Further...urinary incontinence. Conventional treatments for stricture (including balloon dilation, cold knife incision, electrocautery, and Holmium laser incision...urethral tissue with a thermal damage zone of only 10-20 µm. This thermal damage zone was much less than that of the Holmium laser which produced 300 µm of

  18. Evaluation of an erbium modulator in x-ray scatter correction using primary modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hewei; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    A primary modulator made of erbium is evaluated in X-ray scatter correction using primary modulation. Our early studies have shown that erbium is the optimal modulator material for an X-ray cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system operated at 120 kVp, exhibiting minimum beam hardening which otherwise weakens the modulator's ability to separate scatter from primary. In this work, the accuracy of scatter correction is compared for two copper modulators (105 and 210 μm of thickness) and one erbium modulator (25.4 μm of thickness) with the same modulation frequencies. The variations in the effective transmission factors of these three modulators as functions of object filtrations are first measured to show the magnitudes of beam hardening caused by the modulators themselves. Their scatter correction performances are then tested using a Catphan©600 phantom on our tabletop CBCT system. With and without 300 μm of copper in the beam, the measured variations for these three modulators are 4.3%, 7.8%, and 0.9%, respectively. Using the 105- and 210-μm copper modulators, our scatter correction method reduces the average CT number error from 327.3 Hounsfield units (HU) to 19.4 and 20.9 HU in the selected regions of interest, and enhances the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from 10.7 to 16.5 and 15.9, respectively. With the 25.4-μm erbium modulator, the CT number error is markedly reduced to 2.8 HU and the CNR is further increased to 17.4.

  19. Upconversion photon quantification of holmium and erbium ions in waveguide-adaptive germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. L.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Wang, Z. Q.; Lin, H.

    2017-02-01

    Visible upconversion photons have been quantified precisely in Ho3+/Yb3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ doped waveguide-adaptive aluminum germanate (NMAG) glasses, and effective red and green upconversion emissions generated from Ho3+ and Er3+ were illustrated in contrast. The emission photon numbers are identified as a positive correlation with the laser power densities, and stronger dominance of red emission in the Ho3+/Yb3+ doped NMAG glasses and more effectiveness of photon generation in Er3+/Yb3+ doped case were proved. When the power density is 1227 W/cm2, the absolute quantum yields for red and green (660 and 548 nm) upconversion fluorescences are derived to be 2.41 × 10-5 and 0.17 × 10-5 in Ho3+/Yb3+ doped NMAG glasses, and the ones (665 and 548 nm) in Er3+/Yb3+ doped NMAG glasses are 4.26 × 10-5 and 1.44 × 10-5. The macroscopic quantization of red and green upconversion emissions in Ho3+/Yb3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ doped waveguide-adaptive NMAG glasses provides the original referenced data for developing upconversion waveguide-typed irradiation light sources.

  20. Erbium-formate frameworks templated by diammonium cations: syntheses, structures, structural transition and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengyuan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Bingwu; Wang, Zheming; Gao, Song; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2011-06-14

    Two structurally different Er-formate frameworks, one NaCl-like [dmenH(2)][Er(HCOO)(4)](2) (1) and the other pillared-layer type [tmenH(2)][Er(HCOO)(4)](2) (2), were obtained when templated by the corresponding protonated N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (dmenH(2)) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl- ethylenediamine (tmenH(2)). The shape and size of the template cations dictate the different coordination geometries of erbium and consequently the framework topologies, though erbium adopts eight coordination in the two compounds. In the NaCl-like structure of 1, erbium is coordinated by eight anti-anti bridging formates in a square antiprism, while in the pillared-layer structure of 2, it is coordinated by six anti-anti bridging formates and one chelating formate in a pentagonal bipyramid. 2 exhibits a structural phase transition around -70 °C which is related to the disorder-order transition of the template cation. Both compounds behave as paramagnets between 2 and 300 K. However, they display field-dependent ac-susceptibilities with complicated field-induced magnetic relaxation processes, and the major slow ones probably results from spin-lattice relaxation.

  1. Investigation on the effect of EDFA location in ring cavity Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2009-07-06

    We have investigated the characteristics of Brillouin-Erbium fiber laser (BEFL) with variation of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) locations in a ring cavity configuration. Three possible locations of the EDFA in the laser cavity have been studied. The experimental results show that the location of EDFA plays vital role in determining the output power and the tuning range. Besides the Erbium gain, Brillouin gain also contributes to the performance of the BEFL. By placing the EDFA next to the Brillouin gain medium (dispersion compensating fiber), the Brillouin pump signal is amplified thereby generating higher intensities of Brillouin Stokes line. This efficient process suppresses the free running self-lasing cavity modes from oscillating in cavity as a result of higher Stokes laser power and thus provide a wider tuning range. At the injected Brillouin pump power of 1.6 mW and the maximum 1480 nm pump power of 135 mW, the maximum Stokes laser power of 25.1 mW was measured and a tuning range of 50 nm without any self-lasing cavity modes was obtained.

  2. Specific features of the mechanisms of excitation of erbium photoluminescence in epitaxial Si:Er/Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonskiy, A. N. Andreev, B. A.; Krasilnikova, L. V.; Kryzhkov, D. I.; Kuznetsov, V. P.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2010-11-15

    The excitation spectra and kinetics of erbium photoluminescence and silicon interband photoluminescence in Si:Er/Si structures under conditions of high-intensity pulse optical excitation are studied. It is shown that, in the interband photoluminescence spectra of the Si:Er/Si structures, both the luminescence of free excitons and the emission associated with the electron-hole plasma can be observed, depending on the excitation power and wavelength. It is found that the formation of a peak in the erbium photoluminescence excitation spectra at high pumping powers correlates with the Mott transition from the exciton gas to the electron-hole plasma. It is demonstrated that, in the Si:Er/Si structures, the characteristic rise times of erbium photoluminescence substantially depend on the concentration of charge carriers.

  3. Design of erbium doped double clad ZBLAN Fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladeji, A.; Phillips, A.; Lamrini, S.; Scholle, K.; Fuhrberg, P.; Seddon, A. B.; Benson, T. M.; Sujecki, S.

    2015-06-01

    A high powered octagonal double clad ZBLAN (33 μm/330 μm, NA=0.13) glass fibre for mid-infrared light generation is studied using a one dimensional rate equation model. The fibre laser design employs the concept of cascade lasing and includes up-conversion phenomena. The results obtained demonstrate that efficient cascade lasing may be achieved in practice without the need for fibre grating fabrication, as a sufficient level of feedback for laser action is provided by Fresnel light reflection at ZBLAN glass fibre air interfaces. Further enhancement of the laser efficiency can be achieved by terminating one of the fibre ends with a mirror. Simulation results show that the laser operation with 20 W of pump power at 0.98 μm wavelength can be achieved at 2.75 μm operating wavelength with Er3+ ion concentrations of 60,000 ppm.

  4. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  5. Luminescent amino-functionalized or erbium-doped silica spheres for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Enrichi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the morphological and optical properties of luminescent silica spheres, discussing applications in bioimaging and biosensing. The spheres are obtained by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and can be synthesized by following either a basic or an acidic route. Luminescence emission is induced after incorporation of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) during synthesis or by introducing an optically active element, such as erbium, or other rare-earth elements. The luminescence properties of APTES-functionalized silica spheres have been investigated and optimized by varying the annealing temperature. On the other hand, erbium incorporation in silica spheres was also studied and the corresponding Er(3+) luminescence emission at 1.54 microm was evaluated for intensity and lifetime. The basic pH environment in the synthesis allows good control of the size of the spheres (approximately 200 nm in diameter), whereas the acidic route produces a wide dispersion in particle size (200-5000 nm). Both these approaches, however, can be followed to obtain an efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission for the APTES-functionalized silica spheres after 400-600 degrees C thermal treatment. If Er(NO(3))(3) is introduced in the basic solution, a rapid precipitation of Er(OH)(3) occurs, but erbium can be easily and efficiently incorporated in the acid-synthesized spheres, showing high PL intensity at 1.54 microm with lifetime of 3.9 ms. Finally, I discuss perspectives for the applications of these luminescent silica spheres, in particular as biological markers for bioimaging and biosensing.

  6. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  7. New Types of Rogue Wave in an Erbium-Doped Fibre System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, Kuppuswamy

    2012-03-01

    We report a novel and new types of rogue optical wave propagation in an erbium-doped fibre system governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger and the Maxwell--Bloch equation. The breather solutions of the three fields, namely field envelop, polarization and population inversion, are used to generate the rogue waves. For the first time, we report bright and, in particular, dark rogue waves in a coupled nonlinear optical systems. The distinction between bright and dark rogue waves are discussed in detail through figures. The rogue wave formation in our model can also be connected to the generation of supercontinuum generation in resonant optical fibre.

  8. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment.

  9. Tunable multiwavelength narrow linewidth Brillouin erbium fiber laser based on Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yanfu; Liu, Meng; Yao, Yong

    2016-06-01

    A Rayleigh backscattering (RBS) assisted Brillouin erbium fiber laser scheme with multiwavelength narrow linewidth output is proposed and investigated experimentally. The stimulated Brillouin scattering and RBS take place at two conventional single-mode fibers (SMFs), respectively. RBS is used as a mechanism to compress the linewidth of each Stokes component, and it has been realized and maximized in conventional SMF by optimizing injection power of Stokes light through adjusting variable optical attenuator (VOA). By adjusting VOA attenuation, the laser can obtain three wavelengths output with 3 dB linewidth less than 2 KHz for each wavelength, or six wavelengths output with 3 dB linewidth less than 5 KHz.

  10. Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

    2014-03-01

    Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

  11. Investigation of dynamic properties of erbium fiber laser for ultrasonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-04-07

    Dynamic properties of an erbium fiber laser (EFL) is researched and demonstrated for ultrasonic sensing in this research. The EFL has ring cavity incorporated with a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. A numerical model is used to analyze its dynamic responses to quasi-static change, continuous wave and burst wave. The ultrasonic behavior of the EFL resembles the forced single degree of freedom vibration with damping. Corresponding experimental results fit the simulation results well, showing some interesting ultrasonic properties of this EFL. After certain data process method, this EFL can be used in practical ultrasonic nondestructive testing.

  12. Latest results and future perspectives on Few-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinel, Jean-Baptiste; Le Cocq, Guillaume; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Quiquempois, Yves; Bigot, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Space division multiplexing has generated a lot of interest during the last five years and motivated intensive work on multicore and few-mode fibers. Whereas some concepts like multimode waveguides and mode coupling have been re-visited for mode-division multiplexing, some new problems have been addressed, as is the case for multimode optical amplifiers. This paper recalls the general context of the work on Few-Mode Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers and reviews the main results reported so far on this topic.

  13. Tradeoff on gain-flatness and gain-stabilization of erbium doped fiber amplifier with FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyin, Garidi; OuYang, Yunlun; Ma, Yu; Chang, Jinlong; Liu, Changxing; Yang, Jiuru

    2014-07-01

    It is a challenge to get gain-stabilization and gain-flatness of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in C-band, simultaneously. In this article, we establish a gain-clamped EDFA model based uniform fiber grating-pair and optimize the reflectivity of grating by the designed targets. The tradeoff between stabilization and flatness can be obtained when an ideal reflectivity is adopted. The numerical results show that the gain-stabilization is controlled in +/-0.1dB and gain-flatness is less than +/-1.41dB in the range from 1535nm to 1565nm.

  14. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Kazakov, Valery A.; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2015-02-01

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  15. Pulpal response to cavity preparation by an erbium, chromium:YSGG laser-powered hydrokinetic system.

    PubMed

    Eversole, L R; Rizoiu, I; Kimmel, A I

    1997-08-01

    The near red-pulsed erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser hydrokinetic system, or Er,Cr:YSGG laser HKS, is effective in cutting dental hard tissues. In this longitudinal study, the authors studied the continuously erupting open-apex incisors of New Zealand albino rabbits and the constricted apex teeth of beagles to determine the effects of HKS-produced lesions at various energy levels and of preparations produced by a tapered fissure bur on dental pulp. No pulpal inflammatory responses could be identified either immediately or 30 days after surgery in HKS preparations that removed enamel and dentin without pulp exposure.

  16. Generating few-cycle pulses for nanoscale photoemission easily with an erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sebastian; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate a simple setup capable of generating four-cycle pulses at a center wavelength of 1700 nm for nanoscale photoemission. Pulses from an amplified erbium-doped fiber laser are spectrally broadened by propagation through a highly non-linear fiber. Subsequently, we exploit dispersion in two different types of glass to compress the pulses. The pulse length is estimated by measuring an interferometric autocorrelation trace and comparing it to a numerical simulation. We demonstrate highly non-linear photoemission of electrons from a nanometric tungsten tip in a hitherto unexplored pulse parameter range.

  17. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Chengbo E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Arif, Raz; Lobach, Anatoly S.; Spitsina, Nataliya G.; Khudyakov, Dmitry V.; Kazakov, Valery A.

    2015-02-09

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  18. Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, H; Shahi, S; Harun, S W

    2009-01-05

    A multi-wavelength laser comb is demonstrated using a nonlinear effect in a backward pumped Bismuth-based Erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) for the first time. It uses a ring cavity resonator scheme containing a 215 cm long highly nonlinear Bi-EDF, optical isolators, polarisation controller and 10 dB output coupler. The laser generates more than 10 lines of optical comb with a line spacing of approximately 0.41 nm at 1615.5 nm region using 146 mW of 1480 nm pump power.

  19. Erbium Doping Effects on the Conduction Band Edge in Germanium Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, Robert W.; Willey, Trevor M.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Terminello, Louis J.; Van Buren, T.

    2011-05-16

    We have produced erbium-doped germanium nanocrystals (NCs) using a new two cell physical vapor deposition system. Using element specific x-ray techniques (absorption and photoemission), we are able to probe the chemical environment of Er in the Ge NCs. Evidence for the optically active Er3+ state is seen at low Er concentrations, with a disruption of NC formation at high Er concentrations. The x-ray absorption measurements suggest that the Er occupies lattice sites near the surface of the NC. Analysis of the quantum confinement effect with Er doping suggests that the native quantum properties of the Ge NC are maintained at low Er concentrations.

  20. Effects of erbium doping of indium tin oxide electrode in resistive random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chih-Yang; Jin, Fu-Yuan; Chen, Min-Chen; Huang, Hui-Chun; Lo, Ikai; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Sze, Simon M.

    2016-03-01

    Identical insulators and bottom electrodes were fabricated and capped by an indium tin oxide (ITO) film, either undoped or doped with erbium (Er), as a top electrode. This distinctive top electrode dramatically altered the resistive random access memory (RRAM) characteristics, for example, lowering the operation current and enlarging the memory window. In addition, the RESET voltage increased, whereas the SET voltage remained almost the same. A conduction model of Er-doped ITO is proposed through current-voltage (I-V) measurement and current fitting to explain the resistance switching mechanism of Er-doped ITO RRAM and is confirmed by material analysis and reliability tests.

  1. Preparative scale separation of thulium from erbium for neutron capture cross section measurements - Part: Preparative scale

    DOE PAGES

    Birnbaum, Eva R.; Bene, Balazs J.; Taylor, Wayne Allen; ...

    2016-06-04

    Here, this paper discusses the development of a separation method for isolation of Tm-171 from a half-gram irradiated erbium target in support of stockpile stewardship and astrophysics research. The developed procedure is based on cation exchange separation using alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as chelating agent. It is able to achieve either a decontamination factor of 1.4(4) × 105 with 68.9(3) % recovery or 95.4(3) % recovery with a decontamination factor of 5.82(7) × 103 for a mock 500-mg target containing 17.9 mg thulium in a single pass-through at room temperature.

  2. Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with multiple linear cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Ren, Wenhua; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-12-01

    An improved stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with multiple-linear short cavity is demonstrated. Three fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with the same parameters directly written in a homemade photosensitive EDF (PEDF) in a single step are used as the wavelength-selective and mode-selective component in a 14 cm long linear laser cavity. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is over 50 dB. The amplitude variation in nearly one hour is less than 0.3 dB. The proposed laser has the advantages such as simple fabrication and compact all-optical fiber configuration.

  3. S- plus C-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier in parallel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chien-Chung; Chi, Sien

    2004-11-01

    A new S- plus C-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) module with coupled structure over 96 nm gain bandwidth of 1480-1576 nm has been experimentally investigated and demonstrated. For this proposed configuration, 30 and 36.2 dB peak gains are observed at 1506 and 1532 nm, respectively, when the input signal power is -25 dBm. In addition, this proposed amplifier module also can provide a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source from 1480 to 1572 nm.

  4. Two simultaneous operating regimes in an Erbium doped-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demori, C. B. S.; Thoroh de Souza, E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an Erbium doped fiber laser operating simultaneously in two distinct regimes, active mode-locking and continuous wave (CW), by introducing two arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) paired inside ring cavity. Active phase modulator operating at 10 GHz and a single mode fiber were introduced between the two AWGs to allow the two operating regimes. The mode-locking was able to generated pulses with 30 ps simultaneous with the CW line. Both lasers could be tunable independent and simultaneously from 1530 nm to 1565 nm.

  5. Microprocessing of human hard tooth tissues surface by mid-infrared erbium lasers radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.

    2015-03-01

    A new method of hard tooth tissues laser treatment is described. The method consists in formation of regular microdefects on tissue surface by mid-infrared erbium laser radiation with propagation ratio M2<2 (Er-laser microprocessing). Proposed method was used for preparation of hard tooth tissues surface before filling for improvement of bond strength between tissues surface and restorative materials, microleakage reduction between tissues surface and restorative materials, and for caries prevention as a result of increasing microhardness and acid resistance of tooth enamel.

  6. Optical and spectroscopic study of erbium doped calcium borotellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. F.; Lima, A. M. O.; Sandrini, M.; Medina, A. N.; Steimacher, A.; Pedrochi, F.; Barboza, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 10CaF2 - (29.9-0.4x)CaO - (60-0.6x)B2O3 - xTeO2 - 0,1Er2O3 (x = 10, 16, 22, 30 and 50 mol %) glasses were synthesized, and their optical and spectroscopic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction, density, glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tx), refraction index, luminescence, radiative lifetime and optical absorption measurements were carried out. Molar volume (Vm), thermal stability (Tx-Tg), electronic polarizability (αm), optical bang gap energy (Eg) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters Ωt (2,4,6) were also calculated. The results are discussed in terms of tellurium oxide content. The increase of TeO2 in the glasses composition increases density, refractive index and electronic polarizability. The optical band gap energy decreases varying from 3.37 to 2.71 eV for the glasses with 10 and 50 mol% of TeO2, respectively. The optical absorption coefficient spectra show characteristic bands of Er3+ ions. Furthermore, these spectra in NIR region show a decrease of hydroxyl groups as a function of TeO2 addition. Luminescence intensity and radiative lifetimes at 1530 nm show an increasing with the TeO2 content. The JO parameters of Er:CaBTeX glasses follow the trend Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6 and the quality factor values (Ω4/Ω6) were between 1.37 and 3.07. By comparing the measured lifetime with the calculated radiative decay time, quantum efficiency was calculated. The luminescence emission intensity at 1530 nm decreases with the increase of temperature. The lifetime values show a slight trend to decrease with the temperature increase, from 300 to 420 K, for all the samples.

  7. High-sensitivity sucrose erbium-doped fiber ring laser sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleel, Wurood Abdulkhaleq; Al-Janabi, Abdul Hadi M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate a high-sensitivity sucrose sensor based on a standard erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating a coreless fiber (CF). A single-mode-coreless-single mode (SCS) structure with a very low insertion loss has been constructed. The SCS fiber structure performed dual function as an intracavity fiber filter and/or a sensing element. The gain medium (erbium-doped fiber) is pumped by a 975-nm wavelength fiber coupled diode laser. Laser emission around 1537 nm with -2 dBm peak output power is obtained when a CF in SCS structure has a diameter of 125 μm. The 3-dB line-width of the laser is <0.14 nm, which is beneficial to high precision sensing. The sucrose concentration varied from 0% to 60%, and the relationship between the lasing wavelength and the sucrose concentration exhibited linear behavior (R2=0.996), with sensitivity of 0.16 nm/% was obtained. To improve the measurement sensitivity, the CF is etched by hydrofluoric acid. The splice joint of etched CF with SMF is a taper, which improves its sensitivity to sucrose changes. An average sensitivity of 0.57 nm/% and a high signal-to-noise ratio of 50 dB make the proposed sensor suitable for potential applications.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of high order Stokes lines in Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yijun; Yao, Yong Xiao, Jun Jun; Yang, Yanfu; Tian, Jiajun; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-28

    We experimentally study the dependences of high-order Stokes lines on the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pump power P{sub EDF}, the Brillouin pump (BP) power P{sub BP}, and its working wavelength in a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium-doped fiber laser (MBEFL). By using the rate and propagation equations, and the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering, we establish a lumped model to describe the MBEFL. Numerical simulations show that the number of Stokes lines can be increased by decreasing the spacing between the BP wavelength and the EDF peak gain or P{sub BP} as long as it is larger than a critical value P{sub BP}{sup (cr)}=1.7 mW, or by increasing P{sub EDF} without reaching a saturation value P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}=250 mW. However, when P{sub BP} and P{sub EDF} are varied beyond P{sub BP}{sup (cr)} and P{sub EDF}{sup (cr)}, respectively, the number of Stokes lines is reduced, accompanied by some self-lasing cavity modes. These results by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental observations from the MBEFL.

  9. Treatment of dilated pores with 1410-nm fractional erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong-Hye; Chang, Ka-Yeun; Lee, Sang-Jun; Song, Kye-Yong; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Heon

    2015-04-01

    Dilated pores can be an early sign of skin aging and are a significant cosmetic concern. The 1410-nm wavelength is optimal for superficial dermal treatments up to 650 μm deep. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the fractional erbium-doped fiber 1410-nm laser in the treatment of dilated pores. Fifteen patients with dilated facial pores underwent three laser treatments at 3-week intervals. Posttreatment skin responses and side effects were assessed at treatment and follow-up visits by study physicians. Clinical effectiveness of treatment was assessed by both study physicians and patients 3 months after the final laser treatment using a quartile grading scale. Histological examination was performed using biopsy samples taken at baseline (pretreatment) and 3 months after the last treatment. This study showed that greater than 51 % improvement in dilated pores was demonstrated in 14 of 15 patients after three sessions of laser treatments. Improvements in skin texture, tone, and smoothness were reported in all patients. Treatment was well tolerated in all patients, with no unanticipated side effects. This study demonstrates that the 1410-nm fractional erbium fiber laser is effective and safe for treatment of dilated facial pores in Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV.

  10. Acid synthesis of luminescent amine-functionalized or erbium-doped silica spheres for biological applications.

    PubMed

    Enrichi, Francesco; Trave, Enrico; Bersani, Marco

    2008-03-01

    In this work we discuss and investigate the morphological and optical properties of luminescent silica spheres which can have interesting applications in bioimaging and biosensing. The spheres are synthesized following an acid route by the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS) and can be functionalized by incorporation of aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) during the synthesis, inducing a significant luminescence that can be attributed to a recombination mechanism from localized organic defects related to -NH(2) groups. It is shown that the acid synthesis route produces very regular spherical particles, but their diameter vary in the range of 200-4,000 nm. The luminescence properties have been investigated and optimized by variation of the annealing temperature for the functionalized spheres, obtaining the most efficient PL emission after a thermal treatment of 1 h at 600 degrees C in air. Moreover, the possibility to introduce rare earths like erbium in the spheres was also studied and the corresponding Er(3) luminescence emission at 1.53 microm is reported in terms of intensity and lifetime, pointing out that erbium can be easily and efficiently incorporated during the acid synthesis giving high PL intensity with a good lifetime of 3.9 ms.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of high order Stokes lines in Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yijun; Yao, Yong; Xiao, Jun Jun; Yang, Yanfu; Tian, Jiajun; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally study the dependences of high-order Stokes lines on the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pump power PEDF, the Brillouin pump (BP) power PBP, and its working wavelength in a multiwavelength Brillouin erbium-doped fiber laser (MBEFL). By using the rate and propagation equations, and the coupled wave equations of stimulated Brillouin scattering, we establish a lumped model to describe the MBEFL. Numerical simulations show that the number of Stokes lines can be increased by decreasing the spacing between the BP wavelength and the EDF peak gain or PBP as long as it is larger than a critical value PBP(cr)=1.7 mW, or by increasing PEDF without reaching a saturation value PEDF(cr)=250 mW. However, when PBP and PEDF are varied beyond PBP(cr) and PEDF(cr), respectively, the number of Stokes lines is reduced, accompanied by some self-lasing cavity modes. These results by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental observations from the MBEFL.

  12. Surface-Directed Synthesis of Erbium-Doped Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles within Organosilane Zeptoliter Containers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an approach to synthesize rare earth oxide nanoparticles using high temperature without aggregation of the nanoparticles. The dispersity of the nanoparticles is controlled at the nanoscale by using small organosilane molds as reaction containers. Zeptoliter reaction vessels prepared from organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used for the surface-directed synthesis of rare earth oxide (REO) nanoparticles. Nanopores of octadecyltrichlorosilane were prepared on Si(111) using particle lithography with immersion steps. The nanopores were filled with a precursor solution of erbium and yttrium salts to confine the crystallization step to occur within individual zeptoliter-sized organosilane reaction vessels. Areas between the nanopores were separated by a matrix film of octadecyltrichlorosilane. With heating, the organosilane template was removed by calcination to generate a surface array of erbium-doped yttria nanoparticles. Nanoparticles synthesized by the surface-directed approach retain the periodic arrangement of the nanopores formed from mesoparticle masks. While bulk rare earth oxides can be readily prepared by solid state methods at high temperature (>900 °C), approaches for preparing REO nanoparticles are limited. Conventional wet chemistry methods are limited to low temperatures according to the boiling points of the solvents used for synthesis. To achieve crystallinity of REO nanoparticles requires steps for high-temperature processing of samples, which can cause self-aggregation and dispersity in sample diameters. The facile steps for particle lithography address the problems of aggregation and the requirement for high-temperature synthesis. PMID:25163977

  13. Surface-directed synthesis of erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles within organosilane zeptoliter containers.

    PubMed

    Englade-Franklin, Lauren E; Morrison, Gregory; Verberne-Sutton, Susan D; Francis, Asenath L; Chan, Julia Y; Garno, Jayne C

    2014-09-24

    We introduce an approach to synthesize rare earth oxide nanoparticles using high temperature without aggregation of the nanoparticles. The dispersity of the nanoparticles is controlled at the nanoscale by using small organosilane molds as reaction containers. Zeptoliter reaction vessels prepared from organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used for the surface-directed synthesis of rare earth oxide (REO) nanoparticles. Nanopores of octadecyltrichlorosilane were prepared on Si(111) using particle lithography with immersion steps. The nanopores were filled with a precursor solution of erbium and yttrium salts to confine the crystallization step to occur within individual zeptoliter-sized organosilane reaction vessels. Areas between the nanopores were separated by a matrix film of octadecyltrichlorosilane. With heating, the organosilane template was removed by calcination to generate a surface array of erbium-doped yttria nanoparticles. Nanoparticles synthesized by the surface-directed approach retain the periodic arrangement of the nanopores formed from mesoparticle masks. While bulk rare earth oxides can be readily prepared by solid state methods at high temperature (>900 °C), approaches for preparing REO nanoparticles are limited. Conventional wet chemistry methods are limited to low temperatures according to the boiling points of the solvents used for synthesis. To achieve crystallinity of REO nanoparticles requires steps for high-temperature processing of samples, which can cause self-aggregation and dispersity in sample diameters. The facile steps for particle lithography address the problems of aggregation and the requirement for high-temperature synthesis.

  14. 91-km attenuation-free transmission with low noise accumulation by use of distributed erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Christian; Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn H.; Varming, Poul; Newhouse, Mark A.; Antos, A. J.

    1995-06-01

    Transparency of a 91-km distributed erbium-doped fiber is achieved with 0.46 mW / km of pump power at a signal power of -12dBm . The accumulation of amplifier noise is measured to be smaller than the minimum noise accumulation that can be achieved in a 91-km link with two lumped amplifiers separated by 45 km.

  15. The efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne scars or acne.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang-Ting; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Ya-Ni; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jin-Hui; Wu, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Xiao-Fei; Shan, Gui-Qiu; Cheng, Biao

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne or acne scars. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy was used for the treatment of 22 patients, including 16 patients who suffered from facial acne scars and 6 patients who suffered from acne scars concomitant with acne. Whole blood (40 ml) was collected from each patient, and following differential centrifugation, PRP was harvested. After using an erbium fractional laser, we applied PRP to the entire face of every patient. Digital photos were taken before and after the treatment for evaluation by dermatologists and the patients rated the efficacy on a 5-point scale. The erythema was moderate or mild, while its total duration was <3 days; after receiving the treatment three times, 90.9% of the patients showed an improvement of >50%, and 91% of the patients were satisfied; no acne inflammation was observed after treatment. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy is an effective and safe approach for treating acne scars or acne, with minimal side-effects, and it simultaneously enhanced the recovery of laser-damaged skin.

  16. Characterization of the coherence properties of a multilongitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Vincent; Piche, Michel; Babin, Francois; Schinn, Gregory W.

    2000-12-01

    The coherence properties of a widely tunable, multilongitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser are investigated by means of an extremely long-arm scanning Michelson interferometer. A return of the coherence is observed at each integer multiple ofthe cavity length with a slowly decaying envelope over several kilometres.

  17. Gain enhanced L-band optical fiber amplifiers and tunable fiber lasers with erbium-doped fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Leblanc, M.; Schinn, G. W.

    2003-02-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of gain enhanced L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) by either recycling residual ASE or using a second C-band wavelength pump laser and on the experimental demonstration of L-band tunable erbium-doped fiber ring lasers. We observed that by reflecting ASE from pumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) the L-band EDFA gain can be enhanced of 2-15 dB depending on amplifier designs. We also studied wavelength and power dependence of second pump laser on the gain enhanced L-band EDFA and found that an optimum wavelength for second pump laser was between 1550 and 1560 nm. Finally, a L-band tunable erbium-doped fiber laser was also constructed in which lazing oscillation was observed closed to 1624 nm by recycling residual ASE. This L-band tunable laser has a line-width of about 300 MHz, an output power of 1 mW, and a signal to source spontaneous emission ratio of 60 dB.

  18. The origin of the double-triangle hysteresis loops in ErFeO3 near the low temperature erbium ordering transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbal, L. T.; Bazaliy, Ya. B.; Kakazei, G. N.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic properties of an orthoferrite ErFeO3 are determined by the iron and the rare-earth magnetic ions. Interactions between magnetic sub-systems of ErFeO3 lead to a sequence of orientation phase transitions observed in this material. In this work hysteresis loops in single crystal ErFeO3 samples were studied below the spin-rotation transition region, T < 80 K. Above and around the compensation point Tcomp= 46 K the hysteresis loops are rectangular, with the coercive force diverging at Tcomp. As the temperature is lowered towards the erbium ordering transition TN2= 4.1 K, the shape of the loops experiences a dramatic change. At 20 K the loops develop triangular ``tails.'' At 10 K the triangles become prominent while the central rectangular part near H = 0 collapses. A double-loop hysteresis pattern with two triangular loops emerges. We explain this behavior by a domain wall motion reversal mechanism with negligible pinning of the walls in the sample. The transition from the rectangular to the double-triangle loops is due to the competition between the energy barrier of wall nucleation and the demagnetization energy gain achieved by placing the wall inside the sample. Our model explains well the correlation of the loop's shapes and sizes with the total magnetization of ErFeO3.

  19. N-order bright and dark rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K; Porseizan, K

    2012-12-01

    The rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system governed by a coupled system of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the Maxwell-Bloch equation (NLS-MB equations) are given explicitly by a Taylor series expansion about the breather solutions of the normalized slowly varying amplitude of the complex field envelope E, polarization p, and population inversion η. The n-order breather solutions of the three fields are constructed using a Darboux transformation (DT) by assuming periodic seed solutions. Moreover, the n-order rogue waves are given by determinant forms with n+3 free parameters. Furthermore, the possible connection between our rouge waves and the generation of supercontinuum generation is discussed.

  20. N-order bright and dark rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingsong; Xu, Shuwei; Porseizan, K.

    2012-12-01

    The rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system governed by a coupled system of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the Maxwell-Bloch equation (NLS-MB equations) are given explicitly by a Taylor series expansion about the breather solutions of the normalized slowly varying amplitude of the complex field envelope E, polarization p, and population inversion η. The n-order breather solutions of the three fields are constructed using a Darboux transformation (DT) by assuming periodic seed solutions. Moreover, the n-order rogue waves are given by determinant forms with n+3 free parameters. Furthermore, the possible connection between our rouge waves and the generation of supercontinuum generation is discussed.

  1. Submicrojoule femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser for the generation of dispersive waves at submicron wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, L V; Koptev, M Yu; Anashkina, E A; Muravyev, S V; Andrianov, A V; Kim, A V; Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E; Ignat'ev, A D; Lipatov, D S; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-05-30

    We have demonstrated a femtosecond erbium-doped fibre laser system built in the master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) approach. The final amplifier stage utilises a specially designed large mode area active fibre cladding-pumped by multimode laser diodes. The system is capable of generating submicrojoule pulses at a wavelength near 1.6 μm. We have obtained 530-fs pulses with an energy of 400 nJ. The output of the system can be converted to wavelengths shorter than 1 μm through the generation of dispersive waves in passive nonlinear fibre. We have obtained ultra-short 7-nJ pulses with a spectral width of ∼100 nm and a centre wavelength of 0.9 μm, which can be used as a seed signal in parametric amplifiers in designing petawatt laser systems. (lasers)

  2. Strong Photoluminescence from the Reaction Product of Erbium and Oxygen on Silicon Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suezawa, Masashi; Sumino, Koji

    1994-12-01

    Photoluminescence spectra around 1.5 µm from silicon (Si) doped with erbium (Er) by various methods have been studied. The doping methods that were adopted were annealing after painting of Er(NO3)3 solutions and evaporation of Er on Si surface, and annealing of specimens in the Er vapour. Strong photoluminescence similar to that of Er2O3 was observed only from the damaged surface of n-type Czochralski-grown Si when Er was doped with the last method. Analysis of the damaged surface by the method of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) showed that Er2O3 was generated on the surface of n-type Cz.Si.

  3. Numerical Modelling of C-Band Bismuth-Based Erbium Doped Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvizi, R.; Ali, N. M.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.

    2011-03-01

    Multi A performance of the Bismuth-based Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) is experimentally and theoretically investigated using 1480 nm forward pumping scheme. In the theoretical analysis, the rate and power propagation equations are solved to examine the effect of fiber length on the bandwidth of the gain spectra. At C-band region, the small signal gain of the Bi-EDFA varies from 20 to 23 dB with 49 cm long Bi-EDF and 150 mW of 1480 nm pump power. It is shown that the calculated gain and noise figure are in good agreement with the experimental results, verifying the feasibility of our theoretical model. However, the experimental result shows a relatively lower gain and higher noise figure compared to the theoretical result due to the spurious reflection in the cavity and insertion loss of the Bi-EDF which was neglected in our theoretical model.

  4. Ultrafast pulse generation in a mode-locked Erbium chip waveguide laser.

    PubMed

    Khurmi, Champak; Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Zhang, Wen Qi; Afshar V, Shahraam; Chen, George; Genest, Jérôme; Monro, Tanya M; Lancaster, David G

    2016-11-28

    We report mode-locked ~1550 nm output of transform-limited ~180 fs pulses from a large mode-area (diameter ~50 μm) guided-wave erbium fluorozirconate glass laser. The passively mode-locked oscillator generates pulses with 25 nm bandwidth at 156 MHz repetition rate and peak-power of 260 W. Scalability to higher repetition rate is demonstrated by transform-limited 410 fs pulse output at 1.3 GHz. To understand the origins of the broad spectral output, the laser cavity is simulated by using a numerical solution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This paper reports the widest bandwidth and shortest pulses achieved from an ultra-fast laser inscribed waveguide laser.

  5. Microstructural, electrical and magnetic properties of erbium doped zinc oxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, P. P.; Kennedy, J.; Ruck, B. J.; Rubanov, S.

    2015-11-01

    We report the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of erbium (Er) implanted zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals. Rutherford backscattering and channeling results showed that the majority of Er atoms resided in Zn substitutional lattice sites. Annealing led to a fraction of Er atoms moving into random interstitial sites. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that doped Er atoms were located in the near-surface region, consistent with the results obtained from DYNAMIC-TRIM calculations. A non-linear Hall-voltage was observed near 100 K, which is associated with inhomogeneous transport in the material. The Er implanted and annealed ZnO exhibited persistent magnetic ordering to room temperature. Ferromagnetism was likely from the presence of intrinsic defects in ZnO, which mediates the magnetic ordering in Er implanted and annealed ZnO. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Broadband supercontinuum generation with femtosecond pulse width in erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifin, S. N. M.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Hassan, S. N. M.; Munajat, Y.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate two flat plateaus and the low-noise spectrum of supercontinuum generation (SCG) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), injected by an amplified picosecond pulse seed of a carbon nanotube-based passively mode locked erbium-doped fiber laser. A broad spectrum of width approximately 1090 nm spanning the range 1130-2220 nm is obtained and the pulse width is compressed to the shorter duration of 70 fs. Variations of the injected peak power up to 33.78 kW into the HNLF are compared and the broad spectrum SCG profiles slightly expand for each of the injected peak powers. This straightforward configuration of SCG offers low output power and ultra-narrow femtosecond pulse width. The results facilitate the development of all fiber time-domain spectroscopy systems based on the photoconductive antenna technique.

  7. Laser à fibre dopée Erbium multi-longueurs d'ondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabourdy, D.; Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.; Kermène, V.; Vampouille, M.; Barthélémy, A.

    2004-11-01

    Nous rapportons l'émission simultanée de plusieurs longueurs d'onde dans un même laser à fibre dopée Erbium. Cette émission est réalisée en associant dans la cavité un modulateur acousto-optique permettant de s'affranchir de l'élargissement homogène de la bande de gain et un interféromètre du type Mach-Zehnder qui réalise un filtrage spectral tout en combinant les rayonnements émis par les deux amplificateurs à fibre de l'interféromètre actif.

  8. Simplified ASE correction algorithm for variable gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Sheih, Shou-Jong; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate a simplified algorithm to manifest the contribution of amplified spontaneous emission in variable gain-flattened Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The detected signal power at the input and output ports of EDFA comprises of both signal and noise. The generated amplified spontaneous emission from EDFA cannot be differentiated by photodetector which leads to underestimation of the targeted gain value. This gain penalty must be taken into consideration in order to obtain the accurate gain level. By taking the average gain penalty within the dynamic gain range, the targeted output power is set higher than the desired level. Thus, the errors are significantly reduced to less than 0.15 dB from 15 dB to 30 dB desired gain values.

  9. Transition energy and half-life determinations of photonuclear reaction products of erbium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Tuncay; Akkoyun, Serkan; Uruk, Serhat; Dapo, Haris; Dulger, Fatih; Boztosun, Ismail

    Photon induced reactions are called as photonuclear reactions and used in many research fields of nuclear science and nuclear physics. The photonuclear data are used in many nuclear applications such as radiation shielding and protection, radiation transport analyses, reactor core design, activation analysis and nuclear waste transmutation. In the past, many studies had been devoted to extract photonuclear data covering the isotopic chart. However, there is still lack of existing data. In the present study, we have performed photonuclear reactions on erbium (Er) target by using clinical electron linear accelerators (cLINAC). By using measured residual activity of photonuclear reaction products of Er nuclei, we have determined the half-life of 161Er nucleus and transition energies of 161Ho nucleus. Also, new measurements on gamma-ray energies of the products have been determined accurately. Furthermore, this study shows that repurposed cLINAC with limited budget can contribute to the global nuclear science knowledge.

  10. Stability of short, single-mode erbium-doped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Svalgaard, M; Gilbert, S L

    1997-07-20

    We conducted a detailed study of the stability of short, erbium-doped fiber lasers fabricated with two UV-induced Bragg gratings written into the doped fiber. We find that the relative intensity noise of single-longitudinal-mode fiber grating lasers is approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of a single-frequency 1.523-mum helium-neon laser. The frequency noise spectrum contains few resonances, none of which exceeds 0.6 kHz/Hz(1/2) rms; the integrated rms frequency noise from 50 Hz to 63 kHz is 36 kHz. We also demonstrate a simple method for monitoring the laser power and number of oscillating modes during laser fabrication.

  11. A Continuously Tunable Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser Using Tunable Fibre Bragg Gratings and Optical Circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Yan, Feng-Ping; Li, Jian; Wang, Lin; Ning, Ti-Gang; Gong, Tao-Rong; Jian, Shui-Sheng

    2008-12-01

    A continuously tunable erbium-doped fibre laser (TEDFL) based on tunable fibre Bragger grating (TFBG) and a three-port optical circulator (OC) is proposed and demonstrated. The OC acts as a 100%-reflective mirror. A strain-induced uniform fibre Bragger grating (FBG) which functions as a partial-reflecting mirror is implemented in the linear cavity. By applying axial strain onto the TFBG, a continuously tunable lasing output can be realized. The wavelength tuning range covers approximately 7.00nm in C band (from 1543.6161 to 1550.3307nm). The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is better than 50 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is less than 0.01 nm. Moreover, an array waveguide grating (AWG) is inserted into the cavity for wavelength preselecting, and a 50 km transmission experiment was performed using our TEDFL at a 10Gb/s modulation rate.

  12. Exploring Few- and Many-Body Dipolar Quantum Phenomena with Ultracold Erbium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlaino, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Given their strong magnetic moment and exotic electronic configuration, rare-earth atoms disclose a plethora of intriguing phenomena in ultracold quantum physics with dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we report on the first degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms, based on direct cooling of identical fermions via dipolar collisions. We reveal universal scattering laws between identical dipolar fermions close to zero temperature, and we demonstrate the long-standing prediction of a deformed Fermi surface in dipolar gas. Finally, we present the first experimental study of an extended Bose-Hubbard model using bosonic Er atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice and we report on the first observation of nearest-neighbor interactions.

  13. Preparative scale separation of thulium from erbium for neutron capture cross section measurements - Part: Preparative scale

    SciTech Connect

    Birnbaum, Eva R.; Bene, Balazs J.; Taylor, Wayne Allen; Sudowe, Ralf

    2016-06-04

    Here, this paper discusses the development of a separation method for isolation of Tm-171 from a half-gram irradiated erbium target in support of stockpile stewardship and astrophysics research. The developed procedure is based on cation exchange separation using alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid (α-HIBA) as chelating agent. It is able to achieve either a decontamination factor of 1.4(4) × 105 with 68.9(3) % recovery or 95.4(3) % recovery with a decontamination factor of 5.82(7) × 103 for a mock 500-mg target containing 17.9 mg thulium in a single pass-through at room temperature.

  14. Erbium-doped CW and Q-switched fiber ring laser with fiber grating Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Anting; Ming, Hai; Xie, Jianping; Xu, Lixin; Huang, Wencai; Lv, Liang; Chen, Xiyao; Li, Feng; Wu, Yunxia; Xing, Meishu

    2003-01-01

    The band-pass characteristic of fiber grating Michelson interferometer is analyzed, which acts as both band-pass filter and Q-switch. An erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on fiber grating Michelson interferometer is implemented for producing single longitudinal mode CW operation with 5 MHz spectral linewidth and up to 6 mW output power. In Q-switched operation, stable fiber laser output pulses with repetition rate of 800 Hz, pulse width of 0.6 ?s, average power of 1.8 mW and peak power of 3.4 W are demonstrated. The peak power and average power of the Q-switched pulses are varied with the repetitionrate.

  15. 70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjun; Pang, Lihui; Han, Hainian; Tian, Wenlong; Chen, Hao; Lei, Ming; Yan, Peiguang; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond optical pulses have applications in optical communication, astronomical frequency combs, and laser spectroscopy. Here, a hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with topological insulator (TI) is proposed, for the first time to our best knowledge. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method is employed to fabricate the fiber-taper TI saturable absorber (TISA). By virtue of the fiber-taper TISA, the hybrid EDF laser is passively mode-locked using the nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE), and emits 70 fs pulses at 1542 nm, whose 3 dB spectral width is 63 nm with a repetition rate and transfer efficiency of 95.4 MHz and 14.12%, respectively. Our experiments indicate that the proposed hybrid mode-locked EDF lasers have better performance to achieve shorter pulses with higher power and lower mode-locking threshold in the future. PMID:26813439

  16. Magnetic and structural phase transitions in erbium at low temperatures and high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Wenger, Lowell E.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2012-02-07

    Electrical resistance and crystal structure measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline erbium (Er) at temperatures down to 10 K and pressures up to 20 GPa. An abrupt change in the slope of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature below 84 K, which is associated with the c-axis modulated (CAM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Er moments. With increasing pressure the temperature of the resistance slope change and the corresponding AFM ordering temperature decrease until vanishing above 10.6 GPa. The disappearance of the slope change in the resistance occurs at similar pressures where the hcp structural phase of Er is transformed to a nine-layer {alpha}-Sm structural phase, as confirmed by our high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. These results suggest that the disappearance in the AFM ordering of Er moments is strongly correlated to the structural phase transition at high pressures and low temperatures.

  17. The first example of erbium triple-stranded helicates displaying SMM behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gorczyński, Adam; Kubicki, Maciej; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Pełka, Robert; Patroniak, Violetta; Podgajny, Robert

    2015-10-14

    A series of isostructural C3-symmetrical triple stranded dinuclear lanthanide [Ln2L3](NO3)3 molecules have been synthesized using subcomponent self-assembly of Ln(NO3)3 with 2-(methylhydrazino)benzimidazole and 4-tert-butyl-2,6-diformylphenol, where Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4), Tm (5), and Yb (6). The temperature dependent and field dependent magnetic properties of 1-6 were modeled using the van Vleck approximation including the crystal field term HCF, the super-exchange term HSE and the Zeeman term HZE. Ferromagnetic interactions were found in 1, 2, 4 and 6, while antiferromagnetic interactions were found in 3 and 5. The erbium analogue reveals field induced SMM behaviour.

  18. Stable and wavelength-tunable silicon-micro-ring-resonator based erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, L G; Yeh, C H; Wong, C Y; Chow, C W; Tseng, F G; Tsang, H K

    2013-02-11

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser. Here, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based silicon-micro-ring-resonator (SMRR) is used as the wavelength selective element inside the fiber ring cavity. A uniform period grating coupler (GC) is used to couple between the SMRR and single mode fiber (SMF) and serves also as a polarization dependent element in the cavity. The output lasing wavelength of the proposed fiber laser can be tuned at a tuning step of 2 nm (defined by the free spectral range (FSR) of the SMRR) in a bandwidth of 35.2 nm (1532.00 to 1567.20 nm), which is defined by the gain of the EDF. The optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) of each lasing wavelength is larger than 42.0 dB. In addition, the output stabilities of power and wavelength are also discussed.

  19. Hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped all-fiber soliton laser with a distributed polarizer.

    PubMed

    Chernykh, D S; Krylov, A A; Levchenko, A E; Grebenyukov, V V; Arutunyan, N R; Pozharov, A S; Obraztsova, E D; Dianov, E M

    2014-10-10

    A soliton-type erbium-doped all-fiber ring laser hybrid mode-locked with a co-action of arc-discharge single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) is demonstrated. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, boron nitride-doped SWCNTs were used as a saturable absorber for passive mode-locking initiation. Moreover, the NPE was introduced through the implementation of the short-segment polarizing fiber. Owing to the NPE action in the laser cavity, significant pulse length shortening as well as pulse stability improvement were observed as compared with a SWCNTs-only mode-locked laser. The shortest achieved pulse width of near transform-limited solitons was 222 fs at the output average power of 9.1 mW and 45.5 MHz repetition frequency, corresponding to the 0.17 nJ pulse energy.

  20. Triple-wavelength erbium fiber ring laser based on compound-ring scheme.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chien Hung; Shih, Fu Yuan; Chen, Chang Tai; Chi, Sien

    2007-12-24

    .A triple-wavelength erbium-doped compound ring fiber laser using the fiber-based triple-ring filter (TRF) is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the fiber-based TRF laser scheme, the proposed laser can lase three wavelengths simultaneously. The fiber laser retrieve the optical side-mode suppression ratios (SMSRs) of 40.2, 40.4 and 41.6 dB and the output powers of -9, -8.8 and -7.6 dBm at the wavelengths 1555.89, 1556.77 and 1557.66 nm, respectively. The mode spacing of the triple-wavelength fiber laser is nearly 0.9 nm. Moreover, the output power stability of the ring laser has also been measured and analyzed.

  1. Suppression of thermal frequency noise in erbium-doped fiber random lasers.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Bhavaye; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2014-02-15

    Frequency and intensity noise are characterized for erbium-doped fiber (EDF) random lasers based on Rayleigh distributed feedback mechanism. We propose a theoretical model for the frequency noise of such random lasers using the property of random phase modulations from multiple scattering points in ultralong fibers. We find that the Rayleigh feedback suppresses the noise at higher frequencies by introducing a Lorentzian envelope over the thermal frequency noise of a long fiber cavity. The theoretical model and measured frequency noise agree quantitatively with two fitting parameters. The random laser exhibits a noise level of 6  Hz²/Hz at 2 kHz, which is lower than what is found in conventional narrow-linewidth EDF fiber lasers and nonplanar ring laser oscillators (NPROs) by a factor of 166 and 2, respectively. The frequency noise has a minimum value for an optimum length of the Rayleigh scattering fiber.

  2. Chirped pulse amplification in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiqin; Li, Lei; Zhao, Luming

    2017-03-01

    Chirped pulse amplification in an all-normal-dispersion erbium-doped fiber amplifier is presented. Wavelength dependent amplification is examined. It is found that gain dispersion limits the spectral profile of the amplified pulse. If the central wavelength of the seed pulse is far away from that of the gain profile of the amplifier, the gain profile partially shapes the spectrum of the amplified pulse while maintaining the characteristic steep spectral edge at one side. If the optical spectrum of the seed pulse is most covered by the gain profile, the characteristic steep spectral edges will be both maintained. The amplified pulse becomes deformed ultimately with increasing pump power, no matter whether the seed pulse is a transform-limited pulse or a chirped pulse.

  3. Modeling and analysis of overmodulation in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers including amplified spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Reena; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Line surveillance and management information in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) can be broadcast by modulating the amplitude of the low-frequency lightwave information signal, the process termed as overmodulation in the literature. This paper presents systematic solutions for the overmodulated pump and information signal transfer functions for EDFA. It includes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) that has an impact on outcomes in the high-gain system. To the extent of our belief, the methodical model simulated with the current approach leads to a distinct perspective of an outcome in the respective field. The test bed described here is realistic. It specifically represents the overmodulation behavior in an EDFA under the influence of ASE.

  4. Simple and efficient L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. B.; Oh, J. M.; Lee, D.; Ahn, S. J.; Park, B. S.; Lee, S. B.

    2002-11-01

    The performance of L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) of a simple structure with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) was investigated. The injected C-band ASE by the FBG offers low-cost amplification and greatly improves the efficiency of the EDFA. There are 9 and 4 dB improvements with the FBG at 1587 nm, at low and high input, respectively. The flat gain of 18 dB, up to a total input of -5 dBm at 150 mW of 980 nm pump, is obtained over 30 nm with less than ±0.5 dB gain variations without any gain equalizer. The proposed EDFA provides a cost-effective solution for wavelength division multiplexing systems.

  5. Dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using a tapered fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, S. W.; Lim, K. S.; Jasim, A. A.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-12-01

    A tapered fiber is fabricated by heating and stretching a piece of optical fiber after the polymer protective cladding has been removed. An equidistant comb-like transmission spectrum, with a spacing of 1.6 nm and an extinction ratio of more than 5 dB, was obtained by the tapered fiber due to the multibeam interferences of the cladding modes. The tapered fiber was applied in a ring erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) to generate dual-wavelength lasing oscillations. The EDFL operates at wavelengths of 1557.0 nm and 1558.6 nm with a stable peak power and a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 40 dB.

  6. Novel intra-cavity self-organization coherent erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiu-Jie; Liu, Feng-Nian; Fu, Sheng-Gui; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yan-Ge; Guo, Zhan-Cheng; Yuan, Shu-Zhong; Kai, Gui-Yun; Dong, Xiao-Yi

    2007-03-01

    A novel all-fiber self-organization coherent Erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. The laser system is composed of two independent lasers. When each of the two branch lasers operates independently, the output power is 10. 41mW and 8.69 mW respectively. By adjusting a polarization controller (PC), the two lasers achieve coherent coupling, and the output power is 24.4 mW, which is more than two times that the single laser yields. Furthermore, we bring forward and discuss the factor estimating the effect of coherent combination—coherent coupling factor. The value of growth factor to evaluate the effect of coherent combining is 1.27. The coherent fiber laser has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and single frequency, which conduce to coherent coupling easily.

  7. Influence of etching time on bond strength in dentin irradiated with erbium lasers.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leila Soares; Apel, Christian; Francci, Carlos; Simoes, Alyne; Eduardo, Carlos P; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of etching time on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of a conventional adhesive bonded to dentin previously irradiated with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) lasers. Buccal and lingual surfaces of 45 third molars were flattened until the dentin was exposed and randomly assigned to three groups (n = 30) according to the dentin treatment: control (not irradiated), irradiated with Er:YAG (1 W; 250 mJ; 4 Hz; 80.6 J/cm(2)) laser or Er,Cr:YSGG (4 W; 200 mJ; 20 Hz; 71.4 J/cm(2)) laser, and into three subgroups (n = 10) according to acid etching time (15 s, 30 s or 60 s) for each experimental group. After acid etching, the adhesive was applied, followed by the construction of an inverted cone of composite resin. The samples were immersed in distilled water (37 degrees C for 24 h) and subjected to TBS test [50 kilogram-force (kgf), 0.5 mm/min]. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey statistical tests (P < or = 0.05). Control group samples presented significant higher TBS values than those of all lased groups. Both irradiated groups exhibited similar TBS values. Samples subjected to the different etching times in each experimental group presented similar TBS. Based on the conditions of this in vitro study we concluded that Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation of the dentin weakens the bond strength of the adhesive. Moreover, increased etching time is not able to modify the bonding strength of the adhesive to irradiated dentin.

  8. Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Dietlein, T S; Jacobi, P C; Schröder, R; Krieglstein, G K

    1997-05-01

    Photoablative laser trabecular surgery has been proposed as an outflow-enhancing treatment for open-angle glaucoma. The aim of the study was to investigate the time course of repair response following low-thermal Erbium: YAG laser trabecular ablation. In 20 anaesthetized rabbits gonioscopically controlled ab-interno photoablation of the ligamenta pectinata and underlying trabecular meshwork (TM) was performed with a single-pulsed (200 microseconds) Erbium: YAG (2.94 microns) laser. The right eye received 12-15 single laser pulses (2 mJ) delivered through an articulated zirconium fluoride fiberoptic and a 200 microns (core diameter) quartz fiber tip, the left unoperated eye served as control. At time intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 10, 30, and 60 days after laser treatment, eyes were processed for light- and scanning electron microscopy. The applied energy density of 6-4 J cm-2 resulted in visible dissection of the ligamenta pectinata and reproducible microperforations of the TM exposing scleral tissue accompanied by blood reflux from the aqueous plexus. The initial ablation zones measured 154 +/- 36 microns in depth and 45 +/- 6 microns in width. Collateral thermal damage zones were 22 +/- 8 microns. At two days post-operative, ablation craters were still blood- and fibrin-filled. The inner surface of the craters were covered with granulocytes. No cellular infiltration of the collateral thermal damage zone was observed. At 10 days post-operative, progressive fibroblastic proliferation was observed, resulting in dense scar tissue formation with anterior synechiae, proliferating capillaries and loss of intertrabecular spaces inside the range of former laser treatment at 60 days post-operative. Trabecular microperforations were closed 60 days after laser treatment in all rabbits. IOP in treated and contralateral eyes did not significantly change its level during whole period of observation. Low-thermal infrared laser energy with minimal thermal damage to collateral

  9. Corneal photoablation in vivo with the erbium:YAG laser: first report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas; Matallana, Michael; Kriegerowski, Martin

    1995-05-01

    As an alternative to far-UV lasers for corneal refractive surgery, the Erbium:YAG laser may be used in TEM00 mode. The resulting gaussian beam profile leads to a certain amount of myopic correction per laser pulse. Although animal data suggest that the clinical outcome should be comparable to the UV-lasers, no human data were available until now. We performed Erbium:YAG laser areal ablation in 5 blind human eyes. In TEM00 mode, the laser parameters were: effective diameter of laser spot equals 3.4 mm, fluence equals 380 mJ/cm2, pulse duration equals 250 microsecond(s) , Repetition rate equals 4 Hz, Number of applied laser pulses equals 15. Four patients with no light perception, one with intact light projection on one eye (some of them scheduled for enucleation) were treated under topical anaesthesia. Patient selection and informed consent were agreed to by the University's independent Ethics Committee. Prior to laser irradiation, corneal epithelium was removed. A postoperative silicone cast of the cornea was analyzed with a confocal laser micro-topometer for the ablation profile. The eyes were treated with antibiotic ointment until the epithelium was closed. Clinical appearance and, where possible, profilometry of the ablated area was observed. The ablation profile in cornea was gaussian shaped with a maximal depth of 30 micrometers . During laser treatment, the corneal surface becomes opaque, clearing in a matter of seconds. Epithelial healing and clinical appearance was similar to excimer laser treatment. However, during the first week, the irradiated area shows subepithelial irregularities, resembling small bubbles, disappearing thereafter.

  10. Broadband erbium-doped fiber sources for the fiber-optic gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of early fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) fell short of the theoretical limit. The use of certain configurations, fiber components, and well designed optical sources can help the FOG reach this limit. Sources for the FOG must be broadband, spatially coherent and high power. They must produce a mean wavelength which is stable with respect to temperature and feedback from system components. Additionally, they must emit at long wavelengths, where silica fibers are insensitive to radiation induced losses. Two approaches to broadband, 1.55 [mu]m, erbium-doped fiber sources for the FOG are considered. The most promising approach is the superfluorescent fiber source (SFS), which utilizes amplification of spontaneous emission in a single pass or in two passes through the fiber, without a resonant cavity. Such sources have produced more than 50% conversion of pump photons near 980 nm or 1.48 [mu]m to source photons. Laser diode pumping in these pump bands is explored in detail. Depending on fiber length, pump power, pump wavelength, and SFS configuration, emission bandwidths between 8 and 27 nm are measured. The thermal coefficient of the mean wavelength of the SFS is consistently below 10 ppm/[degrees]C, and near 0 ppm/[degrees]C for certain design choices. The detrimental effects of feedback are reduced through optical isolation and the proper choice of FOG configuration. Issues such as the effect of multiple pump modes and loss mechanisms are treated by use of computer simulations. The broadband Er-doped wavelength-swept fiber laser (WSFL) is presented as an alternative to the SFS. This source utilizes an intracavity acousto-optic modulator to sweep the emission of an Er-doped laser across the gain curve of erbium. Theoretical and measured characteristics of such sources are discussed. The dynamic response of the WSFL and its coherence in an integrating system has been measured.

  11. Erbium-doped zinc-oxide waveguide amplifiers for hybrid photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Lawrence; Anthony, Deion; Bonner, Carl; Geddis, Demetris

    2016-02-01

    CMOS logic circuits have entered the sub-100nm regime, and research is on-going to investigate the quantum effects that are apparent at this dimension. To avoid some of the constraints imposed by fabrication, entropy, energy, and interference considerations for nano-scale devices, many have begun designing hybrid and/or photonic integrated circuits. These circuits consist of transistors, light emitters, photodetectors, and electrical and optical waveguides. As attenuation is a limiting factor in any communications system, it is advantageous to integrate a signal amplifier. There are numerous examples of electrical amplifiers, but in order to take advantage of the benefits provided by optically integrated systems, optical amplifiers are necessary. The erbium doped fiber amplifier is an example of an optical amplifier which is commercially available now, but the distance between the amplifier and the device benefitting from amplification can be decreased and provide greater functionality by providing local, on-chip amplification. Zinc oxide is an attractive material due to its electrical and optical properties. Its wide bandgap (≍3.4 eV) and high refractive index (≍2) make it an excellent choice for integrated optics systems. Moreover, erbium doped zinc oxide (Er:ZnO) is a suitable candidate for optical waveguide amplifiers because of its compatibility with semiconductor processing technology, 1.54 μm luminescence, transparency, low resistivity, and amplification characteristics. This research presents the characterization of radio frequency magnetron sputtered Er:ZnO, the design and fabrication of integrated waveguide amplifiers, and device analysis.

  12. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  13. Synthesis and structure of dimeric anthracene-9-carboxylato bridged dinuclear erbium(III) complex, [Er(2)(9-AC)(6)(DMF)(2)(H(2)O)(2)].

    PubMed

    Kusrini, Eny; Adnan, Rohana; Saleh, Muhammad I; Yan, Lim-Kong; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2009-05-01

    We study the influence of the bulky aromatic rings, e.g. anthracence-9-carboxylic acid (9-ACA) with a large conjugated pi-system on the structure and spectroscopic properties of [Er(2)(9-AC)(6)(DMF)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] complex where 9-AC=anthracence-9-carboxylato and DMF=N,N'-dimethylformamide. The complex has been prepared from the erbium chloride and 9-ACA in the mixture of H(2)O:DMF solution (4:1, v/v) followed by pH adjustment to 6. The complex is crystallized in a monoclinic system with space group P2(1)/n. The two Er(III) ions are double bridged by the deprotonated carboxyl groups of two 9-AC anions (O1 and O1A), forming an eight-coordination number. The chelating bidentate (O,O), chelating-bridging tridentate (O,O,O') and monodentate of 9-AC anions are observed in the dinuclear [Er(2)(9-AC)(6)(DMF)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] complex. The Er-Er distance is 4.015A in the dimeric unit. Intramolecular O-Hcdots, three dots, centeredO and C-Hcdots, three dots, centeredO hydrogen bonds as well as numerous of intermolecular C-Hcdots, three dots, centeredpi interactions between the anthracene rings by edge-to-face interactions linked the dinuclear dimeric units into two-dimensional supramolecular network in a propeller-arrangement. Electronic absorption spectra of the Er(III) complex and its salt were measured. The emission spectrum of the complex is composed of a broad band due to the emission of intraligand pi*-->pi transition from the 9-AC anions and a shoulder peak originating from the 4f-4f emission transition of the Er(III) ions. The complex has a high thermal stability which can be attributed to the effectively increase the rigidity of the 9-AC anions.

  14. Effects of non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser treatment on gene regulation in human three-dimensional skin models.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Marquardt, Yvonne; Steiner, Timm; Hölzle, Frank; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Baron, Jens M

    2016-04-01

    Clinical experiences with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser therapy have demonstrated promising results for dermal remodelling and for the indications of striae, surgical scars and acne scars. So far, molecular effects on human skin following treatment with these laser systems have not been elucidated. Our aim was to investigate laser-induced effects on skin morphology and to analyse molecular effects on gene regulation. Therefore, human three-dimensional (3D) organotypic skin models were irradiated with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser systems enabling qRT-PCR, microarray and histological studies at same and different time points. A decreased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 3 and 9 was observed 3 days after treatment. MMP3 also remained downregulated on protein level, whereas the expression of other MMPs like MMP9 was recovered or even upregulated 5 days after irradiation. Inflammatory gene regulatory responses measured by the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (CXCL1, 2, 5, 6) and interleukin expression (IL8) were predominantly reduced. Epidermal differentiation markers such as loricrin, filaggrin-1 and filaggrin-2 were upregulated by both tested laser optics, indicating a potential epidermal involvement. These effects were also shown on protein level in the immunofluorescence analysis. This novel standardised laser-treated human 3D skin model proves useful for monitoring time-dependent ex vivo effects of various laser systems on gene expression and human skin morphology. Our study reveals erbium glass laser-induced regulations of MMP and interleukin expression. We speculate that these alterations on gene expression level could play a role for dermal remodelling, anti-inflammatory effects and increased epidermal differentiation. Our finding may have implications for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of erbium glass laser-induced effects on human skin.

  15. On the possibility of increasing the pulse energy of a passively Q-switched erbium glass minilaser

    SciTech Connect

    Izyneev, A A; Sadovskii, Pavel I; Sadovskii, S P

    2010-08-03

    A simple method to increase the output energy of a passively Q-switched erbium glass laser is proposed. Using the amplitude modulation of losses at the active element face, the fundamental mode was reliably suppressed and the laser operated in a selected higher-order mode. The output energy was experimentally increased by a factor of 2.1, and the range of allowable pump energy instability was extended threefold. (lasers)

  16. Experimental demonstration of a passive all-fiber Q-switched erbium- and samarium-doped laser.

    PubMed

    Preda, Cristina Elena; Ravet, Gautier; Mégret, Patrice

    2012-02-15

    Self-Q-switched operation of the all-fiber laser using erbium and samarium fibers in the cavity is realized experimentally. This passively Q-switched all-fiber laser produces very stable pulses with energy of 142 nJ and duration of 450 ns. The experimental results were well reproduced by the results obtained through the numerical integration of a rate-equations model.

  17. Average power and pulse energy scaling of 1.6 μm resonantly-diode-pumped erbium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galecki, Lukasz; Eichhorn, Marc; Zendzian, Waldemar

    2013-10-01

    Pulsed erbium lasers operating in the eye-safe spectral band around 1.6 μm can find numerous defense and civil applications that often require high pulse energy, reasonable pulse repetition frequency (100 Hz), specific wavelength and last not least very good beam quality. Even though resonant pumping shifts a significant part of thermal load from gain medium to pumping diodes, fulfillment of all these requirements is still rather difficult, what can be attributed to spectroscopic limitations of erbium doped crystalline gain media as well as to low spatial brightness of available InP pumping diodes. In the paper we report recent breakthroughs in the field of pulsed erbium lasers. Main difficulties towards multi-ten-mJ output from systems based on the TIR (total- internal-reflection) pump scheme arrangement will be defined and solutions proposed. We also demonstrate for the first time to the best of our knowledge a Q-switched Er3+:YAG laser operating at the repetition rate of 100 Hz with truly diffraction limited beam quality (M2 =1) and pulse energy of up to 24mJ (damage free).

  18. Wideband and flat-gain amplifier based on high concentration erbium-doped fibres in parallel double-pass configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Hamida, B A; Cheng, X S; Harun, S W; Naji, A W; Arof, H; Al-Khateeb, W; Khan, S; Ahmad, H

    2012-03-31

    A wideband and flat gain erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a hybrid gain medium of a zirconiabased erbium-doped fibre (Zr-EDF) and a high concentration erbium-doped fibre (EDF). The amplifier has two stages comprising a 2-m-long ZEDF and 9-m-long EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

  19. Characterization of the interaction between cationic Erbium (III)-porphyrin complex with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xi-Liang; Fan, Jian-Jun; Liu, Yi; Hou, An-Xin

    2009-09-01

    The interaction of cationic Erbium (III)-porphyrin complex (Er-Porp) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by fluorescence quenching spectra, UV-vis absorbance, circular dichroism (CD) and three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectra. It is proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Er-Porp was mainly for the formation of Er-Porp-BSA complex. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants KSV and corresponding thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔG and ΔS were estimated by fluorescence quenching method. The results indicated that the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces in stabilizing the complex. The binding distance was obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. Displacement experiment and the number of binding sites calculation show that the cationic Er-Porp ring can inset in site-I (in subdomain IIA) of BSA. The effect of Er-Porp on the conformation of BSA was observed using CD, UV and 3D fluorescence spectra methods. The results show that the conformation of BSA was changed dramatically in the presence of Er-Porp by binding to the Trp residues of BSA. The interaction between BSA and Er-Porp can be used as a model for drug design and pharmaceutical research.

  20. Composite filling removal with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser: morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Correa-Afonso, Alessandra M; Palma-Dibb, Regina G; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2010-01-01

    Considering the increase in esthetic restorative materials and need for improvement in unsatisfactory restoration substitution with minimal inadvertent removal of healthy tissues, this study assessed the efficacy of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser for composite resin removal and the influence of pulse repetition rate on the morphological analyses of the cavity by scanning electron microscope. Composite resin fillings were placed in cavities (1.0 mm deep) prepared in bovine teeth, and the 75 specimens were randomly assigned to five groups according to the technique used for composite filling removal (high-speed diamond bur, group I, as a control, and Er:YAG laser, 250 mJ output energy and 80 J/cm(2) energy density, using different pulse repetition rates: group II, 2 Hz; group III, 4 Hz; group IV, 6 Hz; group V, 10 Hz). After the removal, the specimens were split in the middle, and we analyzed the surrounding and deep walls to check for the presence of restorative material. The estimation was qualitative. The surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that the experimental groups presented bigger amounts of remaining restorative material. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed irregularities of the resultant cavities of the experimental groups that increased proportionally with increase in repetition rate.

  1. Development of erbium-doped silica sensor probe for fiber-optic fluorescence thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, H.; Takei, K.; Katsumata, T.; Komuro, S.; Morikawa, T.; Ishizawa, H.; Toba, E.

    2005-09-01

    A fabrication process of the erbium (Er)-doped silica sensor probe, in which the sensor head is directly coupled with silica glass fiber, has been developed for the fiber-optic thermometer application. In this fabrication process, a droplet of slurry of Er-doped silica powders are formed on the end of the silica glass fiber, and are dried, sintered, and then melted and solidified in a LPG-O2 gas furnace. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime from the Er-doped silica senor probe with various dopant concentrations has been evaluated for the fiber-optic thermometer application. An Er-doped silica sensor probe with an Er density above 10000ppm and aluminum (Al) content about Al /Er=20 is considered to be suitable for a fiber-optic thermometer because of the strong PL intensity and long PL lifetime. The PL lifetimes of the Er sensor head decreases from 9.9msto8.1ms at temperatures from 273Kto473K. An Er-doped silica sensor probe, which is fabricated by a modified process, is considered to be potentially useful for a fiber-optic fluorescence thermometer.

  2. Isolator-free switchable uni- and bidirectional hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, Maria; Araimi, Mohammed Al; Kbashi, Hani; Arif, Raz; Sergeyev, Sergey V; Rozhin, Aleksey

    2016-07-11

    An Erbium-doped fibre ring laser hybrid mode-locked with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE) without an optical isolator has been investigated for various cavity conditions. Precise control of the state of polarisation (SOP) in the cavity ensures different losses for counter-propagating optical fields. As the result, the laser operates in quasi-unidirectional regime in both clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) directions with the emission strengths difference of the directions of 22 dB. Furthermore, by adjusting the net birefringence in the cavity, the laser can operate in a bidirectional generation. In this case, a laser pumped with 75 mW power at 980 nm generates almost identical 790 and 570 fs soliton pulses with an average power of 1.17 and 1.11 mW. The operation stability and pulse quality of the soliton pulses in both unidirectional regimes are highly competitive with those generated in conventional ring fibre lasers with isolator in the cavity. Demonstrated bidirectional laser operation can find vital applications in gyroscopes or precision rotation sensing technologies.

  3. Microtensile bond strength of composite resin to human enamel prepared using erbium: Yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2007-02-01

    The Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) laser used for preparation of cavity can alter the substrate and it could influence the bond strength of enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser's energy using microtensile bond test. Three groups were obtained (cavity preparation) and each group was divided into two subgroups (adhesive system). After that the adhesive protocol was performed, sections with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm2 (+/-0.2 mm2) were obtained. The specimens were mounted in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength for lased groups (p < 0.01) and when the total-etching adhesive system was used the laser 300 mJ subgroup showed higher bond strength compared to the laser 250 mJ (p < 0.01). It was concluded that the cavities prepared using laser appear less receptive to adhesive procedures than conventional bur-cut cavities.

  4. Temporal characterization of a multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambin Iezzi, Victor; Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Loranger, Sébastien; Kabakova, Irina V.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Kashyap, Raman

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides the first detailed temporal characterization of a multi-wavelength-Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) by measuring the optical intensity of the individual frequency channels with high temporal resolution. It is found that the power in each channel is highly unstable due to the excitation of several cavity modes for typical conditions of operation. Also provided is the real-time measurements of the MWBEFL output power for two configurations that were previously reported to emit phase-locked picosecond pulse trains, concluded from their autocorrelation measurements. Real-time measurements reveal a high degree of instability without the formation of a stable pulse train. Finally, we model the MWBEFL using coupled wave equations describing the evolution of the Brillouin pump, Stokes and acoustic waves in the presence of stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the optical Kerr effect. A good qualitative consistency between the simulation and experimental results is evident, in which the interference signal at the output shows strong instability as well as the chaotic behavior due to the dynamics of participating pump and Stokes waves.

  5. Double spacing multi-wavelength L-band Brillouin erbium fiber laser with Raman pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, B. A.; Al-Alimi, A. W.; Abas, A. F.; Mokhtar, M.; Harun, S. W.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    A new multi-wavelength Brillouin erbium fiber laser (BEFL), which operates in the L-band region with double frequency Brillouin spacing, is demonstrated. This design uses a Raman pump (RP) and a piece of 2 km highly nonlinear fiber as a gain medium. The double frequency spacing is achieved by employing a dual ring configuration, which is formed by utilizing a four-port circulator that removes the odd-order Stoke signals. Twenty Stokes and seventeen anti-Stokes lines, which have optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) greater than 15 dB, are generated simultaneously with a spacing of 0.16 nm when Brillouin pump and RP powers were fixed at the optimum values of 8 dBm and 40 mW, respectively. The BEFL can be tuned in the range between 1591 nm to 1618 nm. The proposed configuration increases the number of lines generated and the OSNR, and thus allows a compact multi-wavelength laser source to be realized.

  6. Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked with a black phosphorus saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Latiff, A. A.; Arof, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a passive mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using a multi-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber (BPSA). The BPSA is fabricated by mechanically exfoliating a BP crystal and sticking the acquired BP flakes onto scotch tape. A small piece of the tape is then placed between two ferrules and integrated into an EDFL cavity to achieve a self-started soliton mode-locked pulse operation at 1560.7 nm wavelength. The 3 dB bandwidth, pulse width, and repetition rate of the laser are 6.4 nm, 570 fs, and 6.88 MHz, respectively. The average output power is 5.1 mW at pump power of 140 mW and thus, the pulse energy and peak power are estimated at 0.74 nJ and 1.22 kW, respectively. The BPSA was constructed in a simple fabrication process and has a modulation depth of 7% to successfully produce the stable mode-locked fiber laser.

  7. Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhengqian; Zhou, Min; Weng, Jian; Huang, Guoming; Xu, Huiying; Ye, Chenchun; Cai, Zhiping

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate a compact Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on graphene as a saturable absorber (SA). By optically driven deposition of graphene on a fiber core, the SA is constructed and inserted into a diode-pumped EDF laser cavity. Also benefiting from the strong third-order optical nonlinearity of graphene to suppress the mode competition of EDF, a stable dual-wavelength Q-switching operation has been achieved using a two-reflection peak fiber Bragg grating as the external cavity mirror. The Q-switched EDF laser has a low pump threshold of 6.5 mW at 974 nm and a wide range of pulse-repetition rate from 3.3 to 65.9 kHz. The pulse duration and the pulse energy have been characterized. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of a graphene-based Q-switched laser.

  8. Adhesion after erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser application at three different irradiation conditions.

    PubMed

    Botta, Sérgio Brossi; da Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Zezell, Denise Maria; Powers, John M; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether distinct cooling of low fluence erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation would influence adhesion. Main factors tested were: substrates (two), irradiation conditions (three), and adhesives (three). A 750 microm diameter tip was used, for 50 s, 1 mm from the surface, with a 0.25 W power output, 20 Hz, energy density of 2.8 J/cm(2) with energy per pulse of 12.5 mJ. When applied, water delivery rate was 11 ml/min. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that laser conditioning significantly decreased the bond strength of all adhesive systems applied on enamel. On dentin, laser conditioning significantly reduced bond strength of etch-and-rinse and one-step self-etch systems; however, laser irradiation under water cooling did not alter bonding of two-step self-etching. It may be concluded that the irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 2.8 J/cm(2) with water coolant was responsible for a better adhesion to dentin, while enamel irradiation reduced bond strength, irrespective of cooling conditions.

  9. Effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser energies on superficial and deep dentin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the microhardness of superficial and deep dentin irradiated with different erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser energies. Seventy-two molars were bisected and randomly assigned to two groups (superficial dentin or deep dentin) and into six subgroups (160 mJ, 200 mJ, 260 mJ, 300 mJ, 360 mJ, and control). After irradiation, the cavities were longitudinally bisected. Microhardness was measured at six points (20 microm, 40 microm, 60 microm, 80 microm, 100 microm, and 200 microm) under the cavity floor. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's tests (alpha = 0.05). Superficial dentin presented higher microhardness than deep dentin; energy of 160 mJ resulted in the highest microhardness and 360 mJ the lowest one. Values at all points were different, exhibiting increasing microhardness throughout; superficial dentin microhardness was the highest at 20 microm with 160 mJ energy; for deep dentin, microhardness after irradiation at 160 mJ and 200 mJ was similar to that of the control. The lowest energy increased superficial dentin microhardness at the closest extent under the cavity; deep dentin microhardness was not altered by energies of 160 mJ and 200 mJ.

  10. Self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhi-Xu; Yao, Chuan-Fei; Kang, Zhe; Qin, Guan-Shi Qin, Wei-Ping; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-06-14

    We reported self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber (EDTMF) lasers and further demonstrated a self-Q-switched EDTMF laser with a high repetition rate of more than 1 MHz. A 14 cm EDTMF was used as the gain medium. Upon a pump power of ∼705 mW at 1480 nm, output pulses with a lasing wavelength of ∼1558 nm, a repetition rate of ∼1.14 MHz, and a pulse width of ∼282 ns were generated from the fiber by employing a linear cavity. The maximum output power was ∼316 mW and the slope efficiency was about 72.6% before the saturation of the laser power. Moreover, the influence of the fiber length on laser performances was investigated. The results showed that self-Q-switching behavior in our experiments was caused by the re-absorption originated from the ineffectively pumped part of the active fiber.

  11. Evaluation of mineral content of enamel prepared by erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, Asli; Usumez, Aslihan; Usumez, Serdar; Berk, Gizem

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mineral content of enamel etched at two different power settings with an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser. Buccal, lingual and mesial or distal surfaces of five premolar teeth were cut, and three enamel slabs were obtained from each tooth. Fifteen enamel specimens were divided into three groups (1 W, 2 W and control) of five specimens each and subjected to Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The mean percentage weights of the five elements [calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P)] in each slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze differences among the groups (1 W, 2 W and control). There were no significant differences among the groups (1 W, 2 W and control) for Ca, K, Mg, Na, or P, or for the Ca/P ratio (P > 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs indicated that the surface irregularities increased with increased power setting. Laser treatment did not affect the mean percentage weights of Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P, or the Ca/P ratio, in any group.

  12. Development of an erbium-doped fibre laser as a deep-sea hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, P. E.; Beverini, N.; Falciai, R.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2006-07-01

    The present work deals with the development of a prototype of a hydrophone for deep-sea acoustic detection. The base sensitive element is a single mode fibre laser, realized within an optically pumped erbium-doped fibre. It was obtained by inducing an index modulation within the fibre core by illuminating it with ultra-violet coherent light through a phase-mask grating; in this way a couple of Bragg reflectors delimiting an optical cavity were realized. The emission wavelength depends on the cavity length and on the Bragg gratings' optical characteristics. The environmental conditions, in terms of temperature and static and dynamic pressure, modify these geometrical factors and optical parameters, inducing a wavelength shift of the optical signal. Fibre laser sensors were characterized both optically and acoustically within a closed tub in the laboratory, using a Mach-Zender interferometer and an electronic lock-in system allowing the transformation of the wavelength shift into amplitude variations, in order to greatly increase the sensitivity. The high sensitivity makes these sensors very suitable for a wide range of deep-sea acoustic applications, including geological surveys, marine mammal surveys and overall as acoustic sensors in the high energy cosmic neutrino underwater telescopes.

  13. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1600 nm for photoacoustic imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Zeng, Lvming; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2016-04-01

    We present a nanosecond Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser system operating at 1600 nm with a tunable repetition rate from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. A compact fiber coupled, acousto-optic modulator-based EDF ring cavity was used to generate a nanosecond seed laser at 1600 nm, and a double-cladding EDF based power amplifier was applied to achieve the maximum average power of 250 mW. In addition, 12 ns laser pulses with the maximum pulse energy of 2.4 μJ were obtained at 100 kHz. Furthermore, the Stokes shift by Raman scattering over a 25 km long fiber was measured, indicating that the laser can be potentially used to generate the high repetition rate pulses at the 1.7 μm region. Finally, we detected the photoacoustic signal from a human hair at 200 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 1.2 μJ, which demonstrates that a Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser can be a promising light source for the high speed functional photoacoustic imaging.

  14. Histologic comparison of needle, holmium:YAG, and erbium:YAG endoscopic goniotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Karen M.; Shen, Jin-Hui; Rivera, Brian K.; Hernandez, Eleut; Shetlar, Debra J.

    1995-05-01

    An endoscope allows visualization of the anterior chamber angle in porcine eyes despite the presence of cloudy corneas. The pectinate ligaments in the anterior chamber angle are a surgical model for primary infantile glaucoma. This study investigated the histologic results, one month after treating the anterior chamber angle with a goniotomy needle, the holmium:YAG laser, or the erbium:YAG laser coupled to a small endoscope. The anterior chambers were deepened with a viscoelastic material in one-month-old anesthetized pigs. An Olympus 0.8 mm diameter flexible endoscope was externally coupled to a 23 gauge needle or a 300 micron diameter fiber. The angle was treated for 120 degrees by one of the three methods, and the probe was removed. During the acute study, all three methods cut the pectinate ligaments. The histologic findings one month after healing demonstrated minimal surrounding tissue damage following goniotomy with a needle and the most surrounding tissue damage following treatment with the holmium:YAG laser.

  15. Microleakage of glass ionomer formulations after erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser preparation.

    PubMed

    Delmé, Katleen I M; Deman, Peter J; De Bruyne, Mieke A A; Nammour, Samir; De Moor, Roeland J G

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microleakage in class V cavities restored with four conventionally setting glass ionomers (CGIs) and one resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) following erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser or conventional preparation. Four hundred class V cavities were assigned to four groups: A and B were prepared by an Er:YAG laser; C and D were conventionally prepared. In groups B and D, the surface was additionally conditioned with Ketac conditioner. Each group was divided into five subgroups according to the glass ionomer cement (GIC) used: groups 1 (Ketac Fil), 2 (Ketac Molar), 3 (Ionofil Molar), 4 (Ionofil Molar Quick) and 5 (Photac Fil Quick). After thermocycling, a 2% methylene blue solution was used as dye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken to show the conditioner's effect. Complete marginal sealing could not be reached. PhotacFil showed less microleakage than the conventionally setting glass ionomer cements (CGICs) investigated. Conditioning laser-prepared cavities did not negatively influence microleakage results except for Ionofil Molar Quick.

  16. Water flow on erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation: effects on dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Vivian; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2009-09-01

    Since lasers were introduced in dentistry, there has been considerable advancement in technology. Several wavelengths have been investigated as substitutes for high-speed air turbine. Owing to its high absorbability in water and hydroxyapatite, the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser has been of great interest among dental practitioners and scientists. In spite of its great potential for hard tissue ablation, Er:YAG laser effectiveness and safety is directly related to an adequate setting of the working patterns. It is assumed that the ablation rate is influenced by certain conditions, such as water content of the target tissue, and laser parameters. It has been shown that Er:YAG irradiation with water coolant attenuates temperature rise and, hence, minimizes the risk of thermally induced pulp injury. It also increases ablation efficiency and enhances adhesion to the lased dental tissue. The aim of this review was to obtain insights into the ablation process and to discuss the effects of water flow on dental tissue ablation using Er:YAG laser.

  17. An L-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with switchable frequency spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuefang; Hu, Kongwen; Wei, Yizhen; Bi, Meihua; Yang, Guowei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel L-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser consisting of two ring cavities is proposed and demonstrated. The frequency spacing can be switched, corresponding to the single and double Brillouin frequency shifts, by toggling the optical switch. Under a 980 nm pump power of 600 mw, and a Brillouin pump power of 4 mW and wavelength of 1599.4 nm, up to 16 Stokes signals with a frequency spacing of 0.089 nm and 5 Stokes signals with double spacing of 0.178 nm are generated. A wavelength tunability of 15 nm (1593 nm  -  1608 nm) is realized for both frequency spacings. The fluctuation of Stokes signals for both single and double Brillouin spacing regimes in the proposed setup is less than 1.5 dB throughout a 30 min time span.

  18. Formation of hollow microcylinders from sputtered erbium-doped glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaswamy, Madhu; McMullin, James N.; Keyworth, B. P.; Broughton, James N.

    1997-05-01

    A planar sputter-deposited erbium-doped glass ridge was re- shaped into a hollow microcylinder using only photolithography, wet-etching and annealing. It is believed that selective build-up of gas is primarily responsible for this phenomenon, which is similar to glass-blowing. Other factors, such as the width and depth of the original ridge, the adhesion of the ridge to the underlying surface and the duration of the anneal, influence the eventual shape of the hollow microcylinder. By varying the processing parameters, a wide range of microcylinder shapes and sizes were obtained: circular and semi-circular profiles with 9.0 micrometers diameter or flatter 'tunnel-shaped' profiles ranging u pt o 25 micrometers in height and 100 micrometers in width. Microcylinders up to 1 cm long were fabricated. Water was sen to enter these hollow devices through capillary action. He-Ne light propagation through the hollow portion of the device was observed. These observations confirm that the microcylinders are hollow over their entire length. Hollow microcylinders or microchannels may find application in microfluidics and micro-optics.

  19. Thermoluminescence property of LiMgF3 erbium activated phosphor.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, I C; Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Favalli, A; Furetta, C

    2012-05-01

    The perovskite-like LiMgF(3):ErF(3) pellets were obtained from the melt formed by LiF and MgF(2) mixed salts in the stoichiometric ratio. The perovskite material was doped with 1, 2 and 4 mol% of ErF(3) impurity. The pellets samples were (60)Co gamma irradiated and their thermoluminescence (TL) properties were analyzed, i.e., dose-response, fading at RT and under UV irradiation, TL signal reproducibility, and kinetic parameters. The intensity of the TL response against irradiation dose was increased remarkably by the high concentration of impurity, and a linear dose-response was observed in the range of 1-10 Gy. The fading observed at RT was about 10-30% after 24h from irradiation. All samples were exposed from 1 to 200 Gy gamma dose range. The TL glow peaks were found around 367-376, 438-447, 509-521, and 594-611 K, when the doped samples were 1, 2 and 4 mol% of the erbium impurity concentration. The thermoluminescence kinetics parameters of the glow curves have been analyzed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method.

  20. Contact focusing multimodal probes for potential use in ophthalmic surgery with the Erbium:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Fried, Nathaniel M.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2013-03-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery is performed using mechanical dissection that sometimes results in iatrogenic complications, including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal breaks, incomplete membrane delamination, retinal distortion, microscopic damage, etc. The laser probe would be an ideal tool for cutting away pathologic membranes, however the depth of surgery should be precisely controlled to protect the retina. In this study, we optimized the design of such ultraprecise surgical microprobe formed by chains of dielectric spheres assembled directly inside the cores of the mid-infrared flexible delivery systems used in such surgeries. Specifically, our design is optimized for use of Erbium:YAG laser sources with extremely short optical penetration depth in tissue. By using numerical modeling, we demonstrate a potential advantage of five-sphere focusing chains of sapphire or ruby spheres with index n=1.71 for ablating the tissue with self-limited depth around 10-20 μm. We fabricated and tested such optimized structures formed by 300 μm ruby spheres with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.2 mJ and 75 μs duration produced ablation craters in cornea epithelium for one, three, and five sphere structures with the latter generating the smallest crater depth (10 μm) with the least amount of thermal damage depth (30 μm). We show that integration of the ultraprecise laser ablation capability with illumination and suction tools would produce a single headpiece with versatile functionality in ultraprecise intraocular surgery.

  1. Amplification of 12 OAM Modes in an air-core erbium doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qiongyue; Gregg, Patrick; Jung, Yongmin; Lim, Ee Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Ramachandran, Siddharth; Richardson, David J

    2015-11-02

    We theoretically propose an air-core erbium doped fiber amplifier capable of providing relatively uniform gain for 12 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes (|L| = 5, 6 and 7, where |L| is the OAM mode order) over the C-band. Amplifier performance under core pumping conditions for a uniformly doped core for each of the supported pump modes (110 in total) was separately assessed. The differential modal gain (DMG) was found to vary significantly depending on the pump mode used, and the minimum DMG was found to be 0.25 dB at 1550 nm provided by the OAM (8,1) pump mode. A tailored confined doping profile can help to reduce the pump mode dependency for core pumped operation and help to increase the number of pump modes that can support a DMG below 1 dB. For the more practical case of cladding-pumped operation, where the pump mode dependency is almost removed, a DMG of 0.25 dB and a small signal gain of >20 dB can be achieved for the 12 OAM modes across the full C-band.

  2. Visible absorption spectra of the 4f electron transitions of neodymium, praseodymium, holmium and erbium complexes with fleroxacin and their analytical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Naixing; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Xiuqin; Si, Zhikun; Bai, Haitao; Tian, Cong

    2002-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the 4f electron transitions of neodymium, praseodymium, holmium and erbium complexes with fleroxacin in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride were studied by normal and derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivity at the maximum absorption bands are about 5.3 (at 571 nm) times greater for neodymium, 2.8 (at 483 nm) times greater for praseodymium, 12.6 (at 448.5 nm) times greater for holmium and 9.7 (at 519 nm) times greater for erbium than those in the absence of complexing agents. The second-derivative spectrum is used both to eliminate the interference from other rare earths and to improve the sensitivity. Beer's law is obeyed from 3.0 - 70 microg ml(-1) for neodymium and holmium, from 6.0 - 70 microg ml(-1) for erbium, and from 12.0 - 70 microg ml(-1) for praseodymium. The relative standard deviations are 1.9% and 1.5% for 7.5 microg ml(-1) of neodymium and holmium, and 2.1% and 1.6% for 15.0 microg ml(-1) of praseodymium and erbium, respectively. Their detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 2) are 3.2 microg ml(-1), 1.3 microg ml(-1), (1.1) microg ml(-1) and 2.5 microg ml(-1) for praseodymium, neodymium, holmium and erbium, respectively. A new system for the simultaneous determinations of the praseodymium, neodymium, holmium and erbium in rare earth mixtures with good accuracy and selectivity is proposed.

  3. Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with the fiber-Bragg-grating-based asymmetric two-cavity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Feng, Suchun; Tan, Zhongwei; Ning, Tigang; Jian, Shuisheng

    2009-03-01

    We present a simple and stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber linear-type laser. It consists of three FBGs directly written in a photosensitive erbium-doped fiber (PEDF) to form asymmetric two cavities with different cavity lengths, which can effectively increase the longitudinal mode spacing and suppress mode hopping, experimentally compared with symmetric two cavities and single-cavity structures. The stable SLM operation is conveniently achieved without accurate control of cavity length, and the laser linewidth of less than 5 kHz is acquired.

  4. Analysis of inner filter effect on the up-conversion spectra of erbium doped yttrium oxide close-packed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, Nikifor; Maciel, Glauco S.

    2012-11-01

    We observed that the up-conversion (UC) emission profiles of erbium (Er3+) doped yttrium oxide (Y2O3) close-packed powders prepared by combustion synthesis are different when the luminescence reflected from the sample is compared to the luminescence transmitted through the sample (thickness: ˜0.1 mm). The effect was identified as a combination of scattering and an inner filter effect (IFE). The IFE reduces the transmitted UC luminescence bandwidths up to 50%. The IFE was suppressed by the inclusion of free-standing undoped Y2O3 particles.

  5. Use of 1540nm fractionated erbium:glass laser for split skin graft resurfacing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Narinesingh, S; Lewis, S; Nayak, B S

    2013-09-01

    The field of laser skin resurfacing has evolved rapidly over the past two decades from ablative lasers, to nonablative systems using near-infrared, intense-pulsed light and radio-frequency systems, and most recently fractional laser resurfacing. Although fractional thermolysis is still in its infancy, its efficacy in in the treatment of skin disorders have been clearly demonstrated. Here we present a case report on the safety and efficacy of a 1540nm erbium:glass laser in the treatment of the waffle pattern of a meshed skin graft in a 38-year-old patient with type V skin in the Caribbean.

  6. Tunable S-band erbium-doped triple-ring laser with single-longitudinal-mode operation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C-H; Huang, T T; Chien, H-C; Ko, C-H; Chi, S

    2007-01-22

    We propose and demonstrate a tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium fiber laser with a passive triple-ring cavity structure in S-band operation. The proposed laser is fundamentally structured by using three different lengths of ring cavities, which serve as the mode filters. When a mode-restricting intracavity fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) is combined, the proposed resonator can guarantee a tunable and stable SLM laser oscillation. Moreover, the performances of the output power, wavelength stability, tuning range, and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) are studied.

  7. Breathers and localized solitons for the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system on constant backgrounds in erbium doped fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Rui Hao, Hui-Qin

    2014-05-15

    In nonlinear erbium doped fibers, the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system with higher order effects usually governs the propagation of ultrashort pulses. New soliton solutions for this system are constructed on the constant backgrounds including one and two breathers and first and higher order localized soliton solutions. Considering the influence of higher order effects, propagation properties of those soliton solutions are discussed. -- Highlights: •The AB and Ma-breathers are derived on the constant backgrounds. •Dynamic features of two-breathers are discussed. •Localized solutions are generated from two different ways.

  8. 75 W 40% efficiency single-mode all-fiber erbium-doped laser cladding pumped at 976 nm.

    PubMed

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Yashkov, M V; Guryanov, A N; Lhermite, J; Février, S; Cormier, E

    2013-07-01

    Optimization of Yb-free Er-doped fiber for lasers and amplifiers cladding pumped at 976 nm was performed in this Letter. The single-mode fiber design includes an increased core diameter of 34 μm and properly chosen erbium and co-dopant concentrations. We demonstrate an all-fiber high power laser and power amplifier based on this fiber with the record slope efficiency of 40%. To the best of our knowledge, the achieved output power of 75 W is the highest power reported for such lasers.

  9. 177 fs erbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with a cellulose polymer film containing single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tausenev, A. V.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Lobach, A. S.; Chernov, A. I.; Konov, V. I.; Kryukov, P. G.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Dianov, E. M.

    2008-04-01

    A mode-locked soliton erbium-doped fiber laser generating 177fs pulses is demonstrated. The laser pumped by a 85mW, 980nm laser diode emits 7mW at 1.56μm at a pulse repetition rate of 50MHz. Passive mode locking is achieved with a saturable absorber made of a high-optical quality film based on cellulose derivative with dispersed carbon single-wall nanotubes. The film is prepared with the original technique by using carbon nanotubes synthesized by the arc-discharge method.

  10. Multiplexing of six micro-displacement suspended-core Sagnac interferometer sensors with a Raman-Erbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mikel; Fernández-Vallejo, Montserrat; Echapare, Mikel; López-Amo, Manuel; Kobelke, J; Schuster, K

    2013-02-11

    This work experimentally demonstrates a long-range optical fiber sensing network for the multiplexing of fiber sensors based on photonic crystal fibers. Specifically, six photonic crystal fiber sensors which are based on a Sagnac interferometer that includes a suspended-core fiber have been used. These sensors offer a high sensitivity for micro-displacement measurements. The fiber sensor network presents a ladder structure and its operation mode is based on a fiber ring laser which combines Raman and Erbium doped fiber amplification. Thus, we show the first demonstration of photonic crystal fiber sensors for remote measurement applications up to 75 km.

  11. Control over the performance characteristics of a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fibre ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chernysheva, M A; Krylov, A A; Dianov, E M; Ogleznev, A A; Arutyunyan, N R; Pozharov, A S; Obraztsova, E D

    2013-08-31

    We report an all-fibre ultrashort pulse erbium-doped ring laser passively mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotubes dispersed in carboxymethylcellulose-based polymer films. Owing to intracavity dispersion management and controlled absorption in the polymer films, the laser is capable of generating both femto- and picosecond pulses of various shapes in the spectral range 1.53 – 1.56 μm. We have demonstrated and investigated the generation of almost transform- limited, inversely modified solitons at a high normal cavity dispersion. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  12. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  13. Switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shilong; Zhao, Xiaofan; Lou, Caiyun

    2008-04-15

    We propose and demonstrate a novel single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier. The SOA biased in its low-gain regime greatly reduces the gain competition of the two wavelengths. The stable SLM operation is guaranteed by a passive triple-ring cavity and a fiber Fabry-Perot filter. The dual-wavelength output with a 40 GHz wavelength spacing is switchable in the range of 1533-1565.4 nm.

  14. Temperature and strain discrimination based on a temperature-insensitive birefringent interferometer incorporating an erbium-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Geun; Chung, Youngjoo; Lee, Sang Bae; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Moon Ki

    2009-04-20

    A simple configuration for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain exploiting a temperature-insensitive birefringent interferometer based on a photonic crystal fiber incorporating an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is investigated. The transmission peak power of the birefringent interferometer incorporating the EDF is changed by the temperature variation because the amplified spontaneous emission of the EDF strongly depends on temperature. The applied strain changes the peak wavelength of the birefringent interferometer connecting with the EDF, which can make it possible to discriminate concurrent sensitivities like temperature and strain. The temperature and strain sensitivities were -0.04 dB/ degrees C and 1.3 pm/microepsilon, respectively.

  15. Erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation ameliorates skin permeation and follicular delivery of antialopecia drugs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-11-01

    Alopecia usually cannot be cured because of the available drug therapy being unsatisfactory. To improve the efficiency of treatment, erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er-YAG) laser treatment was conducted to facilitate skin permeation of antialopecia drugs such as minoxidil (MXD), diphencyprone (DPCP), and peptide. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption experiments were carried out by using nude mouse skin and porcine skin as permeation barriers. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies were used to visualize distribution of permeants within the skin. Laser ablation at a depth of 6 and 10 μm enhanced MXD skin accumulation twofold to ninefold depending on the skin barriers selected. DPCP absorption showed less enhancement by laser irradiation as compared with MXD. An ablation depth of 10 μm could increase the peptide flux from zero to 4.99 and 0.33 μg cm(-2) h(-1) for nude mouse skin and porcine skin, respectively. The laser treatment also promoted drug uptake in the hair follicles, with DPCP demonstrating the greatest enhancement (sixfold compared with the control). The imaging of skin examined by microscopies provided evidence of follicular and intercellular delivery assisted by the Er-YAG laser. Besides the ablative effect of removing the stratum corneum, the laser may interact with sebum to break up the barrier function, increasing the skin delivery of antialopecia drugs. The minimally invasive, well-controlled approach of laser-mediated drug permeation offers a potential way to treat alopecia. This study's findings provide the basis for the first report on laser-assisted delivery of antialopecia drugs.

  16. Quantum chaos in ultracold collisions of gas-phase erbium atoms.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Ferlaino, Francesca; Bohn, John L; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-03-27

    Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below one microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating the interactions between their constituent particles. As a result of this resolution, atoms can be made to scatter resonantly on demand, through the precise control of a magnetic field. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where much more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. For molecules, it has been speculated that a dense set of resonances in ultracold collision cross-sections will probably exhibit essentially random fluctuations, much as the observed energy spectra of nuclear scattering do. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, such fluctuations would imply chaotic dynamics of the underlying classical motion driving the collision. This would necessitate new ways of looking at the fundamental interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular systems, as well as perhaps new chaos-driven states of ultracold matter. Here we describe the experimental demonstration that random spectra are indeed found at ultralow temperatures. In the experiment, an ultracold gas of erbium atoms is shown to exhibit many Fano-Feshbach resonances, of the order of three per gauss for bosons. Analysis of their statistics verifies that their distribution of nearest-neighbour spacings is what one would expect from random matrix theory. The density and statistics of these resonances are explained by fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations that locate their origin in the anisotropy of the atoms' potential energy surface. Our results therefore reveal chaotic behaviour in the native interaction between ultracold atoms.

  17. Self-contained eye-safe laser radar using an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Thomas A.; Radecki, Dan J.; Tindal, Nan E.; Corriveau, John P.; Denman, Richard

    2003-07-01

    An Eye-safe Laser Radar has been developed under White Sands Missile Range sponsorship. The SEAL system, the Self-contained Eyesafe Autonomous Laser system, is designed to measure target position within a 0.5 meter box. Targets are augmented with Scotchlite for ranging out to 6 km and augmented with a retroreflector for targets out to 20 km. The data latency is less than 1.5 ms, and the position update rate is 1 kHz. The system is air-cooled, contained in a single 200-lb, 6-cubic-foot box, and uses less than 600 watts of prime power. The angle-angle-range data will be used to measure target dynamics and to control a tracking mount. The optical system is built around a diode-pumped, erbium-doped fiber laser rated at 1.5 watts average power at 10 kHz repetition rate with 25 nsec pulse duration. An 8 inch-diameter, F/2.84 telescope is relayed to a quadrant detector at F/0.85 giving a 5 mrad field of view. Two detectors have been evaluated, a Germanium PIN diode and an Intevac TE-IPD. The receiver electronics uses a DSP network of 6 SHARC processors to implement ranging and angle error algorithms along with an Optical AGC, including beam divergence/FOV control loops.Laboratory measurements of the laser characteristics, and system range and angle accuracies will be compared to simulations. Field measurements against actual targets will be presented.

  18. Detachable microsphere scalpel tips for potential use in ophthalmic surgery with the erbium:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Thomas C; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Ying, Howard S; Astratov, Vasily N; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2014-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery is performed using mechanical dissection that sometimes results in iatrogenic complications, including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal breaks, incomplete membrane delamination, retinal distortion, microscopic damage, etc. An ultraprecise laser probe would be an ideal tool for cutting away pathologic membranes; however, the depth of surgery should be precisely controlled to protect the sensitive underlying retina. The ultraprecise surgical microprobe formed by chains of dielectric spheres for use with the erbium:YAG laser source (λ=2940  nm), with extremely short optical penetration depth in tissue, was optimized. Numerical modeling demonstrated a potential advantage of five-sphere focusing chains of sapphire spheres with index n=1.71 for ablating the tissue with self-limited depth around 10 to 20 μm. Novel detachable microsphere scalpel tips formed by chains of 300 μm sapphire (or ruby) spheres were tested on ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. Detachable scalpel tips could allow for reusability of expensive mid-infrared trunk fibers between procedures, and offer more surgical customization by interchanging various scalpel tip configurations. An innovative method for aiming beam integration into the microsphere scalpel to improve the illumination of the surgical site was also shown. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.2 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters in cornea epithelium for one, three, and five sphere structures with the latter generating the smallest crater depth (10 μm) with the least amount of thermal damage depth (30 μm). Detachable microsphere laser scalpel tips may allow surgeons better precision and safety compared to mechanical scalpels when operating on delicate or sensitive areas like the retina.

  19. The long-term effect of 1550 nm erbium:glass fractional laser in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yale; Zeng, Weihui; Hu, Die; Jha, Smita; Ge, Qin; Geng, Songmei; Xiao, Shengxiang; Hu, Guanglei; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the 1550 nm erbium:glass (Er:glass) fractional laser in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Forty-five (9 male and 36 female) acne patients were treated 4 times at 4-week intervals with the following parameters: 169 spot density and 15-30 mJ/cm(2) fluence. There was no control group. The laser spots were adjustable (maximum overlap: 20%) according to the treatment area, and delivered in rows in order to cover all the face. Clinical photographs were taken. The IGA scores and lesion counts were performed for each treatment. Their current state was obtained by phone call follow-up to determine the long-term effect and photographs were offered by themselves or taken in hospital. After four treatments, all patients had an obvious reduction of lesion counts and IGA score and the peak lesion counts decreased to 67.7% after the initial four treatment sessions. For long-term effect, 8 patients lost follow-up, hence 37 patients were followed-up. 8 patients were 2-year follow up, 27 at the 1-year follow-up, and all patients at the half-year follow-up. The mean percent reduction was 72% at the half-year follow-up, 79 at the 1-year follow-up and 75% at the 2-year follow-up. Side effects and complications were limited to transient erythema and edema, and few patients suffered from transient acne flare-ups and sensitivity. All patients responded that their skin was less prone to oiliness. In conclusion, acne can be successfully treated by 1550 nm Er:glass fractional laser, with few side effects and prolonged acne clearing.

  20. Bond durability in erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser-irradiated enamel.

    PubMed

    Amaral, F L B; Colucci, V; Souza-Gabriel, A E; Chinelatti, M A; Palma-Dibb, R G; Corona, S A M

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to evaluate the influence of thermocycling and water storage on the microtensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG)-irradiated and bur-prepared enamel. Eighty bovine incisors were selected and sectioned. Specimens were ground to produce a flat enamel surface. Samples were randomly assigned according to cavity preparation device: (I) Er:YAG laser and (II) high-speed turbine, and were subsequently restored with composite resin. They were subdivided according to the duration of water storage (WS)/number of thermocycles (TCs): 24 h WS/no TCs; 7 days WS/500 TCs; 1 month WS/2,000 TCs; 6 months WS/12,000 TCs. The teeth were sectioned into 1.0 mm(2)-thick slabs and subjected to tensile stress in a universal testing machine. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 0.05 significance level. The different periods of water storage and thermocycling did not influence the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) values in the Er:YAG laser-prepared groups. In bur-prepared enamel, the group submitted to 12,000 TCs/6 months' WS (IID) showed a significant decrease in bond strength values when compared to the group stored in water for 24 h and not submitted to thermocycling (IIA), but values were statistically similar to those obtained in all Er:YAG laser groups and in the bur- prepared groups degraded with 500 TCs/1 week WS (IIB) or 2,000 TCs/1 month WS (IIC). It may be concluded that adhesion of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to Er:YAG laser-irradiated enamel was not affected by the methods used to simulate degradation of the adhesive interface and was similar to adhesion in the bur-prepared groups in all periods of water storage and thermocycling.

  1. Detachable microsphere scalpel tips for potential use in ophthalmic surgery with the erbium:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery is performed using mechanical dissection that sometimes results in iatrogenic complications, including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal breaks, incomplete membrane delamination, retinal distortion, microscopic damage, etc. An ultraprecise laser probe would be an ideal tool for cutting away pathologic membranes; however, the depth of surgery should be precisely controlled to protect the sensitive underlying retina. The ultraprecise surgical microprobe formed by chains of dielectric spheres for use with the erbium:YAG laser source (λ=2940 nm), with extremely short optical penetration depth in tissue, was optimized. Numerical modeling demonstrated a potential advantage of five-sphere focusing chains of sapphire spheres with index n=1.71 for ablating the tissue with self-limited depth around 10 to 20 μm. Novel detachable microsphere scalpel tips formed by chains of 300 μm sapphire (or ruby) spheres were tested on ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. Detachable scalpel tips could allow for reusability of expensive mid-infrared trunk fibers between procedures, and offer more surgical customization by interchanging various scalpel tip configurations. An innovative method for aiming beam integration into the microsphere scalpel to improve the illumination of the surgical site was also shown. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.2 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters in cornea epithelium for one, three, and five sphere structures with the latter generating the smallest crater depth (10 μm) with the least amount of thermal damage depth (30 μm). Detachable microsphere laser scalpel tips may allow surgeons better precision and safety compared to mechanical scalpels when operating on delicate or sensitive areas like the retina.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb3 + and Er3 + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80 - x - y) TeO2 + (0.20) ZnO + xEr2O3 + yYb2O3 (x = 0, y = 0; x = 0.004, y = 0; x = 0, y = 0.05 and x = 0.004, y = 0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er3 + glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55 μm in infrared emission region.

  3. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  4. High-power Q-switched erbium-ytterbium codoped fiber laser using multiwalled carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ab Razak, Mohd Zulhakimi; Saleh, Zatul Saliza; Ahmad, Fauzan; Anyi, Carol Livan; Harun, Sulaiman W.; Arof, Hamzah

    2016-10-01

    Due to an enormous potential of pulsed lasers in applications such as manufacturing, metrology, environmental sensing, and biomedical diagnostics, a high-power and stable Q-switched erbium-ytterbium codoped double-clad fiber laser (EYDFL) incorporating of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) saturable absorber (SA) made based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with a 3∶2 ratio is demonstrated. The SA was fabricated by mixing a dilute PVA solution with an MWCNTs homogeneous solution. Subsequently, the mixture was sonicated and centrifuged to produce a homogeneous suspension that was left to dry at room temperature to form the MWCNTs-PVA film. The SA was formed by inserting the film between a pair of FC/PC fiber connectors. Then, it was integrated into the EYDFL's ring cavity, which uses a 5-m-long erbium-ytterbium codoped fiber (EYDF). The lasing threshold for the Q-switched EYDFL was at 330 mW. At the maximum available pump power of 900 mW, the proposed EYDFL produced Q-switched pulses with a repetition rate of 74.85 kHz, pulsewidth of ˜3.6 μs, and an average output power of about 5 mW. The maximum energy per pulse of ˜85 nJ was obtained at pump power of ˜700 mW with peak power of 21 mW.

  5. Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division-multiplexed communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Jin, C.; Huang, B.; Fontaine, N. K.; Ryf, R.; Shang, K.; Grégoire, N.; Morency, S.; Essiambre, R.-J.; Li, G.; Messaddeq, Y.; Larochelle, S.

    2016-08-01

    Space-division multiplexing (SDM), whereby multiple spatial channels in multimode and multicore optical fibres are used to increase the total transmission capacity per fibre, is being investigated to avert a data capacity crunch and reduce the cost per transmitted bit. With the number of channels employed in SDM transmission experiments continuing to rise, there is a requirement for integrated SDM components that are scalable. Here, we demonstrate a cladding-pumped SDM erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) that consists of six uncoupled multimode erbium-doped cores. Each core supports three spatial modes, which enables the EDFA to amplify a total of 18 spatial channels (six cores × three modes) simultaneously with a single pump diode and a complexity similar to a single-mode EDFA. The amplifier delivers >20 dBm total output power per core and <7 dB noise figure over the C-band. This cladding-pumped EDFA enables combined space-division and wavelength-division multiplexed transmission over multiple multimode fibre spans.

  6. A Study on Fractional Erbium Glass Laser Therapy Versus Chemical Peeling for the Treatment of Melasma in Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis and a common dermatologic skin disease that occurs on sun-exposed areas of face. Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of non-ablative 1,550 nm Erbium glass fractional laser therapy and compare results with those obtained with chemical peeling. Materials and Methods: We selected 30 patients of melasma aged between 20 years and 50 years for the study. The patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Group I patients were subjected to four sessions of 1,550 nm Erbium glass non-ablative fractional laser at 3 weeks interval. In group II patients, four sessions of chemical peeling with 70% glycolic acid was performed. Results: After 12 weeks of treatment, percentage reduction in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) score was seen in 62.9% in the laser group and 58.7% in the peels group. Conclusion: It was observed that 1,550 nm fractional laser is as effective as 70% glycolic acid peel in reducing MASI score in patients with melasma. PMID:24163531

  7. Vector similariton erbium-doped all-fiber laser generating sub-100-fs nJ pulses at 100 MHz.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Michel; Piché, Michel

    2016-02-08

    Erbium-doped mode-locked fiber lasers with repetition rates comparable to those of solid-state lasers and generating nJ pulses are required for many applications. Our goal was to design a fiber laser that would meet such requirements, that could be built at relatively low cost and that would be reliable and robust. We thus developed a high-fundamental-repetition-rate erbium-doped all-fiber laser operating in the amplifier similariton regime. Experimental characterization shows that this laser, which is mode-locked by nonlinear polarization evolution, emits 76-fs pulses with an energy of 1.17 nJ at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. Numerical simulations support the interpretation of self-similar evolution of the pulse in the gain fiber. More specifically we introduce the concept of vector similariton in fiber lasers. The coupled x- and y- polarization components of such a pulse have a pulse profile with a linear chirp and their combined power profile evolves self-similarly when the nonlinear asymptotic regime is reached in the gain fiber.

  8. Optical and structural characterization of thermal oxidation effects of erbium thin films deposited by electron beam on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kamineni, Himani S.; Kamineni, Vimal K.; Moore, Richard L.; Gallis, Spyros; Diebold, Alain C.; Huang Mengbing; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal oxidation effects on the structural, compositional, and optical properties of erbium films deposited on silicon via electron beam evaporation were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. A gradual rise in oxidation temperature from 700 to 900 deg. C resulted in a transition from ErO- to Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich phase. Additional increase in oxidation temperature above 1000 deg. C led to the formation of erbium silicate due to further oxygen incorporation, as well as silicon out-diffusion from the substrate. A silicon oxide interfacial layer was also detected, with its thickness increasing with higher oxidation temperature. Additionally, film refractive index decreased, while its Tauc bandgap value increased from {approx}5.2 eV to {approx}6.4 eV, as the oxidation temperature was raised from 700 deg. C to above 900 deg. C. These transformations were accompanied by the appearance of an intense and broad absorption band below the optical gap. Thermal oxidation effects are discussed in the context of film structural characteristics and defect states.

  9. A Novel Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Simulator for Gain Excursion Estimation in Multi-Channel Dynamic Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sharbani; Priye, Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    A novel erbium-doped fiber amplifier simulator designed using the SIMULINK toolbox of MATLAB 7.0 (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) is reported in this article. The present simulator has an ability to incorporate multi-channel amplification simultaneously in both the C- and L-bands. It is realized by defining new FUNCTION block sets and replacing the MATLAB FUNCTION block set reported earlier for multi-channel amplification. Spectral variation of gain for an erbium-doped fiber amplifier simulator is first verified in both the C- and L-bands. Next, the simulator is employed to study gain excursion in a multi-channel dynamic optical network, where the change in the gain excursion by varying the pump power has also been estimated. The present approach to estimate the gain excursion will find applications in quantifying inter-channel cross-talk due to cross-gain saturation among co-propagating multi-channels in a dynamic optical network.

  10. Single-polarization, switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with two polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Mao, Xiangqiao; Ning, Tigang; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-08-04

    An improved erbium-doped fiber laser configuration for achieving single-polarization, switchable dual-wavelength of orthogonal polarizations oscillations at room temperature is proposed. For the first time, two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) directly written in a polarization-maintaining (PM) and photosensitive erbium-doped fiber (PMPEDF) as the wavelength-selective component are used in a linear laser cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) enhanced by the polarization-maintaining FBG (PMFBG), the laser can be designed to operate in stable dual-wavelength or wavelength-switching modes with a wavelength spacing of 0.336 nm at room temperature by adjusting a polarization controller (PC). Each lasing line shows a single polarization with a polarization extinction ratio of >25 dB under different pump levels. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is greater than 50 dB. The amplitude variation with 16 times scans in nearly one and half an hour is less than 0.5 dB at both operating wavelength.

  11. Stable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode ring erbium-doped fiber laser for optical generation of microwave frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Liang, G.; Miao, X.; Zhou, X.; Li, Q.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple dual-wavelength ring erbium-doped fiber laser operating in single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) at room temperature. A pair of reflection type short-period fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), which have two different center wavelengths of 1545.072 and 1545.284 nm, are used as the wavelength-selective component of the laser. A segment of unpumped polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber (PM-EDF) is acted as a narrow multiband filter. By turning the polarization controller (PC) to enhance the polarization hole burning (PHB), the single-wavelength and dual-wavelength laser oscillations are observed at 1545.072 and 1545.284 nm. The output power variation is less than 0.6 dB for both wavelengths over a five-minute period and the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is greater than 50 dB. By beating the dual-wavelengths at a photodetector (PD), a microwave signal at 26.44 GHz is demonstrated.

  12. Low noise gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier by utilizing fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianshu; Guo, Yubin; Yan, Hongwei; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Ke

    2006-11-01

    A novel gain-clamped long wavelength band (L-band) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is proposed and experimented by using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) at the input end of the amplifier. This design provides a good gain clamping and decreases noise effectively. It uses two sections of erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pumped by a 1480-nm laser diode (LD) for higher efficiency and lower noise figure (NF). The gain is clamped at 23 dB with a variation of 0.5 dB from input signal power of -30 to -8 dBm for 1589 nm and NF below 5 dB is obtained. At the longer wavelength in L-band higher gain is also obtained and the gain is clamped at 16 dB for 1614 nm effectively. Because the FBG injects a portion of backward amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) back into the system, the gain enhances 5 dB with inputting small signal.

  13. Transform-limited pulse generation in normal cavity dispersion erbium doped single-walled carbon nanotubes mode-locked fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, M A; Krylov, A A; Ogleznev, A A; Arutyunyan, N R; Pozharov, A S; Obraztsova, E D; Dianov, E M

    2012-10-08

    We demonstrate an erbium doped fiber ring laser mode-locked with a carboxymetylcellulose high-optical quality film with dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The laser with large normal net cavity dispersion generates near bandwidth-limited picosecond inverse modified soliton pulses at 1.56 µm.

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance of Er3+ ions in a polycrystalline α-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatryan, H. R.; Zakharchenya, R. I.; Kutsenko, A. B.; Babunts, R. A.; Baranov, P. G.

    2007-06-01

    The EPR spectra of rare-earth Er3+ ions in a polycrystalline corundum α-Al2O3 synthesized by the sol-gel technology were revealed. It is shown that the EPR spectra belong to the Er3+ ions in the ground state corresponding to the lower Stark sublevel of the 4 I 15/2 term and can be described by the spin Hamiltonian of axial symmetry with an effective spin S = 1/2 and the g tensor with components g ‖ = 12.176 and g ⊥ = 4.14. The average value of the g tensor ( = 6.82) corresponds to the Γ7 state in a cubic field. Erbium is assumed to substitute for aluminum in the Al2O3 corundum crystal. The local symmetry C 3 of the Al3+ ion remains despite the pronounced expansion of the lattice around the Er3+ ion.

  15. Influence of other rare earth ions on the optical refrigeration efficiency in Yb:YLF crystals.

    PubMed

    Di Lieto, Alberto; Sottile, Alberto; Volpi, Azzurra; Zhang, Zhonghan; Seletskiy, Denis V; Tonelli, Mauro

    2014-11-17

    We investigated the effect of rare earth impurities on the cooling efficiency of Yb³⁺:LiYF₄ (Yb:YLF). The refrigeration performance of two single crystals, doped with 5%-at. Yb and with identical history but with different amount of contaminations, have been compared by measuring the cooling efficiency curves. Spectroscopic and elemental analyses of the samples have been carried out to identify the contaminants, to quantify their concentrations and to understand their effect on the cooling efficiencies. A model of energy transfer processes between Yb and other rare earth ions is suggested, identifying Erbium and Holmium as elements that produce a detrimental effect on the cooling performance.

  16. Active layer solution-processed NIR-OLEDs based on ternary erbium(III) complexes with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione and different N,N-donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ramos, P; Coya, C; Lavín, V; Martín, I R; Silva, M Ramos; Silva, P S Pereira; García-Vélez, M; Alvarez, A L; Martín-Gil, J

    2014-12-28

    Using a fluorinated 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione (Htfac) ligand and either 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), bathophenanthroline (bath) or 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline (5NO2phen) as an ancillary ligand, three new ternary erbium(iii) octacoordinated complexes have been synthesized. The single crystal structures of the new complexes (namely [Er(tfac)3(bipy)], [Er(tfac)3(bath)] and [Er(tfac)3(5NO2phen)]) have been determined and their properties have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis. After ligand-mediated excitation of these complexes in the UV, they all show the characteristic near-infrared (NIR) luminescence of the corresponding Er(3+) ion at 1532 nm. The same emission in the C-band transmission window can also be obtained from the solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with structure: glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Er(tfac)3(N,N-donor)]/Ca/Al. In spite of the fact that the photoluminescence intensity of [Er(tfac)3(5NO2phen)] is stronger than those of [Er(tfac)3(bipy)] and [Er(tfac)3(bath)], the best electroluminescence results correspond to the OLED based on the [Er(tfac)3(bath)] complex, as a consequence of the superior electron transport capabilities of bathophenanthroline.

  17. Interaction of Er{sup 3+} ions in Er-doped calcium - niobium - gallium garnet crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, A V; Popov, A V; Ryabochkina, P A; Bol'shakov, E V

    2010-08-03

    The processes of nonradiative energy transfer in calcium - niobium - gallium garnet (CNGG) crystals doped with Er{sup 3+} ions are studied. It is found that the energy of erbium ions in the Er:CNGG crystal with the erbium atomic concentrations C{sub Er}=6% and 11% is transferred via the nonradiative co-operative processes {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}; and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2{yields}} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, whose efficiency increases with increasing intensity of exciting radiation. It is shown that the cross-relaxation processes {sup 4}S{sub 3/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 15/2{yields}}{sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, whose intensity depends on the concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions, are characteristic for Er:CNGG crystals with the Er atomic concentration above 1%. (active media)

  18. Ion-Ion Neutralization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    plasma were identified using a downstream quadrupole mass spectrometer. In these experimento it is a simple matter to establish H+(H 2 0):f as the...pressure as predicted by the Thomson t2rnary mechanism whicK hzr been suownr to be valid experimentally at hiTh rrsurs (,han and Peron, 1:EI4 hereafter t...of NO , NO2 ions in various gases and the ternary recombination coefficients of these ions in the higher pres:;ure ( Thomson ) re"ie. Equation (5) cr>n

  19. The use of Erbium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in cavity preparation and surface treatment: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buyukhatipoglu, Isil; Secilmis, Asli

    2015-01-01

    From the currently available choices, esthetic restorative materials for posterior teeth are limited to composite and ceramic restoration. Ceramic inlays/onlays are reliable solutions for both of these treatments. For successful treatment planning, usable ceramic and adhesive systems should be chosen by the dentist. Since the Federal Drug Administration approval of the erbium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser-for caries removal, cavity preparation and the conditioning of tooth substance-in 1997, there have been many reports on the use of this technique in combination with composite resins. In addition, cavity pretreatment with the Er:YAG laser (laser etching) has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching of enamel and dentin. This case report presents the use of the Er:YAG in cavity preparation for composite resin restoration and surface treatment for ceramic onlay restoration of adjacent permanent molars.

  20. Single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ronghui; Zhang, Xuping; Hu, Junhui; Xia, Lan

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a single-passband microwave photonic filter based on a self-seeded multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser is demonstrated experimentally. In the filter, the multiwavelength Brillouin comb generated from the laser is used as the filter taps. The Brillouin comb is with the feature of quasi-Gaussian continuous distribution, which can ensure the filter realizes single-passband characteristic. The baseband response is suppressed effectively with the help of phase modulation. The single-passband filter has an out-of-band rejection of 25 dB. By adjusting the Brillouin multiwavelengh, the 3-dB bandwidth and the center frequency of the filter can be changed.

  1. Combining comb-filters based on tapered fibers for selective lasing performance in erbium-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez-Gomez, R. E.; Anzueto-Sanchez, G.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Basurto-Pensado, M. A.; Castrellon-Uribe, J.; Camas-Anzueto, J.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report a new method to make a selection between tunable and multi-wavelength switchable operation in an erbium-doped fiber laser. The selective lasing performance is based on two concatenated comb-filters built on tapered optical fibers. By properly adjusting curvature applied to the comb-filters, the lasing wavelength can be selective in two ways: continuous tuning or generating multi-wavelength laser oscillation. The laser exhibits an optical signal to noise ratio of ~30 dB and power stability below 1 dB at room temperature. The main achievement of this proposal is that the laser can be operating independently between tuning and multi-wavelength lasing with a high stability employing a reliable and low-cost comb filters.

  2. Raman scattering in organic semiconductors based on erbium biphthalocyanine molecules and chlorine-containing europium-lutetium triphthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Mamichev, D. A.; Dronov, M. A.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2010-08-15

    The Raman spectra of semiconductor structures based on erbium biphthalocyanine molecules and chlorine-substituted europium-lutetium triphthalocyanine molecules are studied on excitation with Ar{sup +} laser radiation at the wavelength 514 nm. The data on the spectral position of Raman intensity peaks related to vibronic states of the basic molecular groups forming the semiconductor are obtained. Raman lines irrelevant to the known vibronic states of the basic phthalocyanine molecular groups are observed in the ranges 100-500 and 500-900 cm{sup -1}. It is shown that, in the spectra of triphthalocyanine, some lines are structurally complex and shifted with respect to the characteristic lines of molecular groups by several inverse centimeters.

  3. Stabilized and tunable single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser employing ytterbium-doped fiber based interference filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Ning; Zhuang, Yuan-Hong; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng

    2017-02-01

    In this demonstration, to achieve stabilized and wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser, a short length of ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF) is utilized to serve as a spatial multi-mode interference (MMI) inside a fiber cavity for suppressing multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) significantly. In the measurement, the output powers and optical signal to noise ratios (OSNRs) of proposed EDF ring laser are measured between -9.85 and -5.71 dBm; and 38.03 and 47.95 dB, respectively, in the tuning range of 1530.0-1560.0 nm. In addition, the output SLM and stability performance are also analyzed and discussed experimentally.

  4. Utilizing ytterbium- and erbium-doped fibers for a selectable and stable single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Ning; Zhuang, Yuan-Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a stable and wavelength-tunable C-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser is experimentally demonstrated. Here, utilizing an unpumped ytterbium-doped fiber with a length of 0.6 m inside the ring cavity serving as a spatial multi-mode interference is proposed to suppress the multi-longitudinal-mode for single-longitudinal-mode output. Therefore, the output powers and optical signal-to-noise ratios of the proposed EDF ring laser are between  -11.74 and  -4.65 dBm and 34.3 and 26.9 dB, respectively. Moreover, the output performance of stability is also analyzed and discussed.

  5. Sub-100 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxing; Mou, Chengbo; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate generation of sub-100 fs pulses at 1.5 µm in a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser using a 45°-tilted fiber grating element. The laser features a genuine all-fiber configuration. Based on the unique polarization properties of the 45°-tilted fiber grating, we managed to produce sub-100 fs laser pulses through proper dispersion management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the shortest pulse generated from mode-locked lasers with fiber gratings. The output pulse has an average power of 8 mW, with a repetition rate of 47.8 MHz and pulse energy of 1.68 nJ. The performance of laser also matches well the theoretical simulations.

  6. Watt-level erbium-doped all-fiber laser at 3.44 μm.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Vincent; Maes, Frédéric; Bernier, Martin; Bah, Souleymane Toubou; D'Auteuil, Marc; Vallée, Réal

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a 3.44 μm all-fiber laser emitting a maximum of 1.5 W at room temperature, the highest continuous power ever generated from a mid-IR fiber oscillator clearly beyond 3 μm. The laser operates on the 4F(9/2)→4I(9/2) transition of erbium-doped fluoride glasses and relies on a dual pumping scheme at 974 and 1976 nm. By combining a dichroic mirror deposited on the input fiber tip and a fiber Bragg grating as an output coupler, a stable laser emission is produced with a FWHM bandwidth of less than 0.6 nm. The laser cavity has an efficiency of 19% with respect to the launched pump power at 1976 nm and no saturation is observed provided 974 nm co-pumping is sufficient. The joint effect of the two pumps is also investigated.

  7. Passively Q-switched erbium all-fiber lasers by use of thulium-doped saturable-absorber fibers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzong-Yow; Fang, Yen-Cheng; Hung, Shih-Hao

    2010-05-10

    We demonstrate all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium lasers at 1570 nm using Tm(3+)-doped saturable-absorber fibers. The absorption cross section of a Tm(3+)-doped fiber at 1570 nm was measured in a bleaching experiment to be about 1.44 x 10(-20) cm(2). With a thulium-doped fiber, sequential pulses with a pulse energy of 9 microJ and a pulse duration of about 420 ns were stably produced at repetition rates in the range 0.1 to 2 kHz. The maximum pulse repetition rate was 6 kHz, limited by the maximum pump power of a 980-nm laser diode, about 230 mW.

  8. Coupled fiber taper extraction of 1.53 microm photoluminescence from erbium doped silicon nitride photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Shambat, Gary; Gong, Yiyang; Lu, Jesse; Yerci, Selçuk; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Vucković, Jelena

    2010-03-15

    Optical fiber tapers are used to collect photoluminescence emission at approximately 1.5 microm from photonic crystal cavities fabricated in erbium doped silicon nitride on silicon. In the experiment, photoluminescence collection via one arm of the fiber taper is enhanced 2.5 times relative to free space collection, corresponding to a net collection efficiency of 4%. Theoretically, the collection efficiency into one arm of the fiber-taper with this material system and cavity design can be as high as 12.5%, but the degradation of the experimental coupling efficiency relative to this value mainly comes from scattering loss within the short taper transition regions. By varying the fiber taper offset from the cavity, a broad tuning range of coupling strength and collection efficiency is obtained. This material system combined with fiber taper collection is promising for building on-chip optical amplifiers.

  9. Optimization of output coupling ratio on the performance of a ring-cavity Brillouin-erbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Nor Azura Malini A; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Saripan, M Iqbal; Abas, Ahmad Fauzi

    2009-09-20

    The operation of a single-wavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (BEFL) system with a Brillouin pump preamplified technique for different output coupling ratios in a ring cavity is experimentally demonstrated. The characteristics of Brillouin Stokes power and tunability were investigated in this research. The efficiency of the BEFL operation was obtained at an optimum output coupling ratio of 95%. By fixing the Brillouin pump wavelength at 1550 nm while its power was set at 1.6 mW and the 1480 pump power was set to its maximum value of 135 mW, the Brillioun Stokes power was found to be 28.7 mW. The Stokes signal can be tuned within a range of 60 nm from 1520 to 1580 nm without appearances of the self-lasing cavity modes in the laser system.

  10. Broadly tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped ring fiber laser based on a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; Gong, Y. K.; Li, X. H.; Wang, L. R.

    2010-02-01

    A broadly tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped ring fiber laser based on a high-birefringence fiber loop mirror (HiBi-FLM) and a polarization controller is demonstrated experimentally. The measured transmission spectrum of HiBi-FLM covers a wide range from 1525 to 1575 nm. The wavelength of proposed laser can be flexibly tunable during this range of ˜50 nm by adjusting the polarization controller. In addition, the spacing of two wavelengths is adjustable by changing the length of HiBi fiber. The dual-wavelength lasers with the HiBi fiber length of 1 and 2 m are experimentally demonstrated and compared. The experimental results show that the proposed laser can stably operate on two wavelengths simultaneously at room temperature, and the output peak power variation is about 0.5 dB during 40 min.

  11. The use of Erbium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser in cavity preparation and surface treatment: 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Buyukhatipoglu, Isil; Secilmis, Asli

    2015-01-01

    From the currently available choices, esthetic restorative materials for posterior teeth are limited to composite and ceramic restoration. Ceramic inlays/onlays are reliable solutions for both of these treatments. For successful treatment planning, usable ceramic and adhesive systems should be chosen by the dentist. Since the Federal Drug Administration approval of the erbium: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser-for caries removal, cavity preparation and the conditioning of tooth substance-in 1997, there have been many reports on the use of this technique in combination with composite resins. In addition, cavity pretreatment with the Er:YAG laser (laser etching) has been proposed as an alternative to acid etching of enamel and dentin. This case report presents the use of the Er:YAG in cavity preparation for composite resin restoration and surface treatment for ceramic onlay restoration of adjacent permanent molars. PMID:26038665

  12. Switchable narrow linewidth single-longitudinal mode erbium fiber laser by using saturable-absorber filter and cavity loss control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junfa; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Gu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    A simple single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser is proposed and demonstrated at first by using an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as wavelength filter. Owing to the two sub-ring cavities with different cavity losses, equalized dual-wavelength output can be achieved easily utilizing cavity loss control. The SLM operation is guaranteed by self-injection feedback mechanism under low pump power. In order to improve the dual-wavelength output power, a saturable-absorber (SA) based on a 4 m unpumped EDF is inserted into the main cavity to guarantee the SLM operation under high pump power. The performance of the laser outputs has been experimental studied and all the output wavelengths have a narrow linewidth output.

  13. Observation of self-mode-locked noise-like pulses from a net normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kexuan; Tian, Jinrong; Guoyu, Heyang; Xu, Runqin; Song, Yanrong

    2017-04-01

    Self-mode-locked noise-like pulses (NLPs) were experimentally investigated from a normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser. Different from noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum, the self-mode-locked NLPs have a narrow optical spectrum of 1–2 nm and hundreds of nanoseconds duration. However, the intra-cavity maximum energy of NLPs is up to 560 nJ without pulse breaking. The higher pulse energy output is promising in the proposed fiber laser. To confirm whether self-mode-locked NLPs are caused by an invisible nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) mechanism owing to slight residual polarization asymmetry of the fiber and components used, we compared the output characteristics between self-mode-locked NLPs and NPR mode-locked pulses in the same cavity. The experimental results show that the formation mechanism of such self-mode-locked NLPs could be related to a weak NPR effect.

  14. Confocal microscopy to guide erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablation of basal cell carcinoma: an ex vivo feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Heidy; Larson, Bjorg A; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2013-09-01

    For the removal of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), laser ablation provides certain advantages relative to other treatment modalities. However, efficacy and reliability tend to be variable because tissue is vaporized such that none is available for subsequent histopathological examination for residual BCC (and to confirm complete removal of tumor). Intra-operative reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may provide a means to detect residual tumor directly on the patient and guide ablation. However, optimization of ablation parameters will be necessary to control collateral thermal damage and preserve sufficient viability in the underlying layer of tissue, so as to subsequently allow labeling of nuclear morphology with a contrast agent and imaging of residual BCC. We report the results of a preliminary study of two key parameters (fluence, number of passes) vis-à-vis the feasibility of labeling and RCM imaging in human skin ex vivo, following ablation with an erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

  15. Rational harmonic mode-locked laser using a bismuth-oxide-based highly nonlinear erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Yutaka; Hirata, Kouji; Muraguchi, Masahiro; Maeda, Joji

    2017-01-01

    We report a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser employing a bismuth-oxide-based highly nonlinear erbium-doped fiber (Bi-HNL-EDF) with a length of 1.5 m. The Bi-HNL-EDF is used as a broadband gain medium and as a noise suppressor based on self-phase modulation. The amplitude of the rational harmonic mode-locked pulses can be regulated by properly tuning the modulation parameters of the intracavity modulator. The cavity length as short as 6 m enables generation of stable and clean short pulses with a repetition frequency up to 40 GHz over the wavelength range covering both the conventional and the longer bands.

  16. A 100 mW-level single-mode switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianqun; Zhang, Liaolin; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-10-01

    A switchable dual-wavelength CW erbium-doped fiber laser with two cascaded fiber Bragg gratings has been proposed and demonstrated experimentally at room temperature. The laser uses a linear resonant cavity configuration incorporating a Sagnac loop with a polarization controller (PC) and can switch flexibly to output a single wavelength or dual wavelengths based on the polarization hole burning (PHB) effect. The slope efficiency and maximum output power can reach 23% and 96 mW, respectively. The two lasing peaks of the laser, with a narrow linewidth output and an optical signal-to-noise ratio of more than 50 dB, are located in the C and L bands of the optical communication window, respectively. The laser shows good stability with respect to the wavelength and output power.

  17. Energy transfer from luminescent centers to Er3+ in erbium-doped silicon-rich oxide films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The energy transfer mechanism between luminescent centers (LCs) and Er3+ in erbium-doped silicon-rich oxide (SROEr) films prepared by electron beam evaporation is investigated. Intense photoluminescence of the LCs (weak oxygen bonds, neutral oxygen vacancies, and Si=O states) within the active matrixes is obtained. Fast energy transfer from Si=O states to Er3+ takes advantage in the SROEr film and enhances the light emission from Er3+. The introduction of Si nanoclusters, which induces the Si=O states and facilitates the photon absorption of the Si=O states, is essential to obtain intense photoluminescence from both Si=O states and Er3+. PMID:23981444

  18. Demonstration of a stable and uniform single-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on microfiber knot resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiping; Ren, Liyong; Ma, Chengju; Kong, Xudong; Ren, Kaili

    2016-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate an application of microfiber knot resonator (MKR) in the generation of a stable and uniform single-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). An MKR was fabricated using a microfiber a few micrometers in diameter. By embedding the MKR to the ring cavity of the EDFL, a laser with a wavelength of 1558.818 nm and a 3-dB linewidth of 0.0149 nm is demonstrated. The side mode suppression ratio of the laser is about 30 dB, and the maximum power fluctuation is about 0.85 dB. The results demonstrate that the MKR can be employed as a high-performance comb filter to realize a stable and uniform fiber laser.

  19. A C IIH II frequency-stabilized erbium-doped fiber laser and its application to coherent communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Masato; Kasai, Keisuke; Hongo, Jumpei; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2007-02-01

    We have described a frequency-stabilized, polarization-maintained erbium fiber ring laser. This laser has no frequency modulation at the output beam. A tunable single-mode laser has also been newly developed by simultaneously controlling a tunable FBG with a 1.5 GHz bandwidth and a PZT in the cavity. The frequency stability reached as high as 1.3 x 10 -11 for an integration time of 1 s and the linewidth was as narrow as 4 kHz. Using this coherent laser as a light source, we successfully transmitted a 20 Msymbol/s coherent quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal over 525 km and achieved error free transmission.

  20. The evaluation of various designs for a C and L band superfluorescent source based erbium doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanani Jazi, M.; Shahi, S.; Hekmat, M. J.; Saghafifar, H.; Khuzani, A. T.; Khalilian, H.; Baghi, M. D.

    2013-06-01

    An efficient erbium doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) is proposed by comparing the different configurations in the C and L band regions. The flat spectrum of the source over a wide range is examined in various arrangements. The suggested array employed is based on loop mirror and double-pass bidirectional sources for making a flat and stable amplified spontaneous emission power. The maximum power of each of the two 980 nm laser diodes was optimized at 180 mW. Furthermore, the place effect of the laser diode’s power near the output port was demonstrated for the first time. Finally, the optimum flattening manner of this ASE source was achieved in 185-50 mW pump powers and 32 mW total power over the 1525-1605 nm region (C+L band).

  1. Influence of lasing parameters on the cleaning efficacy of laser-activated irrigation with pulsed erbium lasers.

    PubMed

    Meire, Maarten A; Havelaerts, Sophie; De Moor, Roeland J

    2016-05-01

    Laser-activated irrigation (LAI) using erbium lasers is an irrigant agitation technique with great potential for improved cleaning of the root canal system, as shown in many in vitro studies. However, lasing parameters for LAI vary considerably and their influence remains unclear. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the influence of pulse energy, pulse frequency, pulse length, irradiation time and fibre tip shape, position and diameter on the cleaning efficacy of LAI. Transparent resin blocks containing standardized root canals (apical diameter of 0.4 mm, 6% taper, 15 mm long, with a coronal reservoir) were used as the test model. A standardized groove in the apical part of each canal wall was packed with stained dentin debris. The canals were filled with irrigant, which was activated by an erbium: yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser (2940 nm, AT Fidelis, Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia). In each experiment, one laser parameter was varied, while the others remained constant. In this way, the influence of pulse energy (10-40 mJ), pulse length (50-1000 μs), frequency (5-30 Hz), irradiation time (5-40 s) and fibre tip shape (flat or conical), position (pulp chamber, canal entrance, next to groove) and diameter (300-600 μm) was determined by treating 20 canals per parameter. The amount of debris remaining in the groove after each LAI procedure was scored and compared among the different treatments. The parameters significantly (P < 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis) affecting debris removal from the groove were fibre tip position, pulse length, pulse energy, irradiation time and frequency. Fibre tip shape and diameter had no significant influence on the cleaning efficacy.

  2. Laser-assisted cavity preparation and adhesion to erbium-lased tooth structure: part 1. Laser-assisted cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Delmé, Katleen Ilse Maria

    2009-12-01

    The use of the ruby laser (693.4 nm) was first described in 1960, and it was applied for hard tissue ablation in 1964. Different wavelengths [Nd:YAG (1.065 microm), CO2 (9.6 microm), Ho:YAG (2.12 microm)] were consequently explored. Due to massive thermal side effects, these wavelengths caused increased temperature in dental pulp, as well as microcracks and carbonization. The use of this laser for dental hard tissue preparation was eventually abandoned. At the end of the 1980s, excimer lasers (ultraviolet) and the erbium laser (infrared) were developed, with the advantages of improved temperature control and smaller penetration depths. With the development of smaller devices and improved knowledge of how to limit damage to the surrounding tissues, new ablation techniques were established in the 1990s. There is still contradiction in the current literature, however, in that different wavelengths are advocated for hard tissue removal, and heterogeneity in laser parameters and power densities remain. In this review, the effects of the wavelengths presently used for cavity preparation are evaluated. We conclude that erbium lasers (Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG) are most efficient and, with the right parameters, the thermal side effects are small. There is a substantial need for "gold standards", although this is difficult to establish in practice owing to different laser parameters (including pulse repetition rate, amount of cooling, energy delivered per pulse, and types of pulses) and target specificity (tissue interaction with sound or decayed enamel or dentin, and the extent of (de)mineralization) which influence tissue interaction.

  3. Validation efforts for the neutronics of a plutonium erbium zirconium oxide inert matrix light water reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paratte, J. M.; Chawla, R.; Früh, R.; Joneja, O. P.; Pelloni, S.; Pralong, C.

    1999-08-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) neutronics codes and cross-section libraries need further qualification when used for the calculation of inert matrix fuel (IMF) cells. Three types of validation efforts have been undertaken for the PuO 2-Er 2O 3-ZrO 2 IMF concept under development at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Firstly, the PSI calculational scheme, based on the BOXER code and its data library, has been applied to the analysis of a range of LWR experiments with PuO 2-UO 2 fuel, conducted earlier at PSI's PROTEUS facility. The generally good agreement obtained between calculated and measured parameters gives confidence in the ability of the employed calculational scheme to correctly modelize Pu-containing fuel cells. Secondly, reactivity effects of various burnable poisons in a ZrO 2 matrix were measured in the CROCUS reactor of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne. Modelling these experiments with BOXER resulted in satisfactory prediction of measured reactivity ratios (relative to a soluble-boron standard) for most of the experimental rods employed. This was particularly the case for experiments with erbium, as well as with mixtures of erbium and europium (the latter being used to simulate the effects of overlapping resonances, as would be expected in the case of a Pu-Er IMF). Finally, as there are no experimental results available from power reactors employing IMFs, the validation of burnup calculations (at the cell level) has been based on results obtained in the framework of an international benchmark exercise on the physics of LWRs employing IMFs. Certain discrepancies in calculated parameters have been observed in this context, several of which can be attributed to specific differences in cross-section libraries.

  4. Preparation and characterization of visible-light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst Co-doped with nitrogen and erbium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guihua; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Juihui; Wu, Chenglin; Liang, Huading; Yang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    A series of nitrogen and erbium co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-hydrothermal method. The structure and properties of the photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The XRD and BET results showed that co-doping inhibited the increase of crystallite size and enlarged specific surface areas. XPS spectroscopy indicated nitrogen atoms were incorporated into TiO2 lattice, and erbium atoms mostly existed in the forms of Er2O3. A shift of the absorption edge to the lower energy and four absorption bands located at 654, 544, 524 and 489 nm attributed to the 4f transitions of 4I15/2 --> 4F2/9, 4I15/2 --> 4S3/2, 4I15/2 --> 2H11/2, 4I15/2 --> 4F7/2 of Er3+ were observed using DRS spectroscopy. The catalytic efficency was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic performance of the co-doped TiO2 was related with the hydrothermal temperature and the molar ratio of N/Ti, and they showed higher acitivites than pure TiO2. Results determined by fluorescence technique revealed that irradiation (lambda > 400 nm) of TiO2 photocatalyst dispersed in MO solution induces the generation of the highly active hydroxyl radicals (OH). It indicated the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 photocatalyst were correlation with the formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and other active oxygen species.

  5. Mode-locking of thulium-doped and erbium-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Lynn Elizabeth

    This thesis reports work on passive mode-locking of thulium-doped and erbium-doped fiber ring lasers using the technique of polarization additive pulse mode-locking (P-APM). A self-starting, mode-locked Tm+3-doped fiber laser was demonstrated with 360 to 500 fsec pulses tunable from 1.8 to 1.9 μm, the largest tuning range demonstrated from a rare-earth doped fiber. This laser operated in the soliton regime due to the large negative group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fiber at 1.8 μm. A possible application to optical coherence tomography on biomedical tissue was explored. A stretched-pulse Er+3-doped laser at 1.55 μm was optimized for the application of frequency-doubling to 775 nm where the pulses can be used as a seed for a Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier. This laser incorporated segments of fiber with positive and negative GVD to avoid operation in the soliton regime. Compressed fundamental pulses of 100 fsec and 2.7 nJ were obtained, and three nonlinear crystals, β- BaB2O4 (BBO), KNbO3 (potassium niobate), and LiB3O5 (LBO), were evaluated for frequency doubling. Near transform-limited pulses at 771 nm with average powers of 8.7 mW were obtained with a 1-cm BBO crystal, corresponding to conversion efficiencies of up to 10%. Frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) measurements were performed on both the fundamental and doubled pulses to better characterize the laser. The effect of linear birefringence on P-APM was explored through numerical simulations for the case of standard fibers, where the two are of the same order. Although reduced by the birefringence, pulse shaping still occurred and there was no inherent periodicity due to the fiber beat-length. Measurements of birefringence and temperature sensitivity of both standard and polarization maintaining (PM) fibers were also performed. Experimental work toward an environmentally stable Er+3-doped fiber laser included two different schemes. The first design was comprised of only PM-fiber, but stable

  6. Plasma source ion implantation to increase the adhesion of subsequently deposited coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B.P.; Walter, K.C.; Taylor, T.N.

    1997-10-01

    In Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) an object is placed in a plasma and pulse biased to a high negative potential, so as to implant the plasma ions into the surface of the object. Although ion implantation, by itself, can yield desirable surface modification, it is even more useful as a method of creating a functionally graded interface between the substrate material and a subsequently deposited coating, which may be produced by altering operating conditions on the same plasma source. Although this interfacial region is very thin - as little as 20 nm - it can greatly increase the adhesion of the deposited coatings. We present here a description of this process, and compare a simulation of the graded interface with an XPS depth profile of the interfacial region for erbium metal implanted into steel.

  7. Super-enhancement of 1.54 μm emission from erbium codoped with oxygen in silicon-on-insulator

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, M. A.; Milošević, M. M.; Gorin, A.; Gwilliam, R. M.; Homewood, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the super enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er emission in erbium doped silicon-on-insulator when codoped with oxygen at a ratio of 1:1. This is attributed to a more favourable crystal field splitting in the substitutional tetrahedral site favoured for the singly coordinated case. The results on these carefully matched implant profiles show that optical response is highly determined by the amount and ratio of erbium and oxygen present in the sample and ratios of O:Er greater than unity are severely detrimental to the Er emission. The most efficient luminescence is forty times higher than in silicon-on-insulator implanted with Er only. This super enhancement now offers a realistic route not only for optical communication applications but also for the implementation of silicon photonic integrated circuits for sensing, biomedical instrumentation and quantum communication. PMID:27874059

  8. Experimental study of a symmetrically-pumped distributed feed-back Erbium-doped fiber laser with a tunable phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmenkov, Yu O.; Kir'yanov, A. V.; Pérez-Millán, P.; Cruz, J. L.; Andrés, M. V.

    2008-05-01

    We report an experimental study of a symmetrically-pumped distributed feed-back (DFB) Erbium-doped fiber laser (EFL) with a tunable phase shift induced in the center of the laser cavity. The tunable phase shift is produced using a magnetostrictive transducer. We demonstrate that lasing is observed in our experimental arrangement at any value of the phase shift that is owing to a noticeable birefringence induced by the latter. The laser wavelength is shown to periodically change with increasing pump power due to the fiber heating, which stems from the Stokes loss, the excited state absorption and Auger up-conversion in Erbium, and high thermal expansion coefficient of the magnetostrictive transducer.

  9. Arrayed narrow linewidth erbium-doped waveguide-distributed feedback lasers on an ultra-low-loss silicon-nitride platform.

    PubMed

    Belt, Michael; Huffman, Taran; Davenport, Michael L; Li, Wenzao; Barton, Jonathon S; Blumenthal, Daniel J

    2013-11-15

    We demonstrate an array of erbium-doped waveguide-distributed feedback lasers on an ultra-low-loss Si(3)N(4) platform. Sidewall gratings providing the lasing feedback are defined in the silicon-nitride layer using 248 nm stepper lithography, while the gain is provided by a reactive co-sputtered erbium-doped aluminum-oxide layer. We observe lasing output over a 12 nm wavelength range (1531-1543 nm) from the array of five separate lasers. Output powers of 8 μW and lasing linewidths of 501 kHz are obtained. Single-mode operation is confirmed, with side-mode suppression ratios over 35 dB for all designs.

  10. Super-enhancement of 1.54 μm emission from erbium codoped with oxygen in silicon-on-insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourenço, M. A.; Milošević, M. M.; Gorin, A.; Gwilliam, R. M.; Homewood, K. P.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the super enhancement of the 1.54 μm Er emission in erbium doped silicon-on-insulator when codoped with oxygen at a ratio of 1:1. This is attributed to a more favourable crystal field splitting in the substitutional tetrahedral site favoured for the singly coordinated case. The results on these carefully matched implant profiles show that optical response is highly determined by the amount and ratio of erbium and oxygen present in the sample and ratios of O:Er greater than unity are severely detrimental to the Er emission. The most efficient luminescence is forty times higher than in silicon-on-insulator implanted with Er only. This super enhancement now offers a realistic route not only for optical communication applications but also for the implementation of silicon photonic integrated circuits for sensing, biomedical instrumentation and quantum communication.

  11. Two-wavelength pump-probe technique using single distributed feedback laser array to probe gain recovery of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Keiji; Yoshikuni, Yuzo

    2017-03-01

    We propose a two-wavelength pump-probe technique to probe the gain recovery characteristics of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The two-wavelength pulse pairs are generated through the direct modulation of a single distributed feedback laser array. The proposed technique allows us to measure the wavelength dependence of the recovery time after gain saturation is induced by a signal of the same wavelength.

  12. Ablative fractionated erbium:YAG laser for the treatment of ice pick alar scars due to neodymium:YAG laser burns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel L; Babcock, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a case of ice pick scars forming in the nasal alar grooves of a patient who was treated with a 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for facial telangiectasias. Treatment options for these types of scars are reviewed and specifically we report the success of an ablative fractionated 2940-nm erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser.

  13. Evaluation of the optical switching characteristics of erbium-doped fibres for the development of a fibre Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigas, Evangelos; Correia, R.; Stathopoulos, N. A.; Savaidis, S. P.; James, S. W.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Kirby, P. B.; Tatam, R. P.

    2014-05-01

    A polling topology that employs optical switching based on the properties of erbium-doped fibres (EDFs) is used to interrogate an array of FBGs. The properties of the EDF are investigated in its pumped and un-pumped states and the EDFs' switching properties are evaluated by comparing them with a high performance electronically controlled MEM optical switch. Potential advantages of the proposed technique are discussed.

  14. Localised doping of Li-silicate glasses by Er 3+ ion exchange to fabricate thin optical layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavcova, Linda; Spirkova, Jarmila; Mika, Martin; Mackova, Anna; Oswald, Jiri; Langrova, Anna; Vacik, Jiri

    2007-03-01

    Here we present a new method of fabrication of erbium containing thin optical layers that could be interesting for photonics active structures. These layers were fabricated by a purely thermal ion-exchange process at temperatures above the transformation point of the used glasses to minimise internal strain that arose in the layers during the fabrication process. In order to accelerate migration of rather immobile Er3+ ions, we used substrates with a high content of easily exchangeable Li+ ions. The substrates were prepared either as specially designed Li-glasses or glasses with intentionally created Li-containing surface layers. A number of nuclear analytical methods (i.e., Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy-RBS, and neutron depth profiling-NDP), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX) were used to confirm presence of erbium in the glass surface and to determine the chemical composition of the fabricated layers. Photoluminescence spectra of the fabricated samples were measured to examine desired emission at the wavelength of 1.5 μm.

  15. Anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of erbium and ytterbium in zircon, ZrSiO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.N.; Briggs, Charles; Tsang, T.; Senftle, F.; Alexander, Corrine

    1977-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made for both Er- and Yb-doped (1̃03ppm) zircon single crystals with the magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the [001] axis. Large susceptibility anisotropies were found in both cases. Our observed anisotropies of ZrSiO4: Yb indicate small populations (1̃9%) of Yb ions at the axial (tetragonal) sites, as the susceptibility of ZrSiO4: Yb would be nearly isotropic if the Yb ions only occupied the orthorhombic sites. For Er3+ in orthorhombic sites of zircon, our data indicate that the first excited state is paramagnetic with gx = 9 and gy 5̃ at 20 cm-1 above the ground state (gx 0̃, gy 1̃5). The first excited state is quite similar to the ground states observed for Er3+ in many host lattices. ?? 1977.

  16. Monolithic integration of erbium-doped amplifiers with silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Laura; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ay, Feridun; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2010-12-20

    Monolithic integration of Al2O3:Er3+ amplifier technology with passive silicon-on-insulator waveguides is demonstrated. A signal enhancement of >7 dB at 1533 nm wavelength is obtained. The straightforward wafer-scale fabrication process, which includes reactive co-sputtering and subsequent reactive ion etching, allows for parallel integration of multiple amplifier and laser sections with silicon or other photonic circuits on a chip.

  17. Target dependent femtosecond laser plasma implantation dynamics in enabling silica for high density erbium doping.

    PubMed

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Murray, Matthew; Kakkar, Tarun; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil; Zolnai, Zsolt; Steenson, D P; Jha, Animesh; Jose, Gin

    2015-09-15

    Chemical dissimilarity of tellurium oxide with silica glass increases phase separation and crystallization tendency when mixed and melted for making a glass. We report a novel technique for incorporating an Er(3+)-doped tellurite glass composition into silica substrates through a femtosecond (fs) laser generated plasma assisted process. The engineered material consequently exhibits the spectroscopic properties of Er(3+)-ions, which are unachievable in pure silica and implies this as an ideal material for integrated photonics platforms. Formation of a well-defined metastable and homogeneous glass structure with Er(3+)-ions in a silica network, modified with tellurite has been characterized using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and structural analyses using HRTEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and laser excitation techniques, confirm that such fs-laser plasma implanted glasses may be engineered for significantly higher concentration of Er(3+)-ions without clustering, validated by the record high lifetime-density product 0.96 × 10(19) s.cm(-3). Characterization of planar optical layers and photoluminescence emission spectra were undertaken to determine their thickness, refractive indices and photoluminescence properties, as a function of Er(3+) concentration via different target glasses. The increased Er(3+) content in the target glass enhance the refractive index and photoluminescence intensity of the modified silica layer whilst the lifetime and thickness decrease.

  18. Target dependent femtosecond laser plasma implantation dynamics in enabling silica for high density erbium doping

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Murray, Matthew; Kakkar, Tarun; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil; Zolnai, Zsolt; Steenson, D.P.; Jha, Animesh; Jose, Gin

    2015-01-01

    Chemical dissimilarity of tellurium oxide with silica glass increases phase separation and crystallization tendency when mixed and melted for making a glass. We report a novel technique for incorporating an Er3+-doped tellurite glass composition into silica substrates through a femtosecond (fs) laser generated plasma assisted process. The engineered material consequently exhibits the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-ions, which are unachievable in pure silica and implies this as an ideal material for integrated photonics platforms. Formation of a well-defined metastable and homogeneous glass structure with Er3+-ions in a silica network, modified with tellurite has been characterized using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and structural analyses using HRTEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and laser excitation techniques, confirm that such fs-laser plasma implanted glasses may be engineered for significantly higher concentration of Er3+-ions without clustering, validated by the record high lifetime-density product 0.96 × 1019 s.cm−3. Characterization of planar optical layers and photoluminescence emission spectra were undertaken to determine their thickness, refractive indices and photoluminescence properties, as a function of Er3+ concentration via different target glasses. The increased Er3+ content in the target glass enhance the refractive index and photoluminescence intensity of the modified silica layer whilst the lifetime and thickness decrease. PMID:26370060

  19. Target dependent femtosecond laser plasma implantation dynamics in enabling silica for high density erbium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Murray, Matthew; Kakkar, Tarun; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil; Zolnai, Zsolt; Steenson, D. P.; Jha, Animesh; Jose, Gin

    2015-09-01

    Chemical dissimilarity of tellurium oxide with silica glass increases phase separation and crystallization tendency when mixed and melted for making a glass. We report a novel technique for incorporating an Er3+-doped tellurite glass composition into silica substrates through a femtosecond (fs) laser generated plasma assisted process. The engineered material consequently exhibits the spectroscopic properties of Er3+-ions, which are unachievable in pure silica and implies this as an ideal material for integrated photonics platforms. Formation of a well-defined metastable and homogeneous glass structure with Er3+-ions in a silica network, modified with tellurite has been characterized using high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The chemical and structural analyses using HRTEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and laser excitation techniques, confirm that such fs-laser plasma implanted glasses may be engineered for significantly higher concentration of Er3+-ions without clustering, validated by the record high lifetime-density product 0.96 × 1019 s.cm-3. Characterization of planar optical layers and photoluminescence emission spectra were undertaken to determine their thickness, refractive indices and photoluminescence properties, as a function of Er3+ concentration via different target glasses. The increased Er3+ content in the target glass enhance the refractive index and photoluminescence intensity of the modified silica layer whilst the lifetime and thickness decrease.

  20. Signal Enhancement and Limiting Factors in Waveguides Containing Si Nanoclusters and Er3+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Daldosso, Nicola; García, Cristina; Pellegrino, Paolo; Garrido, Blas; Gourbilleau, Fabrice; Rizk, Richard; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2007-10-01

    Rib-loaded waveguides containing Er3+ ions coupled to Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) prepared by reactive magnetron co-sputtering have been studied with the aim of improving the optical amplification at 1.54 μm. A set of waveguides with different refractive indices has been fabricated by reducing the annealing duration to investigate the influence of the reorganization (quality) of the dielectric matrix and of the Si-nc clustering on the amplification of Er3+ signal. Insertion losses, photoluminescence, lifetime and pump/probe measurements have been carried out to characterize, understand and optimize the main factors that are preventing a net optical gain in these samples, i.e., low excitable erbium fraction through the nanoclusters, cooperative up-conversion and confined carrier absorption. Evidences of partial inversion of the Er3+ ions excited via Si-nc are presented.

  1. Improving the Photoelectric Characteristics of MoS2 Thin Films by Doping Rare Earth Element Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Miaofei; Ma, Xiying

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the surface morphologies, crystal structures, and optical characteristics of rare earth element erbium (Er)-doped MoS2 (Er: MoS2) thin films fabricated on Si substrates via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The surface mopography, crystalline structure, light absorption property, and the photoelectronic characteristics of the Er: MoS2 films were studied. The results indicate that doping makes the crystallinity of MoS2 films better than that of the undoped film. Meanwhile, the electron mobility and conductivity of the Er-doped MoS2 films increase about one order of magnitude, and the current-voltage ( I- V) and the photoelectric response characteristics of the Er:MoS2/Si heterojunction increase significantly. Moreover, Er-doped MoS2 films exhibit strong light absorption and photoluminescence in the visible light range at room temperature; the intensity is enhanced by about twice that of the undoped film. The results indicate that the doping of MoS2 with Er can significantly improve the photoelectric characteristics and can be used to fabricate highly efficient luminescence and optoelectronic devices.

  2. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics. PMID:27010509

  3. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  4. Optimum configuration and characteristic comparisons of multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber amplifier for hybrid digital/analog WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tsair-Chung; Chang, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Yung-Kuang

    2000-04-01

    We theoretically investigate various configurations of erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for simultaneously amplifying AM-VSB analog CATV signal and multiple optical digital baseband signals in hybrid wavelength-division multiplexing (H-WDM) systems. The design criterion of H-WDM EDFA is to keep the differential channel output power among digital channels at ≤0.2 dB while providing a high saturated output power of ≥60 mW and a low noise figure of ≤4 dB for the analog channel. A total of nine EDFA configurations are examined and compared in this work, including the dual-forward, dual-backward, and different bidirectional pumping schemes, each with and without the midway optical isolator. The investigation provides the optimum EDFA configuration to design both power and in-line amplifiers for hybrid analog/digital WDM lightwave systems. Such H-WDM technology allows direct transmission of AM-VSB/QAM video traffic from the fiber backbone supertrunking networks to the hybrid-fiber-coaxial (HFC), fiber-to-the-curb (FTTC), or fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) broadband access networks without the complicated and costly signal format conversion at the CATV head-end and hubs.

  5. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H.; Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.; Tenorio-Torres, A.; Duran-Sanchez, M.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ~300 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10 dB bandwidth of ~130 nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized.

  6. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-03-24

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics.

  7. Discrimination of strain and temperature based on a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber incorporating an erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Geun; Chung, Youngjoo; Lee, Sang Bae

    2009-06-01

    A simple sensing method for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain is investigated by using a Sagnac fiber loop mirror composed of a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF) incorporating an erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Amplified spontaneous emission created by a pumped EDF is transmitted to a Sagnac fiber loop mirror. The interference between two counter-propagating signals in a Sagnac fiber loop mirror generates a periodic transmission spectrum with respect to wavelength. When external temperature is increased, the transmission peak power reduces because the amplified spontaneous emission of the EDF is decreased by the applied temperature change (0.04 dB/°C). The peak wavelength is shifted into the shorter wavelength because of the negative temperature dependence of the birefringence of the PM-PCF (0.3 pm/°C). As the applied strain increases, the peak wavelength of the transmission spectrum of the Sagnac loop mirror incorporating the EDF shifts into a longer wavelength (1.3 pm/με) because the phase change of the proposed sensing probe is directly proportional to the applied strain. The transmission peak power, however, is not changed by the applied strain. Since the source and the sensing probe are integrated, the overall system configuration is significantly simplified without requiring any additional broadband light source. Therefore, it is possible to simultaneously measure temperature and strain by monitoring the variation of transmission peak power and peak wavelength, respectively.

  8. Theoretical Analysis and Experiment on a Novel Kind of Single Mode Large-Mode Erbium-Doped Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Lisong; Wei, Huai; Sun, Jiang; Kang, Zexin; Jian, Shuisheng

    A kind of large-mode-area (LMA) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is required to get high output power with good beam quality. This new LMA EDF has a multi-layer-core structure which makes the mode area bigger. The key process is deposition of multi-layer-core structure by using modified MCVD to make every layer of the core with different refractive index. Furthermore, the key optical specifications of the fiber are measured. The absorption peak is 10.6 dB/m at 980 nm and 20 dB/m at 1550 nm. The cutoff wavelength is about 1300 nm. The mode field diameter (MFD) is 12.6 μm and 13.2 μm at 1550 nm according to Petermann-2 and Gaussian definitions, respectively. The core diameter is about 12 μm. The MFD of conventional standard EDFs is in a limited range ~5-8 μm, so the experimental result has made a big progress for MFD. Especially, we can improve the parameters of the multi-layer-core structure to get single mode EDF with larger mode area for high power fiber laser.

  9. Suppression of continuous lasing in a carbon nanotube polyimide film mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Gui, Lili; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Guangzhen; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Zhu, Jinsong; Yang, Changxi

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated an erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube-dispersed polyimide (SWNT-PI) film. Different mode-locking operations were compared and analyzed utilizing SWNT-PI films with different concentrations (2, 1, and 0.25 wt.%, respectively). It was found that the continuous single-pulse mode-locking operation was often accompanied by a continuous wave oscillation part for the 1 and 0.25 wt.% SWNT-PI films, whereas the 2 wt.% SWNT-PI film presented the most excellent mode-locking performance, thanks to sufficient modulation depth. Using the 2 wt.% SWNT-PI film, a stable pulse train with a pulse width of 840 fs and a repetition rate of 15.3 MHz was achieved. The average output power was 0.33 mW at the pump power of 155 mW under an output coupling ratio of 10%. Operational performance of the laser cavity when employing the 2 wt.% SWNT-PI film was also demonstrated.

  10. Tunable, stable source of femtosecond pulses near 2 μm via supercontinuum of an Erbium mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Klose, Andrew; Ycas, Gabriel; Maser, Daniel L; Diddams, Scott A

    2014-11-17

    A source of ultrashort pulses of light in the 2 μm region was constructed using supercontinuum broadening from an erbium mode-locked laser. The output spectrum spanned 1000 nm to 2200 nm with an average power of 250 mW. A pulse width of 39 fs for part of the spectrum in the 2000 nm region, corresponding to less than six optical cycles, was achieved. A heterodyne measurement of the free-running mode-locked laser with a narrow-linewidth continuous wave laser resulted in a near shot noise-limited beat note with a signal-to-noise ratio of 45 dB in a 10 kHz resolution bandwidth. The relative intensity noise of the broadband system was investigated over the entire supercontinuum, and the integrated relative intensity noise of the 2000 nm portion of the spectrum was 1.7 × 10(-3). The long-term stability of the system was characterized, and intensity fluctuations in the spectrum were found to be highly correlated throughout the supercontinuum. Spectroscopic limitations due to the laser noise characteristics are discussed.

  11. Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lo, Jui-Yung; Tseng, Wei-Hsuan; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-10-21

    With the intra-cavity nano-scale charcoal powder based saturable absorber, the 455-fs passive mode-locking of an L-band erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated. The size reduction of charcoal nano-particle is implemented with a simple imprinting-exfoliation-wiping method, which assists to increase the transmittance up to 0.91 with corresponding modulation depth of 26%. By detuning the power gain from 17 to 21 dB and cavity dispersion from -0.004 to -0.156 ps² of the EDFL, the shortening of mode-locked pulsewidth from picosecond to sub-picosecond by the transformation of the pulse forming mechanism from self-amplitude modulation (SAM) to the combining effect of self-phase modulation (SPM) and group delay dispersion (GDD) is observed. A narrower spectrum with 3-dB linewidth of 1.83-nm is in the SAM case, whereas the spectral linewidth broadens to 5.86 nm with significant Kelly sideband pair can be observed if the EDFL enters into the SPM regime. The mode-locking mechanism transferred from SAM to SPM/GDD dominates the pulse shortening procedure in the EDFL, whereas the intrinsic defects in charcoal nano-particle only affect the pulse formation at initial stage. The minor role of the saturable absorber played in the EDFL cavity with strongest SPM is observed.

  12. Tunable wavelength erbium doped fiber linear cavity laser based on mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Maciel, M.; Montenegro Orenday, J. A.; Estudillo Ayala, J. M.; Jáuregui-Vázquez, D.; Sierra-Hernandez, J. M.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2016-09-01

    Tunable wavelength erbium doped fiber linear cavity laser, based on mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings (MLPFG) is presented. The laser was tuned applying pressure over the MLPFG, in order to monitor this, pressure is applied over a plate with periodic grooves that has a short length, this pressure is controlled by a digital torque tester as a result tunable effect is observed. The grooves have a period of 620µm and the maximal pressure without breakpoint fiber is around 0.80lb-in2. Furthermore, the MLPFG used can be erased, reconfigured and exhibit a transmission spectra with termal stability, similar to high cost photoinduced long period gratings. In this work, by pressure increment distributed over the MLPFG from 0.40 lb-in2 to 0. 70 lb-in 2, tuned operation range of 14nm was observed and single line emission was tuned in the C telecommunication band. According to the stability analysis the signal to noise ratio was 29 dB and minimal wavelength oscillations of 0.29nm.

  13. A tunable wavelength erbium doped fiber ring laser based on mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Maciel, M.; López Dieguez, Y.; Montenegro Orenday, J. A.; Jáuregui Vázquez, D.; Sierra Hernández, J. M.; Huerta Masscote, E. H.; Rojas Laguna, R.; Estudillo Ayala, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    A tunable wavelength erbium doped fiber ring laser, based on mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings (MLPFG) is presented. The laser was tuned applying pressure over the MLPFG, in order to control this, pressure is applied over a plate with periodic grooves that has a short length, this pressure is applied by a digital torque tester, as a result tunable effect is observed. The grooves have a period of 630μm and the maximal pressure without breakpoint fiber is around 0.80lb-in2. Furthermore, the MLPFG used can be erased, reconfigured and exhibit a transmission spectra with thermal stability, similar to high cost photoinduced long period gratings. In this work, by pressure increment distributed over the MLPFG from 0.20 lb-in2 to 0.50 lb-inμ, tuned operation range of 10nm was observed and single line emission was tuned between C and L telecommunications bands. According to the stability analysis the signal to noise ratio and linewidth observed were 35dB and 0.2nm respectively.

  14. Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Dong; She, Xiaoyang; Du, Bobo; Yang, Dexing; Zhang, Wending; Song, Kun; Cui, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Biqiang; Peng, Tao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-03-01

    Few-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets are fabricated by a liquid exfoliation technique using sodium deoxycholate bile salt as surfactant, and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated based on a balanced twin-detector measurement scheme. It is demonstrated that both types of nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. By depositing the nanosheets on side polished fiber (SPF) or mixing the nanosheets with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, SPF-WSe2 saturable absorber (SA), SPF-MoSe2 SA, PVA-WSe2 SA, and PVA-MoSe2 SA are successfully fabricated and further tested in erbium-doped fiber lasers. The SPF-based SA is capable of operating at the high pump regime without damage, and a train of 3252.65 MHz harmonically mode-locked pulses are obtained based on the SPF-WSe2 SA. Soliton mode locking operations are also achieved in the fiber laser separately with other three types of SAs, confirming that the WSe2 and MoSe2 nanosheets could act as cost-effective high-power SAs for ultrafast optics.

  15. Femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on MoS2-PVA saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Latiff, A. A.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    We fabricate a free-standing few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-polymer composite by liquid phase exfoliation of chemically pristine MoS2 crystals and use this to demonstrate a soliton mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). A stable self-started mode-locked soliton pulse is generated by fine-tuning the rotation of the polarization controller at a low threshold pump power of 25 mW. Its solitonic behavior is verified by the presence of Kelly sidebands in the output spectrum. The central wavelength, pulse width, and repetition rate of the laser are 1573.7 nm, 630 fs, and 27.1 MHz, respectively. The maximum pulse energy is 0.141 nJ with peak power of 210 W at pump power of 170 mW. This result contributes to the growing body of work studying the nonlinear optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides that present new opportunities for ultrafast photonic applications.

  16. Effect of Erbium on the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 /Ag Nanocomposites under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Natarajan; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Thangaraju, Dheivasigamani; Navaneethan, Mani; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Koyama, Tadanobu; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-05

    Erbium co-doped TiO2 /Ag catalysts are synthesized by using a simple, one-step solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The catalysts exhibit anatase crystal structures with increased visible light absorption compared with pure TiO2 . Enhanced photocatalytic activity is observed with Er co-doped TiO2 /Ag nanocomposites for Rhodamine B degradation under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of 1 % Er co-doped TiO2 /Ag is much higher than that of TiO2 /Ag, TiO2 /Er, pure TiO2 , and commercial Degussa P25. The kinetics of the degradation process are studied and the pseudo-first-order rate constant (k) and half-life time (t1/2 ) of the reaction are calculated. The enhanced activity might be accredited to the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs by silver and higher visible light absorption of TiO2 induced by Er.

  17. Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped fiber mode-locked lasers enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Sotor, Jaroslaw; Sobon, Grzegorz; Tarka, Jan; Pasternak, Iwona; Krajewska, Aleksandra; Strupinski, Wlodek; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2014-03-10

    In this work we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a passively synchronized thulium (Tm) and erbium (Er) doped fiber laser mode-locked by a common graphene saturable absorber (GSA). The laser consists of two ring resonators combined with a 90 cm long common fiber branch incorporating the saturable absorber (SA). Such laser generates optical solitons centered at 1558.5 nm and 1938 nm with pulse durations of 915 fs and 1.57 ps, respectively. Both laser loops were passively synchronized at repetition frequency of 20.5025 MHz by nonlinear interaction (cross phase modulation, XPM) in common fiber branch between generated pulses. The maximum cavity mismatch of the Er-laser in synchronization regime was 0.78 mm. The synchronization mechanism was also investigated. We demonstrate that the third order nonlinearities of graphene enhance the synchronization range. In our case the range was increased about 85%. The integrated RMS timing jitter between the synchronized pulses was 67 fs.

  18. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1600 nm for photoacoustic imaging application

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lvming; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    We present a nanosecond Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser system operating at 1600 nm with a tunable repetition rate from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. A compact fiber coupled, acousto-optic modulator-based EDF ring cavity was used to generate a nanosecond seed laser at 1600 nm, and a double-cladding EDF based power amplifier was applied to achieve the maximum average power of 250 mW. In addition, 12 ns laser pulses with the maximum pulse energy of 2.4 μJ were obtained at 100 kHz. Furthermore, the Stokes shift by Raman scattering over a 25 km long fiber was measured, indicating that the laser can be potentially used to generate the high repetition rate pulses at the 1.7 μm region. Finally, we detected the photoacoustic signal from a human hair at 200 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 1.2 μJ, which demonstrates that a Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser can be a promising light source for the high speed functional photoacoustic imaging. PMID:27110032

  19. Soliton Solutions of a Generalised Nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch System in the Erbium-Doped Optical Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yue-Yang; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Chai, Jun

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system is investigated, which describes the propagation of the optical solitons in an optical fibre doped with two-level resonant impurities like erbium with the fourth-order dispersion taken into account. Bilinear forms are derived via the Hirota method, symbolic computation, and the auxiliary function. Bright solitons can be obtained for the complex envelope of the field and the measure of the polarisation for the resonant medium, while the dark ones have been deduced for the extant population inversion. Propagation of the one and two solitons is analysed with the results that the solitons keep their shapes unchanged after the interaction, except for the phase shifts, which means that the interaction is elastic. Velocities of the solitons decrease when the effect of discreteness and higher-order dispersion increases. For the bound-state solitons, which can be formed among the solitons at the same velocity, the period decreases when the effect of discreteness and higher-order dispersion increases.

  20. Improving the Photoelectric Characteristics of MoS2 Thin Films by Doping Rare Earth Element Erbium.

    PubMed

    Meng, Miaofei; Ma, Xiying

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the surface morphologies, crystal structures, and optical characteristics of rare earth element erbium (Er)-doped MoS2 (Er: MoS2) thin films fabricated on Si substrates via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The surface mopography, crystalline structure, light absorption property, and the photoelectronic characteristics of the Er: MoS2 films were studied. The results indicate that doping makes the crystallinity of MoS2 films better than that of the undoped film. Meanwhile, the electron mobility and conductivity of the Er-doped MoS2 films increase about one order of magnitude, and the current-voltage (I-V) and the photoelectric response characteristics of the Er:MoS2/Si heterojunction increase significantly. Moreover, Er-doped MoS2 films exhibit strong light absorption and photoluminescence in the visible light range at room temperature; the intensity is enhanced by about twice that of the undoped film. The results indicate that the doping of MoS2 with Er can significantly improve the photoelectric characteristics and can be used to fabricate highly efficient luminescence and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Ion colliders are research tools for high-energy nuclear physics, and are used to test the theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). The collisions of fully stripped high-energy ions create matter of a temperature and density that existed only microseconds after the Big Bang. Ion colliders can reach higher densities and temperatures than fixed target experiments although at a much lower luminosity. The first ion collider was the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR), which collided light ions [77Asb1, 81Bou1]. The BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is in operation since 2000 and has collided a number of species at numerous energies. The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started the heavy ion program in 2010. Table 1 shows all previous and the currently planned running modes for ISR, RHIC, and LHC. All three machines also collide protons, which are spin-polarized in RHIC. Ion colliders differ from proton or antiproton colliders in a number of ways: the preparation of the ions in the source and the pre-injector chain is limited by other effects than for protons; frequent changes in the collision energy and particle species, including asymmetric species, are typical; and the interaction of ions with each other and accelerator components is different from protons, which has implications for collision products, collimation, the beam dump, and intercepting instrumentation devices such a profile monitors. In the preparation for the collider use the charge state Z of the ions is successively increased to minimize the effects of space charge, intrabeam scattering (IBS), charge change effects (electron capture and stripping), and ion-impact desorption after beam loss. Low charge states reduce space charge, intrabeam scattering, and electron capture effects. High charge states reduce electron stripping, and make bending and acceleration more effective. Electron stripping at higher energies is generally more efficient. Table 2 shows the charge states and energies in the

  2. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  3. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Martina, E.F.

    1958-04-22

    An improved ion source particularly adapted to provide an intense beam of ions with minimum neutral molecule egress from the source is described. The ion source structure includes means for establishing an oscillating electron discharge, including an apertured cathode at one end of the discharge. The egress of ions from the source is in a pencil like beam. This desirable form of withdrawal of the ions from the plasma created by the discharge is achieved by shaping the field at the aperture of the cathode. A tubular insulator is extended into the plasma from the aperture and in cooperation with the electric fields at the cathode end of the discharge focuses the ions from the source,

  4. Tritium permeation experiments using reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel tube and erbium oxide coating

    SciTech Connect

    Takumi Chikada; Masashi Shimada; Robert Pawelko; Takayuki Terai; Takeo Muroga

    2013-09-01

    Low concentration tritium permeation experiments have been performed on uncoated F82H and Er2O3-coated tubular samples in the framework of the Japan-US TITAN collaborative program. Tritium permeability of the uncoated sample with 1.2 ppm tritium showed one order of magnitude lower than that with 100% deuterium. The permeability of the sample with 40 ppm tritium was more than twice higher than that of 1.2 ppm, indicating a surface contribution at the lower tritium concentration. The Er2O3-coated sample showed two orders of magnitude lower permeability than the uncoated sample, and lower permeability than that of the coated plate sample with 100% deuterium. It was also indicated that the memory effect of ion chambers in the primary and secondary circuits was caused by absorption of tritiated water vapor that was generated by isotope exchange reactions between tritium and surface water on the coating.

  5. Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, James D.; Sawicki, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Accurate for the analysis of ions in solution, this form of analysis enables the analyst to directly assay many compounds that previously were difficult or impossible to analyze. The method is a combination of the methodologies of ion exchange, liquid chromatography, and conductimetric determination with eluant suppression. (Author/RE)

  6. Fractional Erbium laser in the treatment of photoaging: randomized comparative, clinical and histopathological study of ablative (2940nm) vs. non-ablative (1540nm) methods after 3 months*

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliano; Cuzzi, Tullia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fractional non-ablative lasers keep the epidermis intact, while fractional ablative lasers remove it, making them theoretically more effective. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical and histological alterations induced by fractional photothermolysis for treating photoaging, comparing the possible equivalence of multiple sessions of 1540nm Erbium, to one session of 2940nm Erbium. METHODS Eighteen patients (mean age 55.9) completed the treatment with three sessions of 1540nm fractional Erbium laser on one side of the face (50 mJ/mB, 15ms, 2 passes), and one session of 2940nm on the other side (5mJ/mB, 0.25ms, 2 passes). Biopsies were performed before and 3 months after treatment. Clinical, histological and morphometric evaluations were carried out. RESULTS All patients presented clinical improvement with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05) between the treated sides. Histopathology revealed a new organization of collagen and elastic fibers, accompanied by edema, which was more evident with the 2940nm laser. This finding was confirmed by morphometry, which showed a decrease in collagen density for both treatments, with a statistical significance for the 2940nm laser (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Three 1540nm sessions were clinically equivalent to one 2940nm session. The edema probably contributed to the positive results after three months, togheter with the new collagen and elastic fibers organization. The greater edema after the 2940nm session indicates that dermal remodeling takes longer than with 1540nm. It is possible that this histological superiority relates to a more prolonged effect, but a cohort longer than three months is needed to confirm that supposition. PMID:24770501

  7. Reversible photo-bleaching effect in a bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber under 830  nm irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingjie; Wei, Shuen; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-10-15

    We observed photo-bleaching in a bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber (BEDF) under 830 nm irradiation. As a result of the photo-bleaching, the absorption at 814 nm and the near-infrared luminescence at 1420 nm are decreased, indicating that the silicon-based bismuth active center (BAC-Si) in a BEDF is bleached in the process. We further found that the photo-bleaching is reversible under room temperature. This is the first time that the BAC-Si could be bleached under 830 nm irradiation, and the photo-bleaching is reversible. The underlying mechanism of the reversible photo-bleaching effect is discussed.

  8. Wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a distributed feedback semiconductor laser as mode locker and tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenping; Chan, K. T.

    1999-07-01

    A wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser was demonstrated using a distributed feedback semiconductor laser as an intensity mode locker and a tunable optical filter. Very stable optical pulse trains at gigabit repetition rates were generated using harmonica mode locking. The supermode noise was suppressed to 60 dB below the signal level and the root-mean-square timing jitter (0.45 kHz-1 MHz) was found to be about 1% of the pulse duration. A continuous wavelength tuning range of 1.8 nm was achieved by changing the semiconductor laser temperature from 11.4 to 30 °C.

  9. Mode-locked femtosecond all polarization-maintaining erbium-doped dispersion managed fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjue; Zhou, Yue; Sun, Ji; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Jian; Xu, Kun

    2016-11-01

    We proposed a mode-locked all-polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser base on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The laser can generate 1.6 ps pulses at 1550 nm with the energy of 1 nJ that can be compressed down to 100 fs with the compressor outside the cavity. The repetition rate of the output pulse is 12MHz. Such configuration of laser is easier controlled and self starting long term operation, and is highly desirable for industrial applications, such as micro-machining.

  10. Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Li, Mi; Tan, Liying; Zhou, Yanping; Yu, Siyuan; Ran, Qiwen

    2009-08-31

    High power erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) has been radiated to the dose of 50 krad at the dose rate of 40 rad/s. Some key parameters have been measured to investigate the radiation effect on the EYDFA for space optical communication. Considering the dose of 50 krad is big enough to the most of low-dose radiation environment, these experimental results will be a good reference for the low-dose inter-satellite optical communication designers.

  11. Switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on cascaded polarization maintaining fiber Bragg gratings in a Sagnac loop interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Ning, Tigang; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-12-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser based on cascaded polarization maintaining fiber Bragg gratings (PMFBGs) in a Sagnac loop interferometer as the wavelength-selective filter at room temperature is proposed. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) enhanced by the PMFBGs, stable single-, dual-, three- and four-wavelength lasing operations can be obtained. The laser can be switched among the stable single-, dual-, three- and four-wavelength lasing operations by adjusting the polarization controllers (PCs). The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is over 50 dB.

  12. Switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on the photonic crystal fiber loop mirror and chirped fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Guo; Lou, Shu-Qin; Wang, Li-Wen; Li, Hong-Lei; Guo, Tieying; Jian, Shui-Sheng

    2010-03-01

    The switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a two-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) loop mirror and a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) at room temperature is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The two-mode PCF loop mirror is formed by inserting a piece of two-mode PCF into a Sagnac loop mirror, with the air-holes of the PCF intentionally collapsing at the splices. By adjusting the state of the polarization controller (PC) appropriately, the laser can be switched between the stable single- and dual-wavelength operations by means of the polarization hole burning (PHB) and spectral hole burning (SHB) effects.

  13. Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on one polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating in a Sagnac loop interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Li, Honglei; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Mao, Xiangqiao; Ning, Tigang; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-11-01

    Dual-wavelength with orthogonal polarizations erbium-doped fiber ring laser at room temperature is proposed. One polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG) in a Sagnac loop interferometer is used as the wavelength-selective filter. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) enhanced by the PMFBG, the laser can operate in stable dual-wavelength operation with wavelength spacing of 0.336 nm at room temperature by adjusting a polarization controller (PC). The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is over 52 dB. The amplitude variation in nearly one and half an hour is less than 0.6 dB for both wavelengths.

  14. Broadband amplifier and high performance tunable laser with an extinction ratio of higher than 60 dB using bismuth oxide-based erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Shahi, S.; Ahmad, H.

    2012-07-01

    A Bi2O3-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) ring laser with a 70 nm tunable range is demonstrated with a 49 cm long Bi-EDF in which tuning range can be extended to larger than 100 nm using an optical switch to alter the length of Bi-EDF in the laser cavity. With an extinction ratio of better than 60 dB throughout the entire tuning range, the measured FWHM of laser lines are measured to be 0.09 nm. In addition, the common amplification parameters are measured and studied in detail for various pumping configurations.

  15. Application of a continuous-wave tunable erbium-doped fiber laser to molecular spectroscopy in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, J.; Masselin, P.; Chen, W.; Boucher, D.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.; Szriftgiser, P.

    2006-05-01

    Development of a continuous-wave tunable fiber laser-based spectrometer for applied spectroscopy is reported. Wide wavelength tunability of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) was investigated in the near-infrared region of 1543-1601 nm. Continuous mode-hop free fine frequency tuning has been accomplished by temperature tuning in conjunction with mechanical tuning. The overall spectroscopic performance of the EDFL was evaluated in terms of frequency tunability along with its suitability for molecular spectroscopy. High-resolution absorption spectra of acetylene (C2H2) were recorded near 1544 nm with a minimum measurable absorption coefficient of about 3.5×10-7 cm-1/Hz1/2 for direct absorption spectroscopy associated with a 100-m long multipass cell. Detections of C2H2 at different concentration levels were performed as well with high dynamic detection range varying from 100% purity to sub ppmv using cavity ring down spectroscopy. A 3σ-detection-limited minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 400 ppbv has been obtained by using the transition line Pe(22) of the ν1+ν3+ν5 1(Πg)-ν5 1(Πu) hot band near 1543.92 nm with a detection bandwidth of 2.3 Hz. This corresponds to a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 6.6×10-11 cm-1/Hz1/2. The sensitivity limit could be further improved by almost one order of magnitude (down to ˜60 ppbv) by use of the Pe(27) line of the ν1+ν3(Σu +)-0(Σg +)combination band near 1543.68 nm.

  16. Experimental investigation of high energy noise-like pulses from a long cavity erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kexuan; Guoyu, Heyang; Tian, Jinrong; Song, Yanrong

    2016-11-01

    The high energy noise-like pulses (NLPs) were experimentally investigated in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a long ring cavity by using nonlinear polarization rotation technique. Large net normal group-velocity dispersion of the cavity is estimated as high as 6.46 ps2, which is beneficial to formation of high-energy pulses. With the total pump power of 970 mW (the pump powers of forward pump and backward pump are set at the value of 455 mW and 515 mW, respectively), a stable ultrahigh energy rectangular-shape pulse emission with the pulse duration of 35 ns was observed. The energy of square packet with a fundamental repetition rate of 141.6 kHz is as high as 840 nJ. The signal-to-noise is higher than 60 dB in RF spectrum. The feature of NLPs is confirmed by the coherent spike of autocorrelation trace. When the pump power is beyond 970 mW, the mode locking operation with fundamental repetition rate cannot be achieved despite of the large range variation of polarization controller (PC) settings. However, the forthorder harmonic mode locking can be observed, the square pulse packet duration still remains at ˜ 35 ns. The experimental results demonstrated that the ultrahigh energy NLPs is only realized at the condition of special physical parameters and it is restricted by the number and intensity of ultra short pulses within the envelope to some extent.

  17. Semiempirical quantum chemistry model for the lanthanides: RM1 (Recife Model 1) parameters for dysprosium, holmium and erbium.

    PubMed

    Filho, Manoel A M; Dutra, José Diogo L; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M; Freire, Ricardo O

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of dysprosium, holmium, and erbium find many applications as single-molecule magnets, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, as anti-cancer agents, in optical telecommunications, etc. Therefore, the development of tools that can be proven helpful to complex design is presently an active area of research. In this article, we advance a major improvement to the semiempirical description of lanthanide complexes: the Recife Model 1, RM1, model for the lanthanides, parameterized for the trications of Dy, Ho, and Er. By representing such lanthanide in the RM1 calculation as a three-electron atom with a set of 5 d, 6 s, and 6 p semiempirical orbitals, the accuracy of the previous sparkle models, mainly concentrated on lanthanide-oxygen and lanthanide-nitrogen distances, is extended to other types of bonds in the trication complexes' coordination polyhedra, such as lanthanide-carbon, lanthanide-chlorine, etc. This is even more important as, for example, lanthanide-carbon atom distances in the coordination polyhedra of the complexes comprise about 30% of all distances for all complexes of Dy, Ho, and Er considered. Our results indicate that the average unsigned mean error for the lanthanide-carbon distances dropped from an average of 0.30 Å, for the sparkle models, to 0.04 Å for the RM1 model for the lanthanides; for a total of 509 such distances for the set of all Dy, Ho, and Er complexes considered. A similar behavior took place for the other distances as well, such as lanthanide-chlorine, lanthanide-bromine, lanthanide, phosphorus and lanthanide-sulfur. Thus, the RM1 model for the lanthanides, being advanced in this article, broadens the range of application of semiempirical models to lanthanide complexes by including comprehensively many other types of bonds not adequately described by the previous models.

  18. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  19. Dielectric relaxation and alternating current conductivity of lanthanum, gadolinium, and erbium-polyvinyl alcohol doped films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafy, Taha A.

    2012-08-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum dielectric constant, ɛ', loss tangent, tan(δ), electric modulus, M*, and ac conductivity, σac, of pure polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as well as La-, Gd-, and Er-PVA doped samples have been carried out. The dielectric properties have been studied in the temperature and frequency ranges; 300-450 K and 1 kHz-4 MHz, respectively. FTIR measurements reveal that La3+, Gd3+, and Er3+ ions form complex configuration within PVA structure. Two relaxation processes, namely, ρ and α were observed in pure PVA sample. The first process is due to the interfacial or Maxwell-Wagner-Sillers polarization. The second one is related to the micro-Brownian motion of the main chains. For doped PVA samples, α-relaxation process splits into αa and αc. This splitting is due to the segmental motion in the amorphous (αa) and crystalline (αc) phases of PVA matrix. Electric modulus analysis was discussed to understand the mechanism of the electrical transport process. The behavior of ac conductivity for all PVA samples indicates that the conduction mechanism is correlated barrier hopping.

  20. Formation of electroactive colloids via in situ coprecipitation under electric field: erbium chloride alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-09-15

    For the first time, a new ErCl3 alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor system was demonstrated by designing commercial ErCl3 salt electrode in alkaline aqueous electrolyte, where the materials synthesis and subsequently integrating into practical electrode structures occur at the same spatial and temporal scale. Highly electroactive ErOOH colloids were in-situ crystallized via electric field assisted chemical coprecipitation of ErCl3 in KOH aqueous electrolyte. These electroactive ErOOH colloids absorbed by carbon black and PVDF matrix were highly redox-reactive with higher cation utilization ratio of 86 % and specific capacitance values of 1811F/g, exceeding the one-electron redox theoretical capacitance (Er(3+)↔Er(2+)). We believe that additional two-electron (Er(2+)↔Er) or three-electron (Er(3+)↔Er) reactions can occur in our designed ErCl3 alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor system. The specific electrode configuration with ErOOH colloids grown among the carbon black/PVDF matrix can create short ion diffusion and electron transfer length to enable the fast and reversible Faradaic reactions. This work shows promising for finding high-performance electrical energy storage systems via designing the colloidal state of electroactive cations with the utilization of in-situ crystallization route.

  1. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Blue, C.W.; Luce, J.S.

    1960-07-19

    An ion source is described and comprises an arc discharge parallel to the direction of and inside of a magnetic field. an accelerating electrode surrounding substantially all of the discharge except for ion exit apertures, and means for establishing an electric field between that electrode and the arc discharge. the electric field being oriented at an acute angle to the magnetic field. Ions are drawn through the exit apertures in the accelrating electrcde in a direction substantially divergent to the direction of the magnetic field and so will travel in a spiral orbit along the magnetic field such that the ions will not strike the source at any point in their orbit within the magnetic field.

  2. Ion focusing

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-17

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  3. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Leland, W.T.

    1960-01-01

    The ion source described essentially eliminater the problem of deposits of nonconducting materials forming on parts of the ion source by certain corrosive gases. This problem is met by removing both filament and trap from the ion chamber, spacing them apart and outside the chamber end walls, placing a focusing cylinder about the filament tip to form a thin collimated electron stream, aligning the cylinder, slits in the walls, and trap so that the electron stream does not bombard any part in the source, and heating the trap, which is bombarded by electrons, to a temperature hotter than that in the ion chamber, so that the tendency to build up a deposit caused by electron bombardment is offset by the extra heating supplied only to the trap.

  4. Ion focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Baird, Zane; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2015-11-10

    The invention generally relates to apparatuses for focusing ions at or above ambient pressure and methods of use thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention provides an apparatus for focusing ions that includes an electrode having a cavity, at least one inlet within the electrode configured to operatively couple with an ionization source, such that discharge generated by the ionization source is injected into the cavity of the electrode, and an outlet. The cavity in the electrode is shaped such that upon application of voltage to the electrode, ions within the cavity are focused and directed to the outlet, which is positioned such that a proximal end of the outlet receives the focused ions and a distal end of the outlet is open to ambient pressure.

  5. Effect of erbium fluoride doping on the photoluminescence of SiO{sub x} films

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasenko, N. A. Sopinskii, N. V.; Gule, E. G.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Oleksenko, P. F.; Veligura, L. I.; Nikolenko, A. S.; Mukhlyo, M. A.

    2012-03-15

    The photoluminescence of SiO{sub x} films deposited on c-Si wafers by the thermal evaporation of SiO in a vacuum and, for the first time, doped with ErF{sub 3} by coevaporation is studied. It is shown that, like undoped SiO{sub x} films, the unannealed SiO{sub x}:ErF{sub 3} films passivate the surface of the Si wafers and, thus, increase their edge photoluminescence intensity almost fivefold. A similar increase is observed after annealing of the doped films in air at 750 Degree-Sign C. Doping with ErF{sub 3} suppresses the photoluminescence of Si nanoclusters, if the films have been subjected to high-temperature annealing (at 750 Degree-Sign C). In this case, the PL intensity of the band with a peak at {approx}890 nm decreases as well. The {approx}890 nm band is observed for the first time and, due to its features, is attributed to transitions in SiO{sub x} matrix defects. The experimentally observed effect of ErF{sub 3} doping on SiO{sub x} film photoluminescence is interpreted. An intense photoluminescence signal from Er{sup 3+} ions in the nearinfrared spectral region (the {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions) is observed in the SiO{sub x}:ErF{sub 3} films annealed in air at 750 Degree-Sign C. This finding shows that 1.54 {mu}m luminescent emitters, which are currently in popular demand, can be produced by a simple low-cost method.

  6. Low versus High Fluence Parameters in the Treatment of Facial Laceration Scars with a 1,550 nm Fractional Erbium-Glass Laser.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Jun, Dai-Won; Kim, Sang-Wha; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Early postoperative fractional laser treatment has been used to reduce scarring in many institutions, but the most effective energy parameters have not yet been established. This study sought to determine effective parameters in the treatment of facial laceration scars. Methods. From September 2012 to September 2013, 57 patients were enrolled according to the study. To compare the low and high fluence parameters of 1,550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser treatment, we virtually divided the scar of each individual patient in half, and each half was treated with a high and low fluence setting, respectively. A total of four treatment sessions were performed at one-month intervals and clinical photographs were taken at every visit. Results. Results were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and global assessment of the two portions of each individual scar. Final evaluation revealed that the portions treated with high fluence parameter showed greater difference compared to pretreatment VSS scores and global assessment values, indicating favorable cosmetic results. Conclusion. We compared the effects of high fluence and low fluence 1,550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser treatment for facial scarring in the early postoperative period and revealed that the high fluence parameter was more effective for scar management.

  7. Rationale and design for the Vaginal Erbium Laser Academy Study (VELAS): an international multicenter observational study on genitourinary syndrome of menopause and stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Gambacciani, M; Torelli, M G; Martella, L; Bracco, G L; Casagrande, A G; Albertin, E; Tabanelli, S; Viglietta, M; D'Ambrogio, G; Garone, G; Cervigni, M

    2015-01-01

    The genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are common clinical challenges for women's health and quality of life. The laser treatment and particularly the vaginal erbium laser (VEL) may provide a new non-invasive treatment for both GSM and SUI. However, the estimation of the ultimate results of different laser treatments may be altered by different issues, such as patient selection, concomitant treatments, and long-term effect of vaginal laser thermotherapy. In the present paper, we present the protocol for a large multicenter study on the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of VEL for the treatment of GSM and SUI, the Vaginal Erbium Laser Academy Study (VELAS). This study will evaluate the effects of three laser applications in 1500 postmenopausal women. Subjective and objective symptoms will be evaluated prior to the first laser treatment with follow-up visits after 4 weeks from the last laser application, and subsequently after every 3 months for 1 year. Findings from the VELAS have the potential to affect clinical care practice and health decisions for millions of women world-wide for a non-hormonal treatment for GSM and a non-invasive treatment of SUI.

  8. Self-mode-locking in erbium-doped fibre lasers with saturable polymer film absorbers containing single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tausenev, Anton V.; Obraztsova, Elena D.; Lobach, A. S.; Chernov, A. I.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V.; Kryukov, P. G.; Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2007-03-01

    We studied the ring and linear schemes of erbium-doped fibre lasers in which passive mode locking was achieved with the help of saturable absorbers made of high-optical quality films based on cellulose derivatives with dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes. The films were prepared by the original method with the use of nanotubes synthesised by the arc discharge method. The films exhibit nonlinear absorption at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. Pulses in the form of optical solitons of duration 1.17 ps at a avelength of 1.56 μm were generated in the ring scheme of the erbium laser. The average output power was 1.1 mW at a pulse repetition rate of 20.5 MHz upon pumping by the 980-nm, 25-mW radiation from a laser diode. The pulse duration in the linear scheme was reduced to 466 fs for the output power up to 4 mW and a pulse repetition rate of 28.5 MHz. The specific feature of these lasers is a low pump threshold in the regime of generation of ultrashort pulses.

  9. Topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Bo; Yao, Yong Yang, Yan-Fu; Yuan, Yi-Jun; Wang, Rui-Lai; Wang, Shu-Guang; Ren, Zhong-Hua; Yan, Bo

    2015-02-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a μm-scale topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Polyvinyl Alcohol film as both an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking and a high-nonlinear medium to induce a giant third order optical nonlinear effect for mitigating the mode competition of erbium-doped fiber laser and stabilizing the multi-wavelength oscillation. By properly adjusting the pump power and the polarization state, the single-, dual-, triple-, four-wavelength mode-locking pulse could be stably initiated. For the four-wavelength operation, we obtain its pulse width of ∼22 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.83 MHz. The fiber laser exhibits the maximum output power of 9.7 mW with the pulse energy of 1.1 nJ and peak power of 50 W at the pump power of 155 mW. Our study shows that the simple, stable, low-cost multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser could be applied in various potential fields, such as optical communication, biomedical research, and radar system.

  10. The microstructure of erbium-ytterbium co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramic optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustyn, Elżbieta; Żelechower, Michał; Stróż, Danuta; Chrapoński, Jacek

    2012-04-01

    Oxyfluoride transparent glass-ceramics combine some features of glasses (easier shaping or lower than single crystals cost of fabrication) and some advantages of rare-earth doped single crystals (narrow absorption/emission lines and longer lifetimes of luminescent levels). Since the material seems to be promising candidate for efficient fiber amplifiers, the manufacturing as well as structural and optical examination of the oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers doped with rare-earth ions seems to be a serious challenge. In the first stage oxyfluoride glasses of the following compositions 48SiO2-11Al2O3-7Na2CO3-10CaO-10PbO-11PbF2-3ErF3 and 48SiO2-11Al2O3-7Na2CO3-10CaO-10PbO-10PbF2-3YbF3-1ErF3 (in molar%) were fabricated from high purity commercial chemicals (Sigma-Aldrich). The fabricated glass preforms were drawn into glass fibers using the mini-tower. Finally, the transparent Er3+ doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramic fibers were obtained by controlled heat treatment of glass fibers. The preceding differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies allowed estimating both the fiber drawing temperature and the controlled crystallization temperature of glass fibers. X-ray diffraction examination (XRD) at each stage of the glass-ceramic fibers fabrication confirmed the undesirable crystallization of preforms and glass fibers has been avoided. The fibers shown their mixed amorphous-crystalline microstructure with nano-crystals of size even below 10 nm distributed in the glassy host. The crystal structure of the grown nano-crystals has been determined by XRD and confirmed by electron diffraction (SAED). Results obtained by both techniques seem to be compatible: Er3FO10Si3 (monoclinic; ICSD 92512), Pb5Al3F19 (triclinic; ICSD 91325) and Er4F2O11Si3 (triclinic; ICSD 51510) against to initially expected PbF2 crystals.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, and porosity estimation of hydrated erbium terephthalate coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Daiguebonne, Carole; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Bernot, Kevin; Gérault, Yves; Deluzet, André; Guillou, Olivier

    2006-07-10

    The reaction of the Er3+ ion with polycarboxylate ligands in gel media leads to coordination polymers exhibiting various structural types and dimensionalities. Five Er3+/1,4-benzenedicarboxylate-based coordination polymers have been obtained in such conditions. Four out of the five are new. Their crystal structures are reported and compared herein. Compound 1, namely, Er2Ter3(H2O)6, where H2Ter symbolizes the terephthalic acid, crystallizes in the space group P1 (No. 2) with a = 7.8373(10) A, b = 9.5854(2) A, c = 10.6931(2) A, alpha = 68.7770(8) degrees, beta = 70.8710(8) degrees, and gamma = 75.3330(12) degrees. It has already been reported elsewhere. The last four compounds are new. Compound 2, namely, Er2Ter3(H2O)6 x 2 H2O, crystallizes in the space group P121/a1 (No. 14) with a = 6.7429(2) A, b = 22.4913(7) A, c = 9.6575(3) A, and beta = 91.6400(18) degrees. Compound 3, namely Er2Ter3(H2O)8 x 2 H2O crystallizes in the space group P1 (No. 2) with a = 7.5391(2) A, b = 10.0533(3) A, c = 10.4578(3) A, alpha = 87.7870(10) degrees, beta = 82.5510(11) degrees, and gamma = 86.2800(16) degrees. Compound 4, namely, Er2Ter3(H2O)6 x 2 H2O crystallizes in the space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 38.5123(13) A, b = 11.1241(4) A, c = 7.0122(2) A, and beta = 98.634(2) degrees. Compound 5, namely, Er2Ter3(H2O)6 x H2O, crystallizes in the space group P1 (No. 2) with a = 6.8776(10) A, b = 11.0420(2) A, c = 18.5675(3) A, alpha = 84.7240(6) degrees, beta = 81.8380(6) degrees, and gamma = 84.1770(8) degrees. A computational method has also been developed to evaluate the potential porosity of the coordination polymers. This method is described and then applied to the different Er2Ter3(H2O)n coordination polymers previously described.

  12. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deam, L.; Stavrias, N.; Lee, K. K.; McCallum, J. C.

    2012-10-01

    We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  13. Efficacy of Erbium:YAG laser treatment compared to topical estriol treatment for symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Hugo; Gomez, Valentin; Luque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. Methods Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0.5 mg estriol ovules 3 times per week to hydrate the mucosa and then received three sessions with 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser in non‐ablative mode. Biopsies were taken before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post‐treatment. Maturation index, maturation value and pH where recorded up to 12‐months post‐treatment, while the VAS analysis of symptoms was recorded up to 18 months post‐treatment. Results Statistically significant (P < 0.05), reduction of all assessed symptoms was observed in the laser group at all follow‐ups up to 18 months post‐treatment. Significant improvement in maturation value and a decrease of pH in the laser group was detected up to 12 months after treatment. The improvement in all endpoints was more pronounced and longer lasting in the laser group. Histological examination showed changes in the tropism of the vaginal mucosa and also angiogenesis, congestion, and restructuring of the lamina propria in the laser group. Side effects were minimal and of transient nature in both groups, affecting 4% of patients in the laser group and 12% of patients in the estriol group. Conclusions Our results show that Er:YAG laser treatment successfully relieves symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause and that the results are more pronounced and longer lasting compared to topical estriol treatment. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:160–168, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27546524

  14. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Bell, W.A. Jr.; Love, L.O.; Prater, W.K.

    1958-01-28

    An ion source is presented capable of producing ions of elements which vaporize only at exceedingly high temperatures, i.e.,--1500 degrees to 3000 deg C. The ion source utilizes beams of electrons focused into a first chamber housing the material to be ionized to heat the material and thereby cause it to vaporize. An adjacent second chamber receives the vaporized material through an interconnecting passage, and ionization of the vaporized material occurs in this chamber. The ionization action is produced by an arc discharge sustained between a second clectron emitting filament and the walls of the chamber which are at different potentials. The resultant ionized material egresses from a passageway in the second chamber. Using this device, materials which in the past could not be processed in mass spectometers may be satisfactorily ionized for such applications.

  15. Erbium: YAG laser (2,940 nm) treatment stimulates hair growth through upregulating Wnt 10b and β-catenin expression in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jin; Guan, Huiwen; Li, Shan; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Yan, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the role of 2,940 nm erbium: YAG laser in hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. Methods: Anagen was experimentally induced by depilation. Healthy C57BL/6 mice (n=22) were randomly divided into four groups, with treatment of laser or minoxidil, or with combined laser and minoxidil treatments. The skin color of each mouse was observed each day. The time from telogen (pink skin color) to anagen (black coloration) phase and from anagen (black coloration) to catagen (all hairs grew out of the depilated skin) have been recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) assay was done at fifteen days after the first treatment for each group to observe hair follicles and hair cycle score. Western blot analysis was utilized to detect the expression levels of Wnt 10-b and β-catenin. Results: Black pigmentation started significantly earlier both in the laser and combination group than in the control group. Moreover, the time from anagen to catagen in the laser, minoxidil and combination groups were all significantly shorter from the control group. Histopathology with H&E staining showed an obvious increase in the number of hair follicles in the anagen phase caused by the treatment of 2,940 nm erbium: YAG laser and minoxidil. Similarly, the percentage of hair follicles in anagen VI accounted for 19.5%, 37.5%, 41.5% and 44% in control, laser, minoxidil, and combination group, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that both the levels of Wnt 10b and β-catenin were significantly increased by the treatment of 2,940 nm erbium: YAG laser. Conclusion: Our findings showed that 2,940-nm Er: YAG laser could promote hair growth by inducing hair cycle transition from telogen to anagen phases in C57BL/6 mice through up regulating Wnt 10b and β-catenin. These results suggest that 2,940-nm Er: YAG laser may be a potential therapy for hair loss. PMID:26885014

  16. Observation of Fine Distribution of Minor Dopants in an Erbium-Doped Fiber Core using a Sample Thinning Technique for Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yugo; Kuramochi, Koji

    2015-12-01

    To observe the fine distribution of minor aluminum and germanium dopants in the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) core of an optical amplifier, a sample thinning technique was applied for field emission electron probe microanalysis (FE-EPMA) together with wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. This technique significantly improved the spatial resolution without much degradation of the minimum detection limit for FE-EPMA. As such, this enabled us to observe the distribution of minor dopants in EDF. Moreover, we propose a very simple sample preparation to prevent electron-beam radiation damage, a problem involved with FE-EPMA of low-conductivity materials such as SiO2 glass, which is the main component of EDF.

  17. Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Xia, Handing; Li, Heping; Lan, Changyong; Li, Chun; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). The multilayer MoS(2) is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and transferred onto the end-face of a fiber connector. Taking advantage of the excellent saturable absorption of the fabricated MoS(2)-based SA, stable mode locking is obtained at a pump threshold of 31 mW. Resultant output soliton pulses have central wavelength, spectral width, pulse duration, and repetition rate of 1568.9 nm, 2.6 nm, 1.28 ps, and 8.288 MHz, respectively. The experimental results show that multilayer MoS(2) is a promising material for ultrafast laser systems.

  18. Passively mode-locking erbium-doped fiber lasers with 0.3 nm Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xintong; Zhai, Jianpang; Li, Ling; Chen, Yanping; Yu, Yongqin; Zhang, Min; Ruan, Shuangchen; Tang, Zikang

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) by using the smallest single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a diameter of 0.3 nm as the saturable absorber. These ultrasmall SWNTs are fabricated in the elliptical nanochannels of a ZnAPO4-11 (AEL) single crystal. By placing an AEL crystal into an EDFL cavity pumped by a 980 nm laser diode, stable passive mode-locking is achieved for a threshold pump power of 280 mW, and 73 ps pulses at 1563.2 nm with a repetition rate of 26.79 MHz. PMID:25342292

  19. Suppression of phase and supermode noise in a harmonic mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based high-pass filter.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Wu, Ming-Chung; Chang, Yung-Cheng

    2005-07-15

    By operating an intracavity semiconductor-optical-amplifier- (SOA-) based high-pass filter at the nearly transparent current condition, the supermode noise (SMN), the relaxation oscillation, and the single-sideband (SSB) phase noise can be simultaneously suppressed in an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). The SOA at the nearly transparent condition enhances the SMN suppression ratio of the EDFL from 32 to 76 dB at the cost of the phase noise degrading from -114 to -104.2 dBc/Hz and broadening the pulse width from 36 to 61 ps. With an optical bandpass filter, the SSB phase noise and the SMN suppression ratio can be further improved to -110 dBc/Hz and 81 dB, respectively. The EDFL pulse can be further shortened to 3.1 ps with a time-bandwidth product of 0.63 after compression.

  20. Selectable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode utilizing eye-type compound-ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Yu; Chen, Hone-Zhang; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) under a tuning range of 1530.0-1560.0 nm is proposed and demonstrated. Here, the mode spacing of lasing dual-wavelength from 1.0 to 30.0 nm can be selected arbitrarily in any wavelength position. To accomplish the SLM output, the eye-type compound-ring scheme is proposed inside ring cavity for suppressing the multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM) highly. The entire measured output power and optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of each dual-wavelength are larger than -13.3 dBm and 60 dB respectively. In addition, the output stability measurement of proposed EDF laser is also performed and analyzed.

  1. Study of a mode-locked erbium-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fiber laser incorporating a broad bandpass filter: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Zuniga, Luis Alonso; Jeong, Yoonchan

    2013-10-01

    We present rigorous experimental studies on the spectral and temporal behaviors of an erbium-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fiber laser (FSFL), with respect to various parameters of the laser cavity, including the direction of the frequency-shift mechanism, the quantity of frequency-shift, and the output coupling ratio (OCR) of the cavity. We show that if the filter bandwidth is much broader than the laser linewidth, the laser spectrum tends to split and form a secondary spectral band (SSB) on the shorter or longer wavelength side of the primary spectrum, depending on whether the direction of the frequency-shift mechanism is upward or downward, respectively. We found that the SSB forms a parasitic pulse with much lower peak power traveling on the leading or trailing edge of the primary pulse, which leads to a significant asymmetry in the whole pulse formation in the time domain.

  2. 1 μJ, sub-300 fs pulse generation from a compact thulium-doped chirped pulse amplifier seeded by Raman shifted erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fangzhou; Shi, Hongxing; Sun, Ruoyu; Wang, Peng; Wang, Pu

    2016-10-03

    We present a compact thulium-doped chirped pulse amplifier producing 241 fs pulses with 1 μJ energy. The system is seeded with the Raman shifted soliton generated by the combination of an erbium-doped femtosecond laser and a nonlinear fiber. The Tm-doped large mode area fiber yields output power of 71 W, corresponding to pulse energy of 2.04 μJ, with a slope efficiency of 52.2%. The amplified pulses have been compressed to a duration time of 241 fs, using a folded Treacy grating setup. The pulse energy is measured to be 1.02 μJ, corresponding to a peak power of ~3 MW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power and pulse energy generated from an all-fiber, Raman shifted soliton seeded thulium-doped chirped pulse amplifier system.

  3. Repetition rate stabilization of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser via opto-mechanical control of the intracavity group velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Xuling; He, Boqu; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Yang; Bai, Dongbi; Wang, Chao; Liu, Geping; Luo, Daping; Liu, Fengjiang; Li, Wenxue; Zeng, Heping; Yang, Kangwen; Hao, Qiang

    2015-01-19

    We present a method for stabilizing the repetition rate of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser by inserting an electronic polarization controller (EPC) in the fiber laser cavity. The device exhibited good integration, low cost, and convenient operation. Such a repetition rate stabilization may facilitate an all-fiber laser comb system with high integration. The repetition rate was phase-locked to a Rb reference more than 72 h with a low feedback voltage applied to one channel of the EPC. The repetition rate was 74.6 MHz. The standard deviation and the repetition rate linewidth were 1.4 and 1.7 mHz, respectively.

  4. Q-switched mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) deposited fiber taper.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jing Dong; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chu Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2014-08-10

    We have demonstrated the passive Q-switching mode-locking operation in an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using topological insulator Bi(2)Se(3) deposited on fiber taper, whose damage threshold can be further increased by the large evanescent field interacting length. Due to the low saturation intensity, stable Q-switched mode-locked fiber lasers centered at 1562 nm can be generated at a pump power of 10 mW. The temporal and spectral characteristics for different pump strengths have also been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time a Q-switched mode-locked EDF laser based on the fiber taper deposited by Bi(2)Se(3) was generated.

  5. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of the Effects of Erbium, Chromium:Yattrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) Laser Irradiation on Bone Mineral and Organic Components.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Carolina; Ana, Patricia Aparecida; Bachmann, Luciano; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2015-12-01

    The effects of varying the energy density of a high-intensity erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on the mineral and organic components of bone tissue were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bone samples obtained from the tibias of rabbits were irradiated with five energy densities (3, 6, 8, 12, and 15 J/cm(2)), and the effects on the carbonate to phosphate ratio and in the organic components were compared with those of nonirradiated samples. The increased temperature during the laser irradiation was also measured using infrared thermography to relate the observed spectral changes to the laser thermal effects. The analyses of the infrared spectra suggests that the irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG promoted changes in bone tissue in both the mineral and organic components that depend on the laser energy density, pointing to the importance of using the proper energy density in clinical procedures.

  6. Nonlinear frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses from an erbium fibre laser to the range of 0.8 - 1 {mu}m in silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Anashkina, E A; Andrianov, A V; Kim, A V

    2013-03-31

    We consider different mechanisms of nonlinear frequency up-conversion of femtosecond pulses emitted by an erbium fibre system ({lambda} = 1.5 {mu}m) to the range of 0.8 - 1.2 {mu}m in nonlinear silica fibres. The generation efficiency and the centre frequencies of dispersive waves are found as functions of the parameters of the fibre and the input pulse. Simple analytical estimates are obtained for the spectral distribution of the intensity and the frequency shift of a wave packet in the region of normal dispersion during the emission of a high-order soliton under phase matching conditions. In the geometrical optics approximation the frequency shifts are estimated in the interaction of dispersive waves with solitons in various regimes. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  7. Explaining simultaneous dual-band carbon nanotube mode-locking Erbium-doped fiber laser by net gain cross section variation.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Henrique G; Steinberg, David; Thoroh de Souza, Eunézio A

    2014-11-17

    In this paper we report the pulse evolution of a simultaneously mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1556-nm-band and 1533-nm-band. We explain the dual wavelength laser operation by means of net gain cross section variations caused by the population inversion rate dependence on the pump power. At 1556-nm-band, we observed pulse duration of 370 fs with bandwidth of 8.50 nm and, for pump power higher than 150 mW, we observe the rise of a CW and mode-locked laser, sequentially, at 1533-nm-band. We show that both bands are simultaneously mode-locked and operate at different repetition rates.

  8. Study of a high output coupling ratio Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser using MoS2 saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, W. Y.; Yap, Y. K.; Behameen, S.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-02-01

    In the work here, the performance of a Q-switched erbium-doped fibre laser using a MoS2 saturable absorber and operating with a high output coupling ratio has been studied. It is found that the pump conversion efficiency for the higher output coupling ratio is higher in the current setup. Q-switched laser oscillation is observed over the set wavelength range from 1525-1565 nm with a maximum pulse energy of ~0.50 µJ achieved at a pump power of ~83 mW, corresponding to a maximum peak power of ~186 mW. With lower intra-cavity laser intensity achieved using the higher output coupling ratio, the second order absorption of the MoS2 is mitigated. However, scaling of the peak power and pulse energy seems to be limited by the interplay between the pulse duration, pulse energy and repetition rate.

  9. 6.5 µJ pulses from a compact dissipative soliton resonance mode-locked erbium-ytterbium double clad (DC) laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzempek, K.; Abramski, K.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of constructing a compact, all-fiber, dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) mode-locked erbium-ytterbium double clad laser emitting 6.517 µJ pulses directly from the cavity is presented. The laser was built in a figure-8 configuration and mode-locked using a nonlinear optical loop mirror. A DSR regime of operation was enforced in the cavity by large net-anomalous dispersion (-21.431 ps2), obtained by incorporating 1 km of SMF28 fiber in the resonator. The laser operated at a 201 kHz repetition rate, with maximum average output power of 1.31 W at 7.2 W of pump power, yielding an impressive 20% slope efficiency.

  10. Passively Q-switched Erbium-doped and Ytterbium-doped fibre lasers with topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, H.; Harun, S. W.; Muhammad, A. R.; Anyi, C. L.; Tan, S. J.; Ahmad, F.; Nor, R. M.; Zulkepely, N. R.; Arof, H.

    2017-02-01

    This paper portrays a simple Q-switched Erbium-doped fibre (EDF) and Ytterbium doped fibre (YDF) lasers by using topological insulator (TI) Bismuth Selenide (Bi2Se3) as saturable absorber. The modulation depth of the fabricated Bi2Se3 is about 39.8% while its saturating intensity is about 90.2 MW/cm2. By depositing the TI Bi2Se3 SA onto fibre ferrules and incorporate it inside the proposed cavity, a stable Q-switching operation was achieved at 1 μm and 1.5 μm. The fabricated Bismuth Selenide (Bi2Se3) as saturable absorber (SA) is a broadband SA where it offers a compact and low cost fabrication which is beneficial in various photonic applications.

  11. In vitro study of the erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser cleaning of root canal by the use of shadow photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorčič, Peter; Lukač, Nejc; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-01-01

    Erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser cleaning is a promising technique in endodontic treatment. In our in vitro study, we measured the vapor-bubble dynamics in the root canal by using shadow photography. The canal model was made of a plastic cutout placed between two transparent glass plates. An artificial smear layer was applied to the glass to study cleaning efficiency. In our results, no shock waves have been observed, since the pulp-chamber dimensions have been in the same range as the maximum diameter of the vapor bubble. This leads to the conclusion that shock waves are not the main cleaning mechanism within our model. However, the cleaning effects are also visible in the regions significantly below the bubble. Therefore, it can be concluded that fluid flow induced by the bubble's oscillations contributes significantly to the canal cleaning. We also proposed a simple theoretical model for cleaning efficiency and used it to evaluate the measured data.

  12. Passively Q-switched mode-locking Erbium-doped fiber laser with net-normal dispersion using nonlinear polarization rotation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. Y.; Xu, W. C.; Luo, Z. C.; Cao, W. J.; Luo, A. P.; Dong, J. L.; Wang, H. Y.

    2011-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a passively Q-switched mode-locking (QML) operation in an Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with net normal dispersion by using nonlinear polarization rotation technique. A 2 m long section of dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) with extra large positive dispersion was inserted into the cavity to ensure the fiber laser working in the region of net positive dispersion. By carefully adjusting the polarization controller, both uniform dissipative mode-locking pulses with fundamental repetition rate and QML pulse trains with tunable repetition rate from 71.58 to 98.83 kHz are achieved. It is found that the QML operation is caused by the interaction between the polarization state of the pulse and the intracavity polarizer.

  13. Generation regimes of bidirectional hybridly mode-locked ultrashort pulse erbium-doped all-fiber ring laser with a distributed polarizer.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Alexander A; Chernykh, Dmitriy S; Arutyunyan, Natalia R; Grebenyukov, Vyacheslav V; Pozharov, Anatoly S; Obraztsova, Elena D

    2016-05-20

    We report on the stable picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from the bidirectional erbium-doped all-fiber ring laser hybridly mode-locked with a coaction of a single-walled carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber and nonlinear polarization evolution that was introduced through the insertion of the short-segment polarizing fiber. Depending on the total intracavity dispersion value, the laser emits conservative solitons, transform-limited Gaussian pulses, or highly chirped stretched pulses with almost 20 nm wide parabolic spectrum in both clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) directions of the ring. Owing to the polarizing action in the cavity, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an efficient tuning of soliton pulse characteristics for both CW and CCW channels via an appropriate polarization control. We believe that the bidirectional laser presented may be highly promising for gyroscopic and other dual-channel applications.

  14. Switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber-ring laser based on one polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating in a Sagnac loop interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Mao, Xiangqiao; Ning, Tigang; Jian, Shuisheng

    2009-04-01

    A switchable erbium-doped fiber-ring laser providing dual-wavelength outputs with orthogonal polarizations when operating at room temperature is proposed. One polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG) in a Sagnac loop interferometer is used as the wavelength-selective filter. Due to the enhancement of the polarization hole burning (PHB) by the PMFBG, the laser can be designed to operate in stable dual-wavelength or wavelength-switching modes with a wavelength spacing of 0.336 nm at room temperature by adjusting a polarization controller (PC). The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is over 42 dB. The amplitude variation over 90 min is less than 0.6 dB for both wavelengths.

  15. Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianqun; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2012-03-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber (ED-PCF) ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber(PM-PCF) is presented and demonstrated experimentally. A segment of ED-PCF is used as linear gain medium in the resonant cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) caused by the PM-PCF and a polarization controller (PC), the laser can operate in stable dual- or triple- wavelength modes at room temperature. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the laser without any wavelength-selective components is greater than 30 dB. The amplitude variations of lasing peaks in ten minutes are less than 0.26dB for two different operating modes.

  16. Switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianqun; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2011-11-01

    A switchable multi-wavelength Erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber (ED-PCF) ring laser based on a length of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber(PM-PCF) is presented and demonstrated experimentally. A segment of ED-PCF is used as linear gain medium in the resonant cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) caused by the PM-PCF and a polarization controller (PC), the laser can operate in stable dual- or triple- wavelength modes at room temperature. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the laser without any wavelength-selective components is greater than 30 dB. The amplitude variations of lasing peaks in ten minutes are less than 0.26dB for two different operating modes.

  17. Switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on one polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating incorporating saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Chen, Ming; Jian, Shuisheng

    2009-08-01

    Switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser at room temperature is demonstrated. One fiber Bragg grating (FBG) directly written in a polarization-maintaining and photosensitive erbiumdoped fiber (PMPEDF) as the wavelength-selective component is used in a linear laser cavity. Due to the polarization hole burning (PHB) enhanced by the polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG), the laser can be designed to operate in stable dual-wavelength or wavelength-switching modes with a wavelength spacing of 0.202 nm by adjusting a polarization controller (PC). The stable SLM operation is guaranteed by a saturable absorber (SA). The optical signal-tonoise ratio (OSNR) of the laser is over 40 dB. The amplitude variation in nearly one and half an hour is less than 0.5 dB for both wavelengths.

  18. Performance comparison of pre-, boost-, and inline-multimode erbium-doped fiber amplifier configurations to boost mode-division multiplexed multimode fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan; Kaler, Rajinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    The performance of 3×3, 4×4, 5×5, and 6×6 optical multi-input multioutput (MIMO) mode-division multiplexed multimode fiber (MMF) systems has been investigated using pre-, boost-, and inline-multimode erbium-doped fiber amplifier configuration methods with LPlm (linearly polarized) modes. The outcome of these configurations has been compared in terms of quality factor (Q-factor) and bit error rate (BER). It is reported that inline-configuration provides best results for all MIMO mode-division multiplexing (MDM) systems covering transmission distance of 100 km with acceptable BER (<10-9) and Q-factor (>10 dB) over MMF link to boost performance of MDM system.

  19. Large-mode-area erbium-ytterbium-doped photonic-crystal fiber amplifier for high-energy femtosecond pulses at 1.55 microm.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Akira; Ota, Jun; Musha, Mitsuru; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Ueda, Ken-Ichi; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Broeng, Jes

    2005-02-21

    We report a high-energy femtosecond fiber amplifier based on an air-cladded single-transverse-mode erbium-ytterbium-codoped photonic-crystal fiber with a 26-microm mode-field-diameter. 700-fs, 47-MHz pulses at 1557 nm were amplified and compressed to near-transform-limited 100-fs, 7.4-nJ pulses with 54-kW peak powers without chirped-pulse amplification. A linearly polarized output with an extinction ratio exceeding 42 dB was obtained by double-pass configuration. As an application, supercontinuum spanning from 1000 to 2500 nm was generated by a successive 2-m high-nonlinear fiber with a 140-mW average power.

  20. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Sotor, J. Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M.; Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L.

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  1. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  2. Influence of Laser Activated Irrigation with two Erbium Lasers on Bond Strength of Inidividually Formed Fiber Reinforced Composite Posts to Root Canal Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Parčina, Ivana; Miletić, Ivana; Ionescu, Andrei C.; Brambilla, Eugenio; Gabrić, Dragana; Baraba, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of laser activated irrigation (LAI) using two erbium lasers on bond strength of individually formed fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts to root canal dentin. Materials and methods Twenty-seven single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated and after post space preparation divided into three groups (n=9 per group), according to the pre-treatment of post space preparation: 1) Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) and saline; 2) Er.YAG photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) technique and saline; 3) Er,Cr:YSGG activated irrigation with RFT2 tip. Two specimens from each group were used for SEM analysis. The remaining specimens (n=7 per group) received individually formed FRC post, everStick POST, luted with self-adhesive cement, G-CEM LinkAce. After cementation, the roots were perpendicularly sectioned into 1 mm thin sections and a push-out test was carried out (0.5 mm/min). The data were calculated as megapascals and were log transformed and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA at the level of significance set at 5%. Results In the control group, the smear layer was still present. In the Er:YAG group, the smear layer was removed. In the Er,Cr:YSGG group, the smear layer was partially removed. The Er,Cr:YSGG group achieved the highest bond strength values, followed by the control group and then the Er:YAG group, but no statistically significant difference was found in bond strength values in the tested group of post space pretreatment (p=0.564). Conclusions LAI using two erbium lasers, with PIPS or RFT2 tip, did not affect the bond strength of individually formed FRC posts to root canal dentin. PMID:28275279

  3. Specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in epitaxial Si structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, K. E. Kryzhkov, D. I.; Antonov, A. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shmagin, V. B.; Krasilnik, Z. F.

    2014-12-15

    The specific features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er layers grown by sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy (SMBE) are studied. In Si:Er/Si diode structures containing precipitation-type emitting centers, a resonance photoresponse at the wavelength λ ≈ 1.5 μm is observed, which is indicative of the nonradiative relaxation of Er3+ ions via the energy back-transfer mechanism. Saturation of the erbium-related photocurrent is for the first time observed at high temperatures. This allows estimation of the concentration of Er centers that undergo relaxation via the above-mentioned back-transfer mechanism (N{sub 0} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}). In terms of order of magnitude, the estimated concentration N{sub 0} corresponds to the concentration of optically active Er ions upon excitation of the Si:Er layers by means of the recombination mechanism. The features of the nonradiative relaxation of Er{sup 3+} ions in Si:Er/Si structures with different types of emitting centers are analyzed.

  4. Laser frequency stabilization to spectral hole burning frequency references in erbium-doped crystals: Material and device optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottger, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    magnetic field orientation were used to determine the anisotropic electronic g-values for both Er 3+ sites and established a preferred magnetic field orientation for minimizing homogeneous line broadening by spectral diffusion. The spectral diffusion was characterized by stimulated photon echo spectroscopy and successfully described with established theories. In a 0.02 atomic percent Er3+ :Y2SiO5 crystal at B = 0.8 T and T = 1.6 K, line broadening became significant after 10 mus, increasing the homogeneous linewidth from 7.5 kHz to 75 kHz after 120 mus. Spectral diffusion, primarily caused by direct phonon driven Er3+ spin-flips in the ground state, can be controlled to negligible levels with proper magnetic field strength and orientation, temperature, and erbium concentration. In optimizing Er 3+:Y2SiO5, the narrowest optical resonance in any solid-state material of 73 Hz was measured.

  5. Highly charged ion secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnes, Alan V.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-01-01

    A secondary ion mass spectrometer using slow, highly charged ions produced in an electron beam ion trap permits ultra-sensitive surface analysis and high spatial resolution simultaneously. The spectrometer comprises an ion source producing a primary ion beam of highly charged ions that are directed at a target surface, a mass analyzer, and a microchannel plate detector of secondary ions that are sputtered from the target surface after interaction with the primary beam. The unusually high secondary ion yield permits the use of coincidence counting, in which the secondary ion stops are detected in coincidence with a particular secondary ion. The association of specific molecular species can be correlated. The unique multiple secondary nature of the highly charged ion interaction enables this new analytical technique.

  6. Instrumentation: Ion Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of ion chromatography in separating and measuring anions. The principles of ion exchange are presented, along with some applications of ion chromatography in industry. Ion chromatography systems are described, as well as ion pair and ion exclusion chromatography, column packings, detectors, and programming. (TW)

  7. Hydrated Ions: From Individual Ions to Ion Pairs to Ion Clusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Houyang; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2015-10-01

    The structure of hydrated ions plays a central role in chemical and biological sciences. In the present paper, five ions, namely, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-), are examined using molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to hydrated individual ions and ion pairs identified previously, hydrated ion clusters containing 3, 4, 5, or more ions are identified in the present paper. The dependence of hydration numbers and mole fractions of individual ions, ion pairs, and larger ion clusters on the electrolyte concentration is determined. As the electrolyte concentration increases, the mole fraction of hydrated individual ions decreases, and the mole fraction of hydrated larger ion clusters increases. The results also reveal that the hydrogen bonding numbers of the H2O molecules of the first hydration shells of individual ions, ion pairs, and larger ion clusters are insensitive to the electrolyte concentration, but sensitive to the nature and conformation of ions.

  8. Rutherford backscattering and channelling studies of erbium implanted SIMOX **

    SIMOX: separation by implanted oxygen.

    structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingping; Tang, Y. S.; Hemment, P. L. F.; Sealy, B. J.

    1990-04-01

    The behaviour of 250 keV 166Er + implanted into SIMOX structures has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering and channelling analysis. The implantation doses were 1.5 ×10 14 cm -2 and 1.5 × 10 15 cm -2. Both conventional furnace and rapid therm annealing were carried out in the temperature range 600°C-1100°C. Regrowth of the amorphized silicon and redistribution of the erbium were found to be strongly influenced by the status of the damaged layer. Different regrowth processes of the completely damaged silicon overlayer were suggested respectively for conventional furnace and rapid thermal annealing. It is found that the regrowth rate increases rapidly when the temperature is higher than 900° C in both cases. The redistribution of the erbium atoms was controlled by the regrowth boundary between the damaged and the recrystallized silicon.

  9. Improved ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  10. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  11. Proposal for laser cooling of rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Hong, Ye; Wyart, Jean-François; Lepers, Maxence

    2016-05-01

    The efficiency of laser cooling relies on the existence of an almost closed optical-transition cycle in the energy spectrum of the considered species. In this respect, rare-earth elements exhibit many transitions which are likely to induce noticeable leaks from the cooling cycle. In this work, to determine whether laser cooling of singly ionized erbium Er+ is feasible, we have performed accurate electronic-structure calculations of energies and spontaneous-emission Einstein coefficients of Er+, using a combination of ab initio and least-squares-fitting techniques. We identify five weak closed transitions suitable for laser cooling, the broadest of which is in the kilohertz range. For the strongest transitions, by simulating the cascade dynamics of spontaneous emission, we show that repumping is necessary, and we discuss possible repumping schemes.We expect our detailed study on Er+ to give good insight into the laser cooling of neighboring ions such as Dy+. Supported by ``Agence Nationale de la Recherche'' (ANR), under the project COPOMOL (Contract No. ANR-13-IS04-0004-01).

  12. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  13. ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from thc source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a varuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  14. Ion source

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W. M.

    1959-04-14

    This patent deals with calutrons and more particularly to an arrangement therein whereby charged bottles in a calutron source unit may be replaced without admitting atmospheric air to the calutron vacuum chamber. As described, an ion unit is disposed within a vacuum tank and has a reservoir open toward a wall of the tank. A spike projects from the source into the reservoir. When a charge bottle is placed in the reservoir, the spike breaks a frangible seal on the bottle. After the contents of the bottle are expended the bottle may be withdrawn and replaced with another charge bottle by a vacuum lock arrangement in conjunction with an arm for manipulating the bottle.

  15. Ion mobility sensor

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2005-08-23

    An ion mobility sensor which can detect both ion and molecules simultaneously. Thus, one can measure the relative arrival times between various ions and molecules. Different ions have different mobility in air, and the ion sensor enables measurement of ion mobility, from which one can identify the various ions and molecules. The ion mobility sensor which utilizes a pair of glow discharge devices may be designed for coupling with an existing gas chromatograph, where various gas molecules are already separated, but numbers of each kind of molecules are relatively small, and in such cases a conventional ion mobility sensor cannot be utilized.

  16. Energy transfer mechanisms in heavy metal oxide glasses doped with lanthanide ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragin, Tomasz; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Miluski, Piotr; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, glasses based on bismuth, germanium, gallium and sodium oxides have been synthesized in terms of low phonon energy (724 cm-1) and high thermal stability (ΔT = 127°C). Synthesis process have been optimized using low vacuum conditions (approx. 60 mBar) to improve the transmittance in the mid-infrared region and decrease the content of hydroxide groups in the material structure. Glass doped with erbium ions has been pumped with high power diode (λexc = 980 nm) to obtain luminescence in the band of 2.7 μm as a result of Er3+: 4I11/2 -> 4I13/2 radiative transition. For analysis of emission properties and energy transfer mechanisms, glasses co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+, Er3+/Pr3+, Er3+/Nd3+ ions have been synthesized. Obtained results indicated energy transfer phenomenon between lanthanide ions and elements forming the glass matrix. This demonstrates that developed heavy metal oxide glass doped with optimal rare earth elements system is an attractive material for mid-infrared applications.

  17. Periodontal plastic surgery: thermal effect analysis using Erbium:YAG Kesler's handpiece. Histochemical evaluation by Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy for collagen determination: in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, Gavriel; Koren, Rumelia; Kesler, Anat; Kristt, Don; Gal, Rivka

    2000-03-01

    Recent technological advances lead to an increase in the options for the treatment of the periodontal diseases. Lasers utilized for gingival soft tissue resurfacing mainly for esthetics purposes, require careful histopathological evaluation of the effects on tissue. Up to date no comparative clinical or histological studies have been performed, aiming at demonstration of the effects of laser irradiation on connective tissue, especially its most important component -- the collagen fibers. The alteration in the structures of this tissue plays the most important role in the healing process. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of Erbium: YAG - Kesler's hand piece on gingival tissue. This handpiece is designed for gingival resurfacing, in cases of 'Gummy smile' and gingival pigmentation. The following irradiation parameters were used: energy per pulse -- 500 mJ, repetition rate 10 pps, spot size 3 mm. Gingival biopsies specimens of 10 patients, 6 with 'Gummy smile' and 4 with gingival pigmentation were examined before laser treatment, and at 7 and 14 days after laser treatment. The tissues were fixed in LNRS, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned into 5 micrometer thickness, dewaxed in xylol and stained with H&E and Picrosirius Red (PSR). The sections were examined by polarization microscopy. PSR is a collagen stain that differentiates collagen fiber density by the range of colors from green through yellow to red, and/or fiber size. This was utilized in the present study to evaluate the hypothesis that Erbium -- YAG (Er: YAG) laser energy is capable of remodeling the collagen fibers in the gingival connective tissue through a photothermal process. We found a significant difference between the structures of collagen fibers at the first week and at 14 days post treatment. In the normal gingiva the predominant polarization colors were in the red-orange range, signifying tightly packed, mature collagen. During the first postoperative week, collagen

  18. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  19. A Study of Mechanochemical Doping of Fluoride Crystals with a Fluorite Structure by Er3+ Ions via Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irisova, I. A.; Rodionov, A. A.; Tayurskii, D. A.; Yusupov, R. V.

    2014-05-01

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we have shown that, upon mecha- noactivated doping of powders of compounds CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 with Er3+ ions, impurity centers of single erbium ions with cubic symmetry are formed. Investigations of dependences of EPR spectra intensities on the particle size show that the process of mechanochemical doping with Er3+ ions proceeds differently for CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 host matrices. In the case of CaF2, impurity centers are localized in a very thin near-surface layer of CaF2 particles, in SrF2, the impurity is distributed over the volume of particles, while, in BaF2, there is a layer of a finite thickness for which the probability of doping in the course of mechanosynthesis is very small and the impurity of the rare-earth element is localized in the core of large particles. These data can be explained assuming that the result of mechanosynthesis of particles of fluorides with a fluorite structure doped with Er3+ ions at room temperature is governed by two processes—mechanoactivated diffusion of rare-earth ions into particles and segregation of impurity ions at grain boundaries. In this case, the typical scales for compounds CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 considerably differ from each other.

  20. Ions and ion accelerators for cancer treatment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelec, Krsto

    Energetic ions in the mass range up to neon may have important advantages in cancer treatment when compared to other, conventional types of radiation. This review will first consider radiobiological properties of several types of radiation (photons, electrons, protons and ions), pointing out to the relevant characteristics of ions compared to other types. Parameters of ion beams as required for cancer treatment will then be defined, followed by the review of the status of proton and ion therapy and clinical trials, and a description of operating and planned facilities. Finally, on the basis of existing experience and desired future performance, a possible design of such a facility will be suggested.

  1. Solitons and Rogue Waves for a Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch System in an Erbium-Doped Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Xue, Long; Yu, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.

  2. Self-mixing detection of backscattered radiation in a single-mode erbium fibre laser for Doppler spectroscopy and velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, A K; Konovalov, A N; Ul'yanov, V A

    2014-04-28

    We report an experimental study of the self-mixing effect in a single-mode multifrequency erbium fibre laser when radiation backscattered from an external moving object arrives at its cavity. To eliminate resulting chaotic pulsations in the laser, we have proposed a technique for suppressing backscattered radiation through the use of multimode fibre for radiation delivery. The multifrequency operation of the laser has been shown to lead to strong fluctuations of the amplitude of the Doppler signal and a nonmonotonic variation of the amplitude with distance to the scattering object. In spite of these features, the self-mixing signal was detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (above 10{sup 2}) when the radiation was scattered by a rotating disc, and the Doppler frequency shift, evaluated as the centroid of its spectrum, had high stability (0.15%) and linearity relative to the rotation rate. We conclude that the self-mixing effect in this type of fibre laser can be used for measuring the velocity of scattering objects and in Doppler spectroscopy for monitoring the laser evaporation of materials and biological tissues. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  3. Electron microscopy studies of lutetium doped erbium silicide (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q. Chumbley, L.S.

    2011-08-15

    Examination of bulk microstructures of lutetium doped erbium silicide (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} (space group: Pnma) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) reveals the existence of thin plates of a hexagonal phase (space group: P6{sub 3}/mcm) where the stoichiometric ratio in moles between the rare earths and Si is 5 to 3, i. e the 5:3 phase. The orientation relationship between the matrix and the plates was determined as [010]{sub m} {approx} -parallel [-1010]{sub p.} This observation adds credence to the assumption that all linear features noted in alloys of the rare-earth intermetallic family R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} are of the stoichiometric ratio 5:3 and possess a common orientation relationship with the parent 5:4 alloys. - Highlights: {yields} The linear features observed in the (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} sample are hexagonal 5:3 plates. {yields} Thickness of 5:3 plates in 5:4 alloys made by tri-arc pulling is greater than made by arc-melting. {yields} The orientation relationship between 5:3 plates and the matrix is [010]{sub m} {approx} ||[-1010]{sub p}.

  4. 2.79 μm erbium laser with lead-lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics electro-optic Q-switching output coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Eichler, Hans J.

    2000-07-01

    Highly refractive and transparent lead-lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramics are used for an output coupler of the erbium yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser (λ=2.79 μm) that simultaneously serves as the laser electro-optic Q switch. The optical aperture of such a dual-function PLZT element was 6×6 mm2 and the thickness was 3 mm. For Q switching, short ≈3 μs negative voltage pulses (1500-1800 V) were applied to the positively direct current biased (≈1400 V) PLZT element. Single-pulse lasing with a pulse half width of 160-170 ns was observed at short and long delays of the Q switch with respect to the pump flash. The highest output energy of 20-22 mJ within 1.5-2.5 μs, consisting of two or three pulses with 130 ns half width was obtained at an intermediate delay of 90-110 μs.

  5. Passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser via a D-shape-fiber-based MoS2 saturable absorber with a very low nonsaturable loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Na, Duan; Yu-Long, Su; Yong-Gang, Wang; Lu, Li; Xi, Wang; Yi-Shan, Wang

    2016-02-01

    We report on the generation of conventional and dissipative solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers by the evanescent field interaction between the propagating light and a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film. The MoS2 film is fabricated by depositing the MoS2 water-ethanol mixture on a D-shape-fiber (DF) repetitively. The measured nonsaturable loss, saturable optical intensity, and the modulation depth of this device are 13.3%, 110 MW/cm2, and 3.4% respectively. Owing to the very low nonsaturable loss, the laser threshold of conventional soliton is as low as 4.8 mW. The further increase of net cavity dispersion to normal regime, stable dissipation soliton pulse trains with a spectral bandwidth of 11.7 nm and pulse duration of 116 ps are successfully generated. Our experiment demonstrates that the MoS2-DF device can indeed be used as a high performance saturable absorber for further applications in ultrafast photonics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378024).

  6. Utilizing dual-pass composite-ring architecture for a stabilized and wavelength-selectable single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Zhuang, Yuan-Hong; Tsai, Ning; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose using a dual-pass composite-ring construction for a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with a single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. According to the proposed laser architecture, a flattened output power spectrum within a 0.57 dB power variation can be obtained in the tuning range of 1530 to 1560 nm. In addition, the measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of each output wavelength can be larger than 62.1 dB. Furthermore, a stable and tunable dual-wavelength output of the proposed EDF laser scheme can also be achieved in the same operation range by using two optical filters inside a ring cavity. Here, the maximum and minimum mode spacing of dual-wavelength lasing in the proposed EDF laser are 28.01 and 1.04 nm, respectively. In this measurement, the SLM performance and output stability of the proposed EDF laser are analyzed and discussed experimentally.

  7. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-02-01

    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  8. Single-step sub-200  fs mid-infrared generation from an optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by an erbium fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Bernd; Pollard, Benjamin; Rimke, Ingo; Büttner, Edlef; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate the single-step generation of mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses in a AgGaSe2 optical parametric oscillator that is synchronously pumped by a 100 MHz repetition rate sub-90 fs erbium fiber laser. The tuning range of the idler beam in principle covers ∼3.5 to 17 μm, only dependent on the choice of cavity and mirror design. As an example, we experimentally demonstrate idler pulse generation from 4.8 to 6.0 μm optimized for selective vibrational resonant molecular spectroscopy. We find an oscillation threshold as low as 150 mW of pump power. At 300 mW pump power and a central wavelength of ∼5.0  μm, we achieve an average infrared power of up to 17.5 mW, with a photon conversion efficiency of ∼18%. A pulse duration of ∼180  fs is determined from a nonlinear cross-correlation with residual pump light. The single-step nonlinear conversion leads to a high power stability with <1% average power drift at <0.5%  rms noise over 1 h.

  9. Ultraviolet C upconversion fluorescence of trivalent erbium in BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor excited by a visible commercial light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanmin; Mi, Chao; Su, Xianyuan; Jiao, Fuyun; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Fang; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Yanzhou; Mai, Yaohua

    2014-04-01

    Multiple ultraviolet (UV) emission bands have been obtained in Er3+ doped BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor under the excitation of a 532 nm solid-state laser, and the emission peaks at 217, 254, 278, 296, 314, 348, 374 and 394 nm were determined to stem from the high-energy states 4D(1/2), 4D(7/2), 2H(9/2), 2P(1/2), 2P(3/2), 4G(7/2), 4G(11/2), 4H(9/2) of trivalent erbium, respectively. Some UV emission bands in the UVC region can be observed when the sample was excited by commercial green (529 nm) and blue (460 nm) LED. In view of the small size, low-drive voltage and price of LED, UVC upconversion phosphor BaGd2ZnO5:Er3+ excited by visible LED has potential application in environmental sciences.

  10. Adhesives bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser-irradiated dentin: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength analyses.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Andreia Cristina Bastos; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation on dentinal collagen by transmission electron microscopy and to analyze the resin-dentin interface by scanning electron microscopy. A tensile bond strength test was also applied. Specimens from 69 sound human third molars were randomly divided into three groups: control (no laser), and two irradiated groups, laser 250 (250 mJ/2 Hz) and laser 400 (400 mJ/4 Hz). Then, specimens were restored with two adhesive systems, an etch-and-rinse or a self-etch system. Although ultrastructural examination showed a modified surface in the irradiated dentin, there was no statistical difference in bond strength values between the laser groups and controls (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser for ablating human dentin did not alter the main adhesion parameters when compared with those obtained by conventional methods, thus reinforcing its use in restorative dentistry.

  11. LASERS: Ultrashort-pulse erbium-doped fibre laser using a saturable absorber based on single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc-discharge method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tausenev, A. V.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Lobach, A. S.; Konov, V. I.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Kryukov, P. G.; Dianov, E. M.

    2007-09-01

    An erbium-doped fibre laser operating in self-mode-locked regime achieved with the help of a saturable absorber based on single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc-discharge method is fabricated and studied. Due to the development of an original method for preparing samples, films of the optical quality containing individual single-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesised. The study of the dependence of resonance absorption at a wavelength of 1.5 μm on the laser radiation intensity transmitted through a film showed that these films have nonlinear transmission and can be used in fibre lasers as saturable absorbers to provide self-mode locking. Stable transform-limited pulses having the shape of optical solitons were generated at a wavelength of 1557.5 nm in the laser with a ring resonator. The pulse duration was 1.13 ps at a pulse repetition rate of 20.5 MHz. The continuous output power achieved 1.1 mW upon pumping by a 25-mW laser diode at 980 nm.

  12. Generation of dual-wavelength square pulse in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser with ultra-large net-anomalous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhihua; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Su, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A type of wave-breaking-free mode-locked dual-wavelength square pulse was experimentally observed in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser with ultra-large net-anomalous dispersion. A 2.7 km long single-mode fiber (SMF) was incorporated as a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and provided largely nonlinear phase accumulation and anomalous dispersion, which enhanced the four-wave-mixing effect to improve the stability of the dual-wavelength operation. In the NOLM, the long SMF with small birefringence supported the Sagnac interference as a filter to manage the dual-wavelength lasing. The dual-wavelength operation was made switchable by adjusting the intra-cavity polarization loss and phase delay corresponding to two square pulses. When the pump power was increased, the duration of the square pulse increased continuously while the peak pulse power gradually decreased. This square-type pulse can potentially be utilized for signal transmission and sensing.

  13. A switchable and stable single-longitudinal-mode, dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser assisted by Rayleigh backscattering in tapered fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Jian; Yang, Yanfu Zhang, Jianyu; Wang, Xiaorui; Yuan, Yijun; Yao, Yong; Liu, Meng

    2015-09-14

    We have proposed and demonstrated a novel switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM), dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (DWEDFL) assisted by Rayleigh backscattering (RBS) in a tapered fiber in a ring laser configuration. The RBS feedback in a tapered fiber is a key mechanism as linewidth narrowing for laser output. A compound laser cavity ensured that the EDFL operated in the SLM state and a saturable absorber (SA) is employed to form a gain grating for both filtering and improving wavelength stability. The fiber laser can output dual wavelengths simultaneously or operate at single wavelength in a switchable manner. Experiment results show that with the proper SA, the peak power drift was improved from 1–2 dB to 0.31 dB and the optical signal to noise ratio was higher than 60 dB. Under the assistance of RBS feedback, the laser linewidths are compressed by around three times and the Lorentzian 3 dB linewidths of 445 Hz and 425 Hz are obtained at 1550 nm and 1554 nm, respectively.

  14. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Feng, Suchun; Liu, Zhibo; Bai, Yunlong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-09-22

    A tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser based on polarization-maintaining chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (PM-CMFBG) filter is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, the CMFBG inscribed on the PM fiber is applied for the wavelength-tunable and-switchable dual-wavelength laser. The PM-CMFBG filter with ultra-narrow transmission band (0.1 pm) and a uniform polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable single polarization SLM operation is guaranteed by the PM-CMFBG filter and polarization controller. A tuning range of about 0.25 nm with about 0.075 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform PM-FBG. Meanwhile, the linewidth of the fiber laser for each wavelength is approximate 6.5 and 7.1 kHz with a 20 dB linewidth, which indicates the laser linewidth is approximate 325 Hz and 355 Hz FWHM.

  15. A novel method of facial rejuvenation using a 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser with spatially modulated ablation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Khomchenko, V; Alcolea, J M; Martínez-Carpio, P A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a novel method of facial rejuvenation using a 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser with Spatially Modulated Ablation™. A pilot study was performed in 16 women with moderate to severe signs of facial aging relative to chronological age, who underwent two treatment sessions with an Er:YAG laser coupled to the RecoSMA™ technology (Linline, Minsk, Belarus). The whole face was treated in all patients. Clinical efficacy, tolerance, adverse effects, complications, and histological changes due to the treatment were evaluated. Clinical photographs and biopsies were taken before treatment and 3 months after the second treatment session. All patients completed the study and presented no significant complications. Histological changes in the epidermis and dermis as a result of treatment were found. Fine lines, wrinkles, and overall facial aging improved significantly (p < 0.0001). The mean reduction of fine lines and wrinkles was 59 % (r = 40-75 %). The mean improvement of overall facial aging was 74 % (r = 55-90 %). After showing the patients the comparative photographs before and after treatment, 75 % of women stated that they were satisfied or very satisfied and would recommend the treatment. Preliminary results show an excellent safety/efficacy profile for this novel technology, which, based on observed results, can be considered to have advantages over other methods of facial rejuvenation with lasers.

  16. The thermoluminescence glow curve and the deconvoluted glow peak characteristics of erbium doped silica fiber exposed to 70-130 kVp x-rays.

    PubMed

    Alawiah, A; Bauk, S; Marashdeh, M W; Nazura, M Z N; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Yusoff, Z; Gieszczyk, W; Noramaliza, M N; Adikan, F R Mahamd; Mahdiraji, G A; Tamchek, N; Muhd-Yassin, S Z; Mat-Sharif, K A; Zulkifli, M I; Omar, N; Wan Abdullah, W S; Bradley, D A

    2015-10-01

    In regard to thermoluminescence (TL) applied to dosimetry, in recent times a number of researchers have explored the role of optical fibers for radiation detection and measurement. Many of the studies have focused on the specific dopant concentration, the type of dopant and the fiber core diameter, all key dependencies in producing significant increase in the sensitivity of such fibers. At doses of less than 1 Gy none of these investigations have addressed the relationship between dose response and TL glow peak behavior of erbium (Er)-doped silica cylindrical fibers (CF). For x-rays obtained at accelerating potentials from 70 to 130 kVp, delivering doses of between 0.1 and 0.7 Gy, present study explores the issue of dose response, special attention being paid to determination of the kinetic parameters and dosimetric peak properties of Er-doped CF. The effect of dose response on the kinetic parameters of the glow peak has been compared against other fiber types, revealing previously misunderstood connections between kinetic parameters and radiation dose. Within the investigated dose range there was an absence of supralinearity of response of the Er-doped silica CF, instead sub-linear response being observed. Detailed examination of glow peak response and kinetic parameters has thus been shown to shed new light of the rarely acknowledged issue of the limitation of TL kinetic model and sub-linear dose response of Er-doped silica CF.

  17. Laser Ion Acceleration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2013-10-01

    An intense femtosecond pulsed laser is employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching, the ion particle energy control, etc. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions are accelerated. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions was improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or by a near critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation was realized by holes behind the solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching were successfully realized by a multi-stage laser-target interaction. The present study proposed a novel concept for a future compact laser ion accelerator, based on each component study required to control the ion beam quality and parameters. Partly supported by JSPS, MEXT, CORE, Japan/US Cooperation program, ASHULA and ILE/Osaka University.

  18. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  19. Ion pair receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Kuk

    2010-01-01

    Compared with simple ion receptors, which are able to bind either a cation or an anion, ion pair receptors bearing both a cation and an anion recognition site offer the promise of binding ion pairs or pairs of ions strongly as the result of direct or indirect cooperative interactions between co-bound ions. This critical review focuses on the recent progress in the design of ion pair receptors and summarizes the various binding modes that have been used to accommodate ion pairs (110 references). PMID:20737073

  20. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  1. Heavy-ion radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2000-11-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy using high-energy carbon beams has been performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. The physical frame works for heavy-ion radiotherapy are established using physical understandings of radiation physics. In order to increase the accuracy of heavy-ion radiotherapy, many physical problems should be solved. Unsolved problems, such as the depth dose distributions, range of heavy-ion in patients and heavy-ion dosimetry in the radiation therapy, are discussed. .

  2. Ion Beam Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Ion Beam Propulsion Study was a joint high-level study between the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and Berkeley Scientific, Berkeley, California. The results were promising and suggested that work should continue if future funding becomes available. The application of ion thrusters for spacecraft propulsion is limited to quite modest ion sources with similarly modest ion beam parameters because of the mass penalty associated with the ion source and its power supply system. Also, the ion source technology has not been able to provide very high-power ion beams. Small ion beam propulsion systems were used with considerable success. Ion propulsion systems brought into practice use an onboard ion source to form an energetic ion beam, typically Xe+ ions, as the propellant. Such systems were used for steering and correction of telecommunication satellites and as the main thruster for the Deep Space 1 demonstration mission. In recent years, "giant" ion sources were developed for the controlled-fusion research effort worldwide, with beam parameters many orders of magnitude greater than the tiny ones of conventional space thruster application. The advent of such huge ion beam sources and the need for advanced propulsion systems for exploration of the solar system suggest a fresh look at ion beam propulsion, now with the giant fusion sources in mind.

  3. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  4. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  5. Ion implantation technology and ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugitani, Michiro

    2014-02-01

    Ion implantation (I/I) technology has been developed with a great economic success of industries of VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integrated circuit) devices. Due to its large flexibility and good controllability, the I/I technology has been assuming various challenging requirements of VLSI evolutions, especially in advanced evolutional characteristics of CMOSFET. Here, reviewing the demands of VLSI manufacturing to the I/I technology, required characteristics of ion implanters, and their ion sources are discussed.

  6. C2H2 absolutely optical frequency-stabilized and 40 GHz repetition-rate-stabilized, regeneratively mode-locked picosecond erbium fiber laser at 1.53 microm.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato

    2008-11-15

    We have succeeded in the simultaneous stabilization of the optical frequency and repetition rate of a regeneratively mode-locked picosecond erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The optical frequency was locked to the molecular absorption of C2H2 in the 1.5 microm band, and the repetition rate was stabilized to a 40 GHz synthesizer by using a microwave phase-locked loop. The optical frequency stability of the pulse train reached 2x10(-11) for tau=10-100 s. The key to success is the independent control of the repetition rate without disturbing the optical cavity condition.

  7. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser using an inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating filter and a low-gain semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Zhang, Han; Tang, Dingyuan; Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo; Liang, Sheng

    2010-12-20

    We present a stable and switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser. In the ring cavity, an inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating serves as an ultranarrow dual-wavelength passband filter, a semiconductor optical amplifier biased in the low-gain regime reduces the gain competition of the two wavelengths, and a feedback fiber loop acts as a mode filter to guarantee a stable single-longitudinal-mode operation. Two lasing lines with a wavelength separation of approximately 0.1 nm are obtained experimentally. A microwave signal at 12.51 GHz is demonstrated by beating the dual wavelengths at a photodetector.

  8. Space-Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Transmitters for Coherent, Ranging, 3D-Imaging, Altimetry, Topology, and Carbon Dioxide Lidar and Earth and Planetary Optical Laser Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Mark; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Utano, Rich; Gupta, Shantanu

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes Fibertek, Inc.'s progress in developing space-qualified Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) transmitters for laser communications and ranging/topology, and CO2 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. High peak power (1 kW) and 6 W of average power supporting multiple communications formats has been demonstrated with 17% efficiency in a compact 3 kg package. The unit has been tested to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 standards. A 20 W EDFA suitable for CO2 lidar has been demonstrated with ~14% efficiency (electrical to optical [e-o]) and its performance optimized for 1571 nm operation.

  9. Multi-kilowatt, all-fiber integrated chirped-pulse amplification system yielding 40x pulse compression using air-core fiber and conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    de Matos, C; Taylor, J

    2004-02-09

    We present a totally fiber integrated chirped-pulse amplification system using air-core photonic bandgap fiber and a conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifier. ~40-ps input pulses, generated in a Mach-Zehnder modulator, were stretched and spectrally broadened in a dispersion-shifted fiber before being amplified and subsequently compressed in 10 m of anomalously-dispersive photonic bandgap fiber to yield ~960 fs pulses. The system gives multi-kilowatt peak powers while the amplifier nonlinearity threshold is as low as ~150 W. Higher peak powers could be obtained by the use of an amplifier with higher nonlinearity threshold.

  10. Ion specific effects: decoupling ion-ion and ion-water interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinsuk; Kang, Tae Hui; Kim, Mahn Won; Han, Songi

    2015-01-01

    Ion-specific effects in aqueous solution, known as the Hofmeister effect is prevalent in diverse systems ranging from pure ionic to complex protein solutions. The objective of this paper is to explicitly demonstrate how complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions manifest themselves in the Hofmeister effects, based on a series of recent experimental observation. These effects are not considered in the classical description of ion effects, such as the Deryaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory that, likely for that reason, fail to describe the origin of the phenomenological Hofmeister effect. However, given that models considering the basic forces of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions can offer rationalization for the core experimental observations, a universal interaction model stands a chance to be developed. In this perspective, we separately derive the contribution from ion-ion electrostatic interaction and ion-water interaction from second harmonic generation (SHG) data at the air-ion solution interface, which yields an estimate of ion-water interactions in solution. Hofmeister ion effects observed on biological solutes in solution should be similarly influenced by contributions from ion-ion and ion-water interactions, where the same ion-water interaction parameters derived from SHG data at the air-ion solution interface could be applicable. A key experimental data set available from solution systems to probe ion-water interaction is the modulation of water diffusion dynamics near ions in bulk ion solution, as well as near biological liposome surfaces. It is obtained from Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP), a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry technique. The surface water diffusivity is influenced by the contribution from ion-water interactions, both from localized surface charges and adsorbed ions, although the relative contribution of the former is larger on liposome surfaces. In this perspective, ion-water interaction

  11. PULSED ION SOURCE

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.E.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1958-06-17

    An ion source is described for producing very short high density pulses of ions without bcam scattering. The ions are created by an oscillating electron discharge within a magnetic field. After the ions are drawn from the ionization chamber by an accelerating electrode the ion beam is under the influence of the magnetic field for separation of the ions according to mass and, at the same time, passes between two neutralizing plntes maintained nt equal negative potentials. As the plates are formed of a material having a high ratio of secondary electrons to impinging ions, the ion bombardment of the plntes emits electrons which neutralize the frirge space-charge of the beam and tend to prevent widening of the beam cross section due to the mutual repulsion of the ions.

  12. Ambient ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-04-01

    Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors.

  13. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  14. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  15. Ablative non-fractional lasers for atrophic facial acne scars: a new modality of erbium:YAG laser resurfacing in Asians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kang, Jin Moon; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Kim, Hei Sung

    2014-03-01

    Atrophic facial scars which commonly occur after inflammatory acne vulgaris can be extremely disturbing to patients both physically and psychologically. Treatment with fractional laser devices has become increasingly popular, but there has been disappointment in terms of effectiveness. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ablative full-face resurfacing on atrophic acne scars in the Korean population. A total of 22 patients, aged 25-44 years, underwent a new modality of resurfacing combining both short-pulsed and dual-mode erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The patients had Fitzpatrick skin types ranging from III to V. Photographs were taken before and up to 6 months after treatment. Results were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement and any adverse events. Degree of improvement was graded using a four-point scale: poor (1) = <25%, fair (2) = 25-50%, good (3) = 51-75%, and excellent (4) = >75%. Based on the blinded photo assessments by two independent reviewers, clinically and statistically significant mean improvement of 3.41 was observed (one-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, P < 0.001). Complete wound healing occurred between 6 and 9 days. Erythema occurred in all patients and lasted longer than 3 months in two patients (9.1%). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation occurred in ten patients (45.5%) and lasted longer than 3 months in one patient (4.5%). One patient experienced mild hypopigmentation (4.5%). Mild to moderate acne flare-up occurred in five patients (22.7%). No other adverse effects were observed. A new modality of Er:YAG laser resurfacing combining short-pulsed and dual-mode Er:YAG laser is a safe and very effective treatment modality for atrophic facial acne scars in Asians with darker skin tones.

  16. Evaluation of effectiveness of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser on atrophic facial acne scars with 22-MHz digital ultrasonography in a Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Engın, Burhan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Karakuş, Özge; Yardimci, Gürkan; Doğan, Zafer; Tüzün, Yalçın; Serdaroğlu, Server

    2012-12-01

    Scar formation due to acne is a common problem among the young population and significantly affects their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser resurfacing for acne scars and to objectively demonstrate the altering of collagen density in the dermis by 22-MHz digital ultrasonography. Twenty-one patients, aged 19-55 years, with facial acne scars were treated with Er:YAG laser. The results of the laser resurfacing were evaluated for the degree of clinical improvement, alteration of the collagen density by 22-MHz digital ultrasonography and any adverse effects at 3 months. At 3 months after the treatment, good (in 12 patients) and near total (in four patients) clinical improvement was noted in most of the patients compared to baseline. Overall treatment results were 76% (both near total and good) in 16 patients. By ultrasonographic evaluation, the average density of dermal collagen (total density/number of patients) of 21 patients was 32.714 (right cheek) and 32.142 (left cheek) before laser facial resurfacing. At the third month after treatment, the average density of dermal collagen of 21 patients was 36.380 (right cheek) and 38.809 (left cheek). In conclusion, Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing was found to be a safe and effective treatment modality for treatment of atrophic facial acne scars. As public demand grows for less invasive modalities to approach clinical diagnosis and evaluation, digital ultrasonography seems to provide an easy and confidential method for collagen density evaluation.

  17. Decontamination efficacy of erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet and diode laser light on oral Candida albicans isolates of a 5-day in vitro biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, Sabine; Schwarz, Peter; Schliephake, Henning; Konietschke, Frank; Brunner, Edgar; Borg-von Zepelin, Margarete

    2009-05-01

    The different forms of superficial and systemic candidiasis are often associated with biofilm formation on surfaces of host tissues or medical devices. The biofilm formation of Candida spp., in general, necessitates significantly increased amounts of antifungal agents for therapy. Often the therapeutic effect is doubtful. A 5-day biofilm model with oral Candida isolates was established according to Chandra et al. (J Dent Res 80:903-908, 2001) on glass and titanium surfaces and was modified by Sennhenn-Kirchner et al. (Z Zahnärztl Implantol 3:45-51, 2007) to investigate different aspects unanswered in the field of dentistry. In this model, the efficacy of erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) light (2940 nm, 100 mJ, 10 Hz, 300 micros pulsed mode applied for 80 s) and diode laser light (810 nm, 1 W, continuous wave mode applied for 20 s with four repetitions after 30 s pauses each) was evaluated and compared to untreated controls. The photometric evaluation of the samples was completed by observations on morphological changes of yeast cells grown in the biofilm. Compared to the untreated controls Candida cells grown in mature in vitro biofilms were significantly reduced by both wavelengths investigated. Comparison between the different methods of laser treatment additionally revealed a significantly greater effect of the Er:YAG over the diode laser. Scanning electron microscopy findings proved that the diode laser light was effective in direct contact mode. In contrast, in the areas without direct contact, the fungal cells were left almost unchanged. The Er:YAG laser damaged the fungal cells to a great extent wherever it was applied.

  18. Effect of acid etching duration on tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser-prepared dentine. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chousterman, M; Heysselaer, D; Dridi, S M; Bayet, F; Misset, B; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Nammour, S

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of composite resin bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser-prepared dentine after different durations of acid etching. The occlusal third of 68 human third molars was removed in order to expose the dentine surface. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: group B (control group), prepared with bur and total etch system with 15 s acid etching [37% orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4))]; group L15, laser photo-ablated dentine (200 mJ) (laser irradiation conditions: pulse duration 100 micros, air-water spray, fluence 31.45 J/ cm(2), 10 Hz, non-contact hand pieces, beam spot size 0.9 mm, irradiation speed 3 mm/s, and total irradiation time 2 x 40 s); group L30, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 30 s acid etching; group L60, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 60 s acid etching; group L90, laser prepared, laser conditioned and 90 s acid etching. A plot of composite resin was bonded onto each exposed dentine and then tested for tensile bond strength. The values obtained were statistically analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) coupled with the Tukey-Kramer test at the 95% level. A 90 s acid etching before bonding showed the best bonding value (P < 0.05) when compared with all the other groups including the control group. There is no significance difference between other groups, nor within each group and the control group. There was a significant increase in tensile bond strength of the samples acid etched for 90 s.

  19. Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on single and multiple walled carbon nanotubes embedded in polyethylene oxide film as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Ali, N. M.; Salleh, Z. S.; Rahman, A. A.; Harun, S. W.; Manaf, M.; Arof, H.

    2015-01-01

    A passive, stable and low cost Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which are embedded in polyethylene oxide (PEO) film as a saturable absorber (SA). The film is sandwiched between two FC/PC fiber connectors and integrated into the laser cavity for Q-switching pulse generation operating at wavelength of 1533.6 nm. With SWCNTs, the laser produces a stable pulse train with repetition rate and pulse width ranging from 9.52 to 33.33 kHz and 16.8 to 8.0 μs while varying the 980 nm pump power from 48.5 mW to 100.4 mW. On the other hand, with MWCNTs, the repetition rate and pulse width can be tuned in a wider range of 6.12-33.62 kHz and 9.5- 4.2 μs, respectively as the pump power increases from 37.9 to 120.6 mW. The MWCNTs produce the pulse train at a lower threshold and attain a higher repetition rate compared to the SWCNTs. This is due to thicker carbon nanotubes layer of the MWCNTs which provides more absorption and consequently higher damage threshold. The Q-switched EDFL produces the highest pulse energy of 531 nJ at pump power of 37.9 mW with the use of MWCNTs-PEO SA.

  20. Implant Bed Preparation with an Erbium, Chromium Doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr: YSGG) Laser Using Stereolithographic Surgical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Seymen, Gülin; Turgut, Zeynep; Berk, Gizem; Bodur, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Implant bed preparation with laser is taken into consideration owing to the increased interest in use of lasers in hard tissue surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine the deviations in the position and inclination between the planned and prepared implant beds with Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser using stereolithographic (SLA) surgical guides. Methods: After 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of six sheep lower jaws, computed tomography (CT) images were transformed into 3D models. Locations of implant beds were determined on these models. Two implant beds in each half jaw were prepared with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser system and a conventional drilling method using a total of 12 SLA surgical guides. A new CT was taken to analyze the deviation values between planned and prepared implant beds. Finally, a software program was used to superimpose the images on 3D models, then the laser and conventional drilling groups were compared. Results: Differences of mean angular deviations between the planned and prepared implant beds were 5.17±4.91° in the laser group and 2.02±1.94° in the conventional drilling group.The mean coronal deviation values were found to be 0.48±0.25 mm and 0.23±0.14 mm in the laser group and conventional drilling group, respectively. While the mean deviation at the apex between the planned and prepared implant beds were 0.70±0.26 mm and 0.26±0.08 ,the mean vertical deviations were 0.06±0.15 mm and 0.02±0.05 mm for the laser group and the conventional drilling group, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to prepare an implant bed properly with the aid of Er,Cr:YSGGlaser by using SLA surgical guide. PMID:25606303